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Sample records for acid metabolism protein

  1. Amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis in malarial parasites*

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, I. W.

    1977-01-01

    Malaria-infected red cells and free parasites have limited capabilities for the biosynthesis of amino acids. Therefore, the principal amino acid sources for parasite protein synthesis are the plasma free amino acids and host cell haemoglobin. Infected cells and plasmodia incorporate exogenously supplied amino acids into protein. However, the hypothesis that amino acid utilization (from an external source) is related to availability of that amino acid in haemoglobin is without universal support: it is true for isoleucine and for Plasmodium knowlesi and P. falciparum, but not for methionine, cysteine, and other amino acids, and it does not apply to P. lophurae. More by default than by direct evidence, haemoglobin is believed to be the main amino acid reservoir available to the intraerythrocytic plasmodium. Haemoglobin, ingested via the cytostome, is held in food vacuoles where auto-oxidation takes place. As a consequence, haem is released and accumulates in the vacuole as particulate haemozoin (= malaria pigment). Current evidence favours the view that haemozoin is mainly haematin. Acid and alkaline proteases (identified in crude extracts from mammalian and avian malarias) are presumably secreted directly into the food vacuole. They then digest the denatured globin and the resulting amino acids are incorporated into parasite protein. Cell-free protein synthesizing systems have been developed using P. knowlesi and P. lophurae ribosomes. In the main these systems are typically eukaryotic. Studies of amino acid metabolism are exceedingly limited. Arginine, lysine, methionine, and proline are incorporated into protein, whereas glutamic acid is metabolized via an NADP-specific glutamic dehydrogenase. Glutamate oxidation generates NADPH and auxiliary energy (in the form of α-ketoglutarate). The role of red cell glutathione in the economy of the parasite remains obscure. Important goals for future research should be: quantitative assessment of the relative importance of

  2. Defining meal requirements for protein to optimize metabolic roles of amino acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary protein provides essential amino acids (EAAs) for the synthesis of new proteins plus an array of other metabolic functions; many of these functions are sensitive to postprandial plasma and intracellular amino acid concentrations. Recent research has focused on amino acids as metabolic signal...

  3. PROTEIN METABOLISM IN REGENERATING WOUND TISSUE: FUNCTION OF THE SULFUR AMINO ACIDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PROTEINS, *TISSUES(BIOLOGY), METABOLISM, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), REGENERATION(ENGINEERING), WOUNDS AND INJURIES, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), TRACER STUDIES, METHIONINE, COLLAGEN, TYROSINE, BIOSYNTHESIS, AMINO ACIDS .

  4. Amino Acid Flux from Metabolic Network Benefits Protein Translation: the Role of Resource Availability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Pan; Yang, Yi; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2015-06-09

    Protein translation is a central step in gene expression and affected by many factors such as codon usage bias, mRNA folding energy and tRNA abundance. Despite intensive previous studies, how metabolic amino acid supply correlates with protein translation efficiency remains unknown. In this work, we estimated the amino acid flux from metabolic network for each protein in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using Flux Balance Analysis. Integrated with the mRNA expression level, protein abundance and ribosome profiling data, we provided a detailed description of the role of amino acid supply in protein translation. Our results showed that amino acid supply positively correlates with translation efficiency and ribosome density. Moreover, with the rank-based regression model, we found that metabolic amino acid supply facilitates ribosome utilization. Based on the fact that the ribosome density change of well-amino-acid-supplied genes is smaller than poorly-amino-acid-supply genes under amino acid starvation, we reached the conclusion that amino acid supply may buffer ribosome density change against amino acid starvation and benefit maintaining a relatively stable translation environment. Our work provided new insights into the connection between metabolic amino acid supply and protein translation process by revealing a new regulation strategy that is dependent on resource availability.

  5. Study of stationary phase metabolism via isotopomer analysis of amino acids from an isolated protein.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Afshan S; Tang, Yinjie J; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Martín, Héctor García; Gin, Jennifer; Benke, Peter I; Keasling, Jay D

    2010-01-01

    Microbial production of many commercially important secondary metabolites occurs during stationary phase, and methods to measure metabolic flux during this growth phase would be valuable. Metabolic flux analysis is often based on isotopomer information from proteinogenic amino acids. As such, flux analysis primarily reflects the metabolism pertinent to the growth phase during which most proteins are synthesized. To investigate central metabolism and amino acids synthesis activity during stationary phase, addition of fully (13)C-labeled glucose followed by induction of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression during stationary phase was used. Our results indicate that Escherichia coli was able to produce new proteins (i.e., GFP) in the stationary phase, and the amino acids in GFP were mostly from degraded proteins synthesized during the exponential growth phase. Among amino acid biosynthetic pathways, only those for serine, alanine, glutamate/glutamine, and aspartate/asparagine had significant activity during the stationary phase.

  6. Study of Stationary Phase Metabolism Via Isotopomer Analysis of Amino Acids from an Isolated Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, AfshanS.; Tang, YinjieJ.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Martin, Hector Garcia; Gin, Jennifer; Benke, Peter; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-09-14

    Microbial production of many commercially important secondary metabolites occurs during stationary phase, and methods to measure metabolic flux during this growth phase would be valuable. Metabolic flux analysis is often based on isotopomer information from proteinogenic amino acids. As such, flux analysis primarily reflects the metabolism pertinent to the growth phase during which most proteins are synthesized. To investigate central metabolism and amino acids synthesis activity during stationary phase, addition of fully 13C-labeled glucose followed by induction of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression during stationary phase was used. Our results indicate that Escherichia coli was able to produce new proteins (i.e., GFP) in the stationary phase, and the amino acids in GFP were mostly from degraded proteins synthesized during the exponential growth phase. Among amino acid biosynthetic pathways, only those for serine, alanine, glutamate/glutamine, and aspartate/asparagine had significant activity during the stationary phase.

  7. Defining meal requirements for protein to optimize metabolic roles of amino acids12345

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Tracy G; Rasmussen, Blake B; Adams, Sean H; Lynch, Christopher J; Brinkworth, Grant D; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein provides essential amino acids (EAAs) for the synthesis of new proteins plus an array of other metabolic functions; many of these functions are sensitive to postprandial plasma and intracellular amino acid concentrations. Recent research has focused on amino acids as metabolic signals that influence the rate of protein synthesis, inflammation responses, mitochondrial activity, and satiety, exerting their influence through signaling systems including mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), general control nonrepressed 2 (GCN2), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), serotonin, and insulin. These signals represent meal-based responses to dietary protein. The best characterized of these signals is the leucine-induced activation of mTORC1, which leads to the stimulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis after ingestion of a meal that contains protein. The response of this metabolic pathway to dietary protein (i.e., meal threshold) declines with advancing age or reduced physical activity. Current dietary recommendations for protein are focused on total daily intake of 0.8 g/kg body weight, but new research suggests daily needs for older adults of ≥1.0 g/kg and identifies anabolic and metabolic benefits to consuming at least 20–30 g protein at a given meal. Resistance exercise appears to increase the efficiency of EAA use for muscle anabolism and to lower the meal threshold for stimulation of protein synthesis. Applying this information to a typical 3-meal-a-day dietary plan results in protein intakes that are well within the guidelines of the Dietary Reference Intakes for acceptable macronutrient intakes. The meal threshold concept for dietary protein emphasizes a need for redistribution of dietary protein for optimum metabolic health. PMID:25926513

  8. Defining meal requirements for protein to optimize metabolic roles of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Layman, Donald K; Anthony, Tracy G; Rasmussen, Blake B; Adams, Sean H; Lynch, Christopher J; Brinkworth, Grant D; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-04-29

    Dietary protein provides essential amino acids (EAAs) for the synthesis of new proteins plus an array of other metabolic functions; many of these functions are sensitive to postprandial plasma and intracellular amino acid concentrations. Recent research has focused on amino acids as metabolic signals that influence the rate of protein synthesis, inflammation responses, mitochondrial activity, and satiety, exerting their influence through signaling systems including mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), general control nonrepressed 2 (GCN2), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), serotonin, and insulin. These signals represent meal-based responses to dietary protein. The best characterized of these signals is the leucine-induced activation of mTORC1, which leads to the stimulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis after ingestion of a meal that contains protein. The response of this metabolic pathway to dietary protein (i.e., meal threshold) declines with advancing age or reduced physical activity. Current dietary recommendations for protein are focused on total daily intake of 0.8 g/kg body weight, but new research suggests daily needs for older adults of ≥1.0 g/kg and identifies anabolic and metabolic benefits to consuming at least 20-30 g protein at a given meal. Resistance exercise appears to increase the efficiency of EAA use for muscle anabolism and to lower the meal threshold for stimulation of protein synthesis. Applying this information to a typical 3-meal-a-day dietary plan results in protein intakes that are well within the guidelines of the Dietary Reference Intakes for acceptable macronutrient intakes. The meal threshold concept for dietary protein emphasizes a need for redistribution of dietary protein for optimum metabolic health.

  9. Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Bermuda Grass During Water Stress 12

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, N. M.; Naylor, A. W.

    1966-01-01

    The ability of Arizona Common and Coastal Bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] to synthesize amino acids and proteins during water stress was investigated. Amino acids were continually synthesized during the water stress treatments, but protein synthesis was inhibited and protein levels decreased. Water stress induced a 10- to 100-fold accumulation of free proline in shoots and a 2- to 6-fold accumulation of free asparagine, both of which are characteristic responses of water-stressed plants. Valine levels increased, and glutamic acid and alanine levels decreased. 14C labeling experiments showed that free proline turns over more slowly than any other free amino acid during water stress. This proline is readily synthesized and accumulated from glutamic acid. It is suggested that during water stress free proline functions as a storage compound. No significant differences were found in the amino acid and protein metabolism of the 2 varieties of Bermuda grass. PMID:16656387

  10. The Mediterranean diet: effects on proteins that mediate fatty acid metabolism in the colon.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Zora

    2011-12-01

    A Mediterranean diet appears to have health benefits in many domains of human health, mediated perhaps by its anti-inflammatory effects. Metabolism of fatty acids and subsequent eicosanoid production is a key mechanism by which a Mediterranean diet can exert anti-inflammatory effects. Both dietary fatty acids and fatty acid metabolism determine fatty acid availability for cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-dependent production of eicosanoids, namely prostaglandins and leukotrienes. In dietary intervention studies and in observational studies of the Mediterranean diet, blood levels of fatty acids do reflect dietary intakes but are attenuated. Small differences in fatty acid levels, however, appear to be important, especially when exposures occur over long periods of time. This review summarizes how fat intakes from a Greek-style Mediterranean diet can be expected to affect fatty acid metabolizing proteins, with an emphasis on the metabolic pathways that lead to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. The proteins involved in these pathways are ripe for investigation using proteomic approaches and may be targets for colon cancer prevention.

  11. Serum fatty acid binding protein 4, free fatty acids and metabolic risk markers

    PubMed Central

    Karakas, Sidika E.; Almario, Rogelio U.; Kim, Kyoungmi

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein (FABP) 4 chaperones free fatty acids (FFA) in the adipocytes during lipolysis. Serum FFA relates to Metabolic Syndrome (METS) and serum FABP4 is emerging as a novel risk marker. In 36 overweight/obese women, serum FABP4 and FFA were measured hourly during 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin resistance was determined using frequently sampled intravenous GTT (FS-IVGTT). Serum lipids and inflammation markers were measured at fasting. During OGTT, serum FABP4 decreased by 40%, reaching its nadir at 3h (from 45.3±3.1 to 31.9±1.6 ng/mL) and stayed below the baseline at 5 h (35.9±2.2 ng/mL) (p < 0.0001 for both, compared to the baseline). Serum FFA decreased by 10 fold, reaching a nadir at 2h (from 0.611±0.033 to 0.067±0.004 mmol/L), then rebounded to 0.816±0.035 mmol/ L at 5h (p < 0.001 for both, compared to baseline). Both fasting-FABP4 and nadir-FABP4 correlated with obesity. Nadir-FABP4 correlated also with insulin resistance parameters from FS-IVGTT and with inflammation. Nadir-FFA, but not fasting-FFA, correlated with the METS-parameters. In conclusion, fasting-FABP4 related to metabolic risk markers more strongly than fasting-FFA. Nadir-FABP4 and nadir-FFA measured after glucose loading may provide better risk assessment than the fasting values. PMID:19394980

  12. Metabolic fate of [14C]-labeled meal protein amino acids in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoli; Flowers, Matthew; Friedrich, Kenneth; Horton, James; Pennington, James; Wells, Michael A

    2004-04-01

    We developed a method to follow the metabolic fate of [(14)C]-labeled Euglena gracilis protein amino acids in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes under three different adult nutritional regimes. Quantitative analysis of blood meal protein amino acid metabolism showed that most of the carbon of the amino acids was either oxidized to CO(2) or excreted as waste. Under the three different adult nutritional regimes, no significant differences in the metabolism of amino acids were found, which indicated that the female A. aegypti mosquitoes possess a substantial capacity of maintaining metabolic homeostasis during a gonotrophic cycle. The amount of maternal glycogen and lipid after egg laying were significantly lower in the mosquitoes that underwent a partial starvation before a blood meal and/or starvation after the blood meal. The content of egg lipid or protein or the number of eggs laid did not show a significant difference among the three different regimes, which indicates that stable fecundity of A. aegypti under the partial starvation before a blood meal and/or starvation after the blood meal seemed to result from a trade-off between current fecundity and future survival after the eggs laid. The methods described in this paper can be applied to a wide range of questions about the effects of environmental conditions on the utilization of blood meal amino acids.

  13. Nalidixic Acid and Macromolecular Metabolism in Tetrahymena pyriformis: Effects on Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, J. F.; Carvalho, J. F. O.; Moussatché, N.; de Castro, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    A study on the effect of nalidixic acid on macromolecular metabolism, particularly of protein, in Tetrahymena pyriformis was performed. It was shown that the compound is a potent inhibitor of deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein synthesis for this organism. A conspicuous breakdown of polysomes, accompanied by the accumulation of 80S ribosomes, occurred in cells incubated for 10 min with the drug; polysome formation was prevented. The accumulating 80S particles were shown to be run-off ribosomal units. The incorporation of amino acids by a cell-free system is not affected by nalidixic acid. In nonproliferating cells the incorporation was also not prevented, unless the cells were previously incubated with the drug. These results are discussed in terms of the possible mechanism of action of nalidixic acid in T. pyriformis. PMID:807153

  14. Protein Analysis of Sapienic Acid-Treated Porphyromonas gingivalis Suggests Differential Regulation of Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah V.; Blanchette, Derek R.; Drake, David R.; Wertz, Philip W.; Brogden, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipids endogenous to skin and mucosal surfaces exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Our previous work demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of the fatty acid sapienic acid (C16:1Δ6) against P. gingivalis and found that sapienic acid treatment alters both protein and lipid composition from those in controls. In this study, we further examined whole-cell protein differences between sapienic acid-treated bacteria and untreated controls, and we utilized open-source functional association and annotation programs to explore potential mechanisms for the antimicrobial activity of sapienic acid. Our analyses indicated that sapienic acid treatment induces a unique stress response in P. gingivalis resulting in differential expression of proteins involved in a variety of metabolic pathways. This network of differentially regulated proteins was enriched in protein-protein interactions (P = 2.98 × 10−8), including six KEGG pathways (P value ranges, 2.30 × 10−5 to 0.05) and four Gene Ontology (GO) molecular functions (P value ranges, 0.02 to 0.04), with multiple suggestive enriched relationships in KEGG pathways and GO molecular functions. Upregulated metabolic pathways suggest increases in energy production, lipid metabolism, iron acquisition and processing, and respiration. Combined with a suggested preferential metabolism of serine, which is necessary for fatty acid biosynthesis, these data support our previous findings that the site of sapienic acid antimicrobial activity is likely at the bacterial membrane. IMPORTANCE P. gingivalis is an important opportunistic pathogen implicated in periodontitis. Affecting nearly 50% of the population, periodontitis is treatable, but the resulting damage is irreversible and eventually progresses to tooth loss. There is a great need for natural products that can be used to treat and/or prevent the overgrowth of

  15. Tracers to investigate protein and amino acid metabolism in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Wagenmakers, A J

    1999-11-01

    Three tracer methods have been used to measure protein synthesis, protein breakdown and protein oxidation at whole-body level. The method using L-[1-(13)C]leucine is considered the method of reference. These methods have contributed greatly to the existing knowledge on whole-body protein turnover and its regulation by feeding, fasting, hormones and disease. How exercise and ingestion of mixed protein-containing meals affect whole-body protein metabolism is still open to debate, as there are discrepancies in results obtained with different tracers. The contribution of whole-body methods to the future gain of knowledge is expected to be limited due to the fact that most physiological disturbances have been investigated extensively, and due to the lack of information on the relative contribution of various tissues and proteins to whole-body changes. Tracer amino acid-incorporation methods are most suited to investigate these latter aspects of protein metabolism. These methods have shown that some tissues (liver and gut) have much higher turnover rates and deposit much more protein than others (muscle). Massive differences also exist between the fractional synthesis rates of individual proteins. The incorporation methods have been properly validated, although minor disagreements remain on the identity of the true precursor pool (the enrichment of which should be used in the calculations). Arterio-venous organ balance studies have shown that little protein is deposited in skeletal muscle following a protein-containing meal, while much more protein is deposited in liver and gut. The amount deposited in the feeding period in each of these tissues is released again during overnight fasting. The addition of tracers to organ balance studies allows the simultaneous estimation of protein synthesis and protein breakdown, and provides information on whether changes in net protein balance are caused primarily by a change in protein synthesis or in protein breakdown. In the case

  16. Amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis in lactating rats fed on a liquid diet.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, T; García de la Asunción, J; Puertes, I R; Viña, J R

    1990-01-01

    1. Amino acid metabolism was studied in control virgin rats, lactating rats and virgin rats protein-pair-fed with the lactating rats (high-protein virgin rats). 2. Urinary excretion of nitrogen and urea was higher in lactating than in control virgin rats, and in high-protein virgin rats it was higher than in lactating rats. 3. The activities of urea-cycle enzymes (units/g) were higher in high-protein virgin than in lactating rats, except for arginase. In lactating rats the activities of carbamoyl-phosphate synthase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase and argininosuccinate synthase were lower than in control virgin rats. When the liver size is considered, the activities in lactating rats were similar to those in high-protein virgin rats, except for arginase. 4. N-Acetylglutamate content was higher in high-protein virgin rats than in the other two groups. 5. The rate of urea synthesis from precursors by isolated hepatocytes was higher in high-protein virgin rats than in the other two groups. 6. The flooding-dose method (L-[4-3H]phenylalanine) for measuring protein synthesis was used. The absolute synthesis rates of mammary gland, liver and small-intestinal mucosa were higher in lactating rats than in the other two groups, and in high-protein virgin rats than in control virgin rats 7. These results show that the increased needs for amino acids during lactation are met by hyperphagia and by a nitrogen-sparing mechanism. PMID:2396994

  17. Human soleus and vastus lateralis muscle protein metabolism with an amino acid infusion.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Chad C; Fluckey, James D; Williams, Rick H; Sullivan, Dennis H; Trappe, Todd A

    2005-03-01

    The calf muscles, compared with the thigh, are less responsive to resistance exercise in ambulatory and bed-rested individuals, apparently due to muscle-specific differences in protein metabolism. We chose to evaluate the efficacy of using amino acids to elevate protein synthesis in the soleus, because amino acids have been shown to have a potent anabolic effect in the vastus lateralis. Mixed muscle protein synthesis in the soleus and vastus lateralis was measured before and after infusion of mixed amino acids in 10 individuals (28 +/- 1 yr). Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K; Thr389) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1; Thr37/46) was also evaluated at rest and after 3 h of amino acid infusion. Basal protein synthesis was similar (P = 0.126), and amino acids stimulated protein synthesis to a similar extent (P = 0.004) in the vastus lateralis (0.043 +/- 0.011%/h) and soleus (0.032 +/- 0.017%/h). Phosphorylation of p70S6K (P = 0.443) and 4E-BP1 (P = 0.192) was not increased in either muscle; however, the soleus contained more total (P = 0.002) and phosphorylated (P = 0.013) 4E-BP1 than the vastus lateralis. These data support the need for further study of amino acid supplementation as a means to compensate for the reduced effectiveness of calf resistance exercise in ambulatory individuals and those exposed to extended periods of unloading. The greater 4E-BP1 in the soleus suggests that there is a muscle-specific distribution of general translational initiation machinery in human skeletal muscle.

  18. Protein homeostasis disorders of key enzymes of amino acids metabolism: mutation-induced protein kinetic destabilization and new therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Pey, Angel L

    2013-12-01

    Many inborn errors of amino acids metabolism are caused by single point mutations affecting the ability of proteins to fold properly (i.e., protein homeostasis), thus leading to enzyme loss-of-function. Mutations may affect protein homeostasis by altering intrinsic physical properties of the polypeptide (folding thermodynamics, and rates of folding/unfolding/misfolding) as well as the interaction of partially folded states with elements of the protein homeostasis network (such as molecular chaperones and proteolytic machineries). Understanding these mutational effects on protein homeostasis is required to develop new therapeutic strategies aimed to target specific features of the mutant polypeptide. Here, I review recent work in three different diseases of protein homeostasis associated to inborn errors of amino acids metabolism: phenylketonuria, inherited homocystinuria and primary hyperoxaluria type I. These three different genetic disorders involve proteins operating in different cell organelles and displaying different structural complexities. Mutations often decrease protein kinetic stability of the native state (i.e., its half-life for irreversible denaturation), which can be studied using simple kinetic models amenable to biophysical and biochemical characterization. Natural ligands and pharmacological chaperones are shown to stabilize mutant enzymes, thus supporting their therapeutic application to overcome protein kinetic destabilization. The role of molecular chaperones in protein folding and misfolding is also discussed as well as their potential pharmacological modulation as promising new therapeutic approaches. Since current available treatments for these diseases are either burdening or only successful in a fraction of patients, alternative treatments must be considered covering studies from protein structure and biophysics to studies in animal models and patients.

  19. Immune-responsive gene 1 protein links metabolism to immunity by catalyzing itaconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Michelucci, Alessandro; Cordes, Thekla; Ghelfi, Jenny; Pailot, Arnaud; Reiling, Norbert; Goldmann, Oliver; Binz, Tina; Wegner, André; Tallam, Aravind; Rausell, Antonio; Buttini, Manuel; Linster, Carole L; Medina, Eva; Balling, Rudi; Hiller, Karsten

    2013-05-07

    Immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1) is highly expressed in mammalian macrophages during inflammation, but its biological function has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify Irg1 as the gene coding for an enzyme producing itaconic acid (also known as methylenesuccinic acid) through the decarboxylation of cis-aconitate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate. Using a gain-and-loss-of-function approach in both mouse and human immune cells, we found Irg1 expression levels correlating with the amounts of itaconic acid, a metabolite previously proposed to have an antimicrobial effect. We purified IRG1 protein and identified its cis-aconitate decarboxylating activity in an enzymatic assay. Itaconic acid is an organic compound that inhibits isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, a pathway essential for bacterial growth under specific conditions. Here we show that itaconic acid inhibits the growth of bacteria expressing isocitrate lyase, such as Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Furthermore, Irg1 gene silencing in macrophages resulted in significantly decreased intracellular itaconic acid levels as well as significantly reduced antimicrobial activity during bacterial infections. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IRG1 links cellular metabolism with immune defense by catalyzing itaconic acid production.

  20. Protein acetylation affects acetate metabolism, motility and acid stress response in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal, Vicente; Post, Harm; Fuhrer, Tobias; Cappadona, Salvatore; Sánchez-Díaz, Nerea C; Sauer, Uwe; Heck, Albert JR; Altelaar, AF Maarten; Cánovas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Although protein acetylation is widely observed, it has been associated with few specific regulatory functions making it poorly understood. To interrogate its functionality, we analyzed the acetylome in Escherichia coli knockout mutants of cobB, the only known sirtuin-like deacetylase, and patZ, the best-known protein acetyltransferase. For four growth conditions, more than 2,000 unique acetylated peptides, belonging to 809 proteins, were identified and differentially quantified. Nearly 65% of these proteins are related to metabolism. The global activity of CobB contributes to the deacetylation of a large number of substrates and has a major impact on physiology. Apart from the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase, we found that CobB-controlled acetylation of isocitrate lyase contributes to the fine-tuning of the glyoxylate shunt. Acetylation of the transcription factor RcsB prevents DNA binding, activating flagella biosynthesis and motility, and increases acid stress susceptibility. Surprisingly, deletion of patZ increased acetylation in acetate cultures, which suggests that it regulates the levels of acetylating agents. The results presented offer new insights into functional roles of protein acetylation in metabolic fitness and global cell regulation. PMID:25518064

  1. Metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids directly activate uncoupling protein 1 in brown-fat mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) can display fatty acid-like activity in biological systems. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue is physiologically (re)activated by fatty acids, including octanoate. This leads to bioenergetically uncoupled energy dissipation (heat production, thermogenesis). We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse brown-fat mitochondria. In wild-type brown-fat mitochondria, PFOS and PFOA overcame GDP-inhibited thermogenesis, leading to increased oxygen consumption and dissipated membrane potential. The absence of this effect in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-ablated mice indicated that it occurred through activation of UCP1. A competitive type of inhibition by increased GDP concentrations indicated interaction with the same mechanistic site as that utilized by fatty acids. No effect was observed in heart mitochondria, i.e., in mitochondria without UCP1. The stimulatory effect of PFOA/PFOS was not secondary to non-specific mitochondrial membrane permeabilization or to ROS production. Thus, metabolic effects of perfluorinated fatty acids could include direct brown adipose tissue (UCP1) activation. The possibility that this may lead to unwarranted extra heat production and thus extra utilization of food resources, leading to decreased fitness in mammalian wildlife, is discussed, as well as possible negative effects in humans. However, a possibility to utilize PFOA-/PFOS-like substances for activating UCP1 therapeutically in obesity-prone humans may also be envisaged.

  2. Anesthesia with halothane and nitrous oxide alters protein and amino acid metabolism in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Horber, F.F.; Krayer, S.; Rehder, K.; Haymond, M.W.

    1988-09-01

    General anesthesia in combination with surgery is known to result in negative nitrogen balance. To determine whether general anesthesia without concomitant surgery decreases whole body protein synthesis and/or increases whole body protein breakdown, two groups of dogs were studied: Group 1 (n = 6) in the conscious state and Group 2 (n = 8) during general anesthesia employing halothane (1.5 MAC) in 50% nitrous oxide and oxygen. Changes in protein metabolism were estimated by isotope dilution techniques employing simultaneous infusions of (4,53H)leucine and alpha-(1-14C)-ketoisocaproate (KIC). Total leucine carbon flux was unchanged or slightly increased in the anesthetized animals when compared to the conscious controls, indicating only a slight increase in the rate of proteolysis. However, leucine oxidation was increased (P less than 0.001) by more than 80% in the anesthetized animals when compared with their conscious controls, whereas whole body nonoxidative leucine disappearance, an indicator of whole body protein synthesis, was decreased. The ratio of leucine oxidation to the nonoxidative rate of leucine disappearance, which provides an index of the catabolism of at least one essential amino acid in the postabsorptive state, was more than twofold increased (P less than 0.001) in the anesthetized animals regardless of the tracer employed. These studies suggest that the administration of anesthesia alone, without concomitant surgery, is associated with a decreased rate of whole body protein synthesis and increased leucine oxidation, resulting in increased leucine and protein catabolism, which may be underlying or initiating some of the protein wasting known to occur in patients undergoing surgery.

  3. G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor plays a key role in bile acid metabolism and fasting-induced hepatic steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Donepudi, Ajay C; Boehme, Shannon; Li, Feng; Chiang, John Y L

    2017-03-01

    Bile acids are signaling molecules that play a critical role in regulation of hepatic metabolic homeostasis by activating nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) and membrane G-protein-coupled receptor (Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5; Tgr5). The role of FXR in regulation of bile acid synthesis and hepatic metabolism has been studied extensively. However, the role of TGR5 in hepatic metabolism has not been explored. The liver plays a central role in lipid metabolism, and impaired response to fasting and feeding contributes to steatosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver and obesity. We have performed a detailed analysis of gallbladder bile acid and lipid metabolism in Tgr5(-/-) mice in both free-fed and fasted conditions. Lipid profiles of serum, liver and adipose tissues, bile acid composition, energy metabolism, and messenger RNA and protein expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism were analyzed. Results showed that deficiency of the Tgr5 gene in mice alleviated fasting-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. Expression of liver oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase in the alternative bile acid synthesis pathway was reduced. Analysis of gallbladder bile acid composition showed marked increase of taurocholic acid and decrease of tauro-α and β-muricholic acid in Tgr5(-/-) mice. Tgr5(-/-) mice had increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation rate and decreased hepatic fatty acid uptake. Interestingly, fasting induction of fibroblast growth factor 21 in liver was attenuated. In addition, fasted Tgr5(-/-) mice had increased activation of hepatic growth hormone-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (GH-Stat5) signaling compared to wild-type mice.

  4. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Stimulation of Energy Metabolism by Acetic Acid in L6 Myotube Cells.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Araki, Aya; Kimoto, Masumi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that orally administered acetic acid decreased lipogenesis in the liver and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, which exhibit hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Administered acetic acid led to increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in both liver and skeletal muscle cells, and increased transcripts of myoglobin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes in skeletal muscle of the rats. It was suggested that acetic acid improved the lipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the activation of AMPK and the stimulation of GLUT4 and myoglobin expression by acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells to clarify the physiological function of acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells. Acetic acid added to culture medium was taken up rapidly by L6 cells, and AMPK was phosphorylated upon treatment with acetic acid. We observed increased gene and protein expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. Uptake of glucose and fatty acids by L6 cells were increased, while triglyceride accumulation was lower in treated cells compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, treated cells also showed increased gene and protein expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), which is a well-known transcription factor involved in the expression of myoglobin and GLUT4 genes. These results indicate that acetic acid enhances glucose uptake and fatty acid metabolism through the activation of AMPK, and increases expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin.

  5. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Stimulation of Energy Metabolism by Acetic Acid in L6 Myotube Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maruta, Hitomi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Araki, Aya; Kimoto, Masumi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that orally administered acetic acid decreased lipogenesis in the liver and suppressed lipid accumulation in adipose tissue of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, which exhibit hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Administered acetic acid led to increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in both liver and skeletal muscle cells, and increased transcripts of myoglobin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes in skeletal muscle of the rats. It was suggested that acetic acid improved the lipid metabolism in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the activation of AMPK and the stimulation of GLUT4 and myoglobin expression by acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells to clarify the physiological function of acetic acid in skeletal muscle cells. Acetic acid added to culture medium was taken up rapidly by L6 cells, and AMPK was phosphorylated upon treatment with acetic acid. We observed increased gene and protein expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. Uptake of glucose and fatty acids by L6 cells were increased, while triglyceride accumulation was lower in treated cells compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, treated cells also showed increased gene and protein expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A), which is a well-known transcription factor involved in the expression of myoglobin and GLUT4 genes. These results indicate that acetic acid enhances glucose uptake and fatty acid metabolism through the activation of AMPK, and increases expression of GLUT4 and myoglobin. PMID:27348124

  6. Effect of water stress and foliar boron application on seed protein oil fatty acids and nitrogen metabolism in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of water stress and foliar boron (FB) application on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition and nitrogen metabolism have not been well investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of water stress and FB on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, nitra...

  7. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, Dove; Finlay, Liam; Butler, Judy; Gómez, Luis; Smith, Eric; Moreau, Régis; Hagen, Tory

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • 24 month old rats were supplemented with 0.2% lipoic acid in the diet for 2 weeks. • Lipoic acid shifts phase of core circadian clock proteins. • Lipoic acid corrects age-induced desynchronized lipid metabolism rhythms. - Abstract: It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks.

  8. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... breaks the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body's fuel. Your body can use this ... process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple ...

  9. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Dove; Finlay, Liam; Butler, Judy; Gómez, Luis; Smith, Eric; Moreau, Régis; Hagen, Tory

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks. PMID:24944020

  10. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids - New anabolic compounds improving protein metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous animal studies demonstrated that chronic feeding of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) that modifies muscle membrane fatty acid composition promotes protein anabolism by blunting the age-associated deterioration in insulin sensitivity. The current study assessed, as a pr...

  11. Acid diet (high meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review: Update recent advancements regarding the effect of high animal protein on calcium utilization and bone health. Recent findings: Increased potential renal acid load resulting from a high protein (meat) intake has been closely associated with increased urinary calcium excretion. How...

  12. Protein oxidation: an overview of metabolism of sulphur containing amino acid, cysteine.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Saheem; Khan, Hamda; Shahab, Uzma; Rehman, Shahnawaz; Rafi, Zeeshan; Khan, Mohd Yasir; Ansari, Ahsanullah; Siddiqui, Zeba; Ashraf, Jalaluddin Mohammad; Abdullah, Saleh M S; Habib, Safia; Uddin, Moin

    2017-01-01

    The available data suggest that among cellular constituents, proteins are the major target for oxidation primarily because of their quantity and high rate of interactions with ROS. Proteins are susceptible to ROS modifications of amino acid side chains which alter protein structure. Among the amino acids, Cysteine (Cys) is more prone to oxidation by ROS because of its high nucleophilic property. The reactivity of Cys with ROS is due to the presence of thiol group. In the oxidised form, Cys forms disulfide bond, which are primary covalent cross-link found in proteins, and which stabilize the native conformation of a protein. Indirect evidence suggests that thiol modifications by ROS may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders, but the significance and precise extent of the contributions are poorly understood. Here, we review the role of oxidized Cys in different pathological consequences and its biochemistry may increase the research in the discovery of new therapies. The purpose of this review is to re-examine the role and biochemistry of oxidised Cys residues.

  13. Impacts of acute imipramine treatment on plasma and brain amino acid metabolism in mice given graded levels of dietary chicken protein.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mao; Murakami, Tatsuro; Tomonaga, Shozo; Sato, Mikako; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have shown a relationship between depression and animal protein intake. To evaluate whether the difference of dietary chicken protein levels induces an antidepressant-like effect and potentiates acute antidepressant effects, three levels of dietary chicken protein were used as the representative animal protein with imipramine used as the antidepressant. In addition, the effects of dietary chicken protein on brain metabolism were evaluated. Open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST) were conducted on the 27th and 28th days, respectively. OFT and FST were not influenced by both imipramine and dietary protein levels. However, characteristic effects of imipramine treatment on brain monoamine metabolism were observed in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus. In addition, dietary protein significantly increased taurine and L-ornithine levels even though these amino acids were not contained in the diets. In conclusion, the metabolism of several amino acids in the plasma and brain were altered by dietary chicken protein.

  14. Peroxisome protein transportation affects metabolism of branched-chain fatty acids that critically impact growth and development of C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rencheng; Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

    2013-01-01

    The impact of specific lipid molecules, including fatty acid variants, on cellular and developmental regulation is an important research subject that remains under studied. Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) are commonly present in multiple organisms including mammals, however our understanding of mmBCFA functions is very limited. C. elegans has been the premier model system to study the functions of mmBCFAs and their derived lipids, as mmBCFAs have been shown to play essential roles in post-embryonic development in this organism. To understand more about the metabolism of mmBCFAs in C. elegans, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 developmental arrest phenotype caused by mmBCFA depletion. Extensive characterization of one suppressor mutation identified prx-5, which encodes an ortholog of the human receptor for the type-1 peroxisomal targeting signal protein. Our study showed that inactivating prx-5 function compromised the peroxisome protein import, resulting in an increased level of branched-chain fatty acid C17ISO in animals lacking normal mmBCFA synthesis, thereby restoring wild-type growth and development. This work reveals a novel connection between peroxisomal functions and mmBCFA metabolism.

  15. Amino Acid Availability Regulates the Effect of Hyperinsulinemia on Skin Protein Metabolism in Pigs*

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Børsheim, Elisabet; Sharp, Carwyn P.; Zhang, Xiaojun; Barone, Carrie M.; Chinkes, David L.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of amino acid supply and insulin infusion on skin protein kinetics (fractional synthesis rate (FSR), fractional breakdown rate (FBR), and net balance (NB)) in pigs were investigated. Four-month-old pigs were divided into four groups as follows: control, insulin (INS), amino acid (AA), and INS + AA groups based on the nutritional and hormonal conditions. l-[ring-13C6]Phenylalanine was infused. FBR was estimated from the enrichment ratio of arterial phenylalanine to intracellular free phenylalanine. Plasma INS was increased (p < 0.05) in the INS and INS + AA groups. Plasma glucose was maintained by infusion of glucose in the groups receiving INS. The interventions did not change the NB of skin protein. However, the interventions affected the FSR and FBR differently. An infusion of INS significantly increased both FSR and FBR, although AA infusion did not. When an AA infusion was added to the infusion of insulin (INS + AA group), FSR and FBR were both lower when compared with the INS group. Our data demonstrate that in anesthetized pigs INS infusion did not exert an anabolic effect, but rather it increased AA cycling into and out of skin protein. Because co-infusion of AAs with INS ameliorated this effect, it is likely that the increased AA cycling during INS infusion was related to AA supply. Although protein kinetics were affected by both INS and AAs, none of the interventions affected the skin protein deposition. Thus, skin protein content is closely regulated under normal circumstances and is not subject to transient changes in AAs or hormonal concentrations. PMID:26032410

  16. Metabolic labeling with stable isotope nitrogen (15N) to follow amino acid and protein turnover of three plastid proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The length of time that a protein remains available to perform its function is significantly influenced by its turnover rate. Knowing the turnover rate of proteins involved in different processes is important to determining how long a function might progress even when the stimulus has been removed and no further synthesis of the particular proteins occurs. In this article, we describe the use of 15N-metabolic labeling coupled to GC-MS to follow the turnover of free amino acids and LC-MS/MS to identify and LC-MS to follow the turnover of specific proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Results To achieve the metabolic labeling, the growth medium was formulated with standard Tris acetate phosphate medium (TAP) in which14NH4Cl was replaced with 15NH415NO3 and (14NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O was replaced with Na2MoO4.2H2O. This medium designated 15N-TAP allowed CC-125 algal cells to grow normally. Mass isotopic distribution revealed successful 15N incorporation into 13 amino acids with approximately 98% labeling efficiency. Tryptic digestion of the 55 kDa SDS-PAGE bands from 14N- and 15N-labeled crude algal protein extracts followed by LC-MS/MS resulted in the identification of 27 proteins. Of these, five displayed peptide sequence confidence levels greater than 95% and protein sequence coverage greater than 25%. These proteins were the RuBisCo large subunit, ATP synthase CF1 alpha and beta subunits, the mitochondrial protein (F1F0 ATP synthase) and the cytosolic protein (S-adenosyl homocysteine hydroxylase). These proteins were present in both labeled and unlabeled samples. Once the newly synthesized 15N-labeled free amino acids and proteins obtained maximum incorporation of the 15N-label, turnover rates were determined after transfer of cells into 14N-TAP medium. The t½ values were determined for the three plastid proteins (RuBisCo, ATP synthase CF1 alpha and beta) by following the reduction of the 15N-fractional abundance over time. Conclusion We describe a more

  17. Prion protein regulates glutathione metabolism and neural glutamate and cysteine uptake via excitatory amino acid transporter 3.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Kathrin; Loers, Gabriele; Schachner, Melitta; Kleene, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Prion protein (PrP) plays crucial roles in regulating antioxidant systems to improve cell defenses against cellular stress. Here, we show that the interactions of PrP with the excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), and multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) in astrocytes and the interaction between PrP and EAAT3 in neurons regulate the astroglial and neuronal metabolism of the antioxidant glutathione. Ablation of PrP in astrocytes and cerebellar neurons leads to dysregulation of EAAT3-mediated uptake of glutamate and cysteine, which are precursors for the synthesis of glutathione. In PrP-deficient astrocytes, levels of intracellular glutathione are increased, and under oxidative stress, levels of extracellular glutathione are increased, due to (i) increased glutathione release via MRP1 and (ii) reduced activity of the glutathione-degrading enzyme γ-GT. In PrP-deficient cerebellar neurons, cell death is enhanced under oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity, when compared to wild-type cerebellar neurons. These results indicate a functional interplay of PrP with EAAT3, MRP1 and γ-GT in astrocytes and of PrP and EAAT3 in neurons, suggesting that these interactions play an important role in the metabolic cross-talk between astrocytes and neurons and in protection of neurons by astrocytes from oxidative and glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. Interactions of prion protein (PrP) with excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) regulate the astroglial and neuronal metabolism of glutathione (GSH) which protects cells against the cytotoxic oxidative stress. PrP controls the release of GSH from astrocytes via MRP1 and regulates the hydrolysis of extracellular GSH by GGT as well as the neuronal and astroglial glutamate and cysteine uptake via EAAT3.

  18. Protein, nucleic acid and starch metabolism in the duckweed Spirodela oligorrhiza, treated with cytokinins

    PubMed Central

    McCombs, P. J. A.; Ralph, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    Bacteria-free cultures of Spirodela oligorrhiza continue to increase in frond number for 2 to 3 days after transfer to darkness. There is then no further increase in frond number for 3 to 4 weeks, although DNA, RNA and protein synthesis continue at decreased rates and starch accumulates in the plants. We refer to such `non-growing' plants in darkness as dormant. Adding kinetin to dormant Spirodela initiated increased DNA, RNA and protein synthesis within 1h, although new fronds were not detected until 24h after the addition of kinetin. The frond number then continued to increase. Starch accumulated in dormant plants. Accumulation of starch appeared to be a consequence of inhibition of growth rather than the converse. No evidence was obtained for a block in [14C]glucose metabolism that might explain the lack of growth in darkness in the absence of kinetin. In darkness, more ribosomes were membrane-bound in dormant Spirodela than in Spirodela growing with kinetin. Similarities between the response of Spirodela to darkness, stringent control in bacteria and pleiotypic controls in animal cells are discussed. It is suggested that all three processes are ultimately controlled by specific protein kinases that are individually sensitive to different effectors. PMID:4643327

  19. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4 (FABP4): Pathophysiological Insights and Potent Clinical Biomarker of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Masato; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidences of an integration of metabolic and inflammatory pathways, referred to as metaflammation in several aspects of metabolic syndrome, have been accumulating. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), also known as adipocyte FABP (A-FABP) or aP2, is mainly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages and plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in relation to metaflammation. Despite lack of a typical secretory signal peptide, FABP4 has been shown to be released from adipocytes in a non-classical pathway associated with lipolysis, possibly acting as an adipokine. Elevation of circulating FABP4 levels is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiac dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular events. Furthermore, ectopic expression and function of FABP4 in several types of cells and tissues have been recently demonstrated. Here, we discuss both the significant role of FABP4 in pathophysiological insights and its usefulness as a biomarker of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25674026

  20. Induced lung inflammation and dietary protein supply affect nitrogen retention and amino acid metabolism in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kampman-van de Hoek, Esther; Sakkas, Panagiotis; Gerrits, Walter J J; van den Borne, Joost J G C; van der Peet-Schwering, Carola M C; Jansman, Alfons J M

    2015-02-14

    It is hypothesised that during immune system activation, there is a competition for amino acids (AA) between body protein deposition and immune system functioning. The aim of the present study was to quantify the effect of immune system activation on N retention and AA metabolism in growing pigs, depending on dietary protein supply. A total of sixteen barrows received an adequate (Ad) or restricted (Res) amount of dietary protein, and were challenged at day 0 with intravenous complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). At days - 5, 3 and 8, an irreversible loss rate (ILR) of eight AA was determined. CFA successfully activated the immune system, as indicated by a 2- to 4-fold increase in serum concentrations of acute-phase proteins (APP). Pre-challenge C-reactive protein concentrations were lower (P< 0·05) and pre- and post-challenge albumin tended to be lower in Res-pigs. These findings indicate that a restricted protein supply can limit the acute-phase response. CFA increased urinary N losses (P= 0·04) and tended to reduce N retention in Ad-pigs, but not in Res-pigs (P= 0·07). The ILR for Val was lower (P= 0·05) at day 8 than at day 3 in the post-challenge period. The ILR of most AA, except for Trp, were strongly affected by dietary protein supply and positively correlated with N retention. The correlations between the ILR and APP indices were absent or negative, indicating that changes in AA utilisation for APP synthesis were either not substantial or more likely outweighed by a decrease in muscle protein synthesis during immune system activation in growing pigs.

  1. Protein and amino acid nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cow protein and amino acid nutrition have a significant role in sustainable dairying. Protein, amino acids, and nitrogen are inextricably linked through effects in the rumen, metabolism of the cow, and environmental nutrient management. Feeding systems have been making progress toward emphasiz...

  2. Perturbations of amino acid metabolism associated with glyphosate-dependent inhibition of shikimic acid metabolism affect cellular redox homeostasis and alter the abundance of proteins involved in photosynthesis and photorespiration.

    PubMed

    Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Driscoll, Simon P; Bulman, Christopher A; Ying, Liu; Emami, Kaveh; Treumann, Achim; Mauve, Caroline; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H

    2011-09-01

    The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, much uncertainty remains concerning precisely how glyphosate kills plants or affects cellular redox homeostasis and related processes in glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant crop plants. To address this issue, we performed an integrated study of photosynthesis, leaf proteomes, amino acid profiles, and redox profiles in the glyphosate-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype PAN809 and glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS). RRS leaves accumulated much more glyphosate than the sensitive line but showed relatively few changes in amino acid metabolism. Photosynthesis was unaffected by glyphosate in RRS leaves, but decreased abundance of photosynthesis/photorespiratory pathway proteins was observed together with oxidation of major redox pools. While treatment of a sensitive genotype with glyphosate rapidly inhibited photosynthesis and triggered the appearance of a nitrogen-rich amino acid profile, there was no evidence of oxidation of the redox pools. There was, however, an increase in starvation-associated and defense proteins. We conclude that glyphosate-dependent inhibition of soybean leaf metabolism leads to the induction of defense proteins without sustained oxidation. Conversely, the accumulation of high levels of glyphosate in RRS enhances cellular oxidation, possibly through mechanisms involving stimulation of the photorespiratory pathway.

  3. Perturbations of Amino Acid Metabolism Associated with Glyphosate-Dependent Inhibition of Shikimic Acid Metabolism Affect Cellular Redox Homeostasis and Alter the Abundance of Proteins Involved in Photosynthesis and Photorespiration1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Driscoll, Simon P.; Bulman, Christopher A.; Ying, Liu; Emami, Kaveh; Treumann, Achim; Mauve, Caroline; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, much uncertainty remains concerning precisely how glyphosate kills plants or affects cellular redox homeostasis and related processes in glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant crop plants. To address this issue, we performed an integrated study of photosynthesis, leaf proteomes, amino acid profiles, and redox profiles in the glyphosate-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype PAN809 and glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS). RRS leaves accumulated much more glyphosate than the sensitive line but showed relatively few changes in amino acid metabolism. Photosynthesis was unaffected by glyphosate in RRS leaves, but decreased abundance of photosynthesis/photorespiratory pathway proteins was observed together with oxidation of major redox pools. While treatment of a sensitive genotype with glyphosate rapidly inhibited photosynthesis and triggered the appearance of a nitrogen-rich amino acid profile, there was no evidence of oxidation of the redox pools. There was, however, an increase in starvation-associated and defense proteins. We conclude that glyphosate-dependent inhibition of soybean leaf metabolism leads to the induction of defense proteins without sustained oxidation. Conversely, the accumulation of high levels of glyphosate in RRS enhances cellular oxidation, possibly through mechanisms involving stimulation of the photorespiratory pathway. PMID:21757634

  4. Role of Glucocorticoids in the Response to Unloading of Muscle Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Jaspers, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    Intact control (weight bearing) and suspended rats gained weight at a similar rate during a 6 day period. Adrenaectomized (adx) weight bearing rats gained less weight during this period while adrenalectomized suspended rats showed no significant weight gain. Cortisol treatment of both of these groups of animals caused a loss of body weight. Results from these studies show several important findings: (1) Metabolic changes in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of suspended rats are due primarily to increased circulating gluccorticoids; (2) Metabolic changes in the soleus due to higher steroid levels are probably potentiated by greater numbers of receptors; and (3) Not all metabolic responses in the unloaded soleus muscle are due to direct action of elevated glucocorticoids or increased sensitivity to these hormones.

  5. Intestinal transport and metabolism of bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Karpen, Saul J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to their classical roles as detergents to aid in the process of digestion, bile acids have been identified as important signaling molecules that function through various nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors to regulate a myriad of cellular and molecular functions across both metabolic and nonmetabolic pathways. Signaling via these pathways will vary depending on the tissue and the concentration and chemical structure of the bile acid species. Important determinants of the size and composition of the bile acid pool are their efficient enterohepatic recirculation, their host and microbial metabolism, and the homeostatic feedback mechanisms connecting hepatocytes, enterocytes, and the luminal microbiota. This review focuses on the mammalian intestine, discussing the physiology of bile acid transport, the metabolism of bile acids in the gut, and new developments in our understanding of how intestinal metabolism, particularly by the gut microbiota, affects bile acid signaling. PMID:25210150

  6. Bile Acids, Obesity, and the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huijuan; Patti, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are increasingly recognized as key regulators of systemic metabolism. While bile acids have long been known to play important and direct roles in nutrient absorption, bile acids also serve as signaling molecules. Bile acid interactions with the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the membrane receptor G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 5 (TGR5) can regulate incretin hormone and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) secretion, cholesterol metabolism, and systemic energy expenditure. Bile acid levels and distribution are altered in type 2 diabetes and increased following bariatric procedures, in parallel with reduced body weight and improved insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Thus, modulation of bile acid levels and signaling, using bile acid binding resins, TGR5 agonists, and FXR agonists, may serve as a potent therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other components of the metabolic syndrome in humans. PMID:25194176

  7. The rice OsLpa1 gene encodse a novel protein involved in phytic acid metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rice low phytic acid 1 (OsLpa1) gene was originally identified using a forward genetics approach. Mutation of this gene resulted in a 45% reduction in rice seed phytic acid with a molar-equivalent increase in inorganic phosphorus; however, the rice lpa1 mutant does not appear to differ significa...

  8. Metabolic Effects of Cholecystectomy: Gallbladder Ablation Increases Basal Metabolic Rate through G-Protein Coupled Bile Acid Receptor Gpbar1-Dependent Mechanisms in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Víctor; Amigo, Ludwig; Zanlungo, Silvana; Galgani, José; Robledo, Fermín; Arrese, Marco; Bozinovic, Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Bile acids (BAs) regulate energy expenditure by activating G-protein Coupled Bile Acid Receptor Gpbar1/TGR5 by cAMP-dependent mechanisms. Cholecystectomy (XGB) increases BAs recirculation rates resulting in increased tissue exposure to BAs during the light phase of the diurnal cycle in mice. We aimed to determine: 1) the effects of XGB on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and 2) the roles of TGR5 on XGB-dependent changes in BMR. Methods BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry in wild type and Tgr5 deficient (Tgr5-/-) male mice. Bile flow and BAs secretion rates were measured by surgical diversion of biliary duct. Biliary BAs and cholesterol were quantified by enzymatic methods. BAs serum concentration and specific composition was determined by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Gene expression was determined by qPCR analysis. Results XGB increased biliary BAs and cholesterol secretion rates, and elevated serum BAs concentration in wild type and Tgr5-/- mice during the light phase of the diurnal cycle. BMR was ~25% higher in cholecystectomized wild type mice (p <0.02), whereas no changes were detected in cholecystectomized Tgr5-/- mice compared to wild-type animals. Conclusion XGB increases BMR by TGR5-dependent mechanisms in mice. PMID:25738495

  9. High Serum Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jer-Chuan; Wu, Du-An; Hou, Jia-Sian; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Chen, Hsin-Dean

    2016-01-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) is a key mediator of obesity-related metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between A-FABP concentration and MetS in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 165 type 2 DM volunteers. MetS and its components were defined using diagnostic criteria from the International Diabetes Federation. Among 165 DM patients, 113 patients (68.5%) had MetS. Diabetic persons who had MetS had significantly higher A-FABP levels (P < 0.001) than those without MetS. Female DM persons had higher A-FABP level than man (P < 0.001). No statistically significant differences in A-FABP levels were found in use of statin, fibrate, or antidiabetic drugs. Multivariate forward stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that body fat mass (P < 0.001), logarithmically transformed creatinine (log-creatinine; P < 0.001), female DM patients (P < 0.001), and logarithmically transformed high sensitive C-reactive protein (log-hs-CRP; P = 0.013) were positively correlated, while albumin (P = 0.004) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; P = 0.043) were negatively correlated with serum A-FABP levels in type 2 DM patients. In this study, higher serum A-FABP level was positively associated with MetS in type 2 DM patients. PMID:28042581

  10. Soy protein diet alters expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid and thyroid hormone metabolism in the male rat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined effects of soy protein (SPI) and the isoflavone genistein (GEN) on mRNA expression of key lipid metabolism and thyroid hormone system genes in young adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. SPI-fed rats had less retroperitoneal fat and less hepato-steatosis than casein (CAS, control protein)-...

  11. Lipoic Acid Metabolism in Microbial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Spalding, Maroya D.; Prigge, Sean T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Lipoic acid [(R)-5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-yl)pentanoic acid] is an enzyme cofactor required for intermediate metabolism in free-living cells. Lipoic acid was discovered nearly 60 years ago and was shown to be covalently attached to proteins in several multicomponent dehydrogenases. Cells can acquire lipoate (the deprotonated charge form of lipoic acid that dominates at physiological pH) through either scavenging or de novo synthesis. Microbial pathogens implement these basic lipoylation strategies with a surprising variety of adaptations which can affect pathogenesis and virulence. Similarly, lipoylated proteins are responsible for effects beyond their classical roles in catalysis. These include roles in oxidative defense, bacterial sporulation, and gene expression. This review surveys the role of lipoate metabolism in bacterial, fungal, and protozoan pathogens and how these organisms have employed this metabolism to adapt to niche environments. PMID:20508247

  12. p-Coumaric acid modulates glucose and lipid metabolism via AMP-activated protein kinase in L6 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seon-A; Kang, Seong-Il; Shin, Hye-Sun; Kang, Seung-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae

    2013-03-22

    p-Coumaric acid (3-[4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-propenoic acid) is a ubiquitous plant metabolite with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. In this study, we examined whether p-coumaric acid modulates glucose and lipid metabolism via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in L6 skeletal muscle cells. p-Coumaric acid increased the phosphorylation of AMPK in a dose-dependent manner in differentiated L6 skeletal muscle cells. It also increased the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and the expression of CPT-1 mRNA and PPARα, suggesting that it promotes the β-oxidation of fatty acids. Also, it suppressed oleic acid-induced triglyceride accumulation, and enhanced 2-NBDG uptake in differentiated L6 muscle cells. Pretreatment with compound C inhibited AMPK activation, reduced ACC phosphorylation and 2-NBDG uptake, and increased triglyceride accumulation. However, p-coumaric acid counterbalanced the inhibitory effects of compound C. Taken together, these results suggest that p-coumaric acid modulates glucose and lipid metabolism via AMPK activation in L6 skeletal muscle cells and that it has potentially beneficial effects in improving or treating metabolic disorders.

  13. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids enhance neonatal insulin-regulated protein metabolism in piglets by differentially altering muscle lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Karen; Julien, Pierre; Davis, Teresa A.; Myre, Alexandre; Thivierge, M. Carole

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) of muscle phospholipids in the regulation of neonatal metabolism. Twenty-eight piglets were weaned at 2 days of age and raised on one of two milk formulas that consisted of either a control formula supplying 0% or a formula containing 3.5% LCn-3PUFAs until 10 or 28 days of age. There was a developmental decline in the insulin sensitivity of amino acid disposal in control pigs during the first month of life, with a slope of −2.24 μmol·kg−1·h−1 (P = 0.01) per unit of insulin increment, as assessed using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps. LCn-3PUFA feeding blunted this developmental decline, resulting in differing insulin sensitivities (P < 0.001). When protein metabolism was assessed under parenteral feeding-induced hyperinsulinemia, LCn-3PUFAs reduced by 16% whole body oxidative losses of amino acids (from 238 to 231 μmol·kg−1·h−1; P = 0.06), allowing 41% more amino acids to accrete into body proteins (from 90 to 127 μmol·kg−1·h−1; P = 0.06). The fractional synthetic rate of muscle mixed proteins remained unaltered by the LCn-3PUFA feeding. However, LCn-3PUFAs retarded a developmental increase in the essential-to-nonessential amino acid ratio of the muscle intracellular free pool (P = 0.05). Overall, alterations in metabolism were concomitant with a preferential incorporation of LCn-3PUFAs into muscle total membrane phospholipids (P < 0.001), in contrast to intramuscular triglycerides. These results underscore the potential role of LCn-3PUFAs as regulators of different aspects of protein metabolism in the neonate. PMID:17673528

  14. 2-Hydroxy Acids in Plant Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Maurino, Veronica G.; Engqvist, Martin K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolate, malate, lactate, and 2-hydroxyglutarate are important 2-hydroxy acids (2HA) in plant metabolism. Most of them can be found as D- and L-stereoisomers. These 2HA play an integral role in plant primary metabolism, where they are involved in fundamental pathways such as photorespiration, tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate cycle, methylglyoxal pathway, and lysine catabolism. Recent molecular studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have helped elucidate the participation of these 2HA in in plant metabolism and physiology. In this chapter, we summarize the current knowledge about the metabolic pathways and cellular processes in which they are involved, focusing on the proteins that participate in their metabolism and cellular/intracellular transport in Arabidopsis. PMID:26380567

  15. Inhibition of G-protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Prevents the Dysfunctional Cardiac Substrate Metabolism in Fatty Acid Synthase Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Abd Alla, Joshua; Graemer, Muriel; Fu, Xuebin; Quitterer, Ursula

    2016-02-05

    Impairment of myocardial fatty acid substrate metabolism is characteristic of late-stage heart failure and has limited treatment options. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) could counteract the disturbed substrate metabolism of late-stage heart failure. The heart failure-like substrate metabolism was reproduced in a novel transgenic model of myocardium-specific expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), the major palmitate-synthesizing enzyme. The increased fatty acid utilization of FASN transgenic neonatal cardiomyocytes rapidly switched to a heart failure phenotype in an adult-like lipogenic milieu. Similarly, adult FASN transgenic mice developed signs of heart failure. The development of disturbed substrate utilization of FASN transgenic cardiomyocytes and signs of heart failure were retarded by the transgenic expression of GRKInh, a peptide inhibitor of GRK2. Cardioprotective GRK2 inhibition required an intact ERK axis, which blunted the induction of cardiotoxic transcripts, in part by enhanced serine 273 phosphorylation of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ). Conversely, the dual-specific GRK2 and ERK cascade inhibitor, RKIP (Raf kinase inhibitor protein), triggered dysfunctional cardiomyocyte energetics and the expression of heart failure-promoting Pparg-regulated genes. Thus, GRK2 inhibition is a novel approach that targets the dysfunctional substrate metabolism of the failing heart.

  16. Inhibition of G-protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Prevents the Dysfunctional Cardiac Substrate Metabolism in Fatty Acid Synthase Transgenic Mice*♦

    PubMed Central

    Abd Alla, Joshua; Graemer, Muriel; Fu, Xuebin; Quitterer, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Impairment of myocardial fatty acid substrate metabolism is characteristic of late-stage heart failure and has limited treatment options. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) could counteract the disturbed substrate metabolism of late-stage heart failure. The heart failure-like substrate metabolism was reproduced in a novel transgenic model of myocardium-specific expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), the major palmitate-synthesizing enzyme. The increased fatty acid utilization of FASN transgenic neonatal cardiomyocytes rapidly switched to a heart failure phenotype in an adult-like lipogenic milieu. Similarly, adult FASN transgenic mice developed signs of heart failure. The development of disturbed substrate utilization of FASN transgenic cardiomyocytes and signs of heart failure were retarded by the transgenic expression of GRKInh, a peptide inhibitor of GRK2. Cardioprotective GRK2 inhibition required an intact ERK axis, which blunted the induction of cardiotoxic transcripts, in part by enhanced serine 273 phosphorylation of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ). Conversely, the dual-specific GRK2 and ERK cascade inhibitor, RKIP (Raf kinase inhibitor protein), triggered dysfunctional cardiomyocyte energetics and the expression of heart failure-promoting Pparg-regulated genes. Thus, GRK2 inhibition is a novel approach that targets the dysfunctional substrate metabolism of the failing heart. PMID:26670611

  17. Branched-chain amino acid ratios in low-protein diets regulate the free amino acid profile and the expression of hepatic fatty acid metabolism-related genes in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Duan, Y H; Li, F N; Wen, C Y; Wang, W L; Guo, Q P; Li, Y H; Yin, Y L

    2017-03-06

    Liver metabolism is affected by nutrients. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of low-protein diets (17% crude protein, CP) supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val), on hepatic amino acid profile and lipid metabolism in growing pigs. The ratio of Leu : Ile : Val in all groups was 1 : 0.51 : 0.63 (20% crude protein, CP), 1 : 1 : 1 (17% CP), 1 : 0.75 : 0.75 (17% CP), 1 : 0.51 : 0.63 (17% CP) and 1 : 0.25 : 0.25 (17% CP) respectively. Results revealed that compared to the positive control group (1 : 0.51 : 0.63, 20% CP), the low-protein diets significantly augmented the concentrations of most essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids (p < .05), with the greatest values observed in the 1 : 0.25 : 0.25 group. Moreover, relative to the control, the low-protein diets with the Leu : Ile : Val ratio ranging from 1 : 0.75 : 0.75 to 1 : 0.25 : 0.25 markedly downregulated the mRNA abundance of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP-4) (p < .05), and upregulated the mRNA expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (L-CPT-1) (p < .05). Therefore, our data suggest that protein-restricted diets supplemented with optimal BCAA ratio, that is, 1 : 0.75 : 0.75-1 : 0.25 : 0.25, induce a shift from fatty acid synthesis to fatty acid oxidation in the liver of growing pigs. These effects may be associated with increased mitochondrial biogenesis.

  18. Effects of Eu3+ on the metabolism of amino acid and protein in xerophytic Lathyrus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong Er; Gao, Yong Sheng; Zeng, Fu Li; Li, Feng Min; Shan, Lun

    2005-01-01

    The contents of amino acids and proteins and the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase were determined in roots, stems, and leaves of Eu3+-treated Lathyrus sativus L. The results showed that the treatment of Eu3+ made the contents of amino acid and protein and the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase change. The first possible mechanism was that Eu3+ directly made the electric potential of -NH2 or -COOH of amino acid change. The second possible mechanism was that Eu3+ played a role in metallic-activated factors of certain enzymes, which catalyze the catabolism and anabolism of protein. Then, the contents of amino acids and proteins were relatively changed. The third possible mechanism was that Eu3+ regulated the activity of ATPase through changing the Na+/K+ ratio. The energy released by ATPase was the driving force for the translocation of amino acids and proteins in the plant cell. Because of the changeability of its valence, Eu3+ played an important role in regulating certain physiological reactions to increase the adaptability of L. sativus in arid environment.

  19. Application of quantitative targeted absolute proteomics to profile protein expression changes of hepatic transporters and metabolizing enzymes during cholic acid-promoted liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takayuki; Tachikawa, Masanori; Ohtsuka, Hideo; Fukase, Koji; Nakayama, Shun; Sakata, Naoaki; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Naitoh, Takeshi; Katayose, Yu; Uchida, Yasuo; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Unno, Michiaki

    2017-02-26

    Preoperative administration of cholic acid (CA) may be an option to increase the liver volume before elective liver resection surgery, so it is important to understand its effects on liver functionality for drug transport and metabolism. The purpose of this study was to clarify the absolute protein expression dynamics of transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the liver of mice fed CA-containing diet for 5 days (CA1) and mice fed CA-containing diet for 5 days followed by diet without CA for 7 days (CA2), in comparison with non CA-fed control mice. The CA1 group showed the increased liver weight, cell proliferation index, and oxidative stress, but no increase of apoptosis. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomics revealed (i) decreases in basolateral bile acid transporters ntcp, oatp1a1, oatp1b2, bile acid synthesis-related enzymes cyp7a1 and cyp8b1, and drug transporters bcrp, mrp6, ent1, oatp2b1, and (ii) increases in glutathione biosynthetic enzymes and drug-metabolizing enzyme cyp3a11. Liver concentrations of reduced and oxidized glutathione were both increased. In the CA2 group, the increased liver weight was maintained, while the biochemical features and protein profiles were restored to the non-CA-fed control levels. These findings suggest that CA administration alters liver functionality per body during liver regeneration and restoration.

  20. Current Metabolic Status Affects Urinary Liver-Type Fatty-Acid Binding Protein in Normoalbuminuric Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hitomi; Nakashima, Mina; Takaki, Akifusa; Yukawa, Chiduko; Matsumoto, Suzuko; Omoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Masahiro; Nishio, Shinya; Abe, Mariko; Antoku, Shinichi; Mifune, Mizuo; Togane, Michiko

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to study the association between urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a biomarker of tubulointerstitial injury, and the clinical characteristics of normoalbuminuric and albuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes in order to detect the factors affecting urinary L-FABP. Methods Urinary L-FABP levels were measured in 788 patients with type 2 diabetes and again in 666 patients at 6 months after the initial measurement. The association between the urinary L-FABP level and the clinical parameters was investigated in a retrospective cross-sectional study and a subsequent observation. Results The HbA1c (odds ratio (OR): 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11 - 1.79; P < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.05; P < 0.01) levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.00; P = 0.01) were significantly associated with the high levels of urinary L-FABP (> 8.4 μg/gCr) in normoalbuminuric patients. However, a logistic regression analysis revealed that use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (OR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.16 - 4.89; P = 0.02), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.01; P < 0.01) and serum HDL-cholesterol concentration (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.89; P = 0.03) were significantly associated in albuminuric patients. In the follow-up observation, the change in urinary L-FABP was found to be significantly (P < 0.01) influenced by the change in the HbA1c level in both the normoalbuminuric and albuminuric patients. Conclusions High urinary L-FABP is associated with part of the current metabolic abnormalities, including high levels of HbA1c and systolic blood pressure among normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:28270898

  1. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... acidemia? In ASA, the body can’t remove ammonia or a substance called argininosuccinic acid from the ... and children include: Breathing problems High levels of ammonia in the bloodIntense headache, especially after a high- ...

  2. [Long-term administration of a low-protein diet with keto-analogs of essential amino acids and the metabolic status of patients with chronic kidney failure].

    PubMed

    Teplan, V; Schück, O; Nádvorníková, H; Růzicková, J; Grafnetter, D; Kaslík, J

    1989-01-06

    To 12 patients with chronic renal failure (CHRI) for 12-22 months a diet containing 20 g high quality protein supplemented by keto analogues of essential amino acids (KA)--4.8 g/day--was administered. During the investigation period no significant change of the albumin, prealbumin or transferrin level was recorded, nor of Whitehead's quotient, immunoglobulin levels and haemoglobin concentration, serum iron and its binding capacity. However, there was decline of the C3 complement component (p less than 0.01). The investigated parameters of carbohydrate metabolism (fasting blood sugar, immunoreactive insulin, oral glucose tolerance test) did not change, similarly as total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The originally reduced HDL-cholesterol level increased (p less than 0.05). The achieved results suggest that the long-term administration of a diet with 20 g protein supplemented by the minimal necessary dose of KA does not produce undesirable changes of the investigated metabolic parameters.

  3. Dietary protein, calcium metabolism and bone health in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein is the major structural constituent of bone (50% by volume). But it is also a major source of metabolic acid, especially protein from animal sources because it contains sulfur amino acids that generate sulfuric acid. Increased potential renal acid load has been closely associated with increa...

  4. Retinoic acid: its biosynthesis and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Napoli, J L

    1999-01-01

    This article presents a model that integrates the functions of retinoid-binding proteins with retinoid metabolism. One of these proteins, the widely expressed (throughout retinoid target tissues and in all vertebrates) and highly conserved cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP), sequesters retinol in an internal binding pocket that segregates it from the intracellular milieu. The CRBP-retinol complex appears to be the quantitatively major form of retinol in vivo, and may protect the promiscuous substrate from nonenzymatic degradation and/or non-specific enzymes. For example, at least seven types of dehydrogenases catalyze retinal synthesis from unbound retinol in vitro (NAD+ vs. NADP+ dependent, cytosolic vs. microsomal, short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases vs. medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases). But only a fraction of these (some of the short-chain de-hydrogenases/reductases) have the fascinating additional ability of catalyzing retinal synthesis from CRBP-bound retinol as well. Similarly, CRBP and/or other retinoid-binding proteins function in the synthesis of retinal esters, the reduction of retinal generated from intestinal beta-carotene metabolism, and retinoic acid metabolism. The discussion details the evidence supporting an integrated model of retinoid-binding protein/metabolism. Also addressed are retinoid-androgen interactions and evidence incompatible with ethanol causing fetal alcohol syndrome by competing directly with retinol dehydrogenation to impair retinoic acid biosynthesis.

  5. Treatment of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acid metabolism disorders Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please fill ... This is an amino acid that helps remove ammonia from the blood. Babies with HCY may need ...

  6. Metabolism of Nonessential N15-Labeled Amino Acids and the Measurement of Human Whole-Body Protein Synthesis Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Settle, R. G.; Albina, J. A.; Dempsey, D. T.; Melnick, G.

    1991-01-01

    Eight N-15 labeled nonessential amino acids plus (15)NH4Cl were administered over a 10 h period to four healthy adult males using a primed-constant dosage regimen. The amount of N-15 excreted in the urine and the urinary ammonia, hippuric acid, and plasma alanine N-15 enrichments were measured. There was a high degree of consistency across subjects in the ordering of the nine compounds based on the fraction of N-15 excreted (Kendall coefficient of concordance W = 0.83, P is less than 0.01). Protein synthesis rates were calculated from the urinary ammonia plateau enrichment and the cumulative excretion of N-15. Glycine was one of the few amino acids that gave similar values by both methods.

  7. The metabolism of "surplus" amino acids.

    PubMed

    Bender, David A

    2012-08-01

    For an adult in N balance, apart from small amounts of amino acids required for the synthesis of neurotransmitters, hormones, etc, an amount of amino acids almost equal to that absorbed from the diet can be considered to be "surplus" in that it will be catabolized. The higher diet-induced thermogenesis from protein than from carbohydrate or fat has generally been assumed to be due to increased protein synthesis, which is ATP expensive. To this must be added the ATP cost of protein catabolism through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Amino acid catabolism will add to thermogenesis. Deamination results in net ATP formation except when serine and threonine deaminases are used, but there is the energy cost of synthesizing glutamine in extra-hepatic tissues. The synthesis of urea has a net cost of only 1·5 × ATP when the ATP yield from fumarate metabolism is offset against the ATP cost of the urea cycle, but this offset is thermogenic. In fasting and on a low carbohydrate diet as much of the amino acid carbon as possible will be used for gluconeogenesis - an ATP-expensive, and hence thermogenic, process. Complete oxidation of most amino acid carbon skeletons also involves a number of thermogenic steps in which ATP (or GTP) or reduced coenzymes are utilized. There are no such thermogenic steps in the metabolism of pyruvate, acetyl CoA or acetoacetate, but for amino acids that are metabolized by way of the citric acid cycle intermediates there is thermogenesis ranging from 1 up to 7 × ATP equivalent per mol.

  8. Very Low-Protein Diet (VLPD) Reduces Metabolic Acidosis in Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease: The “Nutritional Light Signal” of the Renal Acid Load

    PubMed Central

    Di Iorio, Biagio Raffaele; Di Micco, Lucia; Marzocco, Stefania; De Simone, Emanuele; De Blasio, Antonietta; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Nardone, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Of these, 54 patients assumed very low-protein diet (VLPD) and 92 were controls (ratio 1:2). We calculated every three months the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and the net endogenous acid production (NEAP), inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate levels and representing the non-volatile acid load derived from nutrition. Un-paired T-test and Chi-square test were used to assess differences between study groups at baseline and study completion. Two-tailed probability values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: At baseline, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), protein and phosphate intake, urinary sodium, potassium, phosphate and urea nitrogen, NEAP, and PRAL. VLPD patients showed at 6 and 12 months a significant reduction of SBP (p < 0.0001), DBP (p < 0.001), plasma urea (p < 0.0001) protein intake (p < 0.0001), calcemia (p < 0.0001), phosphatemia (p < 0.0001), phosphate intake (p < 0.0001), urinary sodium (p < 0.0001), urinary potassium (p < 0.002), and urinary phosphate (p < 0.0001). NEAP and PRAL were significantly reduced in VLPD during follow-up. Conclusion: VLPD reduces intake of acids; nutritional therapy of CKD, that has always taken into consideration a lower protein, salt, and phosphate intake, should be adopted to correct metabolic acidosis, an important target in the treatment of CKD patients. We provide useful indications regarding acid load of food and drinks

  9. Exercise and Regulation of Protein Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Bethan E; Wilkinson, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles exhibit radical changes in physiology and metabolism in response to exercise. While exercise induces highly specific physiological changes, e.g., hypertrophy, associated with weightlifting or oxygen utilization associated with aerobic-type exercises, the foundation of these changes is driven by the summation of exercise-induced alterations in muscle protein metabolism. Practically, any type of exercise stimulates muscle protein turnover, the purpose being both to renew, and also modify, the myocellular composition of proteins in line with adaptations according to the mechanical and metabolic demands imposed. The mechanism(s) by which exercise stimulates protein turnover has been the subset of intense study. These studies have been led by the use of stable isotopically labeled amino acids. Essentially, use of these heavier variants (e.g., (13)C AA vs. (12)C) coupled to mass spectrometry has enabled study of the dynamic responses of muscle protein turnover to exercise. Using these techniques, it has become patently clear that exercise stimulates muscle protein turnover, i.e., muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and breakdown (MPB). Moreover, intake of specific nutrients (i.e., dietary proteins) potentiates MPS while attenuating MPB, facilitating maintenance of proteostasis and exercise adaptation. The mechanisms driving these protein metabolic responses to exercise include the coordinated activation of mRNA translation pathways (e.g., mechanistic target of rapamycin) and multiple MPB pathways (e.g., autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome). These processes are triggered by exercise-induced hormone, auto/paracrine-acting growth factors, mechanical transduction, and intramyocellular second messenger pathways. Finally, there remains poor understanding of how distinct exercise modes (e.g., resistance vs. endurance) lead to such distinct adaptations from a protein metabolic and molecular standpoint.

  10. Regulation of glucose and protein metabolism in growing steers by long-chain n-3 fatty acids in muscle membrane phospholipids is dose-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, M.; Julien, P.; Couture, Y.; Dubreuil, P.; Chouinard, P. Y.; Latulippe, C.; Davis, T. A.; Thivierge, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    A previous study showed that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA; >18 carbons n-3) exert an anabolic effect on protein metabolism through the upregulation of insulin sensitivity and activation of the insulin signaling pathway. This study further delineates for the first time whether the anabolic effect of LCn-3PUFA on metabolism is dose responsive. Six steers were used to test three graded amounts of menhaden oil rich in LCn-3PUFA (0%, 2% and 4%; enteral infusions) according to a double 3 × 3 Latin square design. Treatment comparisons were made using iso-energetic substitutions of control oil for menhaden oil and using 6-week experimental periods. The LCn-3PUFA in muscle total membrane phospholipids increased from 8%, 14% to 20% as dietary menhaden oil increased. Feeding graded amounts of menhaden oil linearly decreased plasma insulin concentration (49, 35 and 25 μU/ml, P = 0.01). The insulin-stimulated amino acid disposal rates as assessed using hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic–euaminoacidemic clamps (20, 40 and 80 mU/kg per h) were linearly increased by the incremental administrations of menhaden oil from 169, 238 to 375 μmol/kg per h (P = 0.005) during the 40 mU/kg per h clamp, and from 295, 360 and 590 mmol/kg per h (P = 0.02) during the 80 mU/kg per h clamp. Glucose disposal rate responded according to a quadratic relationship with the incremental menhaden oil amounts (P < 0.05). A regression analysis showed that 47% of the amino acid disposal rates elicited during the hyperinsulinemic clamp was related to muscle membrane LCn-3PUFA content (P = 0.003). These results show for the first time that both protein and glucose metabolism respond in a dose-dependent manner to menhaden oil and to muscle membrane LCn-3PUFA. PMID:22443622

  11. CypD(-/-) hearts have altered levels of proteins involved in Krebs cycle, branch chain amino acid degradation and pyruvate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Menazza, Sara; Wong, Renee; Nguyen, Tiffany; Wang, Guanghui; Gucek, Marjan; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a mitochondrial chaperone that has been shown to regulate the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). MPTP opening is a major determinant of mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte death during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mice lacking CypD have been widely used to study regulation of the MPTP, and it has been shown recently that genetic depletion of CypD correlates with elevated levels of mitochondrial Ca(2+). The present study aimed to characterize the metabolic changes in CypD(-/-) hearts. Initially, we used a proteomics approach to examine protein changes in CypD(-/-) mice. Using pathway analysis, we found that CypD(-/-) hearts have alterations in branched chain amino acid metabolism, pyruvate metabolism and the Krebs cycle. We tested whether these metabolic changes were due to inhibition of electron transfer from these metabolic pathways into the electron transport chain. As we found decreased levels of succinate dehydrogenase and electron transfer flavoprotein in the proteomics analysis, we examined whether activities of these enzymes might be altered. However, we found no alterations in their activities. The proteomics study also showed a 23% decrease in carnitine-palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), which prompted us to perform a metabolomics analysis. Consistent with the decrease in CPT1, we found a significant decrease in C4/Ci4, C5-OH/C3-DC, C12:1, C14:1, C16:1, and C20:3 acyl carnitines in hearts from CypD(-/-) mice. In summary, CypD(-/-) hearts exhibit changes in many metabolic pathways and caution should be used when interpreting results from these mice as due solely to inhibition of the MPTP.

  12. [Protein and energy value of spiruline blue algae supplemented by amino acids: digestive and metabolic utilization by the growing rat].

    PubMed

    Vermorel, M; Toullec, G; Dumond, D; Pion, R

    1975-01-01

    Protein and energy value of 6 samples of "Spirulina" was studied on growing rats in 1972 and 1973. Sample RL 1(Spirulina platensis, originating from Tchad) was grown in artifical conditions in a laboratory. Others samples (Spirulina maxima) were grown in the solar evaporator near Mexico, washed and dried either on heated rollers (MR8, MR13) or by spraying (MA 7, MA10). Sample MA10 D corresponds to sample MA10, bleached by ethanol plus acetone (Baron, 1975). Each Spirulina sample was the only protein source of balanced, starch diets. The diets were supplemented in essential amino acids (E.A.A.) according to the requirements of growing rats (table 1). The ratios [(digestible nitrogen/metabolisable energy (EM] of the Spirulina diets were similar to that of the control diets containing herring meal. The diets were fed to groups of 15 to 17 growing rats. Energy and nitrogen balances were established by the comparative slaughter technique. Blood and muscle samples were taken at slaughter for the determination of free amino acids levels.

  13. Effect of protein source on amino acid supply, milk production, and metabolism of plasma nutrients in dairy cows fed grass silage.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, M; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P

    2002-12-01

    This study conducted according to a 4 x 4 Latin square with 28 d periods and four ruminally cannulated Finnish Ayrshire cows investigated the effect of protein supplements differing in amino acid (AA) profile and rumen undegradable protein content on postruminal AA supply and milk production. Mammary metabolism of plasma AA and other nutrients were also studied. The basal diet (Control; 13.4% crude protein) consisted of grass silage and barley in a ratio of 55:45 on a dry matter basis. The other three isonitrogenous diets (17.0% crude protein) were control + fishmeal (FM), control + soybean meal (SBM), and control + corn gluten meal (CGM). The protein supplements replaced portions of dry matter of the control diet maintaining the silage to barley ratio constant for all diets. Dry matter intake was limited to 95% of the preexperimental ad libitum intake and was similar (mean 19.8 kg/d dry matter) across the diets. Protein supplements increased milk, lactose, and protein yields but did not affect yields of energy-corrected milk or milk fat. Milk protein yield response was numerically lowest for diet SBM. Protein supplements increased milk protein concentration but decreased milk fat and lactose concentrations. Microbial protein synthesis and rumen fermentation parameters were similar across the diets, except for an increased rumen ammonia concentration for diets supplemented with protein feeds. Protein supplements increased N intake, ruminal organic matter and N, and total tract organic matter, N, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities. Protein supplements also increased N and AA flows into the omasum, with SBM giving the lowest and CGM the highest flows. This was associated with an unchanged microbial N flow and a higher undegraded dietary N flow. The omasal flows of individual AA reflected differences in total N flow and AA profile of the experimental diets. Differences in AA flows did not always reflect plasma AA concentrations. The results indicated that AA

  14. [Protein metabolism in vegans].

    PubMed

    Okuda, T; Miyoshi-Nishimura, H; Makita, T; Sugawa-Katayama, Y; Hazama, T; Simizu, T; Yamaguchi, Y

    1994-11-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of adaptation to a low-energy and low-protein vegan diet, we carried out dietary surveys and nitrogen balance studies five times during one year on two women and a man who ate raw brown rice, raw green vegetables, three kinds of raw roots, fruit and salt daily. Individual subjects modified this vegan diet slightly. The mean daily energy intake of the subjects was 18, 14, and 32 kcal/kg, of body weight. The loss of body weight was about 10% of the initial level. The daily nitrogen balance was -32, -33, and -11 mg N/kg of body weight. In spite of the negative nitrogen balance, the results of routine clinical tests, initially normal, did not change with the vegan diet. Ten months after the start of the vegan diet, the subjects were given 15N urea orally. The incorporation of 15N into serum proteins suggested that these subjects could utilize urea nitrogen for body protein synthesis. The level of 15N in serum proteins was close to the level in other normal adult men on a low-protein diet with adequate energy for 2 weeks.

  15. Arabidopsis BPM proteins function as substrate adaptors to a cullin3-based E3 ligase to affect fatty acid metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-06-01

    Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that cullin3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ethylene response factor (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by Math-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the wrinkled1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of Math-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members.

  16. CACODYLIC ACID (DMAV): METABOLISM AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The cacodylic acid (DMAV) issue paper discusses the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the various arsenical chemicals; evaluates the appropriate dataset to quantify the potential cancer risk to the organic arsenical herbicides; provides an evaluation of the mode of carcinogenic action (MOA) for DMAV including a consideration of the key events for bladder tumor formation in rats, other potential modes of action; and also considers the human relevance of the proposed animal MOA. As part of tolerance reassessment under the Food Quality Protection Act for the August 3, 2006 deadline, the hazard of cacodylic acid is being reassessed.

  17. Amino acid composition of food products used in the treatment of patients with disorders of the amino acid and protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bremer, H J; Anninos, A; Schulz, B

    1996-07-01

    The amino acid composition of food products frequently used in the diets of amino acid and protein disorders-including tryptophan- was estimated using ion-exchange column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. It includes fruits (different varieties of apples, pears, ananas, bananas, peach, strawberries, honey melon, water melon, kiwi, plums, grapes), vegetables (different varieties of potatoes, potato products, cauli-flower, broccoli, cabbages, spinach, olives, lettuce, cucumber, peas, mushrooms) and commercially available or home-made food products (meat broth, fine gravy paste, ketchup, liquid seasoning, soja sauce, different varieties of Chinese noodles, sausages for phenylketonuria patients), and different new fiber concentrates.

  18. Metabolic glycoengineering: sialic acid and beyond.

    PubMed

    Du, Jian; Meledeo, M Adam; Wang, Zhiyun; Khanna, Hargun S; Paruchuri, Venkata D P; Yarema, Kevin J

    2009-12-01

    This report provides a perspective on metabolic glycoengineering methodology developed over the past two decades that allows natural sialic acids to be replaced with chemical variants in living cells and animals. Examples are given demonstrating how this technology provides the glycoscientist with chemical tools that are beginning to reproduce Mother Nature's control over complex biological systems - such as the human brain - through subtle modifications in sialic acid chemistry. Several metabolic substrates (e.g., ManNAc, Neu5Ac, and CMP-Neu5Ac analogs) can be used to feed flux into the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway resulting in numerous - and sometime quite unexpected - biological repercussions upon nonnatural sialoside display in cellular glycans. Once on the cell surface, ketone-, azide-, thiol-, or alkyne-modified glycans can be transformed with numerous ligands via bioorthogonal chemoselective ligation reactions, greatly increasing the versatility and potential application of this technology. Recently, sialic acid glycoengineering methodology has been extended to other pathways with analog incorporation now possible in surface-displayed GalNAc and fucose residues as well as nucleocytoplasmic O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. Finally, recent efforts to increase the "druggability" of sugar analogs used in metabolic glycoengineering, which have resulted in unanticipated "scaffold-dependent" activities, are summarized.

  19. Lower vegetable protein intake and higher dietary acid load associated with lower carbohydrate intake are risk factors for metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes: Post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Hiroya; Tanaka, Muhei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wada, Sayori; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction A low-carbohydrate diet based on animal sources is associated with higher all-cause mortality, whereas a vegetable-based low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower cardiovascular disease mortality. It has been suggested that acid/base imbalance might play an important role in some cardiometabolic abnormalities. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether carbohydrate intake is associated with quality of dietary protein and acid load, and whether these are related to metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional study involved 149 patients with type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary acid load was assessed by potential renal acid load and net endogenous acid production. Results Mean daily total energy intake, carbohydrate intake, animal protein intake and vegetable protein intake were 1821.5 kcal, 248.8 g, 36.1 g and 31.1 g, respectively. Carbohydrate energy/total energy was negatively correlated with animal protein energy/total energy, potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score, and was positively correlated with vegetable protein energy/total energy. Logistic regression analyses showed that the subgroup of patients with a lower vegetable protein energy/total energy or higher potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score was significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The present study showed that carbohydrate intake was associated with the quality of dietary protein and dietary acid load. Furthermore, decreased vegetable protein intake and increased dietary acid load were associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26221526

  20. Influence of the dietary protein:lipid ratio and fish oil substitution on fatty acid composition and metabolism of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared at high water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Karalazos, Vasileios; Bendiksen, Eldar Å; Dick, James R; Tocher, Douglas R; Bell, John Gordon

    2011-04-01

    A factorial, two-way, experimental design was used for this 10-week nutritional trial, aiming to elucidate the interactive effects of decreasing dietary protein:lipid level and substitution of fish oil (FO) with rapeseed oil (RO) on tissue fatty acid (FA) composition and metabolism of large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared at high water temperatures (sub-optimal, summer temperatures: 11·6°C). The six experimental diets were isoenergetic and formulated to include either FO or RO (60 % of the added oil) at three dietary protein:lipid levels, specifically (1) 350 g/kg protein and 350 g/kg lipid, (2) 330 g/kg protein and 360 g/kg lipid, (3) 290 g/kg protein and 380 g/kg lipid. Final weight, specific growth rate and thermal growth coefficient were positively affected by the dietary RO inclusion at the expense of FO, while no significant effects were seen on growth due to the decreasing protein level. The oil source had a significant effect on muscle and liver FA composition. However, the changes in muscle and liver FA indicate selective utilisation or retention of individual FA and moderate reductions in tissue EPA and DHA. Pyloric caeca phospholipid FA composition was significantly affected by the two factors and, in some cases, significant interactions were also revealed. Liver and red muscle β-oxidation capacities were significantly increased due to RO inclusion, while an interactive effect of protein level and oil source was shown for white muscle β-oxidation capacity. The results could explain, at least partially, the better performance that was shown for the RO groups and the enhanced protein-sparing effect.

  1. SLC27 fatty acid transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Courtney M; Stahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) are critical to many physiological and cellular processes. Aberrant accumulation or depletion of LCFA underlie the pathology of numerous metabolic diseases. Protein-mediated transport of LCFA has been proposed as the major mode of LCFA uptake and activation. Several proteins have been identified to be involved in LCFA uptake. This review focuses on the SLC27 family of fatty acid transport proteins, also known as FATPs, with an emphasis on the gain- and loss-of-function animal models that elucidate the functions of FATPs in vivo and how these transport proteins play a role in physiological and pathological situations.

  2. Regulation of the expression and activity of glucose and lactic acid metabolism-related genes by protein kinase C in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Otake, Sho; Kobayashi, Masaki; Narumi, Katsuya; Sasaki, Shotaro; Kikutani, Yurika; Furugen, Ayako; Watanabe, Meguho; Takahashi, Natsuko; Ogura, Jiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Iseki, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) modulators are very attractive therapeutic targets in cancer. Since most cancer cells display increased glycolysis, elucidations of the effects of PKC activation on glycolysis is necessary for the development of effective medicine. In the present study, to clarify the role of PKC in the regulation of glycolysis, we examined the effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, on the expression and activity of glucose and lactic acid metabolism-related genes in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD cells). In parallel to increases in glucose uptake and mRNA levels of glucose transporters (GLUTs) induced by PMA treatment for 6 h, the hexokinase (HK) mRNA level and activity were also significantly increased in RD cells. On the other hand, a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) mRNA level and activity was seen when the cells were incubated with PMA for 24 h, but not for 6 or 12 h, and was associated with lactic acid production. These effects by PMA treatment were markedly suppressed by Bisindolylmaleimide (BIM), a PKC inhibitor. Furthermore, chetomin, a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitor, completely abrogated the increment of LDH mRNA level and activity as well as monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 4, a lactic acid efflux transporter. In conclusion, we found that HK and LDH activity induced by PKC activation was associated with the glucose uptake and lactic acid level and that LDH and MCT4 are modulated by a common factor, HIF-1.

  3. Bile acid signaling in metabolic disease and drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiangang; Chiang, John Y L

    2014-10-01

    Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol catabolism. Hepatic bile acid synthesis accounts for a major fraction of daily cholesterol turnover in humans. Biliary secretion of bile acids generates bile flow and facilitates hepatobiliary secretion of lipids, lipophilic metabolites, and xenobiotics. In the intestine, bile acids are essential for the absorption, transport, and metabolism of dietary fats and lipid-soluble vitamins. Extensive research in the last 2 decades has unveiled new functions of bile acids as signaling molecules and metabolic integrators. The bile acid-activated nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, vitamin D receptor, and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor play critical roles in the regulation of lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism, inflammation, and drug metabolism and detoxification. Bile acid synthesis exhibits a strong diurnal rhythm, which is entrained by fasting and refeeding as well as nutrient status and plays an important role for maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Recent research revealed an interaction of liver bile acids and gut microbiota in the regulation of liver metabolism. Circadian disturbance and altered gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of liver diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, and obesity. Bile acids and their derivatives are potential therapeutic agents for treating metabolic diseases of the liver.

  4. Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, D'Maris Amick; Vlot, A. Corina; Wildermuth, Mary C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to regulate various aspects of growth and development; it also serves as a critical signal for activating disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. This review surveys the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of this critical plant hormone. While a complete biosynthetic route has yet to be established, stressed Arabidopsis appear to synthesize SA primarily via an isochorismate-utilizing pathway in the chloroplast. A distinct pathway utilizing phenylalanine as the substrate also may contribute to SA accumulation, although to a much lesser extent. Once synthesized, free SA levels can be regulated by a variety of chemical modifications. Many of these modifications inactivate SA; however, some confer novel properties that may aid in long distance SA transport or the activation of stress responses complementary to those induced by free SA. In addition, a number of factors that directly or indirectly regulate the expression of SA biosynthetic genes or that influence the rate of SA catabolism have been identified. An integrated model, encompassing current knowledge of SA metabolism in Arabidopsis, as well as the influence other plant hormones exert on SA metabolism, is presented. PMID:22303280

  5. Matrix-based three-dimensional culture of buffalo mammary epithelial cells showed higher induction of genes related to milk protein and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Umesh K; Sharma, Ankita; Sodhi, Monika; Kapila, Neha; Kishore, Amit; Mohanty, Ashok; Kataria, Ranjit; Malakar, Dhruva; Mukesh, Manishi

    2016-02-01

    Demanding transcriptomic studies in livestock animal species could be replaced by good in vitro models mimicking the function of mammary gland. Mammary epithelial cells (MEC) are the functional unit of the mammary gland. Extracellular matrix is known to be a key factor providing normal homeostasis in three-dimensional (3D) environment as important signals are lost when cells are cultured in two-dimensional (2D) environment. The aims of this study were to establish a buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) in 3D culture using extracellular matrix and to determine whether such a 3D culture model has different expression pattern than 2D counterpart. The purified MEC generated after several passages were used to establish 3D culture using Geltrex matrix. The expression of milk casein genes viz., alpha S1-casein (CSN1S1), alpha S2-casein (CSN1S2), beta-casein (CSN2), kappa-casein (CSN3); and fatty acid metabolism genes viz., butyrophilin (BTN1A1), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAM), fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was assessed in 3D culture in comparison to traditional monolayer culture using qRT-PCR. Notable morphological differences were observed for BMECs grown in 3D culture in comparison to 2D culture. Morphologically, epithelial structures grown in Geltrex matrix (3D) environment showed enhanced functional differentiation in comparison to 2D culture. In 3D culture, lumen and dome-like structures were formed by day 5, whereas polarized acinus-like structure were formed within 15 days of culturing. The expression data showed higher mRNA induction of milk casein and fatty acid metabolism genes in 10-day-old 3D BMECs culture in comparison to 2D monolayer culture. The result suggests that 3D organization of epithelial cells has favorable effect on induction of milk and fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Therefore, matrix-based 3D culture of MEC that recapitulate the structural and functional context of normal tissues

  6. Ferritin couples iron and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bu, Weiming; Liu, Renyu; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C; Dmochowski, Ivan J; Loll, Patrick J; Eckenhoff, Roderic G

    2012-06-01

    A physiological relationship between iron, oxidative injury, and fatty acid metabolism exists, but transduction mechanisms are unclear. We propose that the iron storage protein ferritin contains fatty acid binding sites whose occupancy modulates iron uptake and release. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, we found that arachidonic acid binds ferritin specifically and with 60 μM affinity. Arachidonate binding by ferritin enhanced iron mineralization, decreased iron release, and protected the fatty acid from oxidation. Cocrystals of arachidonic acid and horse spleen apoferritin diffracted to 2.18 Å and revealed specific binding to the 2-fold intersubunit pocket. This pocket shields most of the fatty acid and its double bonds from solvent but allows the arachidonate tail to project well into the ferrihydrite mineralization site on the ferritin L-subunit, a structural feature that we implicate in the effects on mineralization by demonstrating that the much shorter saturated fatty acid, caprylate, has no significant effects on mineralization. These combined effects of arachidonate binding by ferritin are expected to lower both intracellular free iron and free arachidonate, thereby providing a previously unrecognized mechanism for limiting lipid peroxidation, free radical damage, and proinflammatory cascades during times of cellular stress.

  7. Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery that amino acids (AA) are not only cell signaling molecules but are also regulators of gene expression and the protein phosphorylation cascade. Additionally, AA are key precursors for syntheses of hormones and low-molecular weight nitrogenous substances with each having enormous biological importance. Physiological concentrations of AA and their metabolites (e.g., nitric oxide, polyamines, glutathione, taurine, thyroid hormones, and serotonin) are required for the functions. However, elevated levels of AA and their products (e.g., ammonia, homocysteine, and asymmetric dimethylarginine) are pathogenic factors for neurological disorders, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular disease. Thus, an optimal balance among AA in the diet and circulation is crucial for whole body homeostasis. There is growing recognition that besides their role as building blocks of proteins and polypeptides, some AA regulate key metabolic pathways that are necessary for maintenance, growth, reproduction, and immunity. They are called functional AA, which include arginine, cysteine, glutamine, leucine, proline, and tryptophan. Dietary supplementation with one or a mixture of these AA may be beneficial for (1) ameliorating health problems at various stages of the life cycle (e.g., fetal growth restriction, neonatal morbidity and mortality, weaning-associated intestinal dysfunction and wasting syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility); (2) optimizing efficiency of metabolic transformations to enhance muscle growth, milk production, egg and meat quality and athletic performance, while preventing excess fat deposition and reducing adiposity. Thus, AA have important functions in both nutrition and health.

  8. Nutritional value of protein hydrolysis products (oligopeptides and free amino acids) as a consequence of absorption and metabolism kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rerat, A.

    1995-01-01

    When pigs were submitted to duodenal infusion of solutions containing a large percentage of small peptides (PEP) or free amino acids with the same pattern (AAL) amino acids appear in the portal blood more rapidly and more uniformly after infusion of PEP then after infusion of AAL, with the notable exception of methionine for which the opposite was true. These differences were lowered when a carbohydrate (maltose dextrin) was present in the solution, but nevertheless remained significant for the first hour after the infusion. The long-term (8-hour) uptake of free amino acids into the liver and the peripheral tissues differed in profile according to the nature of the duodenal infusion. Peripheral uptake was appreciably less well balanced after infusion of free amino acids (deficiency of threonine and phenylalanine) than after infusion of small peptides (deficiency of methionine). Accordingly, in the rat, under conditions of discontinuous enteral nutrition the mixture of small peptides was of greater nutritive value than the mixture of free amino acids. It thus appears that the absorption kinetics which results in important variations in the temporal distribution of free amino acids in the tissues may be at the origin of transitory imbalances in tissue amino acid uptake, and as a result of a lower nutritive value.

  9. Metabolism of nonessential N-15-labeled amino acids and the measurement of human whole-body protein synthesis rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Settle, R. G.; Albina, J. A.; Melnick, G.; Dempsey, D. T.

    1991-01-01

    Eight N-15-labeled nonessential amino acids plus (N-15)H4Cl were administered over a 10-h period to four healthy adult males using a primed-constant dosage regimen. The amount of N-15 excreted in the urine and the urinary ammonia, hippuric acid, and plasma alanine N-15 enrichments were measured. There was a high degree of consistency across subjects in the ordering of the nine compounds based on the fraction of N-15 excreted.

  10. Intestinal metabolism of sulfur amino acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a metabolically significant site of sulfur amino acid (SAA) metabolism in the body and metabolizes approx. 20% of the dietary methionine intake that is mainly transmethylated to homocysteine and transsulfurated to cysteine. The GIT accounts for approx. 25% of the ...

  11. Decreased consumption of branched chain amino acids improves metabolic health

    PubMed Central

    Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I.; Neuman, Joshua C.; Kasza, Ildiko; Schmidt, Brian A.; Cava, Edda; Spelta, Francesco; Tosti, Valeria; Syed, Faizan A.; Baar, Emma L.; Veronese, Nicola; Cottrell, Sara E.; Fenske, Rachel J.; Bertozzi, Beatrice; Brar, Harpreet K.; Pietka, Terri; Bullock, Arnold D.; Figenshau, Robert S.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Merrins, Matthew J.; Alexander, Caroline M.; Kimple, Michelle E.; Lamming, Dudley W.

    2016-01-01

    Protein restricted, high carbohydrate diets improve metabolic health in rodents, yet the precise dietary components that are responsible for these effects have not been identified. Further, the applicability of these studies to humans is unclear. Here, we demonstrate in a randomized controlled trial that a moderately protein restricted (PR) diet also improves markers of metabolic health in humans. Intriguingly, we find that feeding mice a diet specifically reduced in branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) is sufficient to improve glucose tolerance and body composition equivalently to a PR diet, via metabolically distinct pathways. Our results highlight a critical role for dietary quality at the level of amino acids in the maintenance of metabolic health, and suggest that diets specifically reduced in BCAAs, or pharmacological interventions in this pathway, may offer a translatable way to achieve many of the metabolic benefits of a PR diet. PMID:27346343

  12. [Protein and ribonucleic acid metabolism in the central nervous system of rats during space flight in the "Kosmos-605" satellite].

    PubMed

    Gazenko, O G; Demin, N N; Panov, A N; Rubinskaia, N L; Tigranian, R A

    1976-01-01

    On the 2nd postflight day the activity of neutral protamine peptide hydrolase of different compartments of the rat brain did not differ from the control level. With respect to the protein and RNA content and concentration motoneurons of anterior horns of the spinal cord and their glial-cells-satellites of rats exposed to the ground-based synchronous experiment did not differ from those of vivarium controls, except cells of the supraoptic nucleus. That was found on the 2nd and 27th postflight days. On the 2nd postflight day the protein and RNA concentration in neurons decreased and the protein concentration and content in gliocytes lowered; the RNA concentration and content in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum became reduced. On the 27th postflight day the RNA concentration in neurons of the supraoptic nucleus remained diminished whereas the protein content increased; in spinal motoneurons the protein concentration decreased and in adjacent gliocytes the protein concentration and content lowered. All the above changes made no more than 15% of the control values.

  13. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H I; León, J; Raskin, I

    1995-01-01

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-beta-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. PMID:11607533

  14. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Leon, J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-05-09

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-{beta}-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. 62 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Fatty acid binding protein 3 (fabp3) is associated with insulin, lipids and cardiovascular phenotypes of the metabolic syndrome through epigenetic modifications in a northern european family population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) play regulatory roles at the nexus of lipid metabolism and signaling. Dyslipidemia in clinical manifestation frequently co-occurs with obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension in the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Animal studies have suggested FABPs play regulatory roles in expressing MetS phenotypes. In our family cohort of Northern European descent, transcript levels in peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) of a key FABPs, FABP3, is correlated with the MetS leading components. However, evidence supporting the functions of FABPs in humans using genetic approaches has been scarce, suggesting FABPs may be under epigenetic regulation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that CpG methylation status of a key regulator of lipid homeostasis, FABP3, is a quantitative trait associated with status of MetS phenotypes in humans. Methods We used a mass-spec based quantitative method, EpiTYPER®, to profile a CpG island that extends from the promoter to the first exon of the FABP3 gene in our family-based cohort of Northern European descent (n=517). We then conducted statistical analysis of the quantitative relationship of CpG methylation and MetS measures following the variance-component association model. Heritability of each methylation and the effect of age and sex on CpG methylation were also assessed in our families. Results We find that methylation levels of individual CpG units and the regional average are heritable and significantly influenced by age and sex. Regional methylation was strongly associated with plasma total cholesterol (p=0.00028) and suggestively associated with LDL-cholesterol (p=0.00495). Methylation at individual units was significantly associated with insulin sensitivity, lipid particle sizing and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.0028, corrected for multiple testing for each trait). Peripheral white blood cell (PWBC) expression of FABP3 in a separate group of subjects (n=128) negatively

  16. Beyond intestinal soap--bile acids in metabolic control.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Folkert; Bloks, Vincent W; Groen, Albert K

    2014-08-01

    Over the past decade, it has become apparent that bile acids are involved in a host of activities beyond their classic functions in bile formation and fat absorption. The identification of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) as a nuclear receptor directly activated by bile acids and the discovery that bile acids are also ligands for the membrane-bound, G-protein coupled bile acid receptor 1 (also known as TGR5) have opened new avenues of research. Both FXR and TGR5 regulate various elements of glucose, lipid and energy metabolism. Consequently, a picture has emerged of bile acids acting as modulators of (postprandial) metabolism. Therefore, strategies that interfere with either bile acid metabolism or signalling cascades mediated by bile acids may represent novel therapeutic approaches for metabolic diseases. Synthetic modulators of FXR have been designed and tested, primarily in animal models. Furthermore, the use of bile acid sequestrants to reduce plasma cholesterol levels has unexpected benefits. For example, treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with sequestrants causes substantial reductions in plasma levels of glucose and HbA1c. This Review aims to provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms by which bile acids modulate glucose and energy metabolism, particularly focusing on the glucose-lowering actions of bile acid sequestrants in insulin resistant states and T2DM.

  17. Citric Acid Metabolism in the Bovine Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms rapidly metabolize citric acid to carbon dioxide and acetic acid. The rate of metabolism varied between 0.00008 and 0.76 μmoles per g per min, the rate becoming higher as the citric acid concentration increased. The addition of potassium chloride to rumen contents decreased the rate of utilization. The results indicate that dietary citric acid is unlikely to accumulate in the rumen to a sufficiently high level to be an important factor in hypomagnesemia, except where other factors such as very high potassium levels in the food influence its metabolism. PMID:5549696

  18. Impact of dietary betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on insulin sensitivity, protein and fat metabolism of obese pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Lachica, M; Martín, A; Nieto, R; González-Valero, L; Rodríguez-López, J M; Aguilera, J F

    2012-07-01

    To determine possible mechanisms of action that might explain the nutrient partitioning effect of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in Iberian pigs and to address potential adverse effects, twenty gilts were restrictively fed from 20 to 50 kg BW Control, 0.5% betaine, 1% CLA or 0.5% betaine + 1% CLA diets. Serum hormones and metabolites profile were determined at 30 kg BW and an oral glucose test was performed before slaughter. Pigs were slaughtered at 50 kg BW and livers were obtained for chemical and histological analysis. Decreased serum urea in pigs fed betaine and betaine + CLA diets (11%; P = 0.0001) indicated a more efficient N utilization. The increase in serum triacylglycerol (58% and 28%, respectively; P = 0.0098) indicated that CLA and betaine + CLA could have reduced adipose tissue triacylglycerol synthesis from preformed fatty acids. Serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were unaffected. CLA and betaine + CLA altered serum lipids profile, although liver of pigs fed CLA diet presented no histopathological changes and triglyceride content was not different from Control pigs. Compared with controls, serum growth hormone decreased (20% to 23%; P = 0.0209) for all treatments. Although serum insulin increased in CLA, and especially in betaine + CLA pigs (28% and 83%; P = 0.0001), indices of insulin resistance were unaffected. In conclusion, CLA, and especially betaine + CLA, induced changes in biochemical parameters and hormones that may partially explain a nutrient partitioning effect in young pigs. Nevertheless, they exhibited weak, although detrimental, effects on blood lipids. Moreover, although livers were chemically and histologically normal, pigs fed CLA diet challenged with a glucose load had higher serum glucose than controls.

  19. Leucine and protein metabolism in obese zucker rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are circulating nutrient signals for protein accretion, however they increase in obesity and appear to prognosticate diabetes onset. To understand the mechanisms whereby obesity affects BCAAs and protein metabolism, we employed metabolomics and measured rates of [1...

  20. Metabolic engineering strategies to bio-adipic acid production.

    PubMed

    Kruyer, Nicholas S; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela

    2017-03-30

    Adipic acid is the most industrially important dicarboxylic acid as it is a key monomer in the synthesis of nylon. Today, adipic acid is obtained via a chemical process that relies on petrochemical precursors and releases large quantities of greenhouse gases. In the last two years, significant progress has been made in engineering microbes for the production of adipic acid and its immediate precursors, muconic acid and glucaric acid. Not only have the microbial substrates expanded beyond glucose and glycerol to include lignin monomers and hemicellulose components, but the number of microbial chassis now goes further than Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to include microbes proficient in aromatic degradation, cellulose secretion and degradation of multiple carbon sources. Here, we review the metabolic engineering and nascent protein engineering strategies undertaken in each of these chassis to convert different feedstocks to adipic, muconic and glucaric acid. We also highlight near term prospects and challenges for each of the metabolic routes discussed.

  1. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids enhance neonatal insulin-regulated protein metabolism in piglets by differentially altering muscle lipid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the role of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) of muscle phospholipids in the regulation of neonatal metabolism. Twenty-eight piglets were weaned at 2 days of age and raised on one of two milk formulas that consisted of either a control formula supplying ...

  2. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP3 participates in plant response to hypoxia by modulating very-long-chain fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Juan; Yu, Lu-Jun; Chen, Qin-Fang; Wang, Feng-Zhu; Huang, Li; Xia, Fan-Nv; Zhu, Tian-Ren; Wu, Jian-Xin; Yin, Jian; Liao, Bin; Yao, Nan; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are encoded by a family of six genes (ACBP1 to ACBP6), and are essential for diverse cellular activities. Recent investigations suggest that the membrane-anchored ACBPs are involved in oxygen sensing by sequestration of group VII ethylene-responsive factors under normoxia. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of Arabidopsis ACBP3 in hypoxic tolerance. ACBP3 transcription was remarkably induced following submergence under both dark (DS) and light (LS) conditions. ACBP3-overexpressors (ACBP3-OEs) showed hypersensitivity to DS, LS and ethanolic stresses, with reduced transcription of hypoxia-responsive genes as well as accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the rosettes. In contrast, suppression of ACBP3 in ACBP3-KOs enhanced plant tolerance to DS, LS and ethanol treatments. By analyses of double combinations of OE-1 with npr1-5, coi1-2, ein3-1 as well as ctr1-1 mutants, we observed that the attenuated hypoxic tolerance in ACBP3-OEs was dependent on NPR1- and CTR1-mediated signaling pathways. Lipid profiling revealed that both the total amounts and very-long-chain species of phosphatidylserine (C42:2- and C42:3-PS) and glucosylinositolphosphorylceramides (C22:0-, C22:1-, C24:0-, C24:1-, and C26:1-GIPC) were significantly lower in ACBP3-OEs but increased in ACBP3-KOs upon LS exposure. By microscale thermophoresis analysis, the recombinant ACBP3 protein bound VLC acyl-CoA esters with high affinities in vitro. Further, a knockout mutant of MYB30, a master regulator of very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) biosynthesis, exhibited enhanced sensitivities to LS and ethanolic stresses, phenotypes that were ameliorated by ACBP3-RNAi. Taken together, these findings suggest that Arabidopsis ACBP3 participates in plant response to hypoxia by modulating VLCFA metabolism.

  3. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2015-06-15

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction.

  4. Metabolism of hop-derived bitter acids.

    PubMed

    Cattoor, Ko; Dresel, Michael; De Bock, Lies; Boussery, Koen; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Remon, Jean-Paul; De Keukeleire, Denis; Deforce, Dieter; Hofmann, Thomas; Heyerick, Arne

    2013-08-21

    In this study, in vitro metabolism of hop-derived bitter acids was investigated. Besides their well-known use as bitter compounds in beer, in several studies, bioactive properties have been related to these types of molecules. However, scientific data on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion aspects of these compounds are limited. More specific, in this study, α-acids, β-acids, and iso-α-acids were incubated with rabbit microsomes, and fractions were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis for identification of oxidative biotransformation products. Metabolism of β-acids was mainly characterized by conversion into hulupones and the formation of a series of tricyclic oxygenated products. The most important metabolites of α-acids were identified as humulinones and hulupones. Iso-α-acids were found to be primarly metabolized into cis- and trans-humulinic acids, next to oxidized alloiso-α-acids. Interestingly, the phase I metabolites were highly similar to the oxidative degradation products in beer. These findings show a first insight into the metabolites of hop-derived bitter acids and could have important practical implications in the bioavailability aspects of these compounds, following ingestion of hop-based food products and nutraceuticals.

  5. [Protein and amino acid metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract of young bulls. 3. Flow of NH3-free raw protein into the duodenum].

    PubMed

    Gabel, M; Poppe, S

    1985-10-01

    The amount of NH3-free crude protein getting into the duodenum corrected by the endogenous crude protein quota was determined on the basis of 28 differently composed rations for growing bulls in the live weight range of 140-460 kg provided with duodenal re-entrant cannulae. The experimental results were generalized by means of regression analysis and can be summarized as follows: The amount of NH3-free crude protein getting into the duodenum can partially be calculated with the regression equation (Formula: see text) resp. NH3-free crude protein D = 155 app. dig. org. matter + 0.262 pure protein +/- 42. The remaining dispersion amounts to +/- 6% of the mean value. The coincidence between the values calculated with these equations and those measured experimentally is very good. There is an interaction between the pure protein of feed getting into the duodenum in % of pure protein intake (y) and the bacteria crude protein D/kg app. dig. org. matter (x) characterized by the equation y = 116.8-0.52 x +/- 12.9. The amount of NH3-free crude protein duod. is not influenced by the flow rate (kg digesta/kg intake of org. matter) and not by the "dilution rate' (g bacteria free org. matter duod./kg live weight 0.75/h) either at a DM intake adequate to the production level. Apart from the partial estimation of the NH3-free crude protein duod. a evaluation based on the crude protein and pure protein concentration in app. dig. org. matter of the ration is possible.

  6. Complex coordinated extracellular metabolism: Acid phosphatases activate diluted human leukocyte proteins to generate energy flow as NADPH from purine nucleotide ribose

    PubMed Central

    Hibbs, John B.; Vavrin, Zdenek; Cox, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Complex metabolism is thought to occur exclusively in the crowded intracellular environment. Here we report that diluted enzymes from lysed human leukocytes produce extracellular energy. Our findings involve two pathways: the purine nucleotide catabolic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway, which function together to generate energy as NADPH. Glucose6P fuel for NADPH production is generated from structural ribose of purine ribonucleoside monophosphates, ADP, and ADP-ribose. NADPH drives glutathione reductase to reduce an oxidized glutathione disulfide-glutathione redox couple. Acid phosphatases initiate ribose5P salvage from purine ribonucleoside monophosphates, and transaldolase controls the direction of carbon chain flow through the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway. These metabolic control points are regulated by pH. Biologically, this energy conserving metabolism could function in perturbed extracellular spaces. PMID:26895212

  7. Metabolism of amino acids, dipeptides and tetrapeptides by Lactobacillus sakei.

    PubMed

    Sinz, Quirin; Schwab, Wilfried

    2012-04-01

    The microbial degradation of proteins, peptides and amino acids generates volatiles involved in the typical flavor of dry fermented sausage. The ability of three Lactobacillus sakei strains to form aroma compounds was investigated. Whole resting cells were fermented in phosphate buffer with equimolar amounts of substrates consisting of dipeptides, tetrapeptides and free amino acids, respectively. Dipeptides disappeared quickly from the solutions whereas tetrapeptides were only partially degraded. In both approaches the concentration of free amino acids increased in the reaction mixture but did not reach the equimolar amount of the initial substrates. When free amino acids were fed to the bacteria their levels decreased only slightly. Although peptides were more rapidly degraded and/or transported into the cells, free amino acids produced higher amounts of volatiles. It is suggested, that after transport into the cell peptides are only partially hydrolyzed to their amino acids, while the rest is metabolized via alternative metabolic pathways. The three L. sakei strains differed to some extend in their ability to metabolize the substrates to volatile compounds. In a few cases this was due to the position of the amino acids within the peptides. Compared to other starter cultures used for the production of dry fermented sausages, the metabolic impact of the L. sakei strains on the formation of volatiles was very low.

  8. Regulation of amino acid metabolic enzymes and transporters in plants.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Réjane; Pilot, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    Amino acids play several critical roles in plants, from providing the building blocks of proteins to being essential metabolites interacting with many branches of metabolism. They are also important molecules that shuttle organic nitrogen through the plant. Because of this central role in nitrogen metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, degradation, and transport are tightly regulated to meet demand in response to nitrogen and carbon availability. While much is known about the feedback regulation of the branched biosynthesis pathways by the amino acids themselves, the regulation mechanisms at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and protein levels remain to be identified. This review focuses mainly on the current state of our understanding of the regulation of the enzymes and transporters at the transcript level. Current results describing the effect of transcription factors and protein modifications lead to a fragmental picture that hints at multiple, complex levels of regulation that control and coordinate transport and enzyme activities. It also appears that amino acid metabolism, amino acid transport, and stress signal integration can influence each other in a so-far unpredictable fashion.

  9. Higher plant metabolism and energetics in hypogravity: Amino acid metabolism in higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazelis, M.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory's investigation into the amino acid metabolism of dwarf marigolds exposed to an environment of simulated hypogravity is summarized. Using both in vivo, and/or in vitro studies, the following effects of hypogravitational stress have been shown: (1) increased proline incorporation into cell wall protein, (2) inhibition of amino acid decarboxylation, (3) decrease in glutamic acid decarboxylase activity; and (4) decrease in the relative amount of a number of soluble amino acids present in deproteinized extracts of marigold leaves. It is concluded from these data there are several rapid, major alterations in amino acid metabolism associated with hypogravitational stress in marigolds. The mechanism(s) and generality of these effects with regard to other species is still unknown.

  10. Effect of insulin and plasma amino acid concentrations on leucine metabolism in man. Role of substrate availability on estimates of whole body protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Castellino, P; Luzi, L; Simonson, D C; Haymond, M; DeFronzo, R A

    1987-01-01

    We examined the effect of insulin and plasma amino acid concentrations on leucine kinetics in 15 healthy volunteers (age 22 +/- 2 yr) using the euglycemic insulin clamp technique and an infusion of [1-14C]leucine. Four different experimental conditions were examined: (a) study one, high insulin with reduced plasma amino acid concentrations; (b) study two, high insulin with maintenance of basal plasma amino acid concentrations; (c) study three, high insulin with elevated plasma amino acid concentrations; and (d) study four, basal insulin with elevated plasma amino acid concentrations. Data were analyzed using both the plasma leucine and alpha-ketoisocaproate (the alpha-ketoacid of leucine) specific activities. In study one total leucine flux, leucine oxidation, and nonoxidative leucine disposal (an index of whole body protein synthesis) all decreased (P less than 0.01) regardless of the isotope model utilized. In study two leucine flux did not change, while leucine oxidation increased (P less than 0.01) and nonoxidative leucine disposal was maintained at the basal rate; endogenous leucine flux (an index of whole body protein degradation) decreased (P less than 0.01). In study three total leucine flux, leucine oxidation, and nonoxidative leucine disposal all increased significantly (P less than 0.01). In study four total leucine flux, leucine oxidation, and nonoxidative leucine disposal all increased (P less than 0.001), while endogenous leucine flux decreased (P less than 0.001). We conclude that: (a) hyperinsulinemia alone decreases plasma leucine concentration and inhibits endogenous leucine flux (protein breakdown), leucine oxidation, and nonoxidative leucine disposal (protein synthesis); (b) hyperaminoacidemia, whether in combination with hyperinsulinemia or with maintained basal insulin levels decreases endogenous leucine flux and stimulates both leucine oxidation and nonoxidative leucine disposal. PMID:3316280

  11. Cellular Metabolism of Unnatural Sialic Acid Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Nam D.; Fermaintt, Charles S.; Rodriguez, Andrea C.; McCombs, Janet E.; Nischan, Nicole; Kohler, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates, in addition to their metabolic functions, serve important roles as receptors, ligands, and structural molecules for diverse biological processes. Insight into carbohydrate biology and mechanisms has been aided by metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE). In MOE, unnatural carbohydrate analogs with novel functional groups are incorporated into cellular glycoconjugates and used to probe biological systems. While MOE has expanded knowledge of carbohydrate biology, limited metabolism of unnatural carbohydrate analogs restricts its use. Here we assess metabolism of SiaDAz, a diazirine-modified analog of sialic acid, and its cell-permeable precursor, Ac4ManNDAz. We show that the efficiency of Ac4ManNDAz and SiaDAz metabolism depends on cell type. Our results indicate that different cell lines can have different metabolic roadblocks in the synthesis of cell surface SiaDAz. These findings point to roles for promiscuous intracellular esterases, kinases, and phosphatases during unnatural sugar metabolism and provide guidance for ways to improve MOE. PMID:25957566

  12. Lipid metabolism in response to individual short chain fatty acids during mixotrophic mode of microalgal cultivation: Influence on biodiesel saturation and protein profile.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Arora, Somya; Rohit, M V; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    Critical influence of different short chain fatty acids as organic carbon source, during growth (GP) and nutrient stress lipogenic phase (NSLP) was investigated on biomass and lipid productivity, in mixotrophic fed-batch microalgae cultivation. Nutrient deprivation induced physiological stress stimulated highest lipid productivity with acetate (total/neutral lipids, 35/17) with saturation index of 80.53% by the end of NSLP followed by butyrate (12/7%; 78%). Biomass growth followed the order of acetate (2.23 g/l) >butyrate (0.99 g/l) >propionate (0.77 g/l). VFA removal (as COD) was maximum with acetate (87%) followed by butyrate (55.09%) and propionate (10.60%). Palmitic acid was the most dominant fatty acid found in the fatty acid composition of all variants and butyrate fed system yielded a maximum of 44% palmitic acid. Protein profiling illustrated prominence of acetyl CoA-synthetase activity in acetate system. Thus, fatty acids provide a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel production with integrated microalgae-biorefinery.

  13. Relationships between Arachidonic Acid, Uterine Activity and Metabolic Regulation of Placental Lactogen Secretion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    variations and to determine the metabolic role of oPL during gestation. Fasting, which decreased plasma glucose and increased plasma free fatty acid ... fatty acids induced by fasting or to have diabetogenic effects. The intravenous administration of 12.5 or 25 mg of arachidonic acid resulted in a...of hPL is thought to be controlled by the plasma con- centrations of the metabolic substrates; carbohydrate, fat or protein. Plasma free fatty acid

  14. Sialic acid metabolism and sialyltransferases: natural functions and applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanhong

    2012-01-01

    Sialic acids are a family of negatively charged monosaccharides which are commonly presented as the terminal residues in glycans of the glycoconjugates on eukaryotic cell surface or as components of capsular polysaccharides or lipooligosaccharides of some pathogenic bacteria. Due to their important biological and pathological functions, the biosynthesis, activation, transfer, breaking down, and recycle of sialic acids are attracting increasing attention. The understanding of the sialic acid metabolism in eukaryotes and bacteria leads to the development of metabolic engineering approaches for elucidating the important functions of sialic acid in mammalian systems and for large-scale production of sialosides using engineered bacterial cells. As the key enzymes in biosynthesis of sialylated structures, sialyltransferases have been continuously identified from various sources and characterized. Protein crystal structures of seven sialyltransferases have been reported. Wild-type sialyltransferases and their mutants have been applied with or without other sialoside biosynthetic enzymes for producing complex sialic acid-containing oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. This mini-review focuses on current understanding and applications of sialic acid metabolism and sialyltransferases. PMID:22526796

  15. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Metabolomics of Urine and Serum from Nonhuman Primates Exposed to Ionizing Radiation: Impacts on the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle and Protein Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Laiakis, Evagelia C; Authier, Simon; Wong, Karen; Fornace, Albert J

    2017-04-04

    Ionizing radiation (IR) directly damages cells and tissues or indirectly damages them through reactive free radicals that may lead to longer term adverse sequelae such as cancers, persistent inflammation, or possible death. Potential exposures include nuclear reactor accidents, improper disposal of equipment containing radioactive materials or medical errors, and terrorist attacks. Metabolomics (comprehensive analysis of compounds <1 kDa) by mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed as a tool for high-throughput biodosimetry and rapid assessment of exposed dose and triage needed. While multiple studies have been dedicated to radiation biomarker discovery, many have utilized liquid chromatography (LC) MS platforms that may not detect particular compounds (e.g., small carboxylic acids or isomers) that complementary analytical tools, such as gas chromatography (GC) time-of-flight (TOF) MS, are ideal for. The current study uses global GC-TOF-MS metabolomics to complement previous LC-MS analyses on nonhuman primate biofluids (urine and serum) 7 days after exposure to 2, 4, 6, 7, and 10 Gy IR. Multivariate data analysis was used to visualize differences between control and IR exposed groups. Univariate analysis was used to determine a combined 26 biomarkers in urine and serum that significantly changed after exposure to IR. We found several metabolites involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle function, amino acid metabolism, and host microbiota that were not previously detected by global and targeted LC-MS studies.

  16. Posttranslational Protein Modifications in Plant Metabolism1

    PubMed Central

    Friso, Giulia; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins greatly expand proteome diversity, increase functionality, and allow for rapid responses, all at relatively low costs for the cell. PTMs play key roles in plants through their impact on signaling, gene expression, protein stability and interactions, and enzyme kinetics. Following a brief discussion of the experimental and bioinformatics challenges of PTM identification, localization, and quantification (occupancy), a concise overview is provided of the major PTMs and their (potential) functional consequences in plants, with emphasis on plant metabolism. Classic examples that illustrate the regulation of plant metabolic enzymes and pathways by PTMs and their cross talk are summarized. Recent large-scale proteomics studies mapped many PTMs to a wide range of metabolic functions. Unraveling of the PTM code, i.e. a predictive understanding of the (combinatorial) consequences of PTMs, is needed to convert this growing wealth of data into an understanding of plant metabolic regulation. PMID:26338952

  17. The Contributing Role of Bile Acids to Metabolic Improvements After Obesity and Metabolic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Farnaz; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Joseph A; Steffen, Kristine J

    2016-10-01

    Obesity and metabolic surgery (OMS) leads to several metabolic improvements, which often occur prior to substantial weight loss. Therefore, other factors in addition to weight loss contribute to the metabolic benefits. This literature review offers an overview of studies investigating bile acids (BAs) and their metabolic effects after OMS. Rearrangement of enterohepatic circulation, changes in BA synthesis, BA conjugation, intestinal reabsorption, and alterations in the gut microbiota are potential mechanisms for altered BA profiles after surgery. Increased BA levels are associated with improved glucose homeostasis and lipid profiles, which are mediated by two major receptors: the Transmembrane G-protein Coupled Receptor and the Farnesoid X Receptor. Therefore, pharmacological manipulation of BAs and their receptors may be viable targets for less invasive obesity treatment.

  18. Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: A Systemic Metabolic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Moe, Orson W.

    2014-01-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis is characteristically a manifestation of a systemic metabolic disorder. It has a prevalence of about 10% among all stone formers, the third most common type of kidney stone in the industrialized world. Uric acid stones form primarily due to an unduly acid urine; less deciding factors are hyperuricosuria and a low urine volume. The vast majority of uric acid stone formers have the metabolic syndrome, and not infrequently, clinical gout is present as well. A universal finding is a low baseline urine pH plus insufficient production of urinary ammonium buffer. Persons with gastrointestinal disorders, in particular chronic diarrhea or ostomies, and patients with malignancies with a large tumor mass and high cell turnover comprise a less common but nevertheless important subset. Pure uric acid stones are radiolucent but well visualized on renal ultrasound. A 24 h urine collection for stone risk analysis provides essential insight into the pathophysiology of stone formation and may guide therapy. Management includes a liberal fluid intake and dietary modification. Potassium citrate to alkalinize the urine to a goal pH between 6 and 6.5 is essential, as undissociated uric acid deprotonates into its much more soluble urate form. PMID:25045326

  19. IGF-I treatment in adults with type 1 diabetes: effects on glucose and protein metabolism in the fasting state and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic amino acid clamp.

    PubMed

    Carroll, P V; Christ, E R; Umpleby, A M; Gowrie, I; Jackson, N; Bowes, S B; Hovorka, R; Croos, P; Sönksen, P H; Russell-Jones, D L

    2000-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes is associated with abnormalities of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis. Such abnormalities include decreased circulating levels of IGF-I. We studied the effects of IGF-I therapy (40 microg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) on protein and glucose metabolism in adults with type 1 diabetes in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. A total of 12 subjects participated, and each subject was studied at baseline and after 7 days of treatment, both in the fasting state and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic amino acid clamp. Protein and glucose metabolism were assessed using infusions of [1-13C]leucine and [6-6-2H2]glucose. IGF-I administration resulted in a 51% rise in circulating IGF-I levels (P < 0.005) and a 56% decrease in the mean overnight GH concentration (P < 0.05). After IGF-I treatment, a decrease in the overnight insulin requirement (0.26+/-0.07 vs. 0.17+/-0.06 U/kg, P < 0.05) and an increase in the glucose infusion requirement were observed during the hyperinsulinemic clamp (approximately 67%, P < 0.05). Basal glucose kinetics were unchanged, but an increase in insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose disposal was observed after IGF-I therapy (37+/-6 vs. 52+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05). IGF-I administration increased the basal metabolic clearance rate for leucine (approximately 28%, P < 0.05) and resulted in a net increase in leucine balance, both in the basal state and during the hyperinsulinemic amino acid clamp (-0.17+/-0.03 vs. -0.10+/-0.02, P < 0.01, and 0.25+/-0.08 vs. 0.40+/-0.06, P < 0.05, respectively). No changes in these variables were recorded in the subjects after administration of placebo. These findings demonstrated that IGF-I replacement resulted in significant alterations in glucose and protein metabolism in the basal and insulin-stimulated states. These effects were associated with increased insulin sensitivity, and they underline the major role of IGF-I in protein and glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetes.

  20. Expression data on liver metabolic pathway genes and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Raja Gopal Reddy, Mooli; Pavan Kumar, Chodisetti; Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Sravan Kumar, Manchiryala; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the expression data on various metabolic pathways of liver with special emphasize on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis, both at gene and protein levels. The data were obtained to understand the effect of vitamin A deficiency on the expression status (both gene and protein levels) of some of the key factors involved in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, triglyceride secretion, long chain PUFA, resolvin D1 synthesis, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis of liver, using modern biology tools, such as quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting techniques. This data article provides the supporting evidence to the article “Vitamin A deficiency suppresses high fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis and elevates resolvin D1 levels” [1] and therefore, these data may be referred back, for comprehensive understanding and interpretations and for future studies. PMID:26909377

  1. Mechanisms of triglyceride metabolism in patients with bile acid diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Nidhi Midhu; McFarlane, Michael; Nwokolo, Chuka; Bardhan, Karna Dev; Arasaradnam, Ramesh Pulendran

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are essential for the absorption of lipids. BA synthesis is inhibited through intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activity. BA sequestration is known to influence BA metabolism and control serum lipid concentrations. Animal data has demonstrated a regulatory role for the FXR in triglyceride metabolism. FXR inhibits hepatic lipogenesis by inhibiting the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c via small heterodimer primer activity. Conversely, FXR promotes free fatty acids oxidation by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. FXR can reduce the expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which regulates the assembly of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). FXR activation in turn promotes the clearance of circulating triglycerides by inducing apolipoprotein C-II, very low-density lipoproteins receptor (VLDL-R) and the expression of Syndecan-1 together with the repression of apolipoprotein C-III, which increases lipoprotein lipase activity. There is currently minimal clinical data on triglyceride metabolism in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD). Emerging data suggests that a third of patients with BAD have hypertriglyceridemia. Further research is required to establish the risk of hypertriglyceridaemia in patients with BAD and elicit the mechanisms behind this, allowing for targeted treatment. PMID:27570415

  2. Role of protein-protein interactions in cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Sylvie E; Lampe, Jed N

    2014-09-15

    Through their unique oxidative chemistry, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) catalyze the elimination of most drugs and toxins from the human body. Protein-protein interactions play a critical role in this process. Historically, the study of CYP-protein interactions has focused on their electron transfer partners and allosteric mediators, cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5. However, CYPs can bind other proteins that also affect CYP function. Some examples include the progesterone receptor membrane component 1, damage resistance protein 1, human and bovine serum albumin, and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, in addition to other CYP isoforms. Furthermore, disruption of these interactions can lead to altered paths of metabolism and the production of toxic metabolites. In this review, we summarize the available evidence for CYP protein-protein interactions from the literature and offer a discussion of the potential impact of future studies aimed at characterizing noncanonical protein-protein interactions with CYP enzymes.

  3. Alimentary proteins, amino acids and cholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Blachier, François; Lancha, Antonio H; Boutry, Claire; Tomé, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Numerous data from both epidemiological and experimental origins indicate that some alimentary proteins and amino acids in supplements can modify the blood LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol. After an initial approval of the health claim for soy protein consumption for the prevention of coronary heart disease, more recently it has been concluded from an overall analysis of literature that isolated soy protein with isoflavones only slightly decrease LDL and total cholesterol. Other plant extracts and also some proteins from animal origin have been reported to exert a lowering effect on blood cholesterol when compared with a reference protein (often casein). The underlying mechanisms are still little understood. Individual amino acids and mixture of amino acids have also been tested (mostly in animal studies) for their effects on cholesterol parameters and on cholesterol metabolism. Methionine, lysine, cystine, leucine, aspartate and glutamate have been tested individually and in combination in different models of either normo or hypercholesterolemic animals and found to be able to modify blood cholesterol and/or LDL cholesterol and/or HDL cholesterol. It is however not known if these results are relevant to human nutrition.

  4. Brain amino acid metabolism and ketosis.

    PubMed

    Yudkoff, M; Daikhin, Y; Nissim, I; Lazarow, A; Nissim, I

    2001-10-15

    The relationship between ketosis and brain amino acid metabolism was studied in mice that consumed a ketogenic diet (>90% of calories as lipid). After 3 days on the diet the blood concentration of 3-OH-butyrate was approximately 5 mmol/l (control = 0.06-0.1 mmol/l). In forebrain and cerebellum the concentration of 3-OH-butyrate was approximately 10-fold higher than control. Brain [citrate] and [lactate] were greater in the ketotic animals. The concentration of whole brain free coenzyme A was lower in ketotic mice. Brain [aspartate] was reduced in forebrain and cerebellum, but [glutamate] and [glutamine] were unchanged. When [(15)N]leucine was administered to follow N metabolism, this labeled amino acid accumulated to a greater extent in the blood and brain of ketotic mice. Total brain aspartate ((14)N + (15)N) was reduced in the ketotic group. The [(15)N]aspartate/[(15)N]glutamate ratio was lower in ketotic animals, consistent with a shift in the equilibrium of the aspartate aminotransferase reaction away from aspartate. Label in [(15)N]GABA and total [(15)N]GABA was increased in ketotic animals. When the ketotic animals were injected with glucose, there was a partial blunting of ketoacidemia within 40 min as well as an increase of brain [aspartate], which was similar to control. When [U-(13)C(6)]glucose was injected, the (13)C label appeared rapidly in brain lactate and in amino acids. Label in brain [U-(13)C(3)]lactate was greater in the ketotic group. The ratio of brain (13)C-amino acid/(13)C-lactate, which reflects the fraction of amino acid carbon that is derived from glucose, was much lower in ketosis, indicating that another carbon source, i.e., ketone bodies, were precursor to aspartate, glutamate, glutamine and GABA.

  5. Metabolic interactions between vitamin A and conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Ortiz, Berenice; Giordano, Elena; Belury, Martha A; Quadro, Loredana; Banni, Sebastiano

    2014-03-24

    Lipid-soluble molecules share several aspects of their physiology due to their common adaptations to a hydrophilic environment, and may interact to regulate their action in a tissue-specific manner. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid with a conjugated diene structure that is found in low concentrations in ruminant products and available as a nutritional supplement. CLA has been shown to increase tissue levels of retinol (vitamin A alcohol) and its sole specific circulating carrier protein retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4). However, the precise mechanism of this action has not been elucidated yet. Here, we provide a summary of the current knowledge in this specific area of research and speculate that retinol and CLA may compete for catabolic pathways modulated by the activity of PPAR-α and RXR heterodimer. We also present preliminary data that may position PPAR-α at the crossroads between the metabolism of lipids and vitamin A.

  6. [Dependence of metabolic fecal amino acids on the amino acid content of the feed. 1. Metabolic fecal amino acids of rats fed with maize].

    PubMed

    Krawielitzki, K; Schadereit, R; Völker, T; Reichel, K

    1981-07-01

    The amount of metabolic fecal amino acids (MFAA) in dependence on the amino acid intake was determined for graded maize rations with 15N-labelled rats and the quota of labelled endogenous amino acids in faeces was calculated according to the isotope dilution method. The excretion of amino acids and MFAA in faeces are described as functions of the amino acid intake for 17 amino acids and regressively calculated. For all 17 amino acids investigated, there was a more or less steep increase of MFAA according to an increasing amino acid intake. In contrast to MFAA in N-free feeding, MFAA in feeding with pure maize (16.5% crude protein) increase to the 2- to 4.5-fold value. The thesis of the constancy of the excretion of MFAA can consequently be no longer maintained. The true digestibility according to the conventional method is, on an average of all amino acids, 7.3 units below the one ascertained according to the 15N-isotope method. For the limiting amino acids lysine and threonine the difference is biggest (23 resp. 17 units). Tryptophane as first limiting amino acid could not be determined. The true digestibility of nearly all amino acids ascertained for maize according to the isotope method is above 90%. For the limiting amino acids the expenditure resp. the loss of endogenous amino acids is biggest.

  7. Quantitative Non-canonical Amino Acid Tagging (QuaNCAT) Proteomics Identifies Distinct Patterns of Protein Synthesis Rapidly Induced by Hypertrophic Agents in Cardiomyocytes, Revealing New Aspects of Metabolic Remodeling*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Kenney, Justin W.; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Johnston, Harvey E.; Kamei, Makoto; Woelk, Christopher H.; Xie, Jianling; Schwarzer, Michael; Proud, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes undergo growth and remodeling in response to specific pathological or physiological conditions. In the former, myocardial growth is a risk factor for cardiac failure and faster protein synthesis is a major factor driving cardiomyocyte growth. Our goal was to quantify the rapid effects of different pro-hypertrophic stimuli on the synthesis of specific proteins in ARVC and to determine whether such effects are caused by alterations on mRNA abundance or the translation of specific mRNAs. Cardiomyocytes have very low rates of protein synthesis, posing a challenging problem in terms of studying changes in the synthesis of specific proteins, which also applies to other nondividing primary cells. To study the rates of accumulation of specific proteins in these cells, we developed an optimized version of the Quantitative Noncanonical Amino acid Tagging LC/MS proteomic method to label and selectively enrich newly synthesized proteins in these primary cells while eliminating the suppressive effects of pre-existing and highly abundant nonisotope-tagged polypeptides. Our data revealed that a classical pathologic (phenylephrine; PE) and the recently identified insulin stimulus that also contributes to the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy (insulin), both increased the synthesis of proteins involved in, e.g. glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and beta-oxidation, and sarcomeric components. However, insulin increased synthesis of many metabolic enzymes to a greater extent than PE. Using a novel validation method, we confirmed that synthesis of selected candidates is indeed up-regulated by PE and insulin. Synthesis of all proteins studied was up-regulated by signaling through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 without changes in their mRNA levels, showing the key importance of translational control in the rapid effects of hypertrophic stimuli. Expression of PKM2 was up-regulated in rat hearts following TAC. This isoform possesses specific regulatory

  8. Magnitude Differences in Bioactive Compounds, Chemical Functional Groups, Fatty Acid Profiles, Nutrient Degradation and Digestion, Molecular Structure, and Metabolic Characteristics of Protein in Newly Developed Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Canola Lines.

    PubMed

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Zhang, Xuewei; Vail, Sally; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-06-10

    Recently, new lines of yellow-seeded (CS-Y) and black-seeded canola (CS-B) have been developed with chemical and structural alteration through modern breeding technology. However, no systematic study was found on the bioactive compounds, chemical functional groups, fatty acid profiles, inherent structure, nutrient degradation and absorption, or metabolic characteristics between the newly developed yellow- and black-seeded canola lines. This study aimed to systematically characterize chemical, structural, and nutritional features in these canola lines. The parameters accessed include bioactive compounds and antinutrition factors, chemical functional groups, detailed chemical and nutrient profiles, energy value, nutrient fractions, protein structure, degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion, true intestinal protein supply, and feed milk value. The results showed that the CS-Y line was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in neutral detergent fiber (122 vs 154 g/kg DM), acid detergent fiber (61 vs 99 g/kg DM), lignin (58 vs 77 g/kg DM), nonprotein nitrogen (56 vs 68 g/kg DM), and acid detergent insoluble protein (11 vs 35 g/kg DM) than the CS-B line. There was no difference in fatty acid profiles except C20:1 eicosenoic acid content (omega-9) which was in lower in the CS-Y line (P < 0.05) compared to the CS-B line. The glucosinolate compounds differed (P < 0.05) in terms of 4-pentenyl, phenylethyl, 3-CH3-indolyl, and 3-butenyl glucosinolates (2.9 vs 1.0 μmol/g) between the CS-Y and CS-B lines. For bioactive compounds, total polyphenols tended to be different (6.3 vs 7.2 g/kg DM), but there were no differences in erucic acid and condensed tannins with averages of 0.3 and 3.1 g/kg DM, respectively. When protein was portioned into five subfractions, significant differences were found in PA, PB1 (65 vs 79 g/kg CP), PB2, and PC fractions (10 vs 33 g/kg CP), indicating protein degradation and supply to small intestine differed between two new lines. In terms of protein structure spectral

  9. Comparative Proteomics Provides Insights into Metabolic Responses in Rat Liver to Isolated Soy and Meat Proteins.

    PubMed

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, Guido J; Zhang, Wei; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhu, Jing; Xu, Xinglian; Muller, Michael; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-04-01

    It has been reported that isolated dietary soy and meat proteins have distinct effects on physiology and liver gene expression, but the impact on protein expression responses are unknown. Because these may differ from gene expression responses, we investigated dietary protein-induced changes in liver proteome. Rats were fed for 1 week semisynthetic diets that differed only regarding protein source; casein (reference) was fully replaced by isolated soy, chicken, fish, or pork protein. Changes in liver proteome were measured by iTRAQ labeling and LC-ESI-MS/MS. A robust set totaling 1437 unique proteins was identified and subjected to differential protein analysis and biological interpretation. Compared with casein, all other protein sources reduced the abundance of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism and Pparα signaling pathway. All dietary proteins, except chicken, increased oxidoreductive transformation reactions but reduced energy and essential amino acid metabolic pathways. Only soy protein increased the metabolism of sulfur-containing and nonessential amino acids. Soy and fish proteins increased translation and mRNA processing, whereas only chicken protein increased TCA cycle but reduced immune responses. These findings were partially in line with previously reported transcriptome results. This study further shows the distinct effects of soy and meat proteins on liver metabolism in rats.

  10. Pre- and early-postnatal nutrition modify gene and protein expressions of muscle energy metabolism markers and phospholipid Fatty Acid composition in a muscle type specific manner in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lei; Kongsted, Anna H; Ghoreishi, Seyed M; Takhtsabzy, Tasnim K; Friedrichsen, Martin; Hellgren, Lars I; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Vaag, Allan; Nielsen, Mette O

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that undernutrition in late fetal life reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity in adult sheep, irrespective of dietary exposure in early postnatal life. Skeletal muscle may play an important role in control of insulin action. We therefore studied a range of putative key muscle determinants of insulin signalling in two types of skeletal muscles (longissimus dorsi (LD) and biceps femoris (BF)) and in the cardiac muscle (ventriculus sinister cordis (VSC)) of sheep from the same experiment. Twin-bearing ewes were fed either 100% (NORM) or 50% (LOW) of their energy and protein requirements during the last trimester of gestation. From day-3 postpartum to 6-months of age (around puberty), twin offspring received a high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) or a moderate-conventional (CONV) diet, whereafter all males were slaughtered. Females were subsequently raised on a moderate diet and slaughtered at 2-years of age (young adults). The only long-term consequences of fetal undernutrition observed in adult offspring were lower expressions of the insulin responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1α (PGC1α) mRNA in BF, but increased PGC1α expression in VSC. Interestingly, the HCHF diet in early postnatal life was associated with somewhat paradoxically increased expressions in LD of a range of genes (but not proteins) related to glucose uptake, insulin signalling and fatty acid oxidation. Except for fatty acid oxidation genes, these changes persisted into adulthood. No persistent expression changes were observed in BF and VSC. The HCHF diet increased phospholipid ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in all muscles, even in adults fed identical diets for 1½ years. In conclusion, early postnatal, but not late gestation, nutrition had long-term consequences for a number of determinants of insulin action and metabolism in LD. Tissues other than muscle may account for reduced whole

  11. Role of bile acids in the regulation of the metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Taoka, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Yoko; Morimoto, Kohkichi; Kitamura, Naho; Tanigaki, Tatsuya; Takashina, Yoko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that bile acids (BAs) are not only facilitators of dietary lipid absorption but also important signaling molecules exerting multiple physiological functions. Some major signaling pathways involving the nuclear BAs receptor farnesoid X receptor and the G protein-coupled BAs receptor TGR5/M-BAR have been identified to be the targets of BAs. BAs regulate their own homeostasis via signaling pathways. BAs also affect diverse metabolic pathways including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. This paper suggests the mechanism of controlling metabolism via BA signaling and demonstrates that BA signaling is an attractive therapeutic target of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:27433295

  12. Alterations in protein metabolism during space flight and inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, Arny A.; Paddon-Jones, Doug; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight and the accompanying diminished muscular activity lead to a loss of body nitrogen and muscle function. These losses may affect crew capabilities and health in long-duration missions. Space flight alters protein metabolism such that the body is unable to maintain protein synthetic rates. A concomitant hypocaloric intake and altered anabolic/catabolic hormonal profiles may contribute to or exacerbate this problem. The inactivity associated with bedrest also reduces muscle and whole-body protein synthesis. For this reason, bedrest provides a good model for the investigation of potential exercise and nutritional countermeasures to restore muscle protein synthesis. We have demonstrated that minimal resistance exercise preserves muscle protein synthesis throughout bedrest. In addition, ongoing work indicates that an essential amino acid and carbohydrate supplement may ameliorate the loss of lean body mass and muscle strength associated with 28 d of bedrest. The investigation of inactivity-induced alterations in protein metabolism, during space flight or prolonged bedrest, is applicable to clinical populations and, in a more general sense, to the problems associated with the decreased activity that occur with aging.

  13. Quantifying protein by bicinchoninic Acid.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard J

    2008-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes a method of quantifying protein that is a variation of the Lowry assay. It uses bicinchoninic acid (BCA) to enhance the detection of Cu(+) generated under alkaline conditions at sites of complexes between Cu(2+) and protein. The resulting chromophore absorbs at 562 nm. This technique is divided into three parts: Standard Procedure, Microprocedure, and 96-Well Microtiter Plate Procedure. For each procedure, test samples are assayed in parallel with protein standards that are used to generate a calibration curve, and the exact concentration of protein in the test samples is interpolated. The standard BCA assay uses large volumes of both reagents and samples and cannot easily be automated. If these issues are important, the Microprocedure is recommended. This in turn can be adapted for use with a microplate reader in the 96-Well Microtiter Plate Procedure. If the microplate reader is interfaced with a computer, more than 1000 samples can be read per hour.

  14. Protein engineering for metabolic engineering: current and next-generation tools

    PubMed Central

    Marcheschi, Ryan J.; Gronenberg, Luisa S.; Liao, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Protein engineering in the context of metabolic engineering is increasingly important to the field of industrial biotechnology. As the demand for biologically-produced food, fuels, chemicals, food additives, and pharmaceuticals continues to grow, the ability to design and modify proteins to accomplish new functions will be required to meet the high productivity demands for the metabolism of engineered organisms. This article reviews advances of selecting, modeling, and engineering proteins to improve or alter their activity. Some of the methods have only recently been developed for general use and are just beginning to find greater application in the metabolic engineering community. We also discuss methods of generating random and targeted diversity in proteins to generate mutant libraries for analysis. Recent uses of these techniques to alter cofactor use, produce non-natural amino acids, alcohols, and carboxylic acids, and alter organism phenotypes are presented and discussed as examples of the successful engineering of proteins for metabolic engineering purposes. PMID:23589443

  15. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a model for studying the contribution of muscle to energy and protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hankard, R

    1998-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is associated with a dramatic muscle mass loss. We hypothesized that DMD would be associated with significant changes in both energy and protein metabolism. We studied the resting energy expenditure (REE) in DMD and control children using indirect calorimetry, and their protein metabolism using an intravenous infusion of leucine and glutamine labeled with stable isotopes. In spite of a 75% muscle mass loss in the DMD children, the REE only decreased by 10%. DMD was associated with increased leucine oxidation but neither protein degradation nor protein synthesis were different from that of the controls. In contrast, whole body turnover of glutamine, an amino acid mainly synthesized in the muscle, was significantly decreased. These studies emphasized the quantitatively poor contribution of muscle to energy and protein metabolism in children. The qualitative impact of muscle mass loss on amino acid metabolism (glutamine) offers a fascinating field of research for the next few years and has therapeutic potential.

  16. Protein engineering for metabolic engineering: Current and next-generation tools

    SciTech Connect

    Marcheschi, RJ; Gronenberg, LS; Liao, JC

    2013-04-16

    Protein engineering in the context of metabolic engineering is increasingly important to the field of industrial biotechnology. As the demand for biologically produced food, fuels, chemicals, food additives, and pharmaceuticals continues to grow, the ability to design and modify proteins to accomplish new functions will be required to meet the high productivity demands for the metabolism of engineered organisms. We review advances in selecting, modeling, and engineering proteins to improve or alter their activity. Some of the methods have only recently been developed for general use and are just beginning to find greater application in the metabolic engineering community. We also discuss methods of generating random and targeted diversity in proteins to generate mutant libraries for analysis. Recent uses of these techniques to alter cofactor use; produce non-natural amino acids, alcohols, and carboxylic acids; and alter organism phenotypes are presented and discussed as examples of the successful engineering of proteins for metabolic engineering purposes.

  17. [Application of stable isotopes in the study of whole-body protein metabolism].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ying; Yang, Xiaoguang; Piao, Jianhua

    2007-11-01

    Stable isotopes are non-radioactive, so they are safe and suitable for the study of human nutrition. In this paper, the principle and main methods of stable isotopic technique in the study of whole-body protein metabolism were introduced. Meanwhile, the advantages and disadvantages of different methods were discussed and the splanchnic metabolism of labeled amino acids was analyzed.

  18. Effect of acute heat stress on plant nutrient metabolism proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abrupt heating decreased the levels (per unit total root protein) of all but one of the nutrient metabolism proteins examined, and for most of the proteins, effects were greater for severe vs. moderate heat stress. For many of the nutrient metabolism proteins, initial effects of heat (1 d) were r...

  19. Enhancing flora balance in the gastrointestinal tract of mice by lactic acid bacteria from Chinese sourdough and enzyme activities indicative of metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate by the flora.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; Yu, Xiaomin; Wu, Yaoping; Chen, Xingxing; Wei, Hua; Shah, Nagendra P; Xu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of administration of 5 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Chinese sourdough on the flora balance of gastrointestinal tract of mice. We specifically measured Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus by plate count and real-time PCR methods, and α-glucosidase, lactate dehydrogenase, esterase, and aminopeptidase activities as indicative of metabolism of sugar, fat, and protein from LAB isolated from feces of mice in vitro. The results showed that administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201 and Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 lowered the uricacid index of serum. Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201, L. fermentum LFE0302, as well as Lactobacillus curvatus LCU0401 administration resulted in a reduction in the opportunistic pathogens (i.e., Enterococcus and Enterobacter), meanwhile, administration of L. fermentum LFE0302 and Lactobacillus sp. ULA0104 resulted in an increase in the counts of Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 administration increased starch digestion of intestinal flora after 4wk of feeding and also resulted in increased α-glucosidase activity in the intestinal flora after 3wk of feeding. We found a similar trend in esterase activity after administration of L. acidophilus LAC0201 for 3wk. Hence, our study suggested that LAB from Chinese sourdough might be used as potential probiotics to strengthen the flora balance in gastrointestinal tract and positively change the metabolism of nutrients through bacterial enzyme activities.

  20. Altered Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Block, Robert C.; Dorsey, E. Ray; Beck, Christopher A.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Shoulson, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Huntington disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by behavioral abnormalities, cognitive decline, and involuntary movements that lead to a progressive decline in functional capacity, independence, and ultimately death. The pathophysiology of Huntington disease is linked to an expanded trinucleotide repeat of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) in the IT-15 gene on chromosome 4. There is no disease-modifying treatment for Huntington disease, and novel pathophysiological insights and therapeutic strategies are needed. Lipids are vital to the health of the central nervous system, and research in animals and humans has revealed that cholesterol metabolism is disrupted in Huntington disease. This lipid dysregulation has been linked to specific actions of the mutant huntingtin on sterol regulatory element binding proteins. This results in lower cholesterol levels in affected areas of the brain with evidence that this depletion is pathologic. Huntington disease is also associated with a pattern of insulin resistance characterized by a catabolic state resulting in weight loss and a lower body mass index than individuals without Huntington disease. Insulin resistance appears to act as a metabolic stressor attending disease progression. The fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, have been examined in clinical trials of Huntington disease patients. Drugs that combat the dysregulated lipid milieu in Huntington disease may help treat this perplexing and catastrophic genetic disease. PMID:20802793

  1. Altered cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Block, Robert C; Dorsey, E Ray; Beck, Christopher A; Brenna, J Thomas; Shoulson, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Huntington disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by behavioral abnormalities, cognitive decline, and involuntary movements that lead to a progressive decline in functional capacity, independence, and ultimately death. The pathophysiology of Huntington disease is linked to an expanded trinucleotide repeat of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) in the IT-15 gene on chromosome 4. There is no disease-modifying treatment for Huntington disease, and novel pathophysiological insights and therapeutic strategies are needed. Lipids are vital to the health of the central nervous system, and research in animals and humans has revealed that cholesterol metabolism is disrupted in Huntington disease. This lipid dysregulation has been linked to specific actions of the mutant huntingtin on sterol regulatory element binding proteins. This results in lower cholesterol levels in affected areas of the brain with evidence that this depletion is pathologic. Huntington disease is also associated with a pattern of insulin resistance characterized by a catabolic state resulting in weight loss and a lower body mass index than individuals without Huntington disease. Insulin resistance appears to act as a metabolic stressor attending disease progression. The fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, have been examined in clinical trials of Huntington disease patients. Drugs that combat the dysregulated lipid milieu in Huntington disease may help treat this perplexing and catastrophic genetic disease.

  2. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

    2009-06-01

    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.

  3. Circulating Levels of Uric Acid and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto F; Morales-López, Herlinda; Garro-Almendaro, Ana K; Vargas-Ayala, German; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat B; Huerta-Ramírez, Saul; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose J

    2017-01-01

    Hyperuricemia leads to insulin resistance, whereas insulin resistance decreases renal excretion of uric acid, both mechanisms link elevated serum uric acid with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the probability for the development of metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults with hyperuricaemia.

  4. Regulation of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism by Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hye Won; Wei, Jie; Cohen, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, a.k.a. StARD2) binds phosphatidylcholines and catalyzes their intermembrane transfer and exchange in vitro. The structure of PC-TP comprises a hydrophobic pocket and a well-defined head-group binding site, and its gene expression is regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α. Recent studies have revealed key regulatory roles for PC-TP in lipid and glucose metabolism. Notably, Pctp−/− mice are sensitized to insulin action and exhibit more efficient brown fat-mediated thermogenesis. PC-TP appears to limit access of fatty acids to mitochondria by stimulating the activity of thioesterase superfamily member 2, a newly characterized long-chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase. Because PC-TP discriminates among phosphatidylcholines within lipid bilayers, it may function as a sensor that links metabolic regulation to membrane composition. PMID:20338778

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in β-aminobutyric acid enhanced Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingwu; Jiang, Xinwu; Shi, Wuliang; Chen, Juan; Pei, Zhenming; Zheng, Hailei

    2011-05-01

    Acid rain is a worldwide environmental issue that has seriously destroyed forest ecosystems. As a highly effective and broad-spectrum plant resistance-inducing agent, β-aminobutyric acid could elevate the tolerance of Arabidopsis when subjected to simulated acid rain. Using comparative proteomic strategies, we analyzed 203 significantly varied proteins of which 175 proteins were identified responding to β-aminobutyric acid in the absence and presence of simulated acid rain. They could be divided into ten groups according to their biological functions. Among them, the majority was cell rescue, development and defense-related proteins, followed by transcription, protein synthesis, folding, modification and destination-associated proteins. Our conclusion is β-aminobutyric acid can lead to a large-scale primary metabolism change and simultaneously activate antioxidant system and salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid signaling pathways. In addition, β-aminobutyric acid can reinforce physical barriers to defend simulated acid rain stress.

  6. Ethanol impairs post-prandial hepatic protein metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    De Feo, P; Volpi, E; Lucidi, P; Cruciani, G; Monacchia, F; Reboldi, G; Santeusanio, F; Bolli, G B; Brunetti, P

    1995-01-01

    The effects of acute ethanol ingestion on whole body and hepatic protein metabolism in humans are not known. To simulate social drinking, we compared the effects of the association of a mixed meal (632 kcal, 17% amino acids, 50% glucose, 33% lipids) with a bottle of either table wine (ethanol content 71 g) or water on the estimates ([1-14C]-leucine infusion) of whole body protein breakdown, oxidation, and synthesis, and on the intravascular fractional secretory rates (FSR) of hepatically (albumin, fibrinogen) and extrahepatically (IgG) synthesized plasma proteins in two randomized groups (ethanol n = 7, water n = 7) of healthy nonalcoholic volunteers. Each study was carried out for 8 h. Protein kinetics were measured in the overnight post-absorptive state, over the first 4 h, and during a meal infusion (via a nasogastric feeding tube at constant rate) combined with the oral ingestion of wine or water, over the last 4 h. When compared with water, wine ingestion during the meal reduced (P < 0.03) by 24% the rate of leucine oxidation, did not modify the estimates of whole body protein breakdown and synthesis, reduced (P < 0.01) by approximately 30% the FSR of albumin and fibrinogen, but did not affect IgG FSR. In conclusion, 70 g of ethanol, an amount usual among social drinkers, impairs hepatic protein metabolism. The habitual consumption of such amounts by reducing the synthesis and/or secretion of hepatic proteins might lead to the progressive development of liver injury and to hypoalbuminemia also in the absence of protein malnutrition. PMID:7706451

  7. Bile Acid Signaling in Metabolic Disease and Drug Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tiangang

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol catabolism. Hepatic bile acid synthesis accounts for a major fraction of daily cholesterol turnover in humans. Biliary secretion of bile acids generates bile flow and facilitates hepatobiliary secretion of lipids, lipophilic metabolites, and xenobiotics. In the intestine, bile acids are essential for the absorption, transport, and metabolism of dietary fats and lipid-soluble vitamins. Extensive research in the last 2 decades has unveiled new functions of bile acids as signaling molecules and metabolic integrators. The bile acid–activated nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, vitamin D receptor, and G protein–coupled bile acid receptor play critical roles in the regulation of lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism, inflammation, and drug metabolism and detoxification. Bile acid synthesis exhibits a strong diurnal rhythm, which is entrained by fasting and refeeding as well as nutrient status and plays an important role for maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Recent research revealed an interaction of liver bile acids and gut microbiota in the regulation of liver metabolism. Circadian disturbance and altered gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of liver diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, and obesity. Bile acids and their derivatives are potential therapeutic agents for treating metabolic diseases of the liver. PMID:25073467

  8. Metabolic engineering as a tool for enhanced lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Bikram P; DeVeaux, Linda C; Christopher, Lew P

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic engineering is a powerful biotechnological tool that finds, among others, increased use in constructing microbial strains for higher lactic acid productivity, lower costs and reduced pollution. Engineering the metabolic pathways has concentrated on improving the lactic acid fermentation parameters, enhancing the acid tolerance of production organisms and their abilities to utilize a broad range of substrates, including fermentable biomass-derived sugars. Recent efforts have focused on metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria as they produce high yields and have a small genome size that facilitates their genetic manipulation. We summarize here the current trends in metabolic engineering techniques and strategies for manipulating lactic acid producing organisms developed to address and overcome major challenges in the lactic acid production process.

  9. Obesity diabetes and the role of bile acids in metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bile acids have many activities over and above their primary function in aiding absorption of fat and fat soluble vitamins. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol, and thus are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids stimulate glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) production in the distal small bowel and colon, stimulating insulin secretion, and therefore, are involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Bile acids through their insulin sensitising effect play a part in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Bile acid metabolism is altered in obesity and diabetes. Both dietary restriction and weight loss due to bariatric surgery, alter the lipid carbohydrate and bile acid metabolism. Recent research suggests that the forkhead transcription factor FOXO is a central regulator of bile, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism, but conflicting studies mean that our understanding of the complexity is not yet complete. PMID:28191525

  10. Dysregulation of skeletal muscle protein metabolism by alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse, either by acute intoxication or prolonged excessive consumption, leads to pathological changes in many organs and tissues including skeletal muscle. As muscle protein serves not only a contractile function but also as a metabolic reserve for amino acids, which are used to support the energy needs of other tissues, its content is tightly regulated and dynamic. This review focuses on the etiology by which alcohol perturbs skeletal muscle protein balance and thereby over time produces muscle wasting and weakness. The preponderance of data suggest that alcohol primarily impairs global protein synthesis, under basal conditions as well as in response to several anabolic stimuli including growth factors, nutrients, and muscle contraction. This inhibitory effect of alcohol is mediated, at least in part, by a reduction in mTOR kinase activity via a mechanism that remains poorly defined but likely involves altered protein-protein interactions within mTOR complex 1. Furthermore, alcohol can exacerbate the decrement in mTOR and/or muscle protein synthesis present in other catabolic states. In contrast, alcohol-induced changes in muscle protein degradation, either global or via specific modulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome or autophagy pathways, are relatively inconsistent and may be model dependent. Herein, changes produced by acute intoxication versus chronic ingestion are contrasted in relation to skeletal muscle metabolism, and limitations as well as opportunities for future research are discussed. As the proportion of more economically developed countries ages and chronic illness becomes more prevalent, a better understanding of the etiology of biomedical consequences of alcohol use disorders is warranted. PMID:25759394

  11. The function of oxalic acid in the human metabolism.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Daniel Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Biochemical reactions in cells which involve oxalic acid are described. It is shown that this compound is required for the formation of uracil and orotic acid. The former is a component of RNA which is common to all cells in the human metabolism. On the basis of the biochemical reactions described a possible treatment to relieve the effects of calcium oxalate renal calculi whose origin is related to the metabolic concentration of oxalic acid is proposed.

  12. Hepatic arachidonic acid metabolism is disrupted after hexachlorobenzene treatment.

    PubMed

    Billi de Catabbi, Silvia C; Faletti, Alicia; Fuentes, Federico; San Martín de Viale, Leonor C; Cochón, Adriana C

    2005-04-15

    Hexaclorobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, can cause a wide range of toxic effects including cancer in animals, and hepatotoxicity and porphyria both in humans and animals. In the present study, liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, hepatic PGE production, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity were investigated in an experimental model of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by HCB. Female Wistar rats were treated with a single daily dose of HCB (100 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 5 days and were sacrificed 3, 10, 17, and 52 days after the last dose. HCB treatment induced the accumulation of hepatic porphyrins from day 17 and increased the activities of liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) from day 3 after the last dose. Liver microsomes from control and HCB-treated rats generated, in the presence of NADPH, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 11,12-Di HETE, and omega-OH/omega-1-OH AA. HCB treatment caused an increase in total NADPH CYP-dependent AA metabolism, with a higher response at 3 days after the last HCB dose than at the other time points studied. In addition, HCB treatment markedly enhanced PGE production and release in liver slices. This HCB effect was time dependent and reached its highest level after 10 days. At this time cPLA2 activity was shown to be increased. Unexpectedly, HCB produced a significant decrease in cPLA2 activity on the 17th and 52nd day. Our results demonstrated for the first time that HCB induces both the cyclooxygenase and CYP-dependent AA metabolism. The effects of HCB on AA metabolism were previous to the onset of a marked porphyria and might contribute to different aspects of HCB-induced liver toxicity such as alterations of membrane fluidity and membrane-bound protein function. Observations also suggested that a possible role of cPLA2

  13. Amino acid supplementation alters bone metabolism during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Paddon-Jones, D.; Ferrando, A. A.; Wolfe, R. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    High-protein and acidogenic diets induce hypercalciuria. Foods or supplements with excess sulfur-containing amino acids increase endogenous sulfuric acid production and therefore have the potential to increase calcium excretion and alter bone metabolism. In this study, effects of an amino acid/carbohydrate supplement on bone resorption were examined during bed rest. Thirteen subjects were divided at random into two groups: a control group (Con, n = 6) and an amino acid-supplemented group (AA, n = 7) who consumed an extra 49.5 g essential amino acids and 90 g carbohydrate per day for 28 days. Urine was collected for n-telopeptide (NTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), calcium, and pH determinations. Bone mineral content was determined and potential renal acid load was calculated. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was measured in serum samples collected on day 1 (immediately before bed rest) and on day 28. Potential renal acid load was higher in the AA group than in the Con group during bed rest (P < 0.05). For all subjects, during bed rest urinary NTX and DPD concentrations were greater than pre-bed rest levels (P < 0.05). Urinary NTX and DPD tended to be higher in the AA group (P = 0.073 and P = 0.056, respectively). During bed rest, urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels (P < 0.05) in the AA group but not the Con group. Total bone mineral content was lower after bed rest than before bed rest in the AA group but not the Con group (P < 0.05). During bed rest, urinary pH decreased (P < 0.05), and it was lower in the AA group than the Con group. These data suggest that bone resorption increased, without changes in bone formation, in the AA group.

  14. BIOACTIVE PROTEINS, PEPTIDES, AND AMINO ACIDS FROM MACROALGAE(1).

    PubMed

    Harnedy, Pádraigín A; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2011-04-01

    Macroalgae are a diverse group of marine organisms that have developed complex and unique metabolic pathways to ensure survival in highly competitive marine environments. As a result, these organisms have been targeted for mining of natural biologically active components. The exploration of marine organisms has revealed numerous bioactive compounds that are proteinaceous in nature. These include proteins, linear peptides, cyclic peptides and depsipeptides, peptide derivatives, amino acids, and amino acid-like components. Furthermore, some species of macroalgae have been shown to contain significant levels of protein. While some protein-derived bioactive peptides have been characterized from macroalgae, macroalgal proteins currently still represent good candidate raw materials for biofunctional peptide mining. This review will provide an overview of the important bioactive amino-acid-containing compounds that have been identified in macroalgae. Moreover, the potential of macroalgal proteins as substrates for the generation of biofunctional peptides for utilization as functional foods to provide specific health benefits will be discussed.

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy and metabolic syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Poniedzialek-Czajkowska, Elzbieta; Mierzynski, Radzislaw; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Leszczynska-Gorzelak, Bozena; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This review presents available evidence for possible application of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in pregnant obese women with metabolic syndrome (MS) and focuses on prophylaxis of pregnancy complications associated with MS such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs has recently become popular and their adequate intake during pregnancy and early childhood is of clinical importance. The results of experimental and epidemiological investigations reveal that n-3 PUFAs, especially α- linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases. It is believed that n-3 PUFAs affect a multitude of molecular pathways, involving regulation of gene expression, alteration of physical and chemical properties of cellular membranes and modulation of membrane channels and proteins. A large body of evidence focuses on anti-inflammatory properties of PUFAs which seem to be fundamental in prevention and reversing of insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, thromboembolism and in improving vascular function. Despite the potential PUFAs benefits of decreasing insulin resistance, their application in order to prevent preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women with MS has not yet been established. Numerous reports have revealed that appropriate fetal development, including neuronal, retinal and immune function depends on EPA and DHA which are crucial also for prevention of preterm birth. Thus the supplementation with EPA and DHA is highly recommended during pregnancy although the optimal dosing and treatment strategies still need to be determined.

  16. Changes in contralateral protein metabolism following unilateral sciatic nerve section

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, J.A.; Cubas, S.C.

    1990-03-01

    Changes in nerve biochemistry, anatomy, and function following injuries to the contralateral nerve have been repeatedly reported, though their significance is unknown. The most likely mechanisms for their development are either substances carried by axoplasmic flow or electrically transmitted signals. This study analyzes which mechanism underlies the development of a contralateral change in protein metabolism. The incorporation of labelled amino acids (AA) into proteins of both sciatic nerves was assessed by liquid scintillation after an unilateral section. AA were offered locally for 30 min to the distal stump of the sectioned nerves and at homologous levels of the intact contralateral nerves. At various times, from 1 to 24 h, both sciatic nerves were removed and the proteins extracted with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). An increase in incorporation was found in both nerves 14-24 h after section. No difference existed between sectioned and intact nerves, which is consistent with the contralateral effect. Lidocaine, but not colchicine, when applied previously to the nerves midway between the sectioning site and the spinal cord, inhibited the contralateral increase in AA incorporation. It is concluded that electrical signals, crossing through the spinal cord, are responsible for the development of the contralateral effect. Both the nature of the proteins and the significance of the contralateral effect are matters for speculation.

  17. Upregulated expression of brain enzymatic markers of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid metabolism in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In animal models, the metabolic syndrome elicits a cerebral response characterized by altered phospholipid and unesterified fatty acid concentrations and increases in pro-apoptotic inflammatory mediators that may cause synaptic loss and cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that these changes are associated with phospholipase (PLA2) enzymes that regulate arachidonic (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6n-6) acid metabolism, major polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain. Male Wistar rats were fed a control or high-sucrose diet for 8 weeks. Brains were assayed for markers of AA metabolism (calcium-dependent cytosolic cPLA2 IVA and cyclooxygenases), DHA metabolism (calcium-independent iPLA2 VIA and lipoxygenases), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and synaptic integrity (drebrin and synaptophysin). Lipid concentrations were measured in brains subjected to high-energy microwave fixation. Results The high-sucrose compared with control diet induced insulin resistance, and increased phosphorylated-cPLA2 protein, cPLA2 and iPLA2 activity and 12-lipoxygenase mRNA, but decreased BDNF mRNA and protein, and drebrin mRNA. The concentration of several n-6 fatty acids in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and lysophosphatidylcholine was increased, as was unesterified AA concentration. Eicosanoid concentrations (prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2 and leukotriene B4) did not change. Conclusion These findings show upregulated brain AA and DHA metabolism and reduced BDNF and drebrin, but no changes in eicosanoids, in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome. These changes might contribute to altered synaptic plasticity and cognitive impairment in rats and humans with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23110484

  18. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  19. First-pass uptake and oxidation of glucose by the splanchnic tissue in young goats fed soy protein-based milk diets with or without amino acid supplementation: glucose metabolism in goat kids after soy feeding.

    PubMed

    Schönhusen, U; Junghans, P; Flöter, A; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Görs, S; Schneider, F; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2013-04-01

    The study was designed to examine whether feeding soy protein isolate as partial replacement of casein (CN) affects glucose metabolism in young goats and whether effects may be ameliorated by supplementation of those AA known to be lower concentrated in soy than in CN. Goat kids (d 20 of age) were fed comparable milk protein diets, in which 50% of the crude protein was either CN (control, CON), soy protein isolate (SPI), or soy protein isolate supplemented with AA (SPIA) for 43 d (n=8 per group). On d 62 of age, a single bolus dose of d-[(13)C6]glucose (10mg/kg of BW) was given with the morning diet, and simultaneously, a single bolus dose of d-[6,6-(2)H2]glucose (5mg/kg of BW) was injected into a jugular vein. Blood samples were collected between -30 and +420 min relative to the tracer administration to measure the (13)C and (2)H enrichments of plasma glucose and the (13)C enrichment of blood CO2. Glucose first-pass uptake by the splanchnic tissues was calculated from the rate of appearance of differentially labeled glucose tracer in plasma. Glucose oxidation was calculated from (13)C enrichment in blood CO2. In addition, plasma concentrations of triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured. On d 63 of age, kids were killed and jejunal mucosa and liver samples were collected to measure lactase mRNA levels and lactase and maltase activities in the jejunum and activities of pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver. Basal plasma glucose concentration tended to be higher in the CON than the SPIA group, whereas basal insulin was higher in the CON group than the SPI and SPIA groups, and glucagon was higher in the CON than the SPIA group. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations increased during the first hour after feeding, whereas plasma glucagon increased immediately after feeding and after 1h of feeding. First-pass uptake and glucose oxidation were not affected by diet. Maltase

  20. Arachidonic acid metabolism in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    YANG, PEIYING; CARTWRIGHT, CARRIE A.; LI, JIN; WEN, SIJIN; PROKHOROVA, INA N.; SHUREIQI, IMAD; TRONCOSO, PATRICIA; NAVONE, NORA M.; NEWMAN, ROBERT A.; KIM, JERI

    2012-01-01

    The arachidonic acid pathway is important in the development and progression of numerous malignant diseases, including prostate cancer. To more fully evaluate the role of individual cyclooxygenases (COXs), lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolites in prostate cancer, we measured mRNA and protein levels of COXs and LOXs and their arachidonate metabolites in androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3 and DU145) prostate cancer cell lines, bone metastasis-derived MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b cell lines and their corresponding xenograft models, as well as core biopsy specimens of primary prostate cancer and nonneoplastic prostate tissue taken ex vivo after prostatectomy. Relatively high levels of COX-2 mRNA and its product PGE2 were observed only in PC-3 cells and their xenografts. By contrast, levels of the exogenous 12-LOX product 12-HETE were consistently higher in MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 cells and their corresponding xenograft tissues than were those in LNCaP cells. More strikingly, the mean endogenous level of 12-HETE was significantly higher in the primary prostate cancers than in the nonneoplastic prostate tissue (0.094 vs. 0.010 ng/mg protein, respectively; p=0.019). Our results suggest that LOX metabolites such as 12-HETE are critical in prostate cancer progression and that the LOX pathway may be a target for treating and preventing prostate cancer. PMID:22895552

  1. Expression of glutamine metabolism-related proteins in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Yu Kyung; Koo, Ja Seung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the expression of glutamine metabolism-related protein in tumor and stromal compartments among the histologic subtypes of thyroid cancer. Results GLS1 and GDH expression in tumor and stromal compartments were the highest in AC than in other subtypes. Tumoral ASCT2 expression was higher in MC but lower in FC (p < 0.001). In PTC, tumoral GLS1 and tumoral GDH expression was higher in the conventional type than in the follicular variant (p = 0.043 and 0.001, respectively), and in PTC with BRAF V600E mutation than in PTC without BRAF V600E mutation (p<0.001). Stromal GDH positivity was the independent factor associated with short overall survival (hazard ratio: 21.48, 95% confidence interval: 2.178-211.8, p = 0.009). Methods We performed tissue microarrays with 557 thyroid cancer cases (papillary thyroid carcinoma [PTC]: 344, follicular carcinoma [FC]: 112, medullary carcinoma [MC]: 70, poorly differentiated carcinoma [PDC]: 23, and anaplastic carcinoma [AC]: 8) and 152 follicular adenoma (FA) cases. We performed immunohistochemical staining of glutaminolysis-related proteins (glutaminase 1 [GLS1], glutamate dehydrogenase [GDH], and amino acid transporter-2 [ASCT-2]). Conclusion Glutamine metabolism-related protein expression differed among the histologic subtypes of thyroid cancer. PMID:27447554

  2. Relationship between asparagine metabolism and protein concentration in soybean seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between asparagine metabolism and protein concentration was investigated in soybean seed. Phenotyping of a population of recombinant inbred lines adapted to Illinois confirmed a positive correlation between free asparagine levels in developing seeds and protein concentration at matu...

  3. Ecophysiology of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM)

    PubMed Central

    LÜTTGE, ULRICH

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Scope Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) as an ecophysiological modification of photosynthetic carbon acquisition has been reviewed extensively before. Cell biology, enzymology and the flow of carbon along various pathways and through various cellular compartments have been well documented and discussed. The present attempt at reviewing CAM once again tries to use a different approach, considering a wide range of inputs, receivers and outputs. • Input Input is given by a network of environmental parameters. Six major ones, CO2, H2O, light, temperature, nutrients and salinity, are considered in detail, which allows discussion of the effects of these factors, and combinations thereof, at the individual plant level (‘physiological aut‐ecology’). • Receivers Receivers of the environmental cues are the plant types genotypes and phenotypes, the latter including morphotypes and physiotypes. CAM genotypes largely remain ‘black boxes’, and research endeavours of genomics, producing mutants and following molecular phylogeny, are just beginning. There is no special development of CAM morphotypes except for a strong tendency for leaf or stem succulence with large cells with big vacuoles and often, but not always, special water storage tissues. Various CAM physiotypes with differing degrees of CAM expression are well characterized. • Output Output is the shaping of habitats, ecosystems and communities by CAM. A number of systems are briefly surveyed, namely aquatic systems, deserts, salinas, savannas, restingas, various types of forests, inselbergs and paramós. • Conclusions While quantitative census data for CAM diversity and biomass are largely missing, intuition suggests that the larger CAM domains are those systems which are governed by a network of interacting stress factors requiring versatile responses and not systems where a single stress factor strongly prevails. CAM is noted to be a strategy for variable, flexible and plastic

  4. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-04

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis.

  5. EFFECTS OF HYDRAZINES ON THE METABOLISM OF CERTAIN AMINES AND AMINO ACIDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AMINES, * AMINO ACIDS , *DIAMINE OXIDASE, TOXICITY, METABOLISM, METABOLISM, DIMETHYLHYDRAZINES, GLUTAMIC ACID, ENZYMES, PHARMACOLOGY, TRACER STUDIES, LABELED SUBSTANCES, RESPIRATION, GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM, RATS.

  6. Differential diagnosis of (inherited) amino acid metabolism or transport disorders.

    PubMed

    Blom, W; Huijmans, J G

    1992-02-01

    Disorders of amino acid metabolism or transport are most clearly expressed in urine. Nevertheless the interpretation of abnormalities in urinary amino acid excretion remains difficult. An increase or decrease of almost every amino acid in urine can be due to various etiology. To differentiate between primary and secondary aminoacido-pathies systematic laboratory investigation is necessary. Early diagnosis of disorders of amino acid metabolism or transport is very important, because most of them can be treated, leading to the prevention of (further) clinical abnormalities. In those disorders, which cannot be treated, early diagnosis in an index-patient may prevent the birth of other siblings by means of genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.Primary aminoacidopathies can be due to genetically determined transport disorders and enzyme deficiencies in amino acid metabolism or degradation. Secondary aminoacidopathies are the result of abnormal or deficient nutrition, intestinal dysfunction, organ pathology or other metabolic diseases like organic acidurias.A survey of amino acid metabolism and transport abnormalities will be given, illustrated with metabolic pathways and characteristic abnormal amino acid chromatograms.

  7. Amino acid composition and amino acid-metabolic network in supragingival plaque.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Ogawa, Tamaki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Tsukiboshi, Yosuke; Watanabe, Motohiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque metabolizes both carbohydrates and amino acids. The former can be degraded to acids mainly, while the latter can be degraded to various metabolites, including ammonia, acids and amines, and associated with acid-neutralization, oral malodor and tissue inflammation. However, amino acid metabolism in dental plaque is still unclear. This study aimed to elucidate what kinds of amino acids are available as metabolic substrates and how the amino acids are metabolized in supragingival plaque, by a metabolome analysis. Amino acids and the related metabolites in supragingival plaque were extracted and quantified comprehensively by CE-TOFMS. Plaque samples were also incubated with amino acids, and the amounts of ammonia and amino acid-related metabolites were measured. The concentration of glutamate was the highest in supragingival plaque, while the ammonia-production was the highest from glutamine. The obtained metabolome profile revealed that amino acids are degraded through various metabolic pathways, including deamination, decarboxylation and transamination and that these metabolic systems may link each other, as well as with carbohydrate metabolic pathways in dental plaque ecosystem. Moreover, glutamine and glutamate might be the main source of ammonia production, as well as arginine, and contribute to pH-homeostasis and counteraction to acid-induced demineralization in supragingival plaque.

  8. Metabolism of berry anthocyanins to phenolic acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Heinonen, Marina; Nurmi, Anna; Hiltunen, Raimo; Voutilainen, Sari

    2009-03-25

    We studied the metabolism of berry anthocyanins to phenolic acids in six human subjects by giving them bilberry-lingonberry puree with and without oat cereals. Puree + cereals contained 1435 micromol of anthocyanins and 339 micromol of phenolic acids. The urinary excretion of measured 18 phenolic acids increased 241 micromol during the 48 h follow-up after the puree + cereals supplementation. The excretion peak of dietary phenolic acids was observed at 4-6 h after the puree + cereals supplementation and 2 h earlier after the supplementation of the puree alone. Homovanillic and vanillic acids were the most abundant metabolites, and they were partly produced from anthocyanins. No gallic acid, a fragmentation product of delphinidin glycosides, was detected, and only a very low amount of malvidin glycosides was possibly metabolized to syringic acid. Although anthocyanins were partly fragmented to phenolic acids, still a large part of metabolites remained unknown.

  9. Metabolic Fate of Unsaturated Glucuronic/Iduronic Acids from Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Yukie; Oiki, Sayoko; Takase, Ryuichi; Mikami, Bunzo; Murata, Kousaku; Hashimoto, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans in mammalian extracellular matrices are degraded to their constituents, unsaturated uronic (glucuronic/iduronic) acids and amino sugars, through successive reactions of bacterial polysaccharide lyase and unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase. Genes coding for glycosaminoglycan-acting lyase, unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase, and the phosphotransferase system are assembled into a cluster in the genome of pathogenic bacteria, such as streptococci and clostridia. Here, we studied the streptococcal metabolic pathway of unsaturated uronic acids and the structure/function relationship of its relevant isomerase and dehydrogenase. Two proteins (gbs1892 and gbs1891) of Streptococcus agalactiae strain NEM316 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. 4-Deoxy-l-threo-5-hexosulose-uronate (Dhu) nonenzymatically generated from unsaturated uronic acids was converted to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate via 3-deoxy-d-glycero-2,5-hexodiulosonate through successive reactions of gbs1892 isomerase (DhuI) and gbs1891 NADH-dependent reductase/dehydrogenase (DhuD). DhuI and DhuD enzymatically corresponded to 4-deoxy-l-threo-5-hexosulose-uronate ketol-isomerase (KduI) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate dehydrogenase (KduD), respectively, involved in pectin metabolism, although no or low sequence identity was observed between DhuI and KduI or between DhuD and KduD, respectively. Genes for DhuI and DhuD were found to be included in the streptococcal genetic cluster, whereas KduI and KduD are encoded in clostridia. Tertiary and quaternary structures of DhuI and DhuD were determined by x-ray crystallography. Distinct from KduI β-barrels, DhuI adopts an α/β/α-barrel structure as a basic scaffold similar to that of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase. The structure of DhuD is unable to accommodate the substrate/cofactor, suggesting that conformational changes are essential to trigger enzyme catalysis. This is the first report on the bacterial metabolism of

  10. Chemical reporter for visualizing metabolic cross-talk between carbohydrate metabolism and protein modification.

    PubMed

    Zaro, Balyn W; Chuh, Kelly N; Pratt, Matthew R

    2014-09-19

    Metabolic chemical reporters have been largely used to study posttranslational modifications. Generally, it was assumed that these reporters entered one biosynthetic pathway, resulting in labeling of one type of modification. However, because they are metabolized by cells before their addition onto proteins, metabolic chemical reporters potentially provide a unique opportunity to read-out on both modifications of interest and cellular metabolism. We report here the development of a metabolic chemical reporter 1-deoxy-N-pentynyl glucosamine (1-deoxy-GlcNAlk). This small-molecule cannot be incorporated into glycans; however, treatment of mammalian cells results in labeling of a variety proteins and enables their visualization and identification. Competition of this labeling with sodium acetate and an acetyltransferase inhibitor suggests that 1-deoxy-GlcNAlk can enter the protein acetylation pathway. These results demonstrate that metabolic chemical reporters have the potential to isolate and potentially discover cross-talk between metabolic pathways in living cells.

  11. Citric acid cycle and role of its intermediates in metabolism.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad

    2014-04-01

    The citric acid cycle is the final common oxidative pathway for carbohydrates, fats and amino acids. It is the most important metabolic pathway for the energy supply to the body. TCA is the most important central pathway connecting almost all the individual metabolic pathways. In this review article, introduction, regulation and energetics of TCA cycle have been discussed. The present study was carried out to review literature on TCA cycle.

  12. Manipulating Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Microalgae for Biofuel through Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Blatti, Jillian L.; Beld, Joris; Behnke, Craig A.; Mendez, Michael; Mayfield, Stephen P.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for renewable fuels, and algal metabolic engineering can lead to crop improvement, thus accelerating the development of commercially viable biodiesel production from algae biomass. We demonstrate that protein-protein interactions between the fatty acid acyl carrier protein (ACP) and thioesterase (TE) govern fatty acid hydrolysis within the algal chloroplast. Using green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr) as a model, a structural simulation of docking CrACP to CrTE identifies a protein-protein recognition surface between the two domains. A virtual screen reveals plant TEs with similar in silico binding to CrACP. Employing an activity-based crosslinking probe designed to selectively trap transient protein-protein interactions between the TE and ACP, we demonstrate in vitro that CrTE must functionally interact with CrACP to release fatty acids, while TEs of vascular plants show no mechanistic crosslinking to CrACP. This is recapitulated in vivo, where overproduction of the endogenous CrTE increased levels of short-chain fatty acids and engineering plant TEs into the C. reinhardtii chloroplast did not alter the fatty acid profile. These findings highlight the critical role of protein-protein interactions in manipulating fatty acid biosynthesis for algae biofuel engineering as illuminated by activity-based probes. PMID:23028438

  13. Manipulating fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for biofuel through protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Blatti, Jillian L; Beld, Joris; Behnke, Craig A; Mendez, Michael; Mayfield, Stephen P; Burkart, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for renewable fuels, and algal metabolic engineering can lead to crop improvement, thus accelerating the development of commercially viable biodiesel production from algae biomass. We demonstrate that protein-protein interactions between the fatty acid acyl carrier protein (ACP) and thioesterase (TE) govern fatty acid hydrolysis within the algal chloroplast. Using green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr) as a model, a structural simulation of docking CrACP to CrTE identifies a protein-protein recognition surface between the two domains. A virtual screen reveals plant TEs with similar in silico binding to CrACP. Employing an activity-based crosslinking probe designed to selectively trap transient protein-protein interactions between the TE and ACP, we demonstrate in vitro that CrTE must functionally interact with CrACP to release fatty acids, while TEs of vascular plants show no mechanistic crosslinking to CrACP. This is recapitulated in vivo, where overproduction of the endogenous CrTE increased levels of short-chain fatty acids and engineering plant TEs into the C. reinhardtii chloroplast did not alter the fatty acid profile. These findings highlight the critical role of protein-protein interactions in manipulating fatty acid biosynthesis for algae biofuel engineering as illuminated by activity-based probes.

  14. Dietary Proteins as Determinants of Metabolic and Physiologic Functions of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Jahan-Mihan, Alireza; Luhovyy, Bohdan L.; Khoury, Dalia El; Anderson, G. Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Dietary proteins elicit a wide range of nutritional and biological functions. Beyond their nutritional role as the source of amino acids for protein synthesis, they are instrumental in the regulation of food intake, glucose and lipid metabolism, blood pressure, bone metabolism and immune function. The interaction of dietary proteins and their products of digestion with the regulatory functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a dominant role in determining the physiological properties of proteins. The site of interaction is widespread, from the oral cavity to the colon. The characteristics of proteins that influence their interaction with the GI tract in a source-dependent manner include their physico-chemical properties, their amino acid composition and sequence, their bioactive peptides, their digestion kinetics and also the non-protein bioactive components conjugated with them. Within the GI tract, these products affect several regulatory functions by interacting with receptors releasing hormones, affecting stomach emptying and GI transport and absorption, transmitting neural signals to the brain, and modifying the microflora. This review discusses the interaction of dietary proteins during digestion and absorption with the physiological and metabolic functions of the GI tract, and illustrates the importance of this interaction in the regulation of amino acid, glucose, lipid metabolism, and food intake. PMID:22254112

  15. Dietary proteins as determinants of metabolic and physiologic functions of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Jahan-Mihan, Alireza; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; El Khoury, Dalia; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-05-01

    Dietary proteins elicit a wide range of nutritional and biological functions. Beyond their nutritional role as the source of amino acids for protein synthesis, they are instrumental in the regulation of food intake, glucose and lipid metabolism, blood pressure, bone metabolism and immune function. The interaction of dietary proteins and their products of digestion with the regulatory functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a dominant role in determining the physiological properties of proteins. The site of interaction is widespread, from the oral cavity to the colon. The characteristics of proteins that influence their interaction with the GI tract in a source-dependent manner include their physico-chemical properties, their amino acid composition and sequence, their bioactive peptides, their digestion kinetics and also the non-protein bioactive components conjugated with them. Within the GI tract, these products affect several regulatory functions by interacting with receptors releasing hormones, affecting stomach emptying and GI transport and absorption, transmitting neural signals to the brain, and modifying the microflora. This review discusses the interaction of dietary proteins during digestion and absorption with the physiological and metabolic functions of the GI tract, and illustrates the importance of this interaction in the regulation of amino acid, glucose, lipid metabolism, and food intake.

  16. Dietary protein's and dietary acid load's influence on bone health.

    PubMed

    Remer, Thomas; Krupp, Danika; Shi, Lijie

    2014-01-01

    A variety of genetic, mechano-response-related, endocrine-metabolic, and nutritional determinants impact bone health. Among the nutritional influences, protein intake and dietary acid load are two of the factors most controversially discussed. Although in the past high protein intake was often assumed to exert a primarily detrimental impact on bone mass and skeletal health, the majority of recent studies indicates the opposite and suggests a bone-anabolic influence. Studies examining the influence of alkalizing diets or alkalizing supplement provision on skeletal outcomes are less consistent, which raises doubts about the role of acid-base status in bone health. The present review critically evaluates relevant key issues such as acid-base terminology, influencing factors of intestinal calcium absorption, calcium balance, the endocrine-metabolic milieu related to metabolic acidosis, and some methodological aspects of dietary exposure and bone outcome examinations. It becomes apparent that for an adequate identification and characterization of either dietary acid load's or protein's impact on bone, the combined assessment of both nutritional influences is necessary.

  17. Regulation of the expression of key genes involved in HDL metabolism by unsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects, and possible mechanisms of action, of unsaturated fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in HDL metabolism in HepG2 cells. The mRNA concentration of target genes was assessed by real time PCR. Protein concentrations were determined by wes...

  18. Phosphatidic acid metabolism in rat liver cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Gaveglio, Virginia L; Pasquaré, Susana J; Giusto, Norma M

    2013-04-02

    The aim of the present research was to analyze the pathways for phosphatidic acid metabolism in purified nuclei from liver. Lipid phosphate phosphatase, diacylglycerol lipase, monoacylglycerol lipase and PA-phospholipase type A activities were detected. The presence of lysophosphatidic acid significantly reduced DAG production while sphingosine 1-phoshate and ceramide 1-phosphate reduced MAG formation from PA. Using different enzymatic modulators (detergents and ions) an increase in the PA metabolism by phospholipase type A was observed. Our findings evidence an active PA metabolism in purified liver nuclei which generates important lipid second messengers, and which could thus be involved in nuclear processes such as gene transcription.

  19. Aspects of astrocyte energy metabolism, amino acid neurotransmitter homoeostasis and metabolic compartmentation.

    PubMed

    Kreft, Marko; Bak, Lasse K; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Schousboe, Arne

    2012-04-27

    Astrocytes are key players in brain function; they are intimately involved in neuronal signalling processes and their metabolism is tightly coupled to that of neurons. In the present review, we will be concerned with a discussion of aspects of astrocyte metabolism, including energy-generating pathways and amino acid homoeostasis. A discussion of the impact that uptake of neurotransmitter glutamate may have on these pathways is included along with a section on metabolic compartmentation.

  20. Aspects of astrocyte energy metabolism, amino acid neurotransmitter homoeostasis and metabolic compartmentation

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, Marko; Bak, Lasse K; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Schousboe, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes are key players in brain function; they are intimately involved in neuronal signalling processes and their metabolism is tightly coupled to that of neurons. In the present review, we will be concerned with a discussion of aspects of astrocyte metabolism, including energy-generating pathways and amino acid homoeostasis. A discussion of the impact that uptake of neurotransmitter glutamate may have on these pathways is included along with a section on metabolic compartmentation. PMID:22435484

  1. Protein design in systems metabolic engineering for industrial strain development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Accelerating the process of industrial bacterial host strain development, aimed at increasing productivity, generating new bio-products or utilizing alternative feedstocks, requires the integration of complementary approaches to manipulate cellular metabolism and regulatory networks. Systems metabolic engineering extends the concept of classical metabolic engineering to the systems level by incorporating the techniques used in systems biology and synthetic biology, and offers a framework for the development of the next generation of industrial strains. As one of the most useful tools of systems metabolic engineering, protein design allows us to design and optimize cellular metabolism at a molecular level. Here, we review the current strategies of protein design for engineering cellular synthetic pathways, metabolic control systems and signaling pathways, and highlight the challenges of this subfield within the context of systems metabolic engineering.

  2. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids regulate bovine whole-body protein metabolism by promoting muscle insulin signalling to the Akt-mTOR-S6K1 pathway and insulin sensitivity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the skeletal musculature to use amino acids to build or renew constitutive proteins is gradually lost with age and this is partly due to a decline in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Since long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC"n"-3PUFA) from fish oil are known to impr...

  3. Regulation of hormone metabolism in Arabidopsis seeds: phytochrome regulation of abscisic acid metabolism and abscisic acid regulation of gibberellin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mitsunori; Hanada, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Endo, Akira; Okamoto, Masanori; Yamauchi, Yukika; North, Helen; Marion-Poll, Annie; Sun, Tai-Ping; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Nambara, Eiji

    2006-11-01

    In a wide range of plant species, seed germination is regulated antagonistically by two plant hormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA). In the present study, we have revealed that ABA metabolism (both biosynthesis and inactivation) was phytochrome-regulated in an opposite fashion to GA metabolism during photoreversible seed germination in Arabidopsis. Endogenous ABA levels were decreased by irradiation with a red (R) light pulse in dark-imbibed seeds pre-treated with a far-red (FR) light pulse, and the reduction in ABA levels in response to R light was inhibited in a phytochrome B (PHYB)-deficient mutant. Expression of an ABA biosynthesis gene, AtNCED6, and the inactivation gene, CYP707A2, was regulated in a photoreversible manner, suggesting a key role for the genes in PHYB-mediated regulation of ABA metabolism. Abscisic acid-deficient mutants such as nced6-1, aba2-2 and aao3-4 exhibited an enhanced ability to germinate relative to wild type when imbibed in the dark after irradiation with an FR light pulse. In addition, the ability to synthesize GA was improved in the aba2-2 mutant compared with wild type during dark-imbibition after an FR light pulse. Activation of GA biosynthesis in the aba2-2 mutant was also observed during seed development. These data indicate that ABA is involved in the suppression of GA biosynthesis in both imbibed and developing seeds. Spatial expression patterns of the AtABA2 and AAO3 genes, responsible for last two steps of ABA biosynthesis, were distinct from that of the GA biosynthesis gene, AtGA3ox2, in both imbibed and developing seeds, suggesting that biosynthesis of ABA and GA in seeds occurs in different cell types.

  4. Distinguishing Proteins From Arbitrary Amino Acid Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Stephen S.-T.; Mao, Wei-Guang; Benson, Max; He, Rong Lucy

    2015-01-01

    What kinds of amino acid sequences could possibly be protein sequences? From all existing databases that we can find, known proteins are only a small fraction of all possible combinations of amino acids. Beginning with Sanger's first detailed determination of a protein sequence in 1952, previous studies have focused on describing the structure of existing protein sequences in order to construct the protein universe. No one, however, has developed a criteria for determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Here we show that when the collection of arbitrary amino acid sequences is viewed in an appropriate geometric context, the protein sequences cluster together. This leads to a new computational test, described here, that has proved to be remarkably accurate at determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Even more, if the results of this test indicate that the sequence can be a protein, and it is indeed a protein sequence, then its identity as a protein sequence is uniquely defined. We anticipate our computational test will be useful for those who are attempting to complete the job of discovering all proteins, or constructing the protein universe. PMID:25609314

  5. Metabolism of sulfur amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D; Surdin-Kerjan, Y

    1997-01-01

    , the transcription activation function of Met4 is prevented by Met30p, which binds to the Met4 inhibitory region. In addition to the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex, transcriptional regulation involves two zinc finger-containing proteins, Met31p and Met32p. The AdoMet-mediated control of the sulfur amino acid pathway illustrates the molecular strategies used by eucaryotic cells to couple gene expression to metabolic changes. PMID:9409150

  6. Non-Genomic Origins of Proteins and Metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    It is proposed that evolution of inanimate matter to cells endowed with a nucleic acid- based coding of genetic information was preceded by an evolutionary phase, in which peptides not coded by nucleic acids were able to self-organize into networks capable of evolution towards increasing metabolic complexity. Recent findings that truly different, simple peptides (Keefe and Szostak, 2001) can perform the same function (such as ATP binding) provide experimental support for this mechanism of early protobiological evolution. The central concept underlying this mechanism is that the reproduction of cellular functions alone was sufficient for self-maintenance of protocells, and that self- replication of macromolecules was not required at this stage of evolution. The precise transfer of information between successive generations of the earliest protocells was unnecessary and, possibly, undesirable. The key requirement in the initial stage of protocellular evolution was an ability to rapidly explore a large number of protein sequences in order to discover a set of molecules capable of supporting self- maintenance and growth of protocells. Undoubtedly, the essential protocellular functions were carried out by molecules not nearly as efficient or as specific as contemporary proteins. Many, potentially unrelated sequences could have performed each of these functions at an evolutionarily acceptable level. As evolution progressed, however proteins must have performed their functions with increasing efficiency and specificity. This, in turn, put additional constraints on protein sequences and the fraction of proteins capable of performing their functions at the required level decreased. At some point, the likelihood of generating a sufficiently efficient set of proteins through a non-coded synthesis was so small that further evolution was not possible without storing information about the sequences of these proteins. Beyond this point, further evolution required coupling between

  7. Natural toxins that affect plant amino acid metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diverse range of natural compounds interfere with the synthesis and other aspects of amino acid metabolism. Some are amino acid analogues, but most are not. This review covers a number of specific natural phytotoxic compounds by molecular target site. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase is of part...

  8. Ethanol Metabolism Modifies Hepatic Protein Acylation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Kristofer S.; Green, Michelle F.; Petersen, Dennis R.; Hirschey, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein acetylation increases in response to chronic ethanol ingestion in mice, and is thought to reduce mitochondrial function and contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 regulates the acetylation status of several mitochondrial proteins, including those involved in ethanol metabolism. The newly discovered desuccinylase activity of the mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT5 suggests that protein succinylation could be an important post-translational modification regulating mitochondrial metabolism. To assess the possible role of protein succinylation in ethanol metabolism, we surveyed hepatic sub-cellular protein fractions from mice fed a control or ethanol-supplemented diet for succinyl-lysine, as well as acetyl-, propionyl-, and butyryl-lysine post-translational modifications. We found mitochondrial protein propionylation increases, similar to mitochondrial protein acetylation. In contrast, mitochondrial protein succinylation is reduced. These mitochondrial protein modifications appear to be primarily driven by ethanol metabolism, and not by changes in mitochondrial sirtuin levels. Similar trends in acyl modifications were observed in the nucleus. However, comparatively fewer acyl modifications were observed in the cytoplasmic or the microsomal compartments, and were generally unchanged by ethanol metabolism. Using a mass spectrometry proteomics approach, we identified several candidate acetylated, propionylated, and succinylated proteins, which were enriched using antibodies against each modification. Additionally, we identified several acetyl and propionyl lysine residues on the same sites for a number of proteins and supports the idea of the overlapping nature of lysine-specific acylation. Thus, we show that novel post-translational modifications are present in hepatic mitochondrial, nuclear, cytoplasmic, and microsomal compartments and ethanol ingestion, and its associated metabolism, induce specific

  9. Metabolic pathways regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contributing to heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. The objectives of this study were to examine whether increased GABA could improve heat tolerance in cool-season creeping bentgrass through physiological analysis, and to determine major metabolic pathways regulated by GABA through metabolic profiling. Plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM GABA or water before exposed to non-stressed condition (21/19 °C) or heat stress (35/30 °C) in controlled growth chambers for 35 d. The growth and physiological analysis demonstrated that exogenous GABA application significantly improved heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass. Metabolic profiling found that exogenous application of GABA led to increases in accumulations of amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, threonine, serine, and valine), organic acids (aconitic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, and threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, and maltose), and sugar alcohols (mannitol and myo-inositol). These findings suggest that GABA-induced heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass could involve the enhancement of photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione cycle, the maintenance of osmotic adjustment, and the increase in GABA shunt. The increased GABA shunt could be the supply of intermediates to feed the tricarboxylic acid cycle of respiration metabolism during a long-term heat stress, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27455877

  10. Metabolic pathways regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contributing to heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2016-07-26

    γ-Aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. The objectives of this study were to examine whether increased GABA could improve heat tolerance in cool-season creeping bentgrass through physiological analysis, and to determine major metabolic pathways regulated by GABA through metabolic profiling. Plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM GABA or water before exposed to non-stressed condition (21/19 °C) or heat stress (35/30 °C) in controlled growth chambers for 35 d. The growth and physiological analysis demonstrated that exogenous GABA application significantly improved heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass. Metabolic profiling found that exogenous application of GABA led to increases in accumulations of amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, threonine, serine, and valine), organic acids (aconitic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, and threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, and maltose), and sugar alcohols (mannitol and myo-inositol). These findings suggest that GABA-induced heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass could involve the enhancement of photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione cycle, the maintenance of osmotic adjustment, and the increase in GABA shunt. The increased GABA shunt could be the supply of intermediates to feed the tricarboxylic acid cycle of respiration metabolism during a long-term heat stress, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis.

  11. Yeast genes involved in response to lactic acid and acetic acid: acidic conditions caused by the organic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures induce expression of intracellular metal metabolism genes regulated by Aft1p.

    PubMed

    Kawahata, Miho; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2006-09-01

    Using two types of genome-wide analysis to investigate yeast genes involved in response to lactic acid and acetic acid, we found that the acidic condition affects metal metabolism. The first type is an expression analysis using DNA microarrays to investigate 'acid shock response' as the first step to adapt to an acidic condition, and 'acid adaptation' by maintaining integrity in the acidic condition. The other is a functional screening using the nonessential genes deletion collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression analysis showed that genes involved in stress response, such as YGP1, TPS1 and HSP150, were induced under the acid shock response. Genes such as FIT2, ARN1 and ARN2, involved in metal metabolism regulated by Aft1p, were induced under the acid adaptation. AFT1 was induced under acid shock response and under acid adaptation with lactic acid. Moreover, green fluorescent protein-fused Aft1p was localized to the nucleus in cells grown in media containing lactic acid, acetic acid, or hydrochloric acid. Both analyses suggested that the acidic condition affects cell wall architecture. The depletion of cell-wall components encoded by SED1, DSE2, CTS1, EGT2, SCW11, SUN4 and YNL300W and histone acetyltransferase complex proteins encoded by YID21, EAF3, EAF5, EAF6 and YAF9 increased resistance to lactic acid. Depletion of the cell-wall mannoprotein Sed1p provided resistance to lactic acid, although the expression of SED1 was induced by exposure to lactic acid. Depletion of vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase and high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase proteins caused acid sensitivity. Moreover, our quantitative PCR showed that expression of PDR12 increased under acid shock response with lactic acid and decreased under acid adaptation with hydrochloric acid.

  12. Cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid metabolism in bovine corneal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Masferrer, J.; Schwartzman, M.L.; Abraham, N.G.; Dunn, M.W.; McGiff, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    The presence of the cytochrom P450 system and its involvement in the metabolism of AA was studied in the corneal epithelium. This tissue contains cytochrome P450 as assessed directly by measurement of the carbon monoxide reduced spectrum (specific activity of 161 pmol/10 mg protein) and indirectly by measuring the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) - a cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme (11-39 pmol 3-OH benzopyrene/mg protein/10 min). When corneal epithelial microsomes were incubated with /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid, 30-50% of the total radioactivity was converted to two peaks, I and II. Further separation using high performance liquid chromatography has shown that each peak contains two metabolites, A,B and C,D. Metabolite formation was dependent on the addition of NADPH (1 mM) and inhibited by carbon monoxide and SKF-525A (100 ..mu..M) suggesting a cytochrome P450-dependent mechanism. Compound C (5-10 ..mu..M) inhibited the activity of corneal epithelial Na-K-ATPase by 30-60%, being 100-fold more potent than ouabain. Compound D (10-100 ng) induced a dose dependent relaxation of the rat caudal artery. Compound D also inhibited corneal Na-K-ATPase activity but less potently than compound C. These compounds may be important to transport processes of ocular epithelia and participate in the control of the ocular circulation and aqueous humor dynamics.

  13. Identification of the phytosphingosine metabolic pathway leading to odd-numbered fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Natsuki; Ohno, Yusuke; Yamagata, Maki; Obara, Takashi; Seki, Naoya; Kitamura, Takuya; Naganuma, Tatsuro; Kihara, Akio

    2014-10-27

    The long-chain base phytosphingosine is a component of sphingolipids and exists in yeast, plants and some mammalian tissues. Phytosphingosine is unique in that it possesses an additional hydroxyl group compared with other long-chain bases. However, its metabolism is unknown. Here we show that phytosphingosine is metabolized to odd-numbered fatty acids and is incorporated into glycerophospholipids both in yeast and mammalian cells. Disruption of the yeast gene encoding long-chain base 1-phosphate lyase, which catalyzes the committed step in the metabolism of phytosphingosine to glycerophospholipids, causes an ~40% reduction in the level of phosphatidylcholines that contain a C15 fatty acid. We also find that 2-hydroxypalmitic acid is an intermediate of the phytosphingosine metabolic pathway. Furthermore, we show that the yeast MPO1 gene, whose product belongs to a large, conserved protein family of unknown function, is involved in phytosphingosine metabolism. Our findings provide insights into fatty acid diversity and identify a pathway by which hydroxyl group-containing lipids are metabolized.

  14. Effect of hyperammonemia on leucine and protein metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Holecek, M; Sprongl, L; Tichý, M

    2000-10-01

    The cause of muscle wasting and decreased plasma levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), valine, leucine, and isoleucine in liver cirrhosis is obscure. Here we have evaluated the effect of hyperammonemia. Rats were infused with either an ammonium acetate/bicarbonate mixture, a sodium acetate/bicarbonate mixture, or saline for 320 minutes. The parameters of leucine and protein metabolism were evaluated in the whole body and in several tissues using a primed constant intravenous infusion of L-[1-14C]leucine. Ammonium infusion caused an increase in ammonia and glutamine levels in plasma, a decrease in BCAA and alanine in plasma and skeletal muscle, a significant decrease in whole-body proteolysis and protein synthesis, and an increase in leucine oxidized fraction. A significant decrease in protein synthesis after ammonium infusion was observed in skeletal muscle while a nonsignificant effect was observed in liver, gut, heart, spleen, and kidneys. We conclude that the decrease in plasma BCAA after ammonia infusion is associated with decreased proteolysis and increased leucine oxidized fraction.

  15. BCL-2 family proteins as regulators of mitochondria metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gross, Atan

    2016-08-01

    The BCL-2 family proteins are major regulators of apoptosis, and one of their major sites of action are the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the cellular hubs for metabolism and indeed selected BCL-2 family proteins also possess roles related to mitochondria metabolism and dynamics. Here we discuss the link between mitochondrial metabolism/dynamics and the fate of stem cells, with an emphasis on the role of the BID-MTCH2 pair in regulating this link. We also discuss the possibility that BCL-2 family proteins act as metabolic sensors/messengers coming on and off of mitochondria to "sample" the cytosol and provide the mitochondria with up-to-date metabolic information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  16. Quantitative metabolomics analysis of amino acid metabolism in recombinant Pichia pastoris under different oxygen availability conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Environmental and intrinsic stress factors can result in the global alteration of yeast physiology, as evidenced by several transcriptional studies. Hypoxia has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris growing on glucose. Furthermore, transcriptional profiling analyses revealed that oxygen availability was strongly affecting ergosterol biosynthesis, central carbon metabolism and stress responses, in particular the unfolded protein response. To contribute to the better understanding of the effect and interplay of oxygen availability and foreign protein secretion on central metabolism, a first quantitative metabolomic analysis of free amino acids pools in a recombinant P. pastoris strain growing under different oxygen availability conditions has been performed. Results The values obtained indicate significant variations in the intracellular amino acid pools due to different oxygen availability conditions, showing an overall increase of their size under oxygen limitation. Notably, even while foreign protein productivities were relatively low (about 40–80 μg Fab/gDCW·h), recombinant protein production was found to have a limited but significant impact on the intracellular amino acid pools, which were generally decreased in the producing strain compared with the reference strain. However, observed changes in individual amino acids pools were not correlated with their corresponding relative abundance in the recombinant protein sequence, but to the overall cell protein amino acid compositional variations. Conclusions Overall, the results obtained, combined with previous transcriptomic and proteomic analyses provide a systematic metabolic fingerprint of the oxygen availability impact on recombinant protein production in P. pastoris. PMID:22704468

  17. IDH1 mutations alter citric acid cycle metabolism and increase dependence on oxidative mitochondrial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Grassian, Alexandra R; Parker, Seth J; Davidson, Shawn M; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Green, Courtney R; Zhang, Xiamei; Slocum, Kelly L; Pu, Minying; Lin, Fallon; Vickers, Chad; Joud-Caldwell, Carol; Chung, Franklin; Yin, Hong; Handly, Erika D; Straub, Christopher; Growney, Joseph D; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Murphy, Anne N; Pagliarini, Raymond; Metallo, Christian M

    2014-06-15

    Oncogenic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) occur in several types of cancer, but the metabolic consequences of these genetic changes are not fully understood. In this study, we performed (13)C metabolic flux analysis on a panel of isogenic cell lines containing heterozygous IDH1/2 mutations. We observed that under hypoxic conditions, IDH1-mutant cells exhibited increased oxidative tricarboxylic acid metabolism along with decreased reductive glutamine metabolism, but not IDH2-mutant cells. However, selective inhibition of mutant IDH1 enzyme function could not reverse the defect in reductive carboxylation activity. Furthermore, this metabolic reprogramming increased the sensitivity of IDH1-mutant cells to hypoxia or electron transport chain inhibition in vitro. Lastly, IDH1-mutant cells also grew poorly as subcutaneous xenografts within a hypoxic in vivo microenvironment. Together, our results suggest therapeutic opportunities to exploit the metabolic vulnerabilities specific to IDH1 mutation.

  18. IDH1 Mutations Alter Citric Acid Cycle Metabolism and Increase Dependence on Oxidative Mitochondrial Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Grassian, Alexandra R.; Parker, Seth J.; Davidson, Shawn M.; Divakarun, Ajit S.; Green, Courtney R.; Zhang, Xiamei; Slocum, Kelly L.; Pu, Minying; Lin, Fallon; Vickers, Chad; Joud-Caldwell, Carol; Chung, Franklin; Yin, Hong; Handly, Erika D.; Straub, Christopher; Growney, Joseph D.; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Murphy, Anne N.; Pagliarini, Raymond; Metallo, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) occur in several types of cancer, but the metabolic consequences of these genetic changes are not fully understood. In this study, we performed 13C metabolic flux analysis on a panel of isogenic cell lines containing heterozygous IDH1/2 mutations. We observed that under hypoxic conditions, IDH1-mutant cells exhibited increased oxidative tricarboxylic acid metabolism along with decreased reductive glutamine metabolism, but not IDH2-mutant cells. However, selective inhibition of mutant IDH1 enzyme function could not reverse the defect in reductive carboxylation activity. Furthermore, this metabolic reprogramming increased the sensitivity of IDH1-mutant cells to hypoxia or electron transport chain inhibition in vitro. Lastly, IDH1-mutant cells also grew poorly as subcutaneous xenografts within a hypoxic in vivo microenvironment. Together, our results suggest therapeutic opportunities to exploit the metabolic vulnerabilities specific to IDH1 mutation. PMID:24755473

  19. Effects of GH on protein metabolism during dietary restriction in man.

    PubMed

    Nørrelund, Helene; Riis, Anne Lene; Møller, Niels

    2002-08-01

    The metabolic response to dietary restriction involves a series of hormonal and metabolic adaptations leading to protein conservation. An increase in the serum level of growth hormone (GH) during fasting has been well substantiated. GH has potent protein anabolic actions, as evidenced by a significant decrease in lean body mass and muscle mass in chronic GH deficiency, and vice versa in patients with acromegaly. The present review outlines current knowledge about the role of GH in the metabolic response to fasting, with particular reference to the effects on protein metabolism. Physiological bursts of GH secretion seem to be of seminal importance for the regulation of protein conservation during fasting. Apart from the possible direct effects of GH on protein dynamics, a number of additional anabolic agents, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and free fatty acids (FFAs), are activated. Taken together the effects of GH on protein metabolism seem to include both stimulation of protein synthesis and inhibition of breakdown, depending on the nature of GH administration, which tissues are being studied, and on the physiological conditions of the subjects.

  20. Imaging Complex Protein Metabolism in Live Organisms by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with Isotope Labeling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein metabolism, consisting of both synthesis and degradation, is highly complex, playing an indispensable regulatory role throughout physiological and pathological processes. Over recent decades, extensive efforts, using approaches such as autoradiography, mass spectrometry, and fluorescence microscopy, have been devoted to the study of protein metabolism. However, noninvasive and global visualization of protein metabolism has proven to be highly challenging, especially in live systems. Recently, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy coupled with metabolic labeling of deuterated amino acids (D-AAs) was demonstrated for use in imaging newly synthesized proteins in cultured cell lines. Herein, we significantly generalize this notion to develop a comprehensive labeling and imaging platform for live visualization of complex protein metabolism, including synthesis, degradation, and pulse–chase analysis of two temporally defined populations. First, the deuterium labeling efficiency was optimized, allowing time-lapse imaging of protein synthesis dynamics within individual live cells with high spatial–temporal resolution. Second, by tracking the methyl group (CH3) distribution attributed to pre-existing proteins, this platform also enables us to map protein degradation inside live cells. Third, using two subsets of structurally and spectroscopically distinct D-AAs, we achieved two-color pulse–chase imaging, as demonstrated by observing aggregate formation of mutant hungtingtin proteins. Finally, going beyond simple cell lines, we demonstrated the imaging ability of protein synthesis in brain tissues, zebrafish, and mice in vivo. Hence, the presented labeling and imaging platform would be a valuable tool to study complex protein metabolism with high sensitivity, resolution, and biocompatibility for a broad spectrum of systems ranging from cells to model animals and possibly to humans. PMID:25560305

  1. Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on carbohydrate metabolism protein synthesis in the myocardium during sustained hypodynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makarov, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    Glycolysis and the intensity of protein synthesis were studied in 140 white male rats in subcellular fractions of the myocardium during 45 day hypodynamia and hyperbaric oxygenation. Hypodynamia increased: (1) the amount of lactic acids; (2) the amount of pyruvic acid; (3) the lactate/pyruvate coefficient; and (4) the activities of aldolase and lactate dehydrogenase. Hyperbaric oxygenation was found to have a favorable metabolic effect on the animals with hypodynamia.

  2. The Immunosuppressant Mycophenolic Acid Alters Nucleotide and Lipid Metabolism in an Intestinal Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Heischmann, Svenja; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk; Leibfritz, Dieter; Christians, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    The study objective was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the negative effects of mycophenolic acid (MPA) on human intestinal cells. Effects of MPA exposure and guanosine supplementation on nucleotide concentrations in LS180 cells were assessed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Proteomics analysis was carried out using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture combined with gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and lipidome analysis using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite supplementation, depletion of guanosine nucleotides (p < 0.001 at 24 and 72 h; 5, 100, and 250 μM MPA) and upregulation of uridine and cytidine nucleotides (p < 0.001 at 24 h; 5 μM MPA) occurred after exposure to MPA. MPA significantly altered 35 proteins mainly related to nucleotide-dependent processes and lipid metabolism. Cross-reference with previous studies of MPA-associated protein changes widely corroborated these results, but showed differences that may be model- and/or method-dependent. MPA exposure increased intracellular concentrations of fatty acids, cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine (p < 0.01 at 72 h; 100 μM MPA) which corresponded to the changes in lipid-metabolizing proteins. MPA affected intracellular nucleotide levels, nucleotide-dependent processes, expression of structural proteins, fatty acid and lipid metabolism in LS180 cells. These changes may compromise intestinal membrane integrity and contribute to gastrointestinal toxicity. PMID:28327659

  3. Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids supplementation on fatty acid metabolism in atorvastatin-administered SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Al Mamun, Abdullah; Hashimoto, Michio; Katakura, Masanori; Tanabe, Yoko; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Hossain, Shahdat; Shido, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of cholesterol-lowering statins, which substantially benefit future cardiovascular events, on fatty acid metabolism have remained largely obscured. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin on fatty acid metabolism together with the effects of TAK-085 containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl ester on atorvastatin-induced n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid lowering in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHRcp) rats, as a metabolic syndrome model. Supplementation with 10mg/kg body weight/day of atorvastatin for 17 weeks significantly decreased plasma total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Atorvastatin alone caused a subtle change in fatty acid composition particularly of EPA and DHA in the plasma, liver or erythrocyte membranes. However, the TAK-085 consistently increased both the levels of EPA and DHA in the plasma, liver and erythrocyte membranes. After confirming the reduction of plasma total cholesterol, 300mg/kg body weight/day of TAK-085 was continuously administered for another 6 weeks. Supplementation with TAK-085 did not decrease plasma total cholesterol but significantly increased the EPA and DHA levels in both the plasma and liver compared with rats administered atorvastatin only. Supplementation with atorvastatin alone significantly decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases, elongase-5, and stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase-2 levels and increased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA expression in the liver compared with control rats. TAK-085 supplementation significantly increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2 mRNA expression. These results suggest that long-term supplementation with atorvastatin decreases the EPA and DHA levels by inhibiting the desaturation and elongation of n-3 fatty acid metabolism, while TAK-085 supplementation effectively replenishes this effect in SHRcp rat liver.

  4. The multiple roles of fatty acid handling proteins in brain

    PubMed Central

    Moullé, Valentine S. F.; Cansell, Céline; Luquet, Serge; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline

    2012-01-01

    Lipids are essential components of a living organism as energy source but also as constituent of the membrane lipid bilayer. In addition fatty acid (FA) derivatives interact with many signaling pathways. FAs have amphipathic properties and therefore require being associated to protein for both transport and intracellular trafficking. Here we will focus on several FA handling proteins, among which the fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36), members of fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs), and lipid chaperones fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). A decade of extensive studies has helped decipher the mechanism of action of these proteins in peripheral tissue with high lipid metabolism. However, considerably less information is available regarding their role in the brain, despite the high lipid content of this tissue. This review will primarily focus on the recent studies that have highlighted the crucial role of lipid handling proteins in brain FA transport, neuronal differentiation and development, cognitive processes and brain diseases. Finally a special focus will be made on the recent studies that have revealed the role of FAT/CD36 in brain lipid sensing and nervous control of energy balance. PMID:23060810

  5. Can valproic acid be an inducer of clozapine metabolism?

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Francisco J.; Eap, Chin B.; Ansermot, Nicolas; Crettol, Severine; Spina, Edoardo; de Leon, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prior clozapine studies indicated no effects, mild inhibition or induction of valproic acid (VPA) on clozapine metabolism. The hypotheses that 1) VPA is a net inducer of clozapine metabolism, and 2) smoking modifies this inductive effect were tested in a therapeutic drug monitoring study. Methods After excluding strong inhibitors and inducers, 353 steady-state total clozapine (clozapine plus norclozapine) concentrations provided by 151 patients were analyzed using a random intercept linear model. Results VPA appeared to be an inducer of clozapine metabolism since total plasma clozapine concentrations in subjects taking VPA were significantly lower (27% lower; 95% confidence interval, 14% to 39%) after controlling for confounding variables including smoking (35% lower, 28% to 56%). Discussion Prospective studies are needed to definitively establish that VPA may 1) be an inducer of clozapine metabolism when induction prevails over competitive inhibition, and 2) be an inducer even in smokers who are under the influence of smoking inductive effects on clozapine metabolism. PMID:24764199

  6. Impact of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Skeletal Muscle Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo; Kim, Jonggun; Whang, Kwang-Youn; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has garnered special attention as a food bioactive compound that prevents and attenuates obesity. Although most studies on the effects of CLA on obesity have focused on the reduction of body fat, a number of studies have demonstrated that CLA also increases lean body mass and enhances physical performances. It has been suggested that these effects may be due in part to physiological changes in the skeletal muscle, such as changes in the muscle fiber type transformation, alteration of the intracellular signaling pathways in muscle metabolism, or energy metabolism. However, the mode of action for CLA in muscle metabolism is not completely understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the effects of CLA on skeletal muscle metabolism. Given that CLA not only reduces body fat, but also improves lean mass, there is great potential for the use of CLA to improve muscle metabolism, which would have a significant health impact.

  7. Branched short-chain fatty acids modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in primary adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Heimann, Emilia; Nyman, Margareta; Pålbrink, Ann-Ki; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin; Degerman, Eva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g. acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid, generated through colonic fermentation of dietary fibers, have been shown to reach the systemic circulation at micromolar concentrations. Moreover, SCFAs have been conferred anti-obesity properties in both animal models and human subjects. Branched SCFAs (BSCFAs), e.g., isobutyric and isovaleric acid, are generated by fermentation of branched amino acids, generated from undigested protein reaching colon. However, BSCFAs have been sparsely investigated when referring to effects on energy metabolism. Here we primarily investigate the effects of isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid on glucose and lipid metabolism in primary rat and human adipocytes. BSCFAs inhibited both cAMP-mediated lipolysis and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis at 10 mM, whereas isobutyric acid potentiated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by all concentrations (1, 3 and 10 mM) in rat adipocytes. For human adipocytes, only SCFAs inhibited lipolysis at 10 mM. In both in vitro models, BSCFAs and SCFAs reduced phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase, a rate limiting enzyme in lipolysis. In addition, BSCFAs and SCFAs, in contrast to insulin, inhibited lipolysis in the presence of wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase inhibitor and OPC3911, a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor in rat adipocytes. Furthermore, BSCFAs and SCFAs reduced insulin-mediated phosphorylation of protein kinase B. To conclude, BSCFAs have effects on adipocyte lipid and glucose metabolism that can contribute to improved insulin sensitivity in individuals with disturbed metabolism. PMID:27994949

  8. Conserved Pyridoxal Protein That Regulates Ile and Val Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Iimori, Jumpei; Takayama, Sayuri; Moriyama, Akihito; Yamauchi, Ayako; Hemmi, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli YggS is a member of the highly conserved uncharacterized protein family that binds pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP). To assist with the functional assignment of the YggS family, in vivo and in vitro analyses were performed using a yggS-deficient E. coli strain (ΔyggS) and a purified form of YggS, respectively. In the stationary phase, the ΔyggS strain exhibited a completely different intracellular pool of amino acids and produced a significant amount of l-Val in the culture medium. The log-phase ΔyggS strain accumulated 2-ketobutyrate, its aminated compound 2-aminobutyrate, and, to a lesser extent, l-Val. It also exhibited a 1.3- to 2.6-fold increase in the levels of Ile and Val metabolic enzymes. The fact that similar phenotypes were induced in wild-type E. coli by the exogenous addition of 2-ketobutyrate and 2-aminobutyrate indicates that the 2 compounds contribute to the ΔyggS phenotypes. We showed that the initial cause of the keto acid imbalance was the reduced availability of coenzyme A (CoA); supplementation with pantothenate, which is a CoA precursor, fully reversed phenotypes conferred by the yggS mutation. The plasmid-borne expression of YggS and orthologs from Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and humans fully rescued the ΔyggS phenotypes. Expression of a mutant YggS lacking PLP-binding ability, however, did not reverse the ΔyggS phenotypes. These results demonstrate for the first time that YggS controls Ile and Val metabolism by modulating 2-ketobutyrate and CoA availability. Its function depends on PLP, and it is highly conserved in a wide range species, from bacteria to humans. PMID:24097949

  9. Key roles of microsymbiont amino acid metabolism in rhizobia-legume interactions.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Michael Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobia are bacteria in the α-proteobacterial genera Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Azorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium that reduce (fix) atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with a compatible host plant. In free-living and/or symbiotically associated rhizobia, amino acids may, in addition to their incorporation into proteins, serve as carbon, nitrogen or sulfur sources, signals of cellular nitrogen status and precursors of important metabolites. Depending on the rhizobia-host plant combination, microsymbiont amino acid metabolism (biosynthesis, transport and/or degradation) is often crucial to the establishment and maintenance of an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis and is intimately interconnected with the metabolism of the plant. This review summarizes past findings and current research directions in rhizobial amino acid metabolism and evaluates the genetic, biochemical and genome expression studies from which these are derived. Specific sections deal with the regulation of rhizobial amino acid metabolism, amino acid transport, and finally the symbiotic roles of individual amino acids in different plant-rhizobia combinations.

  10. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism in rat muscle: abnormal regulation in acidosis

    SciTech Connect

    May, R.C.; Hara, Y.; Kelly, R.A.; Block, K.P.; Buse, M.G.; Mitch, W.E.

    1987-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism is frequently abnormal in pathological conditions accompanied by chronic metabolic acidosis. To study how metabolic acidosis affects BCAA metabolism in muscle, rats were gavage fed a 14% protein diet with or without 4 mmol NH/sub 4/Cl x 100 g body wt/sup -1/ x day/sup -1/. Epitrochlearis muscles were incubated with L-(1-/sup 14/C)-valine and L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine, and rates of decarboxylation, net transamination, and incorporation into muscle protein were measured. Plasma and muscle BCAA levels were lower in acidotic rats. Rates of valine and leucine decarboxylation and net transamination were higher in muscles from acidotic rats; these differences were associated with a 79% increase in the total activity of branched-chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase and a 146% increase in the activated form of the enzyme. They conclude that acidosis affects the regulation of BCAA metabolism by enhancing flux through the transaminase and by directly stimulating oxidative catabolism through activation of branched-chain ..cap alpha..-keto acid dehydrogenase.

  11. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the correspon...

  12. Sulfate resupply accentuates protein synthesis in coordination with nitrogen metabolism in sulfur deprived Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Lee, Bok-Rye; Park, Sang-Hyun; Zaman, Rashed; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Ourry, Alain; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the regulatory interactions between S assimilation and N metabolism in Brassica napus, de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins was quantified by (15)N and (34)S tracing, and the responses of transporter genes, assimilatory enzymes and metabolites pool involving in nitrate and sulfate metabolism were assessed under continuous sulfur supply, sulfur deprivation and sulfate resupply after 3 days of sulfur (S) deprivation. S-deprived plants were characterized by a strong induction of sulfate transporter genes, ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), and by a repressed activity of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS). Sulfate resupply to the S-deprived plants strongly increased cysteine, amino acids and proteins concentration. The increase in sulfate and cysteine concentration caused by sulfate resupply was not matched with the expression of sulfate transporters and the activity of ATPS and APR which were rapidly decreased by sulfate resupply. A strong induction of O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), NR and GS upon sulfate resupply was accompanied with the increase in cysteine, amino acids and proteins pool. Sulfate resupply resulted in a strong increase in de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins, as evidenced by the increases in N and S incorporation into amino acids (1.8- and 2.4-fold increase) and proteins (2.2-and 6.3-fold increase) when compared to S-deprived plants. The results thus indicate that sulfate resupply followed by S-deprivation accelerates nitrate assimilation for protein synthesis.

  13. Bile acid metabolism and signaling in cholestasis, inflammation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Apte, Udayan

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver. Some cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play key roles in bile acid synthesis. Bile acids are physiological detergent molecules, so are highly cytotoxic. They undergo enterohepatic circulation and play important roles in generating bile flow and facilitating biliary secretion of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics and intestinal absorption of dietary fats and lipid soluble vitamins. Bile acid synthesis, transport and pool size are therefore tightly regulated under physiological conditions. In cholestasis, impaired bile flow leads to accumulation of bile acids in the liver, causing hepatocyte and biliary injury and inflammation. Chronic cholestasis is associated with fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually liver failure. Chronic cholestasis also increases the risk of developing hepatocellular or cholangiocellular carcinomas. Extensive research in the last two decades has shown that bile acids act as signaling molecules that regulate various cellular processes. The bile acid-activated nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcriptional factors that play critical roles in the regulation of bile acid, drug and xenobiotic metabolism. In cholestasis, these bile acid-activated receptors regulate a network of genes involved in bile acid synthesis, conjugation, transport and metabolism to alleviate bile acid-induced inflammation and injury. Additionally, bile acids are known to regulate cell growth and proliferation, and altered bile acid levels in diseased conditions have been implicated in liver injury/regeneration and tumorigenesis. We will cover the mechanisms that regulate bile acid homeostasis and detoxification during cholestasis, and the roles of bile acids in the initiation and regulation of hepatic inflammation, regeneration and carcinogenesis. PMID:26233910

  14. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling in Cholestasis, Inflammation, and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiangang; Apte, Udayan

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver. Some cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play key roles in bile acid synthesis. Bile acids are physiological detergent molecules, so are highly cytotoxic. They undergo enterohepatic circulation and play important roles in generating bile flow and facilitating biliary secretion of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics and intestinal absorption of dietary fats and lipid-soluble vitamins. Bile acid synthesis, transport, and pool size are therefore tightly regulated under physiological conditions. In cholestasis, impaired bile flow leads to accumulation of bile acids in the liver, causing hepatocyte and biliary injury and inflammation. Chronic cholestasis is associated with fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually liver failure. Chronic cholestasis also increases the risk of developing hepatocellular or cholangiocellular carcinomas. Extensive research in the last two decades has shown that bile acids act as signaling molecules that regulate various cellular processes. The bile acid-activated nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcriptional factors that play critical roles in the regulation of bile acid, drug, and xenobiotic metabolism. In cholestasis, these bile acid-activated receptors regulate a network of genes involved in bile acid synthesis, conjugation, transport, and metabolism to alleviate bile acid-induced inflammation and injury. Additionally, bile acids are known to regulate cell growth and proliferation, and altered bile acid levels in diseased conditions have been implicated in liver injury/regeneration and tumorigenesis. We will cover the mechanisms that regulate bile acid homeostasis and detoxification during cholestasis, and the roles of bile acids in the initiation and regulation of hepatic inflammation, regeneration, and carcinogenesis.

  15. Metabolism of Cyclohexane Carboxylic Acid by Alcaligenes Strain W1

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, David G.; Trudgill, Peter W.

    1978-01-01

    Thirty-three microorganisms capable of growth with cyclohexane carboxylate as the sole source of carbon were isolated from mud, water, and soil samples from the Aberystwyth area. Preliminary screening and whole-cell oxidation studies suggested that, with one exception, all of the strains metabolized the growth substrate by beta-oxidation of the coenzyme A ester. This single distinctive strain, able to oxidize rapidly trans-4-hydroxycyclohexane carboxylate, 4-ketocyclohexane carboxylate, p-hydroxybenzoate, and protocatechuate when grown with cyclohexane carboxylate, was classified as a strain of Alcaligenes and given the number W1. Enzymes capable of converting cyclohexane carboxylate to p-hydroxybenzoate were induced by growth with the alicyclic acid and included the first unambiguous specimen of a cyclohexane carboxylate hydroxylase. Because it is a very fragile protein, attempts to stabilize the cyclohexane carboxylate hydroxylase so that a purification procedure could be developed have consistently failed. In limited studies with crude cell extracts, we found that hydroxylation occurred at the 4 position, probably yielding the trans isomer of 4-hydroxycyclohexane carboxylate. Simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidation, coupled with an assessment of reactant stoichiometry, showed the enzyme to be a mixed-function oxygenase. Mass spectral analysis enabled the conversion of cyclohexane carboxylate to p-hydroxybenzoate by cell extracts to be established unequivocally, and all of our data were consistent with the pathway: cyclohexane carboxylate → trans-4-hydroxycyclohexane carboxylate → 4-ketocyclohexane carboxylate → p-hydroxybenzoate. The further metabolism of p-hydroxybenzoate proceeded by meta fission and by the oxidative branch of the 2-hydroxy-4-carboxymuconic semialde-hyde-cleaving pathway. PMID:207665

  16. Evolution of biomolecular networks: lessons from metabolic and protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takuji; Bork, Peer

    2009-11-01

    Despite only becoming popular at the beginning of this decade, biomolecular networks are now frameworks that facilitate many discoveries in molecular biology. The nodes of these networks are usually proteins (specifically enzymes in metabolic networks), whereas the links (or edges) are their interactions with other molecules. These networks are made up of protein-protein interactions or enzyme-enzyme interactions through shared metabolites in the case of metabolic networks. Evolutionary analysis has revealed that changes in the nodes and links in protein-protein interaction and metabolic networks are subject to different selection pressures owing to distinct topological features. However, many evolutionary constraints can be uncovered only if temporal and spatial aspects are included in the network analysis.

  17. Radioactive Lysine in Protein Metabolism Studies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Miller, L. L.; Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; Masters, R. E.; Tishkoff, G. H.; Whipple,, G. H.

    1950-01-09

    Studies of incorporation of DL-lysine in various body proteins of the dog; the time course of labeled blood proteins; and apparent rate of disappearance of labeled plasma proteins for comparison of behavior of the plasma albumin and globulin fractions; shows more rapid turn over of globulin fraction.

  18. Metabolic acidosis stimulates protein degradation in rat muscle by a glucocorticoid-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    May, R C; Kelly, R A; Mitch, W E

    1986-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with enhanced renal ammonia-genesis which is regulated, in part, by glucocorticoids. The interaction between glucocorticoids and chronic metabolic acidosis on nitrogen utilization and muscle protein metabolism is unknown. In rats pair-fed by gavage, we found that chronic acidosis stunted growth and caused a 43% increase in urinary nitrogen and an 87% increase in urinary corticosterone. Net protein degradation in incubated epitrochlearis muscles from chronically acidotic rats was stimulated at all concentrations of insulin from 0 to 10(4) microU/ml. This effect of acidosis persisted despite supplementation of the media with amino acids with or without insulin, indomethacin, and inhibitors of lysosomal thiol cathepsins. Acidosis did not change protein synthesis; hence, the increase in net protein degradation was caused by stimulation of proteolysis. Acidosis did not increase glutamine production in muscle. The protein catabolic effect of acidosis required glucocorticoids; protein degradation was stimulated in muscle of acidotic, adrenalectomized rats only if they were treated with dexamethasone. Moreover, when nonacidotic animals were given 3 micrograms/100 g of body weight dexamethasone twice a day, muscle protein degradation was increased if the muscles were simply incubated in acidified media. We conclude that chronic metabolic acidosis depresses nitrogen utilization and increases glucocorticoid production. The combination of increased glucocorticoids and acidosis stimulates muscle proteolysis but does not affect protein synthesis. These changes in muscle protein metabolism may play a role in the defense against acidosis by providing amino acid nitrogen to support the glutamine production necessary for renal ammoniagenesis. PMID:3511100

  19. Effects of tumour necrosis factor on protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Evans, D A; Jacobs, D O; Wilmore, D W

    1993-08-01

    Increased skeletal muscle breakdown and negative nitrogen balance are features of sepsis that may be mediated by cytokines. The effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) on protein metabolism were studied. When administered to anaesthetized dogs (0.57 x 10(5) units per kg body-weight over 6h), TNF caused urinary nitrogen excretion to increase (mean(s.e.m.) 165(15) mg kg-1 for dogs that received TNF versus 113(8) mg kg-1 for control animals, P < 0.01). Amino acid nitrogen release from the hindlimbs showed no change over the study period, indicating that the additional urinary nitrogen was not derived from peripheral protein stores. In a second study the same dose of TNF or saline was infused after the intestine had been removed. The mean(s.e.m.) urinary nitrogen excretion in control dogs that had undergone enterectomy (101(7) mg kg-1) was similar to that of intact animals, and addition of TNF did not significantly increase nitrogen excretion (86(18) mg kg-1). The results suggest that nitrogen excreted in the urine during administration of TNF is derived, at least initially, from the intestinal tract.

  20. Effects of Dairy Protein and Fat on the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnshave, Ann; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. Evidence supports a negative relationship between the consumption of dairy products and risk of MetS and T2D. Dairy proteins are known to have a directly beneficial effect on hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia, but a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms is missing. It has been confirmed by observations that the insulinotropic effect of dairy proteins is associated with the amino acid composition; in particular branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) seem to be of vital importance. Dairy protein-derived peptides may also contribute to the insulinotropic effect via dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitory activity, and may lower the blood pressure (BP). The lipid metabolism may be improved by whey protein (WP), which acts to reduce the postprandial triglyceride (TG) response. The effect of dairy fat is much more controversial because of the potentially harmful effect exerted by saturated fatty acid (SFA) on metabolic health. Recent observations suggest less adverse effects of SFA on metabolic health than previous assumed. However, little is known about dairy lipid fractions belonging to the groups of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and phospholipids (PL). Dairy fat seems to act differently depending on the dairy product and the composition of macronutrients in the meal. Therefore, for a better understanding of the mechanisms behind the dairy protein and fat effect on MetS, we suggest that more human studies should be carried out to clarify the interactions of dairy protein and fat with macronutrients in the meal and other dairy components, such as micronutrients and microorganisms from fermented products. PMID:25396403

  1. Intestinal amino acid metabolism in neonates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The portal-drained viscera (stomach, intestine, pancreas, and spleen) have a much higher rate of both energy expenditure and protein synthesis than can be estimated on the basis of their weight. A high utilization rate of dietary nutrients by the portal-drained viscera might result in a low systemic...

  2. Amino acid metabolism in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, S; Azcón-Bieto, J; López-Soriano, F J; Miralpeix, M; Argilés, J M

    1988-01-01

    Mice bearing the Lewis lung carcinoma showed a high tumour glutaminase activity and significantly higher concentrations of most amino acids than in both the liver and the skeletal muscle of the host. Tumour tissue slices showed a marked preference for glutamine, especially for oxidation of its skeleton to CO2. It is proposed that the metabolism of this particular carcinoma is focused on amino acid degradation, glutamine being its preferred substrate. PMID:3342022

  3. Evaluation of endogenous acidic metabolic products associated with carbohydrate metabolism in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Tumor cells have a high tolerance for acidic and hypoxic microenvironments, also producing abundant lactic acid through accelerated glycolysis in the presence or absence of O2. While the accumulation of lactate is thought to be a major contributor to the reduction of pH-circumscribing aggressive tumors, it is not known if other endogenous metabolic products contribute this acidity. Furthermore, anaerobic metabolism in cancer cells bears similarity to homo-fermentative lactic acid bacteria, however very little is known about an alternative pathway that may drive adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production independent of glycolysis. In this study, we quantify over 40 end-products (amines, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, or ketones) produced by malignant neuroblastoma under accelerated glycolysis (+glucose (GLU) supply 1–10 mM) ± mitochondrial toxin; 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+) to abate aerobic respiration to delineate differences between anaerobic vs. aerobic cell required metabolic pathways. The data show that an acceleration of anaerobic glycolysis prompts an expected reduction in extracellular pH (pHex) from neutral to 6.7±0.006. Diverse metabolic acids associated with this drop in acidity were quantified by ionic exchange liquid chromatography (LC), showing concomitant rise in lactate (Ctrls 7.5±0.5 mM; +GLU 12.35±1.3 mM; +GLU + MPP 18.1±1.8 mM), acetate (Ctrl 0.84±0.13 mM: +GLU 1.3±0.15 mM; +GLU + MPP 2.7±0.4 mM), fumarate, and a-ketoglutarate (<10μM) while a range of other metabolic organic acids remained undetected. Amino acids quantified by o-phthalaldehyde precolumn derivatization/electrochemical detection–LC show accumulation of L-alanine (1.6±.052 mM), L-glutamate (285±9.7μM), L-asparagine (202±2.1μM), and L-aspartate (84.2±4.9μM) produced during routine metabolism, while other amino acids remain undetected. In contrast, the data show no evidence for accumulation of acetaldehyde, aldehydes, or ketones (Purpald/2

  4. Ganoderic Acid A Metabolites and Their Metabolic Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fang-Rui; Feng, Li; Ye, Lin-Hu; Wang, Li-Sha; Xiao, Bing-Xin; Tao, Xue; Chang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderic acid A (GAA), a representative active triterpenoid from Ganoderma lucidum, has been reported to exhibit antinociceptive, antioxidative, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective and anticancer activities. The present study aims (1) to identify GAA metabolites, in vivo by analyzing the bile, plasma and urine after intravenous administration to rats (20 mg/kg), and in vitro by incubating with rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and human liver microsomes (HLMs); (2) to investigate the metabolic kinetics of main GAA metabolites. Using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS techniques, a total of 37 metabolites were tentatively characterized from in vivo samples based on their fragmentation behaviors. The metabolites detected in in vitro samples were similar to those found in vivo. GAA underwent extensive phase I and II metabolism. The main metabolic soft spots of GAA were 3, 7, 11, 15, 23-carbonyl groups (or hydroxyl groups) and 12, 20, 28 (29)-carbon atoms. Ganoderic acid C2 (GAC2) and 7β,15-dihydroxy-3,11,23-trioxo-lanost-26-oic acid were two main reduction metabolites of GAA, and their kinetics followed classical hyperbolic kinetics. The specific isoenzyme responsible for the biotransformation of the two metabolites in RLMs and HLMs was CYP3A. This is the first report on the comprehensive metabolism of GAA, as well as the metabolic kinetics of its main metabolites.

  5. Dynamic modeling of lactic acid fermentation metabolism with Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Euhlim; Lu, Mingshou; Park, Changhun; Park, Changhun; Oh, Han Bin; Lee, Sang Yup; Lee, Jinwon

    2011-02-01

    A dynamic model of lactic acid fermentation using Lactococcus lactis was constructed, and a metabolic flux analysis (MFA) and metabolic control analysis (MCA) were performed to reveal an intensive metabolic understanding of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The parameter estimation was conducted with COPASI software to construct a more accurate metabolic model. The experimental data used in the parameter estimation were obtained from an LC-MS/ MS analysis and time-course simulation study. The MFA results were a reasonable explanation of the experimental data. Through the parameter estimation, the metabolic system of lactic acid bacteria can be thoroughly understood through comparisons with the original parameters. The coefficients derived from the MCA indicated that the reaction rate of L-lactate dehydrogenase was activated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and pyruvate, and pyruvate appeared to be a stronger activator of L-lactate dehydrogenase than fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. Additionally, pyruvate acted as an inhibitor to pyruvate kinase and the phosphotransferase system. Glucose 6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate showed activation effects on pyruvate kinase. Hexose transporter was the strongest effector on the flux through L-lactate dehydrogenase. The concentration control coefficient (CCC) showed similar results to the flux control coefficient (FCC).

  6. Ganoderic Acid A Metabolites and Their Metabolic Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fang-Rui; Feng, Li; Ye, Lin-Hu; Wang, Li-Sha; Xiao, Bing-Xin; Tao, Xue; Chang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderic acid A (GAA), a representative active triterpenoid from Ganoderma lucidum, has been reported to exhibit antinociceptive, antioxidative, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective and anticancer activities. The present study aims (1) to identify GAA metabolites, in vivo by analyzing the bile, plasma and urine after intravenous administration to rats (20 mg/kg), and in vitro by incubating with rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and human liver microsomes (HLMs); (2) to investigate the metabolic kinetics of main GAA metabolites. Using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS techniques, a total of 37 metabolites were tentatively characterized from in vivo samples based on their fragmentation behaviors. The metabolites detected in in vitro samples were similar to those found in vivo. GAA underwent extensive phase I and II metabolism. The main metabolic soft spots of GAA were 3, 7, 11, 15, 23-carbonyl groups (or hydroxyl groups) and 12, 20, 28 (29)-carbon atoms. Ganoderic acid C2 (GAC2) and 7β,15-dihydroxy-3,11,23-trioxo-lanost-26-oic acid were two main reduction metabolites of GAA, and their kinetics followed classical hyperbolic kinetics. The specific isoenzyme responsible for the biotransformation of the two metabolites in RLMs and HLMs was CYP3A. This is the first report on the comprehensive metabolism of GAA, as well as the metabolic kinetics of its main metabolites. PMID:28326038

  7. Role of Heme and Heme-Proteins in Trypanosomatid Essential Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tripodi, Karina E. J.; Menendez Bravo, Simón M.; Cricco, Julia A.

    2011-01-01

    Around the world, trypanosomatids are known for being etiological agents of several highly disabling and often fatal diseases like Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), leishmaniasis (Leishmania spp.), and African trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei). Throughout their life cycle, they must cope with diverse environmental conditions, and the mechanisms involved in these processes are crucial for their survival. In this review, we describe the role of heme in several essential metabolic pathways of these protozoans. Notwithstanding trypanosomatids lack of the complete heme biosynthetic pathway, we focus our discussion in the metabolic role played for important heme-proteins, like cytochromes. Although several genes for different types of cytochromes, involved in mitochondrial respiration, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and sterol biosynthesis, are annotated at the Tritryp Genome Project, the encoded proteins have not yet been deeply studied. We pointed our attention into relevant aspects of these protein functions that are amenable to be considered for rational design of trypanocidal agents. PMID:21603276

  8. Amino acid metabolism by perfused rat hindquarter. Effects of insulin, leucine and 2-chloro-4-methylvalerate.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, E J; Lee, S H

    1985-01-01

    Hindquarters from starved rats were perfused without substrates but in the presence of an O2- and CO2-carrying perfluorocarbon emulsion to evaluate principally the metabolism of individual endogenous and protein-derived amino acids by this muscle preparation. This experimental model was shown, by a battery of metabolite measurements, to maintain cellular homoeostasis for at least 2h. The net appearance of most amino acids closely approximated their frequency of occurrence in muscle proteins, showing that they are not significantly metabolized. Exceptions were the branched-chain amino acids, methionine and those amino acids that are interconvertible with intermediates of the citrate cycle and pyruvate through coupled transaminations. The evidence indicates that only valine, isoleucine, aspartate and probably methionine can be catabolized by skeletal muscle to provide carbon precursors for glutamate/glutamine and alanine that are formed de novo by protein-catabolic muscle. The protein-sparing effects of insulin and leucine were confirmed. Although each decreased proteolysis and the net appearance of free amino acids, they were generally without effect on the ratios of amino acids formed. 2-Chloro-4-methylvalerate selectively stimulated the removal rate for the branched-chain amino acids, confirming the idea that the branched-chain oxo acid dehydrogenase normally limits the rate of their oxidation by muscle. It is also concluded that, since alanine was not formed in excess of that found in muscle proteins when no glucose was added as substrate, the excess of alanine (carbon) released from muscles in other studies is derived to a large extent, but not exclusively, from preformed carbohydrate. PMID:3899101

  9. Carnitine is associated with fatty acid metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, Benoîte; Adenier, Hervé; Perrin, Yolande

    2007-12-01

    The finding of acylcarnitines alongside free carnitine in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species, using tandem mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography shows a link between carnitine and plant fatty acid metabolism. Moreover the occurrence of both medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines suggests that carnitine is connected to diverse fatty acid metabolic pathways in plant tissues. The carnitine and acylcarnitine contents in plant tissues are respectively a hundred and a thousand times lower than in animal tissues, and acylcarnitines represent less than 2% of the total carnitine pool whereas this percentage reaches 30% in animal tissues. These results suggest that carnitine plays a lesser role in lipid metabolism in plants than it does in animals.

  10. Analysis of the aspartic acid metabolic pathway using mutant genes.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, R A

    2002-01-01

    Amino acid metabolism is a fundamental process for plant growth and development. Although a considerable amount of information is available, little is known about the genetic control of enzymatic steps or regulation of several pathways. Much of the information about biochemical pathways has arisen from the use of mutants lacking key enzymes. Although mutants were largely used already in the 60's, by bacterial and fungal geneticists, it took plant research a long time to catch up. The advance in this area was rapid in the 80's, which was followed in the 90's by the development of techniques of plant transformation. In this review we present an overview of the aspartic acid metabolic pathway, the key regulatory enzymes and the mutants and transgenic plants produced for lysine and threonine metabolism. We also discuss and propose a new study of high-lysine mutants.

  11. Nicotinamide metabolism in ferns: formation of nicotinic acid glucoside.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Yin, Yuling; Watanabe, Shin

    2011-03-01

    The metabolic fate of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide was investigated in 9 fern species, Psilotum nudum, Angiopteris evecta, Lygodium japonicum, Acrostichum aureum, Asplenium antiquum, Diplazium subsinuatum, Thelypteris acuminate, Blechnum orientale and Crytomium fortune. All fern species produce a large quantity of nicotinic acid glucoside from [(14)C]nicotinamide, but trigonelline formation is very low. Increases in the release of (14)CO(2) with incubation time was accompanied by decreases in [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid glucoside. There was slight stimulation of nicotinic acid glucoside formation by 250 mM NaCl in mature leaves of the mangrove fern, Acrostichum aureum, but it is unlikely that this compound acts as a compatible solute. Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid salvage for pyridine nucleotide synthesis was detected in all fern species, although this activity was always less than nicotinic acid glucoside synthesis. Predominant formation of nicotinic acid glucoside is characteristic of nicotinic acid metabolism in ferns. This reaction appears to act as a detoxication mechanism, removing excess nicotinic acid.

  12. The protein acetylome and the regulation of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shufan; Poirier, Yves

    2012-07-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) is a central metabolite involved in numerous anabolic and catabolic pathways, as well as in protein acetylation. Beyond histones, a large number of metabolic enzymes are acetylated in both animal and bacteria, and the protein acetylome is now emerging in plants. Protein acetylation is influenced by the cellular level of both acetyl-CoA and NAD(+), and regulates the activity of several enzymes. Acetyl-CoA is thus ideally placed to act as a key molecule linking the energy balance of the cell to the regulation of gene expression and metabolic pathways via the control of protein acetylation. Better knowledge over how to influence acetyl-CoA levels and the acetylation process promises to be an invaluable tool to control metabolic pathways.

  13. Arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured mouse keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, H.; Sato, Y.; Kanoh, H.

    1985-07-01

    The authors attempted to characterize the general features of arachidonate metabolism in cultured mouse keratinocytes. The cells labeled with (/sup 3/H)arachidonate were stimulated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), ionophore A23187, and fetal bovine serum (FBS). Common to the three substances, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine almost equally served as sources of arachidonate liberated by the action of phospholipase A2. The stimulation of phospholipase A2 action was observed in the order of A23187 greater than FBS greater than TPA. When stimulated by TPA or A23187, the radioactivity released into the extracellular medium was mostly found in prostaglandin (PG) E2. Formation of other PGs and hydroxyeicosatetraenoate (HETE) was extremely limited. In the case of stimulation by FBS, however, the released radioactivity was mainly associated with non-converted arachidonate. FBS also inhibited the TPA- and A23187-induced conversion of arachidonate to PGE2. Phospholipid degradation induced by the three stimulators was similarly dependent on extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. The stimulation by FBS and A23187 was suppressed by calmodulin antagonists, though the effect of A23187 was much more sensitive to the antagonists when compared to that of FBS. The authors observed more than additive effects of the three stimulators when tested together.

  14. High protein pre-term infant formula: effect on nutrient balance, metabolic status and growth.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard; Embleton, Nick; Rigo, Jacques; Carrie, Annelise; Haschke, Ferdinand; Ziegler, Ekhard

    2006-02-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that formula with protein content of 3.0 g/100 kcal does not fully meet the protein needs of very-low-birth weight infants. Our purpose was to compare nitrogen balance, metabolic status and growth in infants fed a standard (3.0 g/100 kcal; RegPro) and high (3.6 g/100 kcal; HiPro) protein infant formula. Infants were fed both formulas, each formula for one week in balanced cross-over design. Metabolic status was monitored throughout. Nutrient balance and plasma amino acids were determined at the end of each week. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model. Eighteen infants were studied. Nine infants received the RegPro and nine received HiPro formula first. Nitrogen intake, absorption and retention were greater with the HiPro formula. None of the infants developed uremia or metabolic acidosis but retinol-binding-protein and weight gain were greater with the HiPro formula. Increased protein accretion paralleled by better weight gain without evidence of metabolic stress indicates that a formula with a protein content of 3.6 g/100 kcal better meets protein needs in these rapidly-growing infants. Further studies are needed to determine whether these short-term outcomes will be translated into long-term benefits.

  15. New insights into the regulation of plant immunity by amino acid metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    Besides defence pathways regulated by classical stress hormones, distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. Mutations in several genes involved in Asp-derived amino acid biosynthetic pathways can have profound impact on plant resistance to specific pathogen types. For instance, amino acid imbalances associated with homoserine or threonine accumulation elevate plant immunity to oomycete pathogens but not to pathogenic fungi or bacteria. The catabolism of Lys produces the immune signal pipecolic acid (Pip), a cyclic, non-protein amino acid. Pip amplifies plant defence responses and acts as a critical regulator of plant systemic acquired resistance, defence priming and local resistance to bacterial pathogens. Asp-derived pyridine nucleotides influence both pre- and post-invasion immunity, and the catabolism of branched chain amino acids appears to affect plant resistance to distinct pathogen classes by modulating crosstalk of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-regulated defence pathways. It also emerges that, besides polyamine oxidation and NADPH oxidase, Pro metabolism is involved in the oxidative burst and the hypersensitive response associated with avirulent pathogen recognition. Moreover, the acylation of amino acids can control plant resistance to pathogens and pests by the formation of protective plant metabolites or by the modulation of plant hormone activity.

  16. Age dependency of the metabolic conversion of polyamines into amino acids in IMR-90 human embryonic lung diploid fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.Y.; Chang, Z.

    1986-07-01

    When radioactive polyamines (putrescine or spermidine) were incubated with mammalian cells in tissue culture, the radioactivity was incorporated into cellular proteins via two different metabolic pathways; one is metabolic labeling of an 18,000-dalton protein via hypusine formation, and the other is general protein synthesis employing radioactive amino acids derived from biodegradation of polyamines via GABA shunt and Krebs cycle. Aminoguanidine, a potent inhibitor of diamine oxidase, blocked the metabolic conversion of polyamines to amino acids but had no effect on the metabolic labeling of the 18,000-dalton protein. The authors have investigated these two polyamine-associated biochemical events in IMR-90 human diploid fibroblasts as a function of their population doubling level (PDL). They found that (1) the metabolic labeling of the 18,000-dalton protein was about two-fold greater in young cells (PDL = 22) than that in old cells (PDL = 48), and (2) the metabolic labeling of other cellular proteins, employing amino acids derived from putrescine via polyamine catabolic pathway, was more than six-fold greater in the old cells (PDL = 48) than in the young cells (PDL = 22). Since the rate of protein synthesis was about 1.4-fold higher in the young cells as compared to the old cells, their data indicated that the activity of catabolic conversion of putrescine (or spermidine) to amino acids in old IMR-90 cells was about eight-fold greater than that in young cells. This remarkable increase of polyamine catabolism and the slight decrease of metabolic labeling of the 18,000-dalton protein were also observed in cell strains derived from patients with premature aging disease.

  17. Integrated Transcriptome and Metabolic Analyses Reveals Novel Insights into Free Amino Acid Metabolism in Huangjinya Tea Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qunfeng; Liu, Meiya; Ruan, Jianyun

    2017-01-01

    The chlorotic tea variety Huangjinya, a natural mutant, contains enhanced levels of free amino acids in its leaves, which improves the drinking quality of its brewed tea. Consequently, this chlorotic mutant has a higher economic value than the non-chlorotic varieties. However, the molecular mechanisms behind the increased levels of free amino acids in this mutant are mostly unknown, as are the possible effects of this mutation on the overall metabolome and biosynthetic pathways in tea leaves. To gain further insight into the effects of chlorosis on the global metabolome and biosynthetic pathways in this mutant, Huangjinya plants were grown under normal and reduced sunlight, resulting in chlorotic and non-chlorotic leaves, respectively; their leaves were analyzed using transcriptomics as well as targeted and untargeted metabolomics. Approximately 5,000 genes (8.5% of the total analyzed) and ca. 300 metabolites (14.5% of the total detected) were significantly differentially regulated, thus indicating the occurrence of marked effects of light on the biosynthetic pathways in this mutant plant. Considering primary metabolism, including that of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids, significant changes were observed in the expression of genes involved in both nitrogen (N) and carbon metabolism. The suite of changes not only generated an increase in amino acids, including glutamic acid, glutamine, and theanine, but it also elevated the levels of free ammonium, citrate, and α-ketoglutarate, and lowered the levels of mono- and di-saccharides and of caffeine as compared with the non-chlorotic leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that the increased levels of amino acids in the chlorotic vs. non-chlorotic leaves are likely due to increased protein catabolism and/or decreased glycolysis and diminished biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds other than amino acids, including chlorophyll, purines, nucleotides, and alkaloids. PMID:28321230

  18. Metabolism of Sialic Acid by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Muireann; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Ventura, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacteria constitute a specific group of commensal bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 has previously been shown to utilize several plant-derived carbohydrates that include cellodextrins, starch, and galactan. In the present study, we investigated the ability of this strain to utilize the mucin- and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO)-derived carbohydrate sialic acid. Using a combination of transcriptomic and functional genomic approaches, we identified a gene cluster dedicated to the uptake and metabolism of sialic acid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that B. breve UCC2003 can cross feed on sialic acid derived from the metabolism of 3′-sialyllactose, an abundant HMO, by another infant gut bifidobacterial strain, Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010. PMID:24814790

  19. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, H.; Hamada, M.; Kato, F.

    1985-09-01

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production.

  20. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  1. Specific high-affinity binding of fatty acids to epidermal cytosolic proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.; Chung, W.L.; Mukhtar, H. )

    1991-08-01

    Cytosol from rat, mouse, and human skin or rat epidermis was incubated with (3H)arachidonic acid, (14C)retinoic acid, (14C)oleic acid, (3H)leukotriene A4, (3H)prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or (3H) 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), and protein-bound ligands were separated using Lipidex-1000 at 4C to assess the binding specificity. The binding of oleic acid and arachidonic acid with rat epidermal cytosol was rapid, saturable, and reversible. Binding of oleic acid was competed out with the simultaneous addition of other ligands and found to be in the following order: arachidonic acid greater than oleic acid greater than linoleic acid greater than lauric acid greater than leukotriene A4 greater than 15-HETE = PGE1 greater than PGE2 = PGF2. Scatchard analysis of the binding with arachidonic acid, oleic acid, and retinoic acid revealed high-affinity binding sites with the dissociation constant in the nM range. SDS-PAGE analysis of the oleic acid-bound epidermal cytosolic protein(s) revealed maximum binding at the 14.5 kDa region. The presence of the fatty acid-binding protein in epidermal cytosol and its binding to fatty acids and retinoic acid may be of significance both in the trafficking and the metabolism of fatty acids and retinoids across the skin.

  2. Nickel deficiency disrupts metabolism of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids of young pecan foliage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-02-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan.

  3. Articulation of three core metabolic processes in Arabidopsis: Fatty acid biosynthesis, leucine catabolism and starch metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mentzen, Wieslawa I; Peng, Jianling; Ransom, Nick; Nikolau, Basil J; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2008-01-01

    Background Elucidating metabolic network structures and functions in multicellular organisms is an emerging goal of functional genomics. We describe the co-expression network of three core metabolic processes in the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana: fatty acid biosynthesis, starch metabolism and amino acid (leucine) catabolism. Results These co-expression networks form modules populated by genes coding for enzymes that represent the reactions generally considered to define each pathway. However, the modules also incorporate a wider set of genes that encode transporters, cofactor biosynthetic enzymes, precursor-producing enzymes, and regulatory molecules. We tested experimentally the hypothesis that one of the genes tightly co-expressed with starch metabolism module, a putative kinase AtPERK10, will have a role in this process. Indeed, knockout lines of AtPERK10 have an altered starch accumulation. In addition, the co-expression data define a novel hierarchical transcript-level structure associated with catabolism, in which genes performing smaller, more specific tasks appear to be recruited into higher-order modules with a broader catabolic function. Conclusion Each of these core metabolic pathways is structured as a module of co-expressed transcripts that co-accumulate over a wide range of environmental and genetic perturbations and developmental stages, and represent an expanded set of macromolecules associated with the common task of supporting the functionality of each metabolic pathway. As experimentally demonstrated, co-expression analysis can provide a rich approach towards understanding gene function. PMID:18616834

  4. Myocardial Reloading After Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Alters Substrate Metabolism While Promoting Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy; Olson, Aaron K.; Rosiers, Christine Des; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart, providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. ECMO also induces stress which can adversely affect the ability to reload or wean the heart from the circuit. Metabolic impairments induced by altered loading and/or stress conditions may impact weaning. However, cardiac substrate and amino acid requirements upon weaning are unknown. We assessed the hypothesis that ventricular reloading with ECMO modulates both substrate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) and myocardial protein synthesis. Methods and Results Sixteen immature piglets (7.8 to 15.6 kg) were separated into 2 groups based on ventricular loading status: 8‐hour ECMO (UNLOAD) and postwean from ECMO (RELOAD). We infused into the coronary artery [2‐13C]‐pyruvate as an oxidative substrate and [13C6]‐L‐leucine as an indicator for amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis. Upon RELOAD, each functional parameter, which were decreased substantially by ECMO, recovered to near‐baseline level with the exclusion of minimum dP/dt. Accordingly, myocardial oxygen consumption was also increased, indicating that overall mitochondrial metabolism was reestablished. At the metabolic level, when compared to UNLOAD, RELOAD altered the contribution of various substrates/pathways to tissue pyruvate formation, favoring exogenous pyruvate versus glycolysis, and acetyl‐CoA formation, shifting away from pyruvate decarboxylation to endogenous substrate, presumably fatty acids. Furthermore, there was also a significant increase of tissue concentrations for all CAC intermediates (≈80%), suggesting enhanced anaplerosis, and of fractional protein synthesis rates (>70%). Conclusions RELOAD alters both cytosolic and mitochondrial energy substrate metabolism, while favoring leucine incorporation into protein synthesis rather than oxidation in the CAC. Improved understanding of factors governing these metabolic perturbations may

  5. Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors are essential for breast cancer cells to control their lipid/fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stäubert, Claudia; Broom, Oliver Jay; Nordström, Anders

    2015-08-14

    Cancer cells exhibit characteristic changes in their metabolism with efforts being made to address them therapeutically. However, targeting metabolic enzymes as such is a major challenge due to their essentiality for normal proliferating cells. The most successful pharmaceutical targets are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), with more than 40% of all currently available drugs acting through them.We show that, a family of metabolite-sensing GPCRs, the Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor family (HCAs), is crucial for breast cancer cells to control their metabolism and proliferation.We found HCA1 and HCA3 mRNA expression were significantly increased in breast cancer patient samples and detectable in primary human breast cancer patient cells. Furthermore, siRNA mediated knock-down of HCA3 induced considerable breast cancer cell death as did knock-down of HCA1, although to a lesser extent. Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry based analyses of breast cancer cell medium revealed a role for HCA3 in controlling intracellular lipid/fatty acid metabolism. The presence of etomoxir or perhexiline, both inhibitors of fatty acid β-oxidation rescues breast cancer cells with knocked-down HCA3 from cell death.Our data encourages the development of drugs acting on cancer-specific metabolite-sensing GPCRs as novel anti-proliferative agents for cancer therapy.

  6. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: structure elucidation and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D John; Burkart, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.

  7. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: Structure elucidation and metabolic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-20

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. Lastly, in this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.

  8. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Revisited: Structure Elucidation and Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases’ many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  9. Myocardial Oxidative Metabolism and Protein Synthesis during Mechanical Circulatory Support by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Priddy, MD, Colleen M.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena; Bouchard, Bertrand; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support essential for survival in infants and children with acute cardiac decompensation. However, ECMO also causes metabolic disturbances, which contribute to total body wasting and protein loss. Cardiac stunning can also occur which prevents ECMO weaning, and contributes to high mortality. The heart may specifically undergo metabolic impairments, which influence functional recovery. We tested the hypothesis that ECMO alters oxidative. We focused on the amino acid leucine, and integration with myocardial protein synthesis. We used a translational immature swine model in which we assessed in heart (i) the fractional contribution of leucine (FcLeucine) and pyruvate (FCpyruvate) to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA formation by nuclear magnetic resonance and (ii) global protein fractional synthesis (FSR) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Immature mixed breed Yorkshire male piglets (n = 22) were divided into four groups based on loading status (8 hours of normal circulation or ECMO) and intracoronary infusion [13C6,15N]-L-leucine (3.7 mM) alone or with [2-13C]-pyruvate (7.4 mM). ECMO decreased pulse pressure and correspondingly lowered myocardial oxygen consumption (~ 40%, n = 5), indicating decreased overall mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. However, FcLeucine was maintained and myocardial protein FSR was marginally increased. Pyruvate addition decreased tissue leucine enrichment, FcLeucine, and Fc for endogenous substrates as well as protein FSR. Conclusion: The heart under ECMO shows reduced oxidative metabolism of substrates, including amino acids, while maintaining (i) metabolic flexibility indicated by ability to respond to pyruvate, and (ii) a normal or increased capacity for global protein synthesis, suggesting an improved protein balance.

  10. PGC-1α-mediated branched-chain amino acid metabolism in the skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hatazawa, Yukino; Tadaishi, Miki; Nagaike, Yuta; Morita, Akihito; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Ezaki, Osamu; Takai-Igarashi, Takako; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Kamei, Yasutomi; Miura, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a coactivator of various nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, which is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, thermogenesis, and other biological processes that control phenotypic characteristics of various organ systems including skeletal muscle. PGC-1α in skeletal muscle is considered to be involved in contractile protein function, mitochondrial function, metabolic regulation, intracellular signaling, and transcriptional responses. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism mainly occurs in skeletal muscle mitochondria, and enzymes related to BCAA metabolism are increased by exercise. Using murine skeletal muscle overexpressing PGC-1α and cultured cells, we investigated whether PGC-1α stimulates BCAA metabolism by increasing the expression of enzymes involved in BCAA metabolism. Transgenic mice overexpressing PGC-1α specifically in the skeletal muscle had increased the expression of branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT) 2, branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), which catabolize BCAA. The expression of BCKDH kinase (BCKDK), which phosphorylates BCKDH and suppresses its enzymatic activity, was unchanged. The amount of BCAA in the skeletal muscle was significantly decreased in the transgenic mice compared with that in the wild-type mice. The amount of glutamic acid, a metabolite of BCAA catabolism, was increased in the transgenic mice, suggesting the activation of muscle BCAA metabolism by PGC-1α. In C2C12 cells, the overexpression of PGC-1α significantly increased the expression of BCAT2 and BCKDH but not BCKDK. Thus, PGC-1α in the skeletal muscle is considered to significantly contribute to BCAA metabolism.

  11. ARISTOLOCHIC ACID I METABOLISM IN THE ISOLATED PERFUSED RAT KIDNEY

    PubMed Central

    Priestap, Horacio A.; Torres, M. Cecilia; Rieger, Robert A.; Dickman, Kathleen G.; Freshwater, Tomoko; Taft, David R.; Barbieri, Manuel A.; Iden, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Aristolochic acids are natural nitro-compounds found globally in the plant genus Aristolochia that have been implicated in the severe illness in humans termed aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). Aristolochic acids undergo nitroreduction, among other metabolic reactions, and active intermediates arise that are carcinogenic. Previous experiments with rats showed that aristolochic acid I (AA-I), after oral administration or injection, is subjected to detoxication reactions to give aristolochic acid Ia, aristolactam Ia, aristolactam I and their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates that can be found in urine and faeces. Results obtained with whole rats do not clearly define the role of liver and kidney in such metabolic transformation. In this study, in order to determine the specific role of the kidney on the renal disposition of AA-I and to study the biotransformations suffered by AA-I in this organ, isolated kidneys of rats were perfused with AA-I. AA-I and metabolite concentrations were determined in perfusates and urines using HPLC procedures. The isolated perfused rat kidney model showed that AA-I distributes rapidly and extensively in kidney tissues by uptake from the peritubular capillaries and the tubules. It was also established that the kidney is able to metabolize AA-I into aristolochic acid Ia, aristolochic acid Ia O-sulfate, aristolactam Ia, aristolactam I and aristolactam Ia O-glucuronide. Rapid demethylation and sulfation of AA-I in the kidney generate aristolochic acid Ia and its sulfate conjugate that are voided to the urine. Reduction reactions to give the aristolactam metabolites occur to a slower rate. Renal clearances showed that filtered AA-I is reabsorbed at the tubules whereas the metabolites are secreted. The unconjugated metabolites produced in the renal tissues are transported to both urine and perfusate whereas the conjugated metabolites are almost exclusively secreted to the urine. PMID:22118289

  12. Regulatory mechanism of protein metabolic pathway during the differentiation process of chicken male germ cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Zuo, Qisheng; Lian, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Qingqing; Zhang, Zhentao; Wang, Yingjie; Ahmed, Mahmoud F; Tang, Beibei; Xiao, Tianrong; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun

    2015-08-01

    We explored the regulatory mechanism of protein metabolism during the differentiation process of chicken male germ cells and provide a basis for improving the induction system of embryonic stem cell differentiation to male germ cells in vitro. We sequenced the transcriptome of embryonic stem cells, primordial germ cells, and spermatogonial stem cells with RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), bioinformatics analysis methods, and detection of the key genes by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Finally, we found 16 amino acid metabolic pathways enriched in the biological metabolism during the differentiation process of embryonic stem cells to primordial germ cells and 15 amino acid metabolic pathways enriched in the differentiation stage of primordial germ cells to spermatogonial stem cells. We found three pathways, arginine-proline metabolic pathway, tyrosine metabolic pathway, and tryptophan metabolic pathway, significantly enriched in the whole differentiation process of embryonic stem cells to spermatogonial stem cells. Moreover, for these three pathways, we screened key genes such as NOS2, ADC, FAH, and IDO. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression trend of these genes were the same to RNA-Seq. Our findings showed that the three pathways and these key genes play an important role in the differentiation process of embryonic stem cells to male germ cells. These results provide basic information for improving the induction system of embryonic stem cell differentiation to male germ cells in vitro.

  13. Adjustments of Protein Metabolism in Fasting Arctic Charr, Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Alicia A; Saulnier, Roxanne J; Lamarre, Simon G

    2016-01-01

    Protein metabolism, including the interrelated processes of synthesis and degradation, mediates the growth of an animal. In ectothermic animals, protein metabolism is responsive to changes in both biotic and abiotic conditions. This study aimed to characterise responses of protein metabolism to food deprivation that occur in the coldwater salmonid, Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus. We compared two groups of Arctic charr: one fed continuously and the other deprived of food for 36 days. We measured the fractional rate of protein synthesis (KS) in individuals from the fed and fasted groups using a flooding dose technique modified for the use of deuterium-labelled phenylalanine. The enzyme activities of the three major protein degradation pathways (ubiquitin proteasome, lysosomal cathepsins and the calpain systems) were measured in the same fish. This study is the first to measure both KS and the enzymatic activity of protein degradation in the same fish, allowing us to examine the apparent contribution of different protein degradation pathways to protein turnover in various tissues (red and white muscle, liver, heart and gills). KS was lower in the white muscle and in liver of the fasted fish compared to the fed fish. There were no observable effects of food deprivation on the protease activities in any of the tissues with the exception of liver, where the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seemed to be activated during fasting conditions. Lysosomal proteolysis appears to be the primary degradation pathway for muscle protein, while the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seems to predominate in the liver. We speculate that Arctic charr regulate protein metabolism during food deprivation to conserve proteins.

  14. Adjustments of Protein Metabolism in Fasting Arctic Charr, Salvelinus alpinus

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Alicia A.; Saulnier, Roxanne J.; Lamarre, Simon G.

    2016-01-01

    Protein metabolism, including the interrelated processes of synthesis and degradation, mediates the growth of an animal. In ectothermic animals, protein metabolism is responsive to changes in both biotic and abiotic conditions. This study aimed to characterise responses of protein metabolism to food deprivation that occur in the coldwater salmonid, Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus. We compared two groups of Arctic charr: one fed continuously and the other deprived of food for 36 days. We measured the fractional rate of protein synthesis (KS) in individuals from the fed and fasted groups using a flooding dose technique modified for the use of deuterium-labelled phenylalanine. The enzyme activities of the three major protein degradation pathways (ubiquitin proteasome, lysosomal cathepsins and the calpain systems) were measured in the same fish. This study is the first to measure both KS and the enzymatic activity of protein degradation in the same fish, allowing us to examine the apparent contribution of different protein degradation pathways to protein turnover in various tissues (red and white muscle, liver, heart and gills). KS was lower in the white muscle and in liver of the fasted fish compared to the fed fish. There were no observable effects of food deprivation on the protease activities in any of the tissues with the exception of liver, where the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seemed to be activated during fasting conditions. Lysosomal proteolysis appears to be the primary degradation pathway for muscle protein, while the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seems to predominate in the liver. We speculate that Arctic charr regulate protein metabolism during food deprivation to conserve proteins. PMID:27096948

  15. Fatty Acid Metabolism and Ketogenesis in the Rat Exposed to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-30

    supplementation during infectious illness, these data suggest that carnitine supplementation would have no protein sparing effect during infection...If necessary end Identify by block number) Fatty acid metabolism, ketogenesis, carnitine , coenzymeA Am~ AT ~en80 5 22 01S 20. 9SrA~r(Cerdlus 10 0~0...control sites of hepatic ketogenesis, including hepatic concentrations * of coenzyme A, carnitine and malonyl-coenzyme A.. These studies show that dun

  16. Citric acid metabolism in hetero- and homofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Drinan, D F; Robin, S; Cogan, T M

    1976-01-01

    The effect of citrate on production of diacetyl and acetoin by four strains each of heterofermentative and homofermentative lactic acid bacteria capable of utilizing citrate was studied. Acetoin was quantitatively the more important compound. The heterofermentative bacteria produced no acetoin or diacetyl in the absence of citrate, and two strains produced traces of acetoin in its presence. Citrate stimulated the growth rate of the heterofermentative lactobacilli. Acidification of all heterofermentative cultures with citric acid resulted in acetoin production. Destruction of accumulated acetoin appeared to coincide with the disappearance of citrate. All homofermentative bacteria produced more acetoin and diacetyl in the presence of citrate than in its absence. Citrate utilization was begun immediately by the streptococci but was delayed until at least the middle of the exponential phase in the case of the lactobacilli. PMID:5054

  17. Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Alters Substrate Metabolism While Promoting Protein Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-08-19

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after ECMO remains high.Cardiac substrate and amino acid requirements upon weaning are unknown and may impact recovery. We assessed the hypothesis that ventricular reloading modulates both substrate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) and myocardial protein synthesis. Fourteen immature piglets (7.8-15.6 kg) were separated into 2 groups based on ventricular loading status: 8 hour-ECMO (UNLOAD) and post-wean from ECMO (RELOAD). We infused [2-13C]-pyruvate as an oxidative substrate and [13C6]-L-leucine, as a tracer of amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis into the coronary artery. RELOAD showed marked elevations in myocardial oxygen consumption above baseline and UNLOAD. Pyruvate uptake was markedly increased though RELOAD decreased pyruvate contribution to oxidative CAC metabolism.RELOAD also increased absolute concentrations of all CAC intermediates, while maintaining or increasing 13C-molar percent enrichment. RELOAD also significantly increased cardiac fractional protein synthesis rates by >70% over UNLOAD. Conclusions: RELOAD produced high energy metabolic requirement and rebound protein synthesis. Relative pyruvate decarboxylation decreased with RELOAD while promoting anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation and amino acid incorporation into protein rather than to the CAC for oxidation. These perturbations may serve as therapeutic targets to improve contractile function after ECMO.

  18. Insulin resistance of protein metabolism in type 2 diabetes and impact on dietary needs: a review.

    PubMed

    Gougeon, Réjeanne

    2013-04-01

    Evidence shows that the metabolism of protein is altered in type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance not only applies to glucose and lipid but protein metabolism as well. Population surveys report greater susceptibility to loss of lean tissue and muscle strength with aging in diabetes. Prevention of sarcopenia requires that protein receives more attention in dietary prescriptions. Protein intake of 1-1.2 g/kg of body weight (with weight at a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2))/day may be distributed equally among 3 meals a day, including breakfast, to optimize anabolism. Adopting a dietary pattern that provides a high plant-to-animal ratio and greater food volume favouring consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruits, complemented with fish, low fat dairy and meat (preferably cooked slowly in moisture), soy and nuts may assist with metabolic and weight control. Depending on the magnitude of energy restriction, usual protein intake should be maintained or increased, and the caloric deficit taken from fat and carbohydrate foods. Exercise before protein-rich meals improves skeletal muscle protein anabolism. Because high levels of amino acids lower glucose uptake in individuals without diabetes, the challenge remains to define the optimal protein intake and exercise regimen to protect from losses of muscle mass and strength while maintaining adequate glucose control in type 2 diabetes.

  19. Role of Protein–Protein Interactions in Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Through their unique oxidative chemistry, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) catalyze the elimination of most drugs and toxins from the human body. Protein–protein interactions play a critical role in this process. Historically, the study of CYP–protein interactions has focused on their electron transfer partners and allosteric mediators, cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5. However, CYPs can bind other proteins that also affect CYP function. Some examples include the progesterone receptor membrane component 1, damage resistance protein 1, human and bovine serum albumin, and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, in addition to other CYP isoforms. Furthermore, disruption of these interactions can lead to altered paths of metabolism and the production of toxic metabolites. In this review, we summarize the available evidence for CYP protein–protein interactions from the literature and offer a discussion of the potential impact of future studies aimed at characterizing noncanonical protein–protein interactions with CYP enzymes. PMID:25133307

  20. Glutaric acid moderately compromises energy metabolism in rat brain.

    PubMed

    da C Ferreira, Gustavo; Viegas, Carolina M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Latini, Alexandra; Dutra-Filho, Carlos S; Wyse, Angela T S; Wannmacher, Clóvis M D; Vargas, Carmen R; Wajner, Moacir

    2005-12-01

    Glutaric acidemia type I is an inherited metabolic disorder biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of predominantly glutaric acid (GA). Affected patients present frontotemporal hypotrophy, as well as caudate and putamen injury following acute encephalopathic crises. Considering that the underlying mechanisms of basal ganglia damage in this disorder are poorly known, in the present study we tested the effects of glutaric acid (0.2-5mM) on critical enzyme activities of energy metabolism, namely the respiratory chain complexes I-IV, succinate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in midbrain of developing rats. Glutaric acid significantly inhibited creatine kinase activity (up to 26%) even at the lowest dose used in the assays (0.2mM). We also observed that CK inhibition was prevented by pre-incubation of the homogenates with reduced glutathione, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of GA was possibly mediated by oxidation of essential thiol groups of the enzyme. In addition, the activities of the respiratory chain complex I-III and of succinate dehydrogenase were also significantly inhibited by 20 and 30%, respectively, at the highest glutaric acid concentration tested (5mM). In contrast, complexes II-III and IV activities of the electron transport chain were not affected by the acid. The effect of glutaric acid on the rate of oxygen consumption in intact mitochondria from the rat cerebrum was also investigated. Glutaric acid (1mM) significantly lowered the respiratory control ratio (state III/state IV) up to 40% in the presence of the respiratory substrates glutamate/malate or succinate. Moreover, state IV respiration linked to NAD and FAD substrates was significantly increased in GA-treated mitochondria while state III was significantly diminished. The results indicate that the major metabolite accumulating in glutaric acidemia type I moderately compromises brain energy metabolism in vitro.

  1. Acid-base metabolism: implications for kidney stones formation.

    PubMed

    Hess, Bernhard

    2006-04-01

    The physiology and pathophysiology of renal H+ ion excretion and urinary buffer systems are reviewed. The main focus is on the two major conditions related to acid-base metabolism that cause kidney stone formation, i.e., distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and abnormally low urine pH with subsequent uric acid stone formation. Both the entities can be seen on the background of disturbances of the major urinary buffer system, NH3+ <--> NH4+. On the one hand, reduced distal tubular secretion of H+ ions results in an abnormally high urinary pH and either incomplete or complete dRTA. On the other hand, reduced production/availability of NH4+ is the cause of an abnormally low urinary pH, which predisposes to uric acid stone formation. Most recent research indicates that the latter abnormality may be a renal manifestation of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Despite opposite deviations from normal urinary pH values, both the dRTA and uric acid stone formation due to low urinary pH require the same treatment, i.e., alkali. In the dRTA, alkali is needed for improving the body's buffer capacity, whereas the goal of alkali treatment in uric acid stone formers is to increase the urinary pH to 6.2-6.8 in order to minimize uric acid crystallization.

  2. A liver stress-endocrine nexus promotes metabolic integrity during dietary protein dilution

    PubMed Central

    Maida, Adriano; Zota, Annika; Sjøberg, Kim A.; Sijmonsma, Tjeerd P.; Pfenninger, Anja; Christensen, Marie M.; Gantert, Thomas; Fuhrmeister, Jessica; Rothermel, Ulrike; Schmoll, Dieter; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Iovanna, Juan L.; Stemmer, Kerstin; Herzig, Stephan; Rose, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein intake is linked to an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although dietary protein dilution (DPD) can slow the progression of some aging-related disorders, whether this strategy affects the development and risk for obesity-associated metabolic disease such as T2D is unclear. Here, we determined that DPD in mice and humans increases serum markers of metabolic health. In lean mice, DPD promoted metabolic inefficiency by increasing carbohydrate and fat oxidation. In nutritional and polygenic murine models of obesity, DPD prevented and curtailed the development of impaired glucose homeostasis independently of obesity and food intake. DPD-mediated metabolic inefficiency and improvement of glucose homeostasis were independent of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), but required expression of liver-derived fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in both lean and obese mice. FGF21 expression and secretion as well as the associated metabolic remodeling induced by DPD also required induction of liver-integrated stress response–driven nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1). Insufficiency of select nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) was necessary and adequate for NUPR1 and subsequent FGF21 induction and secretion in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that DPD promotes improved glucose homeostasis through an NEAA insufficiency–induced liver NUPR1/FGF21 axis. PMID:27548521

  3. A liver stress-endocrine nexus promotes metabolic integrity during dietary protein dilution.

    PubMed

    Maida, Adriano; Zota, Annika; Sjøberg, Kim A; Schumacher, Jonas; Sijmonsma, Tjeerd P; Pfenninger, Anja; Christensen, Marie M; Gantert, Thomas; Fuhrmeister, Jessica; Rothermel, Ulrike; Schmoll, Dieter; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Iovanna, Juan L; Stemmer, Kerstin; Kiens, Bente; Herzig, Stephan; Rose, Adam J

    2016-09-01

    Dietary protein intake is linked to an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although dietary protein dilution (DPD) can slow the progression of some aging-related disorders, whether this strategy affects the development and risk for obesity-associated metabolic disease such as T2D is unclear. Here, we determined that DPD in mice and humans increases serum markers of metabolic health. In lean mice, DPD promoted metabolic inefficiency by increasing carbohydrate and fat oxidation. In nutritional and polygenic murine models of obesity, DPD prevented and curtailed the development of impaired glucose homeostasis independently of obesity and food intake. DPD-mediated metabolic inefficiency and improvement of glucose homeostasis were independent of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), but required expression of liver-derived fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in both lean and obese mice. FGF21 expression and secretion as well as the associated metabolic remodeling induced by DPD also required induction of liver-integrated stress response-driven nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1). Insufficiency of select nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) was necessary and adequate for NUPR1 and subsequent FGF21 induction and secretion in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that DPD promotes improved glucose homeostasis through an NEAA insufficiency-induced liver NUPR1/FGF21 axis.

  4. Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-10-15

    The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio.

  5. Transport and metabolic effects of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, K W; Roon, R J

    1982-11-24

    alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid is actively transported into yeast cells by the general amino acid transport system. The system exhibits a Km for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid of 270 microM, a Vmax of 24 nmol/min per mg cells (dry weight), and a pH optimum of 4.1-4.3. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid is also transported by a minor system(s) with a Vmax of 1.7 nmol/min per mg cells. Transport occurs against a concentration gradient with the concentration ratio reaching over 1000:1 (in/out). The alpha-aminoisobutyric acid is not significantly metabolized or incorporated into protein after an 18 h incubation. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid inhibits cell growth when a poor nitrogen source such as proline is provided but not with good nitrogen sources such as NH+4. During nitrogen starvation alpha-aminoisobutyric acid strongly inhibits the synthesis of the nitrogen catabolite repression sensitive enzyme, asparaginase II. Studies with a mutant yeast strain (GDH-CR) suggest that alpha-aminoisobutyric acid inhibition of asparaginase II synthesis occurs because alpha-aminoisobutyric acid is an effective inhibitor of protein synthesis in nitrogen starved cells.

  6. Metabolic syndrome: adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and malonyl coenzyme A.

    PubMed

    Ruderman, Neil B; Saha, Asish K

    2006-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be defined as a state of metabolic dysregulation characterized by insulin resistance, central obesity, and a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, premature atherosclerosis, and other diseases. An increasing body of evidence has linked the metabolic syndrome to abnormalities in lipid metabolism that ultimately lead to cellular dysfunction. We review here the hypothesis that, in many instances, the cause of these lipid abnormalities could be a dysregulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/malonyl coenzyme A (CoA) fuel-sensing and signaling mechanism. Such dysregulation could be reflected by isolated increases in malonyl CoA or by concurrent changes in malonyl CoA and AMPK, both of which would alter intracellular fatty acid partitioning. The possibility is also raised that pharmacological agents and other factors that activate AMPK and/or decrease malonyl CoA could be therapeutic targets.

  7. Cell organelles from crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants : II. Compartmentation of enzymes of the crassulacean acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schnarrenberger, C; Groß, D; Burkhard, C; Herbert, M

    1980-02-01

    The intracellular distribution of enzymes involved in the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) has been studied in Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. and Crassula lycopodioides Lam. After separation of cell organelles by isopycnic centrifugation, enzymes of the Crassulacean acid metabolism were found in the following cell fractions: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the chloroplasts; NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase in the mitochondria and in the supernatant; NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the chloroplasts; NADP-dependent malic enzyme in the supernatant and to a minor extent in the chloroplasts; NAD-dependent malic enzyme in the supernatant and to some degree in the mitochondria; and pyruvate; orthophosphate dikinase in the chloroplasts. The activity of the NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase was due to three isoenzymes separated by (NH4)2SO4 gradient solubilization. These isoenzymes represented 17, 78, and 5% of the activity recovered, respectively, in the order of elution. The isoenzyme eluting first was associated with the mitochondria and the second isoenzyme was of cytosolic origin, while the intracellular location of the third isoenzyme was probably the peroxisome. Based on these findings, the metabolic path of Crassulacean acid metabolism within cells of CAM plants is discussed.

  8. Root carbon and protein metabolism associated with heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bingru; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Xu, Jichen

    2012-05-01

    Extensive past efforts have been taken toward understanding heat tolerance mechanisms of the aboveground organs. Root systems play critical roles in whole-plant adaptation to heat stress, but are less studied. This review discusses recent research results revealing some critical physiological and metabolic factors underlying root thermotolerance, with a focus on temperate perennial grass species. Comparative analysis of differential root responses to supraoptimal temperatures by a heat-adapted temperate C3 species, Agrostis scabra, which can survive high soil temperatures up to 45 °C in geothermal areas in Yellow Stone National Park, and a heat-sensitive cogeneric species, Agrostis stolonifera, suggested that efficient carbon and protein metabolism is critical for root thermotolerance. Superior root thermotolerance in a perennial grass was associated with a greater capacity to control respiratory costs through respiratory acclimation, lowering carbon investment in maintenance for protein turnover, and efficiently partitioning carbon into different metabolic pools and alternative respiration pathways. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that root thermotolerance was associated with an increased maintenance of stability and less degradation of proteins, particularly those important for metabolism and energy production. In addition, thermotolerant roots are better able to maintain growth and activity during heat stress by activating stress defence proteins such as those participating in antioxidant defence (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase) and chaperoning protection (i.e. heat shock protein).

  9. Detection of non-protein amino acids in the presence of protein amino acids. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapshak, P.; Okaji, M.

    1972-01-01

    Studies conducted with the JEOL 5AH amino acid analyzer are described. This instrument makes possible the programming of the chromatographic process. Data are presented showing the separations of seventeen non-protein amino acids in the presence of eighteen protein amino acids. It is pointed out that distinct separations could be obtained in the case of a number of chemically similar compounds, such as ornithine and lysine, N-amidino alanine and arginine, and iminodiacetic acid and S-carboxymethyl cysteine and aspartic acid.

  10. Bile Acids, FXR, and Metabolic Effects of Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Olivier F.; Still, Christopher D.; Argyropoulos, George; Edwards, Michael; Gerhard, Glenn S.

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity represent major risk factors for diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Obesity is associated with a chronic and progressive inflammatory response leading to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus, although the precise mechanism mediating this inflammatory process remains poorly understood. The most effective intervention for the treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery, leads to glucose normalization and remission of T2D. Recent work in both clinical studies and animal models supports bile acids (BAs) as key mediators of these effects. BAs are involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis primarily via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) transcription factor. BAs are also involved in regulating genes involved in inflammation, obesity, and lipid metabolism. Here, we review the novel role of BAs in bariatric surgery and the intersection between BAs and immune, obesity, weight loss, and lipid metabolism genes. PMID:27006824

  11. Metabolic Conversion of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid in Oxalate-accumulating Plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, J C; Loewus, F A

    1975-08-01

    l-Ascorbic acid-1-(14)C and its oxidation product, dehydro-l-ascorbic acid, produced labeled oxalic acid in oxalate-accumulating plants such as spinach seedlings (Spinacia oleracea) and the detached leaves of woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta and O. oregana), shamrock (Oxalis adenopylla), and begonia (Begonia evansiana). In O. oregana, conversion occurred equally well in the presence or absence of light. This relationship between l-ascorbic acid metabolism and oxalic acid formation must be given careful consideration in attempts to explain oxalic accumulation in plants.

  12. Metabolic Conversion of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joan C.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1975-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid-1-14C and its oxidation product, dehydro-l-ascorbic acid, produced labeled oxalic acid in oxalate-accumulating plants such as spinach seedlings (Spinacia oleracea) and the detached leaves of woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta and O. oregana), shamrock (Oxalis adenopylla), and begonia (Begonia evansiana). In O. oregana, conversion occurred equally well in the presence or absence of light. This relationship between l-ascorbic acid metabolism and oxalic acid formation must be given careful consideration in attempts to explain oxalic accumulation in plants. PMID:16659288

  13. Metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris to produce ricinoleic acid, a hydroxy fatty acid of industrial importance.

    PubMed

    Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Chen, Yan; Ng, Siew Hon; Chen, Jianan; Qiu, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid) has many specialized uses in bioproduct industries, while castor bean is currently the only commercial source for the fatty acid. This report describes metabolic engineering of a microbial system (Pichia pastoris) to produce ricinoleic acid using a "push" (synthesis) and "pull" (assembly) strategy. CpFAH, a fatty acid hydroxylase from Claviceps purpurea, was used for synthesis of ricinoleic acid, and CpDGAT1, a diacylglycerol acyl transferase for the triacylglycerol synthesis from the same species, was used for assembly of the fatty acid. Coexpression of CpFAH and CpDGAT1 produced higher lipid contents and ricinoleic acid levels than expression of CpFAH alone. Coexpression in a mutant haploid strain defective in the Δ12 desaturase activity resulted in a higher level of ricinoleic acid than that in the diploid strain. Intriguingly, the ricinoleic acid produced was mainly distributed in the neutral lipid fractions, particularly the free fatty acid form, but with little in the polar lipids. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the metabolic engineering strategy and excellent capacity of the microbial system for production of ricinoleic acid as an alternative to plant sources for industrial uses.

  14. Systematic identification of genes involved in metabolic acid stress resistance in yeast and their potential as cancer targets

    PubMed Central

    Shin, John J.; Aftab, Qurratulain; Austin, Pamela; McQueen, Jennifer A.; Poon, Tak; Li, Shu Chen; Young, Barry P.; Roskelley, Calvin D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A hallmark of all primary and metastatic tumours is their high rate of glucose uptake and glycolysis. A consequence of the glycolytic phenotype is the accumulation of metabolic acid; hence, tumour cells experience considerable intracellular acid stress. To compensate, tumour cells upregulate acid pumps, which expel the metabolic acid into the surrounding tumour environment, resulting in alkalization of intracellular pH and acidification of the tumour microenvironment. Nevertheless, we have only a limited understanding of the consequences of altered intracellular pH on cell physiology, or of the genes and pathways that respond to metabolic acid stress. We have used yeast as a genetic model for metabolic acid stress with the rationale that the metabolic changes that occur in cancer that lead to intracellular acid stress are likely fundamental. Using a quantitative systems biology approach we identified 129 genes required for optimal growth under conditions of metabolic acid stress. We identified six highly conserved protein complexes with functions related to oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III and IV), mitochondrial tRNA biosynthesis [glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase complex], histone methylation (Set1C–COMPASS), lysosome biogenesis (AP-3 adapter complex), and mRNA processing and P-body formation (PAN complex). We tested roles for two of these, AP-3 adapter complex and PAN deadenylase complex, in resistance to acid stress using a myeloid leukaemia-derived human cell line that we determined to be acid stress resistant. Loss of either complex inhibited growth of Hap1 cells at neutral pH and caused sensitivity to acid stress, indicating that AP-3 and PAN complexes are promising new targets in the treatment of cancer. Additionally, our data suggests that tumours may be genetically sensitized to acid stress and hence susceptible to acid stress-directed therapies, as many tumours accumulate mutations in mitochondrial

  15. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium infection causes metabolic changes in chicken muscle involving AMPK, fatty acid and insulin/mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Ryan J; Napper, Scott; Kogut, Michael H

    2013-05-17

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) infection of chickens that are more than a few days old results in asymptomatic cecal colonization with persistent shedding of bacteria. We hypothesized that while the bacterium colonizes and persists locally in the cecum it has systemic effects, including changes to metabolic pathways of skeletal muscle, influencing the physiology of the avian host. Using species-specific peptide arrays to perform kinome analysis on metabolic signaling pathways in skeletal muscle of Salmonella Typhimurium infected chickens, we have observed key metabolic changes that affected fatty acid and glucose metabolism through the 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the insulin/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Over a three week time course of infection, we observed changes in the phosphorylation state of the AMPK protein, and proteins up and down the pathway. In addition, changes to a large subset of the protein intermediates of the insulin/mTOR pathway in the skeletal muscle were altered by infection. These changes occur in pathways with direct effects on fatty acid and glucose metabolism. This is the first report of significant cellular metabolic changes occurring systemically in chicken due to a Salmonella infection. These results have implications not only for animal production and health but also for the understanding of how Salmonella infection in the intestine can have widespread, systemic effects on the metabolism of chickens without disease-like symptoms.

  16. Nucleic acids, proteins, and chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, D. A.; Profy, A. T.; Walstrum, S. A.; Needels, M. C.; Bulack, S. C.; Lo, K. M.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with experimental results related, in one case, to the chirality of nucleotides, and, in another case, to the possibility of a link between the chirality of nucleic acids, and that of peptides. It has been found that aminoacylation of the 'internal' hydroxyl group of a dinucleoside monophosphate can occur stereoselectively. However, this reaction has not yet been made a part of a working peptide synthesis scheme. The formation and cleavage of oligonucleotides is considered. In the event of the formation of a helical complex between the oligonucleotide and the polymer, 1-prime,5-prime-bonds in the oligomer are found to become more resistant towards cleavage. The conditions required for peptide bond formation are examined, taking into account the known structures of RNA and possible mechanisms for prebiotic peptide bond formation. The possibility is considered that the 2-prime,5-prime-internucleotide linkage could have played an important part in the early days of biological peptide synthesis.

  17. Protein design in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Pleiss, Jürgen

    2011-10-01

    Starting from experimental data on sequence, structure or biochemical properties of enzymes, protein design seeks to construct enzymes with desired activity, stability, specificity and selectivity. Two strategies are widely used to investigate sequence-structure-function relationships: statistical methods to analyse protein families or mutant libraries, and molecular modelling methods to study proteins and their interaction with ligands or substrates. On the basis of these methods, protein design has been successfully applied to fine-tune bottleneck enzymes in metabolic engineering and to design enzymes with new substrate spectra and new functions. However, constructing efficient metabolic pathways by integrating individual enzymes into a complex system is challenging. The field of synthetic biology is still in its infancy, but promising results have demonstrated the feasibility and usefulness of the concept.

  18. Control of immune response by amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Ursula; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-07-01

    The interaction between pathogenic microorganisms and their hosts is regulated by reciprocal survival strategies, including competition for essential nutrients. Though paradoxical, mammalian hosts have learned to take advantage of amino acid catabolism for controlling pathogen invasion and, at the same time, regulating their own immune responses. In this way, ancient catabolic enzymes have acquired novel functions and evolved into new structures with highly specialized functions, which go beyond the struggle for survival. In this review, we analyze the evidence supporting a critical role for the metabolism of various amino acids in regulating different steps of both innate and adaptive immunity.

  19. Metabolism of Cholesterol and Bile Acids by the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The human gastro-intestinal tract hosts a complex and diverse microbial community, whose collective genetic coding capacity vastly exceeds that of the human genome. As a consequence, the gut microbiota produces metabolites from a large range of molecules that host's enzymes are not able to convert. Among these molecules, two main classes of steroids, cholesterol and bile acids, denote two different examples of bacterial metabolism in the gut. Therefore, cholesterol is mainly converted into coprostanol, a non absorbable sterol which is excreted in the feces. Moreover, this conversion occurs in a part of the human population only. Conversely, the primary bile acids (cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids) are converted to over twenty different secondary bile acid metabolites by the gut microbiota. The main bile salt conversions, which appear in the gut of the whole human population, include deconjugation, oxidation and epimerization of hydroxyl groups at C3, C7 and C12, 7-dehydroxylation, esterification and desulfatation. If the metabolisms of cholesterol and bile acids by the gut microbiota are known for decades, their consequences on human health and disease are poorly understood and only start to be considered. PMID:25437605

  20. Metabolism of cholesterol and bile acids by the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Philippe

    2013-12-30

    The human gastro-intestinal tract hosts a complex and diverse microbial community, whose collective genetic coding capacity vastly exceeds that of the human genome. As a consequence, the gut microbiota produces metabolites from a large range of molecules that host's enzymes are not able to convert. Among these molecules, two main classes of steroids, cholesterol and bile acids, denote two different examples of bacterial metabolism in the gut. Therefore, cholesterol is mainly converted into coprostanol, a non absorbable sterol which is excreted in the feces. Moreover, this conversion occurs in a part of the human population only. Conversely, the primary bile acids (cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids) are converted to over twenty different secondary bile acid metabolites by the gut microbiota. The main bile salt conversions, which appear in the gut of the whole human population, include deconjugation, oxidation and epimerization of hydroxyl groups at C3, C7 and C12, 7-dehydroxylation, esterification and desulfatation. If the metabolisms of cholesterol and bile acids by the gut microbiota are known for decades, their consequences on human health and disease are poorly understood and only start to be considered.

  1. D-lactic acid production by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Tomiko; Tokuhiro, Kenro; Nagamori, Eiji; Onishi, Toru; Saitoh, Satoshi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Haruo

    2006-02-01

    Poly D-lactic acid is an important polymer because it improves the thermostability of poly L-lactic acid by the stereo complex formation. We constructed a metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae that produces D-lactic acid efficiently. In this recombinant, the coding region of pyruvate decarboxylase 1 (PDC1) was completely deleted, and two copies of the D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) gene from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strain NBRC3426 were introduced into the genome. The D-lactate production reached 61.5 g/l, the amount of glucose being transformed into D-lactic acid being 61.2% under neutralizing conditions. Additionally, the yield of free D-lactic acid was also shown to be 53.0% under non-neutralizing conditions. It was confirmed that D-lactic acid of extremely high optical purity of 99.9% or higher. Our finding obtained the possibility of a new approach for pure d-lactic acid production without a neutralizing process compared with other techniques involving lactic acid bacteria and transgenic Escherichia coli.

  2. Metabolic reprogramming by the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-lactic acid axis: Linking metabolism and diverse neuropathophysiologies.

    PubMed

    Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that there is a complex interplay between metabolism and chronic disorders in the nervous system. In particular, the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase (PDK)-lactic acid axis is a critical link that connects metabolic reprogramming and the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. PDKs, via regulation of PDH complex activity, orchestrate the conversion of pyruvate either aerobically to acetyl-CoA, or anaerobically to lactate. The kinases are also involved in neurometabolic dysregulation under pathological conditions. Lactate, an energy substrate for neurons, is also a recently acknowledged signaling molecule involved in neuronal plasticity, neuron-glia interactions, neuroimmune communication, and nociception. More recently, the PDK-lactic acid axis has been recognized to modulate neuronal and glial phenotypes and activities, contributing to the pathophysiologies of diverse neurological disorders. This review covers the recent advances that implicate the PDK-lactic acid axis as a novel linker of metabolism and diverse neuropathophysiologies. We finally explore the possibilities of employing the PDK-lactic acid axis and its downstream mediators as putative future therapeutic strategies aimed at prevention or treatment of neurological disorders.

  3. Maintenance Carbon Cycle in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, William H.; Severson, Ray F.; Black, Clanton C.

    1985-01-01

    The reciprocal relationship between diurnal changes in organic acid and storage carbohydrate was examined in the leaves of three Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. It was found that depletion of leaf hexoses at night was sufficient to account quantitatively for increase in malate in Ananas comosus but not in Sedum telephium or Kalanchoë daigremontiana. Fructose and to a lesser extent glucose underwent the largest changes. Glucose levels in S. telephium leaves oscillated diurnally but were not reciprocally related to malate fluctuations. Analysis of isolated protoplasts and vacuoles from leaves of A. comosus and S. telephium revealed that vacuoles contain a large percentage (>50%) of the protoplast glucose, fructose and malate, citrate, isocitrate, ascorbate and succinate. Sucrose, a major constituent of intact leaves, was not detectable or was at extremely low levels in protoplasts and vacuoles from both plants. In isolated vacuoles from both A. comosus and S. telephium, hexose levels decreased at night at the same time malate increased. Only in A. comosus, however, could hexose metabolism account for a significant amount of the nocturnal increase in malate. We conclude that, in A. comosus, soluble sugars are part of the daily maintenance carbon cycle and that the vacuole plays a dynamic role in the diurnal carbon assimilation cycle of this Crassulacean acid metabolism plant. PMID:16664005

  4. Ancestral genetic complexity of arachidonic acid metabolism in Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Zou, Qiuqiong; Yu, Ting; Song, Cuikai; Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Shangwu; Ren, Zhenghua; Xu, Anlong

    2014-09-01

    Eicosanoids play an important role in inducing complex and crucial physiological processes in animals. Eicosanoid biosynthesis in animals is widely reported; however, eicosanoid production in invertebrate tissue is remarkably different to vertebrates and in certain respects remains elusive. We, for the first time, compared the orthologs involved in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in 14 species of invertebrates and 3 species of vertebrates. Based on parsimony, a complex AA-metabolic system may have existed in the common ancestor of the Metazoa, and then expanded and diversified through invertebrate lineages. A primary vertebrate-like AA-metabolic system via cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways was further identified in the basal chordate, amphioxus. The expression profiling of AA-metabolic enzymes and lipidomic analysis of eicosanoid production in the tissues of amphioxus supported our supposition. Thus, we proposed that the ancestral complexity of AA-metabolic network diversified with the different lineages of invertebrates, adapting with the diversity of body plans and ecological opportunity, and arriving at the vertebrate-like pattern in the basal chordate, amphioxus.

  5. Ultraviolet and 5'fluorodeoxyuridine induced random mutagenesis in Chlorella vulgaris and its impact on fatty acid profile: a new insight on lipid-metabolizing genes and structural characterization of related proteins.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Josephine; Rangamaran, Vijaya Raghavan; Gopal, Dharani; Shivasankarasubbiah, Kumar T; Thilagam, Mary Leema J; Peter Dhassiah, Magesh; Padinjattayil, Divya Shridhar M; Valsalan, VinithKumar N; Manambrakat, Vijayakumaran; Dakshinamurthy, Sivakumar; Thirunavukkarasu, Sivaraman; Ramalingam, Kirubagaran

    2015-02-01

    The present study was aimed at randomly mutating the microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, in order to alter its cellular behaviour towards increased lipid production for efficient biodiesel production from algal biomass. Individual mutants from ultraviolet light (UV-1 (30 s exposure), UV-2 (60 s exposure) and UV-3 (90 s exposure)) and 5'fluorodeoxyuridine (5'FDU-1 (0.25 mM) and 5'FDU-2 (0.50 mM)) exposed cells were identified to explore an alternative method for lipid enhancement. A marginally significant decrease in biomass in the UV mutants; marked increase in the lipid content in UV-2 and 5'FDU-1 mutants; significant increase in saturated fatty acids level, especially in UV-2 mutant; insignificant increase in lipid production when these mutants were subjected to an additional stress of nitrogen starvation and predominantly enhanced level of unsaturated fatty acids in all the strains except UV-2 were noted. Chloroplast ultrastructural alterations and defective biosynthesis of chloroplast specific lipid constituents were observed in the mutants. Modelling of three-dimensional structures of acetyl coA carboxylase (ACCase), omega-6, plastid delta-12 and microsomal delta-12 fatty acid desaturases for the first time and ligand-interaction studies greatly substantiated our findings. A replacement of leucine by a serine residue in the acetyl coA carboxylase gene of UV-2 mutant suggests the reason behind lipid enhancement in UV-2 mutant. Higher activity of ACCase in UV-2 and 5'FDU-1 strongly proves the functional consequences of gene mutation to lipid production. In conclusion, algal mutants exhibited significant impact on biodiesel production through structural alterations in the lipid-metabolizing genes, thereby enhancing lipid production and saturated fatty acid levels.

  6. Light quality modulates metabolic synchronization over the diel phases of crassulacean acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ceusters, Johan; Borland, Anne M.; Taybi, Tahar; Frans, Mario; Godts, Christof; De Proft, Maurice P.

    2014-01-01

    Temporal compartmentation of carboxylation processes is a defining feature of crassulacean acid metabolism and involves circadian control of key metabolic and transport steps that regulate the supply and demand for carbon over a 24h cycle. Recent insights on the molecular workings of the circadian clock and its connection with environmental inputs raise new questions on the importance of light quality and, by analogy, certain photoreceptors for synchronizing the metabolic components of CAM. The present work tested the hypothesis that optimal coupling of stomatal conductance, net CO2 uptake, and the reciprocal turnover of carbohydrates and organic acids over the diel CAM cycle requires both blue and red light input signals. Contrasting monochromatic wavelengths of blue, green, and red light (i.e. 475, 530, 630nm) with low fluence rates (10 μmol m–2 s–1) were administered for 16 hours each diel cycle for a total treatment time of 48 hours to the obligate CAM bromeliad, Aechmea ‘Maya’. Of the light treatments imposed, low-fluence blue light was a key determinant in regulating stomatal responses, organic acid mobilization from the vacuole, and daytime decarboxylation. However, the reciprocal relationship between starch and organic acid turnover that is typical for CAM was uncoupled under low-fluence blue light. Under low-fluence red or green light, the diel turnover of storage carbohydrates was orchestrated in line with the requirements of CAM, but a consistent delay in acid consumption at dawn compared with plants under white or low-fluence blue light was noted. Consistent with the acknowledged influences of both red and blue light as input signals for the circadian clock, the data stress the importance of both red and blue-light signalling pathways for synchronizing the metabolic and physiological components of CAM over the day/night cycle. PMID:24803500

  7. Fully automated software solution for protein quantitation by global metabolic labeling with stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Bindschedler, L V; Cramer, R

    2011-06-15

    Metabolic stable isotope labeling is increasingly employed for accurate protein (and metabolite) quantitation using mass spectrometry (MS). It provides sample-specific isotopologues that can be used to facilitate comparative analysis of two or more samples. Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) has been used for almost a decade in proteomic research and analytical software solutions have been established that provide an easy and integrated workflow for elucidating sample abundance ratios for most MS data formats. While SILAC is a discrete labeling method using specific amino acids, global metabolic stable isotope labeling using isotopes such as (15)N labels the entire element content of the sample, i.e. for (15)N the entire peptide backbone in addition to all nitrogen-containing side chains. Although global metabolic labeling can deliver advantages with regard to isotope incorporation and costs, the requirements for data analysis are more demanding because, for instance for polypeptides, the mass difference introduced by the label depends on the amino acid composition. Consequently, there has been less progress on the automation of the data processing and mining steps for this type of protein quantitation. Here, we present a new integrated software solution for the quantitative analysis of protein expression in differential samples and show the benefits of high-resolution MS data in quantitative proteomic analyses.

  8. Therapeutic paracetamol treatment in older persons induces dietary and metabolic modifications related to sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Pickering, Gisèle; Lyan, Bernard; Ducheix, Gilles; Brandolini-Bunlon, Marion; Glomot, Françoise; Dardevet, Dominique; Dubray, Claude; Papet, Isabelle

    2012-02-01

    Sulfur amino acids are determinant for the detoxification of paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) through sulfate and glutathione conjugations. Long-term paracetamol treatment is common in the elderly, despite a potential cysteine/glutathione deficiency. Detoxification could occur at the expense of anti-oxidative defenses and whole body protein stores in elderly. We tested how older persons satisfy the extra demand in sulfur amino acids induced by long-term paracetamol treatment, focusing on metabolic and nutritional aspects. Effects of 3 g/day paracetamol for 14 days on fasting blood glutathione, plasma amino acids and sulfate, urinary paracetamol metabolites, and urinary metabolomic were studied in independently living older persons (five women, five men, mean (±SEM) age 74 ± 1 years). Dietary intakes were recorded before and at the end of the treatment and ingested sulfur amino acids were evaluated. Fasting blood glutathione, plasma amino acids, and sulfate were unchanged. Urinary nitrogen excretion supported a preservation of whole body proteins, but large-scale urinary metabolomic analysis revealed an oxidation of some sulfur-containing compounds. Dietary protein intake was 13% higher at the end than before paracetamol treatment. Final sulfur amino acid intake reached 37 mg/kg/day. The increase in sulfur amino acid intake corresponded to half of the sulfur excreted in urinary paracetamol conjugates. In conclusion, older persons accommodated to long-term paracetamol treatment by increasing dietary protein intake without any mobilization of body proteins, but with decreased anti-oxidative defenses. The extra demand in sulfur amino acids led to a consumption far above the corresponding population-safe recommendation.

  9. Transcriptome and Proteome Expression Analysis of the Metabolism of Amino Acids by the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae in Fermented Soy Sauce

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Hou, Lihua; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids comprise the majority of the flavor compounds in soy sauce. A portion of these amino acids are formed from the biosynthesis and metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae; however, the metabolic pathways leading to the formation of these amino acids in A. oryzae remain largely unknown. We sequenced the transcriptomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and A. oryzae 3.042 under similar soy sauce fermentation conditions. 2D gel electrophoresis was also used to find some differences in protein expression. We found that many amino acid hydrolases (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, and X-pro-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase) were expressed at much higher levels (mostly greater than double) in A. oryzae 100-8 than in A. oryzae 3.042. Our results indicated that glutamate dehydrogenase may activate the metabolism of amino acids. We also found that the expression levels of some genes changed simultaneously in the metabolic pathways of tyrosine and leucine and that these conserved genes may modulate the function of the metabolic pathway. Such variation in the metabolic pathways of amino acids is important as it can significantly alter the flavor of fermented soy sauce. PMID:25945335

  10. Dietary gut microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, and host metabolic regulation.

    PubMed

    Kasubuchi, Mayu; Hasegawa, Sae; Hiramatsu, Takero; Ichimura, Atsuhiko; Kimura, Ikuo

    2015-04-14

    During feeding, the gut microbiota contributes to the host energy acquisition and metabolic regulation thereby influencing the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, which are produced by gut microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, are recognized as essential host energy sources and act as signal transduction molecules via G-protein coupled receptors (FFAR2, FFAR3, OLFR78, GPR109A) and as epigenetic regulators of gene expression by the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC). Recent evidence suggests that dietary fiber and the gut microbial-derived SCFAs exert multiple beneficial effects on the host energy metabolism not only by improving the intestinal environment, but also by directly affecting various host peripheral tissues. In this review, we summarize the roles of gut microbial SCFAs in the host energy regulation and present an overview of the current understanding of its physiological functions.

  11. Amino acid metabolism of experimental granulation tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Aalto, M; Lampiaho, K; Pikkarainen, J; Kulonen, E

    1973-04-01

    1. The intracellular volume in granulation tissue was about 15% of the total urea space. 2. The experimental granuloma has a greater ability to retain amino acids during the proliferation phase than later during the synthesis of collagen. 3. The synthesis of collagen and other proteins by granulation tissue is related to the concentrations of proline and glutamic acid in the medium. 4. The rate of synthesis of proline from glutamic acid in granulation-tissue slices is greatest during collagen synthesis. It is enhanced by lactate. 5. Extracellular cations influence the synthesis of collagen and ouabain is inhibitory. Synthesis of other proteins is less sensitive in this respect. 6. It is suggested that the synthesis of collagen is related to the supply of certain amino acids, especially proline, and hence to the redox balance, and also to the function of the cell wall.

  12. Metabolic engineering of biocatalysts for carboxylic acids production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Jarboe, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    Fermentation of renewable feedstocks by microbes to produce sustainable fuels and chemicals has the potential to replace petrochemical-based production. For example, carboxylic acids produced by microbial fermentation can be used to generate primary building blocks of industrial chemicals by either enzymatic or chemical catalysis. In order to achieve the titer, yield and productivity values required for economically viable processes, the carboxylic acid-producing microbes need to be robust and well-performing. Traditional strain development methods based on mutagenesis have proven useful in the selection of desirable microbial behavior, such as robustness and carboxylic acid production. On the other hand, rationally-based metabolic engineering, like genetic manipulation for pathway design, has becoming increasingly important to this field and has been used for the production of several organic acids, such as succinic acid, malic acid and lactic acid. This review investigates recent works on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli, as well as the strategies to improve tolerance towards these chemicals. PMID:24688671

  13. Electrocatalysis in proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Paleček, Emil; Bartošík, Martin; Ostatná, Veronika; Trefulka, Mojmír

    2012-02-01

    The ability of proteins to catalyze hydrogen evolution has been known for more than 80 years, but the poorly developed d.c. polarographic "pre-sodium wave" was of little analytical use. Recently, we have shown that by using constant current chronopotentiometric stripping analysis, proteins produce a well-developed peak H at hanging mercury drop and solid amalgam electrodes. Peak H sensitively reflects changes in protein structures due to protein denaturation, single amino acid exchange, etc. at the picomole level. Unmodified DNA and RNA do not yield such a peak, but they produce electrocatalytic voltammetric signals after modification with osmium tetroxide complexes with nitrogen ligands [Os(VIII)L], binding covalently to pyrimidine bases in nucleic acids. Recently, it has been shown that six-valent [Os(VI)L] complexes bind to 1,2-diols in polysaccharides and oligosaccharides, producing voltammetric responses similar to those of DNA-Os(VIII)L adducts. Electrocatalytic peaks produced by Os-modified nucleic acids, proteins (reaction with tryptophan residues) and carbohydrates are due to the catalytic hydrogen evolution, allowing determination of oligomers at the picomolar level.

  14. Isotopomer distributions in amino acids from a highly expressed protein as a proxy for those from total protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, Afshan; Shaikh, Afshan S.; Tang, Yinjie; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2008-06-27

    {sup 13}C-based metabolic flux analysis provides valuable information about bacterial physiology. Though many biological processes rely on the synergistic functions of microbial communities, study of individual organisms in a mixed culture using existing flux analysis methods is difficult. Isotopomer-based flux analysis typically relies on hydrolyzed amino acids from a homogeneous biomass. Thus metabolic flux analysis of a given organism in a mixed culture requires its separation from the mixed culture. Swift and efficient cell separation is difficult and a major hurdle for isotopomer-based flux analysis of mixed cultures. Here we demonstrate the use of a single highly-expressed protein to analyze the isotopomer distribution of amino acids from one organism. Using the model organism E. coli expressing a plasmid-borne, his-tagged Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), we show that induction of GFP does not affect E. coli growth kinetics or the isotopomer distribution in nine key metabolites. Further, the isotopomer labeling patterns of amino acids derived from purified GFP and total cell protein are indistinguishable, indicating that amino acids from a purified protein can be used to infer metabolic fluxes of targeted organisms in a mixed culture. This study provides the foundation to extend isotopomer-based flux analysis to study metabolism of individual strains in microbial communities.

  15. Acylation and metabolism of (n-6) fatty acids in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, A.C.; Sprecher, H.

    1986-05-01

    Isolated hepatocytes (5 x 10/sup 6/ in 2ml) from chow fed rats were incubated from 20 to 60 min. with increasing concentrations of (1-/sup 14/C) labeled 18:2 (n-6), 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6) to define optimum conditions for measuring acylation and metabolism to other (n-6) acids with subsequent incorporation into lipids. The triglycerides (TG) and phospholipids (PL) contained 157 and 80 nmols of 18:2 (n-6) and 6.0 and 6.1 nmols of other (n-6) acids, respectively, when cells were incubated with 0.3mM (1-/sup 14/C) 18:2 (n-6) for 40 min. When cells were incubated with 0.3mM (1-/sup 14/C) 18:2 (n-6) plus 0.15 to 0.45mM 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6), the metabolism of 18:2 (n-6) to other (n-6) acids was inhibited but not totally abolished. These results may suggest that (n-6) acid made from linoleate do not totally equilibrate with exogenous 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6).

  16. Expression of Lipid Metabolism-Related Proteins Differs between Invasive Lobular Carcinoma and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon Jin; Kim, Hye Min; Koo, Ja Seung

    2017-01-01

    We comparatively investigated the expression and clinical implications of lipid metabolism-related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. A total of 584 breast cancers (108 ILC and 476 IDC) were subjected to tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis for lipid metabolism-related proteins including hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), perilipin A, fatty acid binding protein (FABP)4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, and fatty acid synthetase (FASN). HSL, perilipin A, and FABP4 expression (all p < 0.001) differed significantly: HSL and FABP4 were more frequently present in ILC, whereas perilipin A was more frequently detected in IDC. Among all invasive cancers, HSL and FABP4 were highly expressed in luminal A-type ILC (p < 0.001) and perilipin A in luminal A-type IDC (p = 0.007). Among luminal B-type cancers, HSL and FABP4 were more highly expressed in ILC (p < 0.001). Univariate analysis found associations of shorter disease-free survival with CPT-1 positivity (p = 0.004) and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 positivity (p = 0.032) and of shorter overall survival with acyl-CoA oxidase 1 positivity (p = 0.027). In conclusion, ILC and IDC exhibited different immunohistochemical lipid metabolism-related protein expression profiles. Notably, ILC exhibited high HSL and FABP4 and low perilipin A expression. PMID:28124996

  17. Proteomic detection of proteins involved in perchlorate and chlorate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Reema; Deobald, Lee A; Crawford, Ronald L; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2009-09-01

    Mass spectrometry and a time-course cell lysis method were used to study proteins involved in perchlorate and chlorate metabolism in pure bacterial cultures and environmental samples. The bacterial cultures used included Dechlorosoma sp. KJ, Dechloromonas hortensis, Pseudomonas chloritidismutans ASK-1, and Pseudomonas stutzeri. The environmental samples included an anaerobic sludge enrichment culture from a sewage treatment plant, a sample of a biomass-covered activated carbon matrix from a bioreactor used for treating perchlorate-contaminated drinking water, and a waste water effluent sample from a paper mill. The approach focused on detection of perchlorate (and chlorate) reductase and chlorite dismutase proteins, which are the two central enzymes in the perchlorate (or chlorate) reduction pathways. In addition, acetate-metabolizing enzymes in pure bacterial samples and housekeeping proteins from perchlorate (or chlorate)-reducing microorganisms in environmental samples were also identified.

  18. Serum Phospholipid Docosahexaenoic Acid Is Inversely Associated with Arterial Stiffness in Metabolically Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwon, Nayeon; Yoon, So Ra

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that lower proportion of serum phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is inversely associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular function in metabolically healthy men. To elucidate it, we first compared serum phospholipid free fatty acid (FA) compositions and cardiovascular risk parameters between healthy men (n = 499) and male patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, n = 111) (30-69 years) without metabolic syndrome, and then further-analyzed the association of serum phospholipid DHA composition with arterial stiffness expressed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) in metabolically healthy men. Basic parameters, lipid profiles, fasting glycemic status, adiponectin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and LDL particle size, and serum phospholipid FA compositions were significantly different between the two subject groups. Serum phospholipid DHA was highly correlated with most of long-chain FAs. Metabolically healthy men were subdivided into tertile groups according to serum phospholipid DHA proportion: lower (< 2.061%), middle (2.061%-3.235%) and higher (> 3.235%). Fasting glucose, insulin resistance, hs-CRP and ba-PWVs were significantly higher and adiponectin and LDL particle size were significantly lower in the lower-DHA group than the higher-DHA group after adjusted for confounding factors. In metabolically healthy men, multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that serum phospholipid DHA mainly contributed to arterial stiffness (β′-coefficients = -0.127, p = 0.006) together with age, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride (r = 0.548, p = 0.023). Lower proportion of serum phospholipid DHA was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and arterial stiffness in metabolically healthy men. It suggests that maintaining higher proportion of serum phospholipid DHA may be beneficial for reducing cardiovascular risk including arterial stiffness in metabolically healthy men. PMID:27482523

  19. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  20. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  1. Metabolism of branched-chain keto acids in neonatal rat liver perfusions.

    PubMed

    Frost, S C; Wells, M A

    1983-10-15

    The ability of the neonatal rat to oxidize the branched-chain amino acids leucine and valine and their corresponding keto acids was evaluated. In vivo, about 20% of orally administered labeled amino or keto acids were oxidized in 6 h, after which time little further oxidation occurred. In perfused neonatal liver the amino acids were oxidized at only 5-10% the rate of the keto acids. The oxidation of the keto acids showed a saturable dependence on concentration. The decarboxylation of ketoisocaproate (KIC) had a maximal rate of 40.1 +/- 1.6 mumol/h/g liver with an apparent Km of 0.27 +/- 0.03 mM, and decarboxylation of ketoisovalerate (KIV) had a maximal rate of 37.9 +/- 1.9 mumol/h/g liver and an apparent Km of 0.28 +/- 0.04 mM. KIC was ketogenic, producing mainly acetoacetate at a maximal rate of 44.5 +/- 1.6 mumol/h/g liver with an apparent Km of 0.27 +/- 0.03 mM. On the other hand, KIV was not gluconeogenic, although the perfused neonatal liver was able to produce glucose from lactate. During liver perfusion, KIV did not produce measurable quantities of either propionic or beta-aminoisobutyric acids, which are possible end products of KIV metabolism. Decanoic acid inhibited the decarboxylation of both keto acids to the same extent with a maximal effect at 0.4 mM fatty acid. At saturating levels, KIC was less ketogenic than decanoate. Inhibition of endogenous fatty acid oxidation by 2-tetradecylglycidic acid had no effect on keto acid oxidation. These data suggest that branched-chain amino acids derived from milk proteins are probably not quantitatively significant sources of either ketone bodies or glucose in the neonatal rat.

  2. Conformations of amino acids in proteins.

    PubMed

    Hovmöller, Sven; Zhou, Tuping; Ohlson, Tomas

    2002-05-01

    The main-chain conformations of 237 384 amino acids in 1042 protein subunits from the PDB were analyzed with Ramachandran plots. The populated areas of the empirical Ramachandran plot differed markedly from the classical plot in all regions. All amino acids in alpha-helices are found within a very narrow range of phi, psi angles. As many as 40% of all amino acids are found in this most populated region, covering only 2% of the Ramachandran plot. The beta-sheet region is clearly subdivided into two distinct regions. These do not arise from the parallel and antiparallel beta-strands, which have quite similar conformations. One beta region is mainly from amino acids in random coil. The third and smallest populated area of the Ramachandran plot, often denoted left-handed alpha-helix, has a different position than that originally suggested by Ramachandran. Each of the 20 amino acids has its own very characteristic Ramachandran plot. Most of the glycines have conformations that were considered to be less favoured. These results may be useful for checking secondary-structure assignments in the PDB and for predicting protein folding.

  3. Measurement of protein using bicinchoninic acid.

    PubMed

    Smith, P K; Krohn, R I; Hermanson, G T; Mallia, A K; Gartner, F H; Provenzano, M D; Fujimoto, E K; Goeke, N M; Olson, B J; Klenk, D C

    1985-10-01

    Bicinchoninic acid, sodium salt, is a stable, water-soluble compound capable of forming an intense purple complex with cuprous ion (Cu1+) in an alkaline environment. This reagent forms the basis of an analytical method capable of monitoring cuprous ion produced in the reaction of protein with alkaline Cu2+ (biuret reaction). The color produced from this reaction is stable and increases in a proportional fashion over a broad range of increasing protein concentrations. When compared to the method of Lowry et al., the results reported here demonstrate a greater tolerance of the bicinchoninate reagent toward such commonly encountered interferences as nonionic detergents and simple buffer salts. The stability of the reagent and resulting chromophore also allows for a simplified, one-step analysis and an enhanced flexibility in protocol selection. This new method maintains the high sensitivity and low protein-to-protein variation associated with the Lowry technique.

  4. Principal transcriptional regulation and genome-wide system interactions of the Asp-family and aromatic amino acid networks of amino acid metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Less, Hadar; Angelovici, Ruthie; Tzin, Vered; Galili, Gad

    2010-10-01

    Amino acid metabolism is among the most important and best recognized networks within biological systems. In plants, amino acids serve multiple functions associated with growth. Besides their function in protein synthesis, the amino acids are also catabolized into energy-associated metabolites as well we into numerous secondary metabolites, which are essential for plant growth and response to various stresses. Despite the central importance of amino acids in plants growth, elucidation of the regulation of amino acid metabolism within the context of the entire system, particularly transcriptional regulation, is still in its infancy. The different amino acids are synthesized by a number of distinct metabolic networks, which are expected to possess regulatory cross interactions between them for proper coordination of their interactive functions, such as incorporation into proteins. Yet, individual amino acid metabolic networks are also expected to differentially cross interact with various genome-wide gene expression programs and metabolic networks, in respect to their functions as precursors for various metabolites with distinct functions. In the present review, we discuss our recent genomics, metabolic and bioinformatics studies, which were aimed at addressing these questions, focusing mainly on the Asp-family metabolic network as the main example and also comparing it to the aromatic amino acids metabolic network as a second example (Angelovici et al. in Plant Physiol 151:2058-2072, 2009; Less and Galili in BMC Syst Biol 3:14, 2009; Tzin et al. in Plant J 60:156-167, 2009). Our focus on these two networks is because of the followings: (i) both networks are central to plant metabolism and growth and are also precursors for a wide range of primary and secondary metabolites that are indispensable to plant growth; (ii) the amino acids produced by these two networks are also essential to the nutrition and health of human and farm animals; and (iii) both networks contain

  5. Jacaric acid is rapidly metabolized to conjugated linoleic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Kijima, Ryo; Honma, Taro; Ito, Junya; Yamasaki, Masao; Ikezaki, Aya; Motonaga, Chihiro; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We have shown previously that jacaric acid (JA; 8c,10t,12c-18:3), which has a conjugated triene system, has a strong anti-tumor effect. However, the characteristics of absorption and metabolism of JA have yet to be determined in vivo, and the details of absorption and metabolism of JA in the small intestine are particularly unclear. This information is required for effective use of JA in humans. Therefore, in this study we examined absorption and metabolism of JA using cannulation of the thoracic duct in rats. Emulsions of two test oils, jacaranda seed oil and tung oil, which contain JA and α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA; 9c,11t,13t-18:3), respectively, were administered to rats and lymph from the thoracic duct was collected over 24 h. We examined the rate of absorption of JA and possible conversion to a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)containing a conjugated diene system. The positional isomerism of the CLA produced by JA metabolism was determined using gas chromatography-electron impact/mass spectrometry. The rate of absorption and percentage conversion of JA were compared with those of α-ESA. We found that JA is rapidly absorbed and converted to a CLA in rats and that the percentage conversion of JA was lower than that of α-ESA. This is the first report on the absorption and metabolism of JA and this information may be important for application of JA as a functional food.

  6. The role of leucine and its metabolites in protein and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yehui; Li, Fengna; Li, Yinghui; Tang, Yulong; Kong, Xiangfeng; Feng, Zemeng; Anthony, Tracy G; Watford, Malcolm; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Leucine (Leu) is a nutritionally essential branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) in animal nutrition. It is usually one of the most abundant amino acids in high-quality protein foods. Leu increases protein synthesis through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and placental cells. Leu promotes energy metabolism (glucose uptake, mitochondrial biogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation) to provide energy for protein synthesis, while inhibiting protein degradation. Approximately 80 % of Leu is normally used for protein synthesis, while the remainder is converted to α-ketoisocaproate (α-KIC) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) in skeletal muscle. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that some of the functions of Leu are modulated by its metabolites. Both α-KIC and HMB have recently received considerable attention as nutritional supplements used to increase protein synthesis, inhibit protein degradation, and regulate energy homeostasis in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models. Leu and its metabolites hold great promise to enhance the growth and health of animals (including humans, birds and fish).

  7. Ascorbic acid metabolism during sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhiyou; Lin, Lijin; Tang, Yi; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Xun; Wang, Jin; Lv, Xiulan; Xia, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate metabolism of ascorbic acid (AsA) in sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium ‘Hongdeng’), we quantified AsA concentration, cloned sequences involved in AsA metabolism and investigated their mRNA expression levels, and determined the activity levels of selected enzymes during fruit development and maturation. We found that AsA concentration was highest at the petal-fall period (0 days after anthesis) and decreased progressively during ripening, but with a slight increase at maturity. AsA did nevertheless continue to accumulate over time because of the increase in fruit fresh weight. Full-length cDNAs of 10 genes involved in the L-galactose pathway of AsA biosynthesis and 10 involved in recycling were obtained. Gene expression patterns of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP2), L-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH), ascorbate peroxidase (APX3), ascorbate oxidase (AO2), glutathione reductase (GR1), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1) were in accordance with the AsA concentration pattern during fruit development, indicating that genes involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, degradation, and recycling worked in concert to regulate ascorbic acid accumulation in sweet cherry fruit. PMID:28245268

  8. Metabolic Relations between Methylxanthines and Methyluric Acids in Coffea L.

    PubMed

    Petermann, J B; Baumann, T W

    1983-12-01

    Metabolism of purine alkaloids in the leaves of Coffea dewevrei De Wild et Durand var excelsa Chev, Coffea liberica Bull ex Hiern and Coffea abeokutae Cramer was studied by analyzing leaf discs collected during vegetative development and by feeding the following radioactive tracers: [(14)C]theobromine, [(14)C]caffeine, and [(14)C]theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid). Their principal metabolites were quantitatively and qualitatively determined. All three species convert the precursors to the same radioactive products, and proceed through the same four maturity stages characterized by the alkaloid accumulation pattern and by a particular transformation potency: (stage 1) young plant accumulating caffeine, transforms theobromine to caffeine; (stage 2) caffeine is gradually replaced by theacrine, theobromine and caffeine are converted to theacrine; (stage 3) theacrine disappears whereas liberine (O(2), 1,9-thrimethyluric acid) accumulates, theacrine is metabolized to liberine; (stage 4) branched-out plant containing liberine but no theacrine, caffeine is converted rapidly to liberine via theacrine. Methylliberine (O(2),1,7,9-tetramethyluric acid), presumably the direct precursor of liberine, is occasionally found in low concentrations at stage 3 and 4.The collective term ;liberio-excelsoid' introduced by geneticists for the numerous races or species of Pachycoffea is in accordance with the phytochemical equality found in this work.

  9. Ascorbic acid metabolism during sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit development.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong; Zhu, Tingting; Ni, Zhiyou; Lin, Lijin; Tang, Yi; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Xun; Wang, Jin; Lv, Xiulan; Xia, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate metabolism of ascorbic acid (AsA) in sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium 'Hongdeng'), we quantified AsA concentration, cloned sequences involved in AsA metabolism and investigated their mRNA expression levels, and determined the activity levels of selected enzymes during fruit development and maturation. We found that AsA concentration was highest at the petal-fall period (0 days after anthesis) and decreased progressively during ripening, but with a slight increase at maturity. AsA did nevertheless continue to accumulate over time because of the increase in fruit fresh weight. Full-length cDNAs of 10 genes involved in the L-galactose pathway of AsA biosynthesis and 10 involved in recycling were obtained. Gene expression patterns of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP2), L-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH), ascorbate peroxidase (APX3), ascorbate oxidase (AO2), glutathione reductase (GR1), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1) were in accordance with the AsA concentration pattern during fruit development, indicating that genes involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, degradation, and recycling worked in concert to regulate ascorbic acid accumulation in sweet cherry fruit.

  10. A role for vaccinia virus protein C16 in reprogramming cellular energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mazzon, Michela; Castro, Cecilia; Roberts, Lee D; Griffin, Julian L; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2015-02-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large DNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm and encodes about 200 proteins of which approximately 50 % may be non-essential for viral replication. These proteins enable VACV to suppress transcription and translation of cellular genes, to inhibit the innate immune response, to exploit microtubule- and actin-based transport for virus entry and spread, and to subvert cellular metabolism for the benefit of the virus. VACV strain WR protein C16 induces stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α by binding to the cellular oxygen sensor prolylhydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD)2. Stabilization of HIF-1α is induced by several virus groups, but the purpose and consequences are unclear. Here, (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are used to investigate the metabolic alterations during VACV infection in HeLa and 2FTGH cells. The role of C16 in such alterations was examined by comparing infection to WT VACV (strain WR) and a derivative virus lacking gene C16L (vΔC16). Compared with uninfected cells, VACV infection caused increased nucleotide and glutamine metabolism. In addition, there were increased concentrations of glutamine derivatives in cells infected with WT VACV compared with vΔC16. This indicates that C16 contributes to enhanced glutamine metabolism and this may help preserve tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data show that VACV infection reprogrammes cellular energy metabolism towards increased synthesis of the metabolic precursors utilized during viral replication, and that C16 contributes to this anabolic reprogramming of the cell, probably via the stabilization of HIF-1α.

  11. A role for vaccinia virus protein C16 in reprogramming cellular energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mazzon, Michela; Castro, Cecilia; Roberts, Lee D.; Griffin, Julian L.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large DNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm and encodes about 200 proteins of which approximately 50 % may be non-essential for viral replication. These proteins enable VACV to suppress transcription and translation of cellular genes, to inhibit the innate immune response, to exploit microtubule- and actin-based transport for virus entry and spread, and to subvert cellular metabolism for the benefit of the virus. VACV strain WR protein C16 induces stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α by binding to the cellular oxygen sensor prolylhydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD)2. Stabilization of HIF-1α is induced by several virus groups, but the purpose and consequences are unclear. Here, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are used to investigate the metabolic alterations during VACV infection in HeLa and 2FTGH cells. The role of C16 in such alterations was examined by comparing infection to WT VACV (strain WR) and a derivative virus lacking gene C16L (vΔC16). Compared with uninfected cells, VACV infection caused increased nucleotide and glutamine metabolism. In addition, there were increased concentrations of glutamine derivatives in cells infected with WT VACV compared with vΔC16. This indicates that C16 contributes to enhanced glutamine metabolism and this may help preserve tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data show that VACV infection reprogrammes cellular energy metabolism towards increased synthesis of the metabolic precursors utilized during viral replication, and that C16 contributes to this anabolic reprogramming of the cell, probably via the stabilization of HIF-1α. PMID:25351724

  12. Synthetic metabolism: engineering biology at the protein and pathway scales.

    PubMed

    Martin, Collin H; Nielsen, David R; Solomon, Kevin V; Prather, Kristala L Jones

    2009-03-27

    Biocatalysis has become a powerful tool for the synthesis of high-value compounds, particularly so in the case of highly functionalized and/or stereoactive products. Nature has supplied thousands of enzymes and assembled them into numerous metabolic pathways. Although these native pathways can be use to produce natural bioproducts, there are many valuable and useful compounds that have no known natural biochemical route. Consequently, there is a need for both unnatural metabolic pathways and novel enzymatic activities upon which these pathways can be built. Here, we review the theoretical and experimental strategies for engineering synthetic metabolic pathways at the protein and pathway scales, and highlight the challenges that this subfield of synthetic biology currently faces.

  13. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: Structure elucidation and metabolic engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-10-20

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understandingmore » of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. Lastly, in this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field.« less

  14. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    James, Laura; Yan, Ke; Pence, Lisa; Simpson, Pippa; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Gill, Pritmohinder; Letzig, Lynda; Kearns, Gregory; Beger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts) and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; p<0.001), glycodeoxycholic acid (R=0.581; p<0.001), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (R=0.571; p<0.001). Variability in bile acids was greater among hospitalized children receiving low doses of acetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury. PMID:26208104

  15. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    PubMed

    James, Laura; Yan, Ke; Pence, Lisa; Simpson, Pippa; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Gill, Pritmohinder; Letzig, Lynda; Kearns, Gregory; Beger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts) and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; p<0.001), glycodeoxycholic acid (R=0.581; p<0.001), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (R=0.571; p<0.001). Variability in bile acids was greater among hospitalized children receiving low doses of acetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury.

  16. Study of nucleic acid metabolism in two astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, L. D.; Keresztes, P.; Pallos, J. P.; Csató, E.; Predmerszky, T.

    During the last years data have evidenced that alteration in nucleic acid metabolism, expecially increased urinary excretion of modified nucleosides reflects physiological changes in living organism. In relation with the Soyuz-36-Salyut-6-Soyuz-35 mission in 1980 urinary nucleoside excretion of two astronauts /B.F., V.K./ were traced. Individual daily urine samples were collected for 4 days before starting and 6 days after landing and were analysed with improved analytical procedures /affinity chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography/. Levels of 1-methylinosine, 1-methylguanosine and N,2,2-dimethylguanosine in urine were determined. Thus recorded changes differ considerably at two astronauts. One of the /V.K./ excreted nucleosides normally, another /B.F./ showed increase to 200-400 % levels excretion of above nucleosides on the second day after landing. The peak values disappeared on the 3-6 days after. To interpret this phenomenon extreme factors of space-flight /weightlessness, stress, radiations, etc./ have to be taken into consideration. However, we attach importance to training of astronauts. During the last decade data have evidenced that alterations in the metabolism of nucleic acids especial increased urinary excretion of modified nucleosides reflects physiological and in some cases pathological changes in living organism /1, 2, 3/. In relation with the Soyuz-36-Salyut-6-Soyuz-35 mission urinary excretion of certain modified nucleosides of two astronauts /B.F. and V.K./ were measured. The aim of the measurements was: how the metabolism of transfer ribonucleic acids /tRNAs/ refering to cosmic flight, how it is reflected in urinary excretions of modified nucleosides. For these purposes we studied the excretion of methylguanosine, dimethylguanosine and methylinosine. These nucleosides are the normal minor components of tRNA.

  17. Metabolic engineering in the biotechnological production of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of microorganisms: Advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xian; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, which are chemically synthesized, are also natural intermediates in the metabolic pathways of microorganisms, among which the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the most crucial route existing in almost all living organisms. Organic acids in the TCA cycle include citric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, and oxaloacetate, which are building-block chemicals with wide applications and huge markets. In this review, we summarize the synthesis pathways of these organic acids and review recent advances in metabolic engineering strategies that enhance organic acid production. We also propose further improvements for the production of organic acids with systems and synthetic biology-guided metabolic engineering strategies.

  18. Using Ubiquitin to Follow the Metabolic Fate of a Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Frederic; Johnsson, Nils; Rumenapf, Tillmann; Varshavsky, Alexander

    1996-05-01

    We describe a method that can be used to produce equimolar amounts of two or more specific proteins in a cell. In this approach, termed the ubiquitin/protein/reference (UPR) technique, a reference protein and a protein of interest are synthesized as a polyprotein separated by a ubiquitin moiety. This tripartite fusion is cleaved, co-translationally or nearly so, by ubiquitin-specific processing proteases after the last residue of ubiquitin, producing equimolar amounts of the protein of interest and the reference protein bearing a C-terminal ubiquitin moiety. In applications such as pulse-chase analysis, the UPR technique can compensate for the scatter of immunoprecipitation yields, sample volumes, and other sources of sample-to-sample variation. In particular, this method allows a direct comparison of proteins' metabolic stabilities from the pulse data alone. We used UPR to examine the N-end rule (a relation between the in vivo half-life of a protein and the identity of its N-terminal residue) in L cells, a mouse cell line. The increased accuracy afforded by the UPR technique underscores insufficiency of the current ``half-life'' terminology, because in vivo degradation of many proteins deviates from first-order kinetics. We consider this problem and discuss other applications of UPR.

  19. Metabolic engineering of recombinant protein secretion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jin; Tyo, Keith E J; Liu, Zihe; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-08-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used cell factory for the production of fuels and chemicals, and it is also provides a platform for the production of many heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. Therefore, many studies have focused on metabolic engineering S. cerevisiae to improve the recombinant protein production, and with the development of systems biology, it is interesting to see how this approach can be applied both to gain further insight into protein production and secretion and to further engineer the cell for improved production of valuable proteins. In this review, the protein post-translational modification such as folding, trafficking, and secretion, steps that are traditionally studied in isolation will here be described in the context of the whole system of protein secretion. Furthermore, examples of engineering secretion pathways, high-throughput screening and systems biology applications of studying protein production and secretion are also given to show how the protein production can be improved by different approaches. The objective of the review is to describe individual biological processes in the context of the larger, complex protein synthesis network.

  20. AMP-activated protein kinase and metabolic control

    PubMed Central

    Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, is a major regulator of cellular and whole-body energy homeostasis that coordinates metabolic pathways in order to balance nutrient supply with energy demand. It is now recognized that pharmacological activation of AMPK improves blood glucose homeostasis, lipid profile and blood pressure in insulin-resistant rodents. Indeed, AMPK activation mimics the beneficial effects of physical activity or those of calorie restriction by acting on multiple cellular targets. In addition it is now demonstrated that AMPK is one of the probable (albeit indirect) targets of major antidiabetic drugs including, the biguanides (metformin) and thiazolidinediones, as well as of insulin sensitizing adipokines (e.g., adiponectin). Taken together, such findings highlight the logic underlying the concept of targeting the AMPK pathway for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21484577

  1. Migration-induced variation of fatty acid transporters and cellular metabolic intensity in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; King, Marisa O; Harmon, Erin; Eyster, Kathleen; Swanson, David L

    2015-10-01

    Because lipids are the main fuel supporting avian endurance activity, lipid transport and oxidation capacities may increase during migration. We measured enzyme activities, mRNA expression and protein levels in pectoralis and heart for several key steps of lipid transport and catabolism pathways to investigate whether these pathways were upregulated during migration. We used yellow-rumped (Setophaga coronata) and yellow (S. petechia) warblers and warbling vireos (Vireo gilvus) as study species because they all show migration-induced increases in organismal metabolic capacities. For yellow-rumped warblers, β-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase (HOAD) activities and fatty acid transporter mRNA and/or protein levels were higher during spring than fall in pectoralis and heart, except that fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) protein levels showed the opposite pattern in heart. Lipid transporter protein levels, but not mRNA expression, in pectoralis and heart of warbling vireos were higher either during spring or fall than summer, but this was not true for HOAD activities. For yellow warblers, pectoralis, but not heart, protein levels of lipid transporters were upregulated during migration relative to summer, but this pattern was not evident for mRNA expression or HOAD activity. Finally, muscle and heart citrate synthase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase activities showed little seasonal variation for any species. These data suggest that pectoralis and heart lipid transport and catabolism capacities are often, but not universally, important correlates of elevated organismal metabolic capacity during migration. In contrast, migration-induced variation in cellular metabolic intensity and mitochondrial membrane transport are apparently not common correlates of the migratory phenotype in passerines.

  2. Functional analysis of free fatty acid receptor GPR120 in human eosinophils: implications in metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Konno, Yasunori; Ueki, Shigeharu; Takeda, Masahide; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Tamaki, Mami; Moritoki, Yuki; Oyamada, Hajime; Itoga, Masamichi; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Omokawa, Ayumi; Hirokawa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that eosinophils play an important role in metabolic homeostasis through Th2 cytokine production. GPR120 (FFA4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for long-chain fatty acids that functions as a regulator of physiological energy metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether human eosinophils express GPR120 and, if present, whether it possesses a functional capacity on eosinophils. Eosinophils isolated from peripheral venous blood expressed GPR120 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation with a synthetic GPR120 agonist, GW9508, induced rapid down-regulation of cell surface expression of GPR120, suggesting ligand-dependent receptor internalization. Although GPR120 activation did not induce eosinophil chemotactic response and degranulation, we found that GW9508 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and Fas receptor expression. The anti-apoptotic effect was attenuated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and was associated with inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Eosinophil response investigated using ELISpot assay indicated that stimulation with a GPR120 agonist induced IL-4 secretion. These findings demonstrate the novel functional properties of fatty acid sensor GPR120 on human eosinophils and indicate the previously unrecognized link between nutrient metabolism and the immune system.

  3. Chronic fluoxetine treatment directs energy metabolism towards the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in rat hippocampal nonsynaptic mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Filipović, Dragana; Costina, Victor; Perić, Ivana; Stanisavljević, Andrijana; Findeisen, Peter

    2017-03-15

    Fluoxetine (Flx) is the principal treatment for depression; however, the precise mechanisms of its actions remain elusive. Our aim was to identify protein expression changes within rat hippocampus regulated by chronic Flx treatment versus vehicle-controls using proteomics. Fluoxetine-hydrohloride (15mg/kg) was administered daily to adult male Wistar rats for 3weeks, and cytosolic and nonsynaptic mitochondrial hippocampal proteomes were analyzed. All differentially expressed proteins were functionally annotated according to biological process and molecular function using Uniprot and Blast2GO. Our comparative study revealed that in cytosolic and nonsynaptic mitochondrial fractions, 60 and 3 proteins respectively, were down-regulated, and 23 and 60 proteins, respectively, were up-regulated. Proteins differentially regulated in cytosolic and nonsynaptic mitochondrial fractions were primarily related to cellular and metabolic processes. Of the identified proteins, the expressions of calretinin and parvalbumine were confirmed. The predominant molecular functions of differentially expressed proteins in both cell hippocampal fractions were binding and catalytic activity. Most differentially expressed proteins in nonsynaptic mitochondria were catalytic enzymes involved in the pyruvate metabolism, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthesis, ATP transduction and glutamate metabolism. Results indicate that chronic Flx treatment may influence proteins involved in calcium signaling, cytoskeletal structure, chaperone system and stimulates energy metabolism via the upregulation of GAPDH expression in cytoplasm, as well as directing energy metabolism toward the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in nonsynaptic mitochondria. This approach provides new insight into the chronic effects of Flx treatment on protein expression in a key brain region associated with stress response and memory.

  4. Lysine malonylation is elevated in type 2 diabetic mouse models and enriched in metabolic associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Du, Yipeng; Cai, Tanxi; Li, Tingting; Xue, Peng; Zhou, Bo; He, Xiaolong; Wei, Peng; Liu, Pingsheng; Yang, Fuquan; Wei, Taotao

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine malonylation, a newly identified protein post-translational modification (PTM), has been proved to be evolutionarily conserved and is present in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. However, its potential roles associated with human diseases remain largely unknown. In the present study, we observed an elevated lysine malonylation in a screening of seven lysine acylations in liver tissues of db/db mice, which is a typical model of type 2 diabetes. We also detected an elevated lysine malonylation in ob/ob mice, which is another model of type 2 diabetes. We then performed affinity enrichment coupled with proteomic analysis on liver tissues of both wild-type (wt) and db/db mice and identified a total of 573 malonylated lysine sites from 268 proteins. There were more malonylated lysine sites and proteins in db/db than in wt mice. Five proteins with elevated malonylation were verified by immunoprecipitation coupled with Western blot analysis. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic results revealed the enrichment of malonylated proteins in metabolic pathways, especially those involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. In addition, the biological role of lysine malonylation was validated in an enzyme of the glycolysis pathway. Together, our findings support a potential role of protein lysine malonylation in type 2 diabetes with possible implications for its therapy in the future.

  5. Lysine Malonylation Is Elevated in Type 2 Diabetic Mouse Models and Enriched in Metabolic Associated Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yipeng; Cai, Tanxi; Li, Tingting; Xue, Peng; Zhou, Bo; He, Xiaolong; Wei, Peng; Liu, Pingsheng; Yang, Fuquan; Wei, Taotao

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine malonylation, a newly identified protein post-translational modification (PTM), has been proved to be evolutionarily conserved and is present in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. However, its potential roles associated with human diseases remain largely unknown. In the present study, we observed an elevated lysine malonylation in a screening of seven lysine acylations in liver tissues of db/db mice, which is a typical model of type 2 diabetes. We also detected an elevated lysine malonylation in ob/ob mice, which is another model of type 2 diabetes. We then performed affinity enrichment coupled with proteomic analysis on liver tissues of both wild-type (wt) and db/db mice and identified a total of 573 malonylated lysine sites from 268 proteins. There were more malonylated lysine sites and proteins in db/db than in wt mice. Five proteins with elevated malonylation were verified by immunoprecipitation coupled with Western blot analysis. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic results revealed the enrichment of malonylated proteins in metabolic pathways, especially those involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. In addition, the biological role of lysine malonylation was validated in an enzyme of the glycolysis pathway. Together, our findings support a potential role of protein lysine malonylation in type 2 diabetes with possible implications for its therapy in the future. PMID:25418362

  6. Perilipin-related protein regulates lipid metabolism in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Ahmed Ali; Kaššák, Filip; Kostrouchová, Markéta; Novotný, Jan Philipp; Krause, Michael W.; Kostrouch, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Perilipins are lipid droplet surface proteins that contribute to fat metabolism by controlling the access of lipids to lipolytic enzymes. Perilipins have been identified in organisms as diverse as metazoa, fungi, and amoebas but strikingly not in nematodes. Here we identify the protein encoded by the W01A8.1 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans as the closest homologue and likely orthologue of metazoan perilipin. We demonstrate that nematode W01A8.1 is a cytoplasmic protein residing on lipid droplets similarly as human perilipins 1 and 2. Downregulation or elimination of W01A8.1 affects the appearance of lipid droplets resulting in the formation of large lipid droplets localized around the dividing nucleus during the early zygotic divisions. Visualization of lipid containing structures by CARS microscopy in vivo showed that lipid-containing structures become gradually enlarged during oogenesis and relocate during the first zygotic division around the dividing nucleus. In mutant embryos, the lipid containing structures show defective intracellular distribution in subsequent embryonic divisions and become gradually smaller during further development. In contrast to embryos, lipid-containing structures in enterocytes and in epidermal cells of adult animals are smaller in mutants than in wild type animals. Our results demonstrate the existence of a perilipin-related regulation of fat metabolism in nematodes and provide new possibilities for functional studies of lipid metabolism. PMID:26357594

  7. Sulfur amino acid metabolism limits the growth of children living in environments of poor sanitation.

    PubMed

    Bickler, Stephen W; Ring, Jason; De Maio, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Environmental enteropathy has been identified as a cause of poor growth in children living in low-income countries, but a mechanism has not been well defined. We suggest changes in sulfur amino acid metabolism can in part explain the poor growth and possibly the histological changes in the small bowel, which is the hallmark of environmental enteropathy. In environments of poor sanitation, where infection is common, we propose increased oxidative stress drives methionine metabolism toward cystathionine synthesis. This "cystathionine siphon" limits sulfur amino acids from participating in critical protein synthesis pathways. Increased expression of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) could be one mechanism, as lipopolysaccharide and TNFα increase activity of this enzyme in vivo. CBS catalyzes the first of two steps in the transsulfuration pathway that converts homocysteine to cysteine. As enterocytes are one of the most rapidly proliferating cells in the body, we suggest diminished translation might also be important in the barrier failure observed in environmental enteropathy. Identifying sulfur amino acid metabolism as a mechanism leading to poor growth provides a new testable hypothesis for the undernutrition observed in children living in settings of poor sanitation.

  8. Regulation of Amino Acid, Nucleotide, and Phosphate Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ljungdahl, Per O.; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the beginning of biochemical analysis, yeast has been a pioneering model for studying the regulation of eukaryotic metabolism. During the last three decades, the combination of powerful yeast genetics and genome-wide approaches has led to a more integrated view of metabolic regulation. Multiple layers of regulation, from suprapathway control to individual gene responses, have been discovered. Constitutive and dedicated systems that are critical in sensing of the intra- and extracellular environment have been identified, and there is a growing awareness of their involvement in the highly regulated intracellular compartmentalization of proteins and metabolites. This review focuses on recent developments in the field of amino acid, nucleotide, and phosphate metabolism and provides illustrative examples of how yeast cells combine a variety of mechanisms to achieve coordinated regulation of multiple metabolic pathways. Importantly, common schemes have emerged, which reveal mechanisms conserved among various pathways, such as those involved in metabolite sensing and transcriptional regulation by noncoding RNAs or by metabolic intermediates. Thanks to the remarkable sophistication offered by the yeast experimental system, a picture of the intimate connections between the metabolomic and the transcriptome is becoming clear. PMID:22419079

  9. Glycerol metabolism and bitterness producing lactic acid bacteria in cidermaking.

    PubMed

    Garai-Ibabe, G; Ibarburu, I; Berregi, I; Claisse, O; Lonvaud-Funel, A; Irastorza, A; Dueñas, M T

    2008-02-10

    Several lactic acid bacteria were isolated from bitter tasting ciders in which glycerol was partially removed. The degradation of glycerol via glycerol dehydratase pathway was found in 22 out of 67 isolates. The confirmation of glycerol degradation by this pathway was twofold: showing their glycerol dehydratase activity and detecting the presence of the corresponding gene by a PCR method. 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDL) and 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) were the metabolic end-products of glycerol utilization, and the accumulation of the acrolein precursor 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) was also detected in most of them. The strain identification by PCR-DGGE rpoB showed that Lactobacillus collinoides was the predominant species and only 2 belonged to Lactobacillus diolivorans. Environmental conditions conducting to 3-HPA accumulation in cidermaking were studied by varying the fructose concentration, pH and incubation temperature in L. collinoides 17. This strain failed to grow with glycerol as sole carbon source and the addition of fructose enhanced both growth and glycerol degradation. Regarding end-products of glycerol metabolism, 1,3-PDL was always the main end-product in all environmental conditions assayed, the only exception being the culture with 5.55 mM fructose, where equimolar amounts of 1,3-PDL and 3-HP were found. The 3-HPA was transitorily accumulated in the culture medium under almost all culture conditions, the degradation rate being notably slower at 15 degrees C. However, no disappearance of 3-HPA was found at pH 3.6, a usual value in cider making. After sugar exhaustion, L. collinoides 17 oxidated lactic acid and/or mannitol to obtain energy and these oxidations were accompanied by the removal of the toxic 3-HPA increasing the 1,3-PDL, 3-HP and acetic acid contents.

  10. Role of acyl carrier protein isoforms in plant lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Although acyl carrier protein (ACP) is the best studied protein in plant fatty acid biosynthesis, the in vivo forms of ACPs and their steady state pools have not been examined previously in either seed or leaf. Information about the relative pool sizes of free ACP and its acyl-ACP intermediates is essential for understanding regulation of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. In this study we utilized antibodies directed against spinach ACP as a sensitive assay to analyze the acyl groups while they were still covalently attached to ACPs. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Rapid decrease in amino acid metabolism in prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas after bromocriptine treatment: a PET study

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstroem, M.M.; Muhr, C.; Lundberg, P.O.; Bergstroem, K.G.; Gee, A.D.; Fasth, K.J.; Langstroem B5

    1987-09-01

    Four patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas were examined with positron emission tomography using L-(/sup 11/C)methionine to monitor the effect of dopamine agonist treatment on the amino acid metabolism in the tumors. Within the first few hours after intramuscular injection of bromocriptine retard (50 mg) the amino acid metabolism decreased by 40%. Two of the patients were reexamined 7 and 9 days later and showed a 70% reduction in the metabolism of the adenomas. This metabolic effect was later accompanied by significant tumor shrinkage in all adenomas. It is suggested that bromocriptine has a general and rapid effect on the protein synthesis of the prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

  12. Adipose tissue branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism modulates circulating BCAA levels.

    PubMed

    Herman, Mark A; She, Pengxiang; Peroni, Odile D; Lynch, Christopher J; Kahn, Barbara B

    2010-04-09

    Whereas the role of adipose tissue in glucose and lipid homeostasis is widely recognized, its role in systemic protein and amino acid metabolism is less well-appreciated. In vitro and ex vivo experiments suggest that adipose tissue can metabolize substantial amounts of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). However, the role of adipose tissue in regulating BCAA metabolism in vivo is controversial. Interest in the contribution of adipose tissue to BCAA metabolism has been renewed with recent observations demonstrating down-regulation of BCAA oxidation enzymes in adipose tissue in obese and insulin-resistant humans. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we observe alterations in adipose-tissue BCAA enzyme expression caused by adipose-selective genetic alterations in the GLUT4 glucose-transporter expression. We show that the rate of adipose tissue BCAA oxidation per mg of tissue from normal mice is higher than in skeletal muscle. In mice overexpressing GLUT4 specifically in adipose tissue, we observe coordinate down-regulation of BCAA metabolizing enzymes selectively in adipose tissue. This decreases BCAA oxidation rates in adipose tissue, but not in muscle, in association with increased circulating BCAA levels. To confirm the capacity of adipose tissue to modulate circulating BCAA levels in vivo, we demonstrate that transplantation of normal adipose tissue into mice that are globally defective in peripheral BCAA metabolism reduces circulating BCAA levels by 30% (fasting)-50% (fed state). These results demonstrate for the first time the capacity of adipose tissue to catabolize circulating BCAAs in vivo and that coordinate regulation of adipose-tissue BCAA enzymes may modulate circulating BCAA levels.

  13. ORAL AND INTRAVENOUSLY ADMINISTERED AMINO ACIDS PRODUCE SIMILAR EFFECTS ON MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN THE ELDERLY

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, B.B.; Wolfe, R.R.; Volpi, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Muscle protein synthesis is stimulated in the elderly when amino acid availability is increased. OBJECTIVE To determine which mode of delivery of amino acids (intravenous vs. oral ingestion) is more effective in stimulating the rate of muscle protein synthesis in elderly subjects. DESIGN Fourteen elderly subjects were assigned to one of two groups. Following insertion of femoral arterial and venous catheters, subjects were infused with a primed, continuous infusion of L-[ring-2H5] phenylalanine. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained to measure muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) with the precursor-product model, phenylalanine kinetics across the leg with the three-pool model, and whole body phenylalanine kinetics. Protein metabolism parameters were measured in the basal period, and during the administration of oral amino acids (n=8) or a similar amount of intravenous amino acids (n=6). RESULTS Enteral and parenteral amino acid administration increased amino acid arterial concentrations and delivery to the leg to a similar extent in both groups. Muscle protein synthesis as measured by both FSR, and the three-pool model, increased during amino acid administration (P < 0.05 vs. basal) in both groups with no differences between groups. Whole body proteolysis did not change with the oral amino acids whereas it increased slightly during parenteral amino acid administration. CONCLUSIONS Increased amino acid availability stimulates the rate of muscle protein synthesis independent of the route of administration (enteral vs. parenteral). PMID:12459885

  14. Orally Administered Berberine Modulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism by Altering Microbial Bile Acid Metabolism and the Intestinal FXR Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Runbin; Yang, Na; Kong, Bo; Cao, Bei; Feng, Dong; Yu, Xiaoyi; Ge, Chun; Huang, Jingqiu; Shen, Jianliang; Wang, Pei; Feng, Siqi; Fei, Fei; Guo, Jiahua; He, Jun; Aa, Nan; Chen, Qiang; Pan, Yang; Schumacher, Justin D; Yang, Chung S; Guo, Grace L; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that the lipid-lowering effect of berberine (BBR) involves actions on the low-density lipoprotein receptor and the AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. However, the implication of these mechanisms is unclear because of the low bioavailability of BBR. Because the main action site of BBR is the gut and intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, we hypothesized that the effects of BBR on intestinal FXR signaling pathway might account for its pharmacological effectiveness. Using wild type (WT) and intestine-specific FXR knockout (FXR(int-/-)) mice, we found that BBR prevented the development of high-fat-diet-induced obesity and ameliorated triglyceride accumulation in livers of WT, but not FXR(int-/-) mice. BBR increased conjugated bile acids in serum and their excretion in feces. Furthermore, BBR inhibited bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in gut microbiota, and significantly increased the levels of tauro-conjugated bile acids, especially tauro-cholic acid(TCA), in the intestine. Both BBR and TCA treatment activated the intestinal FXR pathway and reduced the expression of fatty-acid translocase Cd36 in the liver. These results indicate that BBR may exert its lipid-lowering effect primarily in the gut by modulating the turnover of bile acids and subsequently the ileal FXR signaling pathway. In summary, we provide the first evidence to suggest a new mechanism of BBR action in the intestine that involves, sequentially, inhibiting BSH, elevating TCA, and activating FXR, which lead to the suppression of hepatic expression of Cd36 that results in reduced uptake of long-chain fatty acids in the liver.

  15. Inadequacy of prebiotic synthesis as origin of proteinous amino acids.

    PubMed

    Wong, J T; Bronskill, P M

    1979-07-18

    The production of some nonproteinous, and lack of production of other proteinous, amino acids in model prebiotic synthesis, along with the instability of glutamine and asparagine, suggest that not all of the 20 present day proteinous amino acids gained entry into proteins directly from the primordial soup. Instead, a process of active co-evolution of the genetic code and its constituent amino acids would have to precede the final selection of these proteinous amono acids.

  16. Acetylation control of cardiac fatty acid β-oxidation and energy metabolism in obesity, diabetes, and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Arata; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in cardiac energy metabolism are an important contributor to the cardiac pathology associated with obesity, diabetes, and heart failure. High rates of fatty acid β-oxidation with cardiac insulin resistance represent a cardiac metabolic hallmark of diabetes and obesity, while a marginal decrease in fatty acid oxidation and a prominent decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation are commonly seen in the early stages of heart failure. Alterations in post-translational control of energy metabolic processes have recently been identified as an important contributor to these metabolic changes. In particular, lysine acetylation of non-histone proteins, which controls a diverse family of mitochondrial metabolic pathways, contributes to the cardiac energy derangements seen in obesity, diabetes, and heart failure. Lysine acetylation is controlled both via acetyltransferases and deacetylases (sirtuins), as well as by non-enzymatic lysine acetylation due to increased acetyl CoA pool size or dysregulated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) metabolism (which stimulates sirtuin activity). One of the important mitochondrial acetylation targets are the fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes, which contributes to alterations in cardiac substrate preference during the course of obesity, diabetes, and heart failure, and can ultimately lead to cardiac dysfunction in these disease states. This review will summarize the role of lysine acetylation and its regulatory control in the context of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation. The functional contribution of cardiac protein lysine acetylation to the shift in cardiac energy substrate preference that occurs in obesity, diabetes, and especially in the early stages of heart failure will also be reviewed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The role of post-translational protein modifications on heart and vascular metabolism edited by Jason R.B. Dyck & Jan F.C. Glatz.

  17. Proteins involved in wine aroma compounds metabolism by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor-velum yeast strain grown in two conditions.

    PubMed

    Moreno-García, Jaime; García-Martínez, Teresa; Millán, M Carmen; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Juan

    2015-10-01

    A proteomic and exometabolomic study was conducted on Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeast strain growing under biofilm formation condition (BFC) with ethanol and glycerol as carbon sources and results were compared with those obtained under no biofilm formation condition (NBFC) containing glucose as carbon source. By using modern techniques, OFFGEL fractionator and LTQ-Orbitrap for proteome and SBSE-TD-GC-MS for metabolite analysis, we quantified 84 proteins including 33 directly involved in the metabolism of glycerol, ethanol and 17 aroma compounds. Contents in acetaldehyde, acetic acid, decanoic acid, 1,1-diethoxyethane, benzaldehyde and 2-phenethyl acetate, changed above their odor thresholds under BFC, and those of decanoic acid, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and isoamyl acetate under NBFC. Of the twenty proteins involved in the metabolism of ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,1-diethoxyethane, benzaldehyde, organic acids and ethyl esters, only Adh2p, Ald4p, Cys4p, Fas3p, Met2p and Plb1p were detected under BFC and as many Acs2p, Ald3p, Cem1p, Ilv2p, Ilv6p and Pox1p, only under NBFC. Of the eight proteins involved in glycerol metabolism, Gut2p was detected only under BFC while Pgs1p and Rhr2p were under NBFC. Finally, of the five proteins involved in the metabolism of higher alcohols, Thi3p was present under BFC, and Aro8p and Bat2p were under NBFC.

  18. Altered arachidonic acid metabolism and platelet size in atopic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Audera, C.; Rocklin, R.; Vaillancourt, R.; Jakubowski, J.A.; Deykin, D.

    1988-03-01

    The release and metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid (AA) in physiologically activated platelets obtained from 11 atopic patients with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma was compared to that of sex- and age-matched nonatopic controls. Prelabeled (/sup 3/H)AA platelets were stimulated with thrombin or collagen and the amount of free (/sup 3/H)AA and radiolabeled metabolites released were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results obtained indicate that although the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)AA into platelet phospholipids and total release of /sup 3/H-radioactivity upon stimulation were comparable in the two groups, the percentage of /sup 3/H-radioactivity released from platelets as free AA was significantly lower (P less than 0.01) in the atopic group. The reduction in free (/sup 3/H)AA was accompanied by an increase (P less than 0.01) in the percentage of /sup 3/H-radioactivity released as cyclooxygenase products in atopic platelets (compared to nonatopic cells) after stimulation with 10 and 25 micrograms/ml collagen. The amount of platelet lipoxygenase product released was comparable between the two groups. Although the blood platelet counts were similar, the mean platelet volume was statistically higher (P less than 0.01) in the atopic group. These results indicate that arachidonic acid metabolism in atopic platelets is altered, the pathophysiological significance of which remains to be clarified.

  19. Differential Amino Acid, Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Perpetuations Involved in a Subtype of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Chinese Medicine Cold Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongtao; Niu, Xuyan; Gu, Yan; Lu, Cheng; Xiao, Cheng; Yue, Kevin; Zhang, Ge; Pan, Xiaohua; Jiang, Miao; Tan, Yong; Kong, Hongwei; Liu, Zhenli; Xu, Guowang; Lu, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Pattern classification is a key approach in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and it is used to classify the patients for intervention selection accordingly. TCM cold and heat patterns, two main patterns of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) had been explored with systems biology approaches. Different regulations of apoptosis were found to be involved in cold and heat classification in our previous works. For this study, the metabolic profiling of plasma was explored in RA patients with typical TCM cold or heat patterns by integrating liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) platforms in conjunction with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Three main processes of metabolism, including amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid were focused on for function analysis. The results showed that 29 and 19 differential metabolites were found in cold and heat patterns respectively, compared with healthy controls. The perturbation of amino acid metabolism (increased essential amino acids), carbohydrate metabolism (galactose metabolism) and lipid metabolism, were found to be involved in both cold and heat pattern RA. In particular, more metabolic perturbations in protein and collagen breakdown, decreased glycolytic activity and aerobic oxidation, and increased energy utilization associated with RA cold pattern patients. These findings may be useful for obtaining a better understanding of RA pathogenesis and for achieving a better efficacy in RA clinical practice. PMID:27775663

  20. Emergence of Complexity in Protein Functions and Metabolic Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andzej

    2009-01-01

    In modern organisms proteins perform a majority of cellular functions, such as chemical catalysis, energy transduction and transport of material across cell walls. Although great strides have been made towards understanding protein evolution, a meaningful extrapolation from contemporary proteins to their earliest ancestors is virtually impossible. In an alternative approach, the origin of water-soluble proteins was probed through the synthesis of very large libraries of random amino acid sequences and subsequently subjecting them to in vitro evolution. In combination with computer modeling and simulations, these experiments allow us to address a number of fundamental questions about the origins of proteins. Can functionality emerge from random sequences of proteins? How did the initial repertoire of functional proteins diversify to facilitate new functions? Did this diversification proceed primarily through drawing novel functionalities from random sequences or through evolution of already existing proto-enzymes? Did protein evolution start from a pool of proteins defined by a frozen accident and other collections of proteins could start a different evolutionary pathway? Although we do not have definitive answers to these questions, important clues have been uncovered. Considerable progress has been also achieved in understanding the origins of membrane proteins. We will address this issue in the example of ion channels - proteins that mediate transport of ions across cell walls. Remarkably, despite overall complexity of these proteins in contemporary cells, their structural motifs are quite simple, with -helices being most common. By combining results of experimental and computer simulation studies on synthetic models and simple, natural channels, I will show that, even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during

  1. Fish protein hydrolysate elevates plasma bile acids and reduces visceral adipose tissue mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Liaset, Bjørn; Madsen, Lise; Hao, Qin; Criales, Gabriel; Mellgren, Gunnar; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Hallenborg, Philip; Espe, Marit; Frøyland, Livar; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2009-04-01

    Conjugation of bile acids (BAs) to the amino acids taurine or glycine increases their solubility and promotes liver BA secretion. Supplementing diets with taurine or glycine modulates BA metabolism and enhances fecal BA excretion in rats. However, it is still unclear whether dietary proteins varying in taurine and glycine contents alter BA metabolism, and thereby modulate the recently discovered systemic effects of BAs. Here we show that rats fed a diet containing saithe fish protein hydrolysate (saithe FPH), rich in taurine and glycine, for 26 days had markedly elevated fasting plasma BA levels relative to rats fed soy protein or casein. Concomitantly, the saithe FPH fed rats had reduced liver lipids and fasting plasma TAG levels. Furthermore, visceral adipose tissue mass was reduced and expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure was induced in perirenal/retroperitoneal adipose tissues of rats fed saithe FPH. Our results provide the first evidence that dietary protein sources with different amino acid compositions can modulate the level of plasma bile acids and our data suggest potential novel mechanisms by which dietary protein sources can affect energy metabolism.

  2. Long-term effects of histidine depletion on whole-body protein metabolism in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Rafii, Mahroukh; Wykes, Linda J; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2002-11-01

    The essentiality of histidine in healthy adults is a controversial topic. To study the potential metabolic effects of a lack of exogenous histidine, four healthy adults consumed a histidine-free diet, with adequate energy and 1.0 g/(kg. d) of an L-amino acid mixture for 48 d. Protein metabolism was monitored every 4 d by using indicator amino acid (L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine) oxidation (in four subjects) and [(15)N]glycine (in one subject). Urine samples (24-h) were collected for measurement of urea, total nitrogen, creatinine, 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), histidine and beta-alanine. Albumin, transferrin and hematologic concentrations were measured on d 0, 24 and 48. Urinary excretion of nitrogen, urea, creatinine and 3-MH were not affected by the histidine-free diet. However, there was a significant (P < 0.001) linear decline (24-28%) in whole-body protein turnover. Significant (P < 0.05) decreases in albumin (12%), transferrin (17%) and hemoglobin (Hb) (11%) concentrations occurred slowly over the histidine depletion period. The urinary excretion of beta-alanine (an index of carnosine catabolism) generally increased in the smallest subject during the consumption of histidine-free diet. This study demonstrates that a lack of histidine in the diet for a prolonged period resulted in an accommodation of protein turnover and phenylalanine oxidation, measured by the (13)C-phenylalanine indicator amino acid. The extensive metabolic accommodation, together with decreases in Hb, albumin and transferrin during histidine depletion, leaves unresolved the issue of whether histidine is a dietary essential amino acid in healthy adults.

  3. Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Citrate and Carnitine/Acylcarnitine Transporters: Two Mitochondrial Carriers Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Giudetti, Anna M.; Stanca, Eleonora; Siculella, Luisa; Gnoni, Gabriele V.; Damiano, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The transport of solutes across the inner mitochondrial membrane is catalyzed by a family of nuclear-encoded membrane-embedded proteins called mitochondrial carriers (MCs). The citrate carrier (CiC) and the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT) are two members of the MCs family involved in fatty acid metabolism. By conveying acetyl-coenzyme A, in the form of citrate, from the mitochondria to the cytosol, CiC contributes to fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis; CACT allows fatty acid oxidation, transporting cytosolic fatty acids, in the form of acylcarnitines, into the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are inversely regulated so that when fatty acid synthesis is activated, the catabolism of fatty acids is turned-off. Malonyl-CoA, produced by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme of cytosolic fatty acid synthesis, represents a regulator of both metabolic pathways. CiC and CACT activity and expression are regulated by different nutritional and hormonal conditions. Defects in the corresponding genes have been directly linked to various human diseases. This review will assess the current understanding of CiC and CACT regulation; underlining their roles in physio-pathological conditions. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular basis of the regulation of CiC and CACT associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:27231907

  4. Perfluorononanoic acid disturbed the metabolism of lipid in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xuemei; Gao, Guizhen; Zhang, Xingtao; Wang, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on the liver toxicity of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are focused on healthy individuals, whereas the effects of PFCs on individuals with diabetes mellitus have not been fully characterized. This study aimed to investigate the acute exposure of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on the metabolism of lipid in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male diabetic rats were orally dosed by gavage for 7 days with 0, 0.2, 1 and 5 mg/kg/day PFNA. The contents of lipid, the activities of enzyme, the expressions of protein in the liver and the serum parameters were detected. The results indicate that dose-dependent accumulation of triglyceride and total cholesterol occurred in the livers of diabetic rats after PFNA treatment. PFNA increased the activities of lipid synthetase, fatty acid synthease, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and decreased the activity of lipolytic enzyme, hepatic lipase, in the liver of diabetic rats. The changes of the isocitrate dehydrogenase, malicenzyme and lipoprotein lipase were not obvious. The expressions of protein related to lipid homeostasis, liver X receptor α and apolipoprotein E, were decreased after PFNA administration. Exposure to PFNA also increased the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase in diabetic rats. In conclusion, this study discloses that exposure to PFNA impacts on enzymes and proteins related to liver lipid metabolism and lead to obvious accumulation of lipid in the liver of diabetic rats, which may be responsible for hepatotoxicity of this compound in individuals with diabetes mellitus.

  5. DIETARY N-6 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID DEPRIVATION INCREASES DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID METABOLISM IN RAT BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Wook; Chang, Lisa; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deprivation in rodents reduces brain arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) concentration and 20:4n-6-preferring cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2-IVA) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, while increasing brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) concentration and DHA-selective Ca2+-independent iPLA2-VIA expression. We hypothesized that these changes are accompanied by upregulated brain DHA metabolic rates. Using a fatty acid model, brain DHA concentrations and kinetics were measured in unanesthetized male rats fed, for 15 weeks post-weaning, an n-6 PUFA “adequate” (31.4 wt% linoleic acid) or “deficient” (2.7 wt% linoleic acid) diet, each lacking 20:4n-6 and DHA. [1-14C]DHA was infused intravenously, arterial blood was sampled, and the brain was microwaved at 5 min and analyzed. Rats fed the n-6 PUFA deficient compared with adequate diet had significantly reduced n-6 PUFA concentrations in brain phospholipids but increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosapentaenoic acidn-3 (DPAn-3, 22:5n-3) and DHA (by 9.4%) concentrations, particularly in ethanolamine glycerophospholipid. Incorporation rates of unesterified DHA from plasma, which represent DHA metabolic loss from brain, were increased 45% in brain phospholipids, as was DHA turnover. Increased DHA metabolism following dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation may increase brain concentrations of antiinflammatory DHA metabolites, which with a reduced brain n-6 PUFA content, likely promote neuroprotection. (199 words) PMID:22117540

  6. Dietary live yeast alters metabolic profiles, protein biosynthesis and thermal stress tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Colinet, Hervé; Renault, David

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional factors on insect's life-history traits such as reproduction and lifespan has been excessively examined; however, nutritional determinant of insect's thermal tolerance has not received a lot of attention. Dietary live yeast represents a prominent source of proteins and amino acids for laboratory-reared drosophilids. In this study, Drosophila melanogaster adults were fed on diets supplemented or not with live yeast. We hypothesized that manipulating nutritional conditions through live yeast supplementation would translate into altered physiology and stress tolerance. We verified how live yeast supplementation affected body mass characteristics, total lipids and proteins, metabolic profiles and cold tolerance (acute and chronic stress). Females fed with live yeast had increased body mass and contained more lipids and proteins. Using GC/MS profiling, we found distinct metabolic fingerprints according to nutritional conditions. Metabolite pathway enrichment analysis corroborated that live yeast supplementation was associated with amino acid and protein biosyntheses. The cold assays revealed that the presence of dietary live yeast greatly promoted cold tolerance. Hence, this study conclusively demonstrates a significant interaction between nutritional conditions and thermal tolerance.

  7. A novel amino acid and metabolomics signature in mice overexpressing muscle uncoupling protein 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is known to lower mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and promote fatty acid oxidation; however, the global impact of UCP3 activity on skeletal muscle and whole body metabolism has not been extensively studied. We utilized unt...

  8. Role of N-terminal protein formylation in central metabolic processes in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial protein biosynthesis usually depends on a formylated methionyl start tRNA but Staphylococcus aureus is viable in the absence of Fmt, the tRNAMet formyl transferase. fmt mutants exhibit reduced growth rates indicating that the function of certain proteins depends on formylated N-termini but it has remained unclear, which cellular processes are abrogated by the lack of formylation. Results In order to elucidate how global metabolic processes are affected by the absence of formylated proteins the exometabolome of an S. aureus fmt mutant was compared with that of the parental strain and the transcription of corresponding enzymes was analyzed to identify possible regulatory changes. The mutant consumed glucose and other carbon sources slower than the wild type. While the turnover of several metabolites remained unaltered fmt inactivation led to increases pyruvate release and, concomitantly, reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. In parallel, the release of the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate, acetoin, and alanine was reduced. The anaerobic degradation of arginine was also reduced in the fmt mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Moreover, the lack of formylated proteins caused increased susceptibility to the antibiotics trimethoprim and sulamethoxazole suggesting that folic acid-dependant pathways were perturbed in the mutant. Conclusions These data indicate that formylated proteins are crucial for specific bacterial metabolic processes and they may help to understand why it has remained important during bacterial evolution to initiate protein biosynthesis with a formylated tRNAMet. PMID:23320528

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers: differences in metabolism and biological effects.

    PubMed

    Churruca, Itziar; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Portillo, Maria Puy

    2009-01-01

    The term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, characterized by having conjugated double bonds, not separated by a methylene group as in linoleic acid. CLA isomers appear as a minor component of the lipid fraction, found mainly in meat and dairy products from cows and sheep. The most abundant isomer is cis-9,trans-11, which represents up to 80% of total CLA in food. These isomers are metabolized in the body through different metabolic pathways, but important differences, that can have physiological consequences, are observed between the two main isomers. The trans-10,cis-12 isomer is more efficiently oxidized than the cis-9,trans-11 isomer, due to the position of its double bounds. Interest in CLA arose in its anticarcinogenic action but there is an increasing amount of specific scientific literature concerning the biological effects and properties of CLA. Numerous biological effects of CLA are due to the separate action of the most studied isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12. It is also likely that some effects are induced and/or enhanced by these isomers acting synergistically. Although the cis-9,trans-11 isomer is mainly responsible for the anticarcinogenic effect, the trans-10,cis-12 isomer reduces body fat and it is referred as the most effective isomer affecting blood lipids. As far as insulin function is concerned, both isomers seem to be responsible for insulin resistance in humans. Finally, with regard to the immune system it is not clear whether individual isomers of CLA could act similarly or differently.

  10. Leucine disposal rate for assessment of amino acid metabolism in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Gerald B.; Deger, Serpil M.; Chen, Guanhua; Bian, Aihua; Sha, Feng; Booker, Cindy; Kesler, Jaclyn T.; David, Sthuthi; Ellis, Charles D.; Ikizler, T. Alp

    2016-01-01

    Background Protein energy wasting (PEW) is common in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and closely associated with poor outcomes. Insulin resistance and associated alterations in amino acid metabolism are potential pathways leading to PEW. We hypothesized that the measurement of leucine disposal during a hyperinsulinemic- euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamp (HEAC) procedure would accurately measure the sensitivity to insulin for its actions on concomitant carbohydrate and protein metabolism in MHD patients. Methods We examined 35 MHD patients and 17 control subjects with normal kidney function by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEGC) followed by HEAC clamp procedure to obtain leucine disposal rate (LDR) along with isotope tracer methodology to assess whole body protein turnover. Results The glucose disposal rate (GDR) by HEGC was 5.1 ± 2.1 mg/kg/min for the MHD patients compared to 6.3 ± 3.9 mg/kg/min for the controls (p = 0.38). The LDR during HEAC was 0.09 ± 0.03 mg/kg/min for the MHD patients compared to 0.11 ± 0.05 mg/kg/min for the controls (p = 0.009). The LDR level was correlated with whole body protein synthesis (r = 0.25; p = 0.08), with whole body protein breakdown (r = −0.38 p = 0.01) and net protein balance (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) in the overall study population. Correlations remained significant in subgroup analysis. The GDR derived by HEGC and LDR correlated well in the controls (r = 0.79, p < 0.001), but less so in the MHD patients (r = 0.58, p < 0.001). Conclusions Leucine disposal rate reliably measures amino acid utilization in MHD patients and controls in response to high dose insulin. PMID:27413537

  11. Stable Isotope Peptide Mass Spectrometry To Decipher Amino Acid Metabolism in Dehalococcoides Strain CBDB1

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Dehalococcoides species are key players in the anaerobic transformation of halogenated solvents at contaminated sites. Here, we analyze isotopologue distributions in amino acid pools from peptides of Dehalococcoides strain CBDB1 after incubation with 13C-labeled acetate or bicarbonate as a carbon source. The resulting data were interpreted with regard to genome annotations to identify amino acid biosynthesis pathways. In addition to using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for analyzing derivatized amino acids after protein hydrolysis, we introduce a second, much milder method, in which we directly analyze peptide masses after tryptic digest and peptide fragments by nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS). With this method, we identify isotope incorporation patterns for 17 proteinaceous amino acids, including proline, cysteine, lysine, and arginine, which escaped previous analyses in Dehalococcoides. Our results confirmed lysine biosynthesis via the α-aminoadipate pathway, precluding lysine formation from aspartate. Similarly, the isotopologue pattern obtained for arginine provided biochemical evidence of its synthesis from glutamate. Direct peptide MS/MS analysis of the labeling patterns of glutamine and asparagine, which were converted to glutamate and aspartate during protein hydrolysis, gave biochemical evidence of their precursors and confirmed glutamate biosynthesis via a Re-specific citrate synthase. By addition of unlabeled free amino acids to labeled cells, we show that in strain CBDB1 none of the 17 tested amino acids was incorporated into cell mass, indicating that they are all synthesized de novo. Our approach is widely applicable and provides a means to analyze amino acid metabolism by studying specific proteins even in mixed consortia. PMID:22661690

  12. Iron-dependent changes in cellular energy metabolism: influence on citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Oexle, H; Gnaiger, E; Weiss, G

    1999-11-10

    Iron modulates the expression of the critical citric acid cycle enzyme aconitase via a translational mechanism involving iron regulatory proteins. Thus, the present study was undertaken to investigate the consequences of iron perturbation on citric acid cycle activity, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial respiration in the human cell line K-562. In agreement with previous data iron increases the activity of mitochondrial aconitase while it is reduced upon addition of the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). Interestingly, iron also positively affects three other citric acid cycle enzymes, namely citrate synthase, isocitric dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase, while DFO decreases the activity of these enzymes. Consequently, iron supplementation results in increased formation of reducing equivalents (NADH) by the citric acid cycle, and thus in increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP formation via oxidative phosphorylation as shown herein. This in turn leads to downregulation of glucose utilization. In contrast, all these metabolic pathways are reduced upon iron depletion, and thus glycolysis and lactate formation are significantly increased in order to compensate for the decrease in ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of DFO. Our results point to a complex interaction between iron homeostasis, oxygen supply and cellular energy metabolism in human cells.

  13. Metabolic rates associated with membrane fatty acids in mice selected for increased maximal metabolic rate

    PubMed Central

    Wone, Bernard W. M.; Donovan, Edward R.; Cushman, John C.; Hayes, Jack P.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic metabolism of vertebrates is linked to membrane fatty acid (FA) composition. Although the membrane pacemaker hypothesis posits that desaturation of FAs accounts for variation in resting or basal metabolic rate (BMR), little is known about the FA profiles that underpin variation in maximal metabolic rate (MMR). We examined membrane FA composition of liver and skeletal muscle in mice after seven generations of selection for increased MMR. In both liver and skeletal muscle, unsaturation index did not differ between control and high-MMR mice. We also examined membrane FA composition at the individual-level of variation. In liver, 18:0, 20:3 n-6, 20:4 n-6, and 22:6 n-3 FAs were significant predictors of MMR. In gastrocnemius muscle, 18:2 n-6, 20:4 n-6, and 22:6 n-3 FAs were significant predictors of MMR. In addition, muscle 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and 22:5 n-3 FAs were significant predictors of BMR, whereas no liver FAs were significant predictors of BMR. Our findings indicate that (i) individual variation in MMR and BMR appear to be linked to membrane FA composition in the skeletal muscle and liver, and (ii) FAs that differ between selected and control lines are involved in pathways that can affect MMR or BMR. PMID:23422919

  14. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and esters by Brettanomyces in different red wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on the cultivars and other factors, differing concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acid, respectively) are found in red wines. Hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized by...

  15. Protein and Amino Acid Profiles of Different Whey Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristine C; Alvares, Thiago S; Costa, Marion P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) supplements have received increasing attention by consumers due to the high nutritional value of the proteins and amino acids they provide. However, some WP supplements may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the nutritional quality and the effectiveness of these supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the contents of total protein (TP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), free essential amino acids (free EAA), and free branched-chain amino acids (free BCAA), amongst different WP supplements produced by U.S. and Brazilian companies. Twenty commercial brands of WP supplements were selected, ten manufactured in U.S. (WP-USA) and ten in Brazil (WP-BRA). The TP was analyzed using the Kjeldahl method, while α-LA, β-LG, free EAA, and free BCAA were analyzed using HPLC system. There were higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA in WP-USA supplements, as compared to the WP-BRA supplements; however, there was no difference (p > 0.05) in the content of free EAA between WP-USA and WP-BRA. Amongst the 20 brands evaluated, four WP-USA and seven WP-BRA had lower (p < 0.05) values of TP than those specified on the label. In conclusion, the WP-USA supplements exhibited better nutritional quality, evaluated by TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA when compared to WP-BRA.

  16. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress. PMID:26552588

  17. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress.

  18. Electrochemistry-mass spectrometry in drug metabolism and protein research.

    PubMed

    Permentier, Hjalmar P; Bruins, Andries P; Bischoff, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The combination of electrochemistry coupled on-line to mass spectrometry (EC-MS) forms a powerful analytical technique with unique applications in the fields of drug metabolism and proteomics. In this review the latest developments are surveyed from both instrumental and application perspectives. The limitations and solutions for coupling an electrochemical system to a mass spectrometer are discussed. The electrochemical mimicking of drug metabolism, specifically by Cytochrome P450, is high-lighted as an application with high biomedical relevance. The EC-MS analysis of proteins also has promising new applications for both proteomics research and biomarker discovery. EC-MS has furthermore advantages for improved analyte detection with mass spectrometry, both for small molecules and large biomolecules. Finally, potential future directions of development of the technique are briefly discussed.

  19. Modulation of collagen metabolism by the nucleolar protein fibrillarin.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, F; Garnotel, R; Georges, N; Gillery, P

    2001-11-15

    Metabolic functions of fibroblasts are tightly regulated by the extracellular environment. When cultivated in tridimensional collagen lattices, fibroblasts exhibit a lowered activity of protein synthesis, especially concerning extracellular matrix proteins. We have previously shown that extracellular collagen impaired the processing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in nucleoli by generating changes in the expression of nucleolar proteins and a premature degradation of neosynthesized rRNA. In this study, we have investigated whether inhibiting the synthesis of fibrillarin, a major nucleolar protein with decreased expression in collagen lattices, could mimic the effects of extracellular matrix. Monolayer-cultured fibroblasts were transfected with anti-fibrillarin antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, which significantly decreased fibrillarin content. Downregulation of fibrillarin expression inhibited procollagen secretion into the extracellular medium, without altering total collagen production. No changes of pro1(I)collagen mRNA expression or proline hydroxylation were found. A concomitant intracellular retention of collagen and its chaperone protein HSP47 was found, but no effect on the production of other extracellular matrix macromolecules or remodelling enzymes was observed. These data show that collagen processing depends on unknown mechanisms, involving proteins primarily located in the nucleolar compartment with other demonstrated functions, and suggest specific links between nucleolar machinery and extracellular matrix.

  20. Plasma protein regulation of platelet function and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M S; Bang, N U

    1979-04-02

    This reviews summarizes our evidence suggesting that the plasma protein enviroment influences platelet aggregation potential and metabolic activity. Cationic proteins are capable of restoring the aggreation potential of washed human platelets. The aggregation restoring effect of gamma globulin is inhibited by more anionic proteins in subfractions of Cohn fraction IV and fractions V and VI. Artificial enhancement of the net negative charge of plasma proteins through acylation produces derivatives capable of inhibiting platelet rich plasma. The oxygen consumption of washed human platelets is lower than in platelet rich plasma while the lactate production is identical. Autologus plasma, albumin or IgG immunoglobulin restores the oxygen consumption of washed platelets to values comparable to those obtained for platelet rich plasma, while the lactate production is unaffected. Fibrinogen on IgA myeloma protein increases the lactate production, but not the oxygen consumption. Cyclic AMP levels are considerably lower in washed platelets than in platelet rich plasma. Gamma globulin and albumin causes a futher decrease, which is progressive with time. Fibrinogen causes no change in platelet cyclic AMP content. It is suggested that these observations may in part be explained by the equilibriun between anionic and cationic proteins in the platelet microenvironment. This hypothesis appears applicable in certain situations.

  1. Effect of alternative pathway therapy on branched chain amino acid metabolism in urea cycle disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Fernando; Carter, Susan; O'Brien, William E; Lee, Brendan

    2004-04-01

    Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are a group of inborn errors of hepatic metabolism caused by the loss of enzymatic activities that mediate the transfer of nitrogen from ammonia to urea. These disorders often result in life-threatening hyperammonemia and hyperglutaminemia. A combination of sodium phenylbutyrate and sodium phenylacetate/benzoate is used in the clinical management of children with urea cycle defects as a glutamine trap, diverting nitrogen from urea synthesis to alternatives routes of excretion. We have observed that patients treated with these compounds have selective branched chain amino acid (BCAA) deficiency despite adequate dietary protein intake. However, the direct effect of alternative therapy on the steady state levels of plasma branched chain amino acids has not been well characterized. We have measured steady state plasma branched chain and other essential non-branched chain amino acids in control subjects, untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females and treated null activity urea cycle disorder patients in the fed steady state during the course of stable isotope studies. Steady-state leucine levels were noted to be significantly lower in treated urea cycle disorder patients when compared to either untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females or control subjects (P<0.0001). This effect was reproduced in control subjects who had depressed leucine levels when treated with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate (P<0.0001). Our studies suggest that this therapeutic modality has a substantial impact on the metabolism of branched chain amino acids in urea cycle disorder patients. These findings suggest that better titration of protein restriction could be achieved with branched chain amino acid supplementation in patients with UCDs who are on alternative route therapy.

  2. The Role of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Intestinal and Hepatic Fructose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Katsumi

    2017-01-01

    Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption. Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a glucose-activated transcription factor that controls approximately 50% of de novo lipogenesis in the liver. ChREBP target genes are involved in glycolysis (Glut2, liver pyruvate kinase), fructolysis (Glut5, ketohexokinase), and lipogenesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase). ChREBP gene deletion protects against high sucrose diet-induced and leptin-deficient obesity, because Chrebp−/− mice cannot consume fructose or sucrose. Moreover, ChREBP contributes to some of the physiological effects of fructose on sweet taste preference and glucose production through regulation of ChREBP target genes, such as fibroblast growth factor-21 and glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunits. Thus, ChREBP might play roles in fructose metabolism. Restriction of excess fructose intake will be beneficial for preventing not only metabolic syndrome but also irritable bowl syndrome. PMID:28241431

  3. Fatty acid synthesis and pyruvate metabolism pathways remain active in dihydroartemisinin-induced dormant ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; LaCrue, Alexis N; Teuscher, Franka; Waters, Norman C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kyle, Dennis E; Cheng, Qin

    2014-08-01

    Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, despite high potency and rapid action, there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy or ACT long before the recent emergence of ART resistance. ART-induced ring-stage dormancy and recovery have been implicated as possible causes of recrudescence; however, little is known about the characteristics of dormant parasites, including whether dormant parasites are metabolically active. We investigated the transcription of 12 genes encoding key enzymes in various metabolic pathways in P. falciparum during dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced dormancy and recovery. Transcription analysis showed an immediate downregulation for 10 genes following exposure to DHA but continued transcription of 2 genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins. Transcription of several additional genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins, particularly of genes encoding enzymes in pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways, was also maintained. Additions of inhibitors for biotin acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase and enoyl-acyl carrier reductase of the fatty acid synthesis pathways delayed the recovery of dormant parasites by 6 and 4 days, respectively, following DHA treatment. Our results demonstrate that most metabolic pathways are downregulated in DHA-induced dormant parasites. In contrast, fatty acid and pyruvate metabolic pathways remain active. These findings highlight new targets to interrupt recovery of parasites from ART-induced dormancy and to reduce the rate of recrudescence following ART treatment.

  4. Metabolic Engineering of a Novel Muconic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway via 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sudeshna; Goonewardena, Lakshani; Juturu, Veeresh

    2015-01-01

    cis,cis-Muconic acid (MA) is a commercially important raw material used in pharmaceuticals, functional resins, and agrochemicals. MA is also a potential platform chemical for the production of adipic acid (AA), terephthalic acid, caprolactam, and 1,6-hexanediol. A strain of Escherichia coli K-12, BW25113, was genetically modified, and a novel nonnative metabolic pathway was introduced for the synthesis of MA from glucose. The proposed pathway converted chorismate from the aromatic amino acid pathway to MA via 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB). Three nonnative genes, pobA, aroY, and catA, coding for 4-hydroxybenzoate hydrolyase, protocatechuate decarboxylase, and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, respectively, were functionally expressed in E. coli to establish the MA biosynthetic pathway. E. coli native genes ubiC, aroFFBR, aroE, and aroL were overexpressed and the genes ptsH, ptsI, crr, and pykF were deleted from the E. coli genome in order to increase the precursors of the proposed MA pathway. The final engineered E. coli strain produced nearly 170 mg/liter of MA from simple carbon sources in shake flask experiments. The proposed pathway was proved to be functionally active, and the strategy can be used for future metabolic engineering efforts for production of MA from renewable sugars. PMID:26362984

  5. Cadmium Induces Retinoic Acid Signaling by Regulating Retinoic Acid Metabolic Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuxia; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal cadmium is an environmental teratogen. In addition, cadmium and retinoic acid can act synergistically to induce forelimb malformations. The molecular mechanism underlying the teratogenicity of cadmium and the synergistic effect with retinoic acid has not been addressed. An evolutionarily conserved gene, β,β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase (BCMO), which is involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis, was studied in both Caenorhabditis elegans and murine Hepa 1–6 cells. In C. elegans, bcmo-1 was expressed in the intestine and was cadmium inducible. Similarly, in Hepa 1–6 cells, Bcmo1 was induced by cadmium. Retinoic acid-mediated signaling increased after 24-h exposures to 5 and 10 μm cadmium in Hepa 1–6 cells. Examination of gene expression demonstrated that the induction of retinoic acid signaling by cadmium may be mediated by overexpression of Bcmo1. Furthermore, cadmium inhibited the expression of Cyp26a1 and Cyp26b1, which are involved in retinoic acid degradation. These results indicate that cadmium-induced teratogenicity may be due to the ability of the metal to increase the levels of retinoic acid by disrupting the expression of retinoic acid-metabolizing genes. PMID:19556237

  6. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Regulates Oxidative Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans through the NHR-49 and MDT-15 Transcriptional Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Arriola, Elizabeth; EL Hafidi, Mohammed; Ortega-Cuéllar, Daniel; Carvajal, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Cellular energy regulation relies on complex signaling pathways that respond to fuel availability and metabolic demands. Dysregulation of these networks is implicated in the development of human metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. In Caenorhabditis elegans the AMP-activated protein kinase, AAK, has been associated with longevity and stress resistance; nevertheless its precise role in energy metabolism remains elusive. In the present study, we find an evolutionary conserved role of AAK in oxidative metabolism. Similar to mammals, AAK is activated by AICAR and metformin and leads to increased glycolytic and oxidative metabolic fluxes evidenced by an increase in lactate levels and mitochondrial oxygen consumption and a decrease in total fatty acids and lipid storage, whereas augmented glucose availability has the opposite effects. We found that these changes were largely dependent on the catalytic subunit AAK-2, since the aak-2 null strain lost the observed metabolic actions. Further results demonstrate that the effects due to AAK activation are associated to SBP-1 and NHR-49 transcriptional factors and MDT-15 transcriptional co-activator, suggesting a regulatory pathway that controls oxidative metabolism. Our findings establish C. elegans as a tractable model system to dissect the relationship between distinct molecules that play a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism in human metabolic diseases. PMID:26824904

  7. Development of a Clickable Probe for Profiling of Protein Glutathionylation in the Central Cellular Metabolism of E. coli and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shan; Chen, Yuling; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Lei; Gong, Yiyi; Adilijiang, Gulishana; Gao, Yan; Deng, Haiteng

    2015-11-19

    Protein glutathionylation is an important post-translational modification that regulates many cellular processes, including energy metabolism, signal transduction, and protein homeostasis. Global profiling of glutathionylated proteins (denoted as glutathionylome) is crucial for understanding redox-regulated signal transduction. Here, we developed a novel method based on click reaction and proteomics to enrich and identify the glutathionylated peptides in Escherichia coli and Drosophila lysates, in which 937 and 1,930 potential glutathionylated peptides were identified, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the cysteine residue next to negatively charged amino acid residues has a higher frequency of glutathionylation. Importantly, we found that most proteins associated with metabolic pathways were glutathionylated and that the glutathionylation sites of metabolic enzymes were highly conserved among different species. Our results indicate that the glutathione analog is a useful tool to characterize protein glutathionylation, and glutathionylation of metabolic enzymes, which play important roles in regulating cellular metabolism, is conserved.

  8. Hypochlorous and peracetic acid induced oxidation of dairy proteins.

    PubMed

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Aedo, Philip Roger; Ling, Shen Yan; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-02-09

    Hypochlorous and peracetic acids, both known disinfectants in the food industry, were compared for their oxidative capacity toward dairy proteins. Whey proteins and caseins were oxidized under well controlled conditions at pH 8 as a function of the sanitizing concentration. Different markers for protein oxidation were monitored. The results established that the protein carbonyl content was a rather unspecific marker for protein oxidation, which did not allow one to differentiate the oxidant used especially at the lower concentrations. Cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine were proven to be the most vulnerable amino acids for degradation upon hypochlorous and peracetic acid treatment, while tyrosine was only prone to degradation in the presence of hypochlorous acid. Hypochlorous acid induced oxidation gave rise to protein aggregation, while during peracetic acid induced oxidation, no high molecular weight aggregates were observed. Protein aggregation upon hypochlorous acid oxidation could primarily be linked to tryptophan and tyrosine degradation.

  9. On the origin of 3-methylglutaconic acid in disorders of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ikon, Nikita; Ryan, Robert O

    2016-09-01

    3-methylglutaconic acid (3MGA)-uria occurs in numerous inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) associated with compromised mitochondrial energy metabolism. This organic acid arises from thioester cleavage of 3-methylglutaconyl CoA (3MG CoA), an intermediate in leucine catabolism. In individuals harboring mutations in 3MG CoA hydratase (i.e., primary 3MGA-uria), dietary leucine is the source of 3MGA. In secondary 3MGA-uria, however, no leucine metabolism defects have been reported. While others have suggested 3MGA arises from aberrant isoprenoid shunting from cytosol to mitochondria, an alternative route posits that 3MG CoA arises in three steps from mitochondrial acetyl CoA. Support for this biosynthetic route in IEMs is seen by its regulated occurrence in microorganisms. The fungus, Ustilago maydis, the myxobacterium, Myxococcus xanthus and the marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscule, generate 3MG CoA (or acyl carrier protein derivative) in the biosynthesis of iron chelating siderophores, iso-odd chain fatty acids and polyketide/nonribosomal peptide products, respectively. The existence of this biosynthetic machinery in these organisms supports a model wherein, under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of acetyl CoA in the inner mitochondrial space as a result of inefficient fuel utilization drives de novo synthesis of 3MG CoA. Since humans lack the downstream biosynthetic capability of the organisms mentioned above, as 3MG CoA levels rise, thioester hydrolysis yields 3MGA, which is excreted in urine as unspent fuel. Understanding the metabolic origins of 3MGA may increase its utility as a biomarker.

  10. Novel metabolic and physiological functions of branched chain amino acids: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihai; Zeng, Xiangfang; Ren, Man; Mao, Xiangbing; Qiao, Shiyan

    2017-01-01

    It is widely known that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are not only elementary components for building muscle tissue but also participate in increasing protein synthesis in animals and humans. BCAA (isoleucine, leucine and valine) regulate many key signaling pathways, the most classic of which is the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. This signaling pathway connects many diverse physiological and metabolic roles. Recent years have witnessed many striking developments in determining the novel functions of BCAA including: (1) Insufficient or excessive levels of BCAA in the diet enhances lipolysis. (2) BCAA, especially isoleucine, play a major role in enhancing glucose consumption and utilization by up-regulating intestinal and muscular glucose transporters. (3) Supplementation of leucine in the diet enhances meat quality in finishing pigs. (4) BCAA are beneficial for mammary health, milk quality and embryo growth. (5) BCAA enhance intestinal development, intestinal amino acid transportation and mucin production. (6) BCAA participate in up-regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, abnormally elevated BCAA levels in the blood (decreased BCAA catabolism) are a good biomarker for the early detection of obesity, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. This review will provide some insights into these novel metabolic and physiological functions of BCAA.

  11. Metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells: glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and Bcl-2 proteins as novel therapeutic targets for cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunxia; Zhang, Guifeng; Zhao, Lei; Ma, Zhijun; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-01-20

    Nearly a century ago, Otto Warburg made the ground-breaking observation that cancer cells, unlike normal cells, prefer a seemingly inefficient mechanism of glucose metabolism: aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon now referred to as the Warburg effect. The finding that rapidly proliferating cancer cells favors incomplete metabolism of glucose, producing large amounts of lactate as opposed to synthesizing ATP to sustain cell growth, has confounded scientists for years. Further investigation into the metabolic phenotype of cancer has expanded our understanding of this puzzling conundrum, and has opened new avenues for the development of anti-cancer therapies. Enhanced glycolytic flux is now known to allow for increased synthesis of intermediates for sustaining anabolic pathways critical for cancer cell growth. Alongside the increase in glycolysis, cancer cells transform their mitochondria into synthesis machines supported by augmented glutaminolysis, supplying lipid production, amino acid synthesis, and the pentose phosphate pathways. Inhibition of several of the key enzymes involved in these pathways has been demonstrated to effectively obstruct cancer cell growth and multiplication, sensitizing them to apoptosis. The modulation of various regulatory proteins involved in metabolic processes is central to cancerous reprogramming of metabolism. The finding that members of one of the major protein families involved in cell death regulation also aberrantly regulated in cancers, the Bcl-2 family of proteins, are also critical mediators of metabolic pathways, provides strong evidence for the importance of the metabolic shift to cancer cell survival. Targeting the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins is proving to be a successful way to selectively target cancer cells and induce apoptosis. Further understanding of how cancer cells modify metabolic regulation to increase channeling of substrates into biosynthesis will allow for the discovery of novel drug

  12. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa; Wei, Na

    2016-01-29

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production.

  13. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production. PMID:26826231

  14. Diverse roles of the nucleic acid binding protein KHSRP in cell differentiation and disease

    PubMed Central

    Briata, Paola; Bordo, Domenico; Puppo, Margherita; Gorlero, Franco; Rossi, Martina; Bizzozzero, Nora Perrone; Gherzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein KHSRP (KH-Type Splicing Regulatory Protein) modulates RNA life and gene expression at various levels. KHSRP controls important cellular functions as different as proliferation, differentiation, metabolism and response to infectious agents. We summarize and discuss experimental evidence providing a potential link between changes in KHSRP expression/function and human diseases including neuromuscular disorders, obesity, type II diabetes, and cancer. PMID:26708421

  15. Diverse roles of the nucleic acid-binding protein KHSRP in cell differentiation and disease.

    PubMed

    Briata, Paola; Bordo, Domenico; Puppo, Margherita; Gorlero, Franco; Rossi, Martina; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora; Gherzi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The single-stranded nucleic acid-binding protein KHSRP (KH-type splicing regulatory protein) modulates RNA life and gene expression at various levels. KHSRP controls important cellular functions as different as proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, and response to infectious agents. We summarize and discuss experimental evidence providing a potential link between changes in KHSRP expression/function and human diseases including neuromuscular disorders, obesity, type II diabetes, and cancer.

  16. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase in Plants Exhibiting Crassulacean Acid Metabolism 1

    PubMed Central

    Dittrich, P.; Campbell, Wilbur H.; Black, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase has been found in significant activities in a number of plants exhibiting Crassulacean acid metabolism. Thirty-five species were surveyed for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, ribulose diphosphate carboxylase, malic enzyme, and malate dehydrogenase (NAD). Plants which showed high activities of malic enzyme contained no detectable phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, while plants with high activities of the latter enzyme contained little malic enzyme. It is proposed that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase acts as a decarboxylase during the light period, furnishing CO2 for the pentose cycle and phosphoenolpyruvate for gluconeogenesis. Some properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in crude extracts of pineapple leaves were investigated. The enzyme required Mn2+, Mg2+, and ATP for maximum activity. About 60% of the activity could be pelleted, along with chloroplasts and mitochondria, in extracts from leaves kept in the dark overnight. PMID:16658562

  17. Engineering crassulacean acid metabolism to improve water-use efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Borland, Anne M.; Hartwell, James; Weston, David J.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Climatic extremes threaten agricultural sustainability worldwide. One approach to increase plant water-use efficiency is to introduce crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. Such a task requires comprehensive systems-level understanding of the enzymatic and regulatory pathways underpinning this temporal CO2 pump. Here, we review the progress that has been made in achieving this goal. Given that CAM arose through multiple independent evolutionary origins, comparative transcriptomics and genomics of taxonomically diverse CAM species are being used to define the genetic ‘parts list’ required to operate the core CAM functional modules of nocturnal carboxylation, daytime decarboxylation, and inverse stomatal regulation. Engineered CAM offers the potential to sustain plant productivity for food, feed, fiber, and biofuel production in hotter and drier climates. PMID:24559590

  18. Engineering crassulacean acid metabolism to improve water-use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Borland, Anne M; Hartwell, James; Weston, David J; Schlauch, Karen A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2014-05-01

    Climatic extremes threaten agricultural sustainability worldwide. One approach to increase plant water-use efficiency (WUE) is to introduce crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. Such a task requires comprehensive systems-level understanding of the enzymatic and regulatory pathways underpinning this temporal CO2 pump. Here we review the progress that has been made in achieving this goal. Given that CAM arose through multiple independent evolutionary origins, comparative transcriptomics and genomics of taxonomically diverse CAM species are being used to define the genetic 'parts list' required to operate the core CAM functional modules of nocturnal carboxylation, diurnal decarboxylation, and inverse stomatal regulation. Engineered CAM offers the potential to sustain plant productivity for food, feed, fiber, and biofuel production in hotter and drier climates.

  19. How does fish metamorphosis affect aromatic amino acid metabolism?

    PubMed

    Pinto, Wilson; Figueira, Luís; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2009-02-01

    Aromatic amino acids (AAs, phenylalanine and tyrosine) may be specifically required during fish metamorphosis, since they are the precursors of thyroid hormones which regulate this process. This project attempted to evaluate aromatic AA metabolism during the ontogenesis of fish species with a marked (Senegalese sole; Solea senegalensis) and a less accentuated metamorphosis (gilthead seabream; Sparus aurata). Fish were tube-fed with three L-[U-14C] AA solutions at pre-metamorphic, metamorphic and post-metamorphic stages of development: controlled AA mixture (Mix), phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr). Results showed a preferential aromatic AA retention during the metamorphosis of Senegalese sole, rather than in gilthead seabream. Senegalese sole's highly accentuated metamorphosis seems to increase aromatic AA physiological requirements, possibly for thyroid hormone production. Thus, Senegalese sole seems to be especially susceptible to dietary aromatic AA deficiencies during the metamorphosis period, and these findings may be important for physiologists, fish nutritionists and the flatfish aquaculture industry.

  20. Microbial diversity and metabolic networks in acid mine drainage habitats

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-García, Celia; Peláez, Ana I.; Mesa, Victoria; Sánchez, Jesús; Golyshina, Olga V.; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) emplacements are low-complexity natural systems. Low-pH conditions appear to be the main factor underlying the limited diversity of the microbial populations thriving in these environments, although temperature, ionic composition, total organic carbon, and dissolved oxygen are also considered to significantly influence their microbial life. This natural reduction in diversity driven by extreme conditions was reflected in several studies on the microbial populations inhabiting the various micro-environments present in such ecosystems. Early studies based on the physiology of the autochthonous microbiota and the growing success of omics-based methodologies have enabled a better understanding of microbial ecology and function in low-pH mine outflows; however, complementary omics-derived data should be included to completely describe their microbial ecology. Furthermore, recent updates on the distribution of eukaryotes and archaea recovered through sterile filtering (herein referred to as filterable fraction) in these environments demand their inclusion in the microbial characterization of AMD systems. In this review, we present a complete overview of the bacterial, archaeal (including filterable fraction), and eukaryotic diversity in these ecosystems, and include a thorough depiction of the metabolism and element cycling in AMD habitats. We also review different metabolic network structures at the organismal level, which is necessary to disentangle the role of each member of the AMD communities described thus far. PMID:26074887

  1. Enterocyte Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs): Different Functions of Liver- and Intestinal- FABPs in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Gajda, Angela M.; Storch, Judith

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) are highly abundant cytosolic proteins that are expressed in most mammalian tissues. In the intestinal enterocyte, both Liver- (LFABP; FABP1) and Intestinal-fatty acid binding proteins (IFABP; FABP2) are expressed. These proteins display high affinity binding for long chain fatty acids (FA) and other hydrophobic ligands, thus they are believed to be involved with uptake and trafficking of lipids in the intestine. In vitro studies have identified differences in ligand binding stoichiometry and specificity, and in mechanisms of FA transfer to membranes, and it has been hypothesized that LFABP and IFABP have difference functions in the enterocyte. Studies directly comparing LFABP- and IFABP-null mice have revealed markedly different phenotypes, indicating that these proteins indeed have different functions in intestinal lipid metabolism and whole body energy homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the evolving knowledge of the functions of LFABP and IFABP in the intestinal enterocyte. PMID:25458898

  2. Effects of Heat Shock on Amino Acid Metabolism of Cowpea Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Randall R.; Cherry, Joe H.; Rhodes, David

    1990-01-01

    When cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cells maintained at 26°C are transferred to 42°C, rapid accumulation of γ-aminobutyrate (>10-fold) is induced. Several other amino acids (including β-alanine, alanine, and proline) are also accumulated, but less extensively than γ-aminobutyrate. Total free amino acid levels are increased approximately 1.5-fold after 24 hours at 42°C. Heat shock also leads to release of amino acids into the medium, indicating heat shock damage to the integrity of the plasmalemma. Some of the changes in metabolic rates associated with heat shock were estimated by monitoring the 15N labeling kinetics of free intracellular, extracellular and protein-bound amino acids of cultures supplied with 15NH4+, and analyzing the labeling data by computer simulation. Preliminary computer simulation models of nitrogen flux suggest that heat shock induces an increase in the γ-aminobutyrate synthesis rate from 12.5 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight in control cells maintained at 26°C, to as high as 800 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight within the first 2 hours of heat shock. This 64-fold increase in the γ-aminobutyrate synthesis rate greatly exceeds the expected (Q10) change of metabolic rate of 2.5- to 3-fold due to a 16°C increase in temperature. We suggest that this metabolic response may in part involve an activation of glutamate decarboxylase in vivo, perhaps mediated by a transient cytoplasmic acidification. Proline appears to be synthesized from glutamate and not from ornithine in cowpea cells. Proline became severalfold more heavily labeled than ornithine, citrulline and arginine in both control and heat-shocked cultures. Proline synthesis rate was increased 2.7-fold by heat shock. Alanine, β-alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine synthesis rates were increased 1.6-, 3.5-, 2.0-, 5.0-, and 6.0-fold, respectively, by heat shock. In contrast, the phenylalanine synthesis rate was decreased by 50% in response to heat shock. The

  3. Metabolic regulation of amino acid uptake in marine waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchman, D.L.; Hodson, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    To determine the relationships among the processes of uptake, intracellular pool formation, and incorporation of amino acids into protein, the authors measured the uptake of dipeptides and free amino acids by bacterial assemblages in estuarine and coastal waters of the southeast US. The dipeptide phenylalanyl-phenylalanine (phe-phe) lowered V/sub max/ of phenylalanine uptake when the turnover rate of phenylalanine was relatively high. When the turnover rate was relatively low, phe-phe either had no effect or increased V/sub max/ of phenylalanine uptake. An analytical model was developed and tested to measure the turnover time of the intracellular pool of phenylalanine. The results suggested that the size of the intracellular pool is regulated, which precludes high assimilation rates of both phenylalanine and phe-phe. In waters with relatively low phenylalanine turnover rates, bacterial assemblages appear to have a greater capacity to assimilate phenylalanine and phe-phe simultaneously. Marine bacterial assemblages do not substantially increase the apparent respiration of amino acids when concentrations increase. The authors conclude that sustained increases in uptake rates and mineralization by marine bacterial assemblages in response to an increase in the concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen is determined by the rate of protein synthesis.

  4. Acute supplementation of amino acids increases net protein accretion in IUGR fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura D; Rozance, Paul J; Thorn, Stephanie R; Friedman, Jacob E; Hay, William W

    2012-08-01

    Placental insufficiency decreases fetal amino acid uptake from the placenta, plasma insulin concentrations, and protein accretion, thus compromising normal fetal growth trajectory. We tested whether acute supplementation of amino acids or insulin into the fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) would increase net fetal protein accretion rates. Late-gestation IUGR and control (CON) fetal sheep received acute, 3-h infusions of amino acids (with euinsulinemia), insulin (with euglycemia and euaminoacidemia), or saline. Fetal leucine metabolism was measured under steady-state conditions followed by a fetal muscle biopsy to quantify insulin signaling. In CON, increasing amino acid delivery rates to the fetus by 100% increased leucine oxidation rates by 100%. In IUGR, amino acid infusion completely suppressed fetal protein breakdown rates but increased leucine oxidation rate by only 25%, resulting in increased protein accretion rates by 150%. Acute insulin infusion, however, had very little effect on amino acid delivery rates, fetal leucine disposal rates, or fetal protein accretion rates in CON or IUGR fetuses despite robust signaling of the fetal skeletal muscle insulin-signaling cascade. These results indicate that, when amino acids are given directly into the fetal circulation independently of changes in insulin concentrations, IUGR fetal sheep have suppressed protein breakdown rates, thus increasing net fetal protein accretion.

  5. miR-33a/b contribute to the regulation of fatty acid metabolism and insulin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dávalos, Alberto; Goedeke, Leigh; Smibert, Peter; Ramírez, Cristina M.; Warrier, Nikhil P.; Andreo, Ursula; Cirera-Salinas, Daniel; Rayner, Katey; Suresh, Uthra; Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos; Esplugues, Enric; Fisher, Edward A.; Penalva, Luiz O. F.; Moore, Kathryn J.; Suárez, Yajaira; Lai, Eric C.; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Cellular imbalances of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism result in pathological processes, including atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Recent work from our group and others has shown that the intronic microRNAs hsa-miR-33a and hsa-miR-33b are located within the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and -1 genes, respectively, and regulate cholesterol homeostasis in concert with their host genes. Here, we show that miR-33a and -b also regulate genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and insulin signaling. miR-33a and -b target key enzymes involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, including carnitine O-octaniltransferase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), and AMP kinase subunit-α. Moreover, miR-33a and -b also target the insulin receptor substrate 2, an essential component of the insulin-signaling pathway in the liver. Overexpression of miR-33a and -b reduces both fatty acid oxidation and insulin signaling in hepatic cell lines, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-33a and -b increases these two metabolic pathways. Together, these data establish that miR-33a and -b regulate pathways controlling three of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, namely levels of HDL, triglycerides, and insulin signaling, and suggest that inhibitors of miR-33a and -b may be useful in the treatment of this growing health concern. PMID:21576456

  6. Effect of high altitude on protein metabolism in Bolivian children.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Jose L; Spielvogel, Hilde; Berger, Jacques; Araoz, Mauricio; Lujan, Carmen; Tellez, Wilma; Caceres, Esperanza; Gachon, Pierre; Coudert, Jean; Beaufrere, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    In Bolivia, malnutrition in children is a major health problem that may be caused by inadequate protein, energy, and micronutrient intake; exposure to bacterial and parasitic infections; and life in a multistress environment (high altitude, cold, cosmic radiation, low ambient humidity). However, no data on protein absorption and utilization at high altitude were available. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of altitude on protein metabolism in Bolivian children. We measured protein utilization using leucine labeled with a stable isotope ((13)C) in two groups of healthy prepubertal children matched for age. Group 1 (n = 10) was examined at high altitude (HA) in La Paz (3600 m), and group 2 (n = 10) at low altitude (LA) in Santa Cruz (420 m). The nutritional status did not differ between groups but, as was to be expected, the HA group had higher hemoglobin concentration than the LA group. The children consumed casein that was intrinsically labeled with L-(1-(13)C) leucine and expired (13)CO(2) was analyzed. Samples of expired air were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometer in Clermont-Ferrand. It was found that cumulative leucine oxidation ((13)CO(2)) at 300 min after ingestion was 19.7 +/- 4.9% at HA and 25.2 +/- 3.2% at LA. These results showed that protein absorption and/or utilization is significantly affected by altitude.

  7. Uric acid in metabolic syndrome: From an innocent bystander to a central player

    PubMed Central

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Jensen, Thomas; Solak, Yalcin; Le, Myphuong; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; Rivard, Chris; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Johnson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid, once viewed as an inert metabolic end-product of purine metabolism, has been recently incriminated in a number of chronic disease states, including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and chronic kidney disease. Several experimental and clinical studies support a role for uric acid as a contributory causal factor in these conditions. Here we discuss some of the major mechanisms linking uric acid to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. At this time the key to understanding the importance of uric acid in these diseases will be the conduct of large clinical trials in which the effect of lowering uric acid on hard clinical outcomes is assessed. Elevated uric acid may turn out to be one of the more important remediable risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26703429

  8. Dorsomedial hindbrain catecholamine regulation of hypothalamic astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme protein expression: Impact of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, P; Shrestha, P K; Briski, K P

    2015-04-30

    The brain astrocyte glycogen reservoir is a vital energy reserve and, in the cerebral cortex, subject among other factors to noradrenergic control. The ovarian steroid estradiol potently stimulates nerve cell aerobic respiration, but its role in glial glycogen metabolism during energy homeostasis or mismatched substrate supply/demand is unclear. This study examined the premise that estradiol regulates hypothalamic astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme protein expression during normo- and hypoglycemia in vivo through dorsomedial hindbrain catecholamine (CA)-dependent mechanisms. Individual astrocytes identified in situ by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunolabeling were laser-microdissected from the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH), arcuate hypothalamic (ARH), and paraventricular hypothalamic (PVH) nuclei and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of estradiol (E)- or oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized (OVX) rats after insulin or vehicle injection, and pooled within each site. Stimulation [VMH, LHA] or suppression [PVH, ARH] of basal glycogen synthase (GS) protein expression by E was reversed in the former three sites by caudal fourth ventricular pretreatment with the CA neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). E diminished glycogen phosphorylase (GP) protein profiles by CA-dependent [VMH, PVH] or -independent mechanisms [LHA]. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) increased GS expression in the PVH in OVX+E, but reduced this protein in the PVH, ARH, and LHA in OVX+O. Moreover, IIH augmented GP expression in the VMH, LHA, and ARH in OVX+E and in the ARH in OVX+O, responses that normalized by 6-OHDA. Results demonstrate site-specific effects of E on astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme expression in the female rat hypothalamus, and identify locations where dorsomedial hindbrain CA input is required for such action. Evidence that E correspondingly increases and reduces basal GS and GP in the VMH and LHA, but augments the latter protein during IIH suggests that E regulates

  9. Apolipoprotein A-IV: a protein intimately involved in metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Kohan, Alison B.; Lo, Chun-Min; Liu, Min; Howles, Philip; Tso, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the physiological roles of apoA-IV in metabolism, and to underscore the potential for apoA-IV to be a focus for new therapies aimed at the treatment of diabetes and obesity-related disorders. ApoA-IV is primarily synthesized by the small intestine, attached to chylomicrons by enterocytes, and secreted into intestinal lymph during fat absorption. In circulation, apoA-IV is associated with HDL and chylomicron remnants, but a large portion is lipoprotein free. Due to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, and because it can mediate reverse-cholesterol transport, proposed functions of circulating apoA-IV have been related to protection from cardiovascular disease. This review, however, focuses primarily on several properties of apoA-IV that impact other metabolic functions related to food intake, obesity, and diabetes. In addition to participating in triglyceride absorption, apoA-IV can act as an acute satiation factor through both peripheral and central routes of action. It also modulates glucose homeostasis through incretin-like effects on insulin secretion, and by moderating hepatic glucose production. While apoA-IV receptors remain to be conclusively identified, the latter modes of action suggest that this protein holds therapeutic promise for treating metabolic disease. PMID:25640749

  10. Fatty acid metabolism in lambs fed citrus pulp.

    PubMed

    Lanza, M; Scerra, M; Bognanno, M; Buccioni, A; Cilione, C; Biondi, L; Priolo, A; Luciano, G

    2015-06-01

    (P = 0.09) with increasing level of citrus pulp in the diets. Furthermore, the SA/(SA + VA) ratio tended to be lower (P = 0.10) in the ruminal fluid from lambs fed the CIT35 diet compared with that of the CON group. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that replacing barley with citrus pulp in the diet of growing lambs improves intramuscular fatty acid composition and underline the need for specific studies to clarify the mechanisms by which feeding citrus pulp affects the fatty acid metabolism in ruminants.

  11. Nucleic acids encoding human trithorax protein

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Glen A.; Djabali, Malek; Selleri, Licia; Parry, Pauline

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, there is provided an isolated peptide having the characteristics of human trithorax protein (as well as DNA encoding same, antisense DNA derived therefrom and antagonists therefor). The invention peptide is characterized by having a DNA binding domain comprising multiple zinc fingers and at least 40% amino acid identity with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein and at least 70% conserved sequence with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein, and wherein said peptide is encoded by a gene located at chromosome 11 of the human genome at q23. Also provided are methods for the treatment of subject(s) suffering from immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer by administering to said subject a therapeutically effective amount of one of the above-described agents (i.e., peptide, antagonist therefor, DNA encoding said peptide or antisense DNA derived therefrom). Also provided is a method for the diagnosis, in a subject, of immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer associated with disruption of chromosome 11 at q23.

  12. Salicylic acid-induced changes to growth and phenolic metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla plants.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Grúz, Jirí; Backor, Martin; Strnad, Miroslav; Repcák, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) doses of 50 and 250 microM, for a period of up to 7 days, on selected physiological aspects and the phenolic metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants was studied. SA exhibited both growth-promoting (50 microM) and growth-inhibiting (250 microM) properties, the latter being correlated with decrease of chlorophylls, water content and soluble proteins. In terms of phenolic metabolism, it seems that the higher SA dose has a toxic effect, based on the sharp increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity (24 h after application), which is followed by an increase in total soluble phenolics, lignin accumulation and the majority of the 11 detected phenolic acids. Guaiacol-peroxidase activity was elevated throughout the experiment in 250 microM SA-treated plants. In turn, some responses can be explained by mechanisms associated with oxidative stress tolerance; these mitigate acute SA stress (which is indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde content). However, PAL activity decreased with prolonged exposure to SA, indicating its inhibition. Accumulation of coumarin-related compounds (umbelliferone and herniarin) was not affected by SA treatments, while (Z)- and (E)-2-beta-D: -glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acids increased in the 250 microM SA-treated rosettes. Free SA content in the rosettes increased significantly only in the 250 microM SA treatment, with levels tending to decrease towards the end of the experiment and the opposite trend was observed in the roots.

  13. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxygenated metabolism in atherothrombosis.

    PubMed

    Guichardant, Michel; Calzada, Catherine; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Lagarde, Michel; Véricel, Evelyne

    2015-04-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have reported the health benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including a lower risk of coronary heart diseases. This review mainly focuses on the effects of alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on some risk factors associated with atherothrombosis, including platelet activation, plasma lipid concentrations and oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Special focus is given to the effects of marine PUFA on the formation of eicosanoids and docosanoids, and to the bioactive properties of some oxygenated metabolites of omega-3 PUFA produced by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. The antioxidant effects of marine omega-3 PUFA at low concentrations and the pro-oxidant effects of DHA at high concentrations on the redox status of platelets and LDL are highlighted. Non enzymatic peroxidation end-products deriving from omega-3 PUFA such as hydroxy-hexenals, neuroketals and EPA-derived isoprostanes are also considered in relation to atherosclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance".

  14. Trans-Palmitoleic Acid, Metabolic Risk Factors, and New-Onset Diabetes in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Cao, Haiming; King, Irena B.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Song, Xiaoling; Siscovick, David S.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Palmitoleic acid (cis-16:1n-7), produced by endogenous fat synthesis, has been linked to both beneficial and deleterious metabolic effects, potentially confounded by diverse determinants and tissue sources of endogenous production. Trans-palmitoleate (trans-16:1n-7) represents a distinctly exogenous source of 16:1n-7, unconfounded by endogenous synthesis or its determinants, that may be uniquely informative. Objective We investigated whether circulating trans-palmitoleate was independently related to lower metabolic risk and incident type2 diabetes. Design Prospective cohort study (1992–2006). Setting Four US communities. Patients 3,736 adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Measurements Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, anthropometry, blood lipids, inflammatory markers, and glucose-insulin levels were measured at baseline in 1992; and diet, 3 years earlier. In multivariable-adjusted models, we investigated how demographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors independently related to trans-palmitoleate; how trans-palmitoleate related to major metabolic risk factors; and how trans-palmitoleate related to new-onset diabetes (304 incident cases). We validated findings for metabolic risk factors in an independent cohort of 327 women. Results In multivariable-analyses, whole-fat dairy consumption was most strongly associated with higher trans-palmitoleate. Higher trans-palmitoleate was associated with slightly lower adiposity and, independently, higher high-density-lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol (across quintiles: +1.9%, P=0.04), lower triglycerides (−19.0%, P<0.001), lower total:HDL-cholesterol (−4.7%, P<0.001), lower C-reactive protein (−13.8%, P=0.05), and lower insulin resistance (−16.7%, P<0.001). Trans-palmitoleate was associated with substantially lower incidence of diabetes, with multivariable-hazard-ratios=0.41 (95%CI=0.27–0.64) and 0.38 (95%CI=0.24–0.62) in quintile-4 and quintile-5, versus quintile-1 (P-trend<0.001). Findings were

  15. CO(2)-concentrating: consequences in crassulacean acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lüttge, Ulrich

    2002-11-01

    The consequences of CO(2)-concentrating in leaf air-spaces of CAM plants during daytime organic acid decarboxylation in Phase III of CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) are explored. There are mechanistic consequences of internal CO(2) partial pressures, p(i)(CO(2)). These are (i) effects on stomata, i.e. high p(i)(CO(2)) eliciting stomatal closure in Phase III, (ii) regulation of malic acid remobilization from the vacuole, malate decarboxylation and refixation of CO(2) via Rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), and (iii) internal signalling functions during the transitions between Phases II and III and III and IV, respectively, in the natural day/night cycle and in synchronizing the circadian clocks of individual leaf cells or leaf patches in the free-running endogenous rhythmicity of CAM. There are ecophysiological consequences. Obvious beneficial ecophysiological consequences are (i) CO(2)-acquisition, (ii) increased water-use- efficiency, (iii) suppressed photorespiration, and (iv) reduced oxidative stress by over-energization of the photosynthetic apparatus. However, the general potency of these beneficial effects may be questioned. There are also adverse ecophysiological consequences. These are (i) energetics, (ii) pH effects and (iii) Phase III oxidative stress. A major consequence of CO(2)-concentrating in Phase III is O(2)-concentrating, increased p(i)(CO(2)) is accompanied by increased p(i)(O(2)). Do reversible shifts of C(3)/CAM-intermediate plants between the C(3)-CAM-C(3) modes of photosynthesis indicate that C(3)-photosynthesis provides better protection from irradiance stress? There are many open questions and CAM remains a curiosity.

  16. Obesity and Cancer Progression: Is There a Role of Fatty Acid Metabolism?

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Seher; Lee, Lisa S.; Schreuder, Mark; Hoy, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is renewed interest in elucidating the metabolic characteristics of cancer and how these characteristics may be exploited as therapeutic targets. Much attention has centered on glucose, glutamine and de novo lipogenesis, yet the metabolism of fatty acids that arise from extracellular, as well as intracellular, stores as triacylglycerol has received much less attention. This review focuses on the key pathways of fatty acid metabolism, including uptake, esterification, lipolysis, and mitochondrial oxidation, and how the regulators of these pathways are altered in cancer. Additionally, we discuss the potential link that fatty acid metabolism may serve between obesity and changes in cancer progression. PMID:25866768

  17. Putting a break on protein translocation: metabolic regulation of mitochondrial protein import.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Johannes M

    2009-04-01

    Sequence-inherent targeting information directs polypeptides synthesized in the cytosol to their respective cellular compartment. Some proteins use ambiguous sorting signals or specific folding properties to be dually distributed between the cytosol and mitochondria. A study published in this issue of Molecular Microbiology shows that in the case of fumarase this distribution is controlled by the metabolic state of yeast cells. The metabolite-dependent distribution of fumarase represents an exciting example of regulated protein import into mitochondria that shows that eukaryotes can adapt the intracellular protein distribution to their physiological conditions.

  18. Metabolic pathways regulated by abscisic acid, salicylic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid in association with improved drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are known to play roles in regulating plant stress responses. This study was conducted to determine metabolites and associated pathways regulated by ABA, SA and GABA that could contribute to drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants were foliar sprayed with ABA (5 μM), GABA (0.5 mM) and SA (10 μM) or water (untreated control) prior to 25 days drought stress in controlled growth chambers. Application of ABA, GABA or SA had similar positive effects on alleviating drought damages, as manifested by the maintenance of lower electrolyte leakage and greater relative water content in leaves of treated plants relative to the untreated control. Metabolic profiling showed that ABA, GABA and SA induced differential metabolic changes under drought stress. ABA mainly promoted the accumulation of organic acids associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and malic acid). SA strongly stimulated the accumulation of amino acids (proline, serine, threonine and alanine) and carbohydrates (glucose, mannose, fructose and cellobiose). GABA enhanced the accumulation of amino acids (GABA, glycine, valine, proline, 5-oxoproline, serine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and organic acids (malic acid, lactic acid, gluconic acid, malonic acid and ribonic acid). The enhanced drought tolerance could be mainly due to the enhanced respiration metabolism by ABA, amino acids and carbohydrates involved in osmotic adjustment (OA) and energy metabolism by SA, and amino acid metabolism related to OA and stress-defense secondary metabolism by GABA.

  19. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2011-12-06

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  20. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2012-02-14

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  1. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2011-03-22

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  2. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2008-10-07

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  3. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2009-04-28

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  4. Metabolism of nonesterified and esterified hydroxycinnamic acids in red wines by Brettanomyces bruxellensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While Brettanomyces can metabolize non–esterified hydroxycinnamic acids found in grape musts/wines (caffeic, p–coumaric, and ferulic acids), it was not known whether this yeast could utilize the corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, p–coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively). Red wines fr...

  5. Text mining for metabolic pathways, signaling cascades, and protein networks.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Robert; Krallinger, Martin; Andres, Eduardo; Tamames, Javier; Blaschke, Christian; Valencia, Alfonso

    2005-05-10

    The complexity of the information stored in databases and publications on metabolic and signaling pathways, the high throughput of experimental data, and the growing number of publications make it imperative to provide systems to help the researcher navigate through these interrelated information resources. Text-mining methods have started to play a key role in the creation and maintenance of links between the information stored in biological databases and its original sources in the literature. These links will be extremely useful for database updating and curation, especially if a number of technical problems can be solved satisfactorily, including the identification of protein and gene names (entities in general) and the characterization of their types of interactions. The first generation of openly accessible text-mining systems, such as iHOP (Information Hyperlinked over Proteins), provides additional functions to facilitate the reconstruction of protein interaction networks, combine database and text information, and support the scientist in the formulation of novel hypotheses. The next challenge is the generation of comprehensive information regarding the general function of signaling pathways and protein interaction networks.

  6. Inducible Arginase 1 Deficiency in Mice Leads to Hyperargininemia and Altered Amino Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    St. Amand, Tim; Kyriakopoulou, Lianna; Schulze, Andreas; Funk, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Arginase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a loss of the liver arginase isoform, arginase 1 (ARG1), which is the final step in the urea cycle for detoxifying ammonia. ARG1 deficiency leads to hyperargininemia, characterized by progressive neurological impairment, persistent growth retardation and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia. Using the Cre/loxP-directed conditional gene knockout system, we generated an inducible Arg1-deficient mouse model by crossing “floxed” Arg1 mice with CreERT2 mice. The resulting mice (Arg-Cre) die about two weeks after tamoxifen administration regardless of the starting age of inducing the knockout. These treated mice were nearly devoid of Arg1 mRNA, protein and liver arginase activity, and exhibited symptoms of hyperammonemia. Plasma amino acid analysis revealed pronounced hyperargininemia and significant alterations in amino acid and guanidino compound metabolism, including increased citrulline and guanidinoacetic acid. Despite no alteration in ornithine levels, concentrations of other amino acids such as proline and the branched-chain amino acids were reduced. In summary, we have generated and characterized an inducible Arg1-deficient mouse model exhibiting several pathologic manifestations of hyperargininemia. This model should prove useful for exploring potential treatment options of ARG1 deficiency. PMID:24224027

  7. Cooperation of two mRNA-binding proteins drives metabolic adaptation to iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Sergi; Vergara, Sandra V.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Iron (Fe) is an essential co-factor for a wide range of cellular processes. We have previously demonstrated that during Fe-deficiency yeast Cth2 is expressed and promotes degradation of a battery of mRNAs leading to reprogramming of Fe-dependent metabolism and Fe-storage. We report that the Cth2-homologous protein, Cth1, is transiently expressed during Fe-deprivation and participates in the response to Fe-deficiency through the degradation of mRNAs primarily involved in mitochondrially-localized activities including respiration and amino acid biosynthesis. In parallel, wild type but not cth1Δ cth2Δ cells accumulate mRNAs encoding proteins that function in glucose import and storage and store high levels of glycogen. In addition, Fe-deficiency leads to Snf1 phosphorylation, a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase family required for the cellular response to glucose starvation. These studies demonstrate a metabolic reprogramming as a consequence of Fe-starvation that is dependent on the coordinated activities of two mRNA-binding proteins. PMID:18522836

  8. Effect of a short-term infusion of glutamine on muscle protein metabolism postoperatively.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, A; Essén, P; McNurlan, M A; Calder, G A; Andersson, K; Wernerman, J; Garlick, P J

    1996-10-01

    The acute effect of a short-term postoperative infusion of glucose supplemented with glutamine (0.285 g/kg body weight), on muscle protein metabolism, was studied by analyses of free amino acid concentrations and determinations of protein synthesis. A glutamine-glucose infusion was given for 5.5 h to 6 patients 2-3 days after elective surgery for colon cancer. The free glutamine concentration was 5.72 +/- 0.96 mmol/kg wet weight (ww) before and 6.14 +/- 1.10 mmol/kg ww 4 h after the glutamine infusion. The rate of protein synthesis was 1.26 +/- 0.15%/24 h before the infusion and 1.12 +/- 0.16%/24 h during its latter part. The percentage of polyribosomes was 42.2 +/- 3.4% before and 40.9 +/- 1.3% after the infusion. The results showed no difference in these biochemical parameters, indicating that a short-term infusion of glutamine given postoperatively is insufficient to affect protein metabolism in human skeletal muscle.

  9. Gallic acid and gallic acid derivatives: effects on drug metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ow, Yin-Yin; Stupans, Ieva

    2003-06-01

    Gallic acid and its structurally related compounds are found widely distributed in fruits and plants. Gallic acid, and its catechin derivatives are also present as one of the main phenolic components of both black and green tea. Esters of gallic acid have a diverse range of industrial uses, as antioxidants in food, in cosmetics and in the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, gallic acid is employed as a source material for inks, paints and colour developers. Studies utilising these compounds have found them to possess many potential therapeutic properties including anti-cancer and antimicrobial properties. In this review, studies of the effects of gallic acid, its esters, and gallic acid catechin derivatives on Phase I and Phase II enzymes are examined. Many published reports of the effects of the in vitro effects of gallic acid and its derivatives on drug metabolising enzymes concern effects directly on substrate (generally drug or mutagen) metabolism or indirectly through observed effects in Ames tests. In the case of the Ames test an antimutagenic effect may be observed through inhibition of CYP activation of indirectly acting mutagens and/or by scavenging of metabolically generated mutagenic electrophiles. There has been considerable interest in the in vivo effects of the gallate esters because of their incorporation into foodstuffs as antioxidants and in the catechin gallates with their potential role as chemoprotective agents. Principally an induction of Phase II enzymes has been observed however more recent studies using HepG2 cells and primary cultures of human hepatocytes provide evidence for the overall complexity of actions of individual components versus complex mixtures, such as those in food. Further systematic studies of mechanisms of induction and inhibition of drug metabolising enzymes by this group of compounds are warranted in the light of their distribution and consequent ingestion, current uses and suggested therapeutic potential. However, it

  10. Spaceflight and protein metabolism, with special reference to humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Gaprindashvili, T.

    1994-01-01

    Human space missions have shown that human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein. Specific changes include a loss of lean body mass, decreased muscle mass in the calves, decreased muscle strength, and changes in plasma proteins and amino acids. The major muscle loss is believed to be associated with the antigravity (postural) muscle. The most significant loss of protein appears to occur during the first month of flight. The etiology is believed to be multifactorial with contributions from disuse atrophy, undernutrition, and a stress type of response. This article reviews the results of American and Russian space missions to investigate this problem in humans, monkeys, and rats. The relationship of the flight results with ground-based models including bedrest for humans and hindlimb unweighting for rats is also discussed. The results suggest that humans adapt to spaceflight much better than either monkeys or rats.

  11. Historical and contemporary stable isotope tracer approaches to studying mammalian protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Daniel James

    2016-05-16

    Over a century ago, Frederick Soddy provided the first evidence for the existence of isotopes; elements that occupy the same position in the periodic table are essentially chemically identical but differ in mass due to a different number of neutrons within the atomic nucleus. Allied to the discovery of isotopes was the development of some of the first forms of mass spectrometers, driven forward by the Nobel laureates JJ Thomson and FW Aston, enabling the accurate separation, identification, and quantification of the relative abundance of these isotopes. As a result, within a few years, the number of known isotopes both stable and radioactive had greatly increased and there are now over 300 stable or radioisotopes presently known. Unknown at the time, however, was the potential utility of these isotopes within biological disciplines, it was soon discovered that these stable isotopes, particularly those of carbon ((13) C), nitrogen ((15) N), oxygen ((18) O), and hydrogen ((2) H) could be chemically introduced into organic compounds, such as fatty acids, amino acids, and sugars, and used to "trace" the metabolic fate of these compounds within biological systems. From this important breakthrough, the age of the isotope tracer was born. Over the following 80 yrs, stable isotopes would become a vital tool in not only the biological sciences, but also areas as diverse as forensics, geology, and art. This progress has been almost exclusively driven through the development of new and innovative mass spectrometry equipment from IRMS to GC-MS to LC-MS, which has allowed for the accurate quantitation of isotopic abundance within samples of complex matrices. This historical review details the development of stable isotope tracers as metabolic tools, with particular reference to their use in monitoring protein metabolism, highlighting the unique array of tools that are now available for the investigation of protein metabolism in vivo at a whole body down to a single protein

  12. Short-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Associates with a Protein Super-Complex Integrating Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Srinivas B.; Master, Stephen R.; Sireci, Anthony N.; Bierl, Charlene; Stanley, Paige E.; Li, Changhong; Stanley, Charles A.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolic pathways engage in functionally relevant multi-enzyme complexes. We previously described an interaction between short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCHAD) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) explaining the clinical phenotype of hyperinsulinism in SCHAD-deficient patients and adding SCHAD to the list of mitochondrial proteins capable of forming functional, multi-pathway complexes. In this work, we provide evidence of SCHAD's involvement in additional interactions forming tissue-specific metabolic super complexes involving both membrane-associated and matrix-dwelling enzymes and spanning multiple metabolic pathways. As an example, in murine liver, we find SCHAD interaction with aspartate transaminase (AST) and GDH from amino acid metabolic pathways, carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPS-1) from ureagenesis, other fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis enzymes and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, an extra-mitochondrial enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. Most of the interactions appear to be independent of SCHAD's role in the penultimate step of fatty acid oxidation suggesting an organizational, structural or non-enzymatic role for the SCHAD protein. PMID:22496890

  13. Short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase associates with a protein super-complex integrating multiple metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Srinivas B; Master, Stephen R; Sireci, Anthony N; Bierl, Charlene; Stanley, Paige E; Li, Changhong; Stanley, Charles A; Bennett, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolic pathways engage in functionally relevant multi-enzyme complexes. We previously described an interaction between short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCHAD) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) explaining the clinical phenotype of hyperinsulinism in SCHAD-deficient patients and adding SCHAD to the list of mitochondrial proteins capable of forming functional, multi-pathway complexes. In this work, we provide evidence of SCHAD's involvement in additional interactions forming tissue-specific metabolic super complexes involving both membrane-associated and matrix-dwelling enzymes and spanning multiple metabolic pathways. As an example, in murine liver, we find SCHAD interaction with aspartate transaminase (AST) and GDH from amino acid metabolic pathways, carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPS-1) from ureagenesis, other fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis enzymes and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, an extra-mitochondrial enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. Most of the interactions appear to be independent of SCHAD's role in the penultimate step of fatty acid oxidation suggesting an organizational, structural or non-enzymatic role for the SCHAD protein.

  14. Protein S-glutathionlyation links energy metabolism to redox signaling in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Mailloux, Ryan J.; Treberg, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    At its core mitochondrial function relies on redox reactions. Electrons stripped from nutrients are used to form NADH and NADPH, electron carriers that are similar in structure but support different functions. NADH supports ATP production but also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide (O2·-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). NADH-driven ROS production is counterbalanced by NADPH which maintains antioxidants in an active state. Mitochondria rely on a redox buffering network composed of reduced glutathione (GSH) and peroxiredoxins (Prx) to quench ROS generated by nutrient metabolism. As H2O2 is quenched, NADPH is expended to reactivate antioxidant networks and reset the redox environment. Thus, the mitochondrial redox environment is in a constant state of flux reflecting changes in nutrient and ROS metabolism. Changes in redox environment can modulate protein function through oxidation of protein cysteine thiols. Typically cysteine oxidation is considered to be mediated by H2O2 which oxidizes protein thiols (SH) forming sulfenic acid (SOH). However, problems begin to emerge when one critically evaluates the regulatory function of SOH. Indeed SOH formation is slow, non-specific, and once formed SOH reacts rapidly with a variety of molecules. By contrast, protein S-glutathionylation (PGlu) reactions involve the conjugation and removal of glutathione moieties from modifiable cysteine residues. PGlu reactions are driven by fluctuations in the availability of GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thus should be exquisitely sensitive to changes ROS flux due to shifts in the glutathione pool in response to varying H2O2 availability. Here, we propose that energy metabolism-linked redox signals originating from mitochondria are mediated indirectly by H2O2 through the GSH redox buffering network in and outside mitochondria. This proposal is based on several observations that have shown that unlike other redox modifications PGlu reactions fulfill the requisite

  15. Cyanogen Metabolism in Cassava Roots: Impact on Protein Synthesis and Root Development

    PubMed Central

    Zidenga, Tawanda; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard T.

    2017-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a staple crop for millions of sub-Saharan Africans, contains high levels of cyanogenic glycosides which protect it against herbivory. However, cyanogens have also been proposed to play a role in nitrogen transport from leaves to roots. Consistent with this hypothesis, analyses of the distribution and activities of enzymes involved in cyanide metabolism provides evidence for cyanide assimilation, derived from linamarin, into amino acids in cassava roots. Both β-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) and nitrilase (NIT), two enzymes involved in cyanide assimilation to produce asparagine, were observed to have higher activities in roots compared to leaves, consistent with their proposed role in reduced nitrogen assimilation. In addition, rhodanese activity was not detected in cassava roots, indicating that this competing means for cyanide metabolism was not a factor in cyanide detoxification. In contrast, leaves had sufficient rhodanese activity to compete with cyanide assimilation into amino acids. Using transgenic low cyanogen plants, it was shown that reducing root cyanogen levels is associated with elevated root nitrate reductase activity, presumably to compensate for the loss of reduced nitrogen from cyanogens. Finally, we overexpressed Arabidopsis CAS and NIT4 genes in cassava roots to study the feasibility of enhancing root cyanide assimilation into protein. Optimal overexpression of CAS and NIT4 resulted in up to a 50% increase in root total amino acids and a 9% increase in root protein accumulation. However, plant growth and morphology was altered in plants overexpressing these enzymes, demonstrating a complex interaction between cyanide metabolism and hormonal regulation of plant growth. PMID:28286506

  16. Mechanism of enhanced fibroblast arachidonic acid metabolism by mononuclear cell factor.

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, P J; Needleman, P

    1984-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with an infiltration of mononuclear cells, fibroblast proliferation, and elevated levels of prostaglandin (PG) E2. Mononuclear cell conditioned factor (MNCF) medium (5%) stimulated a 100-fold increase in basal human dermal fibroblast PGE2 release over 48 h as compared with fibroblasts that were incubated with control medium (conditioned medium prepared without cells). The MNCF-induced PGE2 production was suppressed by protein synthesis inhibitors. Fibroblasts pretreated with control medium released PGE2 only modestly in response to 1 nM bradykinin for 1 h (basal, 50 +/- 7 pg PGE2/micrograms protein; stimulated, 104 +/- 12 pg PGE2/micrograms protein), whereas cells that had been pretreated with MNCF showed a greatly facilitated bradykinin-induced release of PGE2. (basal, 297 +/- 59 pg PGE2/micrograms protein; stimulated, 866 +/- 85 pg PGE2/micrograms protein). The exaggerated agonist response is not specific for bradykinin because platelet-derived growth factor elicits a similar response. Exogenous arachidonic acid conversion to PGE2 was also facilitated (two- to threefold) by MNCF pretreatment as compared with control. Both the enhanced agonist-stimulated and exogenous arachidonic acid-induced PGE2 release from the MNCF pretreated cells were inhibited by actinomyin D or cycloheximide. A kinetic study of microsomal cyclooxygenase prepared from fibroblasts pretreated with MNCF showed a threefold increase in the maximum velocity (Vmax) but the same Michaelis constant (Km) as control-treated cells. This augmented arachidonic acid metabolism and subsequent enhanced PGE2 production may play an important role in macrophage-fibroblast interactions at sites of inflammation. PMID:6439745

  17. Amino Acid Starvation Has Opposite Effects on Mitochondrial and Cytosolic Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Sarah F.; Rorbach, Joanna; He, Jiuya; Brea-Calvo, Gloria; Minczuk, Michal; Reyes, Aurelio; Holt, Ian J.; Spinazzola, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids are essential for cell growth and proliferation for they can serve as precursors of protein synthesis, be remodelled for nucleotide and fat biosynthesis, or be burnt as fuel. Mitochondria are energy producing organelles that additionally play a central role in amino acid homeostasis. One might expect mitochondrial metabolism to be geared towards the production and preservation of amino acids when cells are deprived of an exogenous supply. On the contrary, we find that human cells respond to amino acid starvation by upregulating the amino acid-consuming processes of respiration, protein synthesis, and amino acid catabolism in the mitochondria. The increased utilization of these nutrients in the organelle is not driven primarily by energy demand, as it occurs when glucose is plentiful. Instead it is proposed that the changes in the mitochondrial metabolism complement the repression of cytosolic protein synthesis to restrict cell growth and proliferation when amino acids are limiting. Therefore, stimulating mitochondrial function might offer a means of inhibiting nutrient-demanding anabolism that drives cellular proliferation. PMID:24718614

  18. The leucine-responsive regulatory protein, a global regulator of metabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, J M; Matthews, R G

    1994-01-01

    The leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) regulates the expression of more than 40 genes and proteins in Escherichia coli. Among the operons that are positively regulated by Lrp are operons involved in amino acid biosynthesis (ilvIH, serA)), in the biosynthesis of pili (pap, fan, fim), and in the assimilation of ammonia (glnA, gltBD). Negatively regulated operons include operons involved in amino acid catabolism (sdaA, tdh) and peptide transport (opp) and the operon coding for Lrp itself (lrp). Detailed studies of a few members of the regulon have shown that Lrp can act directly to activate or repress transcription of target operons. A substantial fraction of operons regulated by Lrp are also regulated by leucine, and the effect of leucine on expression of these operons requires a functional Lrp protein. The patterns of regulation are surprising and interesting: in some cases activation or repression mediated by Lrp is antagonized by leucine, in other cases Lrp-mediated activation or repression is potentiated by leucine, and in still other cases leucine has no effect on Lrp-mediated regulation. Current research is just beginning to elucidate the detailed mechanisms by which Lrp can mediate such a broad spectrum of regulatory effects. Our view of the role of Lrp in metabolism may change as more members of the regulon are identified and their regulation characterized, but at this point Lrp seems to be important in regulating nitrogen metabolism and one-carbon metabolism, permitting adaptations to feast and to famine. PMID:7968922

  19. Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon as Affected by Water Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Norambuena, Fernando; Morais, Sofia; Emery, James A.; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways. Three experimental diets were formulated to be identical, except for the ratio EPA/ARA, and fed to triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kept either at 10°C or 20°C. Results showed that fatty acid metabolic utilisation, and likely also their dietary requirements for optimal performance, can be affected by changes in their relative levels and by environmental temperature in Atlantic salmon. Thus, the increase in temperature, independently from dietary treatment, had a significant effect on the β-oxidation of a fatty acid including EPA, as observed by the apparent in vivo enzyme activity and mRNA expression of pparα -transcription factor in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation genes- and cpt1 -key enzyme responsible for the movement of LC-PUFA from the cytosol into the mitochondria for β-oxidation-, were both increased at the higher water temperature. An interesting interaction was observed in the transcription and in vivo enzyme activity of Δ5fad–time-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of EPA and ARA. Such, at lower temperature, the highest mRNA expression and enzyme activity was recorded in fish with limited supply of dietary EPA, whereas at higher temperature these were recorded in fish with limited ARA supply. In consideration that fish at higher water temperature

  20. Oleic acid stimulates complete oxidation of fatty acids through protein kinase A-dependent activation of SIRT1-PGC1α complex.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Hong; Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Dominy, John E; Lee, Yoonjin; Kim, Sungjin; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Xiang, Yang K; Puigserver, Pere

    2013-03-08

    Fatty acids are essential components of the dynamic lipid metabolism in cells. Fatty acids can also signal to intracellular pathways to trigger a broad range of cellular responses. Oleic acid is an abundant monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid that impinges on different biological processes, but the mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Here, we report that oleic acid stimulates the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway and activates the SIRT1-PGC1α transcriptional complex to modulate rates of fatty acid oxidation. In skeletal muscle cells, oleic acid treatment increased intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) that turned on protein kinase A activity. This resulted in SIRT1 phosphorylation at Ser-434 and elevation of its catalytic deacetylase activity. A direct SIRT1 substrate is the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), which became deacetylated and hyperactive after oleic acid treatment. Importantly, oleic acid, but not other long chain fatty acids such as palmitate, increased the expression of genes linked to fatty acid oxidation pathway in a SIRT1-PGC1α-dependent mechanism. As a result, oleic acid potently accelerated rates of complete fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle cells. These results illustrate how a single long chain fatty acid specifically controls lipid oxidation through a signaling/transcriptional pathway. Pharmacological manipulation of this lipid signaling pathway might provide therapeutic possibilities to treat metabolic diseases associated with lipid dysregulation.

  1. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants)

    SciTech Connect

    Loewus, F.A. . Inst. of Biological Chemistry); Seib, P.A. . Dept. of Grain Science and Industry)

    1991-01-01

    The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

  2. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loewus, F.A.; Seib, P.A.

    1991-12-31

    The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

  3. Rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation produced during the oxidative metabolism of ethacrynic acid.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Masubuchi, Y; Narimatsu, S; Kobayashi, S; Horie, T

    2001-04-01

    Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were produced in rat liver microsomal suspension incubated with ethacrynic acid (loop diuretic drug) and NADPH. Two oxidative metabolites of ethacrynic acid with dicarboxylic acid and hydroxylated ethyl group, respectively, were formed in the reaction mixture. The oxidative metabolism of ethacrynic acid was inhibited by cytochrome P450 inhibitors. The formation of TBARS was remarkably depressed by inhibitors like diethyldithiocarbamate and disulfiram. These results indicate that lipid peroxidation occurred in rat liver microsomes through the oxidative metabolism of ethacrynic acid.

  4. Heterogenous turnover of sperm and seminal vesicle proteins in the mouse revealed by dynamic metabolic labeling.

    PubMed

    Claydon, Amy J; Ramm, Steven A; Pennington, Andrea; Hurst, Jane L; Stockley, Paula; Beynon, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Plasticity in ejaculate composition is predicted as an adaptive response to the evolutionary selective pressure of sperm competition. However, to respond rapidly to local competitive conditions requires dynamic modulation in the production of functionally relevant ejaculate proteins. Here we combine metabolic labeling of proteins with proteomics to explore the opportunity for such modulation within mammalian ejaculates. We assessed the rate at which proteins are synthesized and incorporated in the seminal vesicles of male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus), where major seminal fluid proteins with potential roles in sperm competition are produced. We compared rates of protein turnover in the seminal vesicle with those during spermatogenesis, the timing of which is well known in mice. The subjects were fed a diet containing deuterated valine ([(2)H(8)]valine) for up to 35 days, and the incorporation of dietary-labeled amino acid into seminal vesicle- or sperm-specific proteins was assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of samples recovered from the seminal vesicle lumen and cauda epididymis, respectively. Analyses of epididymal contents were consistent with the known duration of spermatogenesis and sperm maturation in this species and in addition revealed evidence for a subset of epididymal proteins subject to rapid turnover. For seminal vesicle proteins, incorporation of the stable isotope was evident from day 2 of labeling, reaching a plateau of labeling by day 24. Hence, even in the absence of copulation, the seminal vesicle proteins and certain epididymal proteins demonstrate considerable turnover, a response that is consonant with the capacity to rapidly modulate protein production. These techniques can now be used to assess the extent of phenotypic plasticity in mammalian ejaculate production and allocation according to social and environmental cues of sperm competition.

  5. Impaired mitochondrial metabolism and protein synthesis in streptozotocin diabetic rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Memon, R.A.; Bessman, S.P.; Mohan, C. )

    1990-02-26

    Isolated hepatocytes prepared from control, streptozotocin diabetic rats were incubated at 30{degrees}C in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.5 mM concentration of each of the 20 natural amino acids. Effect of insulin on the oxidation of 2,3-{sup 14}C and 1,4-{sup 14}C succinate (suc) carbons and their incorporation into hepatocyte protein, lipid and various metabolic intermediates was studied. Mitochondrial oxidation of suc carbons and their incorporation into protein and lipid was significantly lower in diabetic and insulin treated diabetic rats. Diabetic rats failed to exhibit any significant insulin effect on the oxidation of either 2,3 or 1,4-{sup 14}C suc carbons. Amphibolic channeling of 2,3-{sup 14}C suc carbons into amino acids was significantly reduced in hepatocytes of diabetic rats, however, more of these carbons were diverted into the gluconeogenesis pathway. Diabetes caused a far greater decrease in the oxidation of 2,3-{sup 14}C suc carbons as compared to 1,4-{sup 14}C suc. Based on an earlier report that insulin stimulates only the intramitochondrial Krebs cycle reactions, the authors conclude that the diminished level of anabolic activities in the diabetic rat hepatocytes is due to the subsequent reduction in amphibolic channeling of metabolic intermediates.

  6. Synthetic Protein Scaffolds Based on Peptide Motifs and Cognate Adaptor Domains for Improving Metabolic Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Anselm H. C.; Sticht, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of many cellular processes relies on the defined interaction among different proteins within the same metabolic or signaling pathway. Consequently, a spatial colocalization of functionally interacting proteins has frequently emerged during evolution. This concept has been adapted within the synthetic biology community for the purpose of creating artificial scaffolds. A recent advancement of this concept is the use of peptide motifs and their cognate adaptor domains. SH2, SH3, GBD, and PDZ domains have been used most often in research studies to date. The approach has been successfully applied to the synthesis of a variety of target molecules including catechin, D-glucaric acid, H2, hydrochinone, resveratrol, butyrate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and mevalonate. Increased production levels of up to 77-fold have been observed compared to non-scaffolded systems. A recent extension of this concept is the creation of a covalent linkage between peptide motifs and adaptor domains, which leads to a more stable association of the scaffolded systems and thus bears the potential to further enhance metabolic productivity. PMID:26636078

  7. Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    fatty acid probe anilinonaphtalene-8- sulphonic acid (ANS) was measured. ANS readily associates with various FABPs and its fluorescence is highly...DAMD17-03-1-0249 TITLE: Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein and Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Leslie J. (Willmert) Donato...DATES COVERED (From - To) 14 Apr 03 – 13 Apr 06 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein and Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  8. Metabolic engineering for microbial production of aromatic amino acids and derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Bongaerts, J; Krämer, M; Müller, U; Raeven, L; Wubbolts, M

    2001-10-01

    Metabolic engineering to design and construct microorganisms suitable for the production of aromatic amino acids and derivatives thereof requires control of a complicated network of metabolic reactions that partly act in parallel and frequently are in rapid equilibrium. Engineering the regulatory circuits, the uptake of carbon, the glycolytic pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the common aromatic amino acid pathway as well as amino acid importers and exporters that have all been targeted to effect higher productivities of these compounds are discussed.

  9. Metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids in chlorotic leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus domestica Borkh) with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huicong; Ma, Fangfang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2010-07-01

    Metabolite profiles and activities of key enzymes in the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids were compared between chlorotic leaves and normal leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple to understand how accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates affects the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids. Excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and much lower CO(2) assimilation were found in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves, confirming feedback inhibition of photosynthesis in chlorotic leaves. Dark respiration and activities of several key enzymes in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ATP-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, citrate synthase, aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly higher in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. However, concentrations of most organic acids including phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), pyruvate, oxaloacetate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and fumarate, and activities of key enzymes involved in the anapleurotic pathway including PEP carboxylase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase and NAD-malic enzyme were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Concentrations of soluble proteins and most free amino acids were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Activities of key enzymes in nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis, including nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, ferredoxin and NADH-dependent glutamate synthase, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. It was concluded that, in response to excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated to "consume" the excess carbon available, whereas the anapleurotic pathway, nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis were down-regulated to reduce the overall rate of amino acid and protein synthesis.

  10. Bioenergetic cues shift FXR splicing towards FXRα2 to modulate hepatic lipolysis and fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Jorge C.; Massart, Julie; de Boer, Jan Freark; Porsmyr-Palmertz, Margareta; Martínez-Redondo, Vicente; Agudelo, Leandro Z.; Sinha, Indranil; Meierhofer, David; Ribeiro, Vera; Björnholm, Marie; Sauer, Sascha; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zierath, Juleen R.; Groen, Albert K.; Ruas, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a prominent role in hepatic lipid metabolism. The FXR gene encodes four proteins with structural differences suggestive of discrete biological functions about which little is known. Methods We expressed each FXR variant in primary hepatocytes and evaluated global gene expression, lipid profile, and metabolic fluxes. Gene delivery of FXR variants to Fxr−/− mouse liver was performed to evaluate their role in vivo. The effects of fasting and physical exercise on hepatic Fxr splicing were determined. Results We show that FXR splice isoforms regulate largely different gene sets and have specific effects on hepatic metabolism. FXRα2 (but not α1) activates a broad transcriptional program in hepatocytes conducive to lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Consequently, FXRα2 decreases cellular lipid accumulation and improves cellular insulin signaling to AKT. FXRα2 expression in Fxr−/− mouse liver activates a similar gene program and robustly decreases hepatic triglyceride levels. On the other hand, FXRα1 reduces hepatic triglyceride content to a lesser extent and does so through regulation of lipogenic gene expression. Bioenergetic cues, such as fasting and exercise, dynamically regulate Fxr splicing in mouse liver to increase Fxrα2 expression. Conclusions Our results show that the main FXR variants in human liver (α1 and α2) reduce hepatic lipid accumulation through distinct mechanisms and to different degrees. Taking this novel mechanism into account could greatly improve the pharmacological targeting and therapeutic efficacy of FXR agonists. PMID:26909306

  11. How prevalent is crassulacean acid metabolism among vascular epiphytes?

    PubMed

    Zotz, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in the epiphyte community of a lowland forest of the Atlantic slope of Panama was investigated. I hypothesized that CAM is mostly found in orchids, of which many species are relatively small and/or rare. Thus, the relative proportion of species with CAM should not be a good indicator for the prevalence of this photosynthetic pathway in a community when expressed on an individual or a biomass basis. In 0.4 ha of forest, 103 species of vascular epiphytes with 13,099 individuals were found. As judged from the C isotope ratios and the absence of Kranz anatomy, CAM was detected in 20 species (19.4% of the total), which were members of the families Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, and Cactaceae. As predicted, the contribution of CAM epiphytes to the total number of individuals and to total biomass (69.6 kg ha(-1)) was considerably lower (3.6% or 466 individuals and, respectively, 3.0% or 2.1 kg ha(-1)).

  12. Ellagic acid induces novel and atypical PKC isoforms and promotes caspase-3 dependent apoptosis by blocking energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sudha; Vinayak, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant ellagic acid is a herbal polyphenolic compound shown to possess growth-inhibiting and apoptotic activities in cancer. Protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Apoptosis of tumor cells is induced by inactivation of glycolytic enzyme of anaerobic metabolism, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A, and by activating apoptotic protein caspase-3 via PKCδ. The present study aims to analyze the role of ellagic acid on regulation of novel and atypical isozymes of PKC to modulate apoptosis and anaerobic metabolism to prevent lymphoma growth as its role on classical PKCs is reported earlier. Expression of novel and atypical isozymes of PKC, activity of PKCδ, expression and activity of caspase-3, and LDH-A have been analyzed. Expression is measured by RT-PCR, activities of PKCδ as level of its catalytic fragment, caspase-3 as level of its p17 fragment, and LDH-A by specific staining. Lymphoma bearing mice were treated with 3 different doses of ellagic acid. The treatment enhanced expression of all novel and atypical PKCs, activity and expression of caspase-3, and activity of PKCδ but decreased activity and expression of LDH-A. Our results suggest that ellagic acid induces apoptosis via novel and atypical PKCs in association with caspase-3 and induces cancer cell death by blocking the energy metabolism.

  13. Tissue-specific Short Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism and Slow Metabolic Recovery after Ischemia from Hyperpolarized NMR in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Pernille R.; Peitersen, Torben; Karlsson, Magnus; in 't Zandt, René; Gisselsson, Anna; Hansson, Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Lerche, Mathilde H.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanistic details of mammalian metabolism in vivo and dynamic metabolic changes in intact organisms are difficult to monitor because of the lack of spatial, chemical, or temporal resolution when applying traditional analytical tools. These limitations can be addressed by sensitivity enhancement technology for fast in vivo NMR assays of enzymatic fluxes in tissues of interest. We apply this methodology to characterize organ-specific short chain fatty acid metabolism and the changes of carnitine and coenzyme A pools in ischemia reperfusion. This is achieved by assaying acetyl-CoA synthetase and acetyl-carnitine transferase catalyzed transformations in vivo. The fast and predominant flux of acetate and propionate signal into acyl-carnitine pools shows the efficient buffering of free CoA levels. Sizeable acetyl-carnitine formation from exogenous acetate is even found in liver, where acetyl-CoA synthetase and acetyl-carnitine transferase activities have been assumed sequestered in different compartments. In vivo assays of altered acetate metabolism were applied to characterize pathological changes of acetate metabolism upon ischemia. Coenzyme pools in ischemic skeletal muscle are reduced in vivo even 1 h after disturbing muscle perfusion. Impaired mitochondrial metabolism and slow restoration of free CoA are corroborated by assays employing fumarate to show persistently reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity upon ischemia. In the same animal model, anaerobic metabolism of pyruvate and tissue perfusion normalize faster than mitochondrial bioenergetics. PMID:19861411

  14. Amino acid composition analysis of human secondary transport proteins and implications for reliable membrane topology prediction.

    PubMed

    Saidijam, Massoud; Azizpour, Sonia; Patching, Simon G

    2016-07-08

    Secondary transporters in humans are a large group of proteins that transport a wide range of ions, metals, organic and inorganic solutes involved in energy transduction, control of membrane potential and osmotic balance, metabolic processes and in the absorption or efflux of drugs and xenobiotics. They are also emerging as important targets for development of new drugs and as target sites for drug delivery to specific organs or tissues. We have performed amino acid composition (AAC) and phylogenetic analyses and membrane topology predictions for 336 human secondary transport proteins and used the results to confirm protein classification and to look for trends and correlations with structural domains and specific substrates and/or function. Some proteins showed statistically high contents of individual amino acids or of groups of amino acids with similar physicochemical properties. One recurring trend was a correlation between high contents of charged and/or polar residues with misleading results in predictions of membrane topology, which was especially prevalent in Mitochondrial Carrier family proteins. We demonstrate how charged or polar residues located in the middle of transmembrane helices can interfere with their identification by membrane topology tools resulting in missed helices in the prediction. Comparison of AAC in the human proteins with that in 235 secondary transport proteins from Escherichia coli revealed similar overall trends along with differences in average contents for some individual amino acids and groups of similar amino acids that are presumed to result from a greater number of functions and complexity in the higher organism.

  15. Systems-level metabolic flux profiling identifies fatty acid synthesis as a target for antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Joshua; Bennett, Bryson D; Parikh, Anuraag; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; McArdle, Jessica; Rabitz, Herschel A; Shenk, Thomas; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2010-01-01

    Viruses rely on the metabolic network of their cellular hosts to provide energy and building blocks for viral replication. We developed a flux measurement approach based on liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to quantify changes in metabolic activity induced by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). This approach reliably elucidated fluxes in cultured mammalian cells by monitoring metabolome labeling kinetics after feeding cells 13C-labeled forms of glucose and glutamine. Infection with HCMV markedly upregulated flux through much of the central carbon metabolism, including glycolysis. Particularly notable increases occurred in flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and its efflux to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis suppressed the replication of both HCMV and influenza A, another enveloped virus. These results show that fatty acid synthesis is essential for the replication of two divergent enveloped viruses and that systems-level metabolic flux profiling can identify metabolic targets for antiviral therapy. PMID:18820684

  16. Detection and quantification of protein adduction by electrophilic fatty acids: mitochondrial generation of fatty acid nitroalkene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, F J; Batthyany, C; Baker, P R S; Bonacci, G; Cole, M P; Rudolph, V; Groeger, A L; Rudolph, T K; Nadtochiy, S; Brookes, P S; Freeman, B A

    2009-05-01

    Nitroalkene fatty acid derivatives manifest a strong electrophilic nature, are clinically detectable, and induce multiple transcriptionally regulated anti-inflammatory responses. At present, the characterization and quantification of endogenous electrophilic lipids are compromised by their Michael addition with protein and small-molecule nucleophilic targets. Herein, we report a trans-nitroalkylation reaction of nitro-fatty acids with beta-mercaptoethanol (BME) and apply this reaction to the unbiased identification and quantification of reaction with nucleophilic targets. Trans-nitroalkylation yields are maximal at pH 7 to 8 and occur with physiological concentrations of target nucleophiles. This reaction is also amenable to sensitive mass spectrometry-based quantification of electrophilic fatty acid-protein adducts upon electrophoretic resolution of proteins. In-gel trans-nitroalkylation reactions also permit the identification of protein targets without the bias and lack of sensitivity of current proteomic approaches. Using this approach, it was observed that fatty acid nitroalkenes are rapidly metabolized in vivo by a nitroalkene reductase activity and mitochondrial beta-oxidation, yielding a variety of electrophilic and nonelectrophilic products that could be structurally characterized upon BME-based trans-nitroalkylation reaction. This strategy was applied to the detection and quantification of fatty acid nitration in mitochondria in response to oxidative inflammatory conditions induced by myocardial ischemia-reoxygenation.

  17. Maternal omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients modulate fetal lipid metabolism: A review.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that alterations in the mother's diet or metabolism during pregnancy has long-term adverse effects on the lipid metabolism in the offspring. There is growing interest in the role of specific nutrients especially omega-3 fatty acids in the pathophysiology of lipid disorders. A series of studies carried out in humans and rodents in our department have consistently suggested a link between omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid and micronutrients (vitamin B12 and folic acid) in the one carbon metabolic cycle and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism, hepatic transcription factors and DNA methylation patterns. However the association of maternal intake or metabolism of these nutrients with fetal lipid metabolism is relatively less explored. In this review, we provide insights into the role of maternal omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 and their influence on fetal lipid metabolism through various mechanisms which influence phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase activity, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor, adiponectin signaling pathway and epigenetic process like chromatin methylation. This will help understand the possible mechanisms involved in fetal lipid metabolism and may provide important clues for the prevention of lipid disorders in the offspring.

  18. Multi-omics analyses reveal metabolic alterations regulated by hepatitis B virus core protein in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Fan, Fengxu; Wei, Wei; Liu, Yang; Xu, Zhongwei; Zhai, Linhui; Qi, Yingzi; Ye, Bingyu; Zhang, Yao; Basu, Sumit; Zhao, Zhihu; Wu, Junzhu; Xu, Ping

    2017-01-23

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is partly responsible for hepatitis, fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV core protein (HBc), encoded by the HBV genome, may play a significant role in HBV life cycle. However, the function of HBc in the occurrence and development of liver disease is still unclear. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, HBc-transfected HCC cells were characterized by multi-omics analyses. Combining proteomics and metabolomics analyses, our results showed that HBc promoted the expression of metabolic enzymes and the secretion of metabolites in HCC cells. In addition, glycolysis and amino acid metabolism were significantly up-regulated by HBc. Moreover, Max-like protein X (MLX) might be recruited and enriched by HBc in the nucleus to regulate glycolysis pathways. This study provides further insights into the function of HBc in the molecular pathogenesis of HBV-induced diseases and indicates that metabolic reprogramming appears to be a hallmark of HBc transfection.

  19. Multi-omics analyses reveal metabolic alterations regulated by hepatitis B virus core protein in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Fan, Fengxu; Wei, Wei; Liu, Yang; Xu, Zhongwei; Zhai, Linhui; Qi, Yingzi; Ye, Bingyu; Zhang, Yao; Basu, Sumit; Zhao, Zhihu; Wu, Junzhu; Xu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is partly responsible for hepatitis, fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV core protein (HBc), encoded by the HBV genome, may play a significant role in HBV life cycle. However, the function of HBc in the occurrence and development of liver disease is still unclear. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, HBc-transfected HCC cells were characterized by multi-omics analyses. Combining proteomics and metabolomics analyses, our results showed that HBc promoted the expression of metabolic enzymes and the secretion of metabolites in HCC cells. In addition, glycolysis and amino acid metabolism were significantly up-regulated by HBc. Moreover, Max-like protein X (MLX) might be recruited and enriched by HBc in the nucleus to regulate glycolysis pathways. This study provides further insights into the function of HBc in the molecular pathogenesis of HBV-induced diseases and indicates that metabolic reprogramming appears to be a hallmark of HBc transfection. PMID:28112229

  20. Determination of metabolic organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid by microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Danč, Ladislav; Bodor, Róbert; Troška, Peter; Horčičiak, Michal; Masár, Marián

    2014-08-01

    A new MCE method for the determination of oxalic, citric, glycolic, lactic, and 2- and 3-hydroxybutyric acids, indicators of some metabolic and neurological diseases, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was developed. MCE separations were performed on a PMMA microchip with coupled channels at lower pH (5.5) to prevent proteins interference. A double charged counter-ion, BIS-TRIS propane, was very effective in resolving the studied organic acids. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) ranging from 0.1 to 1.6 μM were obtained with the aid of contact conductivity detector implemented directly on the microchip. RSDs for migration time and peak area of organic acids in artificial and CSF samples were <0.8 and <9.7%, respectively. Recoveries of organic acids in untreated CSF samples on the microchip varied from 91 to 104%. Elimination of chloride interference, a major anionic constituent of CSF, has been reached by two approaches: (i) the use of coupled channels microchip in a column switching mode when approximately 97-99% of chloride was removed electrophoretically in the first separation channel and (ii) the implementation of micro-SPE with silver-form resin prior to the MCE analysis, which selectively removed chloride from undeproteinized CSF samples.

  1. Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Carbohydrates are sugars. ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism NOTE: This is ...

  2. Maternal high-fat-diet programs rat offspring liver fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Seet, Emily L; Yee, Jennifer K; Jellyman, Juanita K; Han, Guang; Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2015-06-01

    In offspring exposed in utero to a maternal diet high in fat (HF), we have previously demonstrated that despite similar birth weights, HF adult offspring at 6 months of age had significantly higher body weights, greater adiposity, and increased triacylglycerol (TAG) levels as compared to controls. We hypothesized that a maternal HF diet predisposes to offspring adiposity via a programmed increase in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids in the liver and hence increased substrate availability for liver TAG synthesis. We further hypothesized that programmed changes in offspring liver fatty acid metabolism are associated with increased liver expression of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1). Female rats were maintained on a HF diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. After birth, newborns were nursed by the same dam, and all offspring were weaned to control diet. Plasma and liver fatty acid compositions were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Fatty acid C16 desaturation indices of palmitoleic/palmitic and (vaccenic + palmitoleic)/palmitic and the C18 desaturation index of oleic/stearic were calculated. Liver protein abundance of SCD-1 was analyzed in newborns and adult offspring. Plasma and liver C16 desaturation indices were decreased in HF newborns, but increased in the adult offspring. Liver SCD-1 expression was increased in the HF adult offspring. These data show that the maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation increases offspring liver SCD-1 protein abundance and alters the liver C16 desaturase pathway.

  3. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Hirche, Frank; Thieme, René; Haucke, Elisa; Schindler, Maria; Stangl, Gabriele I; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2), branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld), were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling.

  4. Ecdysteroids affect in vivo protein metabolism of the flight muscle of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Wu, M.; Cook, P.; Hodsden, S.

    1990-01-01

    Ecdysteroid growth promotion of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscle of Manduca sexta was studied by measuring in vivo protein metabolism using both "flooding-dose" and "non-carrier" techniques. These procedures differ in that the former method includes injection of non-labelled phenylalanine (30 micromoles/insect) together with the [3H]amino acid. Injected radioactivity plateaued in the haemolymph within 7 min. With the flooding-dose method, haemolymph and intramuscular specific radioactivities were similar between 15 min and 2 h. Incorporation of [3H]phenylalanine into muscle protein was linear with either method between 30 and 120 min. Fractional rates (%/12 h) of synthesis with the flooding-dose technique were best measured after 1 h because of the initial delay in radioactivity equilibration. Estimation of body phenylalanine turnover with the non-carrier method showed 24-53%/h which was negligible with the flooding-dose method. Since the two methods yielded similar rates of protein synthesis, the large injection of non-labelled amino acid did not alter the rate of synthesis. Because the flooding-dose technique requires only a single time point measurement, it is the preferred method. The decline and eventual cessation of flight-muscle growth was mostly a consequence of declining protein synthesis though degradation increased between 76-86 h before eclosion and was relatively rapid. This decline in muscle growth could be prevented by treating pupae with 20-hydroxyecdysone (10 micrograms/insect). Protein accretion was promoted by a decline of up to 80% in protein breakdown, which was offset in part by a concurrent though much smaller decrease in protein synthesis. Therefore, ecdysteroids may increase flight-muscle growth by inhibiting proteolysis.

  5. Efficient odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-11-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of biofuels or chemicals. Different composition of FFAs will be useful for further modification of the biofuel/biochemical quality. Microbial biosynthesis of even chain FFAs can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into E. coli. In this study, odd straight medium chain FFAs production was investigated by using metabolic engineered E. coli carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE, Ricinus communis), propionyl-CoA synthase (Salmonella enterica), and β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (four different sources) with supplement of extracellular propionate. By using these metabolically engineered E. coli, significant quantity of C13 and C15 odd straight-chain FFAs could be produced from glucose and propionate. The highest concentration of total odd straight chain FFAs attained was 1205 mg/L by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE2), and 85% of the odd straight chain FFAs was C15. However, the highest percentage of odd straight chain FFAs was achieved by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE3) of 83.2% at 48 h. This strategy was also applied successfully in strains carrying different TE, such as the medium length acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica. C11 and C13 became the major odd straight-chain FFAs.

  6. Free amino acid content and metabolic activities of setting and aborting soybean ovaries. [Glycine max (L. ) Merr

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiasi, H.; Paech, C.; Dybing, C.D.

    1987-09-01

    Fruits of soybean (glycine max (L.) Merr.) that are destined to abscise shortly after anthesis grow more slowly than fruits that will be retained. In this work, amino acid composition, protein metabolism, and nucleic acid metabolism were studied in setting and abscising soybean ovaries from anthesis to 6 days after anthesis. Principal free amino acids were asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and glutamine. Percent aspartate and glutamate declined as the ovaries grew, with aspartate declining more in abscising and glutamate more in setting ovaries. Percent glutamate was positively correlated to percent abscission throughout the period. Proline, serine, and leucine were positively correlated to abscission from 0 to 2 days after anthesis, whereas significant negative correlations were observed at these ages for ethanolamine and arginine. /sup 75/Se fed as selenate and /sup 14/C fed as sucrose, glycine, and alanine were readily incorporated into soluble and insoluble proteins in a 24-hour in vitro incubation. Radioactivity of total proteins, expressed on a per-ovary basis, was negatively correlated with percent abscission and positively correlated with ovary weight. (/sup 14/C)Glutamine and serine followed the opposite pattern, with greater protein labeling in abscising than in setting ovaries. When data were expressed as disintegrations per minute per milligram ovary fresh weight, protein labeling from alanine was seen to be significantly greater in abscising ovaries at anthesis and throughout the sampling period. Nucleic acid labeling from uridine was highly correlated to ovary weight; labeling from thymidine was greater in setting than abscising ovaries at anthesis and in abscising ovaries at later stages of development.

  7. Difference in amounts between titratable acid and total carboxylic acids produced by oral streptococci during sugar metabolism.

    PubMed

    Iwami, Y; Hata, S; Takahashi, N; Yamada, T

    1989-01-01

    The acid produced by the resting cells of Streptococcus mutants NCTC 10449 and HS 6 and S. sanguis ATCC 10556 during sugar metabolism was estimated with a pH-stat and a carboxylic acid analyzer. Lactic, formic, acetic, pyruvic, and carbonic acids were detected in the reaction mixtures, but propionic, citric, succinic, iso-butyric, butyric, iso-valeric, and valeric acids were not detected. The amount of titratable acid estimated by alkaline titration with the pH-stat was larger than the amount of total carboxylic acids estimated with the carboxylic acid analyzer. The difference in quantity between the titratable and the total carboxylic acids increased significantly with an increase in the period of incubation with sugar. Moreover, the value of the alkaline titration of standard lactic, formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids was equal to the amount analyzed with the carboxylic acid analyzer. The results indicated that these two streptococci produced not only these carboxylic acids but also other acid(s), possibly non-carboxylic acid(s), during their sugar metabolism.

  8. Integration and Validation of the Genome-Scale Metabolic Models of Pichia pastoris: A Comprehensive Update of Protein Glycosylation Pathways, Lipid and Energy Metabolism</