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Sample records for acid milk gels

  1. Manufacture of acid gels from skim milk using high-pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Hernández, A; Harte, F M

    2008-10-01

    The effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) alone or in combination with a thermal treatment (TT) was investigated for the manufacture of acid gels from skim milk. Raw skim milk was subjected to HPH (0 to 350 MPa) or a TT (90 degrees C, 5 min), or both, in the following processing combinations: 1) HPH, 2) HPH followed by TT, 3) TT followed by HPH, 4) TT, and 5) raw milk (control). After treatments, L* (lightness) values were measured, and then skim milk was acidified with 3% glucono-delta-lactone and rheological properties (G' and gelation time), and whey holding capacity was evaluated. Treatments in which HPH and TT were combined showed greater L* values than those in which just HPH was applied. In all treatments, the L* values decreased as the pressure was increased up to 300 MPa with little change afterward. Gelation times were lower when HPH was combined with TT compared with the acid skim milk gels that were just pressure treated. The final G' in gels obtained from skim milk subjected to the combined process (HPH and TT) was greater and pressure-dependent compared with all other gels. A maximum G' (~320 Pa) was observed with skim milk subjected to a combination of thermal processing before or after HPH at 350 MPa. Acid gels obtained from HPH milk at 350 MPa showed a linear decrease in whey holding capacity over time, retaining 20% more whey after centrifugation for 25 min compared with samples treated at lower pressures and all other treatments. Our results suggest that HPH in combination with TT can be used to improve the rheological properties and stability of yogurt, thus decreasing the need for additives.

  2. Evaluation of tilapia skin gelatin as a mammalian gelatin replacer in acid milk gels and low-fat stirred yogurt.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhihua; Deeth, Hilton; Yang, Hongshun; Prakash, Sangeeta; Bansal, Nidhi

    2017-03-08

    Tilapia skin gelatin (TSG) was studied in a 3-stage process (cooling, annealing, and heating) for pure gelatin gels and in a 4-stage process (acidification, cooling, annealing, and heating) for acid milk gels and cultured yogurt. The aim was to evaluate the use of TSG as a replacement for mammalian gelatin in yogurt. In pure TSG gels, stronger gels with higher melting temperatures were formed with increasing TSG concentrations. Compared with bovine gelatin (BG), which gelled at a concentration of 2.5%, TSG gels had lower gelling (14.1°C) and melting (24°C) temperatures but comparable storage moduli during annealing. In acid milk gels, addition of TSG increased the firmness of the gels with increasing concentration. Gelling and melting points of TSG in milk gels were observed at sufficient concentrations during cooling and heating. Strands and sheets were observed in the electron micrographs of milk gels with 1% TSG and a very dense structure was observed with 2.5% TSG. Yogurt with 0.4% TSG had similar viscosity, consistency, pseudoplasticity, and thixotropy as yogurt containing 0.4% BG; no difference was perceived by sensory panelists according to a triangle test. Addition of 0.4% TSG completely prevented whey separation from the acid milk gel and yogurt. The results suggest that TSG could be a suitable replacement for mammalian gelatin in low-fat stirred yogurt.

  3. Rheological and physical properties of camel and cow milk gels enriched with phosphate and calcium during acid-induced gelation.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Mohammad; Foukani, Mohammed; Karoui, Romdhane

    2017-02-01

    The rheological properties of acid-induced coagulation of camel and cow milk gels following the addition of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrogen phosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4*2H2O) were investigated using a dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheology. For a considered condition, the final values of storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of camel milk gels were significantly lower than those of cow milk gels. The increase of the added CaCl2 levels improved significantly the gelation properties of camel and cow milk gels, since a reduction in the gelation time and an increase in the gel firmness were observed. Following the addition of Na2HPO4*2H2O at 10 and 20 mM, no significant effect on the gelation rate and the firmness of camel milk gels was observed, while, a significant decrease in the gelation rate and firmness were observed for cow milk gels.

  4. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  5. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award. Formation and physical properties of milk protein gels.

    PubMed

    Lucey, J A

    2002-02-01

    Gelation of milk proteins is the crucial first step in both cheese and yogurt manufacture. Several types of milk gels are discussed, with an emphasis on recent developments in our understanding of how these gels are formed and some of their key physical properties. Areas discussed include the latest dual-binding model for casein micelles; some recent developments in rennet-induced gelation; review of the methods that have been used to monitor milk coagulation; and a discussion of some of the possible causes for the wheying-off defect in yogurts. Casein micelles are the primary building blocks of casein-based gels; however, controversy about its structure continues. The latest model proposed for the formation of casein micelles is the dual-binding model proposed by Horne, 1998, which suggests that casein micelles are formed as a result of two binding mechanisms, namely hydrophobic attraction and colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) bridging. Most previous models for the casein micelle have treated milk gelation from the viewpoint of simple particle destabilization and aggregation, but they have not been able to explain several unusual rheological properties of milk gels. Although there have been many techniques used to monitor the milk gelation process over the past few decades, only a few appear attractive as possible in-vat coagulation sensors. Another important aspect of milk gels is the defect in yogurts called wheying-off, which is the appearance of whey on the gel surface. The factors responsible for its occurrence are still unclear, but they have been investigated in model acid gel systems.

  6. Establishment and application of milk fingerprint by gel filtration chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gao, P; Li, J; Li, Z; Hao, J; Zan, L

    2016-12-01

    Raw milk adulteration frequently occurs in undeveloped countries. It not only reduces the nutritional value of milk, but it is also harmful to consumers. In this paper, we focused on investigating an efficient method for the quality control of raw milk protein. A gel filtration chromatography (GFC) fingerprint method combined with chemometrics was developed for fingerprint analysis of raw milk. To optimize the GFC conditions, milk fat was removed by centrifugation, and GFC analysis was performed on a Superdex 75 10/300GL column (Just Scientific, Shanghai, China) with 0.2 M NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 7.0) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.5mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. Ten batches of 120 raw milk samples were analyzed to establish the GFC fingerprint under optimal conditions. Six major peaks common to the chromatogram of each raw milk sample were selected for fingerprint analysis, and the characteristic peaks were used to establish a standard chromatographic fingerprint. Principal component analysis was then applied to classify GFC information of adulterated milk and raw milk, allowing adulterated samples to be effectively screened out from the raw milk in principal component analysis scores plot. The fingerprint method demonstrates promising features in detecting milk protein adulteration.

  7. Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of commercial UHT-treated plant-based milk substitutes and lactose free bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Uniacke-Lowe, Thérèse; O'Mahony, James A; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-02-01

    Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of UHT-treated commercial soy, oat, quinoa, rice and lactose-free bovine milks were studied. The separation profiles were determined using a LUMiSizer dispersion analyser. Soy, rice and quinoa milks formed both cream and sediment layers, while oat milk sedimented but did not cream. Bovine milk was very stable to separation while all plant milks separated at varying rates; rice and oat milks being the most unstable products. Particle sizes in plant-based milk substitutes, expressed as volume mean diameters (d4.3), ranged from 0.55μm (soy) to 2.08μm (quinoa) while the average size in bovine milk was 0.52μm. Particles of plant-based milk substitutes were significantly more polydisperse compared to those of bovine milk. Upon acidification with glucono-δ-lactone (GDL), bovine, soy and quinoa milks formed structured gels with maximum storage moduli of 262, 187 and 105Pa, respectively while oat and rice milks did not gel. In addition to soy products currently on the market, quinoa may have potential in dairy-type food applications.

  8. In situ gels improve formation acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, V.; Shuchart, C.

    1997-01-20

    Viscosity-controlled acid effectively improves acid placement, provides more uniform damage removal, improves surface etching, and controls acid fluid loss. Viscosity-controlled acid (VCA) contains gels that break back to original viscosity 1 day after being pumped. These acids have been used for: matrix-acidizing long horizontal and vertical well intervals; controlling fluid loss in fracture acidizing to obtain longer fractures and deeper live-acid penetration. Fluid pH controls gel formation and breaking. In one operator`s horizontal wells, viscosity-controlled acid increased production by 2.5--6 fold. In carbonate formation fracture-acidizing, these acids have shown production improvements of 170 to 375%. VCA acid can be used in both cased or open hole, in vertical or deviated/horizontal wells.

  9. Amino acid composition of human milk is not unique.

    PubMed

    Davis, T A; Nguyen, H V; Garcia-Bravo, R; Fiorotto, M L; Jackson, E M; Lewis, D S; Lee, D R; Reeds, P J

    1994-07-01

    To determine whether the amino acid pattern of human milk is unique, we compared the amino acid pattern of human milk with the amino acid patterns of the milks of great apes (chimpanzee and gorilla), lower primates (baboon and rhesus monkey) and nonprimates (cow, goat, sheep, llama, pig, horse, elephant, cat and rat). Amino acid pattern was defined as the relative proportion of each amino acid (protein-bound plus free) (in mg) to the total amino acids (in g). Total amino acid concentration was lower in primate milk than in nonprimate milk. There were commonalities in the overall amino acid pattern of the milks of all species sampled; the most abundant amino acids were glutamate (plus glutamine, 20%), proline (10%) and leucine (10%). Essential amino acids were 40%, branched-chain amino acids 20%, and sulfur amino acids 4% of the total amino acids. The amino acid pattern of human milk was more similar to those of great apes than to those of lower primates. For example, cystine was higher and methionine was lower in primate milks than in nonprimate milks, and in great ape and human milks than in lower primate milks. Because the milk amino acid patterns of the human and elephant, both slow-growing species, were dissimilar, the amino acid pattern of human milk seems unrelated to growth rate.

  10. Determination of Dornic Acidity as a Method to Select Donor Milk in a Milk Bank

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Chaves-Sánchez, Fernando; De la Cruz-Bertolo, Javier; Pallas-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Dornic acidity may be an indirect measurement of milk's bacteria content and its quality. There are no uniform criteria among different human milk banks on milk acceptance criteria. The main aim of this study is to report the correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk in order to validate the Dornic acidity value as an adequate method to select milk prior to its pasteurization. Materials and Methods From 105 pools, 4-mL samples of human milk were collected. Dornic acidity measurement and culture in blood and McConkey's agar cultures were performed. Based on Dornic acidity degrees, we classified milk into three quality categories: top quality (acidity <4°D), intermediate (acidity between 4°D and 7°D), and milk unsuitable to be consumed (acidity ≥8°D). Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to perform statistical analysis. Results Seventy percent of the samples had Dornic acidity under 4°D, and 88% had a value under 8°D. A weak positive correlation was observed between the bacterial growth in milk and Dornic acidity. The overall discrimination performance of Dornic acidity was higher for predicting growth of Gram-negative organisms. In milk with Dornic acidity of ≥4°D, such a measurement has a sensitivity of 100% for detecting all the samples with bacterial growth with Gram-negative bacteria of over 105 colony-forming units/mL. Conclusions The correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk is weak but positive. The measurement of Dornic acidity could be considered as a simple and economical method to select milk to pasteurize in a human milk bank based in quality and safety criteria. PMID:23373435

  11. Gel-free shotgun proteomic analysis of human milk.

    PubMed

    Picariello, Gianluca; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mamone, Gianfranco; Klouckova, Iveta; Mechref, Yehia; Novotny, Milos V; Addeo, Francesco

    2012-03-02

    The composition of milk has adapted during the evolution of the species to fulfill the specific nutritional needs of the offspring. Currently, it is widely recognized that milk benefits go beyond mere nutrition and serve as a source of a number of functional components to the newborn, particularly host defense effectors. However, the human milk proteome description is still incomplete, primarily because the detection of low-abundance proteins remains challenging. To overcome the limitations of the classical electrophoresis-based approach, previously separated milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and whey protein fractions were analyzed by nanoflow-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS). This shotgun strategy showed an as yet unmatched potential to profile low-abundance proteins in human milk. Proteins associated with 301 different gene products were identified, some of which could be clustered into subsets of protein isoforms, thus providing one of the largest protein inventories of human milk. The identified proteins, which were derived from multiple metabolic pathways, are involved in different physiological functions, such as membrane trafficking, cell signaling, fat metabolism and transport, metabolite delivery, protein synthesis/proteolysis or folding, and immunity-related actions. Nevertheless, it appears clear from this study that the overall picture of the human milk proteome is still incomplete, although several protein signatures of milk evolution are emerging.

  12. Milk protein-gum tragacanth mixed gels: effect of heat-treatment sequence.

    PubMed

    Hatami, Masoud; Nejatian, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Pourmand, Hanieh

    2014-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the heat-treatment sequence of biopolymer mixtures as a formulation parameter on the acid-induced gelation of tri-polymeric systems composed of sodium caseinate (Na-caseinate), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and gum tragacanth (GT). This was studied by applying four sequences of heat treatment: (A) co-heating all three biopolymers; (B) heating the milk-protein dispersion and the GT dispersion separately; (C) heating the dispersion containing Na-caseinate and GT together and heating whey protein alone; and (D) co-heating whey protein with GT and heating Na-caseinate alone. According to small-deformation rheological measurements, the strength of the mixed-gel network decreased in the order: C>B>D>A samples. SEM micrographs show that the network of sample C is much more homogenous, coarse and dense than sample A, while the networks of samples B and D are of intermediate density. The heat-treatment sequence of the biopolymer mixtures as a formulation parameter thus offers an opportunity to control the microstructure and rheological properties of mixed gels.

  13. Starch addition in renneted milk gels: partitioning between curd and whey and effect on curd syneresis and gel microstructure.

    PubMed

    Brown, K M; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2012-12-01

    Milk gels were made by renneting and acidifying skim milk containing 5 different starches, and then compressed by centrifugation to express whey and simulate curd syneresis during the manufacture of low-fat cheese. A series of 17 starches were examined, with 5 starches being selected for in-depth analysis: a modified waxy corn starch (WC), a waxy rice starch (WR), an instant tapioca starch (IT), a modified tapioca starch (MT), and dextrin (DX). Milks containing WC, WR, and DX were given a 72°C heat treatment, whereas those containing IT and MT had a 30-min treatment at 66°C that matched their optimum gelatinization treatments. Curd yields were calculated by weight, estimated starch content in whey was measured gravimetrically by alcohol precipitation, and starch retention in curd was calculated. Curd yields were 13.1% for the control milk (no added starch) and 18.4, 20.7, 21.5, 23.5, and 13.2% for the gels containing starches WC, WR, IT, MT, and DX, respectively. Estimated starch retentions in the curd were, respectively, 71, 90, 90, 21, and 1%. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to determine the location of the starches in the curd and their interaction with the protein matrix. Waxy corn, WR, and IT starches have potential to improve texture of low-fat cheese because they had high retention in the curd and they generated interruptions in the protein matrix network that may have helped limit extensive protein-protein interactions. Modified tapioca starch interfered with formation of the protein structure of the curd and produced a soft noncohesive gel, even though most (79%) of the MT starch was lost in the whey. Few distinct starch particles were present in the MT curd network. Dextrin was not retained in the curd and did not disrupt the protein network, making it unsuitable for use in low-fat cheese.

  14. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel

    PubMed Central

    Böni, Lukas; Rühs, Patrick A.; Windhab, Erich J.; Fischer, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v) and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk) to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making “soy slime”, a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food products. PMID

  15. Polymer gel dosimeter based on itaconic acid.

    PubMed

    Mattea, Facundo; Chacón, David; Vedelago, José; Valente, Mauro; Strumia, Miriam C

    2015-11-01

    A new polymeric dosimeter based on itaconic acid and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide was studied. The preparation method, compositions of monomer and crosslinking agent and the presence of oxygen in the dosimetric system were analyzed. The resulting materials were irradiated with an X-ray tube at 158cGy/min, 226cGymin and 298cGy/min with doses up to 1000Gy. The dosimeters presented a linear response in the dose range 75-1000Gy, sensitivities of 0.037 1/Gyat 298cGy/min and an increase in the sensitivity with lower dose rates. One of the most relevant outcomes in this study was obtaining different monomer to crosslinker inclusion in the formed gel for the dosimeters where oxygen was purged during the preparation method. This effect has not been reported in other typical dosimeters and could be attributed to the large differences in the reactivity among these species.

  16. Properties of nucleic acid staining dyes used in gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alicia M; Tobe, Shanan S; Kobus, Hilton J; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    Nucleic acid staining dyes are used for detecting nucleic acids in electrophoresis gels. Historically, the most common dye used for gel staining is ethidium bromide, however due to its toxicity and mutagenicity other dyes that are safer to the user and the environment are preferred. This Short Communication details the properties of dyes now available and their sensitivity for detection of DNA and their ability to permeate the cell membrane. It was found that GelRed™ was the most sensitive and safest dye to use with UV light excitation, and both GelGreen™ and Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye were sensitive and the safer dyes using blue light excitation.

  17. Comparative analysis of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula using varied milk delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Jimi; Rogers, Kristy; Brewer, Paul; Dickton, Darby; Pardini, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Background The expression of human milk for later use is on the rise. Bottle systems are used to deliver the expressed milk. Research has shown that storage of both human milk and artificial baby milk, or infant formula, leads to a loss of ascorbic acid (commonly called Vitamin C). As milk is removed from the bottle during feeding and replaced by ambient air, it is unknown if loss of ascorbic acid occurs during the course of a feeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the milk delivery system on levels of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula. The objectives are to 1) determine changes in ascorbic acid concentration during a 20 minute "feed," 2) determine if there is a difference in ascorbic acid concentration between delivery systems, and 3) evaluate if any differences are of clinical importance. Methods Commonly available bottles were used for comparison of bottle delivery systems. Mature human milk was standardized to 42 mg/L of ascorbic acid. Infant formula with iron and infant formula with docosahexanoic acid were used for the formula samples. Each sample was analyzed for ascorbic acid concentration at baseline (0), 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. Each collection of samples was completed in triplicate. Samples were analyzed for ascorbic acid using normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results Ascorbic acid concentration declined in all bottle systems during testing, Differences between the bottle systems were noted. Ascorbic acid concentrations declined to less than 40% of recommended daily intake for infants in 4 of the bottles systems at the 20 minute sampling. Conclusion The bottle systems used in this study had measurable decreases in the mean concentration of ascorbic acid. More research is needed to determine if the observed decreases are related to lower plasma ascorbic acid concentration in infants exclusively bottle fed. The decrease of ascorbic acid concentration observed in both human milk and infant

  18. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development

    PubMed Central

    Leite Júnior, Bruno Ricardo de Castro; Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) (up to 190 MPa) on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities), and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure). Although the proteolytic activity (PA) was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA) of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G’ value 92% higher after 90 minutes) when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network) and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy). These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese. PMID:25938823

  19. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development.

    PubMed

    Leite Júnior, Bruno Ricardo de Castro; Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) (up to 190 MPa) on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities), and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure). Although the proteolytic activity (PA) was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA) of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G' value 92% higher after 90 minutes) when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network) and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy). These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese.

  20. Acid Base Equilibrium in a Lipid/Water Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streb, Kristina K.; Ilich, Predrag-Peter

    2003-12-01

    A new and original experiment in which partition of bromophenol blue dye between water and lipid/water gel causes a shift in the acid base equilibrium of the dye is described. The dye-absorbing material is a monoglyceride food additive of plant origin that mixes freely with water to form a stable cubic phase gel; the nascent gel absorbs the dye from aqueous solution and converts it to the acidic form. There are three concurrent processes taking place in the experiment: (a) formation of the lipid/water gel, (b) absorption of the dye by the gel, and (c) protonation of the dye in the lipid/water gel environment. As the aqueous solution of the dye is a deep purple-blue color at neutral pH and yellow at acidic pH the result of these processes is visually striking: the strongly green-yellow particles of lipid/water gel are suspended in purple-blue aqueous solution. The local acidity of the lipid/water gel is estimated by UV vis spectrophotometry. This experiment is an example of host-guest (lipid/water gel dye) interaction and is suitable for project-type biophysics, physical chemistry, or biochemistry labs. The experiment requires three, 3-hour lab sessions, two of which must not be separated by more than two days.

  1. Genetic parameters for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties in milk from Swedish Red dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M; Poulsen, N A; Wadsö, L; Stålhammar, H; Andrén, A; Lindmark Månsson, H; Larsen, L B; Paulsson, M; Fikse, W F

    2014-01-01

    Milk coagulation is an important processing trait, being the basis for production of both cheese and fermented products. There is interest in including technological properties of these products in the breeding goal for dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was therefore to estimate genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties, including both rennet- and acid-induced coagulation, in Swedish Red dairy cattle using genomic relationships. Morning milk samples and blood samples were collected from 395 Swedish Red cows that were selected to be as genetically unrelated as possible. Using a rheometer, milk samples were analyzed for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties, including gel strength (G'), coagulation time, and yield stress (YS). In addition to the technological traits, milk composition was analyzed. A binary trait was created to reflect that milk samples that had not coagulated 40min after rennet addition were considered noncoagulating milk. The cows were genotyped by using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Almost 600,000 markers remained after quality control and were used to construct a matrix of genomic relationships among the cows. Multivariate models including fixed effects of herd, lactation stage, and parity were fitted using the ASReml software to obtain estimates of heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Heritability estimates (h(2)) for G' and YS in rennet and acid gels were found to be high (h(2)=0.38-0.62) and the genetic correlations between rennet-induced and acid-induced coagulation properties were weak but favorable, with the exception of YSrennet with G'acid and YSacid, both of which were strong. The high heritability (h(2)=0.45) for milk coagulating ability expressed as a binary trait suggests that noncoagulation could be eliminated through breeding. Additionally, the results indicated that the current breeding objective could increase the frequency of noncoagulating milk and

  2. Fatty Acid Profile and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in the Milk Fate from Qingphai Yak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The milk and the milk products of yak (Bos grunniens) are major ingredients in the daily diets of Tibetan herders while dairy products from Bos taurus breeds are important dietary components in the U.S. Also, genetic advantages in yak milk fatty acid profiles might benefit to dairy production in the...

  3. Effect of co-solute and gelation temperature on milk protein and gum tragacanth interaction in acidified gels.

    PubMed

    Hatami, Masoud; Nejatian, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of process conditions and system composition on the acid-induced gelation of a mixture of milk protein and gum tragacanth. This was studied by determining the effects of co-solute (lactose) addition (3, 5 and 7%) and gelation temperature (25, 37 and 45°C) on the mixture's rheological properties and microstructure using a combination of techniques including small-deformation rheology and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of lactose played an important role in the microstructure formation of gels but did not change most rheological properties. The microstructure of gels formed in the presence of lactose was coarser and more particulate, but less interconnected; this can be explained by lactose's role in improving protein aggregation. Gels prepared at a lower temperature had a high structure strength, as indicated by their high storage modulus, τ(f) and G(f) values. Low gelation temperature also caused a more branched and homogenous microstructure.

  4. Biocatalysis with Sol-Gel Encapsulated Acid Phosphatase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Suhasini; Tran, Vu; Ho, Maggie K.-M.; Phan, Chieu; Chin, Elizabeth; Wemmer, Zeke; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was performed in an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Students learned how to immobilize an enzyme in a sol-gel matrix and how to perform and evaluate enzyme-activity measurements. The enzyme acid phosphatase (APase) from wheat germ was encapsulated in sol-gel beads that were prepared from the precursor…

  5. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration.

  6. Origin of haloacetic acids in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are formed during the process of water disinfection. Therefore their presence in foods can be correlated with the addition of or contact with treated water. To determine the origin of HAAs in milk and dairy products, firstly a chromatographic method was developed for their determination. The sample treatment involves deproteination of milk followed by derivatization/extraction of the HAAs in the supernatant. About 20% of the foods analyzed contained two HAAs - which in no case exceeded 2 μg L(-1), that can be ascribed to contamination from sanitizers usually employed in the dairy industry. The process of boiling tap water (containing HAAs) for the preparation of powdered infant formula did not remove them; therefore it would be advisable to prepare this type of milk with mineral water (free of HAAs). In addition, it is possible to establish if the milk has been adulterated with treated water through the determination of HAAs.

  7. Effects of induced subacute ruminal acidosis on milk fat content and milk fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, F; Videau, Y; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2008-06-01

    Two lactating dairy cows fitted with a rumen cannula received successively diets containing 0%, 20%, 34% and again 0% of wheat on a dry matter basis. After 5, 10 and 11 days, ruminal pH was measured between 8:00 and 16:00 hours, and milk was analysed for fat content and fatty acid profile. Diets with 20% and 34% wheat induced a marginal and a severe subacute ruminal acidosis respectively. After 11 days, diets with wheat strongly reduced the milk yield and milk fat content, increased the proportions of C8:0 to C13:0 even- or odd-chain fatty acids, C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids but decreased the proportions of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 fatty acids. Wheat also increased the proportions of trans-5 to trans-10 C18:1, the latter exhibiting a 10-fold increase with 34% of wheat compared with value during the initial 0% wheat period. There was also an increase of trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 fatty acid and a decrease of trans-11 to trans-16 C18:1 fatty acids. The evolution during adaptation or after return to a 0% wheat diet was rapid for pH but much slower for the fatty acid profile. The mean ruminal pH was closely related to milk fat content, the proportion of odd-chain fatty acids (linear relationship) and the ratio of trans-10 C18:1/trans-11 C18:1 (nonlinear relationship). Such changes in fatty acid profile suggested a possible use for non-invasive diagnosis of subacute ruminal acidosis.

  8. Amino acid supplementation of calf milk replacers containing plasma protein.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S Y; Campbell, J M; Drackley, J K

    2017-03-22

    We determined the effects of calf milk replacers containing 0, 5, or 10% bovine plasma protein (PP), either without or with the supplemental amino acids (AA) Ile and Thr, on growth and health of male Holstein calves (n = 104) for 56 d. Milk replacers were formulated to contain 22% crude protein (CP), 20% fat, and 2.0% Lys. Milk replacers (12.5% solids) were fed at a rate of 1.5% of body weight (BW) on a dry matter basis during wk 1 and 1.75% of BW beginning on d 8. Starter was introduced on d 36 so that effects of PP and AA balance in milk replacers could be isolated. Intake, respiratory scores, and fecal scores were measured daily. Body weight and stature were measured weekly and blood serum samples were obtained during wk 4. Treatments had no effects on intakes of dry matter, CP, or metabolizable energy. During wk 6 and 8, BW was less as PP inclusion increased without AA supplementation compared with the other treatments. In wk 7, calves fed the higher level of PP without AA had lower BW than calves fed either the lower level of PP without supplemented AA or the higher inclusion of PP with supplemented AA. Average daily gain and gain:feed were lowest for calves fed the higher inclusion of PP without supplemented AA; heart girth in wk 7 was smallest for those calves. During the first 21 d, occurrence of scours was greater in calves fed the control milk replacer than in calves fed milk replacers containing the higher inclusion of PP either without or with supplemental AA. Occurrence of scours was also greater for the lower inclusion of PP compared with the higher inclusion of PP when AA were supplemented. Throughout the 56-d experiment, the chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for calves fed the control milk replacer than for all other treatments except the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA. Additionally, chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA than for other milk replacers with PP. Calves

  9. Chemical characterisation and application of acid whey in fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Lievore, Paolla; Simões, Deise R S; Silva, Karolline M; Drunkler, Northon L; Barana, Ana C; Nogueira, Alessandro; Demiate, Ivo M

    2015-04-01

    Acid whey is a by-product from cheese processing that can be employed in beverage formulations due to its high nutritional quality. The objective of the present work was to study the physicochemical characterisation of acid whey from Petit Suisse-type cheese production and use this by-product in the formulation of fermented milk, substituting water. In addition, a reduction in the fermentation period was tested. Both the final product and the acid whey were analysed considering physicochemical determinations, and the fermented milk was evaluated by means of sensory analysis, including multiple comparison and acceptance tests, as well as purchase intention. The results of the physicochemical analyses showed that whey which was produced during both winter and summer presented higher values of protein (1.22 and 0.97 %, w/v, respectively), but there were no differences in lactose content. During the autumn, the highest solid extract was found in whey (6.00 %, w/v), with larger amounts of lactose (4.73 %, w/v) and ash (0.83 %, w/v). When analysing the fermented milk produced with added acid whey, the acceptance test resulted in 90 % of acceptance; the purchase intention showed that 54 % of the consumers would 'certainly buy' and 38 % would 'probably buy' the product. Using acid whey in a fermented milk formulation was technically viable, allowing by-product value aggregation, avoiding discharge, lowering water consumption and shortening the fermentation period.

  10. Liquid human milk fortifier significantly improves docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid status in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Berseth, C L; Harris, C L; Wampler, J L; Hoffman, D R; Diersen-Schade, D A

    2014-09-01

    We report the fatty acid composition of mother׳s own human milk from one of the largest US cohorts of lactating mothers of preterm infants. Milk fatty acid data were used as a proxy for intake at enrollment in infants (n=150) who received human milk with a powder human milk fortifier (HMF; Control) or liquid HMF [LHMF; provided additional 12mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 20mg arachidonic acid (ARA)/100mL human milk]. Mothers provided milk samples (n=129) and reported maternal DHA consumption (n=128). Infant blood samples were drawn at study completion (Study Day 28). Human milk and infant PPL fatty acids were analyzed using capillary column gas chromatography. DHA and ARA were within ranges previously published for US term and preterm human milk. Compared to Control HMF (providing no DHA or ARA), human milk fortified with LHMF significantly increased infant PPL DHA and ARA and improved preterm infant DHA and ARA status.

  11. Amino acid nutrition beyond methionine and lysine for milk protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids are involved in many important physiological processes affecting the production, health, and reproduction of high-producing dairy cows. Most research and recommendations for lactating dairy cows has focused on methionine and lysine for increasing milk protein yield. This is because these...

  12. Differentiating Milk and Non-milk Proteins by UPLC Amino Acid Fingerprints Combined with Chemometric Data Analysis Techniques.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiying; Lv, Xiaxia; Gao, Boyan; Shi, Haiming; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2015-04-22

    Amino acid fingerprinting combined with chemometric data analysis was used to differentiate milk and non-milk proteins in this study. Microwave-assisted hydrolysis and ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) were used to obtain the amino acid fingerprints. Both univariate and multivariate chemometrics methods were applied for differentiation. The confidence boundary of amino acid concentration, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of the amino acid fingerprints demonstrated that there were significant differences between milk proteins and inexpensive non-milk protein powders from other biological sources including whey, peanut, corn, soy, fish, egg yolk, beef extract, collagen, and cattle bone. The results indicate that the amino acid compositions with the chemometric techniques could be applied for the detection of potential protein adulterants in milk.

  13. Effects of Size and Stability of Native Fat Globules on the Formation of Milk Gel Induced by Rennet.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Wang, Yuhan; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-03-01

    Rennet-induced gelation crucially impacts cheese structure. In this study, effects of the size and stability of native fat globules on the kinetics of rennet-induced coagulation were revealed by determining the caseinomacropeptide release rate and rheological properties of milk. Moreover, the mobility and stability of fat globules during renneting was revealed using diffusing wave spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. By use of a 2-stage gravity separation combined centrifugation scheme, native fat globules were selectively separated into small (SFG, D4,3 = 1.87 ± 0.02 μm) and large fat globules (LFG, D4,3 = 5.65 ± 0.03 μm). The protein and fat content of SFG and LFG milk were then standardized to 3.2 g/100 mL and 1.2 g/100 mL, respectively. The milk containing different sized globules were then subjected to renneting experiments in the laboratory. Reduction of globule size accelerated the aggregation of casein micelles during renneting, giving a shorter gelation time and earlier 1/l(*) change. The gel produced from LFG milk was broken due to coalescent fat globules and generated coarser gel strands compared to the finer strands formed with SFG milk. Structural differences were also confirmed with a higher final storage modulus of the curd made from SFG milk than that from the LFG. In conclusion, the size of fat globules affects the aggregation of casein micelles. Moreover, fat globule coalescence and creaming during renneting, also affects the structure of the rennet gel. A better understanding of the size of globules effect on milk gelation could lead to the development of cheese with specific properties.

  14. The heat treatment and the gelation are strong determinants of the kinetics of milk proteins digestion and of the peripheral availability of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Barbé, Florence; Ménard, Olivia; Le Gouar, Yann; Buffière, Caroline; Famelart, Marie-Hélène; Laroche, Béatrice; Le Feunteun, Steven; Dupont, Didier; Rémond, Didier

    2013-02-15

    This study aimed to determine the kinetics of milk protein digestion and amino acid absorption after ingestion of four dairy matrices by six minipigs: unheated or heated skim milk and corresponding rennet gels. Digestive contents and plasma samples were collected over a 7 h-period after meal ingestion. Gelation of milk slowed down the outflow of the meal from the stomach and the subsequent absorption of amino acids, and decreased their bioavailability in peripheral blood. The gelled rennet matrices also led to low levels of milk proteins at the duodenum. Caseins and β-lactoglobulin, respectively, were sensitive and resistant to hydrolysis in the stomach with the unheated matrices, but showed similar digestion with the heated matrices, with a heat-induced susceptibility to hydrolysis for β-lactoglobulin. These results suggest a significant influence of the meal microstructure (resulting from heat treatment) and macrostructure (resulting from gelation process) on the different steps of milk proteins digestion.

  15. Acute effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acids of human milk.

    PubMed

    Francois, C A; Connor, S L; Wander, R C; Connor, W E

    1998-02-01

    Although it is known that the fatty acid profile of human milk is altered by diet, the rapidity with which this occurs has not been addressed. We hypothesized that after absorption the fatty acids of a given meal would be transferred rapidly from the chylomicrons of the blood into human milk. Fourteen lactating women drank six test formulas, each containing a different fat: menhaden oil, herring oil, safflower oil, canola oil, coconut oil, or cocoa butter. The subjects collected a midfeeding milk sample before consuming the breakfast test formula and additional samples at 6, 10, 14, and 24 h and then once daily for 4-7 d. Fatty acids of special interest included eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from menhaden oil, cetoleic acid from herring oil, linoleic acid from safflower oil, linolenic acid from canola oil, lauric acid from coconut oil, and palmitic and stearic acids from cocoa butter. Each of these fatty acids increased significantly in human milk within 6 h of consumption of the test formulas (P < 0.001). Maximum increases occurred 10 h after safflower oil; 14 h after cocoa utter, coconut oil, canola oil, and menhaden oil (eicosapentaenoic acid); and 24 h after herring oil and menhaden oil (docosahexaenoic acid). All of these fatty acids remained significantly elevated in milk (P < 0.05) for 10-24 h, except for docosahexaenoic acid, which remained significantly elevated for 2 d, and eicosapentaenoic acid, which remained elevated for 3 d. These data support the hypothesis that there is a rapid transfer of dietary fatty acids from chylomicrons into human milk.

  16. Evaluation of cooling strategies for pumping of milk - impact of fatty acid composition on free fatty acid levels.

    PubMed

    Wiking, Lars; Bertram, Hanne C; Björck, Lennart; Nielsen, Jacob H

    2005-11-01

    Cooling strategies for pumping of raw milk were evaluated. Milk was pumped for 450 s at 31 degrees C, or pumped after cooling to 4 degrees C and subsequently subjected to various incubation times. Two types of milk were used; i.e. milk from cows fed a diet high in saturated fat supplements resulting in significantly larger milk fat globules than the other type of milk which comes from cows fed a low-fat diet that stimulates high de novo fat synthesis. The content of liquid fat was determined by low-field 1H NMR, which showed that milk from cows given the saturated fat diet also contained less liquid fat at both 4 degrees and 31 degrees C than the other type of milk. This can be ascribed to the differences in the fatty acid composition of the milk as a result of the fatty acid composition of the diets. After pumping of the milk at 31 degrees C, measurement of fat globule size distribution revealed a significant coalescence of milk fat globules in the milk obtained from the saturated fat diet due to pumping. Pumping at 4 degrees C or pumping the other type of milk did not result in coalescence of milk fat globules. Formation of free fatty acids increased significantly in both types of milk by pumping at 31 degrees C. Cooling the milk to 4 degrees C immediately before pumping inhibited an increased content of free fatty acids. However, when the milk was incubated at 4 degrees C for 60 min after cooling and then subjected to pumping, a significant increase in the formation of free fatty acids was observed in both types of milk. It is suggested that this increase in free fatty acids is caused by transition of polymorphic crystal forms or higher level of attached lipoprotein lipases to the milk fat globule before pumping.

  17. Isolation and characterisation of lactic acid bacteria from donkey milk.

    PubMed

    Soto Del Rio, Maria de Los Dolores; Andrighetto, Christian; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Lombardi, Angiolella; Civera, Tiziana; Bottero, Maria Teresa

    2016-08-01

    During the last years the interest in donkey milk has increased significantly mainly because of its compelling functional elements. Even if the composition and nutritional properties of donkey milk are known, its microbiota is less studied. This Research Communication aimed to provide a comprehensive characterisation of the lactic acid bacteria in raw donkey milk. RAPD-PCR assay combined with 16S rDNA sequencing analysis were used to describe the microbial diversity of several donkey farms in the North West part of Italy. The more frequently detected species were: Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactococcus lactis and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum. Less abundant genera were Leuconostoc, Enterococcus and Streptococcus. The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus was also isolated. The bacterial and biotype distribution notably diverged among the farms. Several of the found species, not previously detected in donkey milk, could have an important probiotic activity and biotechnological potential. This study represents an important insight to the ample diversity of the microorganisms present in the highly selective ecosystem of raw donkey milk.

  18. Crystal growth of proteins, nucleic acids, and viruses in gels.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Bernard; Sauter, Claude; Théobald-Dietrich, Anne; Moreno, Abel; Schellenberger, Pascale; Robert, Marie-Claire; Capelle, Bernard; Sanglier, Sarah; Potier, Noëlle; Giegé, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Medium-sized single crystals with perfect habits and no defect producing intense and well-resolved diffraction patterns are the dream of every protein crystallographer. Crystals of biological macromolecules possessing these characteristics can be prepared within a medium in which mass transport is restricted to diffusion. Chemical gels (like polysiloxane) and physical gels (such as agarose) provide such an environment and are therefore suitable for the crystallisation of biological macromolecules. Instructions for the preparation of each type of gel are given to urge crystal growers to apply diffusive media for enhancing crystallographic quality of their crystals. Examples of quality enhancement achieved with silica and agarose gels are given. Results obtained with other substances forming gel-like media (such as lipidic phases and cellulose derivatives) are presented. Finally, the use of gels in combination with capillary tubes for counter-diffusion experiments is discussed. Methods and techniques implemented with proteins can also be applied to nucleic acids and nucleoprotein assemblies such as viruses.

  19. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria grown in goat milk.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Jivka; Moncheva, Penka; Ivanova, Iskra

    2014-11-02

    We examined 62 strains and 21 trade starter cultures from the collection of LB Bulgaricum PLC for proteolytic and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grown in goat milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation of caseins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin by LAB, using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) spectrophotometric assay and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteolysis targeted mainly caseins, especially β-casein. Whey proteins were proteolyzed, essentially β-lactoglobulin. The proteolytic activity of Lactococcus lactis l598, Streptococcus thermophilus t3D1, Dt1, Lactobacillus lactis 1043 and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus b38, b122 and b24 was notably high. The proteolysis process gave rise to medium-sized peptide populations. Most of the examined strains showed antimicrobial activity against some food pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella cholere enteridis, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and Enterobacter aerogenes. The most active producers of antimicrobial-active peptides were strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, which are of practical importance. The starter cultures containing the examined species showed high proteolytic and antimicrobial activity in skimmed goat milk. The greatest antimicrobial activity of the cultures was detected against E. aerogenes. The obtained results demonstrated the significant proteolytic potential of the examined strains in goat milk and their potential for application in the production of dairy products from goat's milk. The present results could be considered as the first data on the proteolytic capacity of strains and starter cultures in goat milk for the purposes of trade interest of LB Bulgaricum PLC.

  20. Effects of fatty acid supplements on milk yield and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on yield of milk and milk components, concentration of milk components including milk fatty acid profile, and energy balance. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows and 8 noncannulated cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). The SAT treatment did not change milk fat concentration, but UNS linearly decreased milk fat in cannulated cows and tended to decrease milk fat in noncannulated cows compared with control. Milk fat depression with UNS corresponded to increased concentrations of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid and trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk. Milk fat profile was similar for SAT and control, but UNS decreased concentration of short- and medium-chain FA. Digestible energy intake tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS in cannulated and noncannulated cows. Increasing unsaturated FS linearly increased empty body weight and net energy gain in cannulated cows, whereas increasing saturated FS linearly increased plasma insulin. Efficiency of conversion of digestible energy to milk tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS for cannulated cows only. Addition of SAT provided little benefit to production and energy balance, whereas UNS decreased energy intake and milk energy yield.

  1. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  2. Matrix molecularly imprinted mesoporous sol-gel sorbent for efficient solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol from milk.

    PubMed

    Samanidou, Victoria; Kehagia, Maria; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2016-03-31

    Highly selective and efficient chloramphenicol imprinted sol-gel silica based inorganic polymeric sorbent (sol-gel MIP) was synthesized via matrix imprinting approach for the extraction of chloramphenicol in milk. Chloramphenicol was used as the template molecule, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and triethoxyphenylsilane (TEPS) as the functional precursors, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) as the cross-linker, isopropanol as the solvent/porogen, and HCl as the sol-gel catalyst. Non-imprinted sol-gel polymer (sol-gel NIP) was synthesized under identical conditions in absence of template molecules for comparison purpose. Both synthesized materials were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, which unambiguously confirmed their significant structural and morphological differences. The synthesized MIP and NIP materials were evaluated as sorbents for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) of chloramphenicol in milk. The effect of critical extraction parameters (flow rate, elution solvent, sample and eluent volume, selectivity coefficient, retention capacity) was studied in terms of retention and desorption of chloramphenicol. Competition and cross reactivity tests have proved that sol-gel MIP sorbent possesses significantly higher specific retention and enrichment capacity for chloramphenicol compared to its non-imprinted analogue. The maximum imprinting factor (IF) was found as 9.7, whereas the highest adsorption capacity of chloramphenicol by sol-gel MIP was 23 mg/g. The sol-gel MIP was found to be adequately selective towards chloramphenicol to provide the necessary minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 μg/kg set forth by European Commission after analysis by LC-MS even without requiring time consuming solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution step, often considered as an integral part in solid phase extraction work-flow. Intra and

  3. Utilization of milk fatty acids by the suckling Iberian piglets.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, M A; Haro, A; Lara, L; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2016-11-01

    A total of 16 pure-bred Iberian (IB) sows, all of them suckling six piglets, were used, eight of them in each of the two consecutive trials (1 and 2). Daily milk yield and composition were determined weekly over a 34-day lactation period. Within each litter, one piglet at birth and four piglets on day 35 of life were slaughtered. Milk intake per piglet tended to be greater in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P=0.066), but piglets grew at 168±3.3 g/day, irrespective of the trial. In the IB sow milk, the linoleic (LA) : linolenic (LNA) acid ratio averaged 14.6 and 15.2 in trial 1 and trial 2, respectively. A fivefold increase in piglet body fat content was observed over lactation (P<0.001). Most of this fat (81.4%) was present in the carcass. After 34 days of lactation, whole-body relative content of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids were very close to those in the milk consumed, suggesting direct deposition. Daily deposition of LA derivatives and of LNA and its derivatives was found to be extremely low (<0.02 g, on average). Moreover, some of the arachidonic acid (ARA) in tissues of the IB piglet at birth disappeared throughout the lactating period. An overall fractional deposition for total fatty acids (FA) was 0.409. Fractional oxidation (disappearance) rates were 0.939 and 0.926 for n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The overall rate of disappearance for the major non-essential FA (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids), estimated as 1-the overall fractional deposition rate, was 0.546. It is concluded that the high degree of FA unsaturation, high oxidation rate of LA and LNA, and poor synthesis of ARA from LA and of docosahexaenoic acid from LNA found in the suckling piglet might increase the energy cost of whole-body fat accretion, a contributor to the observed low efficiency of use of milk energy for growth.

  4. Heat stability and acid gelation properties of calcium-enriched reconstituted skim milk affected by ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Bui, Don; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2014-05-01

    The aggregation of proteins after heating of calcium-fortified milks has been an ongoing problem in the dairy industry. This undesirable effect restricts the manufacture of calcium rich dairy products. To overcome this problem, a completely new approach in controlling the heat stability of dairy protein solutions, developed in our lab, has been employed. In this approach, high intensity, low frequency ultrasound is applied for a very short duration after a pre-heating step at ⩾70 °C. The ultrasound breaks apart whey/whey and whey/casein aggregates through the process of acoustic cavitation. Protein aggregates do not reform on subsequent post-heating, thereby making the systems heat stable. In this paper, the acid gelation properties of ultrasonicated calcium-enriched skim milks have also been investigated. It is shown that ultrasonication alone does not change the gelation properties significantly whereas a sequence of preheating (72 °C/1 min) followed by ultrasonication leads to decreased gelation times, decreased gel syneresis and increased skim milk viscosity in comparison to heating alone. Overall, ultrasonication has the potential to provide calcium-fortified dairy products with increased heat stability. However, enhanced gelation properties can only be achieved when ultrasonication is completed in conjunction with heating.

  5. Physical and sensory properties of dairy products from cows with various milk fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Chen, She; Bobe, Gerd; Zimmerman, Shelly; Hammond, Earl G; Luhman, Cindie M; Boylston, Terri D; Freeman, Albert E; Beitz, Donald C

    2004-06-02

    Dairy products from milk of cows fed diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have a more health-promoting fatty acid composition and are softer but often have oxidized flavors. Dairy products made from cow's milk that has more- or less-unsaturated fatty acid compositions were tested for differences in texture and flavor from those made from bulk-tank milk. The milk was manufactured into butter, vanilla ice cream, yogurt, Provolone cheese, and Cheddar cheese. The products were analyzed for fatty acid composition, physical properties, and flavor. Milk of cows with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition yielded products with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition that were softer and had a satisfactory flavor. Thus, selection of cows for milk fatty acid composition can be used to produce dairy products that are probably more healthful and have a softer texture.

  6. Milk conjugated linoleic acid response to fish oil supplementation of diets differing in fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effect of feeding fish oil (FO) along with fat sources that varied in their fatty acid compositions (high stearic, high oleic, high linoleic, or high linolenic acids) to determine which combination would lead to maximum conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA) and transvaccenic acid (TVA) concentrations in milk fat. Twelve Holstein cows (eight multiparous and four primiparous cows) at 73 (+/- 32) DIM were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 4-wk periods. Treatment diets were 1) 1% FO plus 2% fat source high in stearic acid (HS), 2) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high oleic acid sunflower seeds (HO), 3) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high linoleic acid sunflower seeds (HLO), and 4) 1% FO plus 2% fat from flax seeds (high linolenic; HLN). Diets formulated to contain 18% crude protein were composed of 50% (dry basis) concentrate mix, 25% corn silage, 12.5% alfalfa haylage, and 12.5% alfalfa hay. Milk production (35.8, 36.3, 34.9, and 35.0 kg/d for diets 1 to 4) was similar for all diets. Milk fat percentages (3.14, 2.81, 2.66, and 3.08) and yields (1.13, 1.02, 0.93, and 1.08 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were lowest for HLO. Milk protein percentages (3.04, 3.03, 3.10, and 3.08) and dry matter intake (DMI) (25.8, 26.0, 26.2, and 26.2 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were similar for all diets. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations (0.70, 1.04, 1.70, and 1.06 g/100 g fatty acids) for diet 1 to 4 and yields (7.7, 10.7, 15.8, and 11.3 g/d) for diets 1 to 4 were greatest with HLO and were least with HS. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations and yields were similar for cows fed the HO and the HLN diets. Similar to milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA, milk TVA concentration (1.64, 2.49, 3.74, and 2.41 g/100 g fatty acids) for diets 1 to 4 was greatest with the HLO diet and least with the HS diet. Feeding a high linoleic acid fat source with fish oil most effectively increased concentrations and yields of milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA and TVA.

  7. An overview on the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Caligiani, Augusta; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

    2014-08-06

    A survey was carried out to determine the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFA) in various dairy products. CPFA such as lactobacillic acid and dihydrosterculic acid are components of bacterial membranes and have been recently detected in milk from cows fed with maize silage. In this paper about 200 dairy samples comprising cow, sheep, and goat milk, cheese, yogurt/fermented milk, and butter were analyzed. Results showed that cow milks were generally positive to CPFA (0.014-0.105% of total fatty acids), while goat, yak, and sheep milks were negative. Experimental yogurt and fermented milks showed the same CPFA content of the starting milk. Positive to CPFA were also the majority of samples of commercial butter and cheeses, except some PDO cheeses as Parmigiano-Reggiano and Fontina, cheeses from mountain regions, and goat and sheep cheeses. These data suggest that the presence of CPFA in dairy products could be used as a marker of silage feeding.

  8. [Recovery of Staphylococcus aureus after acid injury in milk products].

    PubMed

    Assis, E M; De Carvalho, E P; Asquieri, E R; Robbs, P G

    1994-01-01

    The growth behavior of Staphylococcus aureus in fresh Cheese (Minas and Muzzarella) during their shelf-life was studied. The possible injury of this microorganism caused by the increasing acidity was also investigated. Raw milk was inoculated with 10(6) cells/ml (S. aureus FRIA-100) and the cheese production was performed according to normal procedures. Minas and muzzarella cheese were stored at 7 degrees C for 40 and 60 days, respectively. At 2-3 days intervals, the following analysis were performed: acidity, pH, S. aureus counting using agar Baird Parker by the traditional methods and by the method recommended by the American Public Health Association to evaluate the reparation of injured cells. We had a secure indication of the presence of injured S. aureus when acidity was in the range of 0.7 to 0.8% expressed in lactic acid and when the cycle was 1.3 log higher than the traditional one.

  9. Arcobacter species and their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotypes in Finnish raw milk during summer 2011.

    PubMed

    Revez, Joana; Huuskonen, Marianne; Ruusunen, Marjo; Lindström, Miia; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Arcobacter species in raw milk in Finland. A total of 177 raw milk samples, each from a separate farm, were examined from June to August 2011. Arcobacter species were isolated using an enrichment and selective detection procedure. Overall, 26 (15 % ) of the 177 samples yielded Arcobacter spp. Samples from 25 farms were positive for Arcobacter butzleri and from 1 farm for Arcobacter cryaerophilus. Moreover, both Arcobacter butzleri and A. cryaerophilus were recovered from 1 positive sample. To evaluate a possible genetic variability, one strain of A. butzleri from each farm and the A. cryaerophilus sample were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genotyping revealed that Arcobacter spp. populations are heterogeneous, and no dominant clone has spread in the investigated samples. Our study is the first report on the isolation of both A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus in raw milk in Finland. Based on our findings, the presence of Arcobacter species in raw milk may pose a potential hazard for human health, in particular for consumers who prefer drinking unpasteurized milk.

  10. Preliminary observations on the effects of milk fortification with conjugated linoleic acid in yogurt preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamon, R. V.; Albert, I.; András, C. D.; Csapó, J.; Ibănescu, C.

    2015-04-01

    The fortification and enrichment of food with health benefic natural or natural identical substances creating new functional foods became an important issue for food researchers and processors. However, often occurs that the obtained products (despite of their health benefic activity) cannot be marketed due to strange or accustomed taste and/or texture. The aim of the research was to elucidate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) enrichment of raw milk on the rheological properties of the obtained yogurt. The results show that the values of the complex viscosity at 50 rad.s-1 (correlated with the thickness and sliminess of the food gel structures) of the CLA-enriched yogurt was the lowest among the studied samples, meaning the enriched yogurt is more creamy than the commercial products. These observations gave us the hope that, in this case, the texture of enriched product will not present any drawback related to consumer quality judgment.

  11. Predictions of Daily Milk and Fat Yields, Major Groups of Fatty Acids, and C18:1 cis-9 from Single Milking Data without a Milking Interval

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, Valérie M. R.; Reding, Romain; Bormann, Jeanne; Gengler, Nicolas; Soyeurt, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Reducing the frequency of milk recording decreases the costs of official milk recording. However, this approach can negatively affect the accuracy of predicting daily yields. Equations to predict daily yield from morning or evening data were developed in this study for fatty milk components from traits recorded easily by milk recording organizations. The correlation values ranged from 96.4% to 97.6% (96.9% to 98.3%) when the daily yields were estimated from the morning (evening) milkings. The simplicity of the proposed models which do not include the milking interval should facilitate their use by breeding and milk recording organizations. Abstract Reducing the frequency of milk recording would help reduce the costs of official milk recording. However, this approach could also negatively affect the accuracy of predicting daily yields. This problem has been investigated in numerous studies. In addition, published equations take into account milking intervals (MI), and these are often not available and/or are unreliable in practice. The first objective of this study was to propose models in which the MI was replaced by a combination of data easily recorded by dairy farmers. The second objective was to further investigate the fatty acids (FA) present in milk. Equations to predict daily yield from AM or PM data were based on a calibration database containing 79,971 records related to 51 traits [milk yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat content (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day); levels of seven different FAs or FA groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/dL milk), and the corresponding FA yields for these seven FA types/groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day)]. These equations were validated using two distinct external datasets. The results obtained from the proposed models were compared to previously published results for

  12. Lactic acid bacteria fermentation of human milk oligosaccharide components, human milk oligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Human milk contains about 7% lactose and 1% human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) consisting of lactose with linked fucose, N-acetylglucosamine and sialic acid. In infant formula, galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) are added to replace HMOs. This study investigated the ability of six strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Streptococcus thermophilus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, to digest HMO components, defined HMOs, and GOSs. All strains grew on lactose and glucose. N-acetylglucosamine utilization varied between strains and was maximal in L. plantarum; fucose utilization was low or absent in all strains. Both hetero- and homofermentative LAB utilized N-acetylglucosamine via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. plantarum were the most versatile in hydrolysing pNP analogues and the only strains releasing mono- and disaccharides from defined HMOs. Whole cells of all six LAB hydrolysed oNP-galactoside and pNP-galactoside indicating β-galactosidase activity. High β-galactosidase activity of L. reuteri, L. fermentum, S. thermophilus and L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris whole cells correlated to lactose and GOS hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of lactose and GOSs by heterologously expressed β-galactosidases confirmed that LAB β-galactosidases are involved in GOS digestion. In summary, the strains of LAB used were not capable of utilizing complex HMOs but metabolized HMO components and GOSs.

  13. Amino acid profile of milk-based infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Viadel, B; Alegriá, A; Farré, R; Abellán, P; Romero, F

    2000-09-01

    The protein content and amino acid profile of three milk-based infant formulas, two of which were powdered (adapted and follow-on) and the third liquid, were determined to check their compliance with the EU directive and to evaluate whether or not they fulfil an infant's nutritional needs. To obtain the amino acid profile proteins were subjected to acid hydrolysis, prior to which the sulfur-containing amino acids were oxidized with performic acid. The amino acids were derivatized with phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) and then determined by ion-pair reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) In the case of tryptophan a basic hydrolysis was applied and there was no need of derivatization. The protein contents of the analysed formulas were in the ranges established by the EU directive for these products and the amino acid contents were in the ranges reported by other authors for these types of formulas. In all cases the tryptophan content determined the value of the chemical score, which was always lower than 80% of the reference protein but in the ranges reported by other authors. The analysed adapted infant formula provides amino acids in amounts higher than the established nutritional requirements.

  14. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Affolter, Michael; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; De Castro, Carlos A.; Karagounis, Leonidas G.; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx) was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors. PMID:27690094

  15. Ultra-high pressure homogenization-induced changes in skim milk: impact on acid coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mar; Trujillo, Antonio J; Jaramillo, Pamela D; Guamis, Buenaventura; Ferragut, Victoria

    2008-02-01

    The effects of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) on skim milk yogurt making properties were investigated. UHPH-treated milk was compared with conventionally homogenised (15 MPa) heat-treated skim milk (90 degrees C for 90 s), and to skim milk treated under the same thermal conditions but fortified with 3% skim milk powder. Results of the present study showed that UHPH is capable of reducing skim milk particle size which leads to the formation of finer dispersions than those obtained by conventional homogenisation combined with heat treatment. In addition, results involving coagulation properties and yogurt characteristics reflected that, when increasing UHPH pressure conditions some parameters such as density of the gel, aggregation rate and water retention are improved.

  16. Multiresidue analysis of 30 organochlorine pesticides in milk and milk powder by gel permeation chromatography-solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guocan; Han, Chao; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Meiwen; Wang, Chengjun; Shen, Yan

    2014-10-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of the 30 organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in milk and milk powder samples has been developed. Prior to the gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis, the residual OCP in samples were extracted with n-hexane and acetone mixture (1/1, vol/vol) and cleaned up by gel permeation chromatography and solid phase extraction. Selected reaction monitoring mode was used for gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric data acquisition to identify and quantify the OCP. To avoid the matrix effects, matrix-matched calibration solutions ranging from 2 to 50 ng/mL were used to record the calibration curve. Limits of quantification of all OCP were 0.8 μg/kg. With the exception of endrin, limits of quantification are significantly lower than maximum residue limits set by the European Union and China. The average recoveries were in the range of 70.1 to 114.7% at 3 spiked concentration levels (0.8, 2.0, and 10.0 μg/kg) with residual standard deviation lower than 12.9%. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the OCP in commercial milk products.

  17. A continuous acetic acid system for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of gliadins and other prolamines.

    PubMed

    Clements, R L

    1988-02-01

    A polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system buffered by acetic acid alone was developed for electrophoresis of prolamines. When applied to gliadin electrophoresis, the acetic acid system produces more bands than does a conventional aluminum lactate-lactic acid system (using 12% acrylamide gels). The acetic acid system is relatively simple, requiring a single buffer component that is universally available in high purity.

  18. Human glans penis augmentation using injectable hyaluronic acid gel.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Kwak, T I; Jeon, B G; Cheon, J; Moon, D G

    2003-12-01

    Although augmentation phalloplasty is not an established procedure, some patients still need enlargement of their penis. Current penile augmentation is girth enhancement of penile body by dermofat graft. We performed this study to identify the efficacy and the patient's satisfaction of human glans penis augmentation with injectable hyaluronic acid gel. In 100 patients of subjective small penis (Group I) and 87 patients of small glans after dermofat graft (Group II), 2 cm(3) of hyaluronic acid gel was injected into the glans penis, subcutaneously. At 1 y after injection, changes of glandular diameter were measured by tapeline. Patient's visual estimation of glandular size (Gr 0-4) and patient's satisfaction (Grade (Gr) 0-4) were evaluated, respectively. Any adverse reactions were also evaluated. The mean age of patients was 42.2 (30-70) y in Group I and 42.13 (28-61) y in Group II. The maximal glandular circumference was significantly increased compared to basal circumference of 9.13+/-0.64 cm in Group I (P<0.01) and 9.49+/-1.05 cm in Group II (P<0.01) at 1 y after injection. Net increase of maximal glandular circumference after glans augmentation was 14.93+/-0.80 mm in Group I and 14.78+/-0.89 mm in Group II. In patient's visual estimation, more than 50% of injected volume was maintained in 95% of Group 1 and 100% of Group II. The percentage of postoperative satisfaction (Gr 4, 5) was 77% in Group 1 and 69% in Group II. There was no abnormal reaction in area feeling, texture, and color. In most cases, initial discoloration by glandular swelling recovered to normal within 2 weeks. There were no signs of inflammation and no serious adverse reactions in all cases. These results suggest that injectable hyaluronic acid gel is a safe and effective material for augmentation of glans penis.

  19. Trans fatty acids and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk in turkish women and their association with maternal diet's.

    PubMed

    Samur, Gülhan; Topcu, Ali; Turan, Semra

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid and fatty acid contents of breast milk in Turkish women and to find the effect of breastfeeding mothers' diet on trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition. Mature milk samples obtained from 50 Turkish nursing women were analyzed. Total milk lipids extracts were transmethylated and analyzed by using gas liquid chromatography to determine fatty acids contents. A questionnaire was applied to observe eating habits and 3 days dietary records from mothers were obtained. Daily dietary intake of total energy and nutrients were estimated by using nutrient database. The mean total trans fatty acids contents was 2.13 +/- 1.03%. The major sources of trans fatty acids in mothers' diets were margarines-butter (37.0%), bakery products and confectionery (29.6%). Mothers who had high level of trans isomers in their milk consumed significantly higher amounts of these products. Saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids of human milk constituted 40.7 +/- 4.7%, 26.9 +/- 4.2% and 30.8 +/- 0.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The levels of fatty acids in human milk may reflect the current diet of the mother as well as the diet consumed early in pregnancy. Margarines, bakery products and confectionery are a major source of trans fatty acids in maternal diet in Turkey.

  20. Genetic diversity and some aspects of antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Dornellas, Wesley Dos Santos; Perin, Luana Martins; Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, n = 57) were previously obtained from raw goat milk, identified as Lactococcus spp. (n = 24) and Enterococcus spp. (n = 33), and characterized as bacteriocinogenic. Fingerprinting by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) demonstrated high genetic diversity, and 30 strains were selected and exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against 46 target strains (LAB, spoilage, and foodborne pathogens). Six strains (Lactococcus lactis: GLc03 and GLc05; and Enterococcus durans: GEn09, GEn12, GEn14, and GEn17) were selected to characterize their bacteriocinogenic features, using Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 as the target. The six strains produced bacteriocins at higher titer when incubated in MRS at 37 °C up to 12 h, when compared to growth at 25 and 30 °C. The produced bacteriocins kept their antimicrobial activity after exposure to 100 °C for 2 h and 121 °C for 20 min; the antimicrobial activity was also observed after treatment at pH 2.0 to 10.0, except for GLc03. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced approximately two logs after treatment with cell-free supernatants from the selected strains. These data show that goat milk can contain a diverse microbiota able to inhibit L. monocytogenes, a common pathogen found in dairy products, and can be potentially employed in biopreservation of food produced under different processing conditions.

  1. Genetic parameters of milk production traits and fatty acid contents in milk for Holstein cows in parity 1-3.

    PubMed

    Bastin, C; Soyeurt, H; Gengler, N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of milk, fat, and protein yields, fat and protein contents, somatic cell count, and 17 groups and individual milk fatty acid (FA) contents predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry for first-, second- and third-parity Holstein cows. Edited data included records collected in the Walloon region of Belgium from 37,768 cows in parity 1,22,566 cows in parity 2 and 8221 in parity 3. A total of 69 (23 traits for three parities) single-trait random regression animal test-day models were run. Approximate genetic correlations among traits were inferred from pairwise regressions among estimated breeding values of cow having observations. Heritability and genetic correlation estimates from this study reflected the origins of FA: de novo synthetized or originating from the diet and the body fat mobilization. Averaged daily heritabilities of FA contents in milk ranged between 0.18 and 0.47. Average daily genetic correlations (averaged across days in milk and parities) among groups and individual FA contents in milk ranged between 0.31 and 0.99. The genetic variability of FAs in combination with the moderate to high heritabilities indicated that FA contents in milk could be changed by genetic selection; however, desirable direction of change in these traits remains unclear and should be defined with respect to all issues of importance related to milk FA.

  2. Are fat acids of human milk impacted by pasteurization and freezing?

    PubMed

    Borgo, Luiz Antônio; Coelho Araújo, Wilma Maria; Conceição, Maria Hosana; Sabioni Resck, Inês; Mendonça, Márcio Antonio

    2014-10-03

    The Human Milk Bank undergo human milk to pasteurization, followed by storage in a freezer at -18° C for up to six months to thus keep available the stocks of this product in maternal and infant hospitals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing on the lipid fraction of human milk. A sample of human milk was obtained from a donor and was subdivided into ten sub-samples that was subjected to the following treatments: LC = raw milk; T0 = milk after pasteurization; T30 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 30 days; T60 = milk after pasteurization and freeze for 60 days, and so on every 30 days until T240 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 240 days, with 3 repetitions for each treatment. Lipids were extracted, methylated and fatty acid profiles determined by gas chromatography. The fatty acids were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and functional groups were identified by infrared spectroscopy. There were variations in the concentration of fatty acids. For unsaturated fatty acids there was increasing trend in their concentrations. The IR and NMR analyze characterized and identified functional groups presents in fatty acids.

  3. Amino acid composition determined using multiple hydrolysis times for three goat milk formulations.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Lowry, Dianne; Prosser, Colin G

    2008-01-01

    The amino acid composition of goat milk formulations with varying protein and carbohydrate concentrations were determined. Proteins in goat milk infant formula, goat milk growing-up formula and goat whole milk powder were hydrolysed using multiple hydrolysis time intervals. A least-squares non-linear regression model was used to predict the free and protein bound amino acid concentrations. The amino acid composition of goat infant formula was compared with human milk reference values. There was good agreement between the multiple hydrolysis and single 24-h hydrolysis methods for approximately one-half of the amino acids. Tryptophan, aspartic acid, threonine, tyrosine, isoleucine, valine, serine and alanine contents were underestimated by 10.6, 5.6, 5.6, 4.7, 4.4, 3.7, 3.7 and 3.6%, respectively, by the single 24-h hydrolysis. The study provides accurate reference data on the amino acid composition of goat milk powders. Goat milk infant formula has amino acids in amounts similar to human milk reference values, when expressed on a per-energy basis.

  4. Palmitic acid increased yields of milk and milk fat and nutrient digestibility across production level of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of palmitic acid supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, and metabolic and production responses were evaluated in dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (34.5 to 66.2 kg/d) in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (151 ± 66 d in milk) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet DM) with palmitic acid (PA; 99% C16:0) or control (SH; soyhulls). Treatment periods were 21 d, with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Immediately before the first treatment period, cows were fed the control diet for 21 d and baseline values were obtained for all variables (covariate period). Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as covariate. In general, no interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the response variables measured. The PA treatment increased milk fat percentage (3.40 vs. 3.29%) and yields of milk (46.0 vs. 44.9 kg/d), milk fat (1.53 vs. 1.45 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (44.6 vs. 42.9 kg/d), compared with SH. Concentrations and yields of protein and lactose were not affected by treatment. The PA treatment did not affect dry matter (DM) intake or body weight, tended to decrease body condition score (2.93 vs. 2.99), and increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DM intake; 1.60 vs. 1.54), compared with SH. The PA treatment increased total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (39.0 vs.35.7%) and organic matter (67.9 vs. 66.2%), but decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (61.2 vs. 71.3%). As total FA intake increased, total FA digestibility decreased (R(2) = 0.51) and total FA absorbed increased (quadratic R(2) = 0.82). Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was 11.7% for total FA and 16.5% for C16:0 plus cis-9 C16:1 FA

  5. Supplementation of cow milk naturally enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to growing rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Emerson H.; Mareze-Costa, Cecília E.; Machado, Erica; Agustinho, Bruna C.; Pereira, Lucelia M.; Brito, Márcia N.; Brito, Nilton A.; Zeoula, Lucia M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether intake of cow milk, naturally enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, omega-3) and polyphenols (from propolis extract and vitamin E), from manipulation of cow’s diet, would result in positive metabolic effects in rats from weaning until adulthood. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet or a hypercaloric diet (metabolically disturbed rats, obese) which was supplemented with either whole common milk, milk enriched with PUFA (PUFA-M) or milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols (PUFA/P-M), at 5mL/kg body weight,having water as control. Whole milk supplementation increased initial weight gain and reduced gain in the adulthood of rats. Intake of common milk reduced cholesterol levels in non-obese rats and reduced insulin resistance in obese rats. PUFA-milk showed a decreasing effect on plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL concentrations, increasing plasma HDL concentration and reducing adipocyte size of non-obese rats, but no effect was observed in obese rats. PUFA/P-milk in obese rats resulted in greater deposition of muscle mass and mesenteric fat, with a tendency to lower LDL levels, and resulted a visceral fat accumulation in non-obese rats. Thus, whole common milk and PUFA-rich milk have shown to be beneficial in a normal metabolic condition, whereas common milk and milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols improve metabolic effects of obesity. PMID:28267800

  6. Predictions of Daily Milk and Fat Yields, Major Groups of Fatty Acids, and C18:1 cis-9 from Single Milking Data without a Milking Interval.

    PubMed

    Arnould, Valérie M R; Reding, Romain; Bormann, Jeanne; Gengler, Nicolas; Soyeurt, Hélène

    2015-07-31

    Reducing the frequency of milk recording would help reduce the costs of official milk recording. However, this approach could also negatively affect the accuracy of predicting daily yields. This problem has been investigated in numerous studies. In addition, published equations take into account milking intervals (MI), and these are often not available and/or are unreliable in practice. The first objective of this study was to propose models in which the MI was replaced by a combination of data easily recorded by dairy farmers. The second objective was to further investigate the fatty acids (FA) present in milk. Equations to predict daily yield from AM or PM data were based on a calibration database containing 79,971 records related to 51 traits [milk yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat content (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day); levels of seven different FAs or FA groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/dL milk), and the corresponding FA yields for these seven FA types/groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day)]. These equations were validated using two distinct external datasets. The results obtained from the proposed models were compared to previously published results for models which included a MI effect. The corresponding correlation values ranged from 96.4% to 97.6% when the daily yields were estimated from the AM milkings and ranged from 96.9% to 98.3% when the daily yields were estimated from the PM milkings. The simplicity of these proposed models should facilitate their use by breeding and milk recording organizations.

  7. Texture of butter from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Bobe, G; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Lindberg, G L; Beitz, D C

    2003-10-01

    Milk fatty acid composition and textural properties of butter are known to be affected by the cows' diets. We examined the phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet to see if the variation was sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties. Ten cows were selected that tested higher (n = 5) or lower (n = 5) in their proportion of milk unsaturated fatty acids. Milk samples were collected a week after testing, and butter was prepared from the individual samples. Milk and butter samples were again analyzed for fatty acid composition. Butter at 5 degrees C was evaluated by a sensory panel for spreadability and by a texture analyzer at both 5 and 23 degrees C for hardness and adhesiveness. Milk and butter samples from cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition had a lower atherogenic index, and the butter samples were more spreadable, softer, and less adhesive. Thus, phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet is sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties.

  8. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers in breast milk are associated with plasma non-esterified and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in lactating women.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alexandre G; Ney, Jacqueline G; Meneses, Flávia; Trugo, Nádia M F

    2006-03-01

    Maternal adipose tissue is a major contributor to breast milk long-chain fatty acids, probably through the pool of plasma NEFA. The fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane (EM) is a biochemical index of the intake of fatty acids not synthesized endogenously and of PUFA and long-chain PUFA fatty acid status. The present study investigated the associations between breast milk fatty acid composition and the composition of plasma NEFA and of EM fatty acids with special reference to PUFA, long-chain PUFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The detailed fatty acid composition of mature breast milk was also reported. Thirty-three healthy, lactating Brazilian women donated milk samples; of these, twenty-four also donated blood samples in an observational cross-sectional study. Breast milk fatty acid composition presented several associations with NEFA and EM composition, which explained most (> or =50 %) of the variability of selected milk PUFA, long-chain PUFA and CLA. Milk CLA was associated with fatty acids that are markers of dairy fat intake in the diet, NEFA and EM. In general, breast milk n-3 fatty acids and CLA, but not n-6 fatty acids, were associated with EM composition, whereas both the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and CLA in milk were associated with NEFA composition, possibly owing to its role as a direct source of fatty acids for breast milk. These findings emphasize the contribution of the NEFA pool derived from the adipose tissue to the long-chain fatty acid composition of breast milk.

  9. Biocompatibility and biodegradation of polycaprolactone-sebacic acid blended gels.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Christiane L; Sanchez, Elisabete M S; Zavaglia, Cecília A C; Granja, Pedro L

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims at creating biological body parts as an alternative for transplanting tissues and organs. A current new approach for such materials consists in injectable biodegradable polymers. Their major advantages are the ability to fill-in defects, easy incorporation of therapeutic agents or cells, and the possibility of minimal invasive surgical procedures. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a promising biodegradable and elastic biomaterial, with the drawback of low-degradation kinetics in vivo. In this work a biodegradable injectable gel of PCL blended with sebacic acid (SA) was prepared, to improve the degradation rate of the biomaterial. SA is known for its high degradation rate, although in high concentrations it could originate a pH decrease and thus disturb the biocompatibility of PCL. Degradation tests on phosphate buffered saline were carried out using 5% of SA on the blend and the biomaterial stability was evaluated after degradation using differential scanning calorimetry, dynamical mechanical analysis, and scanning electronic microscopy. After degradation the elastic properties of the blend decreased and the material became more crystalline and stiffer, although at a lower extent when compared with pure PCL. The blend also degraded faster with a loss of the crystalline phase on the beginning (30 days), although its thermal and mechanical properties remained comparable with those of the pure material, thus showing that it achieved the intended objectives. After cell assays the PCL-SA gel was shown to be cytocompatible and capable of maintaining high cell viability (over 90%).

  10. Pharmacokinetic and milk penetration of a difloxacin long-acting poloxamer gel formulation with carboxy-methylcellulose in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Elisa; Marín, Pedro; Cárceles, Carlos M; Ramírez, María J; Fernández-Varón, Emilio

    2011-04-01

    The single-dose disposition kinetics of difloxacin were determined in clinically normal lactating goats (n=6) after subcutaneous administration of a long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation with carboxy-methylcellulose (P407-CMC). Difloxacin concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The concentration-time data were analysed by non-compartmental kinetic methods. Plasma and milk elimination half-lives after P407-CMC dosing were 35.19 h and 33.93 h, respectively. With this formulation, difloxacin achieved maximum plasma concentrations of 2.67±0.34 mg/L at 2.92±1.20 h and maximum milk concentrations of 2.31±0.35 mg/L at 4.00±0.00 h. The area under the curve (AUC) ratio AUC(milk)/AUC(plasma) was 0.89 after P407-CMC administration. It was concluded that a 15 mg/kg dose of difloxacin within P407-CMC would be effective against mastitis pathogens with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)≤0.12 mg/L.

  11. Small-angle X-ray scattering and rheological characterization of alginate gels. 3. Alginic acid gels.

    PubMed

    Draget, Kurt Ingar; Stokke, Bjørn T; Yuguchi, Yoshiaki; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Kajiwara, Kanji

    2003-01-01

    Alginic acid gels were studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and rheology to elucidate the influence of alginate chemical composition and molecular weight on the gel elasticity and molecular structure. The alginic acid gels were prepared by homogeneous pH reduction throughout the sample. Three alginates with different chemical composition and sequence, and two to three different molecular weights of each sample were examined. Three alginate samples with fractions of guluronic acid residues of 0.39 (LoG), 0.50 (InG), and 0.68 (HiG), covering the range of commercially available alginates, were employed. The excess scattering intensity I of the alginic acid gels was about 1 order of magnitude larger and exhibited a stronger curvature toward low q compared to ionically cross-linked alginate. The I(q) were decomposed into two components by assuming that the alginic acid gel is composed of aggregated multiple junctions and single chains. Time-resolved experiments showed a large increase in the average size of aggregates and their weight fraction within the first 2 h after onset of gelling, which also coincides with the most pronounced rheological changes. At equilibrium, little or no effect of molecular weight was observed, whereas at comparable molecular weights, an increased scattering intensity with increasing content of guluronic acid residues was recorded, probably because of a larger apparent molecular mass of domains. The results suggest a quasi-ordered junction zone is formed in the initial stage, followed by subsequent assembling of such zones, forming domains in the order of 50 A. The average length of the initial junction zones, being governed by the relative fraction of stabilizing G-blocks and destabilizing alternating (MG) blocks, determines the density of the final random aggregates. Hence, high-G alginates give alginic acid gels of a higher aggregate density compared to domains composed of loosely packed shorter junction zones in InG or LoG system.

  12. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-01-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  13. Molecular characterization of the level of sialic acids N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid, and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid in porcine milk during lactation.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M; Wynn, P C; Wang, B

    2016-10-01

    Sialic acids (Sia) are key monosaccharide constituents of sialylated glycoproteins (Sia-GP), human sialylated milk oligosaccharide (Sia-MOS), and gangliosides. Human milk sialylated glycoconjugates (Sia-GC) are bioactive compounds known to act as prebiotics and promote neurodevelopment, immune function, and gut maturation in newborns. Only limited data are available on the Sia content of porcine milk. The objective of this study was to quantitatively determine the total level of Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) in porcine milk and to compare these levels in gilt and sow milk during lactation. Milk from 8 gilts and 22 sows was collected at 3 stages of lactation (colostrum, transition, and mature milk). Standard and experimental samples were derivatized using 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxy-benzene and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. The following new findings are reported: (1) Gilt and sow milk contained significant levels of total Sia, with the highest concentration in colostrum (1,238.5 mg/L), followed by transition milk (778.3 mg/L) and mature milk (347.2 mg/L); (2) during lactation, the majority of Sia was conjugated to Sia-GP (41-46%), followed by Sia-MOS (31-42%) and a smaller proportion in gangliosides (12-28%); (3) Neu5Ac was the major form of Sia (93-96%), followed by Neu5Gc (3-6%) and then KDN (1-2%), irrespective of milk fraction or stage of lactation; (4) the concentration of Sia in Sia-GP and Sia-MOS showed a significant decline during lactation, but the level of ganglioside Sia remained relatively constant; (5) mature gilt milk contained a significantly higher concentration of Sia-GP than sow milk. The high concentration of total Sia in porcine milk suggests that Sia-GC are important nutrients that contribute to the optimization of neurodevelopment, immune function, and growth and development in piglets. These findings

  14. Antibiotic-containing hyaluronic acid gel as an antibacterial carrier: Usefulness of sponge and film-formed HA gel in deep infection.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Hiroaki; Yudoh, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Masamichi; Himeda, Yasukazu; Miyoshi, Teruzo; Yoshida, Kaoru; Kano, Syogo

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a novel bioabsorbable antibacterial carrier using hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for prevention and treatment of orthopedic infections. In this study, we investigated the in vivo antibacterial effects of two forms of this new material, an HA gel sponge and an HA gel film. A titanium cylinder was inserted into the intramedullary cavity of each rabbit femur, along with an HA gel sponge or HA gel film containing antibiotics. The HA gel sponge contained gentamycin, vancomycin, tobramycin, or minomycin. The HA gel film contained gentamycin or vancomycin. After 0, 7, and 14 days, the rabbit bone marrow was collected, and the antibacterial activity of the HA gel was determined by agar diffusion test. As a control, we used Septocoll, a commercially available antibacterial carrier. Both the HA gel sponge and HA gel film exhibited antibacterial activity. The present results indicate that HA gel containing antibiotics is a clinically useful bioabsorbable antibacterial carrier.

  15. Prediction of preweaning ADG in beef calves from milk fatty acid methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown milk yield (MWT) has an important influence on calf preweaning ADG (PRWADG), but MWT accounts for only a moderate amount of variation in PRWADG. The objective of this study was to determine if milk fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), alone and in combination with MWT, could improve a...

  16. Breast milk jaundice: an in vitro study of the effect of free fatty acids on the bilirubin-serum albumin complex.

    PubMed

    Yong, F C; Cheah, S S

    1977-08-01

    Oleic and palmitic acids at concentrations above 1.1 mg percent (40 micrometer) are capable of displacing bilirubin from the serum albumin-bilirubin conjugates. The release of bilirubin is also demonstrated by thin layer gel chromatography. Since both oleate and palmitate constitute the major fatty acids in breast milk, the results may indicate that the development of jaundice in breast-fed infants could result at least in part from elevated levels of free fatty acids present in the blood serum of these neonates.

  17. Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate in a Salicylic Acid Gel

    PubMed Central

    Valins, Whitney

    2009-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a common dermatological condition that has a tremendous impact on the quality of life of affected patients. Aluminum chloride hexahydrate is considered first-line therapy for patients with mild-to-moderate hyperhidrosis. This treatment has been proven to be effective in the treatment of hyperhidrosis; however, its use has been limited by significant irritation. In many patients, the irritant dermatitis is so severe that, despite clinical efficacy, this therapy must be discontinued. There are many topical aluminum chloride therapies available. Observations from a busy hyperhidrosis practice revealed decreased irritation and increased efficacy with a novel therapy that combines 15% aluminum chloride hexahydrate with 2% salicylic acid in a gel base. This combination of 15% aluminum chloride hexahydrate with 2% salicylic acid offers patients who have failed aluminum chloride hexahydrate in the past excellent efficacy with minimal irritation. We report seven cases of patients with a history of severe irritation from aluminum chloride who maintained excellent results with this new topical without any significant irritation. PMID:20729946

  18. Composition and fatty acid distribution of bovine milk phospholipids from processed milk products.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Gragson, Derek; Cabral, Charles; Jiménez-Flores, Rafael; Everett, David W

    2010-10-13

    The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of different extraction methods of phospholipids and to measure the effect that processing has on phospholipid composition. Four methods of extracting phospholipids from buttermilk powder were compared to optimize recovery of sphingomyelin. Using the optimal method, the phospholipid profile of four dairy products (raw milk, raw cream, homogenized and pasteurized milk, and buttermilk powder) was determined. A total lipid extraction by the Folch method followed by a solid-phase extraction using the Bitman method was the most efficient technique to recover milk sphingomyelin. Milk processing (churning, centrifuging, homogenization, spray-drying) affected the profile of milk phospholipids, leading to a loss of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine after centrifugation for cream separation. A corresponding decrease in the saturation content of the raw cream phospholipids and a loss of phosphatidylethanolamine after spray-drying to produce buttermilk powder were also observed.

  19. Estimation of heritability and genetic correlations for the major fatty acids in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Soyeurt, H; Gillon, A; Vanderick, S; Mayeres, P; Bertozzi, C; Gengler, N

    2007-09-01

    The current cattle selection program for dairy cattle in the Walloon region of Belgium does not consider the relative content of the different fatty acids (FA) in milk. However, interest by the local dairy industry in differentiated milk products is increasing. Therefore, farmers may be interested in selecting their animals based on the fat composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of genetic selection to improve the nutritional quality of bovine milk fat. The heritabilities and correlations among milk yield, fat, protein, and major FA contents in milk were estimated. Heritabilities for FA in milk and fat ranged from 5 to 38%. The genetic correlations estimated among FA reflected the common origin of several groups of FA. Given these results, an index including FA contents with the similar metabolic process of production in the mammary gland could be used, for example, to increase the monounsaturated and conjugated fatty acids in milk. Moreover, the genetic correlations between the percentage of fat and the content of C14:0, C12:0, C16:0, and C18:0 in fat were -0.06, 0.55, 0.60, and 0.84, respectively. This result demonstrates that an increase in fat content is not directly correlated with undesirable changes in FA profile in milk for human health. Based on the obtained genetic parameters, a future selection program to improve the FA composition of milk fat could be initiated.

  20. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses.

  1. The effects of probiotics and prebiotics on the fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid content of fermented cow milk.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Nadia; Pizzolongo, Fabiana; Montefusco, Immacolata; Aponte, Maria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Romano, Raffaele

    2015-05-01

    The ability of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12), to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in association with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus during milk fermentation has been evaluated in this study. Pasteurized cow milk and infant formula were used. Infant formula was selected for its high linoleic acid content, for being a source of CLA and for its prebiotic compounds, e.g. galacto-oligosaccharides. The microorganisms were not able to increase the CLA content of the fermented products under the given experimental conditions. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) occurred between the CLA content in milk and the fermented samples. The CLA contents of 10 commercial fermented milk products were determined. The highest CLA content was observed in fermented milk containing only Str. thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus.

  2. Breast milk jaundice; the role of lipoprotein lipase and the free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Constantopoulos, A; Messaritakis, J; Matsaniotis, N

    1980-06-01

    Lipoprotein lipase activity and free fatty acid concentrations were measured in samples of milk collected from mothers of infants without and with prolonged neonatal jaundice. The lipoprotein lipase and free fatty acid values in the milk from mothers of infants without jaundice were found to increase with the duration of breast-feeding until the 12th post-partum day, and then to fall to the original levels. In the group of mothers with jaundiced infants both lipoprotein lipase and free fatty acid values were found within normal limits when measured between 15th and 37th days post-partum. These findings indicate that increased values of lipoprotein lipase and free fatty acids in the milk are not responsible for the development of breast-milk jaundice.

  3. A study of the relationship between bile salts, bile salt-stimulated lipase, and free fatty acids in breast milk: normal infants and those with breast milk jaundice.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, J S; Donnet, L; Ross, P E

    1990-08-01

    Breast milk jaundice has been reported to be associated with increased lipase activity and elevated free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations within breast milk. We have previously shown that bile salts are present in small concentrations in breast milk and the aim of this study was to examine the relationship of bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) activity, FFA concentration, and bile salt concentration in milks of normal infants and the milk of infants with breast milk jaundice. Mothers of healthy newborn infants were recruited in the early newborn period and 42 provided breast milk samples at 2 weeks, 30 at 6 weeks, 16 at 10 weeks, and 13 at 14 weeks postnatally. We initially studied the effect of lactation on bile salts and found there was a significant decline in both cholate and chenodeoxycholate levels with duration of lactation (p less than 0.05). There was also a significant fall in BSSL activity with duration of lactation (p less than 0.05), but no correlation was found between BSSL activity and bile salt concentration. FFA concentrations were similar throughout lactation and were not related to either BSSL activity or bile salt concentration. There was a significant increase in the concentration of cholate and the cholate-to-chenodeoxycholate ratio in the milks of 12 infants with breast milk jaundice compared with normal milks, the BSSL activity was similar and contrary to previous reports, the FFA concentration was not increased in the milks of infants with breast milk jaundice.

  4. Milk fatty acids as possible biomarkers to early diagnose elevated concentrations of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jorjong, S; van Knegsel, A T M; Verwaeren, J; Lahoz, M Val; Bruckmaier, R M; De Baets, B; Kemp, B; Fievez, V

    2014-11-01

    Most cows encounter a state of negative energy balance during the periparturient period, which may lead to metabolic disorders and impaired fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of milk fatty acids as diagnostic tools of detrimental levels of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), defined as NEFA concentrations beyond 0.6 mmol/L, in a data set of 92 early lactating cows fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet and subjected to 0-, 30-, or 60-d dry period before parturition. Milk was collected in wk 2, 3, 4, and 8 (n = 368) and blood was sampled weekly from wk 2 to 8 after parturition. Milk was analyzed for milk fatty acids and blood plasma for NEFA. Data were classified as "at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA" (NEFA ≥ 0.6 mmol/L) and "not at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA" (NEFA <0.6 mmol/L). Concentrations of 45 milk fatty acids and milk fat C18:1 cis-9-to-C15:0 ratio were subjected to a discriminant analysis. Milk fat C18:1 cis-9 revealed the most discriminating variable to identify detrimental blood plasma NEFA. A false positive rate of 10% allowed us to diagnose 46% of the detrimental blood plasma NEFA cases based on a milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentration of at least 230 g/kg of milk fatty acids. Additionally, it was assessed whether the milk fat C18:1 cis-9 concentrations of wk 2 could be used as an early warning for detrimental blood plasma NEFA risk during the first 8 wk in lactation. Cows with at least 240 g/kg of C18:1 cis-9 in milk fat had about 50% chance to encounter blood plasma NEFA values of 0.6 mmol/L or more during the first 8 wk of lactation, with a false positive rate of 11.4%. Profit simulations were based on costs for cows suffering from detrimental blood plasma NEFA, and costs for preventive treatment based on daily dosing of propylene glycol for 3 wk. Given the relatively low incidence rate (8% of all observations), continuous monitoring of milk fatty acids during the first 8 wk of lactation to diagnose

  5. Genetic parameters for milk fatty acids, milk yield and quality traits of a Holstein cattle population reared under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Petrini, J; Iung, L H S; Rodriguez, M A P; Salvian, M; Pértille, F; Rovadoscki, G A; Cassoli, L D; Coutinho, L L; Machado, P F; Wiggans, G R; Mourão, G B

    2016-10-01

    Information about genetic parameters is essential for selection decisions and genetic evaluation. These estimates are population specific; however, there are few studies with dairy cattle populations reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Thus, the aim was to obtain estimates of heritability and genetic correlations for milk yield and quality traits using pedigree and genomic information from a Holstein population maintained in a tropical environment. Phenotypic records (n = 36 457) of 4203 cows as well as the genotypes for 57 368 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 755 of these cows were used. Covariance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method under a mixed animal model, considering a pedigree-based relationship matrix or a combined pedigree-genomic matrix. High heritabilities (around 0.30) were estimated for lactose and protein content in milk whereas moderate values (between 0.19 and 0.26) were obtained for percentages of fat, saturated fatty acids and palmitic acid in milk. Genetic correlations ranging from -0.38 to -0.13 were determined between milk yield and composition traits. The smaller estimates compared to other similar studies can be due to poor environmental conditions, which may reduce genetic variability. These results highlight the importance in using genetic parameters estimated in the population under evaluation for selection decisions.

  6. Temporal and spatial distribution of Cronobacter isolates in a milk powder processing plant determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hein, Ingeborg; Gadzov, Boris; Schoder, Dagmar; Foissy, Helmut; Malorny, Burkhard; Wagner, Martin

    2009-03-01

    A milk powder processing line was sampled for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and the opportunistic neonatal pathogen Cronobacter at six different sampling sites during an 11-month period. The highest number of Enterobacteriaceae-positive samples was recovered from the raw milk concentrate before pasteurization (78.2%) and from nonproduct samples of the processing line (86.5%), which included swabs from the drying tower and screw conveyers, swabs from the explosion chamber, waste water after the automated cleaning-in-place procedure, air filter cut-outs, and floor samples underneath the outlet of the packaging machine. The prepackaged and packaged final product was contaminated at a rate of 6.6% and 7.1%, respectively. The prevalence of Cronobacter in the prefinal product and the prepackaged and packaged final product was 14.3%, 3.8%, and 2.1%, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of 133 Cronobacter isolates yielded 40 different PFGE profiles. Long-term persistence in the processing line of some of these PFGE profiles was observed. Comparison of the PFGE profiles recovered at different sampling sites revealed the supply air as a potential source for extrinsic Cronobacter contamination. In addition, recovery of the same PFGE profiles before and after CIP events followed by heat treatment indicated the inefficiency of these hygiene measures to completely eliminate Cronobacter from all areas of the processing line. This information provides an essential basis for developing control and prevention strategies concerning this opportunistic pathogen.

  7. Occurrence of 3-MCPD fatty acid esters in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Zelinková, Z; Novotný, O; Schůrek, J; Velísek, J; Hajslová, J; Dolezal, M

    2008-06-01

    A series of twelve breast milk samples were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in selected ion monitoring mode for 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD). Whilst none of the samples contained 3-MCPD above the limit of detection of 3 microg kg(-1) milk, all contained high amounts of 3-MCPD esterified with higher fatty acids. The levels of 3-MCPD released by hydrolysis of these esters (bound 3-MCPD) ranged from the limit of detection (300 microg kg(-1), expressed on a fat basis) to 2195 microg kg(-1); with a mean level of bound 3-MCPD of 1014 microg kg(-1), which corresponded to 35.5 microg kg(-1) milk. The presence of bound 3-MCPD was confirmed using orthogonal gas chromatography coupled with high-speed time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis for four randomly selected breast milk samples. Six breast milks collected from one of the nursing mothers 14-76 days after childbirth contained bound 3-MCPD within the range of 328-2078 microg kg(-1) fat (mean 930 microg kg(-1) fat). The calculated bound 3-MCPD content of these samples was within the range of 6 and 19 microg kg(-1) milk (mean of 12 microg kg(-1) milk). The major types of 3-MCPD esters were the symmetric diesters with lauric, palmitic, and oleic acids, and asymmetric diesters with palmitic acid/oleic acid among which 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol 1,2-dioleate prevailed.

  8. Synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid gel with acid activated clay after γ-ray radiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Hoik; Sohn, Daewon

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid gel was prepared from acid activated clay (AA clay) and acrylic acid by gamma ray irradiation. Irradiated inorganic particles which have peroxide groups act as initiator because it generates oxide radicals by increasing temperature. Inorganic nanoparticles which are rigid part in hybrid gel also contribute to increase the mechanical property as a crosslinker. We prepared two hybrid gels to compare the effect of acid activated treatment of clay; one is synthesized with raw clay particles and another is synthesized with AA clay particles. The composition and structure of AA clay particles and raw clay particles were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence instrument and surface area analyzer. And chemical and physical property of hybrid gel with different ratios of acrylic acid and clay particle was tested by Raman spectroscope and universal testing machine (UTM). The synthesized hydrogel with 76% gel contents can elongated approximately 1000% of its original size.

  9. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, C. P.; Álvares, T. S.; Gomes, L. S.; Torres, A. G.; Paschoalin, V. M. F.; Conte-Junior, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids), which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7g/100g fatty acids) contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher Δ9-desaturase activity (0.31) that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0g/100g fatty acids) and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids) contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality. PMID:26444286

  10. Separation and recovery of nucleic acids with improved biological activity by acid-degradable polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Kyung; Kwon, Young Jik

    2010-05-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in studying biomacromolecules (e.g. nucleic acids and proteins) and their complexes in a biological system is isolating them in their structurally and functionally intact forms. Electrophoresis offers convenient and efficient separation and analysis of biomacromolecules but recovery of separated biomacromolecules is a significant challenge. In this study, DNAs of various sizes were separated by electrophoresis in an acid-degradable polyacrylamide gel. Almost 100% of the nucleic acids were recovered after the identified gel bands were hydrolyzed under a mildly acidic condition and purified using anion exchange resin. Further concentration by centrifugal filtration and a second purification using ion exchange column chromatography yielded 44-84% of DNA. The second conventional (non-degradable) gel electrophoresis confirmed that the nucleic acids recovered from acid-degradable gel bands preserved their electrophoretic properties through acidic gel hydrolysis, purification, and concentration processes. The plasmid DNA recovered from acid-degradable gel transfected cells significantly more efficiently than the starting plasmid DNA (i.e. improved biological activity via acid-degradable PAGE). Separation of other types of nucleic acids such as small interfering RNA using this convenient and efficient technique was also demonstrated.

  11. Switching the BZ reaction with a strong-acid-free gel.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Mayama, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-16

    In the present study, a novel gel with a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) that undergo the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction without the addition of a strong acid (HNO3 or H2SO4) was developed. The required concentrations of the BZ substrates, sodium bromate (NaBrO3) and malonic acid (MA), under these conditions were higher than under the normal BZ reaction conditions, involving the addition of a strong acid. The period of the BZ reaction with the novel gel (semi-IPN BZ gel) decreased with increasing concentrations of NaBrO3 and MA. Moreover, the connection of the semi-IPN BZ gel to a conventional BZ gel facilitated the reaction in the latter through the propagation of the intermediates from the former to the latter. The BZ reaction stopped when the conventional BZ gel was disconnected from the semi-IPN BZ gel. These results demonstrate that the BZ reaction in the conventional BZ gel underwent on-off switching, controlled by its attachment to the semi-IPN BZ gel. This on-off switching mechanism would be valuable in controlling actuators and robots without strong acids.

  12. Differences in sheep and goats milk fatty acid profile between conventional and organic farming systems.

    PubMed

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Kotrotsios, Vaios; Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis; Zervas, George

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in chemical composition and particularly in fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, of milk obtained from conventional and organic dairy sheep and goats farms under the farming conditions practiced in Greece. Four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, representing common conventional production systems and another four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, organically certified, representing organic production and feeding systems were selected from all over Greece. One hundred and sixty two individual milk samples were collected from those farms in January-February 2009, about three months after parturition. The milk samples were analyzed for their main chemical constituents and their FA profile. The results showed that the production system affected milk chemical composition: in particular fat content was lower in the organic sheep and goats milk compared with the corresponding conventional. Milk from organic sheep had higher content in MUFA, PUFA, alpha-LNA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and omega-3 FA, whereas in milk from organic goats alpha-LNA and omega-3 FA content was higher than that in conventional one. These differences are, mainly, attributed to different feeding practices used by the two production systems. The results of this study show that the organic milk produced under the farming conditions practiced in Greece has higher nutritional value, due to its FA profile, compared with the respective conventional milk.

  13. Iron Absorption from Two Milk Formulas Fortified with Iron Sulfate Stabilized with Maltodextrin and Citric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Maciero, Eugenia; Krasnoff, Gustavo; Cócaro, Nicolas; Gaitan, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fortification of milk formulas with iron is a strategy widely used, but the absorption of non-heme iron is low. The purpose of this study was to measure the bioavailability of two iron fortified milk formulas designed to cover toddlers’ nutritional needs. These milks were fortified with iron sulfate stabilized with maltodextrin and citric acid. Methods: 15 women (33–47 years old) participated in study. They received on different days, after an overnight fast, 200 mL of Formula A; 200 mL of Formula B; 30 mL of a solution of iron and ascorbic acid as reference dose and 200 mL of full fat cow’s milk fortified with iron as ferrous sulfate. Milk formulas and reference dose were labeled with radioisotopes 59Fe or 55Fe, and the absorption of iron measured by erythrocyte incorporation of radioactive Fe. Results: The geometric mean iron absorption corrected to 40% of the reference dose was 20.6% for Formula A and 20.7% for Formula B, versus 7.5% of iron fortified cow’s milk (p < 0.001). The post hoc Sheffé indeed differences between the milk formulas and the cow’s milk (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Formulas A and B contain highly bioavailable iron, which contributes to covering toddlers’ requirements of this micronutrient. PMID:26529007

  14. Extensive analysis of milk fatty acids in two fat-tailed sheep breeds during lactation.

    PubMed

    Payandeh, S; Kafilzadeh, F; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A; Ghadimi, D; Marín, A L Martínez

    2016-12-01

    The profile of fatty acids (FA) in the milk fat of two Iranian fat-tailed sheep breeds, Sanjabi and Mehraban, was compared during lactation. Eight ewes of each breed, balanced in parity and carrying one foetus, were selected before parturition. Ewes were kept separated in individual pens during the experimental period, under the same management practices and fed the same diet, in order to eliminate any confounding effects on milk FA profile. Milk was sampled at biweekly intervals up to 10 weeks of lactation, starting 2 weeks after parturition. More than 100 FA were determined in milk fat by means of gas chromatography. The milk fat of Sanjabi ewes contained more cis-9 18:1, that of Mehraban ewes was richer in 10:0, 12:0 and 14:0, and no differences were found for 16:0 and 18:0. No breed differences were found for most branched-chain FA. Mehraban ewes showed a higher presence of vaccenic and rumenic acids in their milk fat. The milk fat of Sanjabi ewes had a lower atherogenicity index and n-6/n-3 FA ratio. The contents of several FA showed time-dependent changes, so breed differences were more apparent or disappeared as lactation progressed. The milk fat of Sanjabi ewes showed a better FA profile from the human health point of view.

  15. Lactobacillus gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, for growth in milk.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K; Matsunaga, K; Takihiro, S; Moritoki, A; Ryuto, S; Kawai, Y; Masuda, T; Miyamoto, T

    2015-03-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is a widespread commensal lactic acid bacterium inhabiting human mucosal niches and has many beneficial effects as a probiotic. However, L. gasseri is difficult to grow in milk, which hurts usability for the food industry. It had been previously reported that supplementation with yeast extract or proteose peptone, including peptides, enables L. gasseri to grow well in milk. In this study, our objective was to confirm peptide requirement of L. gasseri and evaluate efficacy of peptide release by enzymatic proteolysis on growth of L. gassei in milk. Three strains of L. gasseri did not grow well in modified DeMan, Rogosa, Sharpe broth without any nitrogen sources (MRS-N), but addition of a casein-derived peptide mixture, tryptone, promoted growth. In contrast, little effect was observed after adding casein or a casein-derived amino acid mixture, casamino acids. These results indicate that L. gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, among milk-derived nitrogen sources for growth. Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T hardly had growth capacity in 6 kinds of milk-based media: bovine milk, human milk, skim milk, cheese whey, modified MRS-N (MRSL-N) supplemented with acid whey, and MRSL-N supplemented with casein. Moreover, treatment with digestive proteases, particularly pepsin, to release peptides made it grow well in each milk-based medium. The pepsin treatment was the most effective for growth of strain JCM 1131T in skim milk among the tested food-grade proteases such as trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, calf rennet, ficin, bromelain, and papain. As well as strain JCM 1131T, pepsinolysis of milk improved growth of other L. gasseri strains and some strains of enteric lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus reuteri. These results suggest that some relatives of L. gasseri also use peptides as desirable nitrogen sources, and that milk may be a good supplier of nutritious

  16. Evaluating the trans fatty acid, CLA, PUFA and erucic acid diversity in human milk from five regions in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Fan, Yawei; Zhang, Zhiwu; Yu, Hai; An, Yin; Kramer, John K G; Deng, Zeyuan

    2009-03-01

    Human milk was obtained from 97 healthy lactating women from five different regions in China. Twenty-four hour dietary questionnaire identified the foods consumed that showed distinct differences in food types between cities. The southern and central regions had higher levels of total trans fatty acids (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in human milk than the northern region. The major isomers in human milk from the northern region were vaccenic and rumenic acids, whereas the other regions had a random distribution of these isomers. This was consistent with the isomer distribution in the refined vegetable oils used and their increased formation during high temperature stir-frying. The human milk composition showed little evidence that partially hydrogenated fats were consumed, except eight mothers in Guangzhou who reported eating crackers, plus four other mothers. The TFA concentration in these human milk samples was higher (2.06-3.96%). The amount of n-6 (1.70-2.24%) and n-3 (0.60-1.47%) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in human milk and the resultant ratio (1.43-2.95) showed all mothers in China had an adequate supply of HUFA in their diet. Rapeseed oil was consumed evidenced by erucic acids in human milk. The levels of erucic acid were below internationally accepted limits for human consumption. The levels of undesirable TFA and CLA isomers in human milk are a concern. Efforts to decrease the practice of high temperature stir-frying using unsaturated oils, and a promotion to increase consumption of dairy and ruminant products should be considered in China.

  17. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria in two Flemish artisan raw milk Gouda-type cheeses.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Verstraete, Tine; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-10-01

    PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to study the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in two Flemish artisan raw milk Gouda-type cheeses. In parallel, conventional culturing was performed. Isolates were identified using (GTG)(5)-PCR and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and pheS genes. Discriminant analysis revealed some differences in overall LAB diversity between the two batches and between the two cheeses. Within each batch, the diversity of 8- and 12-week-old cheeses was relatively similar. Conventional isolation mainly revealed the presence of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus. PCR-DGGE revealed the presence of three species of which no isolates were recovered, i.e. Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus gallinarum. Conversely, not all isolated bacteria were detected by PCR-DGGE. We recommend the integrated use of culture-dependent and -independent approaches to maximally encompass the taxonomic spectrum of LAB occurring in Gouda-type and other cheeses.

  18. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bukuljac, a homemade goat's milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Milica; Terzic-Vidojevic, Amarela; Jovcic, Branko; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa

    2008-02-29

    The Bukuljac cheese is traditionally homemade cheese, produced from heat-treated goat's milk without the addition of any bacterial starter culture. The presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Bukuljac cheese has been analyzed by using a polyphasic approach including microbiological and molecular methods such as rep-PCR with (GTG)5 primer. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei represents a dominant strain in the microflora of analyzed cheese. Out of 55 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates, 48 belonged to L. paracasei subsp. paracasei species. Besides lactobacilli, five Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and two Enterococcus faecalis were found. Results of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA extracted directly from the fresh cheese revealed the presence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Only lactobacilli showed a high proteolytic activity and hydrolyzed alpha(s1)- and beta-caseins. They are also producers of diacetyl. In addition, 34 out of 55 isolates, all determined as lactobacilli, showed the ability of auto-aggregation. Among 55 isolates, 50 also exhibited antimicrobial activity.

  19. Fatty acid profile, trans-octadecenoic, α-linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid contents differing in certified organic and conventional probiotic fermented milks.

    PubMed

    Florence, Ana Carolina R; Béal, Catherine; Silva, Roberta C; Bogsan, Cristina S B; Pilleggi, Ana Lucia O S; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Oliveira, Maricê N

    2012-12-15

    Development of dairy organic probiotic fermented products is of great interest as they associate ecological practices and benefits of probiotic bacteria. As organic management practices of cow milk production allow modification of the fatty acid composition of milk (as compared to conventional milk), we studied the influence of the type of milk on some characteristics of fermented milks, such as acidification kinetics, bacterial counts and fatty acid content. Conventional and organic probiotic fermented milks were produced using Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus TA040 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB340. The use of organic milk led to a higher acidification rate and cultivability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Fatty acids profile of organic fermented milks showed higher amounts of trans-octadecenoic acid (C18:1, 1.6 times) and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including cis-9 trans-11, C18:2 conjugated linoleic (CLA-1.4 times), and α-linolenic acids (ALA-1.6 times), as compared to conventional fermented milks. These higher levels were the result of both initial percentage in the milk and increase during acidification, with no further modification during storage. Finally, use of bifidobacteria slightly increased CLA relative content in the conventional fermented milks, after 7 days of storage at 4°C, whereas no difference was seen in organic fermented milks.

  20. Effect of simultaneous consumption of milk and coffee on chlorogenic acids' bioavailability in humans.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Giselle S; Farah, Adriana

    2011-07-27

    Different studies have shown that milk may interact with polyphenols and affect their bioavailability in humans. The present study investigated the effect of the simultaneous consumption of coffee and milk on the urinary excretion of chlorogenic acids (CGA) and metabolites. Subjects were submitted to consumption of water, instant coffee (609 mmol of CGA) dissolved in water, and instant coffee dissolved in whole milk. Urine was collected for 24 h after consumption of each treatment for analysis of CGA and metabolites by HPLC/LC-MS. The amount of CGA and metabolites recovered after consumption of combined coffee-milk (40% ± 27%) was consistently lower in all subjects compared to that of coffee alone (68% ± 20%). Concluding, the simultaneous consumption of milk and coffee may impair the bioavailability of coffee CGA in humans.

  1. Short communication: Association of milk fatty acids with early lactation hyperketonemia and elevated concentration of nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Lock, A L; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of our study was to extend the limited research available on the association between concentrations of milk fatty acids and elevated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in early lactation dairy cattle. Measurement of milk fatty acids for detection of cows in excessive negative energy balance has the potential to be incorporated in routine in-line monitoring systems. Blood samples were taken from 84 cows in second or greater lactation 3 times per week between 3 to 14 d in milk. Cows were characterized as hyperketonemic (HYK) if blood BHB concentration was ≥1.2mmol/L at least once and characterized as having elevated concentrations of NEFA (NEFAH) if serum NEFA concentration was ≥1mmol/L at least once. Composition of colostrum and milk fatty acids at wk 2 postpartum was used to investigate the potential diagnostic value of individual fatty acids and fatty acid ratios for the correct classification of cows with NEFA and BHB concentrations above these thresholds, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify thresholds of fatty acid concentration and fatty acid ratios when ROC area under the curve was ≥0.70. Correct classification rate (CCR, %) was calculated as {[(number of true positives + number of true negatives)/total number tested] × 100}. None of the colostrum fatty acids yielded a sufficiently high area under the curve in ROC analysis for the association with HYK and NEFAH. The following fatty acids and fatty acid ratios were identified for an association with NEFAH (threshold, CCR): C15:0 (≤0.65g/100g, 68.3%); cis-9 C16:1 (≥1.85g/100g, 70.7%); cis-9 C18:1 (≥26g/100g, 69.5%), cis-9 C18:1 to C15:0 ratio (≥45, 69.5%); cis-9 C16:1 to C15:0 (≥2.50, 73.2%). Several fatty acids were associated with HYK (threshold, CCR): C6:0 (≤1.68g/100g, 80.5%), C8:0 (≤0.80g/100g, 80.5%), C10:0 (≤1.6g/100g, 79.3%); C12:0 (≤1.42g/100g, 82.9%); C14:0 (≤6.10g/100g, 84

  2. Formation of elastic whey protein gels at low pH by acid equilibration.

    PubMed

    Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh; Khayankan, Worarat; Foegeding, E Allen

    2010-06-01

    Whey protein gels have a weak/brittle texture when formed at pH gels could be made under conditions that produced strong/elastic textural properties then adjusted to pH Gels were initially formed at 15% w/w protein (pH 7.5). Equilibration in acid solutions caused gel swelling and lowered pH because of the diffusion of water and H(+) into the gels. The type and concentration of acid, and presence of other ions, in the equilibrating solutions influenced pH, swelling ratio, and fracture properties of the gels. Swelling of gels decreased fracture stress (because of decreased protein network density) but caused little change to fracture strain, thus maintaining a desirable strong/elastic fracture pattern. We have shown that whey protein isolate gels can be made at pH acid type, acid concentration, pH of equilibrating solution, and equilibrating time.

  3. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p < 0.05). The daily output of these vitamins via milk was also greater in cows of the CLA group than in cows of the control group (+36, 50 and 24% for retinol, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p < 0.05). In agreement with higher concentrations of tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration.

  4. Essential and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and fatty acid composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Flávia; Torres, Alexandre G; Trugo, Nádia M F

    2008-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) status in lactating adolescents and its association with breast milk composition. Healthy nursing adolescents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n 30; 14-19 years; 30-120 d postpartum), exclusively or predominantly breast-feeding, participated in this study. Breast milk and blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. Fatty acid composition of breast milk, erythrocyte membrane (EM) and plasma NEFA were determined by GC. Indices of fatty acid status (mean melting point (MMP); EFA status index; DHA status indices, 22 : 5n-6:22 : 4n-6 and 22 : 6n-3:22 : 5n-6 ratios) were calculated from EM fatty acid composition. Dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids was low when compared with current recommendations for lactating women. MMP was associated with indices of DHA status, some individual fatty acids in EM and years post-menarche and weeks postpartum, suggesting the use of erythrocyte MMP as a possible comprehensive biochemical marker of LCPUFA status in this physiological condition. The DHA status of lactating adolescents and their milk DHA concentrations were similar to the values of Brazilian lactating adults, but lower compared with the values of lactating adults from other countries. Therefore, these lactating adolescents were apparently not disadvantaged, as compared with the Brazilian adults, when EM and breast milk fatty acid composition were considered. In general, PUFA in milk from adolescents presented few associations with their concentrations in plasma NEFA and with maternal status. However, milk DHA was associated with maternal LCPUFA and DHA states.

  5. Verification of fresh grass feeding, pasture grazing and organic farming by cows farm milk fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Edoardo; van der Veer, Grishja; Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; Elgersma, Anjo; Rademaker, Jan; Sterian, Adriana; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigated the use of fatty acid (FA) profiling in combination with chemometric modelling to verify claims for cow milk in terms of fresh grass feeding, pasture grazing and organic/biodynamic farming. The FA profile was determined for 113 tank milk samples collected in the Netherlands from 30 farms over four different months, and used to develop classification models based on the PLS-DA algorithm. Milk from cows with daily rations of fresh grass could be successfully distinguished from milk from cows with no fresh grass in their diet. Milk from cows at pasture could easily be distinguished from milk from stabled cows without fresh grass in the diet, but the correct prediction of milk from stabled cows fed fresh grass indoors proved difficult. The FA profile of organic/biodynamic milk was different compared to conventional milk but an unequivocal discrimination was not possible either in summer or in winter.

  6. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  7. Light scattering study of partially ionized poly(acrylic acid) systems : comparison between gels and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussaid, A.; Munch, J. P.; Schosseler, F.; Candau, S. J.

    1991-06-01

    Static and quasielastic light scattering experiments have been performed on the reaction bath of partially neutralized poly(acrylic acid) solutions and gels. The intensity scattered from gels is independent on the scattering wavevector, giving thus evidence that the gels are homogeneous at the scale of the wavelength of the light, contrary to what is generally observed in neutral gels. The comparison of the time and ensemble averages of the autocorrelation function of scattered light intensity shows that the gels behave with respect to that experiment as ergodic media. The variations of the intensity scattered from gels and solutions, with the ionization degree and the polymer concentration were found to be in good agreement with those predicted from simple theoretical arguments. The variations of the cooperative diffusion with these same parameters were found similar for gels and solutions. Des mesures de diffusion statique et quasiélastique de la lumière ont été effectuées sur des solutions et des gels d'acide poly(acrylique) partiellement ionisés. L'intensité diffusée par les gels est indépendante du vecteur d'onde de transfert, ce qui montre leur homogénéité, contrairement au cas des gels neutres. La comparaison des moyennes temporelle et spatiale de la fonction d'autocorrélation de l'intensité de la lumière diffusée montre que ces gels se comportent comme des milieux ergodiques. Les variations de l'intensité diffusée par les gels et les solutions en fonction de la concentration en polymère et du degré d'ionisation sont en bon accord avec les prédictions théoriques. Les variations du coefficient de diffusion avec ces mêmes paramètres sont identiques pour les gels et les solutions.

  8. Use of human lysozyme transgenic goat milk in cheese making: effects on lactic acid bacteria performance.

    PubMed

    Scharfen, E C; Mills, D A; Maga, E A

    2007-09-01

    Genetically engineered goats expressing elevated levels of the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme in their milk were developed to improve udder health, product shelf life, and consumer well-being. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of lysozyme on the development of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) throughout the cheese-making process. Raw and pasteurized milk from 7 lysozyme transgenic goats and 7 breed-, age-, and parity-matched nontransgenic controls was transformed into cheeses by using industry methods, and their microbiological load was evaluated. The numbers of colony-forming units of LAB were determined for raw and pasteurized goat milk, whey, and curd at d 2 and at d 6 or 7 of production. Selective plating media were used to enumerate lactococcal species separately from total LAB. Although differences in the mean number of colony-forming units between transgenic and control samples in raw milk, whey, and cheese curd were non-significant for both total LAB and lactococcal species from d 2 of production, a significant decrease was observed in both types of LAB among d 6 transgenic raw milk cheese samples. In pasteurized milk trials, a significant decrease in LAB was observed only in the raw milk of transgenic animals. These results indicate that lysozyme transgenic goat milk is not detrimental to LAB growth during the cheese-making process.

  9. Prediction of fatty acid profiles in cow, ewe, and goat milk by mid-infrared spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ferrand-Calmels, M; Palhière, I; Brochard, M; Leray, O; Astruc, J M; Aurel, M R; Barbey, S; Bouvier, F; Brunschwig, P; Caillat, H; Douguet, M; Faucon-Lahalle, F; Gelé, M; Thomas, G; Trommenschlager, J M; Larroque, H

    2014-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry was used to estimate the fatty acid (FA) composition in cow, ewe, and goat milk. The objectives were to compare different statistical approaches with wavelength selection to predict the milk FA composition from MIR spectra, and to develop equations for FA in cow, goat, and ewe milk. In total, a set of 349 cow milk samples, 200 ewe milk samples, and 332 goat milk samples were both analyzed by MIR and by gas chromatography, the reference method. A broad FA variability was ensured by using milk from different breeds and feeding systems. The methods studied were partial least squares regression (PLS), first-derivative pretreatment + PLS, genetic algorithm + PLS, wavelets + PLS, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method (LASSO), and elastic net. The best results were obtained with PLS, genetic algorithm + PLS and first derivative + PLS. The residual standard deviation and the coefficient of determination in external validation were used to characterize the equations and to retain the best for each FA in each species. In all cases, the predictions were of better quality for FA found at medium to high concentrations (i.e., for saturated FA and some monounsaturated FA with a coefficient of determination in external validation >0.90). The conversion of the FA expressed in grams per 100mL of milk to grams per 100g of FA was possible with a small loss of accuracy for some FA.

  10. Ion-exclusion chromatography of carboxylic acids on silica gel modified with aluminium.

    PubMed

    Ohta, K; Tanaka, K

    1999-07-30

    The modification of silica gel with aluminium by a coating method was effective for the preparation of a silica-based stationary phase, which acted as a cation exchanger under strongly acidic conditions. In order to expand the utility of the laboratory-made aluminium-adsorbing silica gel it was applied as a stationary phase to the ion-exclusion chromatography of various carboxylic acids. Good separations for both aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids with a hydrophobic nature under acidic eluent conditions were achieved in 25 min.

  11. Inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens in skim milk by combinations of pulsed electric fields and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Molina, Juan J; Altunakar, Bilge; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Swanson, Barry G; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2005-06-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens suspended in skim milk was inactivated by application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) either alone or in combination with acetic or propionic acid. The initial concentration of microorganisms ranged from 10(5) to 10(6) CFU/ml. Addition of acetic acid and propionic acid to skim milk inactivated 0.24 and 0.48 log CFU/ml P. fluorescens, respectively. Sets of 10, 20, and 30 pulses were applied to the skim milk using exponentially decaying pulses with pulse lengths of 2 micros and pulse frequencies of 3 Hz. Treatment temperature was maintained between 16 and 20 degrees C. In the absence of organic acids, PEF treatment of skim milk at field intensities of 31 and 38 kV/cm reduced P. fluorescens populations by 1.0 to 1.8 and by 1.2 to 1.9 log CFU/ml, respectively. Additions of acetic and propionic acid to the skim milk in a pH range of 5.0 to 5.3 and PEF treatment at 31, 33, and 34 kV/cm, and 36, 37, and 38 kV/cm reduced the population of P. fluorescens by 1.4 and 1.8 log CFU/ml, respectively. No synergistic effect resulted from the combination of PEF with acetic or propionic acid.

  12. Immunoreactivity of lactic acid-treated mare's milk after simulated digestion.

    PubMed

    Fotschki, Joanna; Szyc, Anna; Wróblewska, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    The similarity of mare's milk to breast milk makes it an interesting substrate for the creation of dairy beverages. The aim of this study was to determine the immunoreactivity of the digested mare's milk products carried out by lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei LCY, Streptococcus thermophilus MK10 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bi30. Simulation of digestion with saliva, pepsin and pancreatin/bile salts was carried out. The immunoreactivity of the milk proteins was assessed by competitive ELISA. The separation of proteins was studied using a tricine SDS-PAGE method. It has been demonstrated that lactic acid fermentation significantly decreases the immunoreactivity of β-lactoglobulin, β-casein, κ-casein and bovine serum albumin. The level of reduction was connected to the type of bacterial strain. The simulated digestion processes caused the decline of immunoreactivity, and the decreases obtained in the experiment were as follows: lactoferrin: 95%, β-lactoglobulin: 94%, β-casein: 93%, α-lactalbumin: 82%, α-casein: 82%, bovine serum albumin: 76% and κ-casein: 37%. The results of the study indicated that microbial fermentation with tested strains is a valuable method for reducing the immunoreactivity of mare's milk proteins. However, further studies with other bacterial strains are needed to gain a higher level of elimination or total reduction of mare's milk immunoreactivity to possibly introduce fermented mare's milk into the diet of patients with immune-mediated digestive problems.

  13. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linolenic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the properties of butter. A control diet composed of 60% corn silage-based ration and completed with high-energy and nitrogenous concentrates was compared with 2 experimental diets designed to provide the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids via either camelina seed (630 g/d, CS diet) or camelina meal (2 kg/d, CM diet). The diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The trial followed a double 3 x 3 Latin-square design with 4-wk periods on 6 Holstein dairy cows. The camelina diets tended to decrease dry matter intake but did not have a significant effect on milk production. They generated a slight decrease in milk protein and a strong decrease in milk fat yield and content. The CM diet led to a stronger decrease in fat content. Camelina generated a greater proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, notably C18:1 trans isomers, including trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1, which increased by 11.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, with the CM diet. Camelina also led to an increase in conjugated linoleic acids, particularly rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2. Camelina did not affect parameters of buttermaking except churning time with milk from CM fed cows, which was longer. The butters of camelina diets were softer at all temperatures tested, especially with the CM diet. In conclusion, feeding camelina can modify milk fatty acid profile and butter spreadability.

  14. Impact of maternal dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on milk medium-chain fatty acids and the implications for neonatal liver metabolism.

    PubMed

    Novak, Elizabeth M; Innis, Sheila M

    2011-11-01

    Levels of n-6, n-3, and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) in milk are highly variable. Higher carbohydrate intakes are associated with increased mammary gland MCFA synthesis, but the role of unsaturated fatty acids for milk MCFA secretion is unclear. This study addressed whether n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, which are known to inhibit hepatic fatty acid synthesis, influence MCFA in rat and human milk and the implications of varying MCFA, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids in rat milk for metabolic regulation in the neonatal liver. Rats were fed a low-fat diet or one of six higher-fat diets, varying in 16:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, and long-chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids. Higher maternal dietary 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 did not influence milk MCFA, but lower maternal plasma triglycerides, due to either a low-fat or a high-fat high-LC n-3 diet led to higher milk MCFA. MCFA levels were inversely associated with 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 in human milk, likely reflecting the association between dietary total fat and unsaturated fatty acids. High LC n-3 fatty acid in rat milk was associated with lower hepatic Pklr, Acly, Fasn, and Scd1 and higher Hmgcs2 in the milk-fed rat neonate, with no effect of milk 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, or MCFA. These studies show that the dietary fatty acid composition does not impact MCFA secretion in milk, but the fatty acid composition of milk, particularly the LC n-3 fatty acid, is relevant to hepatic metabolic regulation in the milk-fed neonate.

  15. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk.

  16. Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Yield and Fatty Acid Content in Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, James L.; Grove-White, Dai H.

    2017-01-01

    The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately. Results showed that giving birth to a heifer calf conferred a 1% milk yield advantage in first lactation heifers, whilst giving birth to a bull calf conferred a 0.5% advantage in second lactation. Heifer calves were also associated with a 0.66kg reduction in saturated fatty acid content of milk in first lactation, but there was no significant difference between the genders in second lactation. No relationship was found between calf gender and milk mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The observed effects of calf gender on both yield and saturated fatty acid content was considered minor when compared to nutritional and genetic influences. PMID:28068399

  17. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks.

  18. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    PubMed

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream.

  19. Milk and acid-base balance: proposed hypothesis versus scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Tanis R; Lyon, Andrew W

    2011-10-01

    Recently the lay press has claimed a hypothetical association among dairy product consumption, generation of dietary acid, and harm to human health. This theoretical association is based on the idea that the protein and phosphate in milk and dairy products make them acid-producing foods, which cause our bodies to become acidified, promoting diseases of modern civilization. Some authors have suggested that dairy products are not helpful and perhaps detrimental to bone health because higher osteoporotic fracture incidence is observed in countries with higher dairy product consumption. However, scientific evidence does not support any of these claims. Milk and dairy products neither produce acid upon metabolism nor cause metabolic acidosis, and systemic pH is not influenced by diet. Observations of higher dairy product intake in countries with prevalent osteoporosis do not hold when urban environments are compared, likely due to physical labor in rural locations. Milk and other dairy products continue to be a good source of dietary protein and other nutrients. Key teaching points: Measurement of an acidic pH urine does not reflect metabolic acidosis or an adverse health condition. The modern diet, and dairy product consumption, does not make the body acidic. Alkaline diets alter urine pH but do not change systemic pH. Net acid excretion is not an important influence of calcium metabolism. Milk is not acid producing. Dietary phosphate does not have a negative impact on calcium metabolism, which is contrary to the acid-ash hypothesis.

  20. O-Glycosylation of α-1-Acid Glycoprotein of Human Milk Is Lactation Stage Related

    PubMed Central

    Berghausen-Mazur, Marta; Hirnle, Lidia; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Human milk provides a multitude of glycoproteins, including highly glycosylated α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), which elicits anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The milk AGP glycoforms may provide the breastfed infant with a wide range of biological benefits. Here, we analyzed the reactivity of O-linked sugar-specific lectins with human milk AGP over the process of lactation and compared the results with those of the lactating mother's plasma. Materials and Methods: Relative amounts of human skim milk AGP O-glycans were analyzed in early colostrum, colostrum, and transitional and mature milk samples of 127 healthy mothers by lectin–AGP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using sialyl T (sialyl-α2,3/α2,6 Galβ1,3GalNAc-), asialyl T (Galβ1,3GalNAc-), and Tn (GalNAc-) antigen-specific biotinylated Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), and Vicia villosa (VVA) lectins, respectively. Results: Milk AGP elicited high expression of Jacalin- and PNA-reactive glycotopes and low expression of VVA-reactive glycotopes, which were absent on plasma AGP of lactating mothers and healthy individuals. The expression of sialyl, asialyl T, and Tn glycotopes of human milk AGP was lactation stage related. The relative amount of Jacalin-reactive AGP glycotope was highest in the colostrum samples and then decreased starting from Day 8 of lactation. In contrast, an increase of the relative amount of PNA-reactive glycotope with milk maturation was observed. The relative amount of VVA-reactive glycotope remained almost constant over the development of lactation. Conclusions: Milk AGP differs from mother's plasma AGP by the presence of O-linked sialylated and asialylated T as well as Tn antigens. The variation of the expression of sialylated and asialylated T and Tn antigens on AGP is associated with milk maturation. PMID:26057552

  1. Development of a gel formulation of formic acid for control of parasitic mites of honey bees.

    PubMed

    Kochansky, J; Shimanuki, H

    1999-09-01

    Formic acid has been used in various countries for the control of parasitic mites of honey bees (Apis mellifera), particularly the Varroa mite (Varroa jacobsoni) and the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi). Its corrosivity and consequent fear of liability have precluded commercial interest in the United States, and its rapid vaporization requires frequent reapplication. We have developed a gel formulation of formic acid which provides controlled release over 2-3 weeks and improves the convenience and safety of handling of formic acid. The strong acidity of formic acid restricts the choice of gelling agents; vegetable gellants such as agar are destroyed, and bentonite clay derivatives do not gel, even with high-shear mixing. Polyacrylamides lead to viscous liquids lacking thixotropic properties. High-molecular-weight poly(acrylic acids) and fumed silicas provided gels with suitable physical characteristics. The poly(acrylic acid) gels were difficult to mix and gave slower and nonlinear release behavior, while the fumed silica gels were easy to prepare and linear in formic acid vaporization.

  2. Improvement of Milk Fatty Acid Composition for Production of Functional Milk by Dietary Phytoncide Oil Extracted from Discarded Pine Nut Cones (Pinus koraiensis) in Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Jung, U Suk; Jeon, Seung Woo; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Won Seob; Lee, Sang Bum; Kim, Youn Chil; Kim, Bae Young; Wang, Tao; Lee, Hong Gu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of adding phytoncide oil extracted from Korean pine nut cone byproduct to the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and compositions, fatty acid characteristics, complete blood count and stress response. A total of 74 Holstein cows were used for 30 days and divided into two groups. Each group was given a basal diet (C) or an experimental diet containing phytoncide additives at 0.016% (T) in feed. The results showed that phytoncide feeding had no effect on milk yield. In addition, there were no observed effects on milk composition, but the ratio of fatty acid in milk was significantly affected by the phytoncide diet, and it showed a positive effect. Not only were the major functional fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased, but also ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio was reduced in milk of T group (p<0.05). In blood analysis, the complete blood count showed no significant difference between C and T group on all parameters. However, the cortisol concentration was significantly decreased in T group compared to control (p<0.05). Taken together, we suggest that phytoncide oil does not have a great influence on the physiological changes, but can be a potential feed additive that improves the milk fatty acid and stress resilience in dairy cows. In addition, it will contribute to the development of feed resource, a reduction in feed cost and a lessening of environmental pollution. PMID:27383800

  3. Methods for immobilizing nucleic acids on a gel substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzabekov, A.D.; Proudnikov, D.Y.; Timofeev, E.N.; Kochetkova, S.V.; Florentiev, V.L.; Shick, V.V.

    1999-11-09

    A method for labeling oligonucleotide molecules, and for immobilizing oligonucleotide and DNA molecules is provided comprising modifying the molecules to create a chemically active group, and contacting activated fluorescent dyes to the region. A method for preparing an immobilization substrate is also provided comprising modifying a gel to contain desired functional groups which covalently interact with certain moieties of the oligonucleotide molecules. A method for immobilizing biomolecules and other molecules within a gel by copolymerization of allyl-substituted oligonucleotides, DNA and proteins with acrylamide is also provided.

  4. Methods for immobilizing nucleic acids on a gel substrate

    DOEpatents

    Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich; Proudnikov, Dimitri Y.; Timofeev, Edward N.; Kochetkova, Svetlana V.; Florentiev, Vladimir L.; Shick, Valentine V.

    1999-01-01

    A method for labeling oligonucleotide molecules, and for immobilizing oligonucleotide and DNA molecules is provided comprising modifying the molecules to create a chemically active group, and contacting activated fluorescent dyes to the region. A method for preparing an immobilization substrate is also provided comprising modifying a gel to contain desired functional groups which covalently interact with certain moieties of the oligonucleotide molecules. A method for immobilizing biomolecules and other molecules within a gel by copolymerization of allyl-substituted oligonucleotides, DNA and proteins with acrylamide is also provided.

  5. Partial suckling of lambs reduced the linoleic and conjugated linoleic acid contents of marketable milk in Chios ewes.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, O; Orford, M; Miltiadou, D; Papachristoforou, C

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of weaning systems applied in a commercial dairy sheep farm on the fatty acid (FA) composition of marketable milk produced. Forty second parity, purebred Chios ewes were allocated to the following weaning treatments: (a) ewes were weaned from their lambs at 48 h after birth and machine milked twice daily [no lambs (NL) group, n=20]; or, (b) starting 48 h postpartum, ewes were separated from their lambs for 12h during the evening, machine milked once daily the following morning, and lambs were allowed to suckle for 12 h during the day for the first 5 wk of lactation [partial suckling (PS) group, n=20]. After weaning of the PS lambs at wk 6 of age, all ewes were machine milked twice daily. Commercial milk yield and milk composition was recorded weekly (fat, protein, FA content) or fortnightly (somatic cell counts) throughout the first 10 wk of lactation. The PS ewes compared with NL group produced commercial milk lower in milk yield, milk fat, and somatic cell counts, but not in protein content during the first 5-wk period. Such differences were not observed after weaning of the PS lambs. The FA profile of commercial milk was also affected by partial suckling during the preweaning period. Total polyunsaturated FA were higher in NL compared with PS ewe milk at wk 1, 2, 4, and 5 (on average, 21% higher), whereas no differences were detected between NL and PS ewe milk from wk 6 to 10 of lactation. From the polyunsaturated FA, linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,cis-12) and conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,trans-11; rumenic acid) were particularly affected, showing on average a reduction of 18 and 38%, respectively. From the monounsaturated FA, vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans-11) was affected during wk 1 and 2 of the treatment period, with the PS ewe milk having reduced content compared with the NL milk. Other unsaturated FA, such as oleic acid and α-linolenic acid, or saturated FA were not found to be affected by the

  6. Effect of different levels of supplied cobalt on the fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Karlengen, Inger J; Taugbøl, Ole; Salbu, Brit; Aastveit, Are H; Harstad, Odd M

    2013-03-14

    In previous studies, administration of high amounts of Co decreased the proportion of MUFA in bovine milk. The present study was conducted to examine the amount of Co needed to obtain this effect. High-yielding dairy cows (n 4), equipped with ruminal cannulas, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design study. The basal diet consisted of concentrate mixture (9 kg/d) without added Co and grass silage (ad libitum). The following four levels of Co were administrated as cobalt acetate dissolved in distilled water: no Co (treatment 1, T1); 4·0 mg Co/d (T2); 380 mg Co/d (T3); 5300 mg Co/d (T4). Each period lasted for 18 d, including 11 d of treatment. During the treatment periods, the solutions were continuously infused into the rumen. Milk yield and milk concentration of fat, fatty acids (FA), protein, lactose, Co, Zn, Fe and Cu were determined. Blood plasma was analysed with respect to FA, Co, Zn, Fe and Cu. Feed intake and total tract digestibility of feed components were also determined. There was a linear effect of increasing the level of Co on milk FA composition. The effects of Co on FA composition in blood were insignificant compared with the effects on milk. In milk fat, the concentration of cis-9-18 : 1 was reduced by as much as 38 % on T4 compared with T1. Feed intake and milk yield were negatively affected by increasing the Co level.

  7. Microextraction method of medium and long chain fatty acids from milk.

    PubMed

    Añorve-Morga, Javier; Castañeda-Ovando, Araceli; Cepeda-Saez, Alberto; Archibold, Armando Durant; Jaimez-Ordaz, Judith; Contreras-López, Elizabeth; González-Olivares, Luis Guillermo; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José Luis

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a method for microextraction and quantification of long and medium chain fatty acids from milk. The proposed method was carried out on three steps: (1) lipids extraction from 10 μL of whole or skimmed milk containing omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) during 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, in 2 mL chloroform: methanol mixture (2:1); (2) acid methylation of FAs; and (3) quantification of FAs methyl esters by gas chromatography. Using this method, the percentage recovery of FAs was higher (67% for whole and 85% for skimmed milk) compared with AOAC method 905.02 recovery (49% and 83%, respectively). Good reproducibility and repeatability (<3%) were obtained. The method developed can be useful for researching and in routine quality control. Additionally, it is simpler, faster and cheaper than the reference procedure since it requires minimum sample and solvents volume as well as fewer steps.

  8. Butyric acid released during milk lipolysis triggers biofilm formation of Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Pasvolsky, Ronit; Zakin, Varda; Ostrova, Ievgeniia; Shemesh, Moshe

    2014-07-02

    Bacillus species form biofilms within milking pipelines and on surfaces of equipment in the dairy industry which represent a continuous hygiene problem and can lead to serious economic losses due to food spoilage and equipment impairment. Although much is known about the mechanism by which the model organism Bacillus subtilis forms biofilms in laboratory mediums in vitro, little is known of how these biofilms are formed in natural environments such as milk. Besides, little is known of the signaling pathways leading to biofilm formation in other Bacillus species, such as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis, both of which are known to contaminate milk. In this study, we report that milk triggers the formation of biofilm-related structures, termed bundles. We show this to be a conserved phenomenon among all Bacillus members tested. Moreover, we demonstrate that the tasA gene, which encodes a major portion of the matrix which holds the biofilm together, is vital for this process. Furthermore, we show that the free fatty acid (FFA) - butyric acid (BA), which is released during lipolysis of milk fat and demonstrates antimicrobial activity, is the potent trigger for biofilm bundle formation. We finally show that BA-triggered biofilm bundle formation is mediated by the histidine kinase, KinD. Taken together, these observations indicate that BA, which is a major FFA within milk triggers biofilm formation in a conserved mechanism among members of the Bacillus genus.

  9. Milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits growth of human mammary MCF-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, M; Devery, R; Lawless, F; Murphy, J; Stanton, C

    The relationship between growth and the antioxidant enzyme defence system in human MCF-7 (breast) cancer cells treated with bovine milk fat enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was studied. Milk enriched in CLA was obtained from cows on pasture supplemented with full fat rapeseeds and full fat soyabeans (1). Cell number decreased up to 90% (p < 0.05) and lipid peroxidation increased 15-fold (p < 0.05) following incubation of MCF-7 cells for 8 days with increasing levels of milk fat yielding CLA concentrations between 16.9 and 22.6 ppm. Growth suppression and prooxidant effects of milk fat CLA were independent of the variable composition of the milk fat samples, suggesting that CLA was the active ingredient in milk fat responsible for the cytotoxic effect. Mixtures containing isomers of CLA (c9, t11-, t10, c12-, c11, t13- and minor amounts of other isomers) and linoleic acid (LA) at similar concentrations to the milk fat samples were as effective at inhibiting growth and stimulating peroxidation of MCF-7 cells as the milk fatty acids. Incubation of the cells with the c9, t11 CLA isomer (20 ppm) or the mixture of CLA isomers (20 ppm) for 8 days resulted in a 60% decrease (p < 0.05) in viability compared with untreated controls and was significantly (p < 0.05) more effective than incubation with the t10, c12 CLA isomer (20 ppm), which caused only a 15% decrease in cell numbers under similar conditions. A 25% increase (p < 0.05) in cell proliferation occurred when LA (20 ppm) alone was incubated with MCF-7 cells for 8 days. 14C-CLA was preferentially incorporated into the phospholipid fraction of the MCF-7 cell lipids in a dose-dependent manner and CLA accumulated in cell membranes more efficiently when the cells were incubated in the presence of milk fat than the c9, t11 synthetic CLA isomer. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were induced in MCF-7 cells exposed to milk fat (containing 16.9-22.6 ppm CLA) over 8

  10. Effect of oilseed type on milk fatty acid composition of individual cows, and also bulk tank milk fatty acid composition from commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Kliem, K E; Humphries, D J; Reynolds, C K; Morgan, R; Givens, D I

    2017-02-01

    Supplementing dairy cow diets with oilseed preparations has been shown to replace milk saturated fatty acids (SFA) with mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA), which may reduce risk factors associated with cardio-metabolic diseases in humans consuming milk and dairy products. Previous studies demonstrating this are largely detailed, highly controlled experiments involving small numbers of animals, but in order to transfer this feeding strategy to commercial situations further studies are required involving whole herds varying in management practices. In experiment 1, three oilseed supplements (extruded linseed (EL), calcium salts of palm and linseed oil (CPLO) and milled rapeseed (MR)) were included in grass silage-based diets formulated to provide cows with ~350 g oil/day, and compared with a negative control (Control) diet containing no supplemental fat, and a positive control diet containing 350 g/cow per day oil as calcium salt of palm oil distillate (CPO). Diets were fed for 28-day periods in a 5×4 Latin Square design, and milk production, composition and fatty acid (FA) profile were analysed at the end of each period. Compared with Control, all lipid supplemented diets decreased milk fat SFA concentration by an average of 3.5 g/100 g FA, by replacement with both cis- and trans-MUFA/PUFA. Compared with CPO, only CPLO and MR resulted in lower milk SFA concentrations. In experiment 2, 24 commercial dairy farms (average herd size±SEM 191±19.3) from the south west of the United Kingdom were recruited and for a 1 month period asked to supplement their herd diets with either CPO, EL, CPLO or MR at the same inclusion level as the first study. Bulk tank milk was analysed weekly to determine FA concentration by Fourier Transform mid-IR spectroscopy prediction. After 4 weeks, EL, CPLO and MR all decreased herd milk SFA and increased MUFA to a similar extent (average -3.4 and +2.4 g/100 g FA, respectively) when compared with CPO. Differing responses

  11. Milk fat globules: fatty acid composition, size and in vivo regulation of fat liquidity.

    PubMed

    Timmen, H; Patton, S

    1988-07-01

    Populations of large and small milk fat globules were isolated and analyzed to determine differences in fatty acid composition. Globule samples were obtained by centrifugation from milks of a herd and of individual animals produced under both pasture and barn feeding. Triacylglycerols of total globule lipids were prepared by thin layer chromatography and analyzed for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Using content of the acids in large globules as 100%, small globules contained fewer short-chain acids, -5.9%, less stearic acid, -22.7%, and more oleic acids, +4.6%, mean values for five trials. These differences are consistent with alternative use of short-chain acids or oleic acid converted from stearic acid to maintain liquidity at body temperature of milk fat globules and their precursors, intracellular lipid droplets. Stearyl-CoA desaturase (EC 1.14.99.5), which maintains fluidity of cellular endoplasmic reticulum membrane, is suggested to play a key role in regulating globule fat liquidity. Possible origins of differences between individual globules in fatty acid composition of their triacylglycerols are discussed.

  12. Milk composition, milk fatty acid profile, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows fed whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D C; Kazama, R; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Santos, G T D; Zeoula, L M; Petit, H V

    2010-07-01

    Four ruminally lactating Holstein cows averaging 602+/-25 kg of body weight and 64+/-6 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil on dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk production and composition, and milk fatty acid profile. The treatments were a control with no flaxseed products (CON) or a diet (on a dry matter basis) of 4.2% whole flaxseed (FLA), 1.9% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (SAL), or 2.3% whole flaxseed and 0.8% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (MIX). The 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were fed for ad libitum intake. Experimental periods consisted of 21 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling. Dry matter intake, digestibility, milk production, and milk concentrations of protein, lactose, urea N, and total solids did not differ among treatments. Ruminal pH was reduced for cows fed the CON diet compared with those fed the SAL diet. Propionate proportion was higher in ruminal fluid of cows fed CON than in that of those fed SAL, and cows fed the SAL and CON diets had ruminal propionate concentrations similar to those of cows fed the FLA and MIX diets. Butyrate concentration was numerically higher for cows fed the SAL diet compared with those fed the FLA diet. Milk fat concentration was lower for cows fed SAL than for those fed CON, and there was no difference between cows fed CON and those fed FLA and MIX. Milk yields of protein, fat, lactose, and total solids were similar among treatments. Concentrations of cis-9 18:1 and of intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids such as trans-9 18:1 were higher in milk fat of cows fed SAL and MIX than for those fed the CON diet. Concentration of rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 18:2) in milk fat was increased by 63% when feeding SAL compared with FLA. Concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was higher in milk fat of cows

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk from cows fed condensed corn distillers solubles and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Bharathan, M; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Gibson, M L; Karges, K

    2008-07-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to ascertain the lactational response to feeding fish oil (FO), condensed corn distillers solubles (CDS) as a source of extra linoleic acid, or both. Diets contained either no FO or 0.5% FO and either no CDS or 10% CDS in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were fed as total mixed rations for ad libitum consumption. The forage to concentrate ratio was 55:45 on a dry matter basis for all diets and the diets contained 16.2% crude protein. The ether extract concentrations were 2.86, 3.22, 4.77, and 5.02% for control, FO, CDS, and FOCDS diets, respectively. Inclusion of FO or CDS or both had no effect on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, body weight, and body condition scores compared with diets without FO and CDS, respectively. Yields of milk (33.3 kg/d), energy-corrected milk, protein, lactose, and milk urea N were similar for all diets. Feeding FO and CDS decreased milk fat percentages (3.85, 3.39, 3.33, and 3.12%) and yields compared with diets without FO and CDS. Proportions of trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid), cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.52, 0.90, 1.11, and 1.52 g/100 g of fatty acids), and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (0.07, 0.14, 0.13, and 0.16 g/100 g of fatty acids) in milk fat were increased by FO and CDS. No interactions were observed between FO and CDS on cis-9 trans-11 CLA although vaccenic acid tended to be higher with the interaction. The addition of CDS to diets increased trans-10 C18:1. Greater ratios of vaccenic acid to cis-9 trans-11 CLA in plasma than in milk fat indicate tissue synthesis of cis-9 trans-11 CLA in the mammary gland from vaccenic acid in cows fed FO or CDS. Feeding fish oil at 0.5% of diet dry matter with a C18:2 n-6 rich source such as CDS increased the milk CLA content but decreased milk fat percentages.

  14. Effects of calcium soaps of rapeseed fatty acids and protected methionine on milk yield and composition in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Z M; Pisulewski, P M; Spanghero, M

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing the diets of dairy cows with Ca soaps of rapeseed fatty acids (CSRFA) and rumen-protected (RP) methionine on their milk yield and composition, including milk protein fractions and fatty acids. Twelve Polish Red Lowland cows were used in a complete balanced two period changeover experiment. The four treatment diets were a control consisting of a total mixed ration of grass silage and concentrates, and the total mixed ration supplemented with RP methionine, CSRFA or RP methionine plus CSRFA. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet. Milk yield increased when cows were given the diet with CSRFA, but supplementation of diets with RP methionine did not affect milk yield. Milk protein content, but not milk protein yield, decreased when CSRFA was given. The addition of RP methionine to the control diet and the CSRFA diet produced similar increases in the milk protein content. Supplementation of the diet with CSRFA significantly changed the milk fatty acid profile: the proportions of 10:0, 12:0, 14:0, 15:0 and 16:0 in milk fat decreased, but those of 18:0 and cis-18:1 increased. We conclude that CSRFA can be used in practical dairy diets to increase milk yield and manipulate its fatty acid composition.

  15. Milk fat responses to butterfat infusion during conjugated linoleic acid-induced milk fat depression in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; Moallem, U; Teter, B B; Fardin-Kia, A R K; Erdman, R A

    2013-04-01

    During diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD), the short and medium-chain fatty acids (SMCFA), which are synthesized de novo in the mammary gland, are reduced to a much greater extent than the long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) that originate from the circulation. Our hypothesis was that increased availability of SMCFA might rescue conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced MFD in lactating dairy cows. To test that hypothesis, 4 rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows (128 ± 23 d in milk) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 3-wk experimental periods. Treatments were applied during the last 2 wk of each period and included 3× daily abomasal infusion of a total of (1) 230 g/d of LCFA (blend of 59% cocoa butter, 36% olive oil, and 5% palm oil); (2) 420 g/d of butterfat (BF); (3) 230 g/d of LCFA with 27 g/d of CLA (LC-CLA), containing 10 g/d of trans-10,cis-12 CLA; and (4) 420 g/d of butterfat with 27 g/d of CLA (BF-CLA). Butterfat provided 50% of C16 (115 g/d) and similar amounts of C18 FA as found in LCFA, such that the difference between the BF and LCFA treatments was 190 g/d of SMCFA. No treatment effects were observed for DMI or milk yield. Milk fat content was reduced by 41 and 32%, whereas milk fat yield was reduced by 41 and 38% with LC-CLA and BF-CLA, respectively, compared with their respective controls. Abomasal infusion of CLA reduced de novo synthesized fatty acid (DNFA; SMCFA and 50% C16:0) concentration, whereas DNFA tended to be greater with BF infusion. An interaction was observed between SMCFA and CLA as the increased availability of SMCFA reduced stearoyl-CoA-desaturase-1 gene expression, whereas it tended to reduce lipoprotein lipase (LPL), 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6 (AGPAT-6), sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) gene expression in the presence of CLA. The mRNA expression of genes involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis

  16. Genetic characterization of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from ewes' milk, sheep farm environments, and humans by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Otero, Verónica; Rodríguez-Calleja, José-María; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A

    2013-10-01

    A collection of 81 isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was obtained from samples of bulk tank sheep milk (62 isolates), ovine feces (4 isolates), sheep farm environment (water, 4 isolates; air, 1 isolate), and human stool samples (9 isolates). The strains were considered atypical EPEC organisms, carrying the eae gene without harboring the pEAF plasmid. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out with seven housekeeping genes and 19 sequence types (ST) were detected, with none of them having been previously reported for atypical EPEC. The most frequent ST included 41 strains isolated from milk and human stool samples. Genetic typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in 57 patterns which grouped in 24 clusters. Comparison of strains isolated from the different samples showed phylogenetic relationships between milk and human isolates and also between milk and water isolates. The results obtained show a possible risk for humans due to the presence of atypical EPEC in ewes' milk and suggest a transmission route for this emerging pathogen through contaminated water.

  17. Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk differing in label claims based on production management practices.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, A M; Spatny, K P; Vicini, J L; Bauman, D E

    2010-05-01

    Consumers are becoming increasingly health conscious, and food product choices have expanded. Choices in the dairy case include fluid milk labeled according to production management practices. Such labeling practices may be misunderstood and perceived by consumers to reflect differences in the quality or nutritional content of milk. Our objective was to investigate nutritional differences in specialty labeled milk, specifically to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of conventional milk with milk labeled as recombinant bST (rbST)-free or organic. The retail milk samples (n=292) obtained from the 48 contiguous states of the United States represented the consumer supply of pasteurized, homogenized milk of 3 milk types: conventionally produced milk with no specialty labeling, milk labeled rbST-free, and milk labeled organic. We found no statistical differences in the FA composition of conventional and rbST-free milk; however, these 2 groups were statistically different from organic milk for several FA. When measuring FA as a percentage of total FA, organic milk was higher in saturated FA (65.9 vs. 62.8%) and lower in monounsaturated FA (26.8 vs. 29.7%) and polyunsaturated FA (4.3 vs. 4.8%) compared with the average of conventional and rbST-free retail milk samples. Likewise, among bioactive FA compared as a percentage of total FA, organic milk was slightly lower in trans 18:1 FA (2.8 vs. 3.1%) and higher in n-3 FA (0.82 vs. 0.50%) and conjugated linoleic acid (0.70 vs. 0.57%). From a public health perspective, the direction for some of these differences would be considered desirable and for others would be considered undesirable; however, without exception, the magnitudes of the differences in milk FA composition among milk label types were minor and of no physiological importance when considering public health or dietary recommendations. Overall, when data from our analysis of FA composition of conventional milk and milk labeled rbST-free or organic were combined

  18. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of dietary palmitic and stearic acids on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency of dairy cows were evaluated in an experiment with a crossover arrangement of treatments with a covariate period. Cows with a wide range of milk production (38 to 65 kg/d) were used to determine if response to fat supplementation varied according to production level. Thirty-two Holstein cows (143 ± 61 d in milk) were assigned randomly to a treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with palmitic acid (PA; 97.9% C16:0) or stearic acid (SA; 97.4% C18:0). Treatment periods were 21 d and cows were fed a nonfat supplemented diet for 14 d immediately before the first treatment period. The final 4d of each period were used for sample and data collection. Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as the covariate. No interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the production response variables measured. Compared with SA, the PA treatment increased milk fat concentration (3.66 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.68 vs. 1.59 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (47.5 vs. 45.6 kg/d). Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, body weight, or body condition score. Milk protein concentration was lower for PA compared with SA treatment (3.24 vs. 3.29%). The PA treatment increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) compared with SA (1.48 vs. 1.40). The increase in milk fat yield by PA was entirely accounted for by a 24% increase in 16-carbon fatty acid output into milk. Yields of de novo (3.2%) and preformed fatty acids (2.9%) were only slightly decreased by PA relative to SA. The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (96.3 vs. 88.2 μEq/L) and glucose (56.6 vs. 55.7 mg/dL) compared with SA, but insulin and

  19. A novel fibrin gel derived from hyaluronic acid-grafted fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chiung L; Chen, Hui W; Wang, Tzu C; Wang, Yng J

    2011-04-01

    Fibrinogen is a major plasma protein that forms a three-dimensional fibrin gel upon being activated by thrombin. In this study, we report the synthesis and potential applications of hybrid molecules composed of fibrinogen coupled to the reducing ends of short-chain hyaluronic acids (sHAs) by reductive amination. The grafting of sHAs to fibrinogen was verified by analyzing particle size, zeta potential and gel-electrophoretic mobility of the hybrid molecules. The sHA-fibrinogen hybrid molecules with graft ratios (sHA/fibrinogen) of up to 6.5 retained the ability to form gels in response to thrombin activation. The sHA-fibrin gels were transparent in appearance and exhibited high water content, which were characteristics distinct from those of gels formed by mixtures of sHAs and fibrinogen. The potential applications of the sHA-fibrin gels were evaluated. The sHA-fibrinogen gel with a graft ratio of 3.6 (S3.6F) was examined for its ability to encapsulate and support the differentiation of ATDC5 chondrocyte-like cells. Compared with the fibrinogen-formed gel, cells cultured in the S3.6F gel exhibited increased lacunae formation; moreover, the abundance of cartilaginous extracellular matrix molecules and the expression of chondrocyte marker genes, such as aggrecan, collagen II and Sox9, were also significantly increased. Our data suggest that the three-dimensional gel formed by the sHA-fibrinogen hybrid is a better support than the fibrin gel for chondrogenesis induction.

  20. pH-responsive jello: gelatin gels containing fatty acid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Matthew B; Lee, Jae-Ho; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2009-08-04

    We describe a new way to impart pH-responsive properties to gels of biopolymers such as gelatin. This approach involves the embedding of pH-sensitive nanosized vesicles within the gel. The vesicles employed here are those of sodium oleate (NaOA), a fatty-acid-based amphiphile with a single C18 tail. In aqueous solution, NaOA undergoes a transition from vesicles at a pH approximately 8 to micelles at a pH higher than approximately 10. Here, we combine NaOA and gelatin at pH 8.3 to create a vesicle-loaded gel and then bring the gel in contact with a pH 10 buffer solution. As the buffer diffuses into the gel, the vesicles within the gel get transformed into micelles. Accordingly, a vesicle-micelle front moves through the gel, and this can be visually identified by the difference in turbidity between the two regions. Vesicle disruption can also be done in a spatially selective manner to create micelle-rich domains within a vesicle-loaded gel. A possible application of the above approach is in the area of pH-dependent controlled release. A vesicle-to-micelle transition releases hydrophilic solutes encapsulated within the vesicles into the bulk gel, and in turn these solutes can rapidly diffuse out of the gel into the external bath. Experiments with calcein dye confirm this concept and show that we can indeed use the pH in the bath to tune the release rate of solutes from vesicle-loaded gels.

  1. Human lactation: oxidation and maternal transfer of dietary (13)C-labelled α-linolenic acid into human milk.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, Hans; Kuhn, Angelika; Dokoupil, Katharina; Hegele, Verena; Sauerwald, Thorsten; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-06-01

    The origin of fatty acids in milk has not been elucidated in detail. We investigated the contribution of dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) to human milk fat, its oxidation and endogenous conversion to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Ten lactating women were given (13)C-ALA orally, and breath and milk samples were collected for a five-day period, while dietary intakes were assessed. 37.5 ± 2.7 % (M ± SE) of the tracer was recovered in breath-CO2, and 7.3 ± 1.1 % was directly transferred into milk. About 0.25 % of the tracer was found in milk long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Combining intake and milk data, we estimate that about 65 % of milk ALA is directly derived from maternal diet. Thus, the major portion of milk ALA is directly derived from the diet, but dietary ALA does not seem to contribute much as a precursor to milk n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids within the studied time period.

  2. Prediction of individual milk proteins including free amino acids in bovine milk using mid-infrared spectroscopy and their correlations with milk processing characteristics.

    PubMed

    McDermott, A; Visentin, G; De Marchi, M; Berry, D P; Fenelon, M A; O'Connor, P M; Kenny, O A; McParland, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mid-infrared spectroscopy in predicting milk protein and free amino acid (FAA) composition in bovine milk. Milk samples were collected from 7 Irish research herds and represented cows from a range of breeds, parities, and stages of lactation. Mid-infrared spectral data in the range of 900 to 5,000 cm(-1) were available for 730 milk samples; gold standard methods were used to quantify individual protein fractions and FAA of these samples with a view to predicting these gold standard protein fractions and FAA levels with available mid-infrared spectroscopy data. Separate prediction equations were developed for each trait using partial least squares regression; accuracy of prediction was assessed using both cross validation on a calibration data set (n=400 to 591 samples) and external validation on an independent data set (n=143 to 294 samples). The accuracy of prediction in external validation was the same irrespective of whether undertaken on the entire external validation data set or just within the Holstein-Friesian breed. The strongest coefficient of correlation obtained for protein fractions in external validation was 0.74, 0.69, and 0.67 for total casein, total β-lactoglobulin, and β-casein, respectively. Total proteins (i.e., total casein, total whey, and total lactoglobulin) were predicted with greater accuracy then their respective component traits; prediction accuracy using the infrared spectrum was superior to prediction using just milk protein concentration. Weak to moderate prediction accuracies were observed for FAA. The greatest coefficient of correlation in both cross validation and external validation was for Gly (0.75), indicating a moderate accuracy of prediction. Overall, the FAA prediction models overpredicted the gold standard values. Near-unity correlations existed between total casein and β-casein irrespective of whether the traits were based on the gold standard (0.92) or mid

  3. Modulating the Rigidity and Mineralization of Collagen Gels Using Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    DeVolder, Ross J.; Kim, Il Won; Kim, Eun-Suk

    2012-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been made to prepare osteoconductive collagen gels for the regeneration of normal bone and the pathological examination of diseased bone; however, collagen gels are often plagued by limited controllability of their rigidity and mineral deposition. This study reports a simple but efficient strategy that tunes the mechanical properties of, and apatite formation in, collagen gels by incorporating hydrolyzable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles within the gels. The PLGA microparticles are associated with the collagen fibrils and increased both the gel's elasticity and rigidity while minimally influencing its permeability. As compared with pure collagen gels, the PLGA microparticle-filled collagen gels, termed PLGA-Col hydrogels, significantly enhanced the deposition of apatite-like minerals within the gels when incubated in simulated body fluid or encapsulated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) undergoing osteogenic differentiation. Finally, PLGA-Col hydrogels mineralized by differentiated MSCs led to an enhanced formation of bone-like tissues within the hydrogels. Overall, the PLGA-Col hydrogel system developed in this study will serve to improve the quality of osteoconductive matrices for both fundamental and clinical studies that are relevant to bone repair, regeneration, and pathogenesis. PMID:22480235

  4. Linear relationship between increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet and milk fatty acid composition and butter properties.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Faucon, F; Couvreur, S; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet on milk fat yield, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, milk fat globule size, and butter properties. Thirty-six Prim'Holstein cows at 104 d in milk were sorted into 3 groups by milk production and milk fat globule size. Three diets were assigned: a total mixed ration (control) consisting of corn silage (70%) and concentrate (30%), or a supplemented ration based on the control ration but where part of the concentrate energy was replaced on a dry matter basis by 2.1% (LIN1) or 4.3% (LIN2) extruded linseed. The increased amounts of extruded linseed linearly decreased milk fat content and milk fat globule size and linearly increased the percentage of milk unsaturated FA, specifically alpha-linolenic acid and trans FA. Extruded linseed had no significant effect on butter color or on the sensory properties of butters, with only butter texture in the mouth improved. The LIN2 treatment induced a net improvement of milk nutritional properties but also created problems with transforming the cream into butter. The butters obtained were highly spreadable and melt-in-the-mouth, with no pronounced deficiency in taste. The LIN1 treatment appeared to offer a good tradeoff of improved milk FA profile and little effect on butter-making while still offering butters with improved functional properties.

  5. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ronaldo; Faria, Mario; Silva, Raimundo; Bezerra, Leilson; Carvalho, Gleidson; Pinheiro, Alyson; Simionato, Juliana; Leão, André

    2015-08-24

    Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables) are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg). Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001) fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016). However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045). There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05). The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065) quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%). Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12) and tridecanoic (C13) acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index.

  6. Short communication: Evaluation of a sol-gel-based stainless steel surface modification to reduce fouling and biofilm formation during pasteurization of milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dylan Zhe; Jindal, Shivali; Amamcharla, Jayendra; Anand, Sanjeev; Metzger, Lloyd

    2017-04-01

    Milk fouling and biofilms are common problems in the dairy industry across many types of processing equipment. One way to reduce milk fouling and biofilms is to modify the characteristics of milk contact surfaces. This study examines the viability of using Thermolon (Porcelain Industries Inc., Dickson, TN), a sol-gel-based surface modification of stainless steel, during thermal processing of milk. We used stainless steel 316L (control) and sol-gel-modified coupons in this study to evaluate fouling behavior and bacterial adhesion. The surface roughness as measured by an optical profiler indicated that the control coupons had a slightly smoother finish. Contact angle measurements showed that the modified surface led to a higher water contact angle, suggesting a more hydrophobic surface. The modified surface also had a lower surface energy (32.4 ± 1.4 mN/m) than the control surface (41.36 ± 2.7 mN/m). We evaluated the susceptibility of control and modified stainless steel coupons to fouling in a benchtop plate heat exchanger. We observed a significant reduction in the amount of fouled layer on modified surfaces. We found an average fouling weight of 19.21 mg/cm(2) and 0.37 mg/cm(2) on the control and modified stainless steel coupons, respectively. We also examined the adhesion of Bacillus and biofilm formation, and observed that the modified stainless steel surface offered greater resistance to biofilm formation. Overall, the Thermolon-modified surface showed potential in the thermal processing of milk, offering significantly lower fouling and bacterial attachment than the control surface.

  7. Longitudinal evolution of true protein, amino acids and bioactive proteins in breast milk: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Erdmann, Peter; Thakkar, Sagar K; Sauser, Julien; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    The protein content of breast milk provides a foundation for estimating protein requirements of infants. Because it serves as a guideline for regulatory agencies issuing regulations for infant formula composition, it is critical that information on the protein content of breast milk is reliable. We have therefore carried out a meta-analysis of the protein and amino acid contents of breast milk and how they evolve during lactation. As several bioactive proteins are not completely digested in the infant and therefore represent "non-utilizable" protein, we evaluated the quantity, mechanism of action and digestive fate of several major breast milk proteins. A better knowledge of the development of the protein contents of breast milk and to what extent protein utilization changes with age of the infant will help improve understanding of protein needs in infancy. It is also essential when designing the composition of infant formulas, particularly when the formula uses a "staging" approach in which the composition of the formula is modified in stages to reflect changes in breast milk and changing requirements as the infant ages.

  8. Routing of Fatty Acids from Fresh Grass to Milk Restricts the Validation of Feeding Information Obtained by Measuring (13)C in Milk.

    PubMed

    Auerswald, Karl; Schäufele, Rudi; Bellof, Gerhard

    2015-12-09

    Dairy production systems vary widely in their feeding and livestock-keeping regimens. Both are well-known to affect milk quality and consumer perceptions. Stable isotope analysis has been suggested as an easy-to-apply tool to validate a claimed feeding regimen. Although it is unambiguous that feeding influences the carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in milk, it is not clear whether a reported feeding regimen can be verified by measuring δ(13)C in milk without sampling and analyzing the feed. We obtained 671 milk samples from 40 farms distributed over Central Europe to measure δ(13)C and fatty acid composition. Feeding protocols by the farmers in combination with a model based on δ(13)C feed values from the literature were used to predict δ(13)C in feed and subsequently in milk. The model considered dietary contributions of C3 and C4 plants, contribution of concentrates, altitude, seasonal variation in (12/13)CO2, Suess's effect, and diet-milk discrimination. Predicted and measured δ(13)C in milk correlated closely (r(2) = 0.93). Analyzing milk for δ(13)C allowed validation of a reported C4 component with an error of <8% in 95% of all cases. This included the error of the method (measurement and prediction) and the error of the feeding information. However, the error was not random but varied seasonally and correlated with the seasonal variation in long-chain fatty acids. This indicated a bypass of long-chain fatty acids from fresh grass to milk.

  9. Folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in fortified milk are bioaccessible as determined in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    PubMed

    Verwei, Miriam; Arkbåge, Karin; Havenaar, Robert; van den Berg, Henk; Witthöft, Cornelia; Schaafsma, Gertjan

    2003-07-01

    Dairy products are a potential matrix for folate fortification to enhance folate consumption in the Western world. Milk folate-binding proteins (FBP) are especially interesting because they seem to be involved in folate bioavailability. In this study, folate bioaccessibility was investigated using a dynamic computer-controlled gastrointestinal model [TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM)]. We used both ultrahigh temperature (UHT)-processed milk and pasteurized milk, differing in endogenous FBP concentrations and fortified with folic acid or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH(3)-H(4)folate). To study FBP stability during gastrointestinal passage and the effect of additional FBP on folate bioaccessibility, FBP-fortified UHT and pasteurized milk products were also tested. Folate bioaccessibility and FBP stability were measured by taking samples along the compartments of the gastrointestinal model and measuring their folate and FBP concentrations. Folate bioaccessibility from folic acid-fortified milk products without additional FBP was 58-61%. This was lower (P < 0.05) than that of the 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate-fortified milk products (71%). Addition of FBP reduced (P < 0.05) folate bioaccessibility from folic acid-fortified milk (44-51%) but not from 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate-fortified milk products (72%). The residual FBP levels in the folic acid- and 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate-fortified milk products after gastrointestinal passage were 13-16% and 0-1%, respectively, of the starting amounts subjected to TIM. In conclusion, milk seems to be a suitable carrier for folate, because both folic acid and 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate are easily released from the matrix and available for absorption. However, our results suggest that folic acid remains partly bound to FBP during passage through the small intestine, which reduces the bioaccessibility of folic acid from milk in this model.

  10. Nondairy creamer, but not milk, delays the appearance of coffee phenolic acid equivalents in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Renouf, Mathieu; Marmet, Cynthia; Guy, Philippe; Fraering, Anne-Lise; Longet, Karin; Moulin, Julie; Enslen, Marc; Barron, Denis; Cavin, Christophe; Dionisi, Fabiola; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil; Steiling, Heike; Williamson, Gary

    2010-02-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are antioxidants found in coffee. They are becoming of interest for their health-promoting effects, but bioavailability in humans is not well understood. We hypothesized that adding whole milk or sugar and nondairy creamer to instant coffee might modulate the bioavailability of coffee phenolics. Nine healthy participants were asked to randomly drink, in a crossover design, instant coffee (Coffee); instant coffee and 10% whole milk (Milk); or instant coffee, sugar, and nondairy creamer already premixed (Sugar/NDC). All 3 treatments provided the same amount of total CGA (332 mg). Blood was collected for 12 h after ingestion and plasma samples treated using a liquid-liquid extraction method that included a full enzymatic cleavage to hydrolyze all CGA and conjugates into phenolic acid equivalents. Hence, we focused our liquid chromatography-Electrospray ionization-tandem MS detection and quantification on caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), and isoferulic acid (iFA) equivalents. Compared with a regular black instant coffee, the addition of milk did not significantly alter the area under the curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), or the time needed to reach C(max) (T(max)). The C(max) of CA and iFA were significantly lower and the T(max) of FA and iFA significantly longer for the Sugar/NDC group than for the Coffee group. However, the AUC did not significantly differ. As a conclusion, adding whole milk did not alter the overall bioavailability of coffee phenolic acids, whereas sugar and nondairy creamer affected the T(max) and C(max) but not the appearance of coffee phenolics in plasma.

  11. The type and concentration of milk increase the in vitro bioaccessibility of coffee chlorogenic acids.

    PubMed

    Tagliazucchi, Davide; Helal, Ahmed; Verzelloni, Elena; Conte, Angela

    2012-11-07

    Coffee with different types and concentrations of milk was digested with pepsin (2 h) and pancreatin (2 h) to simulate gastropancreatic digestion. Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in ultrafiltrate (cutoff 3 kDa) to evaluate their bioaccessibility. After digestion, bioaccessible CGAs decreased from 80.2 to 53.0 and 69.5 μmol/200 mL in coffee without milk and coffee-whole milk, respectively. When whole, semiskimmed, skimmed, or diluted milk were present, the increase in bioaccessibility was dependent on fat content (r = 0.99, p < 0.001). No relationship was observed between bioaccessibility and proteins, carbohydrates, and calcium content. The addition of milk to coffee caused an immediate decrease in the bioaccessibility due to CGAs binding to proteins. After digestion, 86-94% of bound CGAs remained in the high molecular weight fraction. Casein bound 5-caffeoylquinic acid with high affinity (K(D) of 37.9 ± 2.3 μmol/L; n = 0.88 ± 0.06).

  12. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  13. Immune factors and fatty acid composition in human milk from river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Heidi J; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Yixiong; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Frøyland, Livar; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breastmilk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1, TGF-b2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-b1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and g-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant.

  14. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of Saanen goat milk fed with Cacti varieties.

    PubMed

    Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais

    2016-08-01

    The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk.

  15. [Analysis of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat by capillary gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Shen, Xiangzhen; Han, Hangru; Zhao, Ruqian; Chen, Jie

    2006-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a term representing a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with a conjugated double bond system. Conjugated linoleic acid has attracted a great deal of interest among nutritionists because it is a natural fat component that appears to have a number of health improvement properties. The cis-9, trans-11-CLA is the major CLA isomer found in dairy products accounting for 75% to 90% of the total CLA in milk fat. A capillary gas chromatographic method equipped with a flame ionization detector for the analysis of the cis-9, trans-11-CLA in milk fat was developed. The cis-9, trans-11-CLA was extracted with hexane-isopropanol, methylated with methanol-sodium methylate and cis-9, trans-11-CLA was separated and quantified using gas chromatography. Retention time of the peaks was used for qualitative analysis, while external standard method was used for quantitative analysis. The recovery of the cis-9, trans-11-CLA was 100.26%. The relative standard deviation was 1.9% (n = 6). This method presented is advantageous for high precision, high sensitivity analysis with smaller sample size and simpler pretreatment. It would be of significance for analyzing the contents of other fatty acids in the milk and milk products.

  16. Screening for antimicrobial and proteolytic activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cow, buffalo and goat milk and cheeses marketed in the southeast region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tulini, Fabricio L; Hymery, Nolwenn; Haertlé, Thomas; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; De Martinis, Elaine C P

    2016-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be isolated from different sources such as milk and cheese, and the lipolytic, proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes of LAB are important in cheese preservation and in flavour production. Moreover, LAB produce several antimicrobial compounds which make these bacteria interesting for food biopreservation. These characteristics stimulate the search of new strains with technological potential. From 156 milk and cheese samples from cow, buffalo and goat, 815 isolates were obtained on selective agars for LAB. Pure cultures were evaluated for antimicrobial activities by agar antagonism tests and for proteolytic activity on milk proteins by cultivation on agar plates. The most proteolytic isolates were also tested by cultivation in skim milk followed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the fermented milk. Among the 815 tested isolates, three of them identified as Streptococcus uberis (strains FT86, FT126 and FT190) were bacteriocin producers, whereas four other ones identified as Weissella confusa FT424, W. hellenica FT476, Leuconostoc citreum FT671 and Lactobacillus plantarum FT723 showed high antifungal activity in preliminary assays. Complementary analyses showed that the most antifungal strain was L. plantarum FT723 that inhibited Penicillium expansum in modified MRS agar (De Man, Rogosa, Sharpe, without acetate) and fermented milk model, however no inhibition was observed against Yarrowia lipolytica. The proteolytic capacities of three highly proteolytic isolates identified as Enterococcus faecalis (strains FT132 and FT522) and Lactobacillus paracasei FT700 were confirmed by SDS-PAGE, as visualized by the digestion of caseins and whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin). These results suggest potential applications of these isolates or their activities (proteolytic activity or production of antimicrobials) in dairy foods production.

  17. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard.

  18. Distinct Patterns in Human Milk Microbiota and Fatty Acid Profiles Across Specific Geographic Locations

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Himanshu; du Toit, Elloise; Kulkarni, Amruta; Aakko, Juhani; Linderborg, Kaisa M.; Zhang, Yumei; Nicol, Mark P.; Isolauri, Erika; Yang, Baoru; Collado, Maria C.; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding results in long term health benefits in the prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases at both individual and population levels. Geographical location directly impacts the composition of breast milk including microbiota and lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of geographical location, i.e., Europe (Spain and Finland), Africa (South Africa), and Asia (China), on breast milk microbiota and lipid composition in samples obtained from healthy mothers after the 1 month of lactation. Altogether, 80 women (20 from each country) participated in the study, with equal number of women who delivered by vaginal or cesarean section from each country. Lipid composition particularly that of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between the countries, with the highest amount of n-6 PUFA (25.6%) observed in the milk of Chinese women. Milk microbiota composition also differed significantly between the countries (p = 0.002). Among vaginally delivered women, Spanish women had highest amount of Bacteroidetes (mean relative abundance of 3.75) whereas Chinese women had highest amount of Actinobacteria (mean relative abundance 5.7). Women who had had a cesarean section had higher amount of Proteobacteria as observed in the milk of the Spanish and South African women. Interestingly, the Spanish and South African women had significantly higher bacterial genes mapped to lipid, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism (p < 0.05). Association of the lipid profile with the microbiota revealed that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were negatively associated with Proteobacteria (r = -0.43, p < 0.05), while Lactobacillus genus was associated with MUFA (r = -0.23, p = 0.04). These findings reveal that the milk microbiota and lipid composition exhibit differences based on geographical locations in addition to the differences observed due to the mode of delivery. PMID:27790209

  19. Milk fat responses to dietary supplementation of short- and medium-chain fatty acids in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; Teter, B B; Erdman, R A

    2012-09-01

    Short-and medium-chain fatty acids (SMCFA), which are synthesized de novo in the mammary gland, are reduced to a much greater extent than the long-chain fatty acids during diet-induced milk fat depression. Our hypothesis was that SMCFA are limiting for milk fat synthesis even under conditions when milk fat is not depressed. Our objective was to test the potential limitation of SMCFA on milk fat synthesis via dietary supplementation. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (107±18 d in milk) were fed a corn silage-based total mixed ration. Cows were randomly assigned to groups of 4 per pen and supplemented with 1 of 4 dietary fat supplements (600 g/d) supplied in a 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods. Treatments consisted of fat supplements containing mixtures of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Megalac; Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) and an SMCFA mixture (S; 3.3% C8, 7.6% C10, 9.85% C12, 32.12% C14, and 47.11% C16) that contained 0, 200, 400, and 600 g/d of S substituted for Megalac (S0, S200, S400, and S600, respectively). No treatment effects were observed for dry matter and fat-corrected milk. However, milk yield was decreased with S600. Milk fat increased linearly by 0.17, 0.25, and 0.33 percentage units for the respective S treatments. However, fat yield peaked at S200 and milk protein concentration and yield was significantly decreased at the higher S levels because of a linear trend toward decreased milk yield in the S600 treatment. In conclusion, SMCFA supplementation linearly increased milk fat concentration but decreased milk production at the higher levels of supplementation. The dietary inclusion of SMCFA had no effects on total milk fat yield.

  20. BANANA GEL.

    PubMed

    McGuire, G; Falk, K G

    1922-03-20

    The conditions for the formation of gels from banana extracts were studied. Gels were obtained with extracts more alkaline than pH 7.0 with very small quantities of calcium, strontium, and barium salts, the gel formation with these salts decreasing in the indicated order. In solutions more acid than pH 6.0, no gels were obtained with these salts. Magnesium, lithium, and sodium salts did not cause gel formation either in acid or alkaline solutions. Pancreatine gave a gel on incubation with banana extract at pH 5.0. The gel-forming property of banana extracts was destroyed on boiling.

  1. Composition and fatty acid profile of milk from cows supplemented with pressed oilseed cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sa; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Pereira, Elzania Sales; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Correia, Braulio Rocha

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the productive and nutritional parameters of milk from crossbred lactating cows managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania and with a diet supplemented with different pressed oilseed cakes. The supplements used were as follows: peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake for replacement of soybean meal. Sixteen cows with an average weight of 544 ± 57 kg and producing 8 ± 1.4 L of milk per day were used in this study. The animals were randomly assigned to the treatments according to a Latin square design repeated over time, with four treatments, 16 animals and four experimental periods. Supplementation of the diet with peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake compared with soybean meal in the diet of cows did not affect the average daily production or composition of the milk. The palm kernel cake promoted an increase in lauric fatty acids (C12:0 ) and palmitoleic acids (C16:1 ) (5.02 and 1.65%, respectively) compared with peanut cake and sunflower cake (4.13 and 4.01%, respectively). The levels of oleic fatty acids (C18:1 ) were higher for the sunflower cake and palm kernel cake supplements (26.01 and 25.01%, respectively) compared with peanut cake (23.11%). The replacement of soybean meal with sunflower cake and palm kernel cake improved the nutritional quality of the milk, with lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids and higher concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids, without compromising the production or nutritional composition of the milk. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield.

  3. Factors affecting variations in the detailed fatty acid profile of Mediterranean buffalo milk determined by 2-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, S; Stocco, G; Mele, M; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-04-01

    Buffalo milk is the world's second most widely produced milk, and increasing attention is being paid to its composition, particularly the fatty acid profile. The objectives of the present study were (1) to characterize the fatty acid composition of Mediterranean buffalo milk, and (2) to investigate potential sources of variation in the buffalo milk fatty acid profile. We determined the profile of 69 fatty acid traits in 272 individual samples of Mediterranean buffalo milk using gas chromatography. In total, 51 individual fatty acids were identified: 24 saturated fatty acids, 13 monounsaturated fatty acids, and 14 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major individual fatty acids in buffalo milk were in the order 16:0, 18:1 cis-9, 14:0, and 18:0. Saturated fatty acids were the predominant fraction in buffalo milk fat (70.49%); monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were at 25.95 and 3.54%, respectively. Adopting a classification based on carbon-chain length, we found that medium-chain fatty acids (11-16 carbons) represented the greater part (53.7%) of the fatty acid fraction of buffalo milk, whereas long-chain fatty acids (17-24 carbons) and short-chain fatty acids (4-10 carbons) accounted for 32.73 and 9.72%, respectively. The n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were 0.46 and 1.77%, respectively. The main conjugated linoleic acid, rumenic acid, represented 0.45% of total milk fatty acids. Herd/test date and stage of lactation were confirmed as important sources of variation in the fatty acid profile of buffalo milk. The percentages of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids in buffalo milk increased in early lactation (+0.6 and +3.5%, respectively), whereas long-chain fatty acids decreased (-4.2%). The only exception to this pattern was butyric acid, which linearly decreased from the beginning of lactation, confirmation that its synthesis is independent of malonyl-CoA. These results seem to suggest that in early lactation the mobilization of energy reserves may have less

  4. The Use of Gel Electrophoresis to Study the Reactions of Activated Amino Acids with Oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zieboll, Gerhard; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used gel electrophoresis to study the primary covalent addition of amino acids to oligonu-cleotides or their analogs and the subsequent addition of further molecules of the amino acids to generate peptides covalently linked to the oligonucleotides. We have surveyed the reactions of a variety of amino acids with the phosphoramidates derived from oligonucleotide 5 inches phosphates and ethylenediamine. We find that arginine and amino acids can interact with oligonucleotidesl through stacking interactions react most efficiently. D- and L-amino acids give indistinguishable families of products.

  5. Multivariate factor analysis of detailed milk fatty acid profile: Effects of dairy system, feeding, herd, parity, and stage of lactation.

    PubMed

    Mele, M; Macciotta, N P P; Cecchinato, A; Conte, G; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the potential of using multivariate factor analysis to extract metabolic information from data on the quantity and quality of milk produced under different management systems. We collected data from individual milk samples taken from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows farmed in 85 traditional or modern herds in Trento Province (Italy). Factor analysis was carried out on 47 individual fatty acids, milk yield, and 5 compositional milk traits (fat, protein, casein, and lactose contents, somatic cell score). According to a previous study on multivariate factor analysis, a variable was considered to be associated with a specific factor if the absolute value of its correlation with the factor was ≥0.60. The extracted factors were representative of the following 12 groups of fatty acids or functions: de novo fatty acids, branched fatty acid-milk yield, biohydrogenation, long-chain fatty acids, desaturation, short-chain fatty acids, milk protein and fat contents, odd fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids, linoleic acid, udder health, and vaccelenic acid. Only 5 fatty acids showed small correlations with these groups. Factor analysis suggested the existence of differences in the metabolic pathways for de novo short- and medium-chain fatty acids and Δ(9)-desaturase products. An ANOVA of factor scores highlighted significant effects of the dairy farming system (traditional or modern), season, herd/date, parity, and days in milk. Factor behavior across levels of fixed factors was consistent with current knowledge. For example, compared with cows farmed in modern herds, those in traditional herds had higher scores for branched fatty acids, which were inversely associated with milk yield; primiparous cows had lower scores than older cows for de novo fatty acids, probably due to a larger contribution of lipids mobilized from body depots on milk fat yield. The statistical approach allowed us to reduce a large number of variables to a few latent factors with biological

  6. Seasonal variations in the fatty acid profile of milk from yaks grazing on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Ding, Luming; Wang, Yupeng; Kreuzer, Michael; Guo, Xusheng; Mi, Jiandui; Gou, Yujiao; Shang, Zhanhuan; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Jianwei; Wang, Hucheng; Long, Ruijun

    2013-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the seasonal changes in the fatty acid profile of milk from yaks (Bos grunniens) when kept at altitudes of 3000 m above sea level (a.s.l.) and higher. Data and samples were collected in summer (July), autumn (September), winter (November) and spring (March) from ten lactating yaks (four in spring). The yaks grazed pastures adjacent to the farm building throughout the year. In spring only they received 0·6 kg crop by-products per day (dry matter basis). Fresh alpine grasses, available in summer and autumn, showed high concentrations of α-linolenic acid (46-51 g/100 g lipids) compared with the dry, yellow vegetation of winter and spring (16 g/100 g lipids). In autumn and summer, the milk fat had higher concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids than in winter. These polyunsaturated fatty acids were comprised of vaccenic acid, rumenic acid and α-linolenic acid, which are all considered beneficial to human health. The rare fatty acid, γ-linolenic acid, was also detected in yak milk, especially in the milk obtained in spring. The results suggest that yak milk, which is the most important basic food of the Tibetan herders, has the most favourable fatty acid profile when yaks grazed green pasture, which also corresponds to the period of highest milk production.

  7. Genetic parameters of coagulation properties, milk yield, quality, and acidity estimated using coagulating and noncoagulating milk information in Brown Swiss and Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; De Marchi, M; Gallo, L; Bittante, G; Carnier, P

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate heritabilities of rennet coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (a(30)) and their genetic correlations with test-day milk yield, composition (fat, protein, and casein content), somatic cell score, and acidity (pH and titratable acidity) using coagulating and noncoagulating (NC) milk information. Data were from 1,025 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 1,234 Brown Swiss (BS) cows, which were progeny of 54 HF and 58 BS artificial insemination sires, respectively. Milk coagulation properties (MCP) of each cow were measured once using a computerized renneting meter and samples not exhibiting coagulation within 31 min after rennet addition were classified as NC milk. For NC samples, RCT was unobserved. Multivariate analyses, using Bayesian methodology, were performed to estimate the genetic relationships of RCT or a(30) with the other traits and statistical inference was based on the marginal posterior distributions of parameters of concern. For analyses involving RCT, a right-censored Gaussian linear model was used and records of NC milk samples, being censored records, were included as unknown parameters in the model implementing a data augmentation procedure. Rennet coagulation time was more heritable [heritability (h(2))=0.240 and h(2)=0.210 for HF and BS, respectively] than a(30) (h(2)=0.148 and h(2)=0.168 for HF and BS, respectively). Milk coagulation properties were more heritable than a single test-day milk yield (h(2)=0.103 and h(2)=0.097 for HF and BS, respectively) and less heritable than milk composition traits whose heritability ranged from 0.275 to 0.275, with the only exception of fat content of BS milk (h(2)=0.108). A negative genetic correlation, lower than -0.85, was estimated between RCT and a(30) for both breeds. Genetic relationships of MCP with yield and composition were low or moderate and favorable. The genetic correlation of somatic cell score with RCT in BS cows was large and positive and even more positive were

  8. The association between radiographic embrasure morphology and interdental papilla reconstruction using injectable hyaluronic acid gel

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of enhancing deficient interdental papilla with hyaluronic acid gel injection by assessing the radiographic anatomical factors affecting the reconstruction of the interdental papilla. Methods Fifty-seven treated sites from 13 patients (6 males and 7 females) were included. Patients had papillary deficiency in the upper anterior area. Prior to treatment, photographic and periapical radiographic standardization devices were designed for each patient. A 30-gauge needle was used with an injection-assistance device to inject a hyaluronic acid gel to the involved papilla. This treatment was repeated up to 5 times every 3 weeks. Patients were followed up for 6 months after the initial gel application. Clinical photographic measurements of the black triangle area (BTA), height (BTH), and width (BTW) and periapical radiographic measurements of the contact point and the bone crest (CP-BC) and the interproximal distance between roots (IDR) were undertaken using computer software. The interdental papilla reconstruction rate (IPRR) was calculated to determine the percentage change of BTA between the initial and final examination and the association between radiographic factors and the reconstruction of the interdental papilla by means of injectable hyaluronic acid gel were evaluated. Results All sites showed improvement between treatment examinations. Thirty-six sites had complete interdental papilla reconstruction and 21 sites showed improvement ranging from 19% to 96%. The CP-BC correlated with the IPRR. More specifically, when the CP-BC reached 6 mm, virtually complete interdental papilla reconstruction via injectable hyaluronic acid gel was achieved. Conclusions These results suggest that the CP-BC is closely related to the efficacy of hyaluronic acid gel injection for interdental papilla reconstruction. PMID:27588217

  9. Genetic parameter estimation for major milk fatty acids in Alpine and Saanen primiparous goats.

    PubMed

    Maroteau, C; Palhière, I; Larroque, H; Clément, V; Ferrand, M; Tosser-Klopp, G; Rupp, R

    2014-05-01

    Genetic parameters for 18 fatty acids or groups of fatty acids (FA), milk production traits, and somatic cell score (SCS) were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood with a repeatability animal model, using 45,259 test-day records from the first lactations of 13,677 Alpine and Saanen goats. Fatty acid data were collected as part of an extensive recording scheme (PhénoFinLait), and sample testing was based on mid-infrared spectra estimates. The total predicted FA content in milk was approximately 3.5% in Alpine and Saanen goats. Goat milk fat showed similar saturated FA to cattle and sheep, but higher contents of capric (C10:0) FA (~ 9.7 g/100g of milk fat). Heritability estimates ranged from 0.18 to 0.49 for FA and estimates were generally higher when FA were expressed in g/100g of milk fat compared with g/100g of milk. In general, the 3 specific short- and medium-chain goat FA, caproic acid (C6:0), caprylic acid (C8:0), and especially capric (C10:0) acid, had among the highest heritability estimates (from 0.21 to 0.37; average of 0.30). Heritability estimates for milk yield, fat and protein contents, and SCS were 0.22, 0.23, 0.39, 0.09, and 0.24, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.15, in Alpine and Saanen goats, respectively. When FA were expressed in g/100g of milk, genetic correlations between fat content and all FA were high and positive. Genetic correlations between the fat content and FA groups expressed in g/100g of fat led to further investigation of the association between fat content and FA profile within milk fat. Accordingly, in both Saanen and Alpine breeds, no significant genetic correlations were found between fat content and C16:0, whereas the correlations between fat content and specific goat FA (C6:0 to C10:0) were positive (0.17 to 0.59). In addition, the genetic correlation between fat content and C14:0 was negative (-0.17 to -0.35). The values of the genetic correlations between protein content and individual FA were similar, although genetic correlations

  10. Quality and fatty acid profile of the milk of indigenous goats subjected to different local diets in Tunisian arid lands.

    PubMed

    Ayeb, N; Addis, M; Fiori, M; Khorchani, S; Atigui, M; Khorchani, T

    2016-02-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that certain pastoral forages and olive by-products, available in arid areas, may positively influence fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of goat's milk. Thirty indigenous goats (body weight = 25.2 kg; age = 4.1 years) were allocated to three groups. During 60 days, the goats received ad libitum either dried olive leaves + Stipa tenacissima (group OL), khortane grass hay (group Ko) or oat hay (control diet, group OH). Milk samples were collected and analysed for total solids, fat, protein, lactose and ash content and fatty acid profile. Average milk yield did not statistically differ among groups. Milk total solids from OL group were higher in comparison with Ko and C groups (15.3, 14.7 and 14.5%, respectively; p < 0.05). Fat content was also higher for the OL group as compared to the other groups (5.44 vs. 5.01 and 4.66%, respectively, for Ko and OH). No significant differences were observed for the milk content of lactose, protein and ash. The percentage of saturated fatty acids of total milk fat was higher in OL and Ko groups compared to the C group (p < 0.001); the milk whereof was characterized by the highest percentage of monounsaturated (p < 0.01) and total unsaturated fatty acids. Milk fat of Ko and C groups showed significantly higher proportions of rumenic (CLA cis-9 trans-11) and vaccenic acids (C18:1 trans-11) compared to OL milk. The feeding system based on Stipa tenacissima and dried olive leaves resulted in the milk lowest proportion of trans-fatty acids and the highest proportion of polyunsaturated ω3-fatty acids (p < 0.05).

  11. Transdermal potential and anti-arthritic efficacy of ursolic acid from niosomal gel systems.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mahvish; Imam, Syed Sarim; Aqil, Mohd; Amir, Mohd; Mir, Shaukat R; Mujeeb, Mohd

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to optimize niosomes by experimental design for enhanced transdermal delivery of ursolic acid for the effective treatment of arthritis. The experimental design (3 factor 3 levels, Box-Behnken design) was used to study individual and combined effects of different formulation variables. The variables cholesterol (X1), span 60 (X2) and phospholipid (X3) were taken as independent factors and their effect was observed on size (Y1) entrapment efficiency (Y2), and transflux (Y3). The formulation composition with span 60 (85mg), cholesterol (12.3mg), and phospholipid (65mg) was found to fulfil requisites of optimized ursolic acid niosome formulation (URNF). URNF had shown vesicle size of 665.45nm, entrapment efficiency of 92.74% with transflux of 17.25μg/cm(2)/h. The in vivo bioactivity showed that the prepared URNF-gel was able to provide good anti-arthritic activity due to enhanced permeation of UA through the skin and results were found to be comparable to standard gel (Omni gel). The radiographical image confirmed that, the developed URNF-gel was found to be effective to treat arthritis. Thus niosomal gel of ursolic acid would be a promising alternative to conventional therapy for safe and efficient treatment of arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders.

  12. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    PubMed

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet

  13. Short communication: Effects of prill size of a palmitic acid-enriched fat supplement on the yield of milk and milk components, and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    de Souza, J; Garver, J L; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of our experiment was to evaluate the effects of prill size of a palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid supplement (PA; 85% C16:0) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and production responses of dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned based on parity and production level to replicated 4×4 Latin squares balanced for carryover effects with 21-d periods. Treatments were a control diet (no added PA), or 2.0% PA added as a small prill size (PA-SM; 284±12.4µm), a medium prill size (PA-MD; 325±14.7µm), or a large prill size (PA-LG; 600±17.4µm) supplement. Overall, PA treatments increased milk fat content (4.25 vs. 3.99%), milk fat yield (1.48 vs. 1.39kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (39.2 vs. 37.7kg/d), and improved feed efficiency (fat-corrected milk:dry matter intake; 1.51 vs. 1.42) compared with control. Compared with control, PA treatments did not affect dry matter intake, body weight, body condition score, or yields of milk, protein, and lactose. The PA treatments increased neutral detergent fiber digestibility (44.8 vs. 42.4%) and reduced the digestibility of 16-carbon fatty acids (72.3 vs. 79.1%) and total fatty acids (76.6 vs. 80.3%). Compared with control, PA treatments reduced the contents of de novo synthesized milk fatty acids (23.0 vs. 25.8g/100g of fatty acids) and preformed milk fatty acids (36.3 vs. 39.1g/100g of fatty acids), but did not affect their yields. In contrast, PA treatments increased the content (40.8 vs. 35.1g/100g of fatty acids) and yield (570 vs. 436g/d) of 16-carbon milk fatty acids compared with control. The PA prill size had no effect on dry matter intake, yield of milk and milk components, or feed efficiency. However, PA-LG tended to increase milk fat content compared with PA-SM (4.28 vs. 4.22%), and it increased 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility compared with PA-MD (74.2 vs. 71.0%) and PA-SM (74.2 vs. 71.7%). Additionally, PA-LG increased total fatty acid digestibility compared

  14. Transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) from contaminated feed to dairy milk.

    PubMed

    van Asselt, E D; Kowalczyk, J; van Eijkeren, J C H; Zeilmaker, M J; Ehlers, S; Fürst, P; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2013-11-15

    Dietary intake is the predominant route for human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). Single pollution events may thus affect human exposure if polluted ground and water is used to produce animal feed or food. In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK-) model is derived that describes the uptake of PFOS from contaminated feed by cows and its subsequent elimination through the cows' milk. Parameter values of the model were estimated by fitting to experimental data of a cow feeding trial. Model calculations showed that almost all PFOS ingested is excreted through the cows' milk. The elimination rate, however, was low as the estimated half-life in the cow was 56days and it may, thus, take a long time after an initial pollution event to produce PFOS-free milk. The derived model can be used to estimate the transfer of PFOS through the dairy food chain and can be used for comparison of various contamination routes.

  15. Versatility of azelaic acid 15% gel in treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Thiboutot, Diane

    2008-01-01

    Azelaic acid (AzA) 15% gel is approved for the treatment of rosacea in the US, but also has approval for the treatment of acne vulgaris in many European countries where it has demonstrated success. Two randomized, multicenter, controlled clinical trials compared the effects of AzA 15% gel with those of topical benzoyl peroxide 5% or topical clindamycin 1%, all using a twice-daily dosing regimen. The primary endpoint in the intent-to-treat analysis was a reduction in inflammatory papules and pustules. AzA 15% gel resulted in a 70% to 71% median reduction of facial papules and pustules compared with a 77% reduction with benzoyl peroxide 5% gel and a 63% reduction with clindamycin. AzA 15% gel was well-tolerated. In addition, a 1-year European observational study conducted by dermatologists in private practice evaluated the safety and efficacy of AzA 15% gel used as monotherapy or in combination with other agents in more than 1200 patients with acne. Most physicians (81.9%) described an improvement in patients' symptoms after an average of 34.6 days, and 93.9% of physicians reported patient improvement after an average of 73.1 days. Both physicians and patients assessed AzA 15% gel to be effective with 74% of patients being "very satisfied" at the end of therapy. AzA 15% gel was considered "well-tolerated" or "very well-tolerated" by 95.7% of patients. The majority of patients were more satisfied with AzA than with previous therapies. AzA 15% gel represents a new therapeutic option for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid in rumen, plasma, and milk of cows fed fish oil and fats differing in saturation of 18 carbon fatty acids.

    PubMed

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of feeding fish oil (FO) along with fat sources that varied in saturation of 18 carbon fatty acids (high stearic, high oleic, high linoleic, or high linolenic acids) on rumen, plasma, and milk fatty acid profiles. Four primiparous Holstein cows at 85 d in milk (+/- 40) were assigned to 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods. Treatment diets were 1) 1% FO plus 2% commercial fat high in stearic acid (HS); 2) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high oleic acid sunflower seeds (HO); 3) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high linoleic acid sunflower seeds (HLO); and 4) 1% FO plus 2% fat from flax seeds (high linolenic; HLN). Diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and were composed of 50% (dry basis) concentrate mix, 25% corn silage, 12.5% alfalfa silage, and 12.5% alfalfa hay. Milk production, milk protein percentages and yields, and dry matter intake were similar across diets. Milk fat concentrations and yields were least for HO and HLO diets. The proportion of milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.71, 0.99, 1.71, and 1.12 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively), and vaccenic acid (TVA; 1.85, 2.60, 4.14, and 2.16 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) were greatest with the HLO diet. The proportions of ruminal cis-9, trans-11 CLA (0.09, 0.16, 0.18, and 0.16 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) were similar for the HO, HLO, and HLN diets and all were higher than for the HS diet. The proportions of TVA (2.85, 4.36, 8.69, and 4.64 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) increased with the HO, HLO, and HLN diets compared with the HS diets, and the increase was greatest with the HLO diet. The effects of fat supplements on ruminal TVA concentrations were also reflected in plasma triglycerides, (2.75, 4.64, 8.77, and 5.42 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively); however, there were no differences in the proportion of cis-9, trans-11 CLA (0.06, 0.07, 0.06, and 0.07 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). This study further supports the

  17. Increasing palmitic acid intake enhances milk production and prevents glucose-stimulated fatty acid disappearance without modifying systemic glucose tolerance in mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mathews, A T; Rico, J E; Sprenkle, N T; Lock, A L; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Feeding saturated fatty acids may enhance milk yield in part by decreasing insulin sensitivity and shifting glucose utilization toward the mammary gland. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of palmitic acid (C16:0) on milk production and insulin sensitivity in cows. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows received a common sorghum silage-based diet and were randomly assigned to a diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration DM (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield by wk 7. Furthermore, PALM increased milk fat yield and energy-corrected milk at wk 3 and 7. Changes in milk production occurred in parallel with enhanced energy intake. Increased milk fat yield during PALM treatment was due to increased C16:0 and C16:1 incorporation; PALM had no effect on concentration of milk components, BW, or body condition score. Two weeks posttreatment, energy-corrected milk and milk fat yield remained elevated in PALM-fed cows whereas yields of milk were similar between treatments. Increased milk fat yield after PALM treatment was due to increased de novo lipogenesis and uptake of preformed fatty acids. The basal concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in plasma increased by d 4, 6, and 8 of PALM treatment, a response not observed thereafter. Although PALM supplementation did not modify insulin, glucose, or triacylglycerol levels in plasma, total cholesterol in plasma was elevated by wk 3. Estimated insulin sensitivity was lower during the

  18. Acid-base balance and selected hematologic, electrolyte, and blood chemical variables in calves: milk-fed vs conventionally fed.

    PubMed

    Reece, W O

    1980-01-01

    Several hematologic, acid-base, and electrolyte variables were chacterized for newborn milk-fed calves and conventionally fed calves at weekly intervals for 15 weeks. Definition was given to the iron deficiency, microcytic, hypochromic anemia which developed in milk-fed calves. Acid-base variables in milk-fed calves differed from variables in conventionally fed calves only in having a greater value for base excess. Acid-base variables responded with decreasing magnitude by weeks for both feeding treatments, and responses associated with ambient temperature were suggested. Responses of the other variables and their comparisons between the feeding treatments also were analyzed.

  19. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P < 0.05) from 27.6 ± 1.32b % to 31.7 ± 1.68a % and 2.15 ± 0.09b % to 2.79 ± 0.05a %, respectively, at T2 level. Incorporation of milk fat of T1 and T2 (modified fatty acids profile) in ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  20. α-Gel formation by amino acid-based gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Ohno, Kiyomi; Nomura, Kazuyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Kazutami; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2014-07-08

    Ternary mixtures being composed of surfactant, long-chain alcohol, and water sometimes form a highly viscous lamellar gel with a hexagonal packing arrangement of their crystalline hydrocarbon chains. This molecular assembly is called "α-crystalline phase" or "α-gel". In this study, we have characterized α-gels formed by the ternary mixtures of amino acid-based gemini surfactants, 1-hexadecanol (C16OH), and water. The surfactants used in this study were synthesized by reacting dodecanoylglutamic acid anhydride with alkyl diamines and abbreviated as 12-GsG-12 (s: the spacer chain length of 2, 5, and 8 methylene units). An amino acid-based monomeric surfactant, dodecanoylglutamic acid (12-Glu), was also used for comparison. At a fixed water concentration the melting point of the α-gel increased with increasing C16OH concentration, and then attained a saturation level at the critical mole ratio of 12-GsG-12/C16OH = 1/2 under the normalization by the number of hydrocarbon chains of the surfactants. This indicates that, to obtain the saturated α-gel, a lesser amount of C16OH is required for the gemini surfactants than for the monomeric one (the critical mole ratio of 12-Glu/C16OH = 1/3). Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements demonstrated an increase in the long-range d-spacing of the saturated α-gels in the order 12-Glu <12-G8G-12 < 12-G5G-12 < 12-G2G-12. In the three gemini surfactant systems, the decreased spacer chain length resulted in the increased maximum viscosity and elastic modulus of the saturated α-gels at a given water concentration. This is caused by the decreased amount of excess water being present outside the α-gel structure (or the increased amount of water incorporated between the surfactant-alcohol bilayers). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report focusing on the formation of α-gel in gemini surfactant systems.

  1. Human breast milk enrichment in conjugated linoleic acid after consumption of a conjugated linoleic acid-rich food product: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Moutsioulis, Athena A; Rule, Daniel C; Murrieta, Charles M; Bauman, Dale E; Lock, Adam L; Barbano, David M; Carey, Gale B

    2008-07-01

    Human breast milk is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. Some compounds, such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), come partly from the mother's diet and are produced by the mother's body and secreted into the milk. Although several studies have examined the effect of chronic CLA supplementation on breast milk CLA appearance, little is known about the transfer of food CLA to breast milk over the short term. The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary analysis of the kinetics of CLA appearance in breast milk over the short term. Seven women expressed breast milk at 4- to 6-hour intervals for 2 days after eating either CLA-enriched (1912 mg CLA) or control (231 mg CLA) cookies. Milk samples were freeze-dried, fatty acid methyl esters were prepared using methanolic-potassium hydroxide (KOH), and CLA isomers were quantified by gas chromatography. Analysis revealed the following: (1) CLA enrichment of total fatty acids in the breast milk for 48 hours post ingestion of the CLA-enriched cookies was 2.9-fold above control; (2) total breast milk CLA content for 48 hours post CLA-enriched cookies ingestion was 46% greater than post CLA-moderate cookies ingestion; (3) after ingestion of the CLA-enriched cookies, breast milk CLA enrichment plateaued between 8 to 28 hours. This preliminary study suggests that breast milk fatty acids are enriched in CLA compared to control within 28 hours after the ingestion of a CLA-rich food product and invites further research on the extent and timing with which breast milk composition reflects dietary CLA content.

  2. Formulating gels for decreased mucociliary transport using rheologic properties: polyacrylic acids.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ankur J; Donovan, Maureen D

    2007-04-20

    The purpose of these studies was to identify the rheologic properties of polyacrylic acid gels necessary for optimal reductions in mucociliary clearance. The mucociliary transport of 2 bioadhesive polyacrylic acid polymers, polycarbophil and carbopol, was assessed in vitro by measuring their clearance rates across explants of ciliated bovine tracheal tissue. The viscoelastic properties of polymer gels were measured in the presence of mucus using controlled stress rheometry. Combinations of apparent viscosity (eta) and complex modulus (G*) were found to be the most useful parameters in the identification of polyacrylic acid formulations capable of decreasing mucociliary transport rate (MTR). A narrow range of eta and G* values suitable for reducing mucociliary clearance, while remaining sufficiently fluid for intranasal administration, were identified. The correlations between the rheologic parameters of the polycarbophil gels and their mucociliary transport rates were used to identify other polyacrylic acid gels that also had suitable mucociliary clearance properties, demonstrating that these parameters can be used to direct the optimization of formulations using simple in vitro rheologic testing.

  3. Affi-Gel Blue for nucleic acid removal and early enrichment of nucleotide binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Deutscher, Murray P

    2009-01-01

    Passage of an extract or supernatant fraction through a column of Affi-Gel Blue and batchwise elution can be a rapid and effective early procedure for removal of nucleic acid, concentration of the sample and purification of nucleotide binding proteins.

  4. Comparative evaluation of coenzyme Q10-based gel and 0.8% hyaluronic acid gel in treatment of chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Varun; Gupta, Rajan; Dahiya, Parveen; Kumar, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The anti-inflammatory and immune enhancing effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and hyaluronic acid are well established in medical literature. The present study was undertaken to evaluate their role in chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty sites in 24 patients with clinically confirmed periodontitis were included in the study. A split-mouth design was used for intrasulcular application of CoQ10 as adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP), 0.8% hyaluronic acid as adjunct to SRP and SRP alone. Clinical parameters such as plaque index (PI), gingival color change index (GCCI), Eastman interdental bleeding index (EIBI), pocket depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded. All the clinical parameters PI, EIBI, GCCI, PD, and CAL were recorded at baseline before SRP. Only PI, EIBI, and GCCI were recorded at 1st and 2nd week. Twenty-one days post 2nd week, i.e., 6th week all the clinical parameters were recorded again. Results: Intragroup analysis of all the clinical parameters showed clinical significant results between baseline and 6th week. However, on intergroup analysis, the results were not significant. Conclusion: The local application of CoQ10 and hyaluronic acid gel in conjunction with SRP may have a beneficial effect on periodontal health in patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:28298817

  5. Immunoassay for folic acid detection in vitamin-fortified milk based on electrochemical magneto sensors.

    PubMed

    Lermo, A; Fabiano, S; Hernández, S; Galve, R; Marco, M-P; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I

    2009-03-15

    An immunoassay-based strategy for folic acid in vitamin-fortified milk with electrochemical detection using magneto sensors is described for the first time. Among direct and indirect competitive formats, best performance was achieved with an indirect competitive immunoassay. The immunological reaction for folic acid (FA) detection was performed, for the first time on the magnetic bead as solid support by the covalent immobilization of a protein conjugate BSA-FA on tosyl-activated magnetic bead. Further competition for the specific antibody between FA in the food sample and FA immobilized on the magnetic bead was achieved, followed by the reaction with a secondary antibody conjugated with HRP (AntiIgG-HRP). Then, the modified magnetic beads were easily captured by a magneto sensor made of graphite-epoxy composite (m-GEC) which was also used as the transducer for the electrochemical detection. The performance of the immunoassay-based strategy with electrochemical detection using magneto sensors was successfully evaluated using spiked-milk samples and compared with a novel magneto-ELISA based on optical detection. The detection limit was found to be of the order of microgl(-1) (13.1 nmoll(-1), 5.8 microgl(-1)) for skimmed milk. Commercial vitamin-fortified milk samples were also evaluated obtaining good accuracy in the results. This novel strategy offers great promise for rapid, simple, cost-effective and on-site analysis of biological and food samples.

  6. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA

  7. Comparison of near and medium infrared spectroscopy to predict fatty acid composition on fresh and thawed milk.

    PubMed

    Coppa, Mauro; Revello-Chion, Andrea; Giaccone, Daniele; Ferlay, Anne; Tabacco, Ernesto; Borreani, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    Near (NIR) and medium (MIR) infrared reflectance spectroscopy (IR) predictions of fatty acid (FA) composition, expressed as g/kg of milk or g/100g of FA, on fresh and thawed milk were compared. Two-hundred-and-fifty bulk cow milks, collected from 70 farms in northwest Italy, were scanned by MIR in liquid form and by NIR in liquid and oven-dried forms. MIR and NIR FA (g/100g FA) predictions on oven-dried milk were similar for the sum of even chain-saturated FA (ECSFA), odd chain-FA (OCFA), unsaturated FA (UFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 FA, and C18:1cis9 to C16 ratio. The monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-6 to n-3 ratio, polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and n-6 FA were predicted better by NIR on oven-dried milk. The NIR showed worse predictions than MIR for almost all FA, when expressed as g/kg of milk. The NIR predictions on fresh liquid and oven-dried milk were similar, but the reliability decreased for thawed liquid milk. The high performance shown by NIR and MIR allows their use for routine milk FA composition recording.

  8. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; R. J. Kirkham

    2004-01-01

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum "recipe" for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600ºC.

  9. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    PubMed

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( < 0.01) by 100% in the diet of goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( < 0.01) increased linearly with the amount of buriti oil in the diet. There was a linear reduction on hypercholesterolemic SFA such as C12:0 ( < 0.01) and C14:0 ( < 0.01) as well as the atherogenic index (AI; < 0.01) with buriti oil inclusion in goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( < 0.01) and C18:1 9 ( < 0.01) increased linearly in the milk of goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( < 0.01) varied quadratically; the maximum production of 0.62 g/100 g of fat was observed when using 1.50% buriti oil. The sensory characteristics of the milk were not changed ( > 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without

  10. Antimicrobial activity of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract in milk.

    PubMed

    Min, Keun Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peels were extracted with hot water and then acid-hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid. Antimicrobial activities of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract were evaluated against pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Antilisterial effect was also determined by adding extracts at 1, 2, and 4% to whole, low-fat, and skim milk. The cell numbers of B. cereus, Staph. aureus, and L. monocytogenes cultures treated with acid-hydrolyzed extract for 12h at 35°C were reduced from about 8log cfu/mL to <1log cfu/mL. Bacillus cereus was more sensitive to acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract than were the other bacteria. The addition of 4% acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu extracts to all types of milk inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes within 1d of storage at 4°C. The results indicated that Citrus unshiu peel extracts, after acid hydrolysis, effectively inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These findings indicate that acid hydrolysis of Citrus unshiu peel facilitates its use as a natural antimicrobial agent for food products.

  11. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  12. Short communication: Intake, milk production, and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets combining fresh forage with a total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2016-03-01

    To establish the effects of access time to high-quality temperate fresh forage (FF) on intake and performance of cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR), 9 Holstein cows were assigned to three 3 × 3 Latin squares with 20-d periods with sampling in the last 10 d. The following treatments were evaluated: 0 (T0), 4 (T4), and 8 (T8) h of daily access to FF. Forage (Lolium multiflorum) was cut daily and offered ad libitum beginning at 0800 h in individual stalls, and a TMR was offered ad libitum during the period when cows had no access to FF. Fresh forage dry matter intake (DMI) increased and TMR DMI decreased with the access time to FF, whereas total DMI was 3.0 kg higher for T4 than for T8; no differences were detected with T0. Compared with T0, 8h/d of access to FF decreased milk, protein, and casein yields, and tended to decrease fat and lactose yields, but treatment had no effect on milk composition or feed efficiency. The milk fatty acid profile in T8 had a higher content of rumenic, vaccenic, and linolenic acids compared with T0. We concluded that cows with 4h of access to high-quality FF had similar DMI and milk yields as cows fed only the TMR, but more than 4h of access reduced DMI and performance without changes in feed efficiency, although milk fat had enhanced levels of beneficial fatty acids.

  13. Butter composition and texture from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions fed fish oil or roasted soybeans.

    PubMed

    Bobe, G; Zimmerman, S; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Porter, P A; Luhman, C M; Beitz, D C

    2007-06-01

    Changing the milk fatty acid composition can improve the nutritional and physical properties of dairy products and their acceptability to consumers. A more healthful milk fatty acid composition can be achieved by altering the cow's diet, for example, by feeding supplemental fish oil (FO) or roasted soybeans (RSB), or by selecting cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition. We examined whether feeding supplemental FO or RSB to cows that had a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition acted additively to produce butter with improved fatty acid composition and texture. Using a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 2 replications, we fed diets to multiparous Holstein cows (60 to 200 DIM) chosen for producing either more or less unsaturated milk fatty acid composition (n = 6 for each group) for three 3-wk periods. The control diet contained 3.7% crude fat and the 2 experimental diets contained, on a dry matter basis, 0.8% of additional lipids in the form of 0.9% of FO or 5% of RSB. The milk, collected in the third week of feeding, was used to make butter, which was analyzed for its fatty acid composition and physical properties. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not significantly affected by cow diet or by cow selection. Cows that produced a more unsaturated and healthful milk fat prior to the feeding study, according to a "health-promoting index" [HPI = (sum of % of unsaturated fatty acids)/ (%12:0 + 4 x %14:0 + %16:0)], maintained a higher HPI in their butter during the feeding study than did cows with a low HPI. Milk from cows fed supplemental FO or RSB yielded more unsaturated butters with a higher HPI. This butter also was softer when the cows were fed RSB. Feeding RSB to cows chosen for their high milk HPI yielded the most unsaturated butter with the highest HPI and softest texture. Thus, selecting cows with a more health-promoting milk fatty acid composition and feeding supplemental RSB can be used in combination to produce butter

  14. Identification of tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid in foodstuffs, human urine and human milk.

    PubMed

    Adachi, J; Mizoi, Y; Naito, T; Ogawa, Y; Uetani, Y; Ninomiya, I

    1991-05-01

    1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (TCCA), both precursors of mutagenic N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosamines, 1-methyl-2-nitroso-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid and 2-nitroso-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid), were detected in various food-stuffs, urine from healthy human subjects and human milk. A purification procedure, involving a chemically-bonded material followed by HPLC combined with fluorometric detection, was used for the quantitative determination of these compounds, allowing the separation of two diastereoisomers of MTCA. An HPLC and mass spectrometry method was also developed for their identification. Comparing the concentration of MTCA and TCCA in fermented products and raw materials suggested that tetrahydro-beta-carbolines may have been produced through fermentation or by condensation of tryptophan and acetaldehyde formed from ethanol added as a food preservative. This is the first report of excretion of tetrahydro-beta-carbolines in human urine and human milk. A comparison of the concentrations of tetrahydro-beta-carbolines in urine from human infants and human milk indicates that tetrahydro-beta-carbolines may be synthesized endogenously in humans. A possible pathway of tryptophan metabolism in plants and animals is presented.

  15. Effect of a high-palmitic acid fat supplement on milk production and apparent total-tract digestibility in high- and low-milk yield dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, D E; Ying, Y; Harvatine, K J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a high-palmitic acid fat supplement was tested in 12 high-producing (mean = 42.1 kg/d) and 12 low-producing (mean = 28.9 kg/d) cows arranged in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Experimental periods were 21 d, with 18d of diet adaptation and 3 d of sample collection. Treatments were (1) control (no supplemental fat), (2) high-palmitic acid (PA) supplement (84% C16:0), and (3) Ca salts of palm fatty acid (FA) supplement (Ca-FA). The PA supplement had no effect on milk production, but decreased dry matter intake by 7 and 9% relative to the control in high- and low-producing cows, respectively, and increased feed efficiency by 8.5% in high-producing cows compared with the control. Milk fat concentration and yield were not affected by PA relative to the control in high- or low-producing cows, although PA increased the yield of milk 16-C FA by more than 85 g/d relative to the control. The Ca-FA decreased milk fat concentration compared with PA in high-, but not in low-producing cows. In agreement, Ca-FA dramatically increased milk fat concentration of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (>300%) compared with PA in high-producing cows, but not in low-producing cows. No effect of treatment on milk protein concentration or yield was detected. The PA supplement also increased 16-C FA apparent digestibility by over 10% and increased total FA digestibility compared with the control in high- and low-producing cows. During short-term feeding, palmitic acid supplementation did not increase milk or milk fat yield; however, it was efficiently absorbed, increased feed efficiency, and increased milk 16-C FA yield, while minimizing alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation commonly observed for other unsaturated fat supplements. Longer-term experiments will be necessary to determine the effects on energy balance and changes in body reserves.

  16. Mid-infrared prediction of bovine milk fatty acids across multiple breeds, production systems, and countries.

    PubMed

    Soyeurt, H; Dehareng, F; Gengler, N; McParland, S; Wall, E; Berry, D P; Coffey, M; Dardenne, P

    2011-04-01

    Increasing consumer concern exists over the relationship between food composition and human health. Because of the known effects of fatty acids on human health, the development of a quick, inexpensive, and accurate method to directly quantify the fatty acid (FA) composition in milk would be valuable for milk processors to develop a payment system for milk pertinent to their customer requirements and for farmers to adapt their feeding systems and breeding strategies accordingly. The aim of this study was (1) to confirm the ability of mid-infrared spectrometry (MIR) to quantify individual FA content in milk by using an innovative procedure of sampling (i.e., samples were collected from cows belonging to different breeds, different countries, and in different production systems); (2) to compare 6 mathematical methods to develop robust calibration equations for predicting the contents of individual FA in milk; and (3) to test interest in using the FA equations developed in milk as basis to predict FA content in fat without corrections for the slope and the bias of the developed equations. In total, 517 samples selected based on their spectral variability in 3 countries (Belgium, Ireland, and United Kingdom) from various breeds, cows, and production systems were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The samples presenting the largest spectral variability were used to calibrate the prediction of FA by MIR. The remaining samples were used to externally validate the 28 FA equations developed. The 6 methods were (1) partial least squares regression (PLS); (2) PLS+repeatability file (REP); (3) first derivative of spectral data+PLS; (4) first derivative+REP+PLS; (5) second derivative of spectral data+PLS; and (6) second derivative+REP+PLS. Methods were compared on the basis of the cross-validation coefficient of determination (R2cv), the ratio of standard deviation of GC values to the standard error of cross-validation (RPD), and the validation coefficient of determination (R2

  17. Grape seed and linseed, alone and in combination, enhance unsaturated fatty acids in the milk of Sarda dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Correddu, F; Gaspa, G; Pulina, G; Nudda, A

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion of grape seed and linseed, alone or in combination, on sheep milk fatty acids (FA) profile using 24 Sarda dairy ewes allocated to 4 isoproductive groups. Groups were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of a control diet (CON), a diet including 300 g/d per animal of grape seed (GS), a diet including 220 g/d per animal of extruded linseed (LIN), and a diet including a mix of 300 g/d per animal of grape seed and 220 g/d per animal of extruded linseed (MIX). The study lasted 10 wk, with a 2-wk adaptation period and an 8-wk experimental period. Milk FA composition was analyzed in milk samples collected in the last 4 wk of the trial. The milk concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) decreased and that of unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (UFA, MUFA, and PUFA, respectively) increased in GS, LIN, and MIX groups compared with CON. The MIX group showed the lowest values of SFA and the highest of UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. Milk from ewes fed linseed (LIN and MIX) showed an enrichment of vaccenic acid (VA), oleic acid (OA), α-linolenic acid (LNA), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) compared with milk from the CON group. The GS group showed a greater content of milk oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) and tended to show a greater content of VA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA than the CON group. The inclusion of grape seed and linseed, alone and in combination, decreased the milk concentration of de novo synthesized FA C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0, with the MIX group showing the lowest values. In conclusion, grape seed and linseed could be useful to increase the concentration of FA with potential health benefits, especially when these ingredients are included in combination in the diet.

  18. The effect of terpenes on percutaneous absorption of tiaprofenic acid gel.

    PubMed

    Okyar, Alper; Nuriyev, Maksat; Yildiz, Ayca; Pala-Kara, Zeliha; Ozturk, Narin; Kaptan, Engin

    2010-11-01

    Tiaprofenic acid is a potent analgesic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and like any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, oral administration of the conventional dosage forms of tiaprofenic acid invariably causes gastrointestinal side effects. In an effort to eliminate these side effects while enhancing the drug concentration at the target tissue, an epidermal application of tiaprofenic acid seems to be an effective alternative drug delivery modality. This study attempts to demonstrate the influence of different terpenes (d-limonene, menthol and nerolidol) in various combinations of preparations on the percutaneous penetration of tiaprofenic acid from Carbopol(®) 940 based gel formulations (1%) in an ex vivo experiment using Franz-type diffusion cells. The enhancement effect of terpenes on skin absorption of tiaprofenic acid was further evaluated by an in vivo method in rats. Amongst the terpenes used, d-limonene was the most outstanding penetration enhancer that was reference to penetration of tiaprofenic acid through rat skin ex vivo. In vivo penetration study shows that the AUC₀(-)₄₈(h) was increased by about 10 fold by the addition of 5% d-limonene to the formulation. Histological studies show that d-limonene causes disruption on the skin surface and is responsible for enhanced penetration of tiaprofenic acid. Since tiaprofenic acid is known to cause gastrointestinal disturbances following systemic administration, topical formulations of tiaprofenic acid in gel form including 5% d-limonene could be suggested as an alternative.

  19. Incremental effect of a calcium salt of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids supplement on milk fatty acid composition in cows fed maize silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kliem, K E; Reynolds, C K; Humphries, D J; Kirkland, R M; Barratt, C E S; Livingstone, K M; Givens, D I

    2013-05-01

    In most Western countries, saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake exceeds recommended levels, which is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). As milk and dairy products are major contributors to SFA intake in many countries, recent research has focused on sustainable methods of producing milk with a lower saturated fat concentration by altering dairy cow diets. Human intervention studies have shown that CVD risk can be reduced by consuming dairy products with reduced SFA and increased cis-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations. This milk fatty acid profile can be achieved by supplementing dairy cow diets with cis-MUFA-rich unsaturated oils. However, rumen exposure of unsaturated oils also leads to enhanced milk trans fatty acid (TFA) concentrations. Because of concerns about the effects of TFA consumption on CVD, feeding strategies that increase MUFA concentrations in milk without concomitant increases in TFA concentration are preferred by milk processors. In an attempt to limit TFA production and increase the replacement of SFA by cis-MUFA, a preparation of rumen-protected unsaturated oils was developed using saponification with calcium salts. Four multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-late lactation were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to investigate the effect of incremental dietary inclusion of a calcium salt of cis-MUFA product (Ca-MUFA; 20, 40, and 60 g/kg of dry matter of a maize silage-based diet), on milk production, composition, and fatty acid concentration. Increasing Ca-MUFA inclusion reduced dry matter intake linearly, but no change was observed in estimated ME intake. No change in milk yield was noted, but milk fat and protein concentrations were linearly reduced. Supplementation with Ca-MUFA resulted in a linear reduction in total SFA (from 71 to 52 g/100 g of fatty acids for control and 60 g/kg of dry matter diets, respectively). In addition, concentrations of both cis- and trans-MUFA were

  20. Occurrence of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Milk and Yogurt and Their Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Zhenni; Lu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zilong; Li, Shanman; Wang, Gehui; Wang, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Although perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been identified in milk and dairy products in many regions, knowledge on their occurrence in Xinjiang (China) is rare. This study was conducted to measure the levels of PFOA and PFOS in milk and yogurt from Xinjiang and to investigate the average daily intake (ADI) of these two compounds. PFOA and PFOS levels were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction with methanol and solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Retail milk and yogurt samples present higher detection rates (39.6% and 48.1%) and mean concentrations (24.5 and 31.8 ng/L) of PFOS than those of PFOA (33.0% and 37.0%; 16.2 and 22.6 ng/L, respectively). For raw milk samples, only PFOS was detected. The differences in the levels of the two compounds between samples from the north and south regions were observed, and northern regions showed higher pollution levels than southern regions. On the basis of the retail milk measurements and consumption data, the ADIs of PFOA and PFOS for Xinjiang adults were calculated to be 0.0211 and 0.0318 ng/kg/day, respectively. Furthermore, the estimated intakes of PFOA and PFOS varied among different groupings (age, area, gender, and race) and increased with increasing age. Relevant hazard ratios were found to be far less than 1.0, and this finding suggested that no imminent health damages were produced by PFOA and PFOS intake via milk and yogurt consumption in the Xinjiang population. PMID:27775680

  1. Atherosclerosis-preventing activity of lactic acid bacteria-fermented milk-soymilk supplemented with Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Chu, Li-Han; Lee, Chun-Lin; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2009-03-11

    In this study, the milk-soymilk and milk-soymilk supplemented with Momordica charantia , a common oriental vegetable possessing medicinal activities, were fermented by lactic bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of milk-soymilk and fermented milk-soymilk with or without M. charantia on atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic hamsters. Fermented 25% milk and 75% soymilk combinations, supplemented with 1% M. charantia solution, can improve the acceptability of the fermented beverage. A total of 72 male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 9 groups (n = 8/group), and experimental diets were provided with a normal diet for the normal group and a high-cholesterol diet for others. The milk-soymilk and fermented milk-soymilk with or without M. charantia were administrated for 8 weeks. The milk-soymilk and fermented milk-soymilk with and without M. charantia were able to significantly decrease (p < 0.05) the serum cholesterol and the atherosclerotic plaque in aorta based on the comparison to the high-cholesterol diet (H) group. The groups on fermented milk-soymilk by Lactobacillus plantarum NTU 102 with or without M. charantia could significantly decrease (p < 0.05) the ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The femented milk-soymilk by Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 supplemented with M. charantia had an anti-atherosclerotic activity by increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant status (TAS) activity of the blood and relieving the degree of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) compared to the other treatments. It is concluded that the milk-soymilk and the fermented milk-soymilk supplemented with or without M. charantia by L. paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 are effective in preventing and retarding the hyperlipidemia-induced oxidative stress and atherosclerosis.

  2. Effects of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on product quality and fatty acids of goat milk yogurt.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ru; Chen, Han; Chen, Hui; Ding, Wu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the product quality of goat milk yogurt using traditional yogurt starter was studied through single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. The optimum fermentation condition was evaluated by the titratable acidity of goat milk yogurt, water-retaining capability, sensory score, and texture properties; the fatty acids of the fermented goat milk were determined by a gas chromatograph. Results indicate that high product quality of goat milk yogurt can be obtained and the content of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids can be decreased significantly when amount of sugar added was 7%, inoculation amount was 3%, the ratio of 3 lactic acid bacteria--Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. rhamnosus GG--was 1:1:3, and fermentation temperature was 42°C.

  3. Antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid in fish oil enriched mayonnaise and milk.

    PubMed

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Guardiola, Francesc; Durand, Erwann; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2015-01-15

    The antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid was assessed in two different fish oil enriched food products: mayonnaise and milk. In both emulsion systems, caffeic acid esterified with fatty alcohols of different chain lengths (C1-C20) were better antioxidants than the original phenolic compound. The optimal chain length with respect to protection against oxidation was, however, different for the two food systems. Fish oil enriched mayonnaise with caffeates of medium alkyl chain length (butyl, octyl and dodecyl) added resulted in a better oxidative stability than caffeates with shorter (methyl) or longer (octadecyl) alkyl chains. Whereas in fish oil enriched milk emulsions the most effective caffeates were those with shorter alkyl chains (methyl and butyl) rather than the ones with medium and long chains (octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl and eicosyl). These results demonstrate that there might be an optimum alkyl chain length for each phenolipid in each type of emulsion systems.

  4. Effect of Frozen Storage on the Gel-Forming Ability of Surimi Treated by Acid and Alkaline Solubilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo-Deaño, L.; Tovar, C. A.

    2008-07-01

    Rheological changes during five months of frozen storage of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) surimi elaborated by acid (Type A) and alkali (Type B) treatment, and their ability to form gels were evaluated. Frozen storage provoked a sligthly increase of rigidity and toughness in surimi B due to the loss of water holding capacity. This effect on surimi B disrupts the gel forming ability of muscle proteins, and the resulting gel experiments an increase of viscoelastic moduli, maximum stress and gel strength, showing a more increment in the network firmness after five months of frozen storage, however it is still better gel than that from method A.

  5. Effect of acetic acid on physical properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starch gels.

    PubMed

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Kaveh, Zahra; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2016-04-01

    Pregelatinized starches are physically modified starches with ability to absorb water and increase viscosity at ambient temperature. The main purpose of this study was to determine how different concentrations of acetic acid (0, 500, 1000, 10,000 mg/kg) can affect functional properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starches (PGWS and PGCS, respectively) produced by a twin drum drier. With increasing acetic acid following changes occurred for both samples; cold water solubility (at 25 °C) increased, water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity (at 25 °C) reduced, the smooth surface of the starch particles converted to an uneven surface as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, cohesiveness, consistency and turbidity of the starch gels reduced while their syneresis increased. It was found that in presence of acetic acid, PGWS resulted in higher water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity and produced more cohesive and turbid gels with less syneresis compared to PGCS.

  6. Bacteriophages of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on milk fermentations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Every biotechnology process that relies on the use of bacteria to make a product or to overproduce a molecule may, at some time, struggle with the presence of virulent phages. For example, phages are the primary cause of fermentation failure in the milk transformation industry. This review focuses on the recent scientific advances in the field of lactic acid bacteria phage research. Three specific topics, namely, the sources of contamination, the detection methods and the control procedures will be discussed. PMID:21995802

  7. Genetic determination of fatty acid composition in Spanish Churra sheep milk.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J P; San Primitivo, F; Barbosa, E; Varona, L; de la Fuente, L F

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic variation of ovine milk fatty acid (FA) composition. We collected 4,100 milk samples in 14 herds from 976 Churra ewes sired mostly by 15 AI rams and analyzed them by gas-liquid chromatography for milk fatty acid composition. The studied traits were 12 individual FA contents (proportion in relation to the total amount of FA), 3 groups of fatty acids [saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)], and 2 FA ratios (n-6:n-3 and C18:2 cis-9,trans-11:C18:1 trans-11). In addition, percentages of fat and protein and daily milk yield were studied. For the analysis, repeatability animal models were implemented using Bayesian methods. In an initial step, univariate methods were conducted to test the hypothesis of the traits showing additive genetic determination. Deviance information criterion and Bayes factor were employed as model choice criteria. All the studied SFA showed additive genetic variance, but the estimated heritabilities were low. Among unsaturated FA (UFA), only C18:1 trans-11 and C18:2 cis-9,cis-12 showed additive genetic variation, their estimated heritabilities being [marginal posterior mean (marginal posterior SD)] 0.02(0.01) and 0.11(0.04), respectively. For the FA groups, only PUFA showed significant additive genetic variation. None of the studied ratios of FA showed additive genetic variation. In second multitrait analyses, genetic correlations between individual FA and production traits, and between groups of FA and ratios of FA and production traits, were investigated. Positive genetic correlations were estimated among medium-chain SFA, ranging from 0 to 0.85, but this parameter was close to zero between long-chain SFA (C16:0 and C18:0). Between long- and medium-chain SFA, estimated genetic correlations were negative, around -0.6. Among those UFA showing significant additive genetic variance, genetic correlations were close to zero. The estimated genetic

  8. tuf-PCR-temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis for molecular detection and identification of staphylococci: application to breast milk and neonate gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Filleron, Anne; Simon, Margaux; Hantova, Stefaniya; Jacquot, Aurélien; Cambonie, Gilles; Marchandin, Hélène; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2014-03-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a leading cause of infections in preterm infants, mostly involved in late-onset infection in low birth weight neonates. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of these infections remain unclear, notably because the causing agents are gathered in the artificial CoNS group. The aim of this work was to optimize the study of Staphylococcus species diversity in human breast milk and neonate stool, two sample types with bacterial communities dominated by CoNS, using PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis based on the tuf gene. The optimized protocol identified 18 Staphylococcus species involved in neonate gut microbiota and infections and was applied to cultivation-independent study of breast milk and neonate stool. The efficiency, sensitivity, specificity and species discrimination of the proposed protocol appears suitable for patient follow-up in order to link microbiological data at the community level in milk and stool and interpret them from epidemiological and pathophysiological points of view.

  9. Concentrations of volatile 4-alkyl-branched fatty acids in sheep and goat milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Kaffarnik, Stefanie; Kayademir, Yasemin; Heid, Carolina; Vetter, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Goat and sheep milk and dairy products thereof are characterized by a strong and unique flavor. In this context, the volatile minor fatty acid 4-ethyloctanoic acid plays a prominent role along with 4-methyloctanoic acid when both are present in free form. Using a novel GC/MS method in the selected ion-monitoring mode, previously developed for sheep subcutaneous adipose tissue, we were able to analyze the total concentrations of these flavor-relevant minor fatty acids as methyl esters in goat and sheep milk as well as in their products. Differences between the concentrations and ratios of 4-methyloctanoic acid and 4-ethyloctanoic acid in goat milk (n = 4), goat cheese (n = 4), sheep milk (n = 2), and sheep cheese (n = 4) were observed. Goat milk and cheese resulted in higher concentrations for both fatty acids (190 to 480 μg/g milk fat) and smaller 4-Me-8:0 to 4-Et-8:0 ratios (1.4 to 2.7) compared to sheep milk and cheese (78 to 220 μg/g milk fat; 4-Me-8:0 to 4-Et-8:0 ratio: 15 to 42). In all samples, the concentration of 4-Me-8:0 exceeded the one of 4-Et-8:0. However, due to its lower flavor threshold value the contribution of 4-Et-8:0 to the flavor was generally >76%. The calculated flavor values were >1400 for goat milk and cheeses and >200 for sheep milk and cheeses. In goat milk and its products, only a proportion of <0.1% 4-alkyl-branched fatty acids present in free form in the goat milk and <0.5% in the sheep samples would be sufficient to generate the characteristic goaty flavor. Parameters that promote or prevent the release of 4-Me-8:0, and especially 4-Et-8:0, will be decisive for the flavor in the resulting dairy product.

  10. Fractionation of SWNT/nucleic acid complexes by agarose gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vetcher, Alexandre A; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Vetcher, Ivan A; Abramov, Semen M; Kozlov, Mikhail; Baughman, Ray H; Levene, Stephen D

    2006-08-28

    We show that aqueous dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), prepared with the aid of nucleic acids (NAs) such as RNA or DNA, can be separated into fractions using agarose gel electrophoresis. In a DC electric field, SWNT/NA complexes migrate in the gel in the direction of positive potential to form well-defined bands. Raman spectroscopy as a function of band position shows that nanotubes having different spectroscopic properties possess different electrophoretic mobilities. The migration patterns for SWNT/RNA and SWNT/DNA complexes differ. Parallel elution of the SWNT/NA complexes from the gel during electrophoresis and subsequent characterization by AFM reveals differences in nanotube diameter, length and curvature. The results suggest that fractionation of nanotubes can be achieved by this procedure. We discuss factors affecting the mobility of the nanotube complexes and propose analytical applications of this technique.

  11. Preparation of long alumina fibers by sol-gel method using tartaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hong-Bin

    2011-12-01

    Long alumina fibers were prepared by sol-gel method. The spinning sol was obtained by mixing aluminum nitrate, tartaric acid, and polyvinylpyrrolidone with a mass ratio of 10:3:1.5. Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the properties of the gel and ceramic fibers. A little of α-Al2O3 phase is observed in the alumina precursor gel fibers sintered at 1273 K. The fibers with a uniform diameter can be obtained when sintered at 1473 K, and its main phase is also indentified as α-Al2O3.

  12. Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    He, M; Armentano, L E

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(<16)). Feeding PO effectively maintained milk fat yield (1.18 kg/d) and concentration (3.44%), whereas the oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression.

  13. [Determination of dicyandiamide, melamine and cyanuric acid in milk and milk powder by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yun, Huan; Yan, Hua; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Jianhui; Lu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xin

    2013-05-01

    A method for the determination of dicyandiamide (DCD), melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CY) in milk and milk powder has been developed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). After extracted by 5% (mass fraction) trichloroacetic acid, the samples were loaded onto an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) and separated using acetonitrile and ammonium acetate as mobile phases in a gradient elution mode. The electrospray was operated in the positive mode and negative mode, and monitored by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curves showed a good linearity in the range of 5.0 - 200.0 microg/L, and the correlation coefficients (r) were not less than 0.995. When the spiked levels were 0.02, 0.10 and 0.20 mg/kg, the recoveries of DCD, MEL and CY in milk ranged from 60.0%. to 105.8%, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.2% - 13.6%; while the spiked levels were 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mg/kg in milk powder, the recoveries ranged from 78.0% to 115.0% with the RSDs of 2.7% - 7.5%. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) were 0.02 mg/kg for milk samples and 0.05 mg/kg for milk powder samples. The results indicate that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of DCD, MEL and CY in milk and dairy product samples.

  14. Short communication: The effect of substituting fish oil in dairy cow diets with docosahexaenoic acid-micro algae on milk composition and fatty acids profile.

    PubMed

    Abughazaleh, A A; Potu, R B; Ibrahim, S

    2009-12-01

    The effects of substituting fish oil (FO) with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-micro algae on milk chemical and fatty acid composition were examined in this study. Twenty-four Holstein cows in mid lactation grazing on an alfalfa-grass based pasture were divided into 4 treatment groups (6 cows/treatment) and supplemented with 7 kg/d grain mix plus 350 g of soybean oil and one of the following: 1) 150 g of FO, 2) 100 g of FO plus 50 g of algae, 3) 50 g of FO plus 100 g of algae, or 4) 150 g of algae. Cows were fed treatment diets for 3 wk, and milk samples were collected from each cow during the last 3 d of the study. Milk production (17.96, 17.56, 17.55, and 19.26 kg/d for treatment diets 1 to 4, respectively), milk fat percentages (3.17, 3.49, 3.74, and 3.43%), and milk protein percentages (3.35, 3.50, 3.71, and 3.42%) were similar between treatment diets. Concentrations (g/100 g of fatty acids) of milk cis-9 trans-11 (c9t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 3.41, 3.69, 4.47, and 4.21 for treatment diets 1 to 4, respectively) and vaccenic acid (11.80, 12.83, 13.87, and 13.53) were similar between treatment diets. Results of this study suggest that DHA-micro algae can partially or fully substitute FO in a cow's diet without any adverse effects on milk production, milk composition, or milk c9t11 CLA content. The DHA-micro algae may be used as a viable alternative for FO in cow's diet to modify rumen biohydrogenation to increase milk c9t11 CLA content.

  15. Milk fat depression induced by dietary marine algae in dairy ewes: persistency of milk fatty acid composition and animal performance responses.

    PubMed

    Bichi, E; Hervás, G; Toral, P G; Loor, J J; Frutos, P

    2013-01-01

    Addition of marine algae (MA) to the diet of dairy ruminants has proven to be an effective strategy to enhance the milk content of some bioactive lipids, but it has also been associated with the syndrome of milk fat depression. Little is known, however, about the persistency of the response to dietary MA in sheep. Based on previous experiments with dairy ewes fed sunflower oil plus MA, it was hypothesized that the response might be mediated by time-dependent adaptations of the rumen microbiota, which could be evaluated indirectly through milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Animal performance and milk FA composition in response to MA in the diet were studied using 36 Assaf ewes distributed in 6 lots and allocated to 2 treatments (3 lots/treatment) consisting of a total mixed ration (40:60 forage:concentrate ratio) supplemented with 25 g of sunflower oil (SO)/kg of dry matter plus 0 (SO; control diet) or 8 g of MA/kg of dry matter (SOMA diet). Milk production and composition, including FA profile, were analyzed on d 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 34, 44, and 54 of treatment. Diet supplementation with MA did not affect milk yield but did decrease milk fat content. Differences in the latter were detected from d 18 onward and reached -17% at the end of the experiment (i.e., on d 54). Compared with the control diet, the SOMA diet caused a reduction in milk 18:0 and its desaturation product (cis-9 18:1) that lasted for the whole experimental period. This decrease, together with the progressive increase in some putative fat synthesis inhibitors, especially trans-10 18:1, was related to the persistency of milk fat depression in lactating ewes fed MA. Additionally, inclusion of MA in the diet enhanced the milk content of trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, and C20-22 n-3 polyunsaturated FA, mainly 22:6 n-3. Overall, the persistency of the responses observed suggests that the ruminal microbiota did not adapt to the dietary supply of very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  16. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  17. Genome wide association study identifies 20 novel promising genes associated with milk fatty acid traits in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv

    2014-01-01

    Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle.

  18. Effects of a Novel Dental Gel on Enamel Surface Recovery from Acid Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tracie; Ho, Jessica; Anbarani, Afarin Golabgir; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Takesh, Thair; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Background Objective was to evaluate the in vivo effects of a novel dental gel (Livionex gelR) vs. a comparison dental gel on the surfaces of pre-eroded enamel chips. Methods On days 1–5, after toothbrushing with dentifrice, nine subjects each wore 8 enamel chips mounted on a palatal appliance for 4 h. Enamel blocks were pre-demineralized daily. After 2 day washout, subjects repeated the protocol using fresh chips and the second toothpaste on days 8–12. Samples were evaluated using electron microscopy. Results Ten standardized enamel surface photomicrographs/sample (total 1440 images) were evaluated for signs of erosion visually and on a scale of 0–3 by 1 evaluator. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups (p>0.32, 95% C.I.). Minimal surface erosion on approx. 15% of sample area was visible in both groups. Conclusion The enamel surface appeared similar after usage of a test or control dentifrice. Based on this study, the test formulation did not affect enamel surface recovery from an erosive challenge. Practical implications Dentifrices can contribute to maintaining a healthy enamel surface. An all-natural dental gel formulation with novel anti-plaque mechanism achieved similar recovery from acid challenge to enamel as a control gel. PMID:28344856

  19. Exopolysaccharides Isolated from Milk Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Prevent Ultraviolet-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morifuji, Masashi; Kitade, Masami; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Yamaji, Taketo; Ichihashi, Masamitsu

    2017-01-01

    Background: We studied the mechanism by which fermented milk ameliorates UV-B-induced skin damage and determined the active components in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria by evaluating erythema formation, dryness, epidermal proliferation, DNA damage and cytokine mRNA levels in hairless mice exposed to acute UV-B irradiation. Methods: Nine week-old hairless mice were given fermented milk (1.3 g/kg BW/day) or exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrate (70 mg/kg BW/day) orally for ten days. Seven days after fermented milk or EPS administration began, the dorsal skin of the mice was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm2). Results: Ingestion of either fermented milk or EPS significantly attenuated UV-B-induced erythema formation, dryness and epidermal proliferation in mouse skin. Both fermented milk and EPS were associated with a significant decrease in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and upregulated mRNA levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA), which is involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, administration of either fermented milk or EPS significantly suppressed increases in the ratio of interleukin (IL)-10/IL-12a and IL-10/interferon-gamma mRNA levels. Conclusion: Together, these results indicate that EPS isolated from milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria enhanced DNA repair mechanisms and modulated skin immunity to protect skin against UV damage. PMID:28098755

  20. Mass spectrometric analysis of free fatty acids in infant milk powders by frozen pretreatment coupled with isotope-labeling derivatization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tianxiao; Leng, Jiapeng; Peng, Yaoshan; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Yinlong

    2016-03-01

    In combination with frozen pretreatment and carboxyl group derivatization, a novel workflow was developed for the determination of free fatty acids in milk powder. The workflow showed a significantly enhanced performance for comprehensive free fatty acid analysis owing to a highly efficient frozen extraction method. In addition, the advantages of the workflow also involved high sensitivity and great tolerance to a complex matrix. Characteristic fragment ions of derivatization reagents also provide clear evidence for the qualitative analysis of free fatty acids. Fourteen types of free fatty acids in a number of domestic and overseas infant milk powders have been successfully detected. The content of free fatty acids in the different samples was different, which probably indicates the diverse quality of infant milk powder. The workflow is expected to be a pragmatic tool for the analysis of free fatty acids in intricate matrices.

  1. Effect of somatic cell count in goat milk on yield, sensory quality, and fatty acid profile of semisoft cheese.

    PubMed

    Chen, S X; Wang, J Z; Van Kessel, J S; Ren, F Z; Zeng, S S

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) in goat milk on yield, free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and sensory quality of semisoft cheese. Sixty Alpine goats without evidence of clinical mastitis were assigned to 3 groups with milk SCC level of <500,000 (low), 500,000 to 1,000,000 (medium), and 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 (high) cells/mL. Thirty kilograms of goat milk with mean SCC levels of 410,000 (low), 770,000 (medium), and 1,250,000 (high) cells/mL was obtained for the manufacture of semisoft cheese for 2 consecutive weeks in 3 lactation stages. The composition of milk was analyzed and cheese yield was recorded on d 1. Cheese samples on d 1, 60, and 120 were analyzed for total sensory scores, flavor, and body and texture by a panel of 3 expert judges and were also analyzed for FFA. Results indicated that milk composition did not change when milk SCC varied from 214,000 to 1,450,000 cells/mL. Milk with higher SCC had a lower standard plate count, whereas coliform count and psychrotrophic bacteria count were not affected. However, milk components (fat, protein, lactose, casein, and total solids) among the 3 groups were similar. As a result, no significant differences in the yield of semisoft goat cheeses were detected. However, total sensory scores and body and texture scores for cheeses made from the high SCC milk were lower than those for cheeses made from the low and medium SCC milks. The difference in milk SCC levels also resulted in diverse changes in cheese texture (hardness, springiness, and so on) and FFA profiles. Individual and total FFA increased significantly during ripening, regardless the SCC levels. It is concluded that SCC in goat milk did not affect the yield of semisoft cheese but did result in inferior sensory quality of aged cheeses.

  2. Poly(N-vinylimidazole) gels as insoluble buffers that neutralize acid solutions without dissolving.

    PubMed

    Horta, Arturo; Piérola, Inés F

    2009-04-02

    Typical buffers are solutions containing weak acids or bases. If these groups were anchored to insoluble gels, what would be their behavior? Simple thermodynamics is used to calculate the pH in two-phase systems that contain the weak acid or base fixed to only one of the phases and is absent in the other. The experimental reference of such systems are pH sensitive hydrogels and heterogeneous systems of biological interest. It is predicted that a basic hydrogel immersed in slightly acidic solutions should absorb the acid and leave the external solution exactly neutral (pH 7). This is in accordance with experimental results of cross-linked poly(N-vinylimidazole). The pH 7 cannot be obtained if the system were homogeneous; the confinement of the weak base inside the gel phase is a requisite for this neutral pH in the external solution. The solution inside the gel is regulated to a much higher pH, which has important implications in studies on chemical reactions and physical processes taking place inside a phase insoluble but in contact with a solution.

  3. Temporal changes in milk fatty acid distribution due to feeding different levels of rolled safflower seeds to lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpour, Amir; Aliarabi, Hassan; Khan, Mohammad Ghelich; Patton, Robert A; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2017-03-22

    The objective of this experiment was to follow the time-course changes of the milk fatty acids (FA) and particularly conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3, and n-6 FA in response to feeding whole rolled safflower seed (SS). Eighteen cows were blocked by milk production, days in milk, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets by replacing whole cottonseed with SS. The control diet contained no SS (SS0), whereas the other diets contained 3% of dry matter as SS (SS3) or 6% SS (SS6). The study was conducted for 8 wk. Cows fed SS produced more milk than SS0, with SS3 producing more milk than SS6, but without a change in milk fat yield or milk fat %. Except for C8:0 FA, changes in milk FA were not observed until the third week of SS feeding. The C8:0 began decreasing during wk 1 of SS feeding and continued to decline to wk 8. Short-chain FA (C6:0 to C11:0) and medium-chain FA (C12:0 to C16:1) concentrations decreased in milk when cows were fed SS, whereas long-chain FA (C18:0 and higher) increased after wk 3. The milk long-chain FA increased from wk 3 until wk 5 and then reached a plateau with little difference between SS3 and SS6, whereas the short-chain FA decreased more in milk from cows fed SS6 than SS3. Total CLA increased slightly less than 5× in milk from cows fed SS compared with SS0. Over the same time frame, n-3 FA declined and n-6 FA increased in the milk from cows fed SS, with no difference between SS3 and SS6. This study indicated that SS fed at 3 and 6% of DM had the potential to increase milk production and the CLA in milk, but with a corresponding increase in n-6 FA.

  4. Locating the binding sites of folic acid with milk α- and β-caseins.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2012-01-12

    We located the binding sites of folic acid with milk α- and β-caseins at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration and various folic acid contents. FTIR, UV-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to analyze folic acid binding sites, the binding constant, and the effect of folic acid interaction on the stability and conformation of caseins. Structural analysis showed that folic acid binds caseins via both hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts with overall binding constants of K(folic acid-α-caseins) = 4.8 (±0.6) × 10(4) M(-1) and K(folic acid-β-caseins) = 7.0 (±0.9) × 10(4) M(-1). The number of bound acid molecules per protein was 1.5 (±0.4) for α-casein and 1.4 (±0.3) for β-casein complexes. Molecular modeling showed different binding sites for folic acid on α- and β-caseins. The participation of several amino acids in folic acid-protein complexes was observed, which was stabilized by hydrogen bonding network and the free binding energy of -7.7 kcal/mol (acid-α-casein) and -8.1 kcal/mol (acid-β-casein). Folic acid complexation altered protein secondary structure by the reduction of α-helix from 35% (free α-casein) to 33% (acid-complex) and 32% (free β-casein) to 26% (acid-complex) indicating a partial protein destabilization. Caseins might act as carriers for transportation of folic acid to target molecules.

  5. Short communication: elevated concentrations of oleic acid and long-chain fatty acids in milk fat of multiparous subclinical ketotic cows.

    PubMed

    Van Haelst, Y N T; Beeckman, A; Van Knegsel, A T M; Fievez, V

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether concentrations of specific fatty acids in milk fat are a candidate for the early detection of subclinical ketosis. The case study included multiparous cows fed a lipogenic diet or a mixed glucogenic:lipogenic diet during the first 9 wk of lactation. Milk fatty acid profiles of cows classified as healthy (n = 8) or as subclinically ketotic (n = 8) based on a blood plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate threshold concentration of 1.2 mmol/L were compared. Subclinically ketotic cows showed an elevated proportion of C18:1 cis-9 in milk fat during the whole registration period.

  6. Effect of dietary starch or micro algae supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Boeckaert, C; Vlaeminck, B; Dijkstra, J; Issa-Zacharia, A; Van Nespen, T; Van Straalen, W; Fievez, V

    2008-12-01

    Two experiments with rumen-fistulated dairy cows were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3)-enriched diets or diets provoking a decreased rumen pH on milk fatty acid composition. In the first experiment, dietary treatments were tested during 21-d experimental periods in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Diets included a control diet, a starch-rich diet, a bicarbonate-buffered starch-rich diet, and a diet supplemented with DHA-enriched micro algae [Schizochytrium sp., 43.0 g/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)]. Algae were supplemented directly through the rumen fistula. The total mixed ration consisted of grass silage, corn silage, soybean meal, and a standard or glucogenic concentrate. The glucogenic and buffered glucogenic diet had no effect on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition because, unexpectedly, no reduced rumen pH was detected. The algae diet had no effect on rumen pH but provoked decreased butyrate and increased isovalerate molar proportions in the rumen. In addition, algae supplementation affected rumen biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acid as reflected in the modified milk fatty acid composition toward increased conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) cis-9 trans-11, CLA trans-9 cis-11, C18:1 trans-10, C18:1 trans-11, and C22:6 n-3 concentrations. Concomitantly, on average, a 45% decrease in DMI and milk yield was observed. Based on these drastic and impractical results, a second animal experiment was performed for 20 d in which 9.35 g/kg of total DMI of algae were incorporated in the concentrate and supplemented to 3 rumen-fistulated cows. Algae concentrate feeding increased rumen pH, which was associated with decreased rumen short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Moreover, a different shift in rumen short-chain fatty acid proportions was observed compared with the first experiment because molar proportions of butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate increased, whereas acetate molar proportion decreased

  7. A nine-country study of the protein content and amino acid composition of mature human milk

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ping; Gao, Ming; Burgher, Anita; Zhou, Tian Hui; Pramuk, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have evaluated protein and amino acid levels in human milk. However, research in this area has been limited by small sample sizes and study populations with little ethnic or racial diversity. Objective Evaluate the protein and amino acid composition of mature (≥30 days) human milk samples collected from a large, multinational study using highly standardized methods for sample collection, storage, and analysis. Design Using a single, centralized laboratory, human milk samples from 220 women (30–188 days postpartum) from nine countries were analyzed for amino acid composition using Waters AccQ-Tag high-performance liquid chromatography and total nitrogen content using the LECO FP-528 nitrogen analyzer. Total protein was calculated as total nitrogen×6.25. True protein, which includes protein, free amino acids, and peptides, was calculated from the total amino acids. Results Mean total protein from individual countries (standard deviation [SD]) ranged from 1,133 (125.5) to 1,366 (341.4) mg/dL; the mean across all countries (SD) was 1,192 (200.9) mg/dL. Total protein, true protein, and amino acid composition were not significantly different across countries except Chile, which had higher total and true protein. Amino acid profiles (percent of total amino acids) did not differ across countries. Total and true protein concentrations and 16 of 18 amino acid concentrations declined with the stage of lactation. Conclusions Total protein, true protein, and individual amino acid concentrations in human milk steadily decline from 30 to 151 days of lactation, and are significantly higher in the second month of lactation compared with the following 4 months. There is a high level of consistency in the protein content and amino acid composition of human milk across geographic locations. The size and diversity of the study population and highly standardized procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of human milk support the validity and

  8. The trans fatty acid content in human milk and its association with maternal diet among lactating mothers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Daud, Akmar Zuraini; Mohd-Esa, Norhaizan; Azlan, Azrina; Chan, Yoke Mun

    2013-01-01

    Excessive intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) could reduce the fat density of human milk and impair the desaturation of essential fatty acids. Because the mammary glands are unable to synthesize TFA, it is likely that the TFA in human milk come from dietary intake. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the sources of TFA intake for lactating mothers in one of the urban areas in Selangor. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric measurements, FFQ including 7 food groups and dietary consumption data were collected from 101 lactating mothers. Five major TFA isomers (palmitoelaidic acid (16:1t9), petroselaidic acid (18:1t6), elaidic acid (18:1t9), vaccenic acid (18:1t11) and linoelaidic acid (18:2t9,12) in human milk were measured by gas chromatography (GC). The relationship between food consumption and TFA levels was assessed using the non-parametric Spearman's rho test. The TFA content in human milk was 2.94±0.96 (SEM) % fatty acid; this is considered low, as it is lower than 4%. The most abundant TFA isomer was linoelaidic acid (1.44±0.60% fatty acid). A sub-experiment (analyzing 3 days of composite food consumption) was conducted with 18 lactating mothers, and the results showed that linoelaidic acid was the most common TFA consumed (0.07±0.01 g/100 g food). Only 10 food items had an effect on the total TFA level and the isomers found in human milk. No association was found between TFA consumption and the TFA level in human milk.

  9. Association of novel SNPs in the candidate genes affecting caprine milk fatty acids related to human health

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, S.P.; Sivalingam, Jayakumar; Tyagi, A.K.; Saroha, V.; Sharma, A.; Nagda, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, 618 milk samples of Sirohi breed of goat were collected, and analyzed for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, C18:2) and other fatty acids. The CLA in studied goat milk samples was 4.87 mg/g of milk fat and C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 contributes 2.9 mg/g of milk fat and trans10 cis12 contributes 0.82 mg/g of milk fat. The saturated fatty acids in the milk accounted for 69.55% and unsaturated fatty acid accounted for 28.50%. The unsaturated fatty acid was constituted by monounsaturated fatty acid (24.57%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (3.96%.). The major contribution (45.56%) in total fatty acid was of C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0. C18:0 and short chain ones (C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0) have a neutral or cholesterol-decreasing effect. The DNA sequence analysis of the genes (DGAT1, SCAP, PPARG, OLR, FABP3 and PRL) in a random panel of 8 Sirohi goats revealed 38 SNPs across the targeted regions. Out of the studied SNPs (38) across these genes, 22 SNPs had significant effect on one or a group of fatty acids including CLA. The genotypes at these loci showed significant differences in the least square means of a particular fatty acid or a group of fatty acids including CLA and its isomers. PMID:25853060

  10. Behavior of amino acids when volatilized in the presence of silica gel and pulverized basaltic lava.

    PubMed

    Basiuk, V A; Navarro-Gonzalez, R; Basiuk, E V

    1998-04-01

    To evaluate the types of amino acid thermal transformations caused by silicate materials, we studied the volatilization products of Aib, L-Ala, L-Val and L-Leu under temperatures of up to 270 degrees C in the presence of silica gel as a model catalyst and pulverized basaltic lava samples. It was found that silica gel catalyzes nearly quantitative condensation of amino acids, where piperazinediones are the major products, whereas lava samples have much lower catalytic efficiency. In addition bicyclic and tricyclic amidines and several products of their subsequent thermal decomposition have been identified using the coupled technique of GC-FTIR-MS and HPLC-PB-MS, with auxiliary computer simulation of IR spectra and NMR spectroscopy. The decomposition is due to dehydrogenation, elimination of the alkyl substituents and dehydration as well as cleavage of the bicyclic ring system. The imidazole ring appears to be more resistant to thermal decomposition as compared to the pyperazine moiety, giving rise to the formation of different substituted imidazolones. The amidines were found to hydrolyze under treatment with concentrated HCl, releasing the starting amino acids and thus behaving as amino acid anhydrides. The thermal transformations cause significant racemization of amino acid residues. Based on our observations, the formation of amidine-type products is suggested to be rather common in the high-temperature experiments on amino acid condensation.

  11. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Re-Injection for Enophthalmos Correction in Silent Sinus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grusha, Yaroslav; Khovrin, Valerij; Stoyukhina, Alevtina; Sheptulin, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    A 43-year-old female with residual enophthalmos following functional endoscopic surgery (FESS) due to silent sinus syndrome (SSS) was initially successfully treated with a 2-ml intraorbital injection of hyaluronic acid gel (HAG). The enophthalmos partially recurred 22 months after the injection. HAG was re-injected with good functional and cosmetic results. Functional (kinetic) computed tomography was performed to visualize HAG distribution in the orbit.

  12. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  13. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p < 0.0001), 23% in milk (p < 0.05), and 35% in piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during

  14. Effect of forage:concentrate ratio on the quality of ewe's milk, especially on milk fat globules characteristics and fatty acids composition.

    PubMed

    Martini, Mina; Liponi, Gian Battista; Salari, Federica

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the milk quality of Massese ewes receiving diets with different forage:concentrate ratios (FC ratio), specially on milk fat globules characteristics and fatty acids composition. The diet is one of the main environmental factors that influence the lipidic content of milk. A trial was carried out on twenty ewes, which had been subdivided into two homogeneous groups and kept indoors at 25 days post partum. The experiment lasted 60 days, from 40 to 100 days post partum and the animals were fed two diets that differed in terms of the FC ratio: 60:40 and 40:60, as fed. The results obtained in this study showed that a greater proportion of forage, compared with an higher percentage of concentrate, led to an increase in the percentage of fat (+8.66%) and to a decrease in the percentage of milk fat globules with a size between 2 and 5 microm (-17.32%). However, the average diameter was not affected. There was also a decrease in the percentages of some medium chain fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0; -14.89% and -4.03 respectively) and an increase in mono and polyunsaturated ones such as trans11-C18:1 (+31.71%), total CLA (+22%), EPA (+18.18%) and DHA (+66.67%). In conclusion, a greater proportion of forage seem to improve the milk fatty acid profile by the increase of some fatty acid identified has being beneficial for human health.

  15. Salmon consumption during pregnancy alters fatty acid composition and secretory IgA concentration in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Heidi J; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Vlachava, Maria; Diaper, Norma D; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2012-08-01

    Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy alters breast milk composition, but there is little information about the impact of oily fish consumption. We determined whether increased salmon consumption during pregnancy alters breast milk fatty acid composition and immune factors. Women (n = 123) who rarely ate oily fish were randomly assigned to consume their habitual diet or to consume 2 portions of farmed salmon per week from 20 wk of pregnancy until delivery. The salmon provided 3.45 g long-chain (LC) (n-3) PUFA/wk. Breast milk fatty acid composition and immune factors [soluble CD14, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)1, TGFβ2, and secretory IgA] were analyzed at 1, 5, 14, and 28 d postpartum (PP). Breast milk from the salmon group had higher proportions of EPA (80%), docosapentaenoic acid (30%), and DHA (90%) on d 5 PP compared with controls (P < 0.01). The LC (n-6) PUFA:LC (n-3) PUFA ratio was lower for the salmon group on all days of PP sampling (P ≤ 0.004), although individual (n-6) PUFA proportions, including arachidonic acid, did not differ. All breast milk immune factors decreased between d 1 and 28 PP (P < 0.001). Breast milk secretory IgA (sIgA) was lower in the salmon group (d 1-28 PP; P = 0.006). Salmon consumption during pregnancy, at the current recommended intakes, increases the LC (n-3) PUFA concentration of breast milk in early lactation, thus improving the supply of these important fatty acids to the breast-fed neonate. The consequence of the lower breast milk concentration of sIgA in the salmon group is not clear.

  16. Human milk beyond one year post-partum: lower content of protein, calcium, and saturated very long-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Shehadeh, Naim; Aslih, Nardin; Shihab, Shihab; Werman, Moshe J; Sheinman, Rivkah; Shamir, Raanan

    2006-01-01

    Maternal milk feeding for more than 1 year is encouraged by many health care authorities. We demonstrate that human milk beyond 1 year of lactation had a small but significantly lower concentration of protein, calcium, and long-chain saturated fatty acids compared with human milk at 3 months after delivery.

  17. Case Study: Variation in fatty acid profiles in milk from adjacent organic and conventional dairy farms over a 3-year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring the seasonal variability of fatty acids (FAs) in milk improves our understanding of the nutritional and health values of milk. In collaboration with the Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA, a 3-year study evaluated the seasonal variation of FA profiles of milk obtained from two farms adjacent t...

  18. Effects of duodenal infusions of palmitic, stearic, or oleic acids on milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Bayourthe, C; Moncoulon, R

    2000-07-01

    Four dairy cows fitted with a duodenal cannula were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of daily duodenal infusion of 500 g of fatty acids (containing mainly C16:0, C18:0, or cis-C18:1) on fecal concentrations of fatty acids, fatty acid profiles of milk fat, and solid fat content of butter. Fecal concentrations of C16:0 and especially of C18:0 were increased by duodenal infusion. Infusion with C16:0 increased the proportion of C16:0 in milk fat and delayed softening of butter when the temperature rose. Infusion with C18:0 resulted only in a slight increase of C18:0 proportion in milk fat and did not significantly affect solid fat in butter between -10 and 30 degrees C. With the infusion of cis-C18:1, the proportion of cis-C18:1 in milk fat was more than twice that of control, to the detriment of C16:0. Butter contained low proportion of solid fat, even at low temperatures. Increasing C16:0 or cis-C18:1 in milk fatty acid via duodenal infusion can be used to study their specific effects on butter characteristics, but, because of a low transfer from infusion to milk, this method is less efficient with C18:0.

  19. Molecularly imprinted polymer cartridges coupled to liquid chromatography for simple and selective analysis of penicilloic acid and penilloic acid in milk by matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhimin; Du, Wei; Zheng, Penglei; Guo, Pengqi; Wu, Ningli; Tang, Weili; Zeng, Aiguo; Chang, Chun; Fu, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive method for determination of the degradation products of penicillin (penicilloic acid and penilloic acid) in milk samples has been developed by combining selective surface molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion and high performance liquid chromatography (SMIPs-MSPD-HPLC). The selected dispersant SMIPs had high affinity for penicilloic acid and penilloic acid in milk matrix and the obtained extract was sufficiently clean for direct injection for HPLC analysis without any interference from the matrix. The proposed SMIPs-MSPD-HPLC method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. Linearity ranged from 0.04 to 4 μg g(-1) (correlation coefficient r(2) > 0.999). Recoveries of penicilloic acid from milk samples at different spiked levels were between 79.8 and 90.3%, with RSD values within 5.2-7.4%, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were 0.04 and 0.13 μg g(-1), respectively. Recoveries of penilloic acid from milk samples at different spiked levels were between 77.4 and 86.2%, with RSD values within 3.1-6.4%, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were 0.05 and 0.17 μg g(-1), respectively. The developed SMIPs-MSPD-HPLC method was successfully applied to direct determination of penicilloic acid and penilloic acid in milk samples.

  20. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klop, G; Hatew, B; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4 cows. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (CON; urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)], DHA (3 g of DHA/kg of DM and urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), or NO3 + DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM, respectively). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Feed additives were included in the concentrates. Cows assigned to a treatment including nitrate were gradually adapted to the treatment dose of nitrate over a period of 21 d during which no DHA was fed. The experimental period lasted 17 d, and CH4 production was measured during the last 5d in climate respiration chambers. Cows produced on average 363, 263, 369, and 298 g of CH4/d on CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA treatments, respectively, and a tendency for a nitrate × DHA interaction effect was found where the CH4-mitigating effect of nitrate decreased when combined with DHA. This tendency was not obtained for CH4 production relative to dry matter intake (DMI) or to fat- and protein corrected milk (FPCM). The NO3 treatment decreased CH4 production irrespective of the unit in which it was expressed, whereas DHA did not affect CH4 production per kilogram of DMI, but resulted in a higher CH4 production per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) production. The FPCM production (27.9, 24.7, 24.2, and 23. 8 kg/d for CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA, respectively) was lower for DHA-fed cows because of decreased milk fat concentration. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was decreased by DHA, and the proportion of

  1. Supplementation with bypass fat in silvopastoral systems diminishes the ratio of milk saturated/unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mahecha, L; Angulo, J; Salazar, B; Cerón, M; Gallo, J; Molina, C H; Molina, E J; Suárez, J F; Lopera, J J; Olivera, M

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate if supplementing bypass fat to cows under silvopastoral systems, increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in milk, thus improving the saturated/ unsaturated ratio without a negative effect on total milk yield in fat or protein. Two concentrations of two different sources of bypass fat were evaluated for 40 days, each in a group of 24 multiparous Lucerna (Colombian breed) cows. A cross-over design of 8 Latin squares 3 x 3 was used. The variables submitted to analysis were body condition, daily milk production and milk composition. Body condition, milk yield and milk quality were not different but there was a significant decrease in the amount of saturated fatty acid in both experiments while the unsaturated fat increased significantly in experiment 1 and remained stable in experiment 2. Results, such as these have as far as we know, not been reported previously and they provide an approach for the improvement of milk as a "functional food".

  2. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of molecularly imprinted silica gel for 2-hydroxybenzoic Acid in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Raof, Siti Farhana Abdul; Mohamad, Sharifah; Abas, Mhd Radzi

    2013-03-14

    A molecularly imprinted silica gel sorbent for selective removal of 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid (2-HA) was prepared by a surface imprinting technique with a sol-gel process. The 2-HA molecularly imprinted silica gel (2-HA-MISG) sorbent was evaluated by various parameters, including the influence of pH, static, kinetic adsorption and selectivity experiments. The optimum adsorption capacity to the 2-HA appeared to be around pH 2 by the polymer. Morevoer, the imprinted sorbent displayed fast uptake kinetics, obtained within 20 min. The adsorption capacity of the 2-HA-MISG (76.2 mg g-1) was higher than that of the non-imprinted silica gel (NISG) (42.58 mg g-1). This indicates that the 2-HA-MISG offers a higher affinity for 2-HA than the NISG. The polymer displays good selectivity and exhibits good reusability. Experimental results show the potential of molecularly imprinted silica sorbent for selective removal of 2-HA.

  4. Synthesis and Evaluation of Molecularly Imprinted Silica Gel for 2-Hydroxybenzoic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Raof, Siti Farhana; Mohamad, Sharifah; Abas, Mhd Radzi

    2013-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted silica gel sorbent for selective removal of 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid (2-HA) was prepared by a surface imprinting technique with a sol-gel process. The 2-HA molecularly imprinted silica gel (2-HA-MISG) sorbent was evaluated by various parameters, including the influence of pH, static, kinetic adsorption and selectivity experiments. The optimum adsorption capacity to the 2-HA appeared to be around pH 2 by the polymer. Morevoer, the imprinted sorbent displayed fast uptake kinetics, obtained within 20 min. The adsorption capacity of the 2-HA-MISG (76.2 mg g−1) was higher than that of the non-imprinted silica gel (NISG) (42.58 mg g−1). This indicates that the 2-HA-MISG offers a higher affinity for 2-HA than the NISG. The polymer displays good selectivity and exhibits good reusability. Experimental results show the potential of molecularly imprinted silica sorbent for selective removal of 2-HA. PMID:23493059

  5. Changes in ruminal fermentation, milk performance and milk fatty acid profile in dairy cows with subacute ruminal acidosis and its regulation with pelleted beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongqing; Wang, Libin; Zou, Yang; Xu, Xiaofeng; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2013-12-01

    The aims of the experiment were to investigate the variation in ruminal fermentation, milk performance and milk fatty acid profile triggered by induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA); and to evaluate the ability of beet pulp (BP) as a replacement for ground maize in order to alleviate SARA. Eight Holstein-Friesian cows were fed four diets (total mixed rations) during four successive periods (each of 17 d): (1) without wheat (W0); (2) with 10% finely ground wheat (FGW) (W10); (3) with 20% FGW (W20); (4) with 20% FGW and 10% pelleted BP (BP10). Inducing SARA by diet W20 decreased the daily mean ruminal pH (6.37 vs. 5.94) and the minimum ruminal pH (5.99 vs. 5.41) from baseline to challenge period. Ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate, butyrate, valerate and isovalerate increased with the W20 compared with the W0 and W10 treatments. The substitution of BP for maize increased the minimum ruminal pH and molar percentage of acetate and decreased the molar percentage of butyrate. The diets had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield, but the milk fat percentage and yield as well as the amount of fat-corrected milk was reduced in the W20 and BP10 treatments. The cows fed the W20 diet had greater milk concentrations of C11:0, C13:0, C15:0, C14:1, C16:1, C17:1, C18:2n6c, C20:3n6, total polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) and total odd-chain FA, and lower concentrations of C18:0 and total saturated FA compared with the cows fed the W0 diet. Therefore, it can be concluded that changes in ruminal fermentation, milk fat concentration and fatty acid profile are highly related to SARA induced by feeding high FGW diets, and that the substitution of BP for maize could reduce the risk of SARA in dairy cows.

  6. Effect of dose of calcium salts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on percentage and fatty acid content of milk fat in midlactation holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Giesy, J G; McGuire, M A; Shafii, B; Hanson, T W

    2002-08-01

    Increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk fat from lactating dairy cattle has become a research interest due to the possible health benefits afforded humans consuming CLA. Dietary supplementation of CLA to lactating dairy cows is one potential method by which CLA content of milk and dairy products may be enhanced. Feeding CLA in calcium salt form could potentially deliver CLA to the lower digestive tract through prevention of biohydrogenation by rumen microbes. Milk fat depression (MFD) occurs when cows receive CLA-60, a commercially available CLA source containing numerous CLA isomers, abomasally. Our objectives were to determine the quantity of CLA as calcium salts required to elicit maximal MFD and to evaluate the effects of CLA supplementation on fatty acid composition of milk fat. Five Holstein cows at approximately 93 DIM were utilized in a 5 x 5 balanced Latin square crossover design. Periods were 14-d in length with a 5-d treatment phase and 9-d rest phase. Treatments were 5-d supplementation of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 g of CLA-60 in calcium salt form. Milk samples were collected on d 5 of CLA supplementation and analyzed for composition and fatty acid profile. Regression analysis of milk fat data suggested that MFD was not maximized over the dose levels investigated, despite delivery of 34.5 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the 100-g dose of CLA. Supplementation with 50 and 100 g of CLA per day resulted in a reduction of milk fat percent of 29 and 34%, respectively. Trend analysis indicated a linear decrease in the milk fat content of caprylic, capric, and lauric acids as the dose of CLA increased. Milk fat content of cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10, cis-12 CLA increased at an increasing rate as dose increased.

  7. Genetic parameters of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content and the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Soyeurt, H; Dardenne, P; Dehareng, F; Bastin, C; Gengler, N

    2008-09-01

    Fatty acid composition influences the nutritional quality of milk and the technological properties of butter. Using a prediction of fatty acid (FA) contents by mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry, a large amount of data concerning the FA profile in bovine milk was collected. The large number of records permitted consideration of more complex models than those used in previous studies. The aim of the current study was to estimate the effects of season and stage of lactation as well as genetic parameters of saturated (SAT) and monounsaturated (MONO) fatty acid contents in bovine milk and milk fat, and the ratio of SAT to unsaturated fatty acids (UNSAT) that reflect the hardness of butter (SAT:UNSAT), using 7 multiple-trait, random-regression test-day models. The relationship between these FA traits with common production traits was also studied. The data set contained 100,841 test-day records of 11,626 Holstein primiparous cows. The seasonal effect was studied based on unadjusted means. These results confirmed that milk fat produced during spring and summer had greater UNSAT content compared with winter (63.13 vs. 68.94% of SAT in fat, on average). The effect of stage of lactation on FA profile was studied using the same methodology. Holstein cows in early first lactation produced a lower content of SAT in their milk fat. Variance components were estimated using a Bayesian method via Gibbs sampling. Heritability of SAT in milk (0.42) was greater than heritability of SAT in milk fat (0.24). Estimates of heritability for MONO were also different in milk and fat (0.14 vs. 0.27). Heritability of SAT:UNSAT was moderate (0.27). For all of these traits, the heritability estimates and the genetic and phenotypic correlations varied through the lactation.

  8. Short communication: Diet-induced variations in milk fatty acid composition have minor effects on the estimated melting point of milk fat in cows, goats, and ewes: Insights from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Chilliard, Y; Glasser, F

    2013-02-01

    In ruminants, the ability to maintain milk fat melting point within physiological values could play a role in the regulation of milk fat secretion when milk fatty acid (FA) composition varies, such as in response to feeding factors. However, the relationship between milk fat fluidity and changes in milk FA composition is difficult to study experimentally. A meta-analysis was therefore conducted to compare the magnitude of diet-induced variations in milk FA composition and the calculated melting point of milk FA (used as a proxy to estimate the variations in the melting point of milk fat) in 3 dairy ruminant species (cow, goat, and sheep). The coefficient of variation (CV), a scale-free measure of statistical dispersion, was used to compare the variability of criteria differing in their order of magnitude. The analysis of a database of milk FA profiles from cows, goats, and sheep fed different dietary treatments (unsupplemented diets and diets supplemented with lipids rich in oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, or C20-22 polyunsaturated FA) revealed that the variability of the calculated melting point of milk FA was narrow (CV of 5%) compared with the variability of milk FA percentages (CV of 18 to 72%). The regulation of the melting point of milk fat is thus probably involved in the control of diet-induced variations in milk fat secretion. The calculated melting point of ewe milk FA was approximately 3°C lower than that of goats or cows across all types of diets, which might be linked to differences in milk fat content (higher in sheep) or the structure of milk triacylglycerides among these species. Lipid supplementation increased the calculated melting point of C18 FA in milk, whereas that of total FA was significantly reduced by supplements rich in oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids but not C20-22 polyunsaturated FA. However, the slight effects of dietary treatments on the calculated melting point of milk FA did not differ between cows, goats, and ewes.

  9. Physics of soft hyaluronic acid-collagen type II double network gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Svetlana; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2015-03-01

    Many biological hydrogels are made up of multiple interpenetrating, charged components. We study the swelling, elastic diffusion, mechanical, and optical behaviors of 100 mol% ionizable hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen type II fiber networks. Dilute, 0.05-0.5 wt% hyaluronic acid networks are extremely sensitive to solution salt concentration, but are stable at pH above 2. When swelled in 0.1M NaCl, single-network hyaluronic acid gels follow scaling laws relevant to high salt semidilute solutions; the elastic shear modulus G' and diffusion constant D scale with the volume fraction ϕ as G' ~ϕ 9 / 4 and D ~ϕ 3 / 4 , respectively. With the addition of a collagen fiber network, we find that the hyaluronic acid network swells to suspend the rigid collagen fibers, providing extra strength to the hydrogel. Results on swelling equilibria, elasticity, and collective diffusion on these double network hydrogels will be presented.

  10. Titania-based molecularly imprinted polymer for sulfonic acid dyes prepared by sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Li, Rong; Tan, Jin; Jiang, Zi-Tao

    2013-03-30

    A novel titania-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized through sol-gel process with sunset yellow (Sun) as template, without use of functional monomer. MIP was used as a solid-phase extraction material for the isolation and enrichment of sulfonic acid dyes in beverages. The results showed that MIP exhibited better selectivity, higher recovery and adsorption capacity for the sulfonic acid dyes compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP). MIP presented highest extraction selectivity to Sun when pH less than or equal to 3. The adsorption capacity was 485.9 mg g(-1), which was larger than that of NIP (384.7 mg g(-1)). The better clean-up ability demonstrated the capability of MIP for the isolation and enrichment of sulfonic acid dyes in complicated food samples. The mean recoveries for the sulfonic acid dyes on MIP were from 81.9% to 97.2% in spiked soft drink.

  11. Organic production enhances milk nutritional quality by shifting fatty acid composition: a United States-wide, 18-month study.

    PubMed

    Benbrook, Charles M; Butler, Gillian; Latif, Maged A; Leifert, Carlo; Davis, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    Over the last century, intakes of omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids in Western diets have dramatically increased, while omega-3 (ω-3) intakes have fallen. Resulting ω-6/ω-3 intake ratios have risen to nutritionally undesirable levels, generally 10 to 15, compared to a possible optimal ratio near 2.3. We report results of the first large-scale, nationwide study of fatty acids in U.S. organic and conventional milk. Averaged over 12 months, organic milk contained 25% less ω-6 fatty acids and 62% more ω-3 fatty acids than conventional milk, yielding a 2.5-fold higher ω-6/ω-3 ratio in conventional compared to organic milk (5.77 vs. 2.28). All individual ω-3 fatty acid concentrations were higher in organic milk--α-linolenic acid (by 60%), eicosapentaenoic acid (32%), and docosapentaenoic acid (19%)--as was the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (18%). We report mostly moderate regional and seasonal variability in milk fatty acid profiles. Hypothetical diets of adult women were modeled to assess milk fatty-acid-driven differences in overall dietary ω-6/ω-3 ratios. Diets varied according to three choices: high instead of moderate dairy consumption; organic vs. conventional dairy products; and reduced vs. typical consumption of ω-6 fatty acids. The three choices together would decrease the ω-6/ω-3 ratio among adult women by ∼80% of the total decrease needed to reach a target ratio of 2.3, with relative impact "switch to low ω-6 foods" > "switch to organic dairy products" ≈ "increase consumption of conventional dairy products." Based on recommended servings of dairy products and seafoods, dairy products supply far more α-linolenic acid than seafoods, about one-third as much eicosapentaenoic acid, and slightly more docosapentaenoic acid, but negligible docosahexaenoic acid. We conclude that consumers have viable options to reduce average ω-6/ω-3 intake ratios, thereby reducing or eliminating probable risk factors for a wide range of developmental and

  12. Relationships between milk fatty acids composition in early lactation and subsequent reproductive performance in Czech Fleckvieh cows.

    PubMed

    Stádník, L; Ducháček, J; Beran, J; Toušová, R; Ptáček, M

    2015-04-01

    Increase of milk yield after calving causes changes in milk fatty acids (FA) composition and simultaneously corresponds with reproduction performance decrease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between milk FA group composition (SFA, saturated fatty acids; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids; and PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids) during the first 5 lactation weeks and subsequent reproductive results (INT, calving to first service interval; NUM, number of services per conception, and DO, days open) in Czech Fleckvieh cows. A total of 1231 individual milk samples from 382 cows were collected and subsequently analyzed. Simultaneously, body condition score (BCS) was weekly evaluated as well. Software SAS 9.1 was used for statistical analysis. Daily milk yields increased whereas BCS, milk fat and protein contents decreased during period observed. The reduction of basic milk components (% of fat, % of protein) was associated with increased SFA and decreased MUFA, respectively PUFA contents. Significant (P<0.01-0.05 days) increase in NUM (+0.15 to +0.29 AI dose) and DO (+8.16 to 15.44 days) were detected in cows with the lowest SFA content. On the contrary, cows with the highest content of MUFA presented significantly (P<0.01-0.05) higher values of NUM (+0.13 to +0.30) and DO (+7.26 to +15.35 days). Milk FA groups composition in early lactation potentially used as NEB indicators, especially SFA and MUFA proportion, affected subsequent reproductive results of Czech Fleckvieh cows. Therefore, its post-partum values could serve as predictors of potential fertility of dairy cows.

  13. Effect of feeding extruded flaxseed with different grains on the performance of dairy cows and milk fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Neveu, C; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A

    2014-03-01

    Sixteen Holsteins cows were used in a Latin square design experiment to determine the effects of extruded flaxseed (EF) supplementation and grain source (i.e., corn vs. barley) on performance of dairy cows. Extruded flaxseed diets contained 10% [dry matter (DM) basis] of an EF product that consisted of 75% flaxseed and 25% ground alfalfa meal. Four lactating Holsteins cows fitted with rumen fistulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation. Intakes of DM (23.2 vs. 22.2 kg/d), crude protein (4.2 vs. 4.0 kg/d), and neutral detergent fiber (8.3 vs. 7.9 kg/d) were greater for cows fed EF diets than for cows fed diets without EF. Milk yield and composition were not affected by dietary treatments. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (30.5% vs. 29.6 kg/d) and solids-corrected milk (30.7 vs. 29.9 kg/d) were increased by EF supplementation. Ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentration were not influenced by EF supplementation. However, feeding barley relative to corn increased molar proportions of acetate and butyrate and decreased that of propionate. Ruminal NH3-N was lower for cows fed barley than for cows fed corn. Milk fatty acid composition was altered by both grain source and EF supplementation. Cows fed EF produced milk with higher polyunsaturated and lower saturated fatty acid concentrations than cows fed diets without EF. Feeding EF or corn increased the milk concentration of C18:0, whereas that of C16:0 was decreased by EF supplementation only. Extruded flaxseed supplementation increased milk fat α-linolenic acid content by 60% and conjugated linoleic acid content by 29%. Feeding corn relative to barley increased milk conjugated linoleic acid by 29% but had no effect on milk α-linolenic concentration. Differences in animal performance and milk fatty acid composition were mainly due to EF supplementation, whereas differences in ruminal fermentation were mostly due to grain source.

  14. Human milk polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids and secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies and early childhood allergy.

    PubMed

    Duchén, K; Casas, R; Fagerås-Böttcher, M; Yu, G; Björkstén, B

    2000-02-01

    The possible protective effect of breast milk against atopic manifestations in infancy, i.e. atopic eczema and food allergy, has been controversial for the last decades. Besides the methodological problems, differences in the composition of human milk could explain these controversies. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) levels to food proteins (ovalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin) and an inhalant allergen (cat) in milk from mothers of allergic and non-allergic children. Blood samples were obtained at birth and at 3 months from 120 children. Skin prick tests were performed at 6, 12 and 18 months, and the development of atopic diseases was assessed in the children. Breast milk samples were collected from their mothers at birth and monthly during the lactation period. Milk PUFA composition was measured by gas chromatography, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure total S-IgA, anti-cat S-IgA, anti-ovalbumin S-IgA, and anti-beta-lactoglobulin S-IgA. Allergic disease developed in 44/120 children (22/63 children of allergic mothers and 22/57 children of non-allergic mothers). Lower levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5 n-3 (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid C22:5 n-3 (DPA), and docosatetraenoic acid C22:4 n-6 (DHA) (p < 0.05 for all) were found in mature milk from mothers of allergic as compared to milk from mothers of non-allergic children. The total n-6:total n-3 and the arachidonic acid, C20:4 n-6 (AA):EPA ratios were significantly lower in transitional and mature milk from mothers of allergic children, as compared to milk from mothers of non-allergic children. The PUFA levels in serum of allergic and non-allergic children were largely similar, except for higher levels of C22:4 n-6 and C22:5 n-6 (p < 0.05 for both) and a higher AA:EPA ratio in serum phospholipids in the former group (p < 0.05). Changes in the levels of milk PUFA were reflected in

  15. Genetic parameters for milk fatty acids, milk yield and quality traits of a Holstein cattle population reared under tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information about genetic parameters is essential for selection decisions and genetic evaluation. Those estimates are population specific, but few studies are available for dairy cattle populations reared under tropical and subtropical conditions. Heritability and genetic correlations for milk yield...

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and fatty acid composition of milk, curd and Grana Padano cheese in conventional and organic farming systems.

    PubMed

    Prandini, Aldo; Sigolo, Samantha; Piva, Gianfranco

    2009-08-01

    CLA levels and fatty acid composition were measured to compare the fat composition in organic bulk milk, destined to the production of Grana Padano cheese, with those produced by conventional system. The curds and Grana Padano cheeses were also analysed to evaluate the effects of the production technology on the CLA content. All analysed organic samples were characterized by higher annual means of CLA, vaccenic acid (TVA) and linolenic acid (LNA) in comparison with conventional samples (with P<0.05). Nevertheless, no particular effect of the production technology was seen on the CLA content. The animal diet appears to be the factor which has the highest effect on the CLA concentration in milk and milk products and an organic diet based on fresh or dried forage, that is rich in CLA precursory fatty acids, may improve the yield of fatty acids with beneficial effects on health.

  17. Goat milk fat naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid increased lipoproteins and reduced triacylglycerol in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Raphaela; Soares, Juliana; Garcia, Hugo; Nascimento, Claudenice; Medeiros, Maria; Bomfim, Marco; Medeiros, Maria Carmo; Queiroga, Rita

    2014-03-24

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters--high density lipoprotein (HDL), triacylglycerol (TAG), TAG/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and glucose, body weight and histopathological aspects of the intestine and liver. GM-CLA increased body weight from the second to the fifth week of the experiment compared to CON. Feed intake differed between the CON group and GM-CLA early in the first to third week of the experiments and later between the ninth and tenth week. The CLA-diet group showed increased levels of HDL, reduced levels of TAG and TAG/HDL ratio and no effect on LDL, but enhanced total cholesterol. Serum glucose of the GM-CLA group showed no difference from the control group. Thus, a GM-CLA diet promoted growth in young rats and acted as protector of cardiovascular function, but further studies are still needed to clarify these effects.

  18. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts involved in the fermentation ofamabere amaruranu, a Kenyan fermented milk

    PubMed Central

    Nyambane, Bitutu; Thari, William M; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick M K

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous fermented milk products contain microbiota composed of technologically important species and strains which are gradually getting lost with new technologies. We investigated the microbial diversity inamabere amaruranu, a traditionally fermented milk product from Kenya. Sixteen samples of the product from different containers were obtained. One hundred and twenty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 67 strains of yeasts were identified using API 50 CH and API 20 C AUX identification kits, respectively. The average pH of all the traditional fermented samples was 4.00 ± 0.93. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds as well asEnterobacteriaceae counts from the plastic containers were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those from gourd.Enterobacteriaceae were below 1.00 ± 1.11 log10 cfu/mL in products from the gourds and 2.17 ± 1.92 log10 cfu/mL from the plastic containers. The LAB species were identified asStreptococcus thermophilus (25%),Lactobacillus plantarum (20%), andLeuconostoc mesenteroides (20%). The predominant yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae (25%),Trichosporum mucoides (15%),Candida famata (10%), andCandida albicans (10%). The type of vessel used for fermentation had no significant influence on the type of isolated and identified species. The diverse mixture of LAB and yeasts microflora forms a potential consortium for further product innovation inamabere amaruranu and other fermented milk products. PMID:25493187

  19. Citric acid mediates the iron absorption from low molecular weight human milk fractions.

    PubMed

    Palika, Ravindranadh; Mashurabad, Purna Chandra; Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Kasula, Sunanda; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Raghu, Pullakhandam

    2013-11-20

    Previously, we have demonstrated increased iron absorption from low molecular weight (LMW) human milk whey fractions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of heat denaturation, zinc (a competitor of iron), duodenal cytochrome b (DcytB) antibody neutralization and citrate lyase treatment on LMW human milk fraction (>5 kDa referred as 5kF) induced ferric iron reduction, solubilization, and uptake in Caco-2 cells. Heat denaturation and zinc inhibited the 5kF fraction induced ferric iron reduction. In contrast, zinc but not heat denaturation abrogated the ferric iron solubilization activity. Despite inhibition of ferric iron reduction, iron uptake in Caco-2 cells was similar from both native and heat denatured 5kF fractions. However, iron uptake was higher from native compared to heat denatured 5kF fractions in the cells preincubated with the DcytB antibody. Citrate lyase treatment inhibited the ferric iron reduction, solubilization, and uptake in Caco-2 cells. These findings demonstrate that citric acid present in human milk solubilizes the ferric iron which could be reduced by other heat labile components leading to increased uptake in intestinal cells.

  20. 4-O-Acetyl-sialic acid (Neu4,5Ac2) in acidic milk oligosaccharides of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and its evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Inamori, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Messer, Michael; Oftedal, Olav T

    2015-06-01

    Monotremes (echidnas and platypus) retain an ancestral form of reproduction: egg-laying followed by secretion of milk onto skin and hair in a mammary patch, in the absence of nipples. Offspring are highly immature at hatching and depend on oligosaccharide-rich milk for many months. The primary saccharide in long-beaked echidna milk is an acidic trisaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose), but acidic oligosaccharides have not been characterized in platypus milk. In this study, acidic oligosaccharides purified from the carbohydrate fraction of platypus milk were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All identified structures, except Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-sialyllactose) contained Neu4,5Ac2 (4-O-acetyl-sialic acid). These include the trisaccharide 4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose, the pentasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-tetraose d) and the hexasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-fucopentaose III). At least seven different octa- to deca-oligosaccharides each contained a lacto-N-neohexaose core (LNnH) and one or two Neu4,5Ac2 and one to three fucose residues. We conclude that platypus milk contains a diverse (≥ 20) array of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides based primarily on lactose, lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) and LNnH structural cores and shares with echidna milk the unique feature that all identified acidic oligosaccharides (other than 3'-sialyllactose) contain the 4-O-acetyl-sialic acid moiety. We propose that 4-O-acetylation of sialic acid moieties protects acidic milk oligosaccharides secreted onto integumental surfaces from bacterial hydrolysis via steric interference with bacterial sialidases. This may be of evolutionary significance since taxa ancestral to monotremes and other mammals are

  1. Effects of different forms of canola oil fatty acids plus canola meal on milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    PubMed

    Bayourthe, C; Enjalbert, F; Moncoulon, R

    2000-04-01

    Twenty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 16-wk trial. A block of 10 cows received a control diet, based on corn silage, and the other block of 10 cows successively received four diets with 1) an extruded blend of canola meal and canola seeds, 2) canola meal and whole canola seeds, 3) canola meal and ground canola seeds, or 4) canola meal and calcium salts of canola oil fatty acids. Canola fat represented about 2% of dietary dry matter. Compared to control cows, treated cows had similar dry matter intake, milk production, and daily milk output of true protein or fat. Protein contents of milk was decreased by all treatments, with a lower effect of extruded or whole canola seeds. Milk fat contents was lowered by all treatments, extruded seeds and calcium salts resulting in most important effects. All treatments lowered the percentage of fatty acids with 12 to 16 carbons in milk fat, increased C18:0 and cis-C18:1 percentages, and the proportion of liquid fat in butter between 0 and 12 degrees C. Calcium salts and, to a lesser extent extruded seeds, resulted in most important improvements of milk fatty acid profile and butter softness, whereas whole seeds had low effects.

  2. Capillary zone electrophoresis for fatty acids with chemometrics for the determination of milk adulteration by whey addition.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Mendes, Thiago; Porto, Brenda Lee Simas; Bell, Maria José Valenzuela; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal

    2016-12-15

    Adulteration of milk with whey is difficult to detect because these two have similar physical and chemical characteristics. The traditional methodologies to monitor this fraud are based on the analysis of caseinomacropeptide. The present study proposes a new approach to detect and quantify this fraud using the fatty acid profiles of milk and whey. Fatty acids C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were selected by gas chromatography associated with discriminant analysis to differentiate milk and whey, as they are present in quite different amounts. These six fatty acids were quantified within a short time by capillary zone electrophoresis in a set of adulterated milk samples. The correlation coefficient between the true values of whey addition and the experimental values obtained by this technique was 0.973. The technique is thus useful for the evaluation of milk adulteration with whey, contributing to the quality control of milk in the dairy industry.

  3. Contribution of gut microbial lysine to liver and milk amino acids in lactating does.

    PubMed

    Abecia, Leticia; Balcells, Joaquím; Fondevila, Manuel; Belenguer, Alvaro; Holtrop, Grietje; Lobley, Gerald E

    2008-11-01

    The contribution of microbial amino acids through caecotrophy to tissue protein metabolism was investigated in lactating does. Attempts were made to vary microbial supply through a dietary antibiotic, Zn bacitracin, and to vary tissue demand through manipulation of litter size. Three groups of eight New Zealand does were fed different experimental diets from day 28 of pregnancy to day 26 of lactation. The control group received the basal diet formulated to meet requirements with grass hay, wheat, soybean meal and barley grain. The second (no antibiotic) group and the third (bacitracin; BAC) group ingested the basal diet supplemented with ammonium sulfate (5 g/kg), initially unlabelled (day 1 to day 8) then labelled with 15N (day 9 to day 30), while the BAC diet was also supplemented throughout with antibiotic (Zn bacitracin; 100 mg/kg). From just after birth each group of does was subdivided into two groups, each of four females, with the litter size either five (LS5) or nine (LS9) pups. The 15N enrichment in liver, milk and caecal bacteria amino acids was determined by GC-combustion-isotope ratio MS. All amino acids in bacterial protein were enriched with the (15 NH 4)2SO4 treatment, with lysine 15N enrichment significantly greater in caecal bacteria (0.23 (SE 0.0063) atom % excess (ape)) than in liver (0.04 (SE 0.0004) ape) or milk protein (0.05 (SE 0.0018) ape), confirming the double origin (bacterial and dietary) of tissue lysine. The contribution of microbes to tissue lysine was 0.23 (SE 0.006) when milk protein was used as reference.

  4. Speciation and strain-typing of Staphylococcus agnetis and Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from bovine milk using a novel multiplex PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Adkins, P R F; Middleton, J R; Calcutt, M J; Stewart, G C; Fox, L K

    2017-03-22

    Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus agnetis are two coagulase variable staphylococcal species that can be isolated from bovine milk and are difficult to differentiate. The objectives of this study were to characterize isolates of bovine milk origin from a collection that had previously been characterized as coagulase positive S. hyicus based on phenotypic speciation methods and to develop a PCR-based method for differentiating S. hyicus, S. agnetis, and S. aureus. Isolates (n = 62) were selected from a previous study in which milk samples were collected from cows on 15 dairy herds. Isolates were coagulase tested and speciated using housekeeping gene sequencing. A multiplex PCR to differentiate S. hyicus, S. agnetis, and S. aureus was developed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was conducted to strain type isolates. Based on gene sequencing, 44/62 of the isolates were determined to be either S. agnetis (n = 43) or S. hyicus (n = 1). Overall, 88% (37/42) of coagulase positive S. agnetis isolates were found to be coagulase positive at 4 hours. Herd-level prevalence of coagulase positive S. agnetis ranged from 0 to 2.17%. Strain-typing identified 23 different strains. Six strains were identified more than once and from multiple cows within the herd. Three strains were isolated from cows at more than one time point, with 41-264 days between samplings. These data suggest that S. agnetis is likely more prevalent on dairy farms than S. hyicus Also, some S. agnetis isolates in this study appeared to be contagious and associated with persistent infections.

  5. Effects of intravenous infusion of amino acids and glucose on the yield and concentration of milk protein in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Kim, T G; Choung, J J; Chamberlain, D G

    2001-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the availability of glucose or its precursors can influence the response of milk protein concentration to the intravenous infusion of amino acids, five cows were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square design with period lengths of 7 d. The five treatments were the basal diet of grass silage ad lib. plus 5 kg/d of a cereal-based supplement containing feather meal (Basal); Basal plus 4 g/d histidine, 8 g/d methionine and 26 g/d lysine (4H); Basal plus 8 g/d histidine, 8 g/d methionine and 26 g/d lysine (SH); and these two amino acid mixtures together with 600 g/d of gluctose (4HG and 8HG respectively). Earlier experiments with this basal diet had shown that histidine was first-limiting for secretion of milk protein, followed by methionine and lysine. The yield of milk protein was increased progressively with the amount of histidine infused. The efficiency of transfer of histidine into milk protein was 0.42 for the 4H and 4HG and 0.35 for the 8H and 8HG treatments, and the concentration of milk protein was increased over Basal by all infusion treatments. However, milk protein concentrations were higher, and lactose concentrations in the milk were lower, in the absence of added glucose. Concentrations of insulin in blood plasma were not affected by treatment. It is concluded that, with the treatments without added glucose, a shortage of glucose prevented an increase in lactose secretion, and hence limited the increase in milk yield, leading to an increased concentration of protein in the milk.

  6. Effect of bovine ABCG2 polymorphism Y581S SNP on secretion into milk of enterolactone, riboflavin and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Otero, J A; Miguel, V; González-Lobato, L; García-Villalba, R; Espín, J C; Prieto, J G; Merino, G; Álvarez, A I

    2016-02-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2/breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP) is an efflux protein involved in the bioavailability and milk secretion of endogenous and exogenous compounds, actively affecting milk composition. A limited number of physiological substrates have been identified. However, no studies have reported the specific effect of this polymorphism on the secretion into milk of compounds implicated in milk quality such as vitamins or endogenous compounds. The bovine ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism is described as a gain-of-function polymorphism that increases milk secretion and decreases plasma levels of its substrates. This work aims to study the impact of Y581S polymorphism on plasma disposition and milk secretion of compounds such as riboflavin (vitamin B2), enterolactone, a microbiota-derived metabolite from the dietary lignan secoisolariciresinol and uric acid. In vitro transport of these compounds was assessed in MDCK-II cells overexpressing the bovine ABCG2 (WT-bABCG2) and its Y581S variant (Y581S-bABCG2). Plasma and milk levels were obtained from Y/Y homozygous and Y/S heterozygous cows. The results show that riboflavin was more efficiently transported in vitro by the Y581S variant, although no differences were noted in vivo. Both uric acid and enterolactone were substrates in vitro of the bovine ABCG2 variants and were actively secreted into milk with a two-fold increase in the milk/plasma ratio for Y/S with respect to Y/Y cows. The in vitro ABCG2-mediated transport of the drug mitoxantrone, as a model substrate, was inhibited by enterolactone in both variants, suggesting the possible in vivo use of this enterolignan to reduce ABCG2-mediated milk drug transfer in cows. The Y581S variant was inhibited to a lesser extent probably due to its higher transport capacity. All these findings point to a significant role of the ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism in the milk disposition of enterolactone and the endogenous molecules riboflavin and uric acid

  7. Free fatty acids and oxidative changes of a raw goat milk cheese through maturation.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Francisco J; González-Crespo, José; Cava, Ramón; Ramírez, Rosario

    2011-05-01

    Free fatty acids (FFA) and lipid and protein oxidation changes were studied throughout maturation process of a raw goat milk cheese with protected designation of origin. Cheeses were analyzed at 4 different times of maturation, at 1, 30, 60, and 90 d. All FFA significantly increased during maturation and the relative increase was higher for long-chain than medium- or short-chain FFA. At the end of maturation, oleic (C18:1 n9), butyric (C4:0), and palmitic (C16:0) acids were the most abundant. The higher levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) regarding total FFA obtained at the end of Ibores cheese ripening compared with other raw goat milk cheeses, highlight the notable role of SCFA on the flavor of this cheese owing to their low-odor thresholds. Lipid oxidation values significantly increased during maturation process but low levels of malondialdehyde were reported; however, protein oxidation did not significantly change during ripening.

  8. Development of fatty acid calcium stone ileus after initiation of human milk fortifier.

    PubMed

    Murase, Masahiko; Miyazawa, Tokuo; Taki, Motohiro; Sakurai, Motoichiro; Miura, Fumihiro; Mizuno, Katsumi; Itabashi, Kazuo; Toki, Akira

    2013-02-01

    We report a case who was born with extremely low birth weight infant and had experienced abdominal operation for necrotizing enterocolitis, eventually developed ileus due to fatty acid calcium stones after giving human milk fortifier. He had developed necrotizing enterocolitis on day 30 of his age, such that we performed enterectomy and ileostomy. He could not tolerate enteral feeding fully, because intestinal fistula infection was repeated. Although we administered hindmilk, he grew up slowly and he suffered cholestasis as well. We performed end-to-end anastomosis to prevent fistula infections on day 87. After this operation, breast milk feeding volume was increased easily. However, we started to add HMF of half-strength on day 124, because his body weight gain remained very poor. And we confirmed to intensify the ratio of HMF full-strength on day 128. After that his abdomen had distended on day 131. As there is no effect of conservative therapy to occlusive ileus, we did emergency laparotomy on day 139. Intestinal calculi were impacted at anastomic portion. Although all stones were removed, he died on 144 days due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and renal failure. Calculi analysis revealed that all of them were fatty acid calcium stones. There is no report about like our case. We speculate that the construction of fatty acid calcium result from either high concentration of calcium/phosphorus or rapid increase in the fortification. We could have prevented this case happened by slower increment of fortification.

  9. Amino acids and mammary gland development: nutritional implications for milk production and neonatal growth.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Reza; Wu, Zhenlong; Hou, Yongqing; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    Milk is synthesized by mammary epithelial cells of lactating mammals. The synthetic capacity of the mammary gland depends largely on the number and efficiency of functional mammary epithelial cells. Structural development of the mammary gland occurs during fetal growth, prepubertal and post-pubertal periods, pregnancy, and lactation under the control of various hormones (particularly estrogen, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, progesterone, placental lactogen, and prolactin) in a species- and stage-dependent manner. Milk is essential for the growth, development, and health of neonates. Amino acids (AA), present in both free and peptide-bound forms, are the most abundant organic nutrients in the milk of farm animals. Uptake of AA from the arterial blood of the lactating dam is the ultimate source of proteins (primarily β-casein and α-lactalbumin) and bioactive nitrogenous metabolites in milk. Results of recent studies indicate extensive catabolism of branched-chain AA (leucine, isoleucine and valine) and arginine to synthesize glutamate, glutamine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, proline, and polyamines. The formation of polypeptides from AA is regulated not only by hormones (e.g., prolactin, insulin and glucocorticoids) and the rate of blood flow across the lactating mammary gland, but also by concentrations of AA, lipids, glucose, vitamins and minerals in the maternal plasma, as well as the activation of the mechanistic (mammalian) target rapamycin signaling by certain AA (e.g., arginine, branched-chain AA, and glutamine). Knowledge of AA utilization (including metabolism) by mammary epithelial cells will enhance our fundamental understanding of lactation biology and has important implications for improving the efficiency of livestock production worldwide.

  10. [Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage].

    PubMed

    Bosch, Virgilio; Golfetto, Iván; Alonso, Hilda; Laurentin, Zuly; Materan, Mercedes; García, Ninoska

    2009-03-01

    Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage. Breast milk is the main food in infants from birth until six months old. It is important to know if precarious life conditions could limit some nutrients in mother's milk. The objective of this study is to evaluate the total fat and essential long chain fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels in Venezuelan women. The values of total fat (3.56 +/- 1.18 g/%) are similar that reported in the literature, however the sume of LC-PUFA n-3 was 0.3 +/- 0.04% which is related whith low n-3 fatty acid maternal diet.The sume LC-PUFA n-3 contained in this study is below most of the reviewed publications. The average amount of 22:6 n-3 in breast milk offered to newborn one month old (750 ml/day) is below estimated requirements (70 mg/day). The majority of these samples provide to the infants, the amount of DHA estimated as convenient to sustain normal growth. Also it was explored how the time (8h to 24 h) and temperatura (+4 degrees C, +15 degrees C, and +25 degrees C) can affect its composition. This data will permit to select the best condiitions of sampling and storage of mother's milk in future investigations in different regions of Venezuela. Most of the breast milk fatty acids tolerate some hours at room temperature (25 degrees C) but essential long chain fatty acids are very vulnerable. We propose that, in consequence, that samples should be transported in sterile conditions in dry ice to the laboratory in a few hours and should be kept at -70 degrees C until their analysis.

  11. A new sol-gel synthesis of 45S5 bioactive glass using an organic acid as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Faure, J; Drevet, R; Lemelle, A; Ben Jaber, N; Tara, A; El Btaouri, H; Benhayoune, H

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a new sol-gel approach was explored for the synthesis of the 45S5 bioactive glass. We demonstrate that citric acid can be used instead of the usual nitric acid to catalyze the sol-gel reactions. The substitution of nitric acid by citric acid allows to reduce strongly the concentration of the acid solution necessary to catalyze the hydrolysis of silicon and phosphorus alkoxides. Two sol-gel powders with chemical compositions very close to that of the 45S5 were obtained by using either a 2M nitric acid solution or either a 5mM citric acid solution. These powders were characterized and compared to the commercial Bioglass®. The surface properties of the two bioglass powders were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET). The Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a partial crystallization associated to the formation of crystalline phases on the two sol-gel powders. The in vitro bioactivity was then studied at the key times during the first hours of immersion into acellular Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). After 4h immersion into SBF we clearly demonstrate that the bioactivity level of the two sol-gel powders is similar and much higher than that of the commercial Bioglass®. This bioactivity improvement is associated to the increase of the porosity and the specific surface area of the powders synthesized by the sol-gel process. Moreover, the nitric acid is efficiently substituted by the citric acid to catalyze the sol-gel reactions without alteration of the bioactivity of the 45S5 bioactive glass.

  12. Maternal dietary Alpine butter intake affects human milk: fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Bertschi, Isabelle; Collomb, Marius; Rist, Lukas; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Folkers, Gerd; von Mandach, Ursula

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of CLA by lactating women affects the composition of their milk, but the pattern of the different CLA isomers is still unknown. We determined the effects of short maternal supplementation with CLA-rich Alpine butter on the occurrence of FA and CLA isomers in human milk. In an open randomized controlled study with a two-period cross-over design, milk FA and CLA isomer concentrations were measured on postpartum days > or = 20 in two parallel groups of lactating women before, during, and after consumption of defined quantities of Alpine butter or margarine with comparable fat content (10 d of butter followed by 10 d of margarine for one group, and vice versa in the other). In the 16 women who completed the study (8/group), Alpine butter supplementation increased the C16 and C18 FA, the sum of saturated FA, the 18:1 trans FA, and the trans FA with CLA. The CLA isomer 18:2 c9,t11 increased by 49.7%. Significant increases were also found for the isomers t9,t11, t7,c9, t11,c13, and t8,c10 18:2. The remaining nine of the total 14 detectable isomers showed no changes, and concentrations were <5 mg/100 g fat. A breastfeeding mother can therefore modulate the FA/CLA supply of her child by consuming Alpine butter. Further studies will show whether human milk containing this FA and CLA isomer pattern acts as a functional food for newborns.

  13. Palmitic acid feeding increases ceramide supply in association with increased milk yield, circulating nonesterified fatty acids, and adipose tissue responsiveness to a glucose challenge.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Mathews, A T; Lovett, J; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Reduced insulin action is a key adaptation that facilitates glucose partitioning to the mammary gland for milk synthesis and enhances adipose tissue lipolysis during early lactation. The progressive recovery of insulin sensitivity as cows advance toward late lactation is accompanied by reductions in circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and milk yield. Because palmitic acid can promote insulin resistance in monogastrics through sphingolipid ceramide-dependent mechanisms, palmitic acid (C16:0) feeding may enhance milk production by restoring homeorhetic responses. We hypothesized that feeding C16:0 to mid-lactation cows would enhance ceramide supply and ceramide would be positively associated with milk yield. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows were randomly assigned to a sorghum silage-based diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45 d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration dry matter (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44 d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Liver and skeletal muscle tissue were biopsied at d 47 of treatment. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. The plasma and tissue concentrations of ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield, energy-corrected milk, and milk fat yield. The most abundant plasma and tissue sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide (GlcCer), and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and GlcCer decreased as lactation advanced, and ceramide and GlcCer were elevated in cows fed PALM

  14. Effect of high-oleic-acid soybeans on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and enteric methane emission in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, J C; Harper, M T; Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Smith, L; Ortega-Perez, A M; Harper, S A; Melgar, A; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 soybean sources differing in fatty acid profile and processing method on productivity, milk composition, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and enteric methane emission in lactating dairy cows. The soybean sources were conventional, high-linoleic-acid variety extruded soybean meal (ESBM; 8.7% ether extract with 15% oleic and 54% linoleic acids); extruded Plenish (DuPont Pioneer, Johnston, IA), high-oleic-acid variety soybean meal (EPSBM; 8.4% ether extract with 73% oleic and 8% linoleic acids); and whole, heated Plenish soybeans (WPSB; 20.2% ether extract). The study involved 15 Holstein cows in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The inclusion rate of the soybean sources in the diet was (dry matter basis) 17.1, 17.1, and 7.4% for ESBM, EPSBM, and WPSB, respectively, which resulted in ether extract concentration of the diets of 3.99, 3.94, and 4.18%, respectively. Compared with ESBM, the Plenish diets tended to increase dry matter intake and decreased feed efficiency (but had no effect on energy-corrected milk feed efficiency). The Plenish diets increased milk fat concentration on average by 5.6% and tended to increase milk fat yield, compared with ESBM. The WPSB diet tended to increased milk true protein compared with the extruded soybean meal diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation and enteric methane or carbon dioxide emissions, except pH was higher for WPSB versus EPSBM. The Plenish diets decreased the prevalence of Ruminococcus and increased that of Eubacterium and Treponema in whole ruminal contents. Total-tract apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein were decreased by WPSB compared with ESBM and EPSBM. Compared with the other treatments, urinary N excretion was increased by EPSBM and fecal N excretion was greater for WPSB. Treatments had marked effects on milk fatty acid profile. Generally, the Plenish diets increased mono

  15. Dietary verbascoside supplementation in donkeys: effects on milk fatty acid profile during lactation, and serum biochemical parameters and oxidative markers.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A G; Vizzarri, F; Palazzo, M; Martemucci, G

    2017-03-07

    Various uses of donkeys' milk have been recently proposed for human consumption on the basis of its nutritional characteristics. Improvements in milk fatty acid profile and animal oxidative status can be induced through dietary supplementation of phenolic compounds. The study aimed to evaluate in donkeys the effects of dietary supplementation with verbascoside (VB) on: (i) the fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents of milk during a whole lactation, and (ii) blood biochemical parameters and markers of oxidative status of the animals. At foaling, 12 lactating jennies were subdivided into two groups (n 6): control, without VB supplement; VB, receiving a lipid-encapsulated VB supplement. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents in milk were assessed monthly over the 6 months of lactation. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol, tryglicerides, non-esterified fatty acid, bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, reactive oxygen metabolites, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), vitamin A and vitamin E were evaluated at 8 days after foaling (D0) and then at D90, D105 and D120 of lactation. In milk, the VB supplementation decreased the saturated fatty acids (P<0.05) and increased the monounsaturated fatty acids (P<0.05), and vitamins A and E (P<0.01) values. On the serum parameters, the VB supplementation decreased total cholesterol (P<0.01), tryglicerides, bilirubin, ALT and TBARs, and increased (P<0.01) vitamin E. In conclusion, the VB dietary supplementation affects the nutritional quality of donkey's milk with a benefit on the oxidative status and serum lipidic profile of the animals.

  16. Effect of vitamin E on milk composition of grazing dairy cows supplemented with microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Mella, Monica; Hernández-Mendo, Omar; Ramírez-Bribiesca, Efren Jacinto; Améndola-Massiotti, Ricardo Daniel; Crosby-Galván, María M; Burgueño-Ferreira, Juan A

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E on the fat content and fatty acid profile of grazing dairy cows supplemented with microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid. Eight New Zealand Holstein cows in a rotational grazing system were used, in a crossover design, randomly assigned to four treatments: control (base diet with microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid) and three levels of vitamin E (control with 4,000; 8,000; and 12,000 IU/cow per day). All the cows received a supplement apportioning 5 g of cis-9, trans-11, and 5 g of trans-10, cis-12 of conjugated linoleic acid. Moreover, they each received 4-kg dry matter (DM) concentrate and 3.2-kg DM corn silage every day. There were no differences in dry matter intake, milk production, milk composition (fat, protein, and lactose), or fatty acid profile as an effect of vitamin E, and fat content remained under 3 % in all treatments. Therefore, under the conditions that this experiment was carried out, high concentrations of vitamin E in the diet of grazing dairy cows do not inhibit milk fat depression associated with conjugated linoleic acid. It also has no effect on the fatty acid profile of the milk.

  17. ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, MECHANICAL TESTING, AND GEL MORPHOLOGY STUDY OF PHOSPHORIC ACID-DOPED META-POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES VIA CONVENTIONALLY IMBIBING AND THE SOL-GEL PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Kelly A; More, Karren Leslie; Benicewicz, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) research has been directed at phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes since the 1990s. PEM fuel cells based on PA-doped PBI membranes produced via a sol-gel transition process have achieved lifetimes >10,000hrs with low degradation rates. It has been suggested that the gel morphology of the PA-doped PBI membranes is responsible for their excellent electrochemical performance. Thus, a study has been underway to characterize the microstructure of PA-doped PBI membranes, and to correlate structure with performance. However, PA-doped PBI membranes present special challenges for microscopy analysis, as these membranes are extremely sensitive to the electron beam and high vacuum conditions. This paper will discuss and compare the mechanical, electrochemical, and cryo-SEM analyses of PA-doped meta-PBI membranes produced via conventional imbibing and the sol-gel process.

  18. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  19. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  20. Effect of feeding fresh forage and marine algae on the fatty acid composition and oxidation of milk and butter.

    PubMed

    Glover, K E; Budge, S; Rose, M; Rupasinghe, H P V; Maclaren, L; Green-Johnson, J; Fredeen, A H

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of feeding fresh forage either as pasture plus a concentrate (PAS) or as a silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), combined with either a ruminally inert lipid supplement high in saturated fatty acids (-) or a ruminally protected microalgae containing 22 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/100 g of fatty acids (+) on the fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidation of milk and butter. For the 8 mid-lactation Holstein cows in this study, milk yield was not significantly affected by treatment, averaging 32.3 ± 1.28 kg/d. Milk fat content was higher for PAS⁻, averaging 5.05 compared with 4.10 ± 0.17% for the mean of other treatments, and was significantly depressed with microalgae supplementation (3.97 vs. 4.69 ± 0.17%). The saturated fatty acid level in the milk of cows fed TMR⁻ was significantly higher than that of the other treatments (66.9 vs. 61.2 g/100 g of FA). The level of monounsaturated FA was lowered by feeding TMR⁻ (27.4 vs. 32.0 g/100 g of FA), whereas levels of polyunsaturated FA were elevated by feeding PAS+ compared with the mean of the other treatments (6.54 vs. 5.07 g/100 g of FA). Feeding the rumen-protected microalgae increased the DHA content of milk more than 4-fold (0.06 to 0.26 g/100g of FA) with the PAS treatment. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk was highest for PAS+ compared with the other treatments (4.18 vs. 3.41 g/100g of FA). In general, the fatty acid composition of butter followed that of milk. Overall, feeding the TMR supplemented with the rumen-protected microalgae increased the levels of volatile products of oxidation in milk and butter. No effect of forage type or microalgae supplementation was observed on the oxidative stability or antioxidant capacity of milk, although the oxidative stability of butter exposed to UV was reduced with microalgae supplementation, particularly with TMR, as assessed by using the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay.

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw goat milk and effect of farming practices on the dominant species of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tormo, Hélène; Ali Haimoud Lekhal, Djamila; Roques, C

    2015-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria, in particular Lactococcus lactis, play a decisive role in the cheese making process and more particularly in lactic cheeses which are primarily produced on goat dairy farms. The objective of this study was therefore to identify the main lactic acid bacteria found in raw goats' milk from three different regions in France and evaluate if certain farming practices have an effect on the distribution of species of lactic acid bacteria in the various milk samples. Identification at genus or species level was carried out using phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including repetitive element REP-PCR, species-specific PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The distribution of the main bacterial species in the milk samples varied depending on farms and their characteristics. Out of the 146 strains identified, L. lactis was the dominant species (60% of strains), followed by Enterococcus (38%) of which Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Within the species L. lactis, L. lactis subsp lactis was detected more frequently than L. lactis subsp cremoris (74% vs. 26%). The predominance of L. lactis subsp cremoris was linked to geographical area studied. It appears that the animals' environment plays a role in the balance between the dominance of L. lactis and enterococci in raw goats' milk. The separation between the milking parlor and the goat shed (vs no separation) and only straw in the bedding (vs straw and hay) seems to promote L. lactis in the milk (vs enterococci).

  2. Effect of diet supplementation with sunflower oil on milk production, fatty acid profile and ruminal fermentation in lactating dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Hervás, Gonzalo; Luna, Pilar; Mantecón, Angel R; Castañares, Natalia; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Juárez, Manuela; Frutos, Pilar

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this research was to enhance the nutritional quality of ewe milk fat by increasing potentially healthy fatty acids (FA) through diet supplementation with unprotected oil rich in linoleic acid, and without detrimental effects on animal performance. Twenty-four ewes were assigned to two high concentrate diets, control or supplemented with 6% sunflower oil (SO), for 4 weeks. No differences between treatments were found in milk production and dry matter intake. Although the SO diet increased milk fat percentage and tended to reduce milk protein concentration, it did not affect milk fat, protein or total solid yield. Most of the modifications in milk FA composition were addressed toward a potentially healthier profile: a decrease in C12:0 to C16:0 and a remarkable increase in the contents of cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 (from 0.94 to 3.60 g/100 g total FA) and trans-11 C18:1 (from 2.23 to 8.61 g/100 g total FA). Furthermore, the levels reached were maintained throughout the period monitored. However, the SO diet increased other trans C18:1 isomer percentages, too. The lack of differences between treatments in the in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters, studied with batch cultures of rumen microorganisms, would indicate no negative effects on ruminal fermentation.

  3. Effects of dairy factory, milk casein content and titratable acidity on coagulation properties in Trentingrana dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Penasa, Mauro; Toffanin, Valentina; Cologna, Nicola; Cassandro, Martino; De Marchi, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental factors, milk casein content and titratable acidity on milk coagulation properties (MCP) of samples routinely collected in the Trento province (northeast Italy) under field conditions. Rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd-firming time (k20, min) and curd firmness (a30, mm) were determined by Formagraph on 14 971 samples from 635 herds associated to 17 dairy factories. Besides MCP, fat, protein, and casein percentages, titratable acidity (TA), and somatic cell and bacterial counts were available. A standardised index of milk aptitude to coagulate (IAC) was derived using information of RCT and a30. An analysis of variance was conducted on MCP and IAC using a fixed effects linear model. Approximately 3% of milk samples did not form a curd within the testing time (30 min) and k20 was missing for 26% of milks. The percentage of samples without information on k20 largely differed among dairy factories (1·7-20·9%). Significant differences were estimated between the best and the worst dairy factory for RCT (-2 min), k20 (-1·2 min), a30 (+3·4 mm) and IAC (+2·6 points). Milk casein content and TA were important factors in explaining the variation of MCP and IAC, supporting the central role of these two traits on technological properties. The Trento province is heterogeneous in terms of dairy systems and this could explain the differences among dairy factories.

  4. Phospholipid Fatty Acids as Physiological Indicators of Paracoccus denitrificans Encapsulated in Silica Sol-Gel Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Trögl, Josef; Jirková, Ivana; Kuráň, Pavel; Akhmetshina, Elmira; Brovdyová, Tat′jána; Sirotkin, Alexander; Kirilina, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) content was determined in samples of Paracoccus denitrificans encapsulated in silica hydrogel films prepared from prepolymerized tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Immediately after encapsulation the total PLFA concentration was linearly proportional to the optical density (600 nm) of the input microbial suspension (R2 = 0.99). After 7 days this relationship remained linear, but with significantly decreased slope, indicating a higher extinction of bacteria in suspensions of input concentration 108 cells/mL and higher. trans-Fatty acids, indicators of cytoplasmatic membrane disturbances, were below the detection limit. The cy/pre ratio (i.e., ratio of cyclopropylated fatty acids (cy17:0 + cy19:0) to their metabolic precursors (16:1ω7 + 18:1ω7)), an indicator of the transition of the culture to a stationary growth-phase, decreased depending on co-immobilization of nutrients in the order phosphate buffer > mineral medium > Luria Broth rich medium. The ratio, too, was logarithmically proportional to cell concentration. These results confirm the applicability of total PLFA as an indicator for the determination of living biomass and cy/pre ratio for determination of nutrient limitation of microorganisms encapsulated in sol-gel matrices. This may be of interest for monitoring of sol-gel encapsulated bacteria proposed as optical recognition elements in biosensor construction, as well as other biotechnological applications. PMID:25690547

  5. Boric acid gel enrichment of glycosylated proteins in human wound fluids.

    PubMed

    Krisp, Christoph; Kubutat, Caroline; Kyas, Andreas; Steinsträsser, Lars; Jacobsen, Frank; Wolters, Dirk

    2011-04-01

    The enrichment of glycosylated proteins by glycocapturing materials plays a pivotal role for the investigation of polysaccharide containing proteins in disease pathogenesis. Hence, we investigated a boric acid gel as a binding material for glycoprotein enrichment. The bovine proteins alpha-1-acid-glycoprotein (A1AG) and alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (fetuin A) were spiked in human chronic wound fluids and were subsequently enriched by a boric acid gel affinity chromatography (BAGAC). The enrichment efficiency was evaluated by western blot analysis and mass spectrometry. Additionally, glycoproteins of human wound fluids from diabetes mellitus patients with chronic foot ulcers were analyzed after BAGAC enrichments. In total 104 glycoproteins were identified, with reported glycosylation sites. 60 proteins were detected in at least 2 out of 3 biological replicates and were used for quantitative analysis between the bound and unbound fractions. Almost 80% of these glycoproteins were more prominent in the bound fraction. Only 2 glycoproteins revealed higher spectral counts in the flow through fraction compared to the bound fraction. These findings demonstrate the capability of the BAGAC material to enrich glycosylated proteins from complex human wound fluids.

  6. Comparison of gravimetric, creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid methods for determination of total fat content in human milk.

    PubMed

    Du, Jian; Gay, Melvin C L; Lai, Ching Tat; Trengove, Robert D; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-02-15

    The gravimetric method is considered the gold standard for measuring the fat content of human milk. However, it is labor intensive and requires large volumes of human milk. Other methods, such as creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid assay (EFA), have also been used widely in fat analysis. However, these methods have not been compared concurrently with the gravimetric method. Comparison of the three methods was conducted with human milk of varying fat content. Correlations between these methods were high (r(2)=0.99). Statistical differences (P<0.001) were observed in the overall fat measurements and within each group (low, medium and high fat milk) using the three methods. Overall, stronger correlation with lower mean (4.73g/L) and percentage differences (5.16%) was observed with the creamatocrit than the EFA method when compared to the gravimetric method. Furthermore, the ease of operation and real-time analysis make the creamatocrit method preferable.

  7. Modelling and predicting the simultaneous growth of Escherichia coli and lactic acid bacteria in milk.

    PubMed

    Ačai, P; Valík, L'; Medved'ová, A; Rosskopf, F

    2016-09-01

    Modelling and predicting the simultaneous competitive growth of Escherichia coli and starter culture of lactic acid bacteria (Fresco 1010, Chr. Hansen, Hørsholm, Denmark) was studied in milk at different temperatures and Fresco inoculum concentrations. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were able to induce an early stationary state in E. coli The developed model described and tested the growth inhibition of E. coli (with initial inoculum concentration 10(3) CFU/mL) when LAB have reached maximum density in different conditions of temperature (ranging from 12 ℃ to 30 ℃) and for various inoculum sizes of LAB (ranging from approximately 10(3) to 10(7) CFU/mL). The prediction ability of the microbial competition model (the Baranyi and Roberts model coupled with the Gimenez and Dalgaard model) was first performed only with parameters estimated from individual growth of E. coli and the LAB and then with the introduced competition coefficients evaluated from co-culture growth of E. coli and LAB in milk. Both the results and their statistical indices showed that the model with incorporated average values of competition coefficients improved the prediction of E. coli behaviour in co-culture with LAB.

  8. Behavior of transplutonium elements on thin-layer silica gel using di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1995-03-01

    The behavior of transplutonium elements (TPE) on thin-layer silica gel on domestic sorbphil thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates is investigated using di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) solutions in HNO{sub 3} of various concentrations. Conditions are found for separating Bk(IV) from other TPE in solutions with [HNO{sub 3}] > 5 M and also for separating Bk(III) and Ce. Solutions of D2EHPA as the mobile phase are recommended for TLC identification of tracer amounts of different oxidation states Am in HNO{sub 3}.

  9. Growth, morphology, spectral and thermal studies of gel grown diclofenac acid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, E.; Ramukutty, S.

    2014-03-01

    The crystal growth of diclofenac acid in silica gel is the first to be reported in literature. The growth parameters were varied to optimize the suitable growth condition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction method was used for the conformation of the crystal structure. Morphology studies showed that the growth is prominent along the b-axis and the prominent face is {002}. Fourier transform infrared spectral study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. Thermal stability and decomposition of the material were analyzed using thermo calorimetry in the temperature range 30-500 °C.

  10. Impact of folic acid supplementation on single- and double-stranded RNA degradation in human colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Kocic, Gordana; Bjelakovic, Ljiljana; Bjelakovic, Bojko; Jevtoci-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Langerholc, Tomaz; Jonovic, Marina

    2014-07-01

    Sufficient intake of folic acid is necessary for normal embryogenesis, fetal, and neonatal development. Folic acid facilitates nucleic acid internalization, and protects cellular DNA from nuclease degradation. Human milk contains enzymes, antimicrobial proteins, and antibodies, along with macrophages, that protect against infections and allergies. However, little to no information is available on the effects of folic acid supplementation on degradation of nucleic acids in human milk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the RNase activity (free and inhibitor-bound) in colostrum and mature milk, following folic acid supplementation. The study design included a total of 59 women, 27 of whom received 400 μg of folic acid daily periconceptionally and after. Folic acid supplementation increased the free RNase and polyadenylase activity following lactation. However, the increased RNase activity was not due to de novo enzyme synthesis, as the inhibitor-bound (latent) RNase activity was significantly lower and disappeared after one month. Folic acid reduced RNase activity by using double-stranded RNA as substrate. Data suggests that folic acid supplementation may improve viral RNAs degradation and mRNA degradation, but not dsRNA degradation, preserving in this way the antiviral defense.

  11. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  12. Properties of collagen gels cross-linked by N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid deriviate.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lian; Liu, Wentao; Tian, Zhenhua; Li, Conghu; Li, Guoying

    2014-08-01

    In order to improve the properties of collagen gel, N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid derivative (NHS-AA) was introduced into the formation of collagen fibrils. NHS-AA with different [NHS-AA]/[NH2] ratios (0.1-1.5, calculated by [ester group] of NHS-AA and [NH2] of lysine and hydroxylysine residues of collagen) was added after, simultaneously with or before the formation of collagen fibrils (abbreviated CAF, CSF and CBF, respectively) to obtain different collagen gels. With the same dose of NHS-AA, the cross-linking degree for CAF was lower than those for CSF and CBF. The formation of collagen fibrils was restrained by NHS-AA for CSF and CBF while that for CAF was unaffected. When the dose of NHS-AA increased from 0.1 to 1.5, the water contents of CSF and CBF increased while that of CAF had no obvious change. With lower dose of NHS-AA (0.1), CAF possessed higher value of G' (87.3Pa) and the best thermal stability (47.6°C). As the ratio of [NHS-AA]/[NH2] increased to 1.5, CSF had the maximum value of G' (288.8Pa) and CAF had the best thermal stability (52.9°C). These results showed collagen gels with different properties could be prepared by adding NHS-AA with different adding sequence and dose.

  13. Comparative evaluation of essential fatty acid composition of mothers' milk of some urban and suburban regions of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Susmita; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the fatty acid composition of lipid present in breast milk of mothers residing in urban and suburban regions of West Bengal with special emphasis on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which played a crucial role in the growth and development of neonates. Milk samples collected from 135 mothers of middle income group (average monthly income around 'Rs 10,000/-') were analysed by gas liquid chromatography after extraction and transmethylation to determine fatty acid composition. Information about the dietary intake of individual mothers was obtained through food frequency questionnaire. The fractions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids available in milk of urban mothers were 13.59 ± 0.94 and 3.65 ± 0.49, respectively, and in suburban mothers 12.74 ± 0.89 and 4.36 ± 0.39, respectively. The green leafy vegetables, fishes and vegetable oils were the major sources of essential fatty acids in the diet of the experimental groups of Bengali mothers. This study revealed a relationship between the alimentary habits of mothers and the concentration of essential fatty acids in breast milk of Bengali mothers.

  14. Folic acid supplemented goat milk has beneficial effects on hepatic physiology, haematological status and antioxidant defence during chronic Fe repletion.

    PubMed

    Alférez, María J M; Rivas, Emilio; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; Moreno, Miguel; Campos, Margarita S; Serrano-Reina, Jose A; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to asses the effect of goat or cow milk-based diets, either normal or Fe-overloaded and folic acid supplement on some aspects of hepatic physiology, enzymatic antioxidant defence and lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and erythrocyte of control and anaemic rats after chronic Fe repletion. 160 male Wistar rats were placed on 40 d in two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet and the Fe-deficient group receiving low Fe diet. Lately, the rats were fed with goat and cow milk-based diets during 30 d, with normal-Fe content or Fe-overload and either with normal folic or folic acid supplemented. Fe-overload increased plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels when cow milk was supplied. Dietary folate supplementation reduced plasma transaminases levels in animals fed goat milk with chronic Fe overload. A remarkable increase in the superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the animals fed cow milk. Dietary folate supplement lead to a decrease on the activity of this enzyme in all the tissues studied with both milk-based diets. A concomitant increment in catalase was also observed. The increase in lipid peroxidation products levels in rats fed cow milk with Fe-overload, suggest an imbalance in the functioning of the enzymatic antioxidant defence. In conclusion, dietary folate-supplemented goat milk reduces both plasma transaminases levels, suggesting a hepatoprotective effect and has beneficial effects in situation of Fe-overload, improving the antioxidant enzymes activities and reducing lipid peroxidation.

  15. Hyaluronic-Acid-Hydroxyapatite Colloidal Gels Combined with Micronized Native ECM as Potential Bone Defect Fillers.

    PubMed

    Dennis, S Connor; Whitlow, Jonathan; Detamore, Michael S; Kieweg, Sarah L; Berkland, Cory J

    2017-01-10

    One of the grand challenges in translational regenerative medicine is the surgical placement of biomaterials. For bone regeneration in particular, malleable and injectable colloidal gelsare frequently designed to exhibit self-assembling and shear-response behavior which facilitates biomaterial placement in tissue defects. The current study demonstrated that by combining native extracellular matrix (ECM) microparticles, i.e., demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and decellularized cartilage (DCC), with hyaluronic acid (HA) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles, a viscoelastic colloidal gel consisting exclusively of natural materials was achieved. Rheological testing of HA-ECM suspensions and HA-HAP-ECM colloidal gels concluded either equivalent or substantially higher storage moduli (G' ≈ 100-10 000 Pa), yield stresses (τy ≈ 100-1000 Pa), and viscoelastic recoveries (G'recovery ≥ 87%) in comparison with controls formulated without ECM, which indicated a previously unexplored synergy in fluid properties between ECM microparticles and HA-HAP colloidal networks. Notable rheological differences were observed between respective DBM and DCC formulations, specifically in HA-HAP-DBM mixtures, which displayed a mean 3-fold increase in G' and a mean 4-fold increase in τy from corresponding DCC mixtures. An initial in vitro assessment of these potential tissue fillers as substrates for cell growth revealed that all formulations of HA-ECM and HA-HAP-ECM showed no signs of cytotoxicity and appeared to promote cell viability. Both DBM and DCC colloidal gels represent promising platforms for future studies in bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Overall, the current study identified colloidal gels constructed exclusively of natural materials, with viscoelastic properties that may facilitate surgical placement for a wide variety of therapeutic applications.

  16. Effect of precipitation, geographical location and biosynthesis on New Zealand milk powder bulk and fatty acids D/H ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, R.; Emad Ehtesham, R.; Van Hale, R.; Hayman, A.; Baisden, T.

    2012-04-01

    D/H ratio measurements provide useful information for the investigation of biogeochemical influences on natural and agricultural produce, particularly with application to food traceability and authentication. Numerous studies have shown that variation of a product's D/H ratio is influenced by both environmental factors and biological processes. This study investigates the D/H ratio of New Zealand milk powder and individual fatty acids, and causal determinants of isotopic variation. One of the key environmental factors is precipitation, and the D/H ratio "isoscaping" of NZ has been undertaken. New Zealand provides a unique geography for these kinds of study in terms of proximity to the ocean and natural geographical variability from sea level to elevations as high as 3700 m. Milk powder samples were collected from different geographical regions from milk processing units, which were supplied by producers in the immediate region. H/D ratios of bulk milk powder and of individual fatty acids were determined. Initial comparison of the precipitation and milk powder bulk D/H data show a very good differentiation from north to southernmost parts of New Zealand and a relation between rain and milk bulk D/H abundance ratio. Almost 98% of milk FAs are in the form of triglycerides that have been extracted and hydrolysed to free FAs. Free FAs were esterified and analyzed with GC-IRMS. Individual FAs show variation in D/H ratio, and all values are depleted relative to the precipitation data. The difference in D/H ratio amongst individual FAs reflects the geographical environment and biological processes i.e. micro-organisms activity in the rumen of the cow. Short chain FAs (less than 8 carbons), particularly C4 (Butyric acid), appear to be key determinants. The variation in the data can be rationalized using statistical multivariate analysis.

  17. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05). No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01). The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (p<0.01) in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38%) and MIX-O (0.23%) compared to the control group (0.01%). Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or

  18. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies 20 Novel Promising Genes Associated with Milk Fatty Acid Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv

    2014-01-01

    Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24858810

  19. Effect of unsaturated fatty acids and triglycerides from soybeans on milk fat synthesis and biohydrogenation intermediates in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Lock, A L

    2014-11-01

    Increased rumen unsaturated fatty acid (FA) load is a risk factor for milk fat depression. This study evaluated if increasing the amount of unsaturated FA in the diet as triglycerides or free FA affected feed intake, yield of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency. Eighteen Holstein cows (132 ± 75 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Treatments were a control (CON) diet, or 1 of 2 unsaturated FA (UFA) treatments supplemented with either soybean oil (FA present as triglycerides; TAG treatment) or soybean FA distillate (FA present as free FA; FFA treatment). The soybean oil contained a higher concentration of cis-9 C18:1 (26.0 vs. 11.8 g/100g of FA) and lower concentrations of C16:0 (9.6 vs. 15.0 g/100g of FA) and cis-9,cis-12 C18:2 (50.5 vs. 59.1g/100g of FA) than the soybean FA distillate. The soybean oil and soybean FA distillate were included in the diet at 2% dry matter (DM) to replace soyhulls in the CON diet. Treatment periods were 21 d, with the final 4 d used for sample and data collection. The corn silage- and alfalfa silage-based diets contained 23% forage neutral detergent fiber and 17% crude protein. Total dietary FA were 2.6, 4.2, and 4.3% of diet DM for CON, FFA, and TAG treatments, respectively. Total FA intake was increased 57% for UFA treatments and was similar between FFA and TAG. The intakes of individual FA were similar, with the exception of a 24 g/d lower intake of C16:0 and a 64 g/d greater intake of cis-9 C18:1 for the TAG compared with the FFA treatment. Compared with CON, the UFA treatments decreased DM intake (1.0 kg/d) but increased milk yield (2.2 kg/d) and milk lactose concentration and yield. The UFA treatments reduced milk fat concentration, averaging 3.30, 3.18, and 3.11% for CON, FFA, and TAG treatments, respectively. Yield of milk fat, milk protein, and 3.5% fat-corrected milk remained unchanged when comparing CON with the UFA treatments. No differences existed in the yield of milk or milk

  20. Chitosan gels for the vaginal delivery of lactic acid: relevance of formulation parameters to mucoadhesion and release mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Giunchedi, Paolo; Scalia, Santo; Rossi, Silvia; Sandri, Giuseppina; Caramella, Carla

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effect of formulation parameters of a mucoadhesive vaginal gel based on chitosan and lactic acid, and to highlight its release mechanisms. Two molecular weight chitosans were used to prepare gels with 2 lactic acid concentrations. Both chitosan molecular weight and lactic acid concentration had a significant and mutually dependent influence on mucoadhesion, measured on pig vaginal mucosa. Similarly, the lactate release profiles were found to be dependent on lactic acid content and polymer molecular weight. One gel formulation based on the stoichiometric lactate to chitosan ratio was subjected to release test in media with 2 different counterions and increasing ionic strength. This test demonstrated that the lactate release is mainly due to ionic displacement.

  1. Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP

  2. Simultaneous Separation of Acidic and Basic Isoperoxidases in Wounded Potato Tissue by Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis 1

    PubMed Central

    Borchert, Rolf; Decedue, Charles J.

    1978-01-01

    Preparation and use of a newly developed pH 4.3 horizontal thin layer acrylamide gel which permits the simultaneous separation of acidic and basic isoperoxidases in up to 30 samples is described. Use of cytochrome c, horseradish peroxidase, and a purified potato isoperoxidase as internal standards for a range in isoelectric points of peroxidases from pH 3 to 11 is introduced to facilitate comparison of results obtained with different materials and different methods. Distribution of tissue-specific isoperoxidases in different cell layers of wounded potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tissue is shown and their purification described. Evidence for the in vitro degradation of basic potato isoperoxidases resulting in more acidic forms similar to isoperoxidases occurring in wounded potato tissue is presented. The significance of this observation for the postulated differential function of different isoperoxidases is discussed. ImagesFig. 1-3 PMID:16660608

  3. A comparison of the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures versus calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and milk fatty acid composition of mid-lactation Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Rafiee-Yarandi, H; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Drackley, J K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition, 8 (4 multiparous and 4 primiparous) mid-lactation Holstein cows (42.9±3 kg/d of milk) were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. The control diet (CON) contained lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal (as a source of rumen-undegradable protein) and calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-FA, as a source of energy). Diets 2, 3, and 4 contained ground soybeans roasted at 115, 130, or 145°C, respectively (as the source of protein and energy). Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for CON compared with the roasted soybean diets (24.6 vs. 23.3 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were not different among the treatments. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Milk fat was higher for soybeans roasted at 130°C than for those roasted at either 115 or 145°C. No differences were observed between the CON and the roasted soybean diets, or among roasting temperatures, on feed efficiency and nitrogen concentrations in rumen, milk, and plasma. Milk from cows fed roasted soybeans had more long-chain fatty acids and fewer medium-chain fatty acids than milk from cows fed Ca-FA. Compared with milk from cows fed the CON diet, total milk fat contents of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, cis-C18:2, cis-C18:3, and C22:0 were higher for cows fed the roasted soybean diets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids were greater in milk from cows fed roasted soybean diets than in milk from cows fed CON. Concentrations of C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in milk fat were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Cows fed roasted soybean diets had lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices than cows fed CON. Milk fatty acid composition did not differ among different roasting temperatures. In

  4. Diclofenac in hyaluronic acid gel: an alternative treatment for actinic cheilitis

    PubMed Central

    LIMA, Giana da Silveira; da SILVA, Gabriela Ferrari; GOMES, Ana Paula Neutzling; de ARAÚJO, Lenita Maria Aver; SALUM, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Objective Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a precancerous lesion of the lip vermillion caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronic acid gel in the treatment of AC. Methods Thirty-four patients with chronic AC were treated twice a day with topical diclofenac during a period of 30 to 180 days. The individuals were followed up every 15 days by means of clinical examination and digital photographic documentation. Results Of the 27 patients that completed the study, 12 (44%) showed complete remission of the whitish plaques and exfoliative areas, and 15 (56%) had partial remission of the clinical picture of cheilitis. The latter group was submitted to excision of the leukoplakic areas which diagnosis varied from mild to moderate epithelial dysplasia. Conclusion The results suggest a promising role for diclofenac in hyaluronic acid gel in the treatment of AC. This treatment has the advantages of not being invasive and showing few side effects. PMID:21085813

  5. Nutrient digestibility and milk production responses to increasing levels of palmitic acid supplementation vary in cows receiving diets with or without whole cottonseed.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; de Souza, J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2017-01-01

    Our study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of a palmitic acid-enriched supplement in basal diets with or without the inclusion of whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility and production responses of dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (149 ± 56 days in milk) were used in a split plot Latin square design experiment. Cows were blocked by 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) and allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, = 8) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, = 8) that was fed throughout the experiment. A palmitic acid-enriched supplement (PA 88.5% C16:0) was fed at 0, 0.75, 1.50, or 2.25% of ration DM in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square design within each basal diet group. Periods were 14 d with the final 4 d used for data collection. PA dose increased milk fat content linearly, and cubically affected yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. The PA dose did not affect milk protein and lactose contents, BW, and BCS, but tended to increase yields of milk, milk protein, and milk lactose. Also, PA dose reduced DMI and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically, and increased 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically. There were no effects of basal diet on the yield of milk or milk components, but DMI tended to decrease in CS compared with SH, increasing feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI). Compared with SH, CS diets increased yield of preformed milk fatty acids and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility, and tended to decrease 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility. We observed basal diet × PA dose interactions for yields of milk and milk protein and for 16-carbon and total fatty acid digestibility, as well as tendency for yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. Also, there was a tendency for an interaction between basal diet and PA dose for NDF digestibility, which increased more for CS with increasing PA than for SH. PA dose linearly decreased digestibility of total fatty acids in SH diets but did not affect it in CS diets Results demonstrate

  6. Hot topic: Enhancing omega-3 fatty acids in milk fat of dairy cows by using stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil from genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Santos, G; O'Donnell, A M; Vicini, J L; Hartnell, G F; Bauman, D E

    2010-01-01

    Very long chain n-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) are important in human cardiac health and the prevention of chronic diseases, but food sources are limited. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4n-3) is an n-3 fatty acid that humans are able to convert to EPA. In utilizing SDA-enhanced soybean oil (SBO) derived from genetically modified soybeans, our objectives were to examine the potential to increase the n-3 fatty acid content of milk fat and to determine the efficiency of SDA uptake from the digestive tract and transfer to milk fat. Three multiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were assigned randomly in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) control (no oil infusion); 2) abomasal infusion of SDA-enhanced SBO (SDA-abo); and 3) ruminal infusion of SDA-enhanced SBO (SDA-rum). The SDA-enhanced SBO contained 27.1% SDA, 10.4% alpha-linolenic acid, and 7.2% gamma-linolenic acid. Oil infusions provided 57 g/d of SDA with equal amounts of oil infused into either the rumen or abomasum at 6-h intervals over a 7-d infusion period. Cow numbers were limited and no treatment differences were detected for DMI or milk production (22.9+/-0.5 kg/d and 32.3+/-0.9 kg/d, respectively; least squares means +/- SE), milk protein percentage and yield (3.24+/-0.04% and 1.03+/-0.02 kg/d), or lactose percentage and yield (4.88+/-0.05% and 1.55+/-0.05 kg/d). Treatment also had no effect on milk fat yield (1.36+/-0.03 kg/d), but milk fat percentage was lower for the SDA-rum treatment (4.04+/-0.04% vs. 4.30+/-0.04% for control and 4.41+/-0.05% for SDA-abo). The SDA-abo treatment increased n-3 fatty acids to 3.9% of total milk fatty acids, a value more than 5-fold greater than that for the control. Expressed as a percentage of total milk fatty acids, values (least squares means +/- SE) for the SDA-abo treatment were 1.55+/-0.03% for alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), 1.86+/-0.02 for SDA, 0.23 +/- <0.01 for eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3), and 0

  7. Effect of a maternal cafeteria diet on the fatty acid composition of milk and offspring red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Vithayathil, M A; Gugusheff, J R; Gibson, R A; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet during the lactation period alone produces detrimental effects to offspring metabolic health comparable to exposure during the entire perinatal period. The present study used a rodent model to assess the effect of a maternal cafeteria diet on the fat content and fatty acid composition of the dams' milk, and to determine the degree to which this was related to the fatty acid status of offspring on postnatal day 1 (PND1), weaning and 3 weeks post-weaning onto a standard rodent diet. As expected, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) content of both the milk and pup red blood cells (RBCs) was lower in the cafeteria (CAF) group on PND1. At 2 weeks post-partum, milk produced by CAF dams had a higher total fat, saturated fat and n-6 PUFA content, however these differences were modest in comparison with the differences in maternal intake between groups. Offspring suckled by CAF dams had a lower n-3 LCPUFA and n-6 PUFA status at weaning and higher trans fatty acid levels at both weaning and 6 weeks of age. These findings indicate that the fat content and fatty acid composition of the dam's milk is altered by exposure to a cafeteria diet. While it appears that the dam has a significant capacity to buffer the transfer of most dietary lipids into the milk, the trans fatty acids in particular appear to be readily transferred, resulting in persistent increases in trans fatty acid status of the offspring after weaning. The potential physiological implications of this warrants further examination.

  8. Novel sol-gel synthesis of acidic MgF(2-x)(OH)(x) materials.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Stefan; Coman, Simona M; Scholz, Gudrun; Kirmse, Holm; Vimont, Alexandré; Daturi, Maro; Schroeder, Sven L M; Kemnitz, Erhard

    2008-01-01

    Novel magnesium fluorides have been prepared by a new fluorolytic sol-gel synthesis for fluoride materials based on aqueous HF. By changing the amount of water at constant stoichiometric amount of HF, it is possible to tune the surface acidity of the resulting partly hydroxylated magnesium fluorides. These materials possess medium-strength Lewis acid sites and, by increasing the amount of water, Brønsted acid sites as well. Magnesium hydroxyl groups normally have a basic nature and only with this new synthetic route is it possible to create Brønsted acidic magnesium hydroxyl groups. XRD, MAS NMR, TEM, thermal analysis, and elemental analysis have been applied to study the structure, composition, and thermal behaviour of the bulk materials. XPS measurements, FTIR with probe molecules, and the determination of N(2)/Ar adsorption-desorption isotherms have been carried out to investigate the surface properties. Furthermore, activity data have indicated that the tuning of the acidic properties makes these materials versatile catalysts for different classes of reactions, such as the synthesis of (all-rac)-[alpha]-tocopherol through the condensation of 2,3,6-trimethylhydroquinone (TMHQ) with isophytol (IP).

  9. Effect of dietary alpine butter rich in conjugated linoleic acid on milk fat composition of lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Alexandra; Collomb, Marius; Bee, Giuseppe; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Multiparous sows (n 17) were included in a controlled cross-over-study in order to investigate the influence of a natural source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (alpine butter) on the milk fatty acid composition of lactating sows (as an animal model for lactating women) and on the growth performance of their progeny. The usual fat source of a standard lactation diet was replaced by either CLA-rich alpine butter or margarine (control diet). Compared with the margarine diet, feeding the alpine butter-supplemented diet increased (P 0.05) affected. Growth performance of the progeny was similar for both dietary treatments. In summary, the findings show that adding alpine butter to the diet does not provoke a milk fat depression and does not alter the composition of total SFA, MUFA and PUFA in sow milk but increases its CLA concentration.

  10. Production of a composite hyaluronic acid/gelatin blood plasma gel for hydrogel-based adipose tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Korurer, Esra; Kenar, Halime; Doger, Emek; Karaoz, Erdal

    2014-07-01

    Standard approaches to soft-tissue reconstruction include autologous adipose tissue transplantation, but most of the transferred adipose tissue is generally reabsorbed in a short time. To overcome this problem, long lasting implantable hydrogel materials that can support tissue regeneration must be produced. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of composite 3D natural origin scaffolds for reconstructive surgery applications through in vitro tests. The Young's modulus of the glutaraldehyde crosslinked hyaluronic acid/gelatin (HA/G) plasma gels, composed of human platelet-poor plasma, gelatin and human umbilical cord hyaluronic acid, was determined as 3.5 kPa, close to that of soft tissues. The composite HA/G plasma gels had higher porosity than plain plasma gels (72.5% vs. 63.86%). Human adipose tissue derived stem cells (AD-MSCs) were isolated from human lipoaspirates and characterized with flow cytometry, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Cell proliferation assay of AD-MSCs on the HA/G plasma gels revealed the nontoxic nature of these constructs. Adipogenic differentiation was distinctly better on HA/G plasma gels than on plain plasma gels. The results showed that the HA/G plasma gel with its suitable pore size, mechanical properties and excellent cell growth and adipogenesis supporting properties can serve as a useful scaffold for adipose tissue engineering applications.

  11. Health effects of oleic acid and long chain omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) enriched milks. A review of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    Substitution of dietary saturated fat by oleic acid and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been described to reduce the cardiovascular risk by reducing blood lipids, mainly cholesterol. Additional benefits have been described for long chain omega-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic acid-EPA and docosahexaenoic acid-DHA) from fish oils. In recent years, food technology has been used to produce dairy drinks with a reduced content of saturated fat in favour of those fatty acids, most of them claiming cardiovascular benefits. This review summarises all the scientific evidence regarding the effects of milks enriched with long chain omega-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) and/or oleic acid on cardiovascular health. Nine controlled intervention studies with enriched milks have reported effects on healthy volunteers, subjects with increased risk factors and cardiovascular patients. The main effects observed were reductions of blood lipids, mainly cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides.

  12. Combined Effect of Pressure-Assisted Thermal Processing and Antioxidants on the Retention of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Monteagudo, Sergio I.; Saldaña, Marleny D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) in combination with seven synthetic antioxidants was evaluated on the retention of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in enriched milk. Milk rich in CLA was first saturated with oxygen, followed by the addition of either catechin, cysteine, ascorbic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid (500 mg kg−1 untreated milk). Samples were treated at 600 MPa and 120 °C up to 15 min of holding time. During PATP, CLA not only oxidized at a slower rate, but also less oxygen was consumed compared to the control (0.1 MPa and 120 °C). In addition, phenolic antioxidants were able to quench dissolved oxygen in samples treated with PATP. For those samples added with gallic acid and catechin, 85% and 75% of the CLA was retained after 15 min of holding time at 600 MPa and 120 °C, respectively. The retention of CLA was enhanced by the application of PATP in combination with gallic acid. PMID:28231190

  13. Combined Effect of Pressure-Assisted Thermal Processing and Antioxidants on the Retention of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Monteagudo, Sergio I; Saldaña, Marleny D A

    2015-04-14

    The effect of pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) in combination with seven synthetic antioxidants was evaluated on the retention of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in enriched milk. Milk rich in CLA was first saturated with oxygen, followed by the addition of either catechin, cysteine, ascorbic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid (500 mg kg(-)¹ untreated milk). Samples were treated at 600 MPa and 120 °C up to 15 min of holding time. During PATP, CLA not only oxidized at a slower rate, but also less oxygen was consumed compared to the control (0.1 MPa and 120 °C). In addition, phenolic antioxidants were able to quench dissolved oxygen in samples treated with PATP. For those samples added with gallic acid and catechin, 85% and 75% of the CLA was retained after 15 min of holding time at 600 MPa and 120 °C, respectively. The retention of CLA was enhanced by the application of PATP in combination with gallic acid.

  14. Effect of lactation stage on the odd- and branched-chain milk fatty acids of dairy cattle under grazing and indoor conditions.

    PubMed

    Craninx, M; Steen, A; Van Laar, H; Van Nespen, T; Martín-Tereso, J; De Baets, B; Fievez, V

    2008-07-01

    The pattern of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFA) in milk fat reflects rumen microbial activity and proportions of different rumen microbial groups. Therefore, these milk fatty acids (FA) are used to predict rumen proportions of volatile fatty acids, duodenal flow of microbial protein, and occurrence of rumen acidosis. However, current models do not correct for the potential effects of lactation stage on the level of OBCFA in milk fat. Hence, the objectives of this study were 1) to describe progressive changes related to lactation stage in concentrations of milk FA, with emphasis on the OBCFA, using the incomplete gamma function of Wood, and 2) to analyze whether lactation curves of milk FA on the one hand and milk production or milk fat content on the other hand coincide through evaluation of the correlation between the parameters of the Wood functions fitted to individual animal data. Data were collected from 2 trials in which milk FA during lactation were monitored. The first experiment was a stable trial with 2 groups of 10 cows receiving 2 dietary treatments from wk 1 to 40 of lactation. The second experiment was a grazing trial with 9 cows that were followed during the first 18 wk of lactation. Lactation curves of milk production, milk fat content, and individual milk FA were developed using the incomplete gamma function of Wood for each of the 3 dietary strategies separately. For almost all of the milk FA, lactation curve shapes were similar for all 3 dietary treatments. The OBCFA with chain lengths of 14 and 15 carbon atoms followed the lactation curves of the short- and medium-chain milk FA, which increased in early lactation. The OBCFA with chain length of 17 carbon atoms decreased during the early lactation period, following the pattern of milk long-chain fatty acids. The short- and medium-chain milk FA and OBCFA in the early lactation period seemed to be negatively correlated with the starting milk production and milk fat content, but

  15. Milk fatty acid composition, rumen microbial population, and animal performances in response to diets rich in linoleic acid supplemented with chestnut or quebracho tannins in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Buccioni, A; Pauselli, M; Viti, C; Minieri, S; Pallara, G; Roscini, V; Rapaccini, S; Marinucci, M Trabalza; Lupi, P; Conte, G; Mele, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate milk fatty acid (FA) profile, animal performance, and rumen microbial population in response to diets containing soybean oil supplemented or not with chestnut and quebracho tannins in dairy ewes. Eighteen Comisana ewes at 122±6 d in milking were allotted into 3 experimental groups. Diets were characterized by chopped grass hay administered ad libitum and by 800 g/head and day of 3 experimental concentrates containing 84.5 g of soybean oil/kg of dry matter (DM) and 52.8 g/kg of DM of bentonite (control diet), chestnut tannin extract (CHT diet), or quebracho tannin extract (QUE diet). The trial lasted 4 wk. Milk yield was recorded daily, and milk composition and blood parameters were analyzed weekly. At the end of the experiment, samples of rumen fluid were collected to analyze pH, volatile fatty acid profile, and the relative proportions of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in the rumen microbial population. Hepatic functionality, milk yield, and gross composition were not affected by tannin extracts, whereas milk FA composition was characterized by significant changes in the concentration of linoleic acid (CHT +2.77% and QUE +9.23%), vaccenic acid (CHT +7.07% and QUE +13.88%), rumenic acid (CHT -1.88% and QUE +24.24%), stearic acid (CHT + 8.71% and QUE -11.45%), and saturated fatty acids (CHT -0.47% and QUE -3.38%). These differences were probably due to the ability of condensed versus hydrolyzable tannins to interfere with rumen microbial metabolism, as indirectly confirmed by changes in the relative proportions of B. fibrisolvens and B. proteoclasticus populations and by changes in the molar proportions of volatile fatty acids. The effect of the CHT diet on the milk FA profile and microbial species considered in this trial was intermediate between that of QUE and the control diet, suggesting a differential effect of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on rumen microbes. Compared with control animals

  16. Comparison of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie S; Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Figueras, Kristian

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of 2 facial skin products in subjects with acne using the following acne treatments: 1) treatment A, a combination of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid, and 2) treatment B (BenzaClin®, clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel). The treatment design included the split-face application of treatment A and treatment B and the full-face application of the cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Data were collected through physician visual assessments, subject irritation questionnaires and assessments, along with clinical photography. Results showed similar tolerance and efficacy for both treatments.

  17. Determination of cyanuric acid in milk powder by anion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Hou, Shengjie; Ding, Mingyu; Zhang, Jinghua

    2010-01-01

    An anion-exchange chromatographic method has been developed for simultaneous analysis of cyanuric acid (CA) and five inorganic anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), HPO(4)(2-) and SO(4)(2-)) in milk powder. The separation was achieved within 15 min on an anion-exchange column with simple elution of Na(2)CO(3)/NaHCO(3) buffer as mobile phase. Furthermore, the effect of the total concentration of Na(2)CO(3)/NaHCO(3) buffer on the retention of five inorganic anions was more obvious than that on CA retention, which indicated that CA retention on anion-exchange column depends not only on anion-exchange interaction but also on hydrophobic interactions between CA and anion-exchange column. The linear range of the calibration curve for CA was 0.1-100 mg L(-1). The detection limit calculated at S/N = 3 was 0.083 mg L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of CA in milk powder.

  18. Neutral and acidic milk oligosaccharides of the striped skunk (Mephitidae: Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Taufik, Epi; Sekii, Nobuhiro; Senda, Akitsugu; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Eisert, Regina; Oftedal, Olav T; Urashima, Tadasu

    2013-07-01

    The biological significance of the tremendous variation in proportions of oligosaccharides and lactose among mammalian milks is poorly understood. We investigated milk oligosaccharides of the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) and compared these results to other species of the clade Mustelida. Individual oligosaccharides were identified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the striped skunk, six oligosaccharides were identified: isoglobotriose, 2'-fucosyllactose, A-tetrasaccharide, Galili pentasaccharide, 3'-sialyllactose and monosialyl monogalactosyl lacto-N-neohexaose. Four of these have been found in related Mustelida and the other two in more distantly related carnivorans. The neutral and acidic oligosaccharides derive from three core structures: lactose (Gal(β1-4)Glc), lacto-N-neotetraose (Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc) and lacto-N-neohexaose (Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc).

  19. Oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formulas compared to human milk--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Calzada, Catherine; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Guichardant, Michel

    2008-12-01

    Information about lipid oxidation in fresh and stored human milk compared with infant formulas is scarce. We aimed to assess n-6 and n-3 PUFA oxidation in these milks by measuring the 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) content. Human milk samples (n = 4), obtained from volunteer mothers, were analyzed fresh and after 1 wk at 4 degrees C or 24 h at 18 degrees C. Vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by HPLC and fatty acid profile by GC. The 4-HHE and 4-HNE contents were measured by GC-MS. Infant formulas (n = 10) were tested; their fat droplet size was measured by laser light scattering and observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Human milk samples contained 31.0 +/- 6.3 g/L of lipids and 1.14 +/- 0.26 mg/L of vitamin E. Fat droplets were smaller in infant formulas than reported in human milk. The (4-HHE/n-3 PUFA) ratio was 0.19 +/- 0.01 microg/g in fresh human milk (unchanged after storage) versus 3.6 +/- 3.1 microg/g in dissolved powder formulas and 4.3 +/- 3.8 microg/g in liquid formula. (4-HNE/n-6 PUFA) was 0.004 +/- 0.000 microg/g in fresh milk (0.03 +/- 0.01 microg/g after storage) versus 1.1 +/- 1.0 microg/g in dissolved powder formulas and 0.2 +/- 0.3 microg/g in liquid formula. Infant formulas also contained more MDA than human milk. n-3 PUFA were more prone to oxidation than n-6 PUFA. Whether threshold levels of 4-HHE and 4-HNE would be of health concern should be elucidated.

  20. Modification of Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition of Milk from Nursing Women Who Received Alpha Linolenic Acid from Chia Oil during Gestation and Nursing.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Bascuñán, Karla; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Barrera, Cynthia; Sandoval, Jorge; Puigrredon, Claudia; Parraguez, Gloria; Orellana, Paula; Gonzalez, Valeria; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2015-08-04

    α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is the precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, which is fundamental for brain and visual function. Western diet provides low ALA and DHA, which is reflected in low DHA in maternal milk. Chia oil extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a plant native to some Latin American countries, is high in ALA (up to 60%) and thereby is an alternative to provide ALA with the aim to reduce DHA deficits. We evaluated the modification of the fatty acid profile of milk obtained from Chilean mothers who received chia oil during gestation and nursing. Forty healthy pregnant women (22-35 years old) tabulated for food consumption, were randomly separated into two groups: a control group with normal feeding (n = 21) and a chia group (n = 19), which received 16 mL chia oil daily from the third trimester of pregnancy until the first six months of nursing. The fatty acid profile of erythrocyte phospholipids, measured at six months of pregnancy, at time of delivery and at six months of nursing, and the fatty acid profile of the milk collected during the first six months of nursing were assessed by gas-chromatography. The chia group, compared to the control group, showed (i) a significant increase in ALA ingestion and a significant reduction of linoleic acid (LA) ingestion, no showing modification of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA; (ii) a significant increase of erythrocyte ALA and EPA and a reduction of LA. AA and DHA were not modified; (iii) a increased milk content of ALA during the six months of nursing, whereas LA showed a decrease. AA and EPA were not modified, however DHA increased only during the first three months of nursing. Consumption of chia oil during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first three months of nursing transiently increases the milk content of DHA.

  1. Modification of Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition of Milk from Nursing Women Who Received Alpha Linolenic Acid from Chia Oil during Gestation and Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Bascuñán, Karla A.; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Barrera, Cynthia; Sandoval, Jorge; Puigrredon, Claudia; Parraguez, Gloria; Orellana, Paula; Gonzalez, Valeria; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is the precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, which is fundamental for brain and visual function. Western diet provides low ALA and DHA, which is reflected in low DHA in maternal milk. Chia oil extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a plant native to some Latin American countries, is high in ALA (up to 60%) and thereby is an alternative to provide ALA with the aim to reduce DHA deficits. We evaluated the modification of the fatty acid profile of milk obtained from Chilean mothers who received chia oil during gestation and nursing. Forty healthy pregnant women (22–35 years old) tabulated for food consumption, were randomly separated into two groups: a control group with normal feeding (n = 21) and a chia group (n = 19), which received 16 mL chia oil daily from the third trimester of pregnancy until the first six months of nursing. The fatty acid profile of erythrocyte phospholipids, measured at six months of pregnancy, at time of delivery and at six months of nursing, and the fatty acid profile of the milk collected during the first six months of nursing were assessed by gas-chromatography. The chia group, compared to the control group, showed (i) a significant increase in ALA ingestion and a significant reduction of linoleic acid (LA) ingestion, no showing modification of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA; (ii) a significant increase of erythrocyte ALA and EPA and a reduction of LA. AA and DHA were not modified; (iii) a increased milk content of ALA during the six months of nursing, whereas LA showed a decrease. AA and EPA were not modified, however DHA increased only during the first three months of nursing. Consumption of chia oil during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first three months of nursing transiently increases the milk content of DHA. PMID:26247968

  2. Differential incorporation of dietary conjugated linolenic and linoleic acids into milk lipids and liver phospholipids in lactating and suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying; Chen, Jingnan; Yang, Lin; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2009-09-01

    Interest in health benefits of conjugated fatty acids is growing. The present study compared the incorporation pattern of dietary conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) into milk with that of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Lactating Sprague-Dawley rats (Day 1) were divided into five groups fed the control diet (n=4) or one of four experimental diets supplemented with 1-2% CLA or CLnA mixture (n=8 each). Supplementation of 1% and 2% CLA led to enrichment of 4.17% and 8.57% CLA, respectively, while supplementation of 1% and 2% CLnA resulted in enrichment of only 0.98% and 1.71% CLnA in the milk lipids, demonstrating the transfer of CLnA from maternal diet to milk was discriminated. When the lactating rats were given a diet containing a CLnA mixture of 9t,11t,13t-, 9c,11t,13t- and 9c,11t,13c-CLnA isomers, two CLA isomers, namely, 9t,11t (0.59-0.90%) and 9c,11t (1.21-1.96%), were found in the milk, suggesting that three CLnA isomers were Delta-13 saturated. Dietary CLnA at 1-2% had no effect on liver phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition of both maternal and suckling rats, whereas dietary CLA increased docosahexaenoic acid (4c,7c,10c,13c,16c,19c-22:6) and palmitic acid (16:0) proportionally in the PL of maternal rats, but it suppressed 16:0 in the PL of suckling rats. It is concluded that maternal rats incorporate CLnA isomers into milk differently from that of CLA isomers. Most interesting is that maternal rats can metabolically convert CLnA to CLA.

  3. Genetic and environmental relationships of detailed milk fatty acids profile determined by gas chromatography in Brown Swiss cows.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, S; Cecchinato, A; Casellas, J; Conte, G; Mele, M; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of 47 fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 13 fatty acid groups, and 5 Δ(9)-desaturation indices in milk samples from Brown Swiss cows. The genetic variation was assessed and the statistical relevance of the genetic background for each trait was evaluated using the Bayes factor test. The additive genetic, herd-date, and residual relationships were also estimated among all single fatty acids and groups of fatty acids. Individual milk samples were collected from 1,158 Italian Brown Swiss cows and a detailed analysis of fat percentages and milk fatty acid compositions was performed by gas chromatography. Bayesian animal models were used for (co)variance components estimation. Exploitable genetic variation was observed for most of the de novo synthesized fatty acids and saturated fatty acids, except for C4:0 and C6:0, whereas long-chain fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids (including CLA) were mainly influenced by herd-date effects. Herd-date effect explained large portions of the total phenotypic variance for C18:2 cis-9,cis-12 (0.668), C18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 (0.631), and the biohydrogenation and elongation products of these fatty acids. The desaturation ratios showed higher heritability estimates than the individual fatty acids, except for CLA desaturation index (0.098). Among the medium-chain fatty acids, C12:0 had greater heritability than C14:0 (0.243 vs. 0.097, respectively). Both C14:0 and C16:0 showed negative additive genetic correlations with the main monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids of milk fat, suggesting that their synthesis in the mammary gland may be influenced by the presence of unsaturated fatty acids. No correlation was observed between C4:0 and the other short-chain fatty acids (except for C6:0), confirming the independence of C4:0 from de novo mammary fatty acid synthesis. Among the genetic correlations dealing with potentially beneficial fatty acids, C18

  4. Effects of lauric acid on ruminal protozoal numbers and fermentation pattern and milk production in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate lauric acid (LA) as a practical agent to suppress ruminal protozoa (RP), and to assess the effects of RP suppression on fermentation patterns and milk production in dairy cows. In experiment 1, six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in ...

  5. Comparison of enriched palmitic acid and calcium salts of palm fatty acids distillate fat supplements on milk production and metabolic profiles of high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, D E; Ying, Y; Harvatine, K J

    2014-09-01

    A variable response to fat supplementation has been reported in dairy cows, which may be due to cow production level, environmental conditions, or diet characteristics. In the present experiment, the effect of a high palmitic acid supplement was investigated relative to a conventional Ca salts of palm fatty acids (Ca-FA) supplement in 16 high-producing Holstein cows (46.6±12.4kg of milk/d) arranged in a crossover design with 14-d periods. The experiment was conducted in a non-heat-stress season with 29.5% neutral detergent fiber diets. Treatments were (1) high palmitic acid (PA) supplement fed as free FA [1.9% of dry matter (DM); 84.8% C16:0] and (2) Ca-FA supplement (2.3% of DM; 47.7% C16:0, 35.9% C18:1, and 8.4% C18:2). The PA supplement tended to increase DM intake, and increased the yields of milk and energy-corrected milk. Additionally, PA increased the yields of milk fat, protein, and lactose, whereas milk concentrations of these components were not affected. The yields of milk de novo and 16-C FA were increased by PA compared with Ca-FA (7 and 20%, respectively), whereas the yield of preformed FA was higher in Ca-FA. A reduction in milk fat concentration of de novo and 16-C FA and a marginal elevation in trans-10 C18:1 in Ca-FA is indicative of altered ruminal biohydrogenation and increased risk of milk fat depression. No effect of treatment on plasma insulin was observed. A treatment by time interaction was detected for plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), which tended to be higher in Ca-FA than in PA before feeding. Overall, the palmitic acid supplement improved production performance in high-producing cows while posing a lower risk for milk fat depression compared with a supplement higher in unsaturated FA.

  6. Development and characterization of a novel antiacne niosomal gel of rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Budhiraja, Abhishek; Dhingra, Garima

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory potential of rosemarinic acid (ROA), a naturally occurring ester of caffeic acid has been well reported. Antibacterial effect of ROA is attributed to nucleoid damage with an increase in spatial division and condensation of genetic material. ROA has been found dynamic against many human pathogenic bacterial strains but its inhibitory prospective has never been established against skin inflammations caused by Propionibacterium acne. The skin surface in acne prone areas is colonized with Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes which contribute to inflammation and acne. Resistance to current antimicrobial therapies suggested the need to explore new antimicrobial agents against acne. Present work included the preparation of ROA-loaded niosomes and their in vitro antimicrobial evaluation against P. acne and S. aureus. This work also included the development of niosomal gel of rosmarinic acid for sustained delivery to bacteria infected cells. Niosomes of rosmarinic acid were formulated by reverse phase evaporation method using different ratio of span 85 and cholesterol. The prepared formulations were evaluated for its vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release study and antibacterial activity. In vivo study of developed formulation was conducted on Swiss albino mice in comparison with solution of plain drug and a marketed formulation of benzoyl peroxide. It was evident that niosomes are novel carrier for delivery of naturally occurring antimicrobial agents, in deeper tissues of skin. The results showed that drug-loaded niosomes dispersed in the gelling agent are an effective delivery system for treatment of acne vulgaris.

  7. Effect of diet fermentability and unsaturated fatty acid concentration on recovery from diet-induced milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Rico, D E; Holloway, A W; Harvatine, K J

    2015-11-01

    Diet-induced milk fat depression is caused by highly fermentable and high-unsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets, and results in reduced milk fat concentration and yield, reduced de novo FA, and increased trans isomers of the alternate biohydrogenation pathways. The hypothesis of the current experiment was that a diet higher in fermentability and lower in unsaturated FA (UFA) would accelerate recovery compared with a high-UFA and lower-fermentability diet. Eight ruminally cannulated and 9 noncannulated multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated Latin square design. During each period milk fat depression was induced for 10 d by feeding a low-fiber, high-UFA diet [25.9% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 3.3% C18:2]. Following the induction phase, cows were switched to recovery treatments for 18 d designed to correct dietary fermentability, UFA, or both fermentability and UFA concentration. Treatments during recovery were (1) correction of fiber and UFA diet [control; 31.8% NDF and 1.65% C18:2], (2) a diet predominantly correcting fiber, but not UFA [high oil (HO); 31.3% NDF and 2.99% C18:2], and (3) a diet predominantly correcting UFA, but not fiber concentration [low fiber (LF); 28.4% NDF and 1.71% C18:2]. Milk and milk component yield, milk FA profile, ruminal pH, and 11 rumen microbial taxa were measured every third day during recovery. Milk yield decreased progressively in HO and control, whereas it was maintained in the LF diet. Milk fat concentration increased progressively during recovery in all treatments, but was on average 9% lower in LF than control from d 12 to 18. Milk fat yield increased progressively in all treatments and was not different between control and LF at any time point, but was lower in HO than control on d 15. Milk trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreased progressively in all treatments, but was higher in HO than control from d 3 to 18 [136 ± 50 and 188 ± 57% (mean ± SD

  8. New Adipose Tissue Formation by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with Hyaluronic Acid Gel in Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Yun-Nan; Lee, Su-Shin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsai-Ming; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently available injectable fillers have demonstrated limited durability. This report proposes the in vitro culture of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) on hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for in vivo growth of de novo adipose tissue. Methods: For in vitro studies, hASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and were confirmed by multi-lineage differentiation and flow cytometry. hASCs were cultured on HA gel. The effectiveness of cell attachment and proliferation on HA gel was surveyed by inverted light microscopy. For in vivo studies, HA gel containing hASCs, hASCs without HA gel, HA gel alone were allocated and subcutaneously injected into the subcutaneous pocket in the back of nude mice (n=6) in each group. At eight weeks post-injection, the implants were harvested for histological examination by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, Oil-Red O stain and immunohistochemical staining. The human-specific Alu gene was examined. Results: hASCs were well attachment and proliferation on the HA gel. In vivo grafts showed well-organized new adipose tissue on the HA gel by histologic examination and Oil-Red O stain. Analysis of neo-adipose tissues by PCR revealed the presence of the Alu gene. This study demonstrated not only the successful culture of hASCs on HA gel, but also their full proliferation and differentiation into adipose tissue. Conclusions: The efficacy of injected filler could be permanent since the reduction of the volume of the HA gel after bioabsorption could be replaced by new adipose tissue generated by hASCs. This is a promising approach for developing long lasting soft tissue filler. PMID:25589892

  9. Maternal dietary fat affects milk fatty acid profile and impacts on weight gain and thermogenic capacity of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; García, Ana Paula; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of maternal supplementation with the main fat sources used in the human Western diet (olive oil, butter, margarine) on milk FA composition and on plasma FA profile of offspring, and to determine whether it may influence body-weight-gain (BWG) and adiposity of offspring during the suckling period. Wistar rats were supplemented with the different fat sources from day 14 of gestation and throughout lactation. Olive oil-supplemented dams showed the highest proportion of oleic-acid in milk, with no changes in plasma. Their offspring also showed the highest proportion of this FA in plasma, lower BWG during the suckling period, and higher levels of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) at weaning. Margarine-supplemented dams showed the highest percentage of PUFA in milk, and a similar tendency was found in plasma of their offspring. Butter-supplemented dams displayed higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA) in milk compared to other fat-supplemented dams, but lower than controls. Control offspring also showed higher proportion of SFA in plasma and greater BWG during the suckling period than fat-supplemented groups. Significant correlations were found between the relative content of some milk FA and BWG of offspring, in particular, oleic-acid levels correlated negatively with BWG and positively with UCP1 levels. These results show that maternal dietary source of fat affects milk FA composition and circulating FA profile, as could be expected, but also BWG and thermogenic capacity of offspring during the suckling period. An effect of oleic-acid stimulating BAT thermogenic capacity of suckling pups is proposed.

  10. Effectiveness of rubber seed oil and flaxseed oil to enhance the α-linolenic acid content in milk from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pi, Y; Gao, S T; Ma, L; Zhu, Y X; Wang, J Q; Zhang, J M; Xu, J C; Bu, D P

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effect of rubber seed oil compared with flaxseed oil when fed alone or in combination on milk yield, milk composition, and α-linolenic acid (ALA) concentration in milk of dairy cows. Forty-eight mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized design. Cows were fed a basal diet (control; CON) or a basal diet supplemented with 4% rubber seed oil (RO), 4% flaxseed oil (FO), or 2% rubber seed oil plus 2% flaxseed oil (RFO) on a dry matter basis for 9 wk. Feed intake, milk protein percentage, and milk fat levels did not differ between the treatments. Cows fed the RO, FO, or RFO treatments had a higher milk yield than the CON group (up to 10.5% more), whereas milk fat percentages decreased. Compared with the CON, milk concentration of ALA was substantially higher in cows receiving RO or RFO, and was doubled in cows receiving FO. The ALA yield (g/d) increased by 31.0, 70.3, and 33.4% in milk from cows fed RO, FO, or RFO, respectively, compared with the CON. Both C18:1 trans-11 (vaccenic acid) and C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (conjugated linoleic acid; CLA) levels were higher in cows fed added flaxseed or rubber seed oil. The CLA yield (g/d) increased by 336, 492, and 484% in cows fed RO, FO, or RFO, respectively, compared with the CON. The increase in vaccenic acid, ALA, and CLA was greater in cows fed RFO than in cows fed RO alone. Compared with the CON, the milk fat from cows fed any of the dietary supplements had a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids; conversely, the saturated fatty acids levels in milk fat were 30.5% lower. Insulin and growth hormones were not affected by dietary treatments; however, we noted an increase in both cholesterol and nonesterified fatty acids levels in the RO, FO, or RFO treatments. These results indicate that rubber seed oil and flaxseed oil will increase milk

  11. The influence of dietary nitrogen reduction and conjugated linoleic acid supply to dairy cows on fatty acids in milk and their transfer to ripened cheese.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, S; Cesaro, G; Cecchinato, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Tagliapietra, F; Bittante, G

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of reducing the dietary crude protein content, with or without a supply of protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on the milk fatty acid (FA) yield and recovery in 90d ripened cheese. Twenty mid-lactation Friesian dairy cows were reared for 4 periods of 3wk each in groups of 5, following a 4×4 Latin square design. Cows were fed 4 different rations, consisting of a combination of the 2 dietary crude protein levels [150 (CP15) or 123 (CP12) g of crude protein/kg of dry matter], with or without a conjugated linoleic acid supply (80g/d, providing 5.57 and 5.40g/d of C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 and C18:2 trans-10,cis-12, respectively). Milk yield was recorded. Twice in each period, milk samples were analyzed for protein, fat, and lactose content, and 10 L milk samples (pooled by group) were processed to produce 96 cheeses, which were ripened for 90d. Milk and cheese fat were analyzed for their FA profiles. Milk and cheese FA were expressed as daily yields and relative proportions, and nutrient recoveries were computed. Dietary crude protein reduction had small or no effects on the yield and relative presence of FA in milk and cheese, except for a small increase in mid-chain branched saturated fatty acids. The CLA supply strongly reduced the yield of various categories of FA, and had major effects on short-chain FA of de novo synthesis, leading to changes in the relative proportions of the various FA in milk and cheese. The addition of CLA tended to reduce uniformly the recovery of all milk constituents and of short-, medium-, and long-chain FA groups, but we observed large differences among individual FA with apparent recoveries ranging between 640 and 1,710g/kg. The highest recoveries were found for polyunsaturated long-chain FA, the lowest for saturated or monounsaturated short- or medium-chain FA. A notable rearrangement of these FA components, particularly the minor ones, took place during ripening.

  12. Pickering Emulsion Gels Prepared by Hydrogen-Bonded Zein/Tannic Acid Complex Colloidal Particles.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Yin, Shou-Wei; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-08-26

    Food-grade colloidal particles and complexes, which are formed via modulation of the noncovalent interactions between macromolecules and natural small molecules, can be developed as novel functional ingredients in a safe and sustainable way. For this study was prepared a novel zein/tannic acid (TA) complex colloidal particle (ZTP) based on the hydrogen-bonding interaction between zein and TA in aqueous ethanol solution by using a simple antisolvent approach. Pickering emulsion gels with high oil volume fraction (φ(oil) > 50%) were successfully fabricated via one-step homogenization. Circular dichroism (CD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, which were used to characterize the structure of zein/TA complexes in ethanol solution, clearly showed that TA binding generated a conformational change of zein without altering their supramolecular structure at pH 5.0 and intermediate TA concentrations. Consequently, the resultant ZTP had tuned near neutral wettability (θ(ow) ∼ 86°) and enhanced interfacial reactivity, but without significantly decreased surface charge. These allowed the ZTP to stabilize the oil droplets and further triggered cross-linking to form a continuous network among and around the oil droplets and protein particles, leading to the formation of stable Pickering emulsion gels. Layer-by-layer (LbL) interfacial architecture on the oil-water surface of the droplets was observed, which implied a possibility to fabricate hierarchical interface microstructure via modulation of the noncovalent interaction between hydrophobic protein and natural polyphenol.

  13. Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic Acid) Base Biocompatible Gel for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wing P.; Kung, Fu-Chen; Kuo, Yu-Lin; Yang, Ming-Chen; Lai, Wen-Fu Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A technique for synthesizing biocompatible hydrogels by cross-linking calcium-form poly(γ-glutamic acid), alginate sodium, and Pluronic F-127 was created, in which alginate can be cross-linked by Ca2+ from Ca–γ-PGA directly and γ-PGA molecules introduced into the alginate matrix to provide pH sensitivity and hemostasis. Mechanical properties, swelling behavior, and blood compatibility were investigated for each hydrogel compared with alginate and for γ-PGA hydrogel with the sodium form only. Adding F-127 improves mechanical properties efficiently and influences the temperature-sensitive swelling of the hydrogels but also has a minor effect on pH-sensitive swelling and promotes anticoagulation. MG-63 cells were used to test biocompatibility. Gelation occurred gradually through change in the elastic modulus as the release of calcium ions increased over time and caused ionic cross-linking, which promotes the elasticity of gel. In addition, the growth of MG-63 cells in the gel reflected nontoxicity. These results showed that this biocompatible scaffold has potential for application in bone materials. PMID:26504784

  14. Effect of the addition of calcium soap to ewes' diet on fatty acid composition of ewe milk and subcutaneous fat of suckling lambs reared on ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Lurueña-Martínez, M A; Palacios, C; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Revilla, I

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the inclusion of calcium soap (CS) in ewes' diet on the fatty acid profile of suckling lambs. Sixty suckling lambs of three breeds (Castellana, Churra and Assaf) were divided into two equal groups. One group was fed with a diet composed of beetroot pulp, alfalfa, barley, corn, soy, cotton and 4% of CS, and the other with a control diet without CS. The fatty acid profiles of the ewe's milk samples collected on the day before slaughter and of the lamb subcutaneous fat collected from the back of the carcasses were analysed. The addition of calcium soap to the ewe's diet did not change the milk fatty acid profile but significantly increased SFA and decreased both the PUFA and MUFA levels of suckling lamb fat. PCA analysis revealed a good separation of the lamb samples according to the diet of the mothers, showing that diet is more important than breed in explaining sample variability.

  15. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation from Mid-Pregnancy to Parturition Influenced Breast Milk Fatty Acid Concentrations at 1 Month Postpartum in Mexican Women1234

    PubMed Central

    Imhoff‐Kunsch, Beth; Stein, Aryeh D.; Villalpando, Salvador; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2011-01-01

    (n-3) PUFA, including DHA, are essential for neural development and accumulate extensively in the fetal and infant brain. (n-3) PUFA concentrations in breast milk, which are largely dependent on maternal diet and tissue stores, are correlated with infant PUFA status. We investigated the effect of prenatal DHA supplementation on PUFA concentrations in breast milk at 1 mo postpartum. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial conducted in Mexico, pregnant women were supplemented daily with 400 mg DHA or placebo from 18–22 wk gestation to parturition. Fatty acid concentrations in breast milk obtained from 174 women at 1 mo postpartum were determined using GLC and were expressed as % by weight of total detected fatty acids. Breast milk DHA concentrations in the DHA and placebo groups were (mean ± SD) 0.20 ± 0.06 and 0.17 ± 0.07 (P < 0.01), respectively, and those of α-linolenic acid (ALA) were 1.38 ± 0.47 and 1.24 ± 0.46 (P = 0.01), respectively. Concentrations of EPA and arachidonic acid did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). Maternal plasma DHA concentrations at 1 mo postpartum correlated positively with breast milk DHA at 1 mo postpartum in both the placebo and DHA groups (r = 0.4; P < 0.01 for both treatment groups). Prenatal DHA supplementation from 18–22 wk gestation to parturition increased concentrations of DHA and ALA in breast milk at 1 mo postpartum, providing a mechanism through which breast-fed infants could benefit. PMID:21178076

  16. Influence of pH on viscoelastic properties of heat-induced gels obtained with a β-Lactoglobulin fraction isolated from bovine milk whey hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Natalia; Fuciños, Pablo; Bargiela, Verónica; Picó, Guillermo; Valetti, Nadia Woitovich; Tovar, Clara Asunción; Rúa, M Luisa

    2017-03-15

    A β-Lactoglobulin fraction (r-βLg) was isolated from whey hydrolysates produced with cardosins from Cynara cardunculus. The impact of the hydrolysis process on the r-βLg structure and the rheological properties of heat-induced gels obtained thereafter were studied at different pH values. Differences were observed between r-βLg and commercial β-Lg used as control. Higher values for the fluorescence emission intensity and red shifts of the emission wavelength of r-βLg suggested changes in its tertiary structure and more solvent-exposed tryptophan residues. Circular dichroism spectra also supported these evidences indicating that hydrolysis yielded an intermediate (non-native) β-Lg state. The thermal history of r-βLg through the new adopted conformation improved the microstructure of the gels at acidic pH. So, a new microstructure with better rheological characteristics (higher conformational flexibility and lower rigidity) and greater water holding ability was founded for r-βLg gel. These results were reflected in the microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Effect of the mixtures of squid ink tyrosinase and tannic acid on properties of sardine surimi gel.

    PubMed

    Vate, Naveen Kumar; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2016-01-01

    Effect of the mixture of squid ink tyrosinase (SIT) at 300 and 500 U/g protein and tannic acid (TA) at 0.5 and 1 % (based on protein) with different reaction times (90 and 180 min) on gel properties of sardine surimi was investigated. Surimi gel incorporated with mixture of SIT (500 U/g protein) and 1 % TA with a reaction time of 90 min had the highest breaking force and deformation (p < 0.05), in which the increases by 29.3 % and 11.9 % were observed, in comparison with the control. However, gels added with SIT/TA mixture had the lower whiteness, compared to the control (p < 0.05). Gel added with SIT/TA mixture showed more compact and finer network with higher connectivity of strands, compared to the control. This was coincidental with decreased expressible moisture content. Based on sensory evaluation, the highest overall likeness score was found in gel added with the mixture of SIT (500 U/g protein) and 1 % TA (p < 0.05). Therefore the mixture of tyrosinase from squid ink and tannic acid could be used as additives to improve the properties of surimi gel.

  18. Effects of feeding Mediterranean buffalo sorghum silage versus maize silage on the rumen microbiota and milk fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Ann Huws, Sharon; Chiariotti, Antonella; Sarubbi, Fiorella; Carfì, Francesca; Pace, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum presents a sustainable feedstock for Mediterranean buffaloes due to its reduced water and nitrogen requirements compared with maize, which is currently fed primarily. We investigated the effects of feeding sorghum as opposed to maize on Mediterranean buffalo rumen microbial diversity and milk fatty acid content. Four cannulated lactating Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed a basal diet for one month before switching either to maize or sorghum-silage based diets for a 3-month period. Buffaloes were then changed over to the contrasting diet for a further one month. Rumen and milk samples were collected at the end of each month. DGGE- and T-RFLP-based dendrograms generated from rumen samples did not show an effect of diet on rumen bacterial diversity. Milk samples also did not differ in terms of their fatty acid content post sorghum feeding as compared with maize feeding. Thus, sorghum provides an environmentally beneficial alternative to maize for feeding Mediterranean buffalo with little effect on rumen microbial diversity or milk fatty acid composition compared with maize feeding.

  19. Ionically cross-linked hyaluronic acid: wetting, lubrication, and viscoelasticity of a modified adhesion barrier gel

    PubMed Central

    Vorvolakos, Katherine; Isayeva, Irada S; Luu, Hoan-My Do; Patwardhan, Dinesh V; Pollack, Steven K

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), in linear or cross-linked form, is a common component of cosmetics, personal care products, combination medical products, and medical devices. In all cases, the ability of the HA solution or gel to wet surfaces and/or disrupt and lubricate interfaces is a limiting feature of its mechanism of action. We synthesized ferric ion–cross-linked networks of HA based on an adhesion barrier, varied the degree of cross-linking, and performed wetting goniometry, viscometry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. As cross-linking increases, so do contact angle, viscosity, storage modulus, and loss modulus; thus, wetting and lubrication are compromised. These findings have implications in medical device materials, such as adhesion barriers and mucosal drug delivery vehicles. PMID:22915924

  20. Optimized photocatalytic degradation of caffeic acid by sol-gel TiO₂.

    PubMed

    García-Montelongo, Xiomara L; Martínez-de la Cruz, Azael; Contreras, David; Mansilla, Héctor D

    2015-01-01

    TiO₂anatase powder was prepared by means of the sol-gel method with titanium(IV) butoxide as precursor. The formation of a tetragonal crystal structure of TiO₂anatase at 500 °C was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. The characterization of the samples synthesized was complemented by scanning electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO₂anatase powder was evaluated in the degradation of caffeic acid in aqueous solution under ultraviolet radiation. A central composite circumscribed design was used to assess the weight of the experimental variables, pH and amount of catalyst in the percentage of caffeic acid degraded and the optimal conditions. The optimized conditions were found to be pH = 5.2 and a load of TiO₂of 1.1 g L⁻¹. Under these conditions more than 90% of caffeic acid degradation was achieved after 30 min of lamp irradiation. At this time the mineralization reached was almost 60%.

  1. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decreases milk production but increases n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFLAX) on milk yield and fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112 ± 68 da...

  2. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk is associate to weight gain and growth in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Tinoco, Sandra M Barboza; Sichieri, Rosely; Setta, Cecília L; Moura, Anibal S; Carmo, Maria G Tavares do

    2009-01-01

    Background Linoleic 18:2 (n-6) and α-linolenic 18:3 (n-3) essential fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are essential nutrients for growth and neonatal development. Consumption of preformed n-3 LC-PUFA has been shown to increase gestational duration and to decrease the incidence of premature birth in human studies. This study evaluated the association of essential fatty acids and LC-PUFA in breast milk on the growth of premature children (weight, height and head circumference). Study design Thirty-seven premature infants with a gestational age of 37 weeks or less were followed until 6 months of gestational age, adjusted for prematurity. The milk from mothers, weight, height and head circumference measures of children were collected during the follow up. The breast milk fatty acids were quantified by gas-liquid chromatography. Results Our results showed that total n-3 PUFA was positively associated with weight gain (p = 0.05), height (p = 0.04) and body mass index (BMI) of children (p = 0.05). Our results also indicate that both linoleic acid and total essential fatty acids were positively associated with BMI and head circumference, whereas oleic acid was positively associated only with head circumference. Conclusion These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA composition of milk may be associated with weight gain and growth. Considering the advantages of n-3 LC-PUFA consumption on infant growth and visual function and its association with reduced incidence of premature birth, dietitians should advise pregnant women to increase their intake of foods high in n-3 LC-PUFA. PMID:19558659

  3. Effects of changes in dietary amino acid balance on milk yield and mammary function in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yeo, J M; Knight, C H; Chamberlain, D G

    2003-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether longer-term deficiencies in the supply of limiting amino acids would be accompanied by a decline in mammary function (total DNA, cell proliferation rate and activities of key enzymes), and whether this would adversely affect the cow's ability to respond to a return to a nutritionally adequate diet. The first experiment was performed in early/mid lactation, and the second, using the same cows, was carried out in mid/late lactation. A control group of six cows were given a grass silage-cereal diet containing fish meal as the sole protein supplement (amino acid adequate) throughout the experiments, whereas another group of six cows in treatment received the control diet for 2 wk (lactation wk 5 and 6) and then were changed to a diet in which the fish meal was replaced by an equivalent amount of protein as feather meal (amino acid deficient) for 6 wk before returning to the fish meal diet for 4 wk (Experiment 1). After a rest period of 5 wk, the experimental procedure was repeated (Experiment 2). Although there was a fall in milk yield as lactation advanced, leading to lower milk yields in Experiment 2, the marked difference in milk yield between treatments was similar for the two stages of lactation (21% vs 16% in Experiment 1 and 2, respectively). In both experiments, the marked fall of milk yield in cows given the feather meal diet was completely recovered by a return to the fish meal diet. Despite the markedly lower milk yield with the amino acid-deficient diet, however, there was no clear evidence of corresponding changes in measurements of mammary function.

  4. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased

  5. Lactation Stage-Related Expression of Sialylated and Fucosylated Glycotopes of Human Milk α-1-Acid Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Hirnle, Lidia; Berghausen-Mazur, Marta; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Because terminal sugars of α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) are reported to be involved in anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory processes, their expressions might have an influence on the proper function of immune system of newborns. Here, relative amounts of sialylated and fucosylated glycotopes on human milk AGP over normal lactation were investigated. Materials and Methods: AGP concentration and relative amounts of its sialylated and fucosylated glycovariants were analyzed in early colostrum, colostrum, and transitional and mature milk samples of 127 healthy mothers by lectin–AGP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using α2,3- and α2,6-sialic acid and α1,2-, α1,3-, and α1,6-fucose specific biotinylated Maackia amurensis, Sambucus nigra, Ulex europaeus, Tetragonolobus purpureus, and Lens culinaris lectins, respectively. Results: AGP concentration in human milk was about 30 times lower than in plasma of lactating mothers and decreased gradually over lactation. Milk AGP showed significantly higher expression of sialylated and fucosylated glycotopes in comparison with those of plasma AGP. Milk AGP glycovariants containing α2,6-sialylated and α1,6- and α1,2-fucosylated glycotopes showed the highest relative amounts in early colostrums. With progression of lactation, the expressions of glycotopes α1,2-fucosylated decreased starting from Day 4 and those of α2,6-sialylated and α1,6-fucosylated from Day 8 of lactation, whereas the level of α2,3-sialyl-glycotope was almost constant over 45 days of lactation. In contrast, the expression of α1,3-linked fucose on AGP was low in colostrums and significantly higher in transitional and mature milk. Conclusions: The relative amounts of sialylated and fucosylated glycovariants of human hindmilk AGP significantly varied between Days 2 and 45 of normal lactation. PMID:24892765

  6. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen Zhu; He, Mao Long

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs), thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils) and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control), or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day), garlic oil (5 g/head per day), or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day). The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12) was higher (P < 0.05) for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows. PMID:27127411

  7. Changes in milk and plasma fatty acid profile in response to fish and soybean oil supplementation in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Zervas, George

    2013-05-01

    An effective strategy for enhancing the bioactive fatty acids (FA) in sheep milk could be dietary supplementation with a moderate level of a combination of soybean oil with fish oil (SFO) without negative effects on milk yield and its chemical composition. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a moderate forage diet supplementation with SFO on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA. Twelve dairy sheep were assigned to two homogenous sub-groups. Treatments involved a control diet without added oil, and a diet supplemented with 23.6 g soybean oil and 4.7 g fish oil per kg dry matter (DM) of the total ration. The results showed that SFO diet had no effect on milk yield and chemical composition. In blood plasma the concentrations of trans-11 C(18:2) (VA), C(18:2n-6), C(20:5n-3) (EPA) and C(22:6n-3) (DHA) were significantly higher while those of C(14:0), C(16:0) and C(18:0) were lower in sheep fed with SFO diet compared with control. The SFO supplementation of sheep diet increased the concentrations of VA, cis-9, trans-11 C(18:2) CLA, trans-10, cis-12, C(18:2) CLA, EPA, DHA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyusaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-3 FA and decreased those of short chain FA (SCFA), medium chain FA (MCFA), the saturated/unsaturated ratio and the atherogenicity index value in milk compared with the control. In conclussion, the SFO supplementation at the above levels in a sheep diet, with moderate forage to concentrate ratio, improved the milk FA profile from human health standpoint without negative effects on its chemical composition.

  8. Dietary anhydrous milk fat naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid modify cardiovascular risk biomarkers in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Meza, M S; Mendoza-López, M R; García-Barradas, O; Sanchez-Otero, M G; Silva-Hernández, E R; Angulo, J O; Oliart-Ros, R M

    2013-08-01

    Saturated and trans fatty acids have been associated with the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases. However, health-promoting effects are associated with consumption of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and ruminant trans fatty acids, such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA) contained in the lipid fraction of milk and dairy products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of AMF naturally enriched with CLA and VA in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), using sterculic oil to inhibit the conversion of VA into CLA. The administration of AMF to SHR during 7 weeks exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk biomarkers (reduction of insulin, blood lipids, increase of adiponectin). When sterculic oil was included, some parameters were further ameliorated (reduction of insulin, increase of adiponectin). Sterculic oil alone reduced body weight and adiposity, and improved blood pressure, adiponectin and triglyceride levels.

  9. Production of reuterin in a fermented milk product by Lactobacillus reuteri: Inhibition of pathogens, spoilage microorganisms, and lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Rivera, Y; Sánchez-Vega, R; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; León-Félix, J; Acosta-Muñiz, C; Sepulveda, D R

    2017-03-22

    We assessed the antimicrobial activity of reuterin produced in vitro in glycerol aqueous solutions in situ by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 as part of a fermented milk product against starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus), spoilage (Penicillium expansum), pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes), and pathogen surrogate (Escherichia coli DH5α) microorganisms. We also assayed the influence of cold storage (28 d at 4°C) and reuterin on the color and rheology of the fermented milk product. We obtained maximum reuterin concentrations of 107.5 and 33.97 mM in glycerol aqueous solution and fermented milk product, respectively. Reuterin was stable throughout its refrigerated shelf life. Gram-positive microorganisms were more resistant to reuterin than gram-negative microorganisms. Penicillium expansum and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 survived at concentrations up to 10 and 8.5 mM, respectively. Escherichia coli DH5α was the most sensitive to reuterin (0.9 mM). The presence of reuterin did not cause relevant changes in the quality parameters of the fermented milk product, including pH, acidity, soluble solids, color, and rheological aspects (storage and loss moduli and viscosity). This study demonstrated the viability of using Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 as a biopreservative in a fermented milk product through reuterin synthesis, without drastically modifying its quality parameters.

  10. Novel method based on chromogenic media for discrimination and selective enumeration of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Galat, Anna; Dufresne, Jérôme; Combrisson, Jérôme; Thépaut, Jérôme; Boumghar-Bourtchai, Leyla; Boyer, Mickaël; Fourmestraux, Candice

    2016-05-01

    Microbial analyses of fermented milk products require selective methods to discriminate between close species simultaneously present in high amounts. A culture-based method combining novel chromogenic agar media and appropriate incubation conditions was developed to enumerate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains in fermented milk. M1 agar, containing two chromogenic substrates, allowed selective enumeration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus based on differential β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Depending on the presence of some or all of the above strains, M1 agar was supplemented with L-rhamnose or vancomycin and incubations were carried out at 37 °C or 44 °C to increase selectivity. A second agar medium, M2, containing one chromogenic substrates was used to selectively enumerate β-galactosidase producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at 47 °C. By contrast with the usual culture media, the chromogenic method allowed unambiguous enumeration of each species, including discrimination between the two L. paracasei, up to 10(9) CFU/g of fermented milk. In addition, the relevance of the method was approved by enumerating reference ATCC strains in pure cultures and fermented milk product. The method could also be used for enumerations on non-Danone commercial fermented milk products containing strains different from those used in this study, showing versatility of the method. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a chromogenic culture method applied to selective enumeration of LAB.

  11. Simultaneous quantitative determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in cow's milk and milk-based infant formula by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Guillamon Cuadra, Miriam; Delatour, Thierry; Mottier, Pascal

    2009-08-26

    An isotope dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in cow's milk (range of 0-0.3 mg/kg) and milk-based infant formulas (ranges of 0-0.3 and 0-2.0 mg/kg) is described. This quantitative method entails simple sample preparation, limited to a protein precipitation in acetonitrile/water followed by a centrifugation and direct injection of the supernatant. Selected reaction monitoring of two diagnostic transition reactions for each analyte and each corresponding ((13)C(3),(15)N(3))-labeled compound enables selective and confirmatory detection. Acquisition was performed sequentially in the negative ion mode for cyanuric acid, while in the positive mode for melamine within the same run. Validation of the method was conducted according to European Union criteria (CD 2002/657/EC). Internal standard-corrected recoveries were within the 99-116% range for both analytes in the two matrix types, along with repeatability and intermediate reproducibility values of acid, respectively, whereas LOQs, set arbitrarily at the lowest fortification level, were 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg for melamine and cyanuric acid, respectively. CCalpha and CCbeta, at the 1 mg/kg maximum limit (ML) for infant formula powder endorsed by WHO, were respectively 1.03 and 1.05 mg/kg for melamine and 1.04 and 1.09 mg/kg for cyanuric acid.

  12. Effect of lauric acid and coconut oil on ruminal fermentation, digestion, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Vander Pol, M; Agle, M; Zaman, S; Schneider, C; Ndegwa, P; Vaddella, V K; Johnson, K; Shingfield, K J; Karnati, S K R

    2009-11-01

    This experiment (replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design) was conducted to investigate the effects of lauric acid (LA) or coconut oil (CO) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in lactating cows. Treatments consisted of intraruminal doses of 240 g of stearic acid/d (SA; control), 240 g of LA/d, or 530 g of CO/d administered once daily, before feeding. Between periods, cows were inoculated with ruminal contents from donor cows and allowed a 7-d recovery period. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition. Ruminal pH was slightly increased by CO compared with the other treatments, whereas LA and CO decreased ruminal ammonia concentration compared with SA. Both LA and CO decreased protozoal counts by 80% or more compared with SA. Methane production rate in the rumen was reduced by CO compared with LA and SA, with no differences between LA and SA. Treatments had no effect on total tract apparent dry matter, organic matter, N, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility coefficients or on cumulative (15 d) in vitro ammonia losses from manure. Compared with SA, LA and CO increased milk fat 12:0, cis-9 12:1, and trans-9 12:1 content and decreased 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, cis-9 10:1, 16:0, 18:0, cis 18:1, total 18:2, 18:3 n-3 and total polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Administration of LA and 14:0 (as CO) in the rumen were apparently transferred into milk fat with a mean efficiency of 18 and 15%, respectively. In conclusion, current data confirmed that LA and CO exhibit strong antiprotozoal activity when dosed intraruminally, an effect that is accompanied by decreases in ammonia concentration and, for CO, lowered methane production. Administration of LA and CO in the rumen also altered milk FA composition.

  13. Chemical characterization of acidic oligosaccharides in milk of the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Anraku, Tatsuro; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Messer, Michael; Urashima, Tadasu

    2012-04-01

    In the milk of marsupials, oligosaccharides usually predominate over lactose during early to mid lactation. Studies have shown that tammar wallaby milk contains a major series of neutral galactosyllactose oligosaccharides ranging in size from tri- to at least octasaccharides, as well as β(1-6) linked N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligosaccharides as a minor series. In this study, acidic oligosaccharides were purified from red kangaroo milk and characterized by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, to be as follows: Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-SL), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl 3'-galactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a), Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose b), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)(-3-O-sulfate)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)(-3-O-sulfate)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)(-3-O-sulfate)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)(-3-O-sulfate)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc, Gal(β1-3)(-3-O-sulfate)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc. These acidic oligosaccharides were shown to be sialylated or sulfated in the non-reducing ends to the major linear and the minor branched series of neutral oligosaccharides of tammar wallaby milk.

  14. Supplementation of herbage-based diets with corn meal or liquid molasses changes the milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed that feeding carbohydrate sources with different NSC profiles (e.g., starch vs. sucrose) and rates of ruminal degradation altered the milk fatty acids (FA) profile in dairy cows. This study evalu¬ated the impact of corn meal (CM) or liquid molasses (MOL) on the milk FA profil...

  15. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  16. Biodiversity and γ-aminobutyric acid production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional alpine raw cow's milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Elena; Carafa, Ilaria; Nardin, Tiziana; Schiavon, Silvia; Poznanski, Elisa; Cavazza, Agostino; Larcher, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2015-01-01

    "Nostrano-cheeses" are traditional alpine cheeses made from raw cow's milk in Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy. This study identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) developing during maturation of "Nostrano-cheeses" and evaluated their potential to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an immunologically active compound and neurotransmitter. Cheese samples were collected on six cheese-making days, in three dairy factories located in different areas of Trentino and at different stages of cheese ripening (24 h, 15 days, and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months). A total of 1,059 LAB isolates were screened using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) and differentiated into 583 clusters. LAB strains from dominant clusters (n = 97) were genetically identified to species level by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. LAB species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The 97 dominant clusters were also characterized for their ability in producing GABA by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). About 71% of the dominant bacteria clusters evolving during cheeses ripening were able to produce GABA. Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. No Enterococcus faecalis or Sc. macedonicus isolates produced GABA. The isolate producing the highest amount of GABA (80.0±2.7 mg/kg) was a Sc. thermophilus.

  17. Biodiversity and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Alpine Raw Cow's Milk Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Nardin, Tiziana; Schiavon, Silvia; Cavazza, Agostino; Larcher, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran M.

    2015-01-01

    “Nostrano-cheeses” are traditional alpine cheeses made from raw cow's milk in Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy. This study identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) developing during maturation of “Nostrano-cheeses” and evaluated their potential to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an immunologically active compound and neurotransmitter. Cheese samples were collected on six cheese-making days, in three dairy factories located in different areas of Trentino and at different stages of cheese ripening (24 h, 15 days, and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months). A total of 1,059 LAB isolates were screened using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) and differentiated into 583 clusters. LAB strains from dominant clusters (n = 97) were genetically identified to species level by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. LAB species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The 97 dominant clusters were also characterized for their ability in producing GABA by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). About 71% of the dominant bacteria clusters evolving during cheeses ripening were able to produce GABA. Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. No Enterococcus faecalis or Sc. macedonicus isolates produced GABA. The isolate producing the highest amount of GABA (80.0±2.7 mg/kg) was a Sc. thermophilus. PMID:25802859

  18. A comparative in vitro study of the digestibility of heat- and high pressure-induced gels prepared from industrial milk whey proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jin-Song; Mu, Tai-Hua; Wang, Juan

    2013-06-01

    We undertook this study to compare the digestibility of heat- and high pressure-induced gels produced from whey protein isolate (WPI). To simulate in vivo gastrointestinal digestion of WPI gels, a pepsin-trypsin digestion system was used. The in vitro protein digestibility of WPI gels induced by high pressure (400 MPa and 30 min; P-gel) and those induced by heat (80°C and 30 min; H-gel) was compared using a protein concentration of 0.14 g mL-1. The in vitro protein digestibility of P-gels was significantly greater than that of H-gels (p<0.05). The size-exclusion chromatography profiles of the hydrolysates showed that the P-gel generated more and smaller peptides than natural WPI and H-gels. Furthermore, Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed some soluble disulfide-mediated aggregation in the P-gel, while there was more insoluble aggregation in the H-gel than the P-gel. The P-gel was more sensitive to proteinase than the H-gel, which was related to the content of S-S bonds, and this in turn could be attributed to the differences in the gelation mechanism between the H-gel and P-gel.

  19. Anti-diabetic Effect of Fermented Milk Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee-Sun; Lee, Sang-Cheon; Huh, Chang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric isomers of conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid. CLA has been reported to be able to reduce body fat. In this study, we investigated the antidiabetic effect of fermented milk (FM) containing CLA on type II diabetes db/db mice. Mice were treated with 0.2% low FM, 0.6% high FM, or Glimepiride (GLM) for 6 wk. Our results revealed that the body weight and the levels of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and leptin were significantly decreased in FM fed mice compared to db/db mice. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance were significantly ameliorated in FM fed mice compared to db/db mice. Consistent with these results, the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol were also significantly decreased in FM fed mice compared to db/db mice. However, the concentration of HDL cholesterol was significantly higher in FM fed mice compared to db/db mice. These results were similar to those of GLM, a commercial anti-diabetic drug. Therefore, our results suggest that FM has anti-diabetic effect as a functional food to treat type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:27194924

  20. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Takaaki Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  1. Hyaluronic acid gel injection to prevent thermal injury of adjacent gastrointestinal tract during percutaneous liver radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takaaki; Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean ± standard deviation, 2.1 ± 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 ± 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 ± 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1%, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 ± 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  2. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; Wei, Mingming; Wu, Junjun; Rui, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man–Rogosa and Sharp (MRS) broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v) monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells. PMID:27602272

  3. Study of Lactic Acid Bacteria Community From Raw Milk of Iranian One Humped Camel and Evaluation of Their Probiotic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Davati, Nafiseh; Tabatabaee Yazdi, Farideh; Zibaee, Saeed; Shahidi, Fakhri; Edalatian, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Camel milk is amongst valuable food sources in Iran. On the other hand, due to the presence of probiotic bacteria and bacteriocin producers in camel milk, probiotic bacteria can be isolated and identified from this food product. Objectives: The objectives of the present research were the isolation and molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria from camel milk and evaluation of their probiotic properties. Materials and Methods: A total of ten samples of camel milk were collected from the Golestan province of Iran under aseptic conditions. Bacteria were isolated by culturing the samples on selective medium. Isolates were identified by amplification of the 16S rDNA and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and were then screened and grouped by the Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) method. To evaluate probiotic properties, representative isolates of different ARDRA profiles were analyzed. The antimicrobial activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) against Pediococcus pentosaceus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus was examined by the agar diffusion assay. Acid and bile tolerance of isolates were evaluated. Results: A total of 64 isolates were analyzed based on biochemical tests and morphological characteristics. The most frequently isolated LAB was Enterococci. Weissella, Leuconostoc, Lactobacilli and Pediococci were less frequently found. Based on restriction analysis of the ITS, the isolates were grouped into nine different ARDRA patterns that were identified by ribosomal DNA sequencing as P. pentosaceus, Enterococcus faecium strain Y-2, E. faecium strain JZ1-1, E. faecium strain E6, E. durans, E. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus casei and Weissella cibaria. The results showed that antimicrobial activity of the tested isolates was remarkable and P. pentosaceus showed the most antibacterial activity. In addition, E. durans, E. lactis, L. casei

  4. Prediction of bulk milk fatty acid composition based on farming practices collected through on-farm surveys.

    PubMed

    Coppa, M; Ferlay, A; Chassaing, C; Agabriel, C; Glasser, F; Chilliard, Y; Borreani, G; Barcarolo, R; Baars, T; Kusche, D; Harstad, O M; Verbič, J; Golecký, J; Martin, B

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the fatty acid (FA) composition of bulk milk using data describing farming practices collected via on-farm surveys. The FA composition of 1,248 bulk cow milk samples and the related farming practices were collected from 20 experiments led in 10 different European countries at 44°N to 60°N latitude and sea level to 2,000 m altitude. Farming practice-based FA predictions [coefficient of determination (R(2)) >0.50] were good for C16:0, C17:0, saturated FA, polyunsaturated FA, and odd-chain FA, and very good (R(2) ≥0.60) for trans-11 C18:1, trans-10 + trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, total trans FA, C18:3n-3, n-6:n-3 ratio, and branched-chain FA. Fatty acids were predicted by cow diet composition and by the altitude at which milk was produced, whereas animal-related factors (i.e., lactation stage, breed, milk yield, and proportion of primiparous cows in the herd) were not significant in any of the models. Proportion of fresh herbage in the cow diet was the main predictor, with the highest effect in almost all FA models. However, models built solely on conserved forage-derived samples gave good predictions for odd-chain FA, branched-chain FA, trans-10 C18:1 and C18:3n-3 (R(2) ≥0.46, 0.54, 0.52, and 0.70, respectively). These prediction models could offer farmers a valuable tool to help improve the nutritional quality of the milk they produce.

  5. Influence of maternal and socioeconomic factors on breast milk fatty acid composition in urban, low-income families.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Uma; Kanungo, Suman; Zhang, Dadong; Ross Colgate, E; Carmolli, Marya P; Dey, Ayan; Alam, Masud; Manna, Byomkesh; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Kim, Deok Ryun; Paul, Dilip Kumar; Choudhury, Saugato; Sahoo, Sushama; Harris, William S; Wierzba, Thomas F; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C

    2017-02-15

    The lipid composition of breast milk may have a significant impact on early infant growth and cognitive development. Comprehensive breast milk data is lacking from low-income populations in the Indian subcontinent impeding assessment of deficiencies and limiting development of maternal nutritional interventions. A single breast milk specimen was collected within 6 weeks postpartum from two low-income maternal cohorts of exclusively breastfed infants, from Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 683) and Kolkata, India (n = 372) and assayed for percentage composition of 26 fatty acids. Mature milk (>15 days) in Dhaka (n = 99) compared to Kolkata (n = 372) was higher in total saturated fatty acid (SFA; mean 48% vs. 44%) and disproportionately lower in ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), hence the ω6- and ω3-PUFA ratio in Dhaka were almost double the value in Kolkata. In both sites, after adjusting for days of lactation, increased maternal education was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA, and increasing birth order or total pregnancies was associated with decreasing ω6-PUFA or ω3-PUFA by a factor of 0.95 for each birth and pregnancy. In Dhaka, household prosperity was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA and increased ω6- and ω3-PUFA. Maternal height was associated with increased SFA and PUFA in Kolkata (1% increase per 1 cm), but body mass index showed no independent association with either ratio in either cohort. In summary, the socioeconomic factors of maternal education and household prosperity were associated with breast milk composition, although prosperity may only be important in higher cost of living communities. Associated maternal biological factors were height and infant birth order, but not adiposity. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these effects.

  6. Mesophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Diversity Encountered in Brazilian Farms Producing Milk with Particular Interest in Lactococcus lactis Strains.

    PubMed

    Luiz, L M P; Chuat, V; Madec, M N; Araújo, E A; de Carvalho, A F; Valence, F

    2016-10-01

    The milk produced in regions with different traditions in Brazil is used for artisanal product production, which is characterized by different sensorial characteristics. This study aimed to identify the bacterial ecosystem of farms located in a traditional dairy region in the state of Minas Gerais and to characterize Lactococcus lactis strains, the species of interest in this study, using a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) protocol and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) technique. Samples were collected from raw milk and dairy environment from six farms. A total of 50 isolates were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing and species-specific PCR. Five genera were identified: Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus, from ten different species. MLST (with six housekeeping genes) and PFGE (with SmaI endonuclease) were used for the characterization of 20 isolates of Lactococcus lactis from a dairy collection in this study. Both methods revealed a high clonal diversity of strains with a higher discriminatory level for PFGE (15 pulsotypes), compared to MLST (12 ST). This study contributes to the preservation of the Brazilian dairy heritage and provides insights into a part of the LAB population found in raw milk and dairy environment.

  7. Probiotic viability and storage stability of yogurts and fermented milks prepared with several mixtures of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mani-López, E; Palou, E; López-Malo, A

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the food industry wants to expand the range of probiotic yogurts but each probiotic bacteria offers different and specific health benefits. Little information exists on the influence of probiotic strains on physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of yogurts and fermented milks. Six probiotic yogurts or fermented milks and 1 control yogurt were prepared, and we evaluated several physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, and syneresis), microbial viability of starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus reuteri) during fermentation and storage (35 d at 5°C), as well as sensory preference among them. Decreases in pH (0.17 to 0.50 units) and increases in titratable acidity (0.09 to 0.29%) were observed during storage. Only the yogurt with S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and L. reuteri differed in firmness. No differences in adhesiveness were determined among the tested yogurts, fermented milks, and the control. Syneresis was in the range of 45 to 58%. No changes in color during storage were observed and no color differences were detected among the evaluated fermented milk products. Counts of S. thermophilus decreased from 1.8 to 3.5 log during storage. Counts of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus also decreased in probiotic yogurts and varied from 30 to 50% of initial population. Probiotic bacteria also lost viability throughout storage, although the 3 probiotic fermented milks maintained counts ≥ 10(7)cfu/mL for 3 wk. Probiotic bacteria had variable viability in yogurts, maintaining counts of L. acidophilus ≥ 10(7) cfu/mL for 35 d, of L. casei for 7d, and of L. reuteri for 14 d. We found no significant sensory preference among the 6 probiotic yogurts and fermented milks or the control. However, the yogurt and fermented milk made with L. casei were better accepted. This

  8. Stimuli-Triggered Sol-Gel Transitions of Polypeptides Derived from α-Amino Acid N-Carboxyanhydride (NCA) Polymerizations.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Fan, Jingwei; Wooley, Karen L

    2016-02-18

    The past decade has witnessed significantly increased interest in the development of smart polypeptide-based organo- and hydrogel systems with stimuli responsiveness, especially those that exhibit sol-gel phase-transition properties, with an anticipation of their utility in the construction of adaptive materials, sensor designs, and controlled release systems, among other applications. Such developments have been facilitated by dramatic progress in controlled polymerizations of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs), together with advanced orthogonal functionalization techniques, which have enabled economical and practical syntheses of well-defined polypeptides and peptide hybrid polymeric materials. One-dimensional stacking of polypeptides or peptide aggregations in the forms of certain ordered conformations, such as α helices and β sheets, in combination with further physical or chemical cross-linking, result in the construction of three-dimensional matrices of polypeptide gel systems. The macroscopic sol-gel transitions, resulting from the construction or deconstruction of gel networks and the conformational changes between secondary structures, can be triggered by external stimuli, including environmental factors, electromagnetic fields, and (bio)chemical species. Herein, the most recent advances in polypeptide gel systems are described, covering synthetic strategies, gelation mechanisms, and stimuli-triggered sol-gel transitions, with the aim of demonstrating the relationships between chemical compositions, supramolecular structures, and responsive properties of polypeptide-based organo- and hydrogels.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF FORMULATION AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE POLY[3-(3,4-DIHYDROXYPHENYL)GLYCERIC ACID] GEL.

    PubMed

    Gokadze, S; Barbakadze, V; Mulkijanyan, K; Bakuridze, L; Bakuridze, A

    2017-01-01

    One of the most actual problems of pharmacy is the development of medication forms for external application with complex effects on (gel, emplastro, aerosol, etc.) skin wounds, burns and inflammatory factors. The centuries-old practice of using phyto-preparations (herbal remedies) proved that they have fewer side effects in comparison with synthetic drugs. Despite the wide application of herbal preparations, in the literature there is a little information about their application in development of wound and burn healing modern dosage forms. Among the medicinal plants with the mentioned pharmacological actions, comfrey (Symphytum L.) should be distinguished. Phenolic polymer poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid] (PDGA) or poly[oxy-1-carboxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylene], amounting approximately 25% of polysaccharides and 1.5-2.5% of dry plant material, were isolated from the roots and stems of Caucasian comfrey species (S. asperum, S. caucasicum). Contrary to polysaccharides this phenolic polymer of Comfrey appeared to have a high immunomodulatory (anticomplement), antioxidative, antilipoperoxidantive, anti-inflammatory and wound-healing efficacy/activities. The aim of the study was development of the composition and technology of PDGA-containing gel. According to the results of complex biopharmaceutical studies PDGA gel optimal composition has been proved. The technological scheme for preparation of PDGA gel has been developed. PDGA gel stability under normal conditions of storage at +40С was studied. The gel has a shelf life (determined expiration date) of 2 year.

  10. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P < 0.05 compared with ryegrass). The concentration of α-linolenic acid in milk fat was similar across treatments, but its apparent recovery in milk relative to the amounts ingested was highest with buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P < 0.1) to increase curd firmness by 29%. In conclusion, particularly buckwheat silage seems to have a certain potential to modify the transfer of FA from feed to milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties.

  11. Intraperitoneal delivery of platinum with in-situ crosslinkable hyaluronic acid gel for local therapy of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Jung; Sun, Bo; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Wilson, Erin M; Torregrosa-Allen, Sandra; Elzey, Bennett D; Yeo, Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is a promising post-surgical therapy of solid carcinomas confined within the peritoneal cavity, with potential benefits in locoregional and systemic management of residual tumors. In this study, we intended to increase local retention of platinum in the peritoneal cavity over a prolonged period of time using a nanoparticle form of platinum and an in-situ crosslinkable hyaluronic acid gel. Hyaluronic acid was chosen as a carrier due to the biocompatibility and biodegradability. We confirmed a sustained release of platinum from the nanoparticles (PtNPs) and nanoparticle/gel hybrid (PtNP/gel), receptor-mediated endocytosis of PtNPs, and retention of the gel in the peritoneal cavity over 4 weeks: conditions desirable for a prolonged local delivery of platinum. However, PtNPs and PtNP/gel did not show a greater anti-tumor efficacy than CDDP solution administered at the same dose but rather caused a slight increase in tumor burdens at later time points, which suggests a potential involvement of empty carriers and degradation products in the growth of residual tumors. This study alerts that although several materials considered biocompatible and safe are used as drug carriers, they may have unwanted biological effects on the residual targets once the drug is exhausted; therefore, more attention should be paid to the selection of drug carriers.

  12. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lukas; Mueller, André; Barthel, Christiane; Snijders, Bianca; Jansen, Margje; Simões-Wüst, A Paula; Huber, Machteld; Kummeling, Ischa; von Mandach, Ursula; Steinhart, Hans; Thijs, Carel

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding mothers participating in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study have been analysed. The participants had documented varying lifestyles in relation to the use of conventional or organic products. Breast milk samples were collected 1 month postpartum and analysed for fatty acid composition. The content of rumenic acid (the main CLA) increased in a statistically significant way while going from a conventional diet (no organic dairy/meat products, 0.25 weight % (wt%), n 186) to a moderately organic diet (50-90 % organic dairy/meat, 0.29 wt%, n 33, P = 0.02) and to a strict organic diet (>90 % organic dairy/meat, 0.34 wt%, n 37, P acid). Hence, the levels of CLA and TVA in human milk can be modulated if breastfeeding mothers replace conventional dairy and/or meat products by organic ones. A potential contribution of CLA and TVA to health improvement is briefly discussed.

  13. Effects of ascorbic acid and sugars on solubility, thermal, and mechanical properties of egg white protein gels.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Tabatabaei, Ramin H; Pashania, Bita; Rajabi, Hadiseh Z; Karim, A A

    2013-11-01

    The effects of reducing sugars (fructose, glucose, ribose, and arabinose), sucrose, and ascorbic acid were studied on thermo-mechanical properties and crosslinking of egg white proteins (EWP) through Maillard reaction. Sugars (0%, 1%, 5%, and 10%) and ascorbic acid (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 2.5%) were added to EWP solutions. Thermal denaturation and crosslinking of EWP were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Mechanical properties (failure strength, failure strain and Young's modulus) of modified and unmodified EWP gels were evaluated by texture analyzer. Ascorbic acid decreased thermal denaturation temperature of EWP, but the reducing sugars increased the denaturation temperature. DSC thermograms of EWP showed that ascorbic acid exhibited an exothermic transition (≈110 °C) which was attributed to Maillard crosslinking of the protein. The reduction in pH (from 7.21 to ≈6) and protein solubility of egg white protein gel (from ≈70% to ≈10%) provides further evidence of the formation of Maillard cross-linking. Reactive sugars (ribose and arabinose) increased the mechanical properties of EWP gels, whereas ascorbic acid decreased the mechanical properties. Generally, the effect of ascorbic acid was more pronounced than that of various reducing sugars on the thermal and mechanical properties of egg white proteins.

  14. A study on the causes for the elevated n-3 fatty acids in cows' milk of alpine origin.

    PubMed

    Leiber, Florian; Kreuzer, Michael; Nigg, Daniel; Wettstein, Hans-Rudolf; Scheeder, Martin Richard Leo

    2005-02-01

    The influence of grass-only diets either from rye-grass-dominated lowland pastures (400 m above sea level) or botanically diverse alpine pastures (2000 m) on the FA profile of milk was investigated using three groups of six Brown Swiss cows each. Two groups were fed grass-only on pasture (P) or freshly harvested in barn (B), both for two experimental periods in the lowlands and, consecutively, two periods on the alp. Group C served as the control, receiving a silage-concentrate diet and permanently staying in the lowlands. Effects of vegetation stage or pasture vs. barn feeding on milk fat composition were negligible. Compared with the control, alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) consumption was elevated in groups P and B (79%; P< 0.001) during the lowland periods but decreased on the alp to the level of C owing to feed intake depression and lower 18:3n-3 concentration in the alpine forage. Average 18:3n-3 contents of milk fat were higher in groups P and B than in C by 33% (P< 0.01) at low and by 96% (P < 0.001) at high altitude, indicating that 18:3n-3 levels in milk were to some extent independent of 18:3n-3 consumption. The cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk of grass-fed cows was higher compared with C but lower for the alpine vs. lowland periods whereas the trans-11, cis-13 isomer further increased with altitude. Long-chain n-3 FA and phytanic acid increased while arachidonic acid decreased with grass-only feeding, but none of them responded to altitude. Grass-only feeding increased milk alpha-tocopherol concentration by 86 and 134% at low and high altitude (P < 0.001), respectively. Changes in the ruminal ecosystem due to energy shortage or specific secondary plant metabolites are discussed as possible causes for the high 18:3n-3 concentrations in alpine milk.

  15. Fiber opticpH sensor for the acidic range using fluorescent dye-doped sol-gel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manyam, Upendra H.

    A plethora of new sensor technologies have emerged for chemical, biological, environmental and security applications. However, their adoption has been constrained by lack of integration of vastly different technical areas. Fiber optic chemical sensing is one such technology; a combination of spectroscopy, materials science and optical engineering. In this work, the example of an acidic pH sensor is used to individually develop these three areas and integrate them into a working device. Acidic pH is an important parameter in chemical processes, with no suitable optical alternatives. The fluorescent pH indicator 5-(and 6)-carboxydichlorofluorescein (CDCF) was doped in a sol-gel matrix. CDCF has a pKa of 4.53, making it well suited for the acidic range. MTMS and TEOS gels were developed as films with good mechanical and chemical stability. The pH state of the immobilized dye affects the ratio of the absorption peaks. The fluorescence spectrum was red shifted in the organically modified gel. The fluorescence of hybrid spin-coated thin films resembled that of TEOS gels rather than that of hybrid bulk gels. The pH response was reversible and repeatable with a dynamic range of 5 pH units. Changes in ionic strength cause hysteresis in the sensor's response, which disappears when the film surface is saturated with electrolytes. The mechanical strength of the films in air and when immersed in solution was improved by using specific aging routines. Photo-bleaching was reduced by limiting excitation time to the duration of the measurement. Sonication, organic modification and aging in pH 2 buffer reduced leaching of the dye. Solid surface energy of the gels increased with organic modification. Hybrid gels were hydrophobic, resulting in slow response times. The diffusion constant of hydronium ions was found to depend on protonation state of the indicator and ionic strength of the solution. The diffusion constant in 0%MTMS and 10%MTMS films was of the order of 10-9 cm2/s, while

  16. Milk from cows grazing on cool-season pastures provides an enhanced profile of bioactive fatty acids compared to those grazed on a monoculture of pearl millet.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Egolf, Emily; Barlow, John W; Alvez, Juan P; Roman, Joe; Kraft, Jana

    2017-02-15

    The demand for dairy products from grass-fed cows is driven, in part, by their more desirable fatty acid (FA) profile, containing more n-3 FA and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) than conventionally produced dairy products. This study investigated the effects of pearl millet (PM) vs. cool-season pasture (CSP) on animal performance and milk FA in a grazing system. Eight Holstein dairy cows were used in a repeated measures design with four-week periods. Forage type had no effect on animal performance (estimated dry matter intake, milk production, fat, or protein). The contents of CLA and n-3 FA in a serving of whole milk (3.25% fat) increased when cows grazed CSP compared to PM. A serving of whole milk from cows grazing PM had a higher content of saturated FA and branched-chain FA. In conclusion, the contents of various bioactive FA were higher in milk fat of cows grazing a CSP compared to PM.

  17. Direct determination of niflumic acid in a pharmaceutical gel by ATR/FTIR spectroscopy and PLS calibration.

    PubMed

    Boyer, C; Brégère, B; Crouchet, S; Gaudin, K; Dubost, J P

    2006-02-13

    A simple, rapid and convenient analytical method without sample handling procedure is proposed for the determination of niflumic acid in a pharmaceutical gel with attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR). A partial least square (PLS) calibration model for the prediction of niflumic acid contents was developed using 81 and 27 spectra of standard gels as training and validation sets, respectively. The used spectral range of niflumic acid for the establishment of this model was 2300-1100 cm(-1). All spectra were obtained in the transmittance mode, then normalized and first derivative transformed. The model yielded a regression coefficient R2 equal to 1 for the training set and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) equal to 0.2 for the validation set. The percentage recoveries of the method for the analysis of Niflugel ranged from 96.60 to 101.02%.

  18. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.

    PubMed

    Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF

  19. Effect of Origanum vulgare L. leaves on rumen fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Lee, C; Cassidy, T; Heyler, K; Tekippe, J A; Varga, G A; Corl, B; Brandt, R C

    2013-02-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of Origanum vulgare L. leaf material (OR) on rumen fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with 8 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows and 20-d experimental periods. Treatments were control (no OR supplementation), 250 g/cow per day OR (LOR), 500 g/d OR (MOR), and 750 g/d OR (HOR). Oregano supplementation had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and estimated microbial protein synthesis, but decreased ammonia concentration and linearly decreased methane production per unit of dry matter intake (DMI) compared with the unsupplemented control: 18.2, 16.5, 11.7, and 13.6g of methane/kg of DMI, respectively. Proportions of rumen bacterial, methanogen, and fungal populations were not affected by treatment. Treatment had no effect on total-tract apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients, except neutral detergent fiber digestibility was slightly decreased by all OR treatments compared with the control. Urinary N losses and manure odor were not affected by OR, except the proportion of urinary urea N in the total excreted urine N tended to be decreased compared with the control. Oregano linearly decreased DMI (28.3, 28.3, 27.5, and 26.7 kg/d for control, LOR, MOR, and HOR, respectively). Milk yield was not affected by treatment: 43.4, 45.2, 44.1, and 43.4 kg/d, respectively. Feed efficiency was linearly increased with OR supplementation and was greater than the control (1.46, 1.59, 1.60, and 1.63 kg/kg, respectively). Milk composition was unaffected by OR, except milk urea-N concentration was decreased. Milk fatty acid composition was not affected by treatment. In this short-term study, OR fed at 250 to 750 g/d decreased rumen methane production in dairy cows within 8h after feeding, but the effect over a 24-h feeding cycle has not been determined. Supplementation of the diet with OR linearly

  20. Changes in milk fatty acid profile and animal performance in response to fish oil supplementation, alone or in combination with sunflower oil, in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G; Gómez-Cortés, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2010-04-01

    Ruminant diet supplementation with sunflower oil (SO) and fish oil (FO) has been reported as a good strategy for enhancing some milk fat compounds such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dairy cows, but no information is available regarding dairy sheep. In this work, ewe diet was supplemented with FO, alone or in combination with SO, with the aim of improving milk nutritional value and evaluating its effect on animal performance. Sixty-four Assaf ewes in mid lactation, fed a high-concentrate diet, were distributed in 8 lots of 8 animals each and assigned to 4 treatments (2 lots/treatment): no lipid supplementation (control) or supplementation with 20 g of SO/kg (SO), 10 g of FO/kg (FO), or 20 g of SO plus 10 g of FO/kg (SOFO). Milk production and composition, including a complete fatty acid profile, were analyzed on d 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatments. Supplementation with FO tended to reduce dry matter intake compared with the control treatment (-15%), and its use in combination with SO (SOFO) resulted in a significant decrease in milk yield as well (-13%). All lipid supplements reduced milk protein content, and FO also reduced milk fat content by up to 21% alone (FO) and 27% in combination with SO (SOFO). Although the mechanisms involved in FO-induced milk fat depression are not yet well established, the observed increase in some milk trans-FA that are putative inhibitors of milk fat synthesis, such as trans-9,cis-11 CLA, and the 63% decrease in C18:0 (consistent with the theory of reduced milk fat fluidity) may be involved. When compared with the control, lipid supplementation remarkably improved the milk content of rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA; up to 4-fold increases with SO and SOFO diets), whereas FO-containing diets also increased milk n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly docosahexaenoic acid (with mean contents of 0.29 and 0.38% of total fatty acids for SOFO and FO, respectively), and reduced the n-6:n-3 FA

  1. Effect of season on fatty acid and terpene profiles of milk from Greek sheep raised under a semi-extensive production system.

    PubMed

    Papaloukas, Loukas; Sinapis, Efthymios; Arsenos, George; Kyriakou, George; Basdagianni, Zoitsa

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of season on the fatty acid and terpene composition in ewe milk. A total of 760 samples of bulk sheep milk were collected during winter (147 samples), spring (314 samples) and summer (299 samples) of 2011, from 90 commercial farms of dairy sheep from the prefecture of Grevena, Greece. Regarding fatty acid composition, summer samples had higher concentrations of α-linolenic acid, cis-9, trans 11- CLA, trans-11, C18 : 1 and PUFAs but lower content of saturated fatty acids particularly C12 : 0, C14 : 0 and C16 : 0. The winter milk had the lowest content of terpenes, in particular sesquiterpenes, compared to spring and summer milk. The terpene profile of milk samples, in all three seasons, revealed the presence of monoterpenes: a-pinene, b-pinene and D-limonene, especially with a higher frequency of appearance in summer. The most common and abundant sesquiterpenes found in milk samples were β-caryophyllene and α-caryophyllene with a higher frequency of appearance in summer. In conclusion, the available pastures in semi-extensive farming systems can contribute to the production of high quality milk.

  2. Preconcentration and Determination of Mefenamic Acid in Pharmaceutical and Biological Fluid Samples by Polymer-grafted Silica Gel Solid-phase Extraction Following High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri Sadeghi, Hayedeh; Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Mahabadi, Mahsa; Moniri, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Mefenamic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has analgesic, anti-infammatory and antipyretic actions. It is used to relieve mild to moderate pains. Solid-phase extraction of mefenamic acid by a polymer grafted to silica gel is reported. Poly allyl glycidyl ether/iminodiacetic acid-co-N, N-dimethylacrylamide was synthesized and grafted to silica gel and was used as an adsorbent for extraction of trace mefenamic acid in pharmaceutical and biological samples. Different factors affecting the extraction method were investigated and optimum conditions were obtained. The optimum pH value for sorption of mefenamic acid was 4.0. The sorption capacity of grafted adsorbent was 7.0 mg/g. The best eluent solvent was found to be trifluoroacetic acid-acetic acid in methanol with a recovery of 99.6%. The equilibrium adsorption data of mefenamic acid by grafted silica gel was analyzed by Langmuir model. The conformation of obtained data to Langmuir isotherm model reveals the homogeneous binding sites of grafted silica gel surface. Kinetic study of the mefenamic acid sorption by grafted silica gel indicates the good accessibility of the active sites in the grafted polymer. The sorption rate of the investigated mefenamic acid on the grafted silica gel was less than 5 min. This novel synthesized adsorbent can be successfully applied for the extraction of trace mefenamic acid in human plasma, urine and pharmaceutical samples. PMID:26330865

  3. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  4. Fatty acid profiles of milk and Minas frescal cheese from lactating grazed cows supplemented with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Weiler Giacomazza; Viegas, Julio; Barbosa, Analívia Martins; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Dias, Carina Anunciação; Costa, Emellinne Souza; Nornberg, José Laerte; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Silveira, Alisson Minozzo

    2016-02-01

    Milk and Minas frescal cheese were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Gir cows that were fed diets enriched with 0, 33, 66 and 100% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in a concentrated supplement in replace of soybean meal. Eight crossbred lactating cows were distributed (four animals × four treatments × four periods) in the experimental design of double 4 × 4 Latin squares. The capric (C : 10, P = 0.0270), undecylic (C : 11, P = 0.0134), and lauric (C : 12, P = 0.0342) saturated fatty acid concentrations and CLA (C18 : 2c9t11, P = 0.0164) of the milk fat decreased linearly with an increasing percentage of peanut cake in the diet. The increased peanut cake content (100%) in the diet was associated with a linear decrease in C : 10 (P = 0.0447), C : 12 (P = 0.0002), mirystic (C : 14, P 0.05) ratios were not influenced by the different peanut cake levels. The inclusion of up to 100% peanut cake as a substitution for soybean meal in the concentrate of grazing lactating cows resulted in changes in the nutritional quality of their milk products, as indicated by the increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the decrease of saturated fatty acids (lauric, myristic, and palmitic).

  5. Short communication: Change of naturally occurring benzoic acid during skim milk fermentation by commercial cheese starters.

    PubMed

    Han, Noori; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to investigate the change of naturally occurring benzoic acid (BA) during skim milk fermentation by 4 kinds of commercial cheese starters used in domestic cheese. The culture was incubated at 3-h intervals for 24h at 30, 35, and 40°C. The BA content during fermentation by Streptococcus thermophilus STB-01 was detected after 12h at all temperatures, sharply increasing at 30°C. In Lactobacillus paracasei LC431, BA was detected after 9h at all temperatures, sharply increasing until 18h and decreasing after 18h at 30 and 35°C. In the case of R707 (consisting of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris), BA increased from 6h to 15h and decreased after 15h at 40°C. The BA during STB-01 and CHN-11 (1:1; mixture of S. thermophilus, Lc. lactis ssp. lactis, Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris, Lc. lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris) fermentation was detected after 3h at 35 and 40°C, sharply increasing up to 12h and decreasing after 15h at 35°C, and after 6h, increasing up to 9h at 30°C. After 3h, it steadily decreased at 40°C. The highest amount of BA was found during the fermentation by R707 at 30°C; 15h with 12.46mg/kg.

  6. Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., a novel lactic acid bacterium isolated from camel milk.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Zaina; Spitaels, Freek; Cnockaert, Margo; Praet, Jessy; El Farricha, Omar; Swings, Jean; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Four lactic acid bacteria isolates obtained from fresh dromedary camel milk produced in Dakhla, a city in southern Morocco, were characterised in order to determine their taxonomic position. The four isolates had highly similar MALDI-TOF MS and RAPD fingerprints and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the four isolates was most similar to that of Enterococcus sulfureus ATCC 49903(T) and Enterococcus italicus DSM 15952(T) (99.33 and 98.59% similarity, respectively). However, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes revealed that the taxon represented by strain LMG 28766(T) was well separated from E. sulfureus LMG 13084(T) and E. italicus LMG 22039(T), which was further confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization values that were clearly below the species demarcation threshold. The novel taxon was easily differentiated from its nearest neighbour species through sequence analysis of protein encoding genes, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and multiple biochemical tests, but had a similar percentage G+C content of about 39%. We therefore propose to formally classify these isolates as Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., with LMG 28766(T) (=CCMM B1177(T)) as the type strain.

  7. Simultaneous detection and comparative pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, clavulanic acid and prednisolone in cows' milk by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Kui; Wang, Jianfen; Huang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Guanlin; Li, Congying; Cao, Jie; Ding, Shuangyang

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin (AMOX), clavulanic acid (CLAV) and prednisolone (PSL) are widely used in combination for the treatment of mastitis in lactating dairy cows. However, no method has been reported to detect these three chemicals in milk in a single assay. In the present work, a reliable and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in cow's milk. The analytes were determined by a positive and negative ionization electrospray mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring. The linear ranges of AMOX, CLAV and PSL were from 2 to 1000ng/mL, 20-1000ng/mL and 1-1000ng/mL, respectively, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 2ng/mL (AMOX), 20ng/mL (CLAV) and 1ng/mL (PSL). Recoveries of the analytes of interest in milk samples were in the ranges of 84.2-101.4%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions ranged from 1.8% to 11.9%. This method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in milk from healthy and mastitic cows. The elimination times of AMOX and PSL in mastitic cows were longer than that in healthy cows, but the elimination times of CLAV did not show significant difference.

  8. Genetic parameters for milk mineral content and acidity predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Toffanin, V; Penasa, M; McParland, S; Berry, D P; Cassandro, M; De Marchi, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and titratable acidity (TA) in bovine milk predicted by mid-IR spectroscopy (MIRS). Data consisted of 2458 Italian Holstein-Friesian cows sampled once in 220 farms. Information per sample on protein and fat percentage, pH and somatic cell count, as well as test-day milk yield, was also available. (Co)variance components were estimated using univariate and bivariate animal linear mixed models. Fixed effects considered in the analyses were herd of sampling, parity, lactation stage and a two-way interaction between parity and lactation stage; an additive genetic and residual term were included in the models as random effects. Estimates of heritability for Ca, P and TA were 0.10, 0.12 and 0.26, respectively. Positive moderate to strong phenotypic correlations (0.33 to 0.82) existed between Ca, P and TA, whereas phenotypic weak to moderate correlations (0.00 to 0.45) existed between these traits with both milk quality and yield. Moderate to strong genetic correlations (0.28 to 0.92) existed between Ca, P and TA, and between these predicted traits with both fat and protein percentage (0.35 to 0.91). The existence of heritable genetic variation for Ca, P and TA, coupled with the potential to predict these components for routine cow milk testing, imply that genetic gain in these traits is indeed possible.

  9. Lipid Encapsulation Provides Insufficient Total-Tract Digestibility to Achieve an Optimal Transfer Efficiency of Fatty Acids to Milk Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Melissa; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Transfer efficiencies of rumen-protected n-3 fatty acids (FA) to milk are low, thus we hypothesized that rumen-protection technologies allow for biohydrogenation and excretion of n-3 FA. The objectives of this study were to i) investigate the ruminal protection and post-ruminal release of the FA derived from the lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO), and ii) assess the bioavailability and metabolism of the EEO-derived FA through measuring the FA content in plasma lipid fractions, feces, and milk. The EEO was tested for rumen stability using the in situ nylon bag technique, then the apparent total-tract digestibility was assessed in vivo using six Holstein dairy cattle. Diets consisted of a control (no EEO); 1.5% of dry matter (DM) as EEO and 1.5% DM as encapsulation matrix; and 3% DM as EEO. The EEO was rumen-stable and had no effect on animal production. EEO-derived FA were incorporated into all plasma lipid fractions, with the highest proportion of n-3 FA observed in cholesterol esters. Fecal excretion of EEO-derived FA ranged from 7–14%. Biohydrogenation products increased in milk, plasma, and feces with EEO supplementation. In conclusion, lipid-encapsulation provides inadequate digestibility to achieve an optimal transfer efficiency of n-3 FA to milk. PMID:27741299

  10. Milk fatty acid profile is modulated by DGAT1 and SCD1 genotypes in dairy cattle on pasture and strategic supplementation.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, A M; Huircan, P; Dezamour, J M; Subiabre, I; Kerr, B; Morales, R; Ungerfeld, E M

    2016-05-09

    Milk fat composition is important to consumer health. During the last decade, some fatty acids (FA) have received attention because of their functional and beneficial effects on human health. The milk FA profile is affected by both diet and genetics. Differences in milk fat composition are based on biochemical pathways, and candidate genes have been proposed to explain FA profile variation. Here, the association between DGAT1 K232A, SCD1 A293V, and LEPR T945M markers with milk fat composition in southern Chile was evaluated. We selected five herds of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, Frisón Negro, Montbeliarde, and Overo Colorado cows (pasture-grazed) that received strategic supplementation with concentrates and conserved forages. We genotyped the SNPs and calculated allele frequencies and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Milk fat composition was determined for individual milk samples over a year, and associations between genotypes and milk composition were studied. The most frequent variants for DGAT1, SCD1, and LEPR polymorphisms were GC/GC, C, and C, respectively. The DGAT1 GC/GC allele was associated with lower milk fat and protein content, lower saturated fatty acid levels, and higher polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), n-3 and n-6 FA, and a linolenic acid to cholesterolemic FA ratios, which implied a healthier FA profile. The SCD1 CC genotype was associated with a low cholesterolemic FA content, a high ratio of linolenic acid to cholesterolemic FA, and lower conjugated-linolenic acid and PUFA content. These results suggest the possible modulation of milk fat profiles, using specific genotypes, to improve the nutritional quality of dairy products.

  11. Sol-gel process for preparing YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} precursors from Y, Ba, and Cu acidic acetates/ammonia/ascorbic acid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Deptula, A.; Lada, W.; Olczak, T.; Goretta, K.C.; Di Bartolomeo, A.; Casadio, S.

    1995-08-01

    Sols were prepared by addition of ammonia to acidic acetate solutions of Y{sup 3+}, Ba{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+}. Ascorbic acid was added to a part of the sol. The resultant sols were gelled to a shard, a film, or microspheres by evaporation at 60 C or by extraction of water from drops of emulsion suspended in 2-ethylhexanol-1. Addition of ethanol to the sols facilitated the formation of gel films, fabricated by a dipping technique, on glass or silver substrates. At 100 C, gels that were formed in the presence of ascorbic acid were perfectly amorphous, in contrast to the crystalline acetate gels. Conversion of the amorphous ascorbate gels to final products was easier than for the acetate gels. The quality of coatings prepared from ascorbate gels was superior to that of acetate gel coatings.

  12. Monitoring the lactic acid bacterial diversity during shochu fermentation by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Okada, Sanae

    2005-03-01

    The presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during shochu fermentation was monitored by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and by bacteriological culturing. No LAB were detected from fermented mashes by PCR-DGGE using a universal bacterial PCR primer set. However, PCR-DGGE using a new primer specific for the 16S rDNA of Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Enterococcus, and Vagococcus and two primers specific for the 16S rDNA of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella revealed that Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Weissella cibaria inhabited in shochu mashes. It was also found that the LAB community composition during shochu fermentation changed after the main ingredient and water were added during the fermentation process. Therefore, we confirmed that PCR-DGGE using all three primers specific for groups of LAB together was well suited to the study of the LAB diversity in shochu mashes. The results of DGGE profiles were similar to the results of bacteriological culturing. In conclusion, LAB are present during shochu fermentation but not dominant.

  13. Natamycin based sol-gel antimicrobial coatings on polylactic acid films for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Lantano, Claudia; Alfieri, Ilaria; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Lorenzi, Andrea; Zucchetto, Nicola; Montenero, Angelo

    2014-12-15

    In this work a comprehensive study on a new active packaging obtained by a hybrid organic-inorganic coating with antimicrobial properties was carried out. The packaging system based on polylactic acid was realised by sol-gel processing, employing tetraethoxysilane as a precursor of the inorganic phase and polyvinyl alcohol as the organic component, and incorporating natamycin as the active agent. Films with different organic-inorganic ratios (in a range between 1:19 and 1:4) were prepared, and the amount of antimycotic entrapped was found to be modulated by the sol composition, and was between 0.18 and 0.25mg/dm(2). FTIR microspectroscopic measurements were used to characterise the prepared coatings. The antifungal properties of the films were investigated against mould growth on the surface of commercial semi-soft cheese. The release of natamycin from the films to ethanol 50% (v/v) was studied by means of HPLC UV-DAD. The maximal level released was about 0.105 mg/dm(2), which is far below the value allowed by legislation.

  14. Effect of forage conservation method, concentrate level and propylene glycol on the fatty acid composition and vitamin content of cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Shingfield, Kevin J; Salo-Väänänen, Pirjo; Pahkala, Eero; Toivonen, Vesa; Jaakkola, Seija; Piironen, Vieno; Huhtanen, Pekka

    2005-08-01

    Based on potential health benefits, there is a need to develop effective strategies for enhancing milk fat concentrations of cis-9 18:1, 18:3 n-3 and conjugated linoleic (CLA) content in milk without compromising the sensory or storage characteristics of processed milk or dairy products. Sixteen Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with four 21-d experimental periods and a 4 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of forage conservation method, concentrate level and supplements of propylene glycol (PG), and their interactions on milk fatty acid composition and vitamin content. Experimental treatments consisted of four conserved forages offered ad libitum, supplemented with two levels of a standard concentrate (7 or 10 kg/d) and PG (0 and 210 g/d) fed as three equal meals. Primary growths of timothy and meadow fescue sward were conserved by ensiling with none (NA), an inoculant enzyme preparation (IE) or a formic acid based (FORM) additive or as hay 1 week later. Conservation of grass by drying rather than ensiling resulted in lower forage 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, total fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations. In spite of lower intakes, milk fat 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 content was higher (P < 0.05) for hay than for silage diets (12.1, 9.6, 9.6 and 9.3 and 5.00, 3.51, 4.27 and 2.93 g/kg total fatty acids, for hay, NA, IE and FORM silages, respectively). Forage conservation method had no clear effects on milk trans 18:1 or CLA content. Compared with silage, hay diets resulted in milk containing lower (P < 0.001) riboflavin, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene concentrations, but had no effect on ascorbic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine or retinol content. Feeding more concentrates had no effect on milk fatty acid composition or milk vitamin content, other than lowering (P < 0.001) 16:0 concentrations from 348 to 338 g/kg fatty acids. Supplements of PG led to small (P < 0.05) increases in milk 13:0 anteiso and 15

  15. Effect of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and fucidic acid on the gel characterization of polyvinylalcohol-based wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Piao, Ming Guan; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Hwang, Du Hyung; Quan, Qi Zhe; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) and fucidic acid on the gel characterization for the development of sodium fucidate-loaded wound dressing. The cross-linked hydrogel films were prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) using the freeze-thawing method. Their gel properties such as gel fraction, swelling, water vapor transmission test, morphology, tensile strength and thermal property were investigated. In vitro protein adsorption test and release were performed. Na-CMC decreased the gel fraction and tensile strength of the hydrogels, but increased the swelling ability, water vapor transmission rate, elasticity and porosity of hydrogels. Thus, the wound dressing developed with PVA and Na-CMC was more swellable, flexible and elastic than that with only PVA because of its cross-linking interaction with PVA. However, the drug had a negative effect on the gel properties of hydrogels but there were no significant differences. In particular, the hydrogel composed of 2.5% PVA, 1.125% Na-CMC and 0.2% drug might give an adequate level of moisture and build up the exudates on the wound area. Thus, this sodium fucidate-loaded hydrogel could be a potential candidate for wound dressing with excellent forming.

  16. Cooling causes changes in the distribution of lipoprotein lipase and milk fat globule membrane proteins between the skim milk and cream phase.

    PubMed

    Dickow, J A; Larsen, L B; Hammershøj, M; Wiking, L

    2011-02-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and free fatty acid levels were studied in freshly milked, uncooled milk from individual Danish Holstein or Jersey cows, or after storage for up to 24h at either a cooling temperature (4°C) or at the milking temperature (31°C). Upon cooling for up to 24h, LPL activity increased in the cream phase, whereas the activity in the skim milk was steady, as observed for Jersey cows, or increased, as seen for the Holsteins. Storage at 31°C decreased the LPL activity in both the cream phase and the skim milk phase. The increase in free fatty acid levels was found to depend on LPL activity, incubation temperature, substrate availability, and incubation time. Furthermore, the migration of milk proteins between the skim milk phase and the cream phase upon cooling of milk from Jersey cows or from Danish Holstein cows was studied using proteomic methods involving 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Proteins associated with the milk fat globules were isolated from all milk fractions and analyzed. Major changes in the distributions of proteins between the skim milk phase and the cream phase were observed after cooling at 4°C for 4h, where a total of 29 proteins between the 2 breeds was found to change their association with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) significantly. Among these, the MFGM proteins adipophilin, fatty acid-binding protein, and lactadherin, as well as the non-MFGM proteins β-casein, lactoferrin, and heat shock protein-71, were identified. Adipophilin, lactadherin, and lactoferrin were quantitatively more associated with the MFGM upon cold storage at 4°C, whereas β-casein, fatty acid-binding protein, and heat shock protein-71 were found to be less associated with the MFGM upon cold storage.

  17. Terpenes and fatty acid profiles of milk fat and "Bitto" cheese as affected by transhumance of cows on different mountain pastures.

    PubMed

    Noni, Ivano De; Battelli, Giovanna

    2008-07-15

    The evolution of fatty acid (FA) and terpenoid profiles was studied in milk (n=20) and "Bitto" (n=3), a protected designation of origin cheese produced in a restricted Italian alpine area. Milk came from 25 Italian Brown cows successively grazing pastures at 1400, 2100 and 2200m during transhumance in June-September 2006. The fat matter was analyzed for FAs and terpenes by means of gas chromatography and purge & trap/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. FA composition of milk fat varied significantly (p<0.0001) in relation to contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), stearic, linoleic and trans-vaccenic acids. Similar monoterpene profiles characterized milk fat from cows grazing the different pastures and the highest amount of terpenes was measured in milk coming from cows grazing at 1400m. High levels of δ3-carene in milk fat were likely related to the important presence of Ligusticum mutellina in the pasture. Only negligible amounts of sesquiterpenes were detected in milk fat whereas they were the most abundant class in fodder. Both FA and terpene profiles of ripened (70 days) cheeses resembled those of the original milks. Overall, results confirm the influence of the botanical composition of mountain pastures both in enhancing the ruminal synthesis of CLA and in modifying the FA and terpenoid profiles of milk and "Bitto" cheese. Nevertheless, neither the FA nor the terpenoid profiles revealed here can be considered as "unique" to "Bitto" cheese and, for this reason, they can hardly be assumed to be biomarkers for defining a specific relationship among grazing area, milk and "Bitto" cheese. They better represent the chemical fingerprint of the cow feeding, adopted in mountain areas.

  18. Effect of bromochloromethane on methane emission, rumen fermentation pattern, milk yield, and fatty acid profile in lactating dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Abecia, L; Toral, P G; Martín-García, A I; Martínez, G; Tomkins, N W; Molina-Alcaide, E; Newbold, C J; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R

    2012-04-01

    Several technologies have been tested to reduce enteric methanogenesis, but very few have been successfully used in practical conditions for livestock. Furthermore, the consequences of reduced rumen methane production on animal performance and milk quality are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of feeding bromochloromethane (BCM), a halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon with potential antimethanogenic activity, to dairy goats on rumen methane production, fermentation pattern, the abundance of major microbial groups, and on animal performance and milk composition. Eighteen goats were allocated to 2 experimental groups of 9 animals each: treated (BCM+) or not (BCM-) with 0.30 g of BCM/100 kg of body weight per day. The BCM was administered per os in 2 equal doses per day from parturition to 2 wk postweaning (10 wk). After weaning, methane emissions were recorded over 2 consecutive days (d 57 and 58 on treatment) in polycarbonate chambers. On d 59, individual rumen fluid samples were collected for volatile fatty acid (VFA) analysis and quantification of bacterial, protozoal, and archaeal numbers by real-time PCR. On d 69 and 70, daily milk production was recorded and samples were collected for determination of fat, protein, lactose, casein, and total solids concentration by infrared spectrophotometry, and fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Treatment with BCM reduced methane production by 33% (21.6 vs. 14.4 L/kg of DMI) compared with nontreated animals, although it did not affect the abundance of rumen bacteria, protozoa, and total methanogenic archaea. The observed improvement in the efficiency of digestive processes was accompanied by a 36% increase in milk yield, probably due to the more propionic type of rumen fermentation and an increase in VFA production. The increase in milk yield was not accompanied by any changes in the concentrations or yields of fat, protein, or lactose. Despite the substantial decrease in methane

  19. Adapting capillary gel electrophoresis as a sensitive, high-throughput method to accelerate characterization of nucleic acid metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Greenough, Lucia; Schermerhorn, Kelly M; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Slatko, Barton E; Gardner, Andrew F

    2016-01-29

    Detailed biochemical characterization of nucleic acid enzymes is fundamental to understanding nucleic acid metabolism, genome replication and repair. We report the development of a rapid, high-throughput fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis method as an alternative to traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to characterize nucleic acid metabolic enzymes. The principles of assay design described here can be applied to nearly any enzyme system that acts on a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide substrate. Herein, we describe several assays using this core capillary gel electrophoresis methodology to accelerate study of nucleic acid enzymes. First, assays were designed to examine DNA polymerase activities including nucleotide incorporation kinetics, strand displacement synthesis and 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Next, DNA repair activities of DNA ligase, flap endonuclease and RNase H2 were monitored. In addition, a multicolor assay that uses four different fluorescently labeled substrates in a single reaction was implemented to characterize GAN nuclease specificity. Finally, a dual-color fluorescence assay to monitor coupled enzyme reactions during Okazaki fragment maturation is described. These assays serve as a template to guide further technical development for enzyme characterization or nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitor screening in a high-throughput manner.

  20. Adapting capillary gel electrophoresis as a sensitive, high-throughput method to accelerate characterization of nucleic acid metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, Lucia; Schermerhorn, Kelly M.; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Slatko, Barton E.; Gardner, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed biochemical characterization of nucleic acid enzymes is fundamental to understanding nucleic acid metabolism, genome replication and repair. We report the development of a rapid, high-throughput fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis method as an alternative to traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to characterize nucleic acid metabolic enzymes. The principles of assay design described here can be applied to nearly any enzyme system that acts on a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide substrate. Herein, we describe several assays using this core capillary gel electrophoresis methodology to accelerate study of nucleic acid enzymes. First, assays were designed to examine DNA polymerase activities including nucleotide incorporation kinetics, strand displacement synthesis and 3′-5′ exonuclease activity. Next, DNA repair activities of DNA ligase, flap endonuclease and RNase H2 were monitored. In addition, a multicolor assay that uses four different fluorescently labeled substrates in a single reaction was implemented to characterize GAN nuclease specificity. Finally, a dual-color fluorescence assay to monitor coupled enzyme reactions during Okazaki fragment maturation is described. These assays serve as a template to guide further technical development for enzyme characterization or nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitor screening in a high-throughput manner. PMID:26365239

  1. Spray-dried milk supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid decreases HMG Co A reductase activity and increases biliary secretion of lipids in rats.

    PubMed

    Ramaprasad, Talahalli R; Srinivasan, Krishnapura; Baskaran, Vallikannan; Sambaiah, Kari; Lokesh, Belur R

    2006-05-01

    In our earlier study, we have shown that rats fed spray-dried milk containing alpha-linolenic acid (LNA 18:3 n-3) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6 n-3) had significantly lower amounts of serum and liver cholesterol. To evaluate the mechanism for hypocholesterolemic effect of n-3 fatty acids containing milk formulation, we fed male Wistar rats with spray-dried milk containing linseed oil (LSO) (source of LNA) or fish oil (FO) (source of EPA+DHA) for 8 weeks. Feeding n-3 fatty acid containing milk formulation lowered the hepatic 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co A) activity by 17-22% compared to rats given control diet devoid of n-3 fatty acids. The cholesterol level in liver microsomes was found to be decreased by 16% and 20%, respectively, in LSO and FO containing formulation fed rats. The bile flow was enhanced to an extent of 19-23% in experimental groups compared to control animals. The biliary cholesterol and phospholipid secretion was increased to an extent of 49-55% and 140-146%, respectively, in rats fed n-3 fatty acid containing formulation. The increase in the total bile acids secretion in bile was mainly reflected on an increase in the levels of taurine conjugated bile acids. These results indicated that n-3 fatty acid containing spray-dried milk formulation would bring about the hypocholesterolemic effect by lowering HMG Co A reductase activity in liver and by increasing the secretion of bile constituents.

  2. Catalytic activity of acid and base with different concentration on sol-gel kinetics of silica by ultrasonic method.

    PubMed

    Das, R K; Das, M

    2015-09-01

    The effects of both acid (acetic acid) and base (ammonia) catalysts in varying on the sol-gel synthesis of SiO2 nanoparticles using tetra ethyl ortho silicate (TEOS) as a precursor was determined by ultrasonic method. The ultrasonic velocity was received by pulsar receiver. The ultrasonic velocity in the sol and the parameter ΔT (time difference between the original pulse and first back wall echo of the sol) was varied with time of gelation. The graphs of ln[ln1/ΔT] vs ln(t), indicate two region - nonlinear region and a linear region. The time corresponds to the point at which the non-linear region change to linear region is considered as gel time for the respective solutions. Gelation time is found to be dependent on the concentration and types of catalyst and is found from the graphs based on Avrami equation. The rate of condensation is found to be faster for base catalyst. The gelation process was also characterized by viscosity measurement. Normal sol-gel process was also carried out along with the ultrasonic one to compare the effectiveness of ultrasonic. The silica gel was calcined and the powdered sample was characterized with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectra, X-ray diffractogram, and FTIR spectroscopy.

  3. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  4. Method for separating constituents from solution employing a recyclable Lewis acid metal-hydroxy gel

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    This invention permits radionuclides, heavy metals, and organics to be extracted from solution by scavenging them with an amorphous gel. In the preferred embodiment, a contaminated solution (e.g. from soil washing, decontamination, or groundwater pumping) is transferred to a reaction vessel. The contaminated solution is contacted by the sequestering reagent which might contain for example, aluminate and EDTA anions in a 2.5 M NaOH solution. The pH of the reagent bearing solution is lowered on contact with the contaminated solution, or for example by bubbling carbon dioxide through it, causing an aluminum hydroxide gel to precipitate as the solution drops below the range of 1.8 to 2.5 molar NaOH (less than pH 14). This precipitating gel scavenges waste contaminants as it settles through solution leaving a clean supernatant which is then separated from the gel residue by physical means such as centrifugation, or simple settling. The gel residue containing concentrated contaminants is then redissolved releasing contaminants for separations and processing. This is a critical point: the stabilized gel used in this invention is readily re-dissolved by merely increasing the pH above the gels phase transition to aqueous anions. Thus, concentrated contaminants trapped in the gel can be released for convenient separation from the sequestering reagent, and said reagent can then be recycled.

  5. Running DNA Mini-Gels in 20 Minutes or Less Using Sodium Boric Acid Buffer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kristin P.; Bielec, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Providing a biotechnology experience for students can be challenging on several levels, and time is a real constraint for many experiments. Many DNA based methods require a gel electrophoresis step, and although some biotechnology procedures have convenient break points, gel electrophoresis does not. In addition to the time required for loading…

  6. Effect of feeding fresh or conditioned red clover on milk fatty acids and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R F; Theobald, V J; Tweed, J K S; Winters, A L; Scollan, N D

    2009-03-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in conditioned red clover (ensiled or cut and crushed) reduces both proteolysis and lipolysis in the herbage, which has led to increases in N use efficiency and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of milk when offered to dairy cows. In damaged plant cells, PPO is activated and binds protein through the formation of protein-bound phenols. This study investigated a) whether freshly cut red clover could increase N use efficiency and milk PUFA concentrations in dairy cows or whether PPO enzymes require prior activation before feeding to elicit a response, and b) apparent whole-tract amino acid digestibility to help determine the effect of PPO on amino acid utilization. Six multiparous Holstein x Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were allocated at random to 1 of 3 dietary treatments in a 3 x 3 Latin square: a control treatment of grass (low PPO, G); red clover (high PPO, RC), and conditioned red clover (high fully activated PPO, CRC). The CRC herbage was cut and chopped in the field and then transported with the G and RC herbages to the animal house. Each period consisted of a 2-wk adaptation to diet and a week of measuring dietary effects (N balance and milk collection). The PPO activity was greatest in the RC treatment as fed, whereas activation of latent PPO enzyme and protein-bound phenol levels were greatest in the CRC diet. Dry matter and total fatty acid intakes were comparable across treatments (18.8 kg/d and 550 g/d, respectively). Milk yields and total fatty acid content were similar across treatments (32.6 kg/d and 34.8 mg/mL, respectively). Cows offered either RC or CRC had greater levels of protein, C18 PUFA and total long-chain PUFA in their milk than animals offered grass with no difference between RC and CRC. Nitrogen intakes, and output in milk, urine, and feces were greater in cows offered the 2 red clover treatments than G, with no difference between RC and CRC. However, there were no differences in N use efficiency

  7. An acid/alkaline stress and the addition of amino acids induce a prolonged viability of Lactobacillus plantarum loaded into alginate gel.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2010-08-15

    This study reports on the investigation on the effects of the conditions used throughout the step of biomass production on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum loaded into alginate gels. L. plantarum was grown under different conditions (MRS or a laboratory medium-LB(2)-at acidic or alkaline pHs, with NaCl, phenols, vitamins or amino acids) and immobilized in sodium alginate; cell number was evaluated throughout the storage and death (delta(stand)) and first-reduction times (delta) were calculated. The storage of alginate gels at 4 degrees C prolonged cell viability up to 60 days (ca. 20 days for cells produced in MRS and stored at 30 degrees C); however, a similar prolongation was achieved for cells produced in LB(2) adjusted to pH 5.0 and 9.0 or added with amino acids (death time>50-60 days).

  8. Variable recoveries of fatty acids following the separation of lipids on commercial silica gel TLC plates Selective loss of unsaturated fatty acids on certain brands of plates.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Jennifer M; Subbaiah, Papasani V

    2004-12-25

    Since we recently noticed poor recoveries of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) when the parent lipids were first separated on TLC plates, we investigated the source of this error by examining several variables, including the brand of TLC plate, nature of the lipid, and conditions of methylation. Of the five commercial brands of plates used, two (Baker and Whatman) showed loss of UFA, and three (Alltech Hardlayer, Alltech Softlayer, and Merck) did not. This loss occurred in both neutral and phospholipids, did not affect saturated acids, and was independent of the methylation reagent used. No loss occurred, however, if the lipids were eluted from the silica gel before methylation, indicating that the loss is due to oxidation of UFA in presence of certain brands of silica gel. These results show that some brands of TLC plates may be unsuitable for lipid analysis, if the aim is to determine the fatty acid composition by GC using direct methylation.

  9. Are There Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Milk with Supplementation of Omega-3 Sources? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Yasmin Notarbartolo di Villarosa do; Marano, Daniele; Silva, Leila Maria Lopes da; Guimarães, Aline Carnevale Lia Dias; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of supplementation with omega-3 sources on the fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods The review consisted of the search for articles published in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (Virtual Health Library[VHL]) and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: fatty acids, omega-3, human milk and supplementation; for this purpose, we have used the program of research to integrate the services for the maintenance of autonomy (PRISMA) checklist. The following selection criteria were used: articles in English, Portuguese, Spanish or Italian, published between 2000 and 2015, and about studies performed in humans. We found 710 articles that met the established criteria; however, only 22 of them were selected to be part of this study. Results All studies found a positive relationship between the consumption of omega-3 sources and their concentration in human milk. The differences in the findings are due to the distinct methods used, such as the specific time of the omega-3 supplementation, the type of omega-3 source offered, as well as the sample size. Conclusion Although the studies were different in several methodological aspects, it was possible to observe the importance of omega-3 supplementation during gestation and/or the puerperium.

  10. Associations between variants of FADS genes and omega-3 and omega-6 milk fatty acids of Canadian Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and 2 (FADS2) genes code respectively for the enzymes delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases which are rate limiting enzymes in the synthesis of polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (FAs). Omega-3 and-6 FAs as well as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are present in bovine milk and have demonstrated positive health effects in humans. Studies in humans have shown significant relationships between genetic variants in FADS1 and 2 genes with plasma and tissue concentrations of omega-3 and-6 FAs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of sequence variations within these two genes in Canadian Holstein cows as well as the association between sequence variants and health promoting FAs in milk. Results Thirty three SNPs were detected within the studied regions of genes including a synonymous mutation (FADS1-07, rs42187261, 306Tyr > Tyr) in exon 8 of FADS1, a non-synonymous mutation (FADS2-14, rs211580559, 294Ala > Val) within FADS2 exon 7, a splice site SNP (FADS2-05, rs211263660), a 3′UTR SNP (FADS2-23, rs109772589), and another 3′UTR SNP with an effect on a microRNA binding site within FADS2 gene (FADS2-19, rs210169303). Association analyses showed significant relations between three out of seven tested SNPs and several FAs. Significant associations (FDR P < 0.05) were recorded between FADS2-23 (rs109772589) and two omega-6 FAs (dihomogamma linolenic acid [C20:3n6] and arachidonic acid [C20:4n6]), FADS1-07 (rs42187261) and one omega-3 FA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5n3) and tricosanoic acid (C23:0), and one intronic SNP, FADS1-01 (rs136261927) and C20:3n6. Conclusion Our study has demonstrated positive associations between three SNPs within FADS1 and FADS2 genes (a SNP within the 3’UTR, a synonymous SNP and an intronic SNP), with three milk PUFAs of Canadian Holstein cows thus suggesting possible involvement of synonymous and non-coding region variants in FA synthesis. These SNPs may serve as

  11. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    PubMed

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat.

  12. Characterization of chiral amino acids from different milk origins using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion-mobility mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tian, He; Zheng, Nan; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Zhao, Shengguo; Wen, Fang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-01-01

    Milk contains free amino acids (AAs) that play essential roles in maintaining the growth and health of infants, and D-AA isomers are increasingly being recognized as important signalling molecules. However, there are no studies of the different characteristics of chiral AA (C-AA) from different milk origins. Here, UPLC coupled to ion-mobility high-resolution MS (IM-HRMS) was employed to characterize 18 pairs of C-AAs in human, cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk. The results proved that milk origins can be differentiated based on the D- to L- AA ratio-based projection scores by principal component analysis. The present study gives a deeper understanding of the D- to L- AA ratio underlying the biological functions of different animal milks, and provide a new strategy for the study of AA metabolic pathways. PMID:28393862

  13. Characterization of chiral amino acids from different milk origins using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion-mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Zheng, Nan; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Zhao, Shengguo; Wen, Fang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-04-10

    Milk contains free amino acids (AAs) that play essential roles in maintaining the growth and health of infants, and D-AA isomers are increasingly being recognized as important signalling molecules. However, there are no studies of the different characteristics of chiral AA (C-AA) from different milk origins. Here, UPLC coupled to ion-mobility high-resolution MS (IM-HRMS) was employed to characterize 18 pairs of C-AAs in human, cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk. The results proved that milk origins can be differentiated based on the D- to L- AA ratio-based projection scores by principal component analysis. The present study gives a deeper understanding of the D- to L- AA ratio underlying the biological functions of different animal milks, and provide a new strategy for the study of AA metabolic pathways.

  14. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in all forms, including condensed, derivative, dry, evaporated, goat’s milk and milk from other animals, lowfat, malted, ... avoid milk from other domestic animals. For example, goat's milk protein is similar to cow's milk protein ...

  15. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Toktam S.; Naserian, Abbas A.; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R.; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 1