Science.gov

Sample records for acid mist emissions

  1. Electrostatic control of acid mist emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R S; Brown, T D

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a two-phased study of the control of acid mist emissions using a compact, wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). The goal of the study was to determine the degree of acid mist control that could be achieved when a compact WESP is used to replace or augment the mist eliminators in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Phase I of the study examined the electrical operation of a lab-scale WESP collecting an acid mist from a coal combustion pilot plant equipped with a spray chamber. The results of this study were used to develop and validate a computer model of the WESP. In Phase II, measurements were made at two utility scrubber installations to determine the loadings of acid mist, fly ash, and scrubber carryover. These measurements were used as input to the model to project the performance of a retrofitted WESP.

  2. Control of acid mist emissions from FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R S; Brown, T D

    1991-01-01

    Improved control of acid mist emissions can be achieved by replacing or augmenting the conventional mist eliminators with a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). This paper describes a two-phased study performed to determine the degree of control that can be achieved with this approach. Phase I was a study of the electrical operation of a lab-scale WESP collecting an acid mist from a coal combustion pilot plant equipped with a spray chamber. The results of this study were used to develop and validate a computer model of the WESP. In Phase II, measurements were made at two utility scrubber installations to determine the loadings of acid mist, fly ash, and scrubber carryover. These measurements were used as input to the model to project the performance of a retrofitted WESP.

  3. Enhanced ethylene emissions from red and Norway spruce exposed to acidic mists

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yimin; Wellburn, A.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Acidic cloudwater is believed to cause needle injury and to decrease winter hardiness in conifers. During simulations of these adverse conditions, rates of ethylene emissions from and levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) in both red and Norway spruce needles increased as a result of treatment with acidic mists but amounts of 1-malonyl(amino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid remained unchanged. However, release of significant quantities of ethylene by another mechanism independent of ACC was also detected from brown needles. Application of exogenous plant growth regulators such as auxin, kinetic, abscisic acid and gibberellic acid (each 0.1 millimolar) had no obvious effects on the rates of basal or stress ethylene production from Norway spruce needles. The kinetics of ethylene formation by acidic mist-stressed needles suggest that there is no active inhibitive mechanism in spruce to prevent stress ethylene being released once ACC has been formed.

  4. Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R.S.

    1989-11-01

    Southern Research Institute is developing a compact, wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) to control acid mist missions from high-sulfur coal combustion. The WESP is being developed as a retrofit technology for existing coal-fired power plants, particularly those equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers. Acid mist emissions can be a significant problem at these facilities because the sulfuric acid vapor in the flue gas is converted to a very fine mist that is not collected in the scrubber system. Conventional mist eliminators are not adequate in this application due to the very fine size of the mist droplets. The potential for corrosion also makes it difficult to use a fabric filter or a conventional, dry ESP in this application. Therefore, this research project has been structured around the development of a compact WESP that could be retrofit on top of an existing scrubber or within an existing flue gas duct. This paper describes the development and testing of a prototype WESP for the utility acid mist application. Testing was conducted with combustion of sulfur-doped gas to simulate the acid mist alone, and with a combination of coal and sulfur-doped gas to simulate the mixture of acid mist and fly ash downstream from a scrubber. The performance of the WESP test unit was modeled using two different cylindrical-geometry computer models: a current-seeking'' model and a current-specific'' model. 8 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This project addresses the acid mist that is formed by condensation of sulfuric acid vapor in flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers. An acid mist can be formed whenever the flue gas temperature approaches the prevailing acid dew point. This commonly occurs when the gas is subjected to rapid adiabatic cooling in a wet scrubber system for flue gas desulfurization. Acid mists can also sometimes result from unexpected temperature excursions caused by air inleakage, load cycling, and start-up operations. A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is the best control option for acid mist. The mist would blind a fabric filter and attach glass fiber fabrics. A wet ESP is required because the acid would quickly corrode the plates in a conventional dry ESP. The wet ESP also offers the advantages of no rapping reentrainment and no sensitivity to fly ash resistivity. Therefore, this program has been structured around the use of a compact, wet ESP to control acid mist emissions. Progress to date is discussed. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This project addresses the acid mist that is formed by condensation of sulfuric acid vapor in flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers. An acid mist can be formed whenever the flue gas temperature approaches the prevailing acid dew point. This commonly occurs when the gas is subjected to rapid adiabatic cooling in a wet scrubber system for flue gas desulfurization. Acid mists can also sometimes result from unexpected temperature excursions caused by air inleakage, load cycling, and start-up operations. A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is the best control option for acid mist. The mist would blind a fabric filter and attack glass fiber fabrics. A wet ESP is required because the acid would quickly corrode the plates in a conventional dry ESP. The wet ESP also offers the advantages of no rapping reentrainment and no sensitivity to fly ash resistivity. Therefore, this program has been structured around the use of a compact, wet ESP to control acid mist emissions. 7 refs.

  7. Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report deals with the second part (Phase 2) of a two-phased study of the control of acid mist emissions using a compact, wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). The goal of the study was to determine the degree of acid mist control that could be achieved when a compact WESP was used to replace or augment the mist eliminators in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Phase 1 of the study examined the electrical operation of a lab-scale WESP collecting an acid mist from a coal combustion pilot plant equipped with a spray chamber. The results of this study were used to develop and validate a computer model of the WESP. In Phase 2, measurements were made at two utility scrubber installations to determine the loadings of acid mist, fly ash, and scrubber carryover. These measurements were used as input to the computer model to project the performance of retrofitted WESPs at both of the utility test sites. Phase 1 results showed that excellent electrical operating conditions could be achieved, but very high loadings of acid mist or the fine fly ash tended to degrade electrical operation because of space charge suppression of the corona current. Measurements made at the utility sites under Phase 2 showed that acid mist accounted for 40 to 57% of the total particulate mass, while fly ash and scrubber solids accounted for 40 to 55% and 1.0 to 3.4%. Impactor samples from both test sites showed an increase in acid content with decreasing particle size. 9 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Controlling fine particulate and acid mist emissions from a residual oil fired utility boiler with an EDV{trademark} system

    SciTech Connect

    Olen, K.R.; Vincent, H.B.; Jones, G.

    1995-06-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Belco Technologies Corporation, evaluated the performance of an EDV system to remove fine particulate and acid mist from untreated flue gas from a residual oil-fired utility boiler. The cosponsored project was carried out using a full-scale EDV module in a slip stream from one of the 400 MW wall-fired boilers at FPL`s Sanford Plant. Particulate, acid gas and chemical analytical data are presented, and used to illustrate the effects of operating variables on EDV performance. EDV system efficiencies of 90% were achieved, which resulted in controlled particulate and SO{sub 3} emissions of less than 10 mg/Nm{sup 3} (0.0065 lbs/10{sup 6}Btu) and 1 ppmv, respectively.

  9. Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of acid mist formed by condensation of sulfuric acid vapor in flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers. Acid mists can sometimes constitute a significant portion of the total particulate emissions from power plants burning high-sulfur coals. Complete condensation of 10 ppM of acid vapor produces a condensed acid mass loading of about 0.02 gr/dscf or 0.03 lb/MBtu, equivalent to the total allowable mass emissions under the revised (1979) New Source Performance Standards (2). The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrated a compact, wet electrostatic collector for condensed acid mist in power plant flue gas. The project is organized in two phases. Phase I involved the WESP fabrication, laboratory and pilot combustor testing, and computer modeling. Phase II involves the solicitation of a utility demonstration site, preliminary site measurements, and planning for the demonstration test program. Only Phase II work will be addressed in this discussion which includes: site selection, site measurements, computer modeling and demonstration plan, and phase II reporting. 9 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a compact, wet electrostatic collector for condensed acid mist in power plant flue gas. The following are project objectives: (1) fabrication of laboratory-version of the WESP; (2) optimization of the WESP performance through laboratory tests with a non-volatile simulant aerosol having a size distribution similar to the acid mist; (3) demonstration of adequate collection of actual acid mist in a pilot coal combustion facility under conditions simulating full-scale power plant burning high-sulfur coal; (4) development of computer model of the WESP process must be developed to assist in the process optimization, interpretation of test results, and extrapolation to full scale; and (5) solicitation of utility participation in a follow-on demonstration of the WESP concept at a full-scale power plant. The WESP fabrication, laboratory and pilot combustor testing, and computer modeling is discussed. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83...

  12. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83...

  13. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83...

  14. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to...

  15. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to...

  16. Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist: Third quarterly technical progress report, March 1--May 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Acid mists can sometimes constitute a significant portion of the total particulate emissions from power plants burning high-sulfur coals. A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is the best control option for acid mist. The mist would blind a fabric filter and attack glass fiber fabrics. A wet ESP is required because the acid would quickly corrode the plates in a conventional dry ESP. The wet ESP also offers the advantages of no rapping reentrainment and no sensitivity to fly ash resistivity. The project is organized in two phases. Phase I, which is scheduled for September 1988 to September 1989, involves the WESP fabrication, laboratory and pilot combustor testing, and computer modeling. Phase II, which is scheduled for September 1989 to September 1990, involves the solicitation of a utility demonstration site, preliminary site measurements, and planning for the demonstration test program. Progress on Phase I work is addressed in this discussion. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Acid mist and ozone effects on the leaf chemistry of two western conifer species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Temple, Patrick J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ozone and acid-mist exposures on the leaf chemistry of Jeffrey pine and giant sequoia seedlings grown in filtered-air greenhouses were investigated. Acid-mist treatments (pH 4.1, 3.4, 2.7, or 2.0) were administered for 3 h, and ozone exposures (0, 0.10, and 0.20 microliter/liter), which followed acid-mist treatments, for 4 h, each for three days a week for six to nine weeks. It was found that seedlings were more susceptible to acid-mist and acid mist/ozone combinations, than to ozone alone. Acid mist treatment resulted in higher levels of nitrogen and sulfur (both present in acid mist) as well as Na. Leaves of giant sequoia exhibited increased K and decreased Mn, while Jeffrey pine showed increases in Fe and Mn. In sequoia leaves, concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Ba decreased. Acid treatment also reduced chlorophyll b concentrations in both conifer species. Extensive changes induced by acid mist are consistent with earlier observations of changes in spectral reflectance of conifer seedlings observed after three weeks of fumigation.

  18. Effects of mist acidity and ambient ozone removal on montane red spruce.

    PubMed

    Vann, D R; Strimbeck, G R; Johnson, A H

    1995-10-01

    Recent forest studies have established that high-elevation (> 900 m) populations of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in the northeastern USA are declining. Because it has been suggested that changes in air quality are responsible for the decline, we examined the effects of acidic mists and ozone on several biochemical and growth parameters in mature montane red spruce. We used branch-sized environmental chambers to introduce mists of controlled composition and exclude ambient clouds and ozone from individual branches within a tree. Mists consisting of distilled water increased the end-of-season pigment concentration and shoot length of enclosed branches relative to ambient or artificial mists. Needle and twig weights and starch concentrations were not significantly altered by the acidic mist treatments. Removal of ambient ozone had no apparent effect on the variables measured.

  19. Stem growth reduction in mature Sitka spruce trees exposed to acid mist.

    PubMed

    Crossley, A; Sheppard, L J; Cape, J N; Smith, R I; Harvey, F J

    1997-01-01

    An eighteen-year-old clone of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr) growing in the field was used to evaluate the whole tree response of 'mature' Sitka spruce to acid mist treatment. The mist, an equimolar mixture of H(2)SO(4) and NH(4)NO(3) at pH 2.5 with or without particles (soda glass ballotini < 20 microm diameter), was applied twice weekly (equivalent to 4 mm precipitation week(-1)) throughout the growing season, May-November 1990-1992. The annual dose of S, N, H applied as mist (at 51, 48 and 3.3 kg ha(-1), respectively) was 2.5 times that measured in the Scottish uplands. Throughout the experiment there was no evidence of visible injury symptoms, yet there was a highly significant reduction (p < 0.02) in the stem-area increment relative to the stem area at the start, measured using vernier dendrometer bands. There was no significant difference between the (acid mist + particle) and the acid mist only treatments. The mean relative stem-area increment over two complete growing seasons (1991-1992) was 65% for control trees, but only 53% for acid-misted trees. PMID:15093418

  20. Acid mist and ozone effects on the leaf chemistry of two western conifer species.

    PubMed

    Westman, W E; Temple, P J

    1989-01-01

    Seedlings of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantea) were more susceptible to leaf chemical changes following exposure to acid mist (pH 3.4-2.0) or acid mist/ozone combinations, than to ozone alone (0.1-0.2 microl/litre), when plants were exposed to alternating doses of these pollutants for 6-9 weeks. Under acid mist treatment, leaves exhibited higher levels of nitrogen and sulfur, two elements applied in acid mist. In addition, levels of foliar sodium, and, in the case of giant sequia, potassium, as well, increased under acid mist treatment. Iron and manganese were also mobilized, resulting in significant increases in these elements in pine, and decreases in manganese in giant sequoia foliage. The acid treatment also reduced chlorophyll b concentrations in pine, and, to a less significant extent, in giant sequoia. Calcium, magnesium, barium and strontium were differentially accumulated in giant sequoia compared to Jeffrey pine. Under acid mist treatment, all of these elements (except strontium) declined in concentration in giant sequoia, with calcium showing the most significant trend. The more extensive changes in leaf chemistry induced by acid mist are consistent with earlier observations of significant changes in spectral reflectance of these seedlings after 3 weeks of fumigation. Limited foliage samples collected from these two species in 1985 and 1986 in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks in the southern Sierra Nevada do not in themselves indicate any clearcut or severe effects of ozone alone on leaf chemistry of these species, but a mild influence of nitrate-laden acid deposition, possibly in combination with ozone, is consistent with the rise in nitrogen and lignin levels in Jeffrey pine on sites observed to have moderate visible injury symptoms. No firm conclusions about effects of pollutants on leaf chemistry in these field sites is possible without further study.

  1. Acid mist and ozone effects on the leaf chemistry of two western conifer species.

    PubMed

    Westman, W E; Temple, P J

    1989-01-01

    Seedlings of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantea) were more susceptible to leaf chemical changes following exposure to acid mist (pH 3.4-2.0) or acid mist/ozone combinations, than to ozone alone (0.1-0.2 microl/litre), when plants were exposed to alternating doses of these pollutants for 6-9 weeks. Under acid mist treatment, leaves exhibited higher levels of nitrogen and sulfur, two elements applied in acid mist. In addition, levels of foliar sodium, and, in the case of giant sequia, potassium, as well, increased under acid mist treatment. Iron and manganese were also mobilized, resulting in significant increases in these elements in pine, and decreases in manganese in giant sequoia foliage. The acid treatment also reduced chlorophyll b concentrations in pine, and, to a less significant extent, in giant sequoia. Calcium, magnesium, barium and strontium were differentially accumulated in giant sequoia compared to Jeffrey pine. Under acid mist treatment, all of these elements (except strontium) declined in concentration in giant sequoia, with calcium showing the most significant trend. The more extensive changes in leaf chemistry induced by acid mist are consistent with earlier observations of significant changes in spectral reflectance of these seedlings after 3 weeks of fumigation. Limited foliage samples collected from these two species in 1985 and 1986 in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks in the southern Sierra Nevada do not in themselves indicate any clearcut or severe effects of ozone alone on leaf chemistry of these species, but a mild influence of nitrate-laden acid deposition, possibly in combination with ozone, is consistent with the rise in nitrogen and lignin levels in Jeffrey pine on sites observed to have moderate visible injury symptoms. No firm conclusions about effects of pollutants on leaf chemistry in these field sites is possible without further study. PMID:15092463

  2. Influence of liquid and gas flow rates on sulfuric acid mist removal from air by packed bed tower

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The possible emission of sulfuric acid mists from a laboratory scale, counter-current packed bed tower operated with a caustic scrubbing solution was studied. Acid mists were applied through a local exhaust hood. The emissions from the packed bed tower were monitored in three different categories of gas flow rate as well as three liquid flow rates, while other influencing parameters were kept almost constant. Air sampling and sulfuric acid measurement were carried out iso-kinetically using USEPA method 8. The acid mists were measured by the barium-thorin titration method. According to the results when the gas flow rate increased from 10 L/s to 30 L/s, the average removal efficiency increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 76.8 ± 1.8% to 85.7 ± 1.2%. Analysis of covariance method followed by Tukey post-hoc test of 92 tests did not show a significant change in removal efficiency between liquid flow rates of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 L/min (p = 0.811). On the other hand, with fixed pressure loss across the tower, by increasing the liquid/gas (L/G) mass ratio, the average removal efficiency decreased significantly (p = 0.001) from 89.9% at L/G of <2 to 83.1% at L/G of 2–3 and further to 80.2% at L/G of >3, respectively. L/G of 2–3 was recommended for designing purposes of a packed tower for sulfuric acid mists and vapors removal from contaminated air stream. PMID:23369487

  3. Performance of a pilot-scale wet electrostatic precipitator for the control of sulfuric acid mist.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiayu; Wang, Hongmei; Shi, Yingjie; Zhang, Fan; Dang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Hui; Shu, Yun; Deng, Shuang; Liu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The use of a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is often regarded as a viable option to reduce sulfuric acid mist emitted from the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) tower in coal-fired power plants. In this study, a pilot-scale wet electrostatic precipitator equipped with a wall-cooled collection electrode is investigated for the control of sulfuric acid mist from a simulated WFGD system. The results show that due to partial charging effect, the removal efficiency of sulfuric acid aerosol decreases when the aerosol size decreases to several tens of nanometers. Moreover, due to the plasma-induced effect, a large number of ultrafine sulfuric acid aerosols below 50 nm formed at a voltage higher than 24 kV inside the WESP. The percentages of submicron-sized aerosols significantly increase together with the voltage. To minimize the adverse plasma-induced effect, a WESP should be operated at a high gas velocity with an optimum high voltage. Even at a high flue gas velocity of 2.3 m s(-1), the mass concentration and the total number concentration of uncaptured sulfuric acid aerosols at the WESP outlet are as low as ca. 0.6 mg m(-3) and ca. 10(4) 1 cm(-3) at 28 kV, respectively. The corresponding removal efficiencies were respectively higher than 99.4 and 99.9 % and are very similar to that at 1.1 and 1.6 m s(-1). Moreover, the condensation-induced aerosol growth enhances the removal of sulfuric acid mist inside a WESP and enables a low emission concentration of ca. 0.65 mg m(-3) with a corresponding removal efficiency superior to 99.4 % even at a low voltage of 21 kV, and of ca. 0.35 mg m(-3) with a corresponding removal efficiency superior to 99.6 % at a higher voltage level of 26 kV. PMID:27357706

  4. Performance of a pilot-scale wet electrostatic precipitator for the control of sulfuric acid mist.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiayu; Wang, Hongmei; Shi, Yingjie; Zhang, Fan; Dang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Hui; Shu, Yun; Deng, Shuang; Liu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The use of a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is often regarded as a viable option to reduce sulfuric acid mist emitted from the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) tower in coal-fired power plants. In this study, a pilot-scale wet electrostatic precipitator equipped with a wall-cooled collection electrode is investigated for the control of sulfuric acid mist from a simulated WFGD system. The results show that due to partial charging effect, the removal efficiency of sulfuric acid aerosol decreases when the aerosol size decreases to several tens of nanometers. Moreover, due to the plasma-induced effect, a large number of ultrafine sulfuric acid aerosols below 50 nm formed at a voltage higher than 24 kV inside the WESP. The percentages of submicron-sized aerosols significantly increase together with the voltage. To minimize the adverse plasma-induced effect, a WESP should be operated at a high gas velocity with an optimum high voltage. Even at a high flue gas velocity of 2.3 m s(-1), the mass concentration and the total number concentration of uncaptured sulfuric acid aerosols at the WESP outlet are as low as ca. 0.6 mg m(-3) and ca. 10(4) 1 cm(-3) at 28 kV, respectively. The corresponding removal efficiencies were respectively higher than 99.4 and 99.9 % and are very similar to that at 1.1 and 1.6 m s(-1). Moreover, the condensation-induced aerosol growth enhances the removal of sulfuric acid mist inside a WESP and enables a low emission concentration of ca. 0.65 mg m(-3) with a corresponding removal efficiency superior to 99.4 % even at a low voltage of 21 kV, and of ca. 0.35 mg m(-3) with a corresponding removal efficiency superior to 99.6 % at a higher voltage level of 26 kV.

  5. Acidic mist reduces foliar membrane-associated calcium and impairs stomatal responsiveness in red spruce.

    PubMed

    Borer, Catherine H; Schaberg, Paul G; DeHayes, Donald H

    2005-06-01

    Acidic deposition can leach essential pools of calcium (Ca) directly from plant foliage. Because of the central role of Ca in environmental signal transduction, disruptions of labile foliar Ca pools could impair physiological responses to a variety of environmental stimuli and stressors. We investigated the possibility that acidic mist-induced depletion of membrane-associated Ca (mCa), which is one form of labile Ca, may alter stomatal responsiveness to water stress, a process known to include Ca in signal transduction cascades. Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) seedlings were exposed to either pH 3.0 or pH 5.0 mist treatments for one growing season. Foliar nutrition was assessed following treatments, and declines in stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis were measured on current-year shoots following stem excision. Seedlings exposed to pH 3.0 acidic mist treatments had reduced mCa relative to the pH 5.0 treated seedlings. Seedlings subjected to the pH 3.0 acidic mist treatment exhibited impaired stomatal functions, including a smaller maximum aperture, slower closure and an increased lag time between stomatal closure and photosynthetic decline following experimental water stress. Delayed stomatal closure could undermine desiccation avoidance mechanisms. Previous work has demonstrated that acidic mist treatments deplete mCa in red spruce and impair cold tolerance, with similar effects in other species. The results we present provide further evidence that acidic mist-induced mCa depletion may cause disruption of a broad range of plant stress responses.

  6. Removal of sulfuric acid mist from lead-acid battery plants by coal fly ash-based sorbents.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yuehong; Wei, Xiangyu; Fang, Yu; Lan, Bingyan; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-04-01

    Sorbents from coal fly ash (CFA) activated by NaOH, CaO and H2O were prepared for H2SO4 mist removal from lead-acid battery plants. The effects of parameters including temperature, time, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid during sorbent preparation were investigated. It is found that the synthesized sorbents exhibit much higher removal capacity for H2SO4 mist when compared with that of raw coal fly ash and CaO except for H2O activated sorbent and this sorbent was hence excluded from the study because of its low capacity. The H2SO4 mist removal efficiency increases with the increasing of preparation time length and temperature. In addition, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid also impact the removal efficiency, and the optimum preparation conditions are identified as: a water/solid ratio of 10:1 at 120 °C for 10h, a CFA:CaO weight ratio of 10:1, and a NaOH solution concentration of 3 mol/L. The formation of rough surface structure and an increased surface area after NaOH/CaO activation favor the sorption of H2SO4 mist and possible sorption mechanisms might be electrostatic attractions and chemical precipitation between the surface of sorbents and H2SO4 mist.

  7. Mannitol can mitigate negative effects of simulated acid mist and fluoranthene in juvenile Japanese red pine (P. densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.).

    PubMed

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Bandai, Sayuri; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    The negative health effects of simulated acid mists and fluoranthene on juvenile Japanese red pine were investigated, and the methods of protection from these pollutants were examined. The needle gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, chemical contents and visual damage to needles caused by acid mist applied alone or its conjunction with fluoranthene were investigated over 60 d and 20 d, respectively. Acid mist at pH 2 and 3 caused physiological and visual damage, which was enhanced by the addition of fluoranthene to the mist. However, fluoranthene and acid mist at pH 4 and 5 showed only minor effects. These findings indicate that acid mist may be more harmful to pine trees if it occurs in conjunction with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Moreover, suppression of the singular and additive effects of these compounds was achieved using mannitol, which may be widely applicable to suppression of reactive oxygen species-mediated plant damage.

  8. Mannitol can mitigate negative effects of simulated acid mist and fluoranthene in juvenile Japanese red pine (P. densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.).

    PubMed

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Bandai, Sayuri; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    The negative health effects of simulated acid mists and fluoranthene on juvenile Japanese red pine were investigated, and the methods of protection from these pollutants were examined. The needle gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, chemical contents and visual damage to needles caused by acid mist applied alone or its conjunction with fluoranthene were investigated over 60 d and 20 d, respectively. Acid mist at pH 2 and 3 caused physiological and visual damage, which was enhanced by the addition of fluoranthene to the mist. However, fluoranthene and acid mist at pH 4 and 5 showed only minor effects. These findings indicate that acid mist may be more harmful to pine trees if it occurs in conjunction with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Moreover, suppression of the singular and additive effects of these compounds was achieved using mannitol, which may be widely applicable to suppression of reactive oxygen species-mediated plant damage. PMID:23246750

  9. Clinical and histopathological changes of the nasal mucosa induced by occupational exposure to sulphuric acid mists

    PubMed Central

    Grasel, S; Alves, V; da Silva, C S; Cruz, O; Almeida, E; de Oliveira, E

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To assess potential alterations of the nasal mucosa by clinical and histopathological evaluation of workers exposed to sulphuric acid mists at anodising plants, correlating the findings with duration of exposure and sulphuric acid concentrations in the air, and comparing them with a control group. Methods: Fifty two workers from five plants underwent a clinical evaluation (standard questionnaire, clinical, and ear, nose, and throat examination including nasal endoscopy). For the histopathological study, 20 of the 52 subjects (study group) were randomly selected, as well as 11 unexposed subjects (control group), matched by sex, age, and smoking habits. Nasal biopsy specimens were obtained from the anterior septum mucosa and the anterior curvature of the middle turbinate in each individual. A total of 56 nasal mucosa specimens (37 in the study group and 19 in the control group) were evaluated with regard to normal respiratory epithelium or metaplastic epithelium, atypia or dysplasia, and alterations of the lamina propria. Results: The histopathological study revealed squamous metaplasia in 29 (79%) and atypia in 13 (35%) of the 37 study group samples. No association was found between exposure duration and the clinical and histopathological variables, but a significant association was found between sulphuric acid concentrations higher than 200 µg/m3 and pale mucosal patches and ulcerations in the exposed subjects. Logistic regression analysis showed that the exposed subjects had a fivefold risk of developing atypia compared with the unexposed subjects. Conclusions: Workers exposed to sulphuric acid mists presented with a high incidence of nasal symptoms, and macroscopic and microscopic changes of the nasal mucosa, including squamous atypia and dysplasia. The risk for these histopthological lesions increased with higher sulphuric acid concentrations in the air, revealing an exposure-response relation. PMID:12771390

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions related to occupational exposure to acid mists.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; Crosato, Edgard; Mazzilli, Luiz Eugênio Nigro; Frias, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in a Brazilian population of workers exposed and non-exposed to acid mists and chemical products. One hundred workers (46 exposed and 54 non-exposed) were evaluated in a Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador - CEREST (Worker's Health Reference Center). The workers responded to questionnaires regarding their personal information and about alcohol consumption and tobacco use. A clinical examination was conducted to evaluate the presence of NCCLs, according to WHO parameters. Statistical analyses were performed by unconditional logistic regression and multiple linear regression, with the critical level of p < 0.05. NCCLs were significantly associated with age groups (18-34, 35-44, 45-68 years). The unconditional logistic regression showed that the presence of NCCLs was better explained by age group (OR = 4.04; CI 95% 1.77-9.22) and occupational exposure to acid mists and chemical products (OR = 3.84; CI 95% 1.10-13.49), whereas the linear multiple regression revealed that NCCLs were better explained by years of smoking (p = 0.01) and age group (p = 0.04). The prevalence of NCCLs in the study population was particularly high (76.84%), and the risk factors for NCCLs were age, exposure to acid mists and smoking habit. Controlling risk factors through preventive and educative measures, allied to the use of personal protective equipment to prevent the occupational exposure to acid mists, may contribute to minimizing the prevalence of NCCLs. PMID:26154372

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions related to occupational exposure to acid mists.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; Crosato, Edgard; Mazzilli, Luiz Eugênio Nigro; Frias, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in a Brazilian population of workers exposed and non-exposed to acid mists and chemical products. One hundred workers (46 exposed and 54 non-exposed) were evaluated in a Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador - CEREST (Worker's Health Reference Center). The workers responded to questionnaires regarding their personal information and about alcohol consumption and tobacco use. A clinical examination was conducted to evaluate the presence of NCCLs, according to WHO parameters. Statistical analyses were performed by unconditional logistic regression and multiple linear regression, with the critical level of p < 0.05. NCCLs were significantly associated with age groups (18-34, 35-44, 45-68 years). The unconditional logistic regression showed that the presence of NCCLs was better explained by age group (OR = 4.04; CI 95% 1.77-9.22) and occupational exposure to acid mists and chemical products (OR = 3.84; CI 95% 1.10-13.49), whereas the linear multiple regression revealed that NCCLs were better explained by years of smoking (p = 0.01) and age group (p = 0.04). The prevalence of NCCLs in the study population was particularly high (76.84%), and the risk factors for NCCLs were age, exposure to acid mists and smoking habit. Controlling risk factors through preventive and educative measures, allied to the use of personal protective equipment to prevent the occupational exposure to acid mists, may contribute to minimizing the prevalence of NCCLs.

  12. Effects of nitrogen dioxide and its acid mist on reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant enzyme activity in Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Hou, Fen; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the most common and harmful air pollutants. To analyze the response of plants to NO2 stress, we investigated the morphological change, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant enzyme activity in Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) exposed to 1.7, 4, 8.5, and 18.8 mg/m(3) NO2. The results indicate that NO2 exposure affected plant growth and chlorophyll (Chl) content, and increased oxygen free radical (O2(-)) production rate in Arabidopsis shoots. Furthermore, NO2 elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, accompanied by the induction of antioxidant enzyme activities and change of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) contents. Following this, we mimicked nitric acid mist under experimental conditions, and confirmed the antioxidant mechanism of the plant to the stress. Our results imply that NO2 and its acid mist caused pollution risk to plant systems. During the process, increased ROS acted as a signal to induce a defense response, and antioxidant status played an important role in plant protection against NO2/nitric acid mist-caused oxidative damage.

  13. Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist: First quarterly technical progress report, September 1 to November 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    This report covers the project scope and structure for developing and demonstrating a compact, wet electrostatic collector for condensed acid mist in power plant flue gas. In order to accomplish this goal, the objectives to be met are: (1) a laboratory-version of the WESP (Wet Electrostatic Precipitator) must be fabricated. (2) the WESP performance must be optimized through laboratory tests with a nonvolatile simulant aerosol having a size distribution similar to the acid mist. (3) the WESP concept must be proven by demonstrating adequate collection of actual acid mist in a pilot coal combustion facility under conditions simulating a full-scale power plant burning high-sulfur coal. (4) a computer model of the WESP process must be developed to assist in the process optimization, interpretation of test results, and extrapolation to full scale. (5) Utility participation must be solicited in a follow-on demonstration of the WESP concept at a full-scale power plant. 5 refs., 2 figs. (JL)

  14. Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist: Second quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1988--February 28, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report covers the project scope and structure for developing and demonstrating a compact, wet electrostatic collector for condensed acid mist in power plant flue gas. In order to accomplish this goal, the objectives to be met are: (1) a laboratory-version of the WESP (Wet Electrostatic Precipitator) must be fabricated, (2) the WESP performance must be optimized through laboratory tests with a nonvolatile simulant aerosol having a size distribution similar to the acid mist, (3) the WESP concept must be proven by demonstrating adequate collection of actual acid mist in a pilot coal combustion facility under conditions simulating a full-scale power plant burning high-sulfur coal, (4) a computer model of the WESP process must be developed to assist in the process optimization, interpretation of test results, and extrapolation to full scale, and (5) utility participation must be solicited in a follow-on demonstration of the WESP concept at a full-scale power plant. Progress in laboratory testing and collection efficiency is described. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Influence of soil substrate and ozone plus acid mist on the frost resistance of young Norway spruce.

    PubMed

    Senser, M

    1990-01-01

    The needles of clonal Norway spruce grown in environmental chambers on two different soils (an acidic soil 1 and a calcareous soil 2) and exposed to two levels of ozone fumigation (a low level combined with neutral mist = control, and an elevated one combined with acid mist = treatment) were analyzed for their frost hardiness. No effect of ozone was observed on either the development of frost resistance during the hardening phase or on the decrease in frost resistance during the dehardening phase. The preliminary results of Brown et al. (1987) and Barnes and Davidson (1988), which indicated that ozone treatment predisposes plants to winter injury, could thus not be confirmed. Frost resistance was, however, distinctly influenced by the content of the mineral nutrients of the soils. The pronounced K(+) deficiency of the needles of the trees growing on the neutral soil (Alps) had less effect on the development of frost resistance than did the Ca(++) and Mg(++) deficiency of the needles of the trees grown on the acidic soil 1 (Bavarian Forest). The variability of frost resistance between the different clones on soil 1 was partly attributed to fluctuations in the mineral nutrient content of the needles, rather than to a genetic predisposition. PMID:15092284

  16. Effects of simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter on photosynthesis and the generation of oxidative stress in Schinus terebinthifolius Radii and Sophora tomentosa L.

    PubMed

    Kuki, Kacilda Naomi; Oliva, Marco Antônio; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão; Costa, Alan Carlos; Cambraia, José

    2008-09-15

    Particulate matter is a natural occurrence in the environment, but some industries, such as the iron ore sector, can raise the total amount of particles in the atmosphere. This industry is primarily a source of iron and sulfur dioxide particulates. The effects of the pollutants from the iron ore industries on representatives of restinga vegetation in a Brazilian coastal ecosystem were investigated using physiological and biochemical measures. Two species, Schinus terebinthifolius and Sophora tomentosa, were exposed to simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter in acrylic chambers in a greenhouse. Parameters such as gas exchange, fluorescence emission, chlorophyll content, total iron content, antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content were assessed in order to evaluate the responses of the two species. Neither treatment was capable of inducing oxidative stress in S. terebinthifolius. Nevertheless, the deposition of iron ore particulates on this species increased chlorophyll content, the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II and the electron transport rate, while iron content was unaltered. On the other hand, S. tomentosa showed a greater sensitivity to the treatments. Plants of S. tomentosa that were exposed to acid mist had a decrease in photosynthesis, while the deposition of iron particulate matter led to an increase in iron content and membrane permeability of the leaves. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalases and superoxide dismutase, were enhanced by both treatments. The results suggested that the two restinga species use different strategies to overcome the stressful conditions created by the deposition of particulate matter, either solid or wet. It seems that while S. terebinthifolius avoided stress, S. tomentosa used antioxidant enzyme systems to partially neutralize oxidative stress. The findings also point to the potential use of S. tomentosa as a biomarker species under field conditions.

  17. 40 CFR 62.4621 - Emission standards and compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... met since the test methods and procedures for determining compliance with the sulfuric acid mist emission standards are not specified. (b) Emissions from sulfuric acid plants must be measured by...

  18. 40 CFR 62.4621 - Emission standards and compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... met since the test methods and procedures for determining compliance with the sulfuric acid mist emission standards are not specified. (b) Emissions from sulfuric acid plants must be measured by...

  19. 40 CFR 62.4621 - Emission standards and compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... met since the test methods and procedures for determining compliance with the sulfuric acid mist emission standards are not specified. (b) Emissions from sulfuric acid plants must be measured by...

  20. 40 CFR 62.4621 - Emission standards and compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... met since the test methods and procedures for determining compliance with the sulfuric acid mist emission standards are not specified. (b) Emissions from sulfuric acid plants must be measured by...

  1. 40 CFR 62.4621 - Emission standards and compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... met since the test methods and procedures for determining compliance with the sulfuric acid mist emission standards are not specified. (b) Emissions from sulfuric acid plants must be measured by...

  2. Autumn MIST 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, Colin

    2010-02-01

    MEETING REPORT Colin Forsyth, Nicola Longden, Andrew Walsh and Robert Wicks summarize a MIST meeting where ground-based ionospheric science came under the spotlight, amid the broader concerns of the MIST community.

  3. Water Mist Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002 in the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. The Center for the Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, is investigating the properties of mist fire suppression in microgravity with Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. These experiments consist of varying water droplet sizes and water mist concentrations applied to flame fronts of different propane/air mixtures. Observations from these tests will provide valuable information on the change of flame speed in the presence of water mist. Shown here is a flame front propagating through the Mist flame tube during 1-g testing at NASA/Glenn Research Center.

  4. Autumn MIST 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanani, Sheila; Williams, Anthony; Kiyani, Khurom; Forsyth, Colin

    2011-06-01

    MEETING REPORT Sheila Kanani, Anthony Williams, Khurom Kiyani and Colin Forsyth summarize the themes of the annual autumn meeting of the UK MIST community: multi-perspective views of interacting plasma environments and other hot topics.

  5. [Misting-fountain-alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Koschel, D; Sennekamp, J; Schurz, C; Müller-Wening, D

    2004-09-01

    A 22-year-old woman developed recurrent episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after repeated exposure to a misting fountain at home. A diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) was made by detection of serum antibodies against the fountain water, by culture of Bacillus subtilis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor mucedo, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the water, and by detection of specific IgG antibodies against Bacillus subtilis and the Mucores. The diagnosis was confirmed by a restrictive lung function pattern, and a highly increased total cell count with a lymphocytosis of 39 % in the bronchoalveolar lavage. An inhalation challenge with the misting fountain resulted in a positive reaction. Because this humidifier system has recently become widespread at home, clinicians should be aware of this specific type of EAA which may be called "misting fountain alveolitis".

  6. Slanted baffle mist eliminator

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Richard F.

    1995-11-07

    An apparatus for the elimination of mist from off-gas during vitrification f nuclear waste, where baffles are installed on a slant toward the flow of the off-gasses eliminating the need to expand the cross-sectional area of the duct size.

  7. Slanted baffle mist eliminator

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for the elimination of mist from off-gas during vitrification f nuclear waste, where baffles are installed on a slant toward the flow of the off-gasses eliminating the need to expand the cross-sectional area of the duct size.

  8. Controlling emissions from electroplating by the application of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mason, T J; Lorimer, J P; Saleem, S; Paniwnyk, L

    2001-08-15

    Ultrasonic irradiation applied either above the surface of a chromic acid plating bath or through the plating bath itself during the process of chromium electroplating reduces the emissions of hazardous chromic acid mist The use of ultrasound is particularly effective at high current densities. The results suggest that sonication during the electroplating of chromium may provide a useful method of controlling chrome mist emission without the need for a chemical additive (mist suppressant). In conjunction with lip extraction this could lead to a more efficient process since the use of ultrasound has been shown to be of benefit in the electroplating process itself.

  9. 40 CFR 60.31d - Emissions guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Acid Production Units § 60.31d Emissions guidelines. Sulfuric acid production units. The emission guideline for designated facilities is 0.25 grams sulfuric acid mist (as measured by EPA Reference Method 8 of appendix A of this part) per kilogram (0.5 pounds per ton) of sulfuric acid produced,...

  10. 40 CFR 60.31d - Emissions guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Acid Production Units § 60.31d Emissions guidelines. Sulfuric acid production units. The emission guideline for designated facilities is 0.25 grams sulfuric acid mist (as measured by EPA Reference Method 8 of appendix A of this part) per kilogram (0.5 pounds per ton) of sulfuric acid produced,...

  11. 40 CFR 60.31d - Emissions guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Acid Production Units § 60.31d Emissions guidelines. Sulfuric acid production units. The emission guideline for designated facilities is 0.25 grams sulfuric acid mist (as measured by EPA Reference Method 8 of appendix A of this part) per kilogram (0.5 pounds per ton) of sulfuric acid produced,...

  12. Effects of sulfuric acid mist inhalation on mucous clearance and on airway fluids of rats and guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, R.K.; Henderson, R.F.; Gray, R.H.; Carpenter, R.L.; Hahn, F.F.

    1986-01-01

    The responses of guinea pigs and rats to inhaled sulfuric acid aerosols were compared to define species differences and to determine the small-animal model most relevant to human exposures. Rats were exposed for 6 hr to 1, 10, and 100 mg H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//m/sup 3/. Guinea pigs were exposed for 6 h to 1, 10, and 27 mg H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//m/sup 3/. Tracheal mucous clearance of guinea pigs was slowed 1 d after exposures to 1 mg H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//m/sup 3/. A tendency toward faster clearance was observed at high concentrations of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ for both guinea pigs and rats (statistically significant only for the rats). The speeding of mucous clearance was correlated with increases in airway sialic acid and also with the appearance of excess tracheal secretions, detected using scanning electron microscopy in both rats and guinea pigs. The responses of guinea pigs to sulfuric acid exposures were more similar to those reported for humans than were those of rats.

  13. Mist lift analysis summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The mist flow open-cycle OTEC concept proposed by S.L. Ridgway has much promise, but the fluid mechanics of the mist flow are not well understood. The creation of the mist and the possibility of droplet growth leading to rainout (when the vapor can no longer support the mist) are particularly troublesome. This report summarizes preliminary results of a numerical analysis initiated at SERI in FY79 to study the mist-lift process. The analysis emphasizes the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the steady-state mist flow and is based on one-dimensional models of the mist flow developed for SERI by Graham Wallis. One of Wallis's models describes a mist composed of a single size of drops and another considers several drop sizes. The latter model, further developed at SERI, considers a changing spectrum of discrete drop sizes and incorporates the mathematics describing collisions and growth of the droplets by coalescence. The analysis results show that under conditions leading to maximum lift in the single-drop-size model, the multigroup model predicts significantly reduced lift because of the growth of droplets by coalescence. The predicted lift height is sensitive to variations in the mass flow rate and inlet pressure. Inclusion of a coasting section, in which the drops would rise ballistically without change in temperature, may lead to increased lift within the existing range of operation.

  14. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  19. Elastocapillary mist collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat, Camille; Labbé, Romain; Rewakowicz, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous media are commonly used to collect droplets from an aerosol. In particular, woven textiles are used to harvest fresh water from fog, and coalescing filters made of non-woven entangled fibers are used to extract oil drops from gas streams. We propose a novel mist collector made of a forest of vertical flexible threads. As the droplets accumulate on the fibers, capillary bridges are formed, leading to the collapse of adjacent fibers thus forming liquid columns. This improve the liquid collection by preventing clogging, enabling high capture and precluding re-entrainment of drops in the gas stream due to the immediate coalescence of incoming droplets, and promoting fast drainage. We find that the collection flow rate is constant and can be adjusted by varying the fibers arrangement and flexibility. We show that there is an optimal situation for which this collection rate, i.e. the global efficiency, is maximal due to an elastocapillary coupling that we further characterize with a model experiment. Specifically, we study the drainage between two flexible fibers. Depending on the geometry and the fiber deformations, several flow regimes are observed. We characterize these regimes, and discuss the consequences on the drainage velocity, and thus the collection efficiency.

  20. Oil Mist Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  1. Control methods for mineral oil mists.

    PubMed

    Leith, David; Volckens, John; Boundy, Maryanne G; Hands, David

    2003-11-01

    Effective mist collection is important, but it is not the only determinant of mist concentration in plant air. Oil-based metalworking fluids such as straight and soluble oils contain semivolatile hydrocarbons. When these fluids form a mist, their semivolatile components partition between the vapor and mist phases depending on the makeup of the mist and on local conditions. This article addresses the relationship between the concentrations of semivolatile hydrocarbons in the vapor and mist phases using theory for partitioning developed in the field of atmospheric chemistry. Mist can be removed effectively in a collector that uses a HEPA filter as its final collection stage. Acceptable HEPA lifetime requires effective upstream stages that reduce mist loading to the HEPA; furthermore, acceptable HEPA performance requires that it be installed and maintained properly. Collectors designed to remove mist do not remove vapor, and as collector exhaust mixes into cooler plant air that already contains some mist, vapor from the collector can repartition to increase the mist concentration in the plant. Assessing the effect of vapor-to-mist repartitioning is complicated; however, repartitioning may be important for many of the compounds contained in oil-based metalworking fluids. Conditions that minimize vapor-to-mist repartitioning, such as ventilating the plant with clean outdoor air, increasing plant temperature, or controlling the release of vapor, may also be expensive, uncomfortable to plant occupants, or impractical from an engineering standpoint. As a result, very low mist concentrations in plant air may be difficult to attain. PMID:14555441

  2. Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST): MIST Facility Functional Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, T F; Koksal, C G; Moskal, T E; Rush, G C; Gloudemans, J R

    1991-04-01

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST was specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the Once Through Integral System (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and OTIS are used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST Functional Specification documents as-built design features, dimensions, instrumentation, and test approach. It also presents the scaling basis for the facility and serves to define the scope of work for the facility design and construction. 13 refs., 112 figs., 38 tabs.

  3. Mist control at a machining center, Part 1: Mist characterization.

    PubMed

    Heitbrink, W A; Yacher, J M; Deye, G J; Spencer, A B

    2000-01-01

    At a machining center used to produce transmission parts, aerosol instrumentation was used to quantitatively study mist generation and to evaluate the performance of an air cleaner for controlling the mist. This machining center drilled and tapped holes at rotational speeds of 1000 to 3000 rpm. During most machining operations, the metal-working fluid (MWF) was flooded over the part. To facilitate metal chip removal during some operations, MWF was pumped through the orifices in some tools at a pressure of 800 psi. These machining operations were performed in a nearly complete enclosure that was exhausted to an air cleaner at a flow rate of 1.1 m3/sec (2400 ft3/m). Although the use of high-pressure MWF increased the mist concentration by about 200%, it did not affect the mist size distribution. The observed penetration through the air cleaner appeared to be mostly consistent with the manufacturer's specifications on the air cleaner's filters. During the testing, MWF was observed to accumulate in the bottom of the filter housing and may have been reentrained due to air motion or mechanical vibration.

  4. Water Mist fire suppression experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002. This investigation will be flown as an Experimental Mounting Structure (EMS) insert into the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. (The investigation hardware is shown here mounted in a non-flight frame similar to the EMS.) Water Mist is a commercial research program by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, in Golden, CO and Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. The program is focused on developing water mist as a replacement for bromine-based chemical fire suppression agents (halons). By conducting the experiments in microgravity, interference from convection currents is minimized and fundamental knowledge can be gained. This knowledge is incorporated into models, which can be used to simulate a variety of physical environments. The immediate objective of the project is to study the effect of a fine water mist on a laminar propagating flame generated in a propane-air mixture at various equivalence ratios. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the speed of the flame front is used as a measure of the effectiveness of fire suppression in this highly controlled experimental environment.

  5. Capturing birds with mist nets: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keyes, B.E.; Grue, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Herein we have tried to provide a comprehensive review of mist-netting techniques suitable for both novice and experienced netters. General mist-netting procedures and modifications developed by netters for particular bird species and habitats are included. Factors which influence capture success, including site selection, net specifications and placement, weather, and time of day, are discussed. Guidelines are presented for the care of netted birds and the use of mist-net data in the study of bird communities. The advantages of the use of mist nets over other methods of capturing birds are also discussed.

  6. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  7. Demystifying the selection of mist eliminators

    SciTech Connect

    Fabian, P.; Cusack, R.; Hennessey, P.; Neuman, M. )

    1993-11-01

    In any process where gases and liquids come in intimate contact, mists are generated by the entrainment of liquid droplets into the gas streams. The formation of such mists often results in process inefficiencies and product loss in evaporators, knockout drums, distillation columns, and environmental scrubbers. Besides, these mists can cause serious damage to rotating equipment. hence the need to know how best to remove the liquid droplets from a misty gas stream. Today, one can select from many classes of equipment, known as mist eliminators or entrainment separators, designed to remove the liquid droplets along with any solid particles from the gas stream. Before arriving at a selection, one must weigh several important factors: The sizes of droplets that the separator must remove; The pressure drop that can be tolerated in achieving the required level of mist removal; Susceptibility of the separator to plugging by solids, if solids are present; Liquid handling capability of the separator; Whether the mist eliminator can be installed inside existing equipment, or if it requires a stand alone vessel instead; The availability of the materials of construction that are compatible with the process; and Costs of the mists eliminator itself and other required vessels, piping, instrumentation, and utilities.

  8. Emissions of volatile fatty acids from feed at dairy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis, Phillip; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Campbell, Sean; Hasson, Alam S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that dairy operations may be a major source of non-methane volatile organic compounds in dairy-intensive regions such as Central California, with short chain carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids or VFAs) as the major components. Emissions of four VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid and hexanoic acid) were measured from two feed sources (silage and total mixed rations (TMR)) at six Central California Dairies over a fifteen-month period. Measurements were made using a combination of flux chambers, solid phase micro-extraction fibers coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) and infra-red photoaccoustic detection (IR-PAD for acetic acid only). The relationship between acetic acid emissions, source surface temperature and four sample composition factors (acetic acid content, ammonia-nitrogen content, water content and pH) was also investigated. As observed previously, acetic acid dominates the VFA emissions. Fluxes measured by IR-PAD were systematically lower than SPME/GC-MS measurements by a factor of two. High signals in field blanks prevented emissions from animal waste sources (flush lane, bedding, open lot) from being quantified. Acetic acid emissions from feed sources are positively correlated with surface temperature and acetic acid content. The measurements were used to derive a relationship between surface temperature, acetic acid content and the acetic acid flux. The equation derived from SPME/GC-MS measurements predicts estimated annual average acetic acid emissions of (0.7 + 1/-0.4) g m -2 h -1 from silage and (0.2 + 0.3/-0.1) g m -2 h -1 from TMR using annually averaged acetic acid content and meteorological data. However, during the summer months, fluxes may be several times higher than these values.

  9. Emissions involved in acidic deposition processes: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.

    1990-01-01

    Data on the emissions involved in atmospheric acid-base chemistry are crucial to the assessment of acidic deposition and its effects. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the primary chemical compounds involved in acidic deposition processes. In addition, other emission species -- e.g., ammonia, alkaline dust particles, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride -- are involved in atmospheric acid-base chemistry, either by contributing acidic constituents or by neutralizing acidic species. Several emissions data bases have been developed under the auspices of the National Acid Precipitation Program (NAPAP). In addition to those developed by NAPAP, emissions data bases and emissions trends estimates also have been developed by organizations such as the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper briefly describes and compares the methods used in developing these emissions data bases and presents an overview of their emissions estimates. A more detailed discussion of these topics can be found in the State-of-Science Report on emissions recently released by NAPAP and in the references cited in that report. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The Water-Mist Fire Suppression Experiment (Mist): Preliminary Results From The STS-107 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Amon, Francine; Gokoglu, Suleyman

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of water mists on premixed flame propagation has been conducted onboard the Space Shuttle to take advantage of the prolonged microgravity environment to study the effect of uniformly distributed clouds of polydisperse water mists on the speed and shape of propagating propane-air premixed flames. The suspension of a quiescent and uniform water mist cloud was confirmed during the microgravity tests. Preliminary results show good agreement with trends obtained by the numerical predictions of a computational model that uses a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation to simulate the two-phase, flame/mist interaction. Effective flame suppression is observed at progressively higher water loadings and smaller water droplet sizes. Other unusual flame behavior, such as flame front breakup and pulsating flames, is still under investigation. The promising results from the microgravity tests will be used to assess the feasibility of using water mists as fire suppressants on Earth and on spacecraft.

  11. Emissions of sulfur trioxide from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Miller, C A; Erickson, C; Jambhekar, R

    2004-06-01

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough to not cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur (S) in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired combustion devices such as electric utility boilers. The emissions of SO3 from such a boiler depend on coal S content, combustion conditions, flue gas characteristics, and air pollution devices being used. It is well known that the catalyst used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for nitrogen oxides control oxidizes a small fraction of sulfur dioxide in the flue gas to SO3. The extent of this oxidation depends on the catalyst formulation and SCR operating conditions. Gas-phase SO3 and sulfuric acid, on being quenched in plant equipment (e.g., air preheater and wet scrubber), result in fine acidic mist, which can cause increased plume opacity and undesirable emissions. Recently, such effects have been observed at plants firing high-S coal and equipped with SCR systems and wet scrubbers. This paper investigates the factors that affect acidic mist production in coal-fired electric utility boilers and discusses approaches for mitigating emission of this mist. PMID:15242154

  12. Plasma-Assisted Mist Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zinc Oxide Films for Flexible Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Uchida, Giichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-assisted mist chemical vapor deposition of ZnO films was performed for transparent conductive oxide formation of flexible electronics. In this study, ZnO films deposition using atmospheric-pressure He plasma generated by a micro-hollow cathode-type plasma source has been demonstrated. To obtain detail information according to generation of species in the plasma, the optical emission spectra of the atmospheric pressure He plasma with and without mist were measured. The result without mist shows considerable emissions of He lines, emissions attributed to the excitation and dissociation of air including N2 and O2 (N, O, and NO radials, and N2 molecule; N2 second positive band and first positive band), while the results with mist showed strong emissions attributed to the dissociation of H2O (OH and H radicals). The deposition of ZnO films was performed using atmospheric-pressure He plasma. The XRD patterns showed no crystallization of the ZnO films irradiated with pure He. On the other hand, the ZnO film crystallized with the irradiation with He/O2 mixture plasma. These results indicate that the atmospheric-pressure He/O2 mixture plasma has sufficient reactivity necessary for the crystallization of ZnO films at room temperature. This work was supported partly by The Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research(C)) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  13. The interaction of water mists and premixed propane-air flames under low-gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Riedel, Edward P.; McKinnon, J. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effect of water mists on premixed flame propagation in a cylindrical tube under low-gravity conditions has been conducted to define the scientific and technical objectives of the experiments to be performed on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station microgravity environments. The inhibiting characteristics of water mists in propagating flames of propane-air mixtures at various equivalence ratios are studied. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the laminar flame speed are used as the measure of fire suppression efficacy. Flame speed and propagation behavior are monitored by a video camera. Reduced gravity is obtained with an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. Measurements and qualitative observations from the low-gravity experiments clearly show the effect of water mist on flame speed abatement, flame shape, and radiant emission. For lean propane-air mixtures, the flame speed increases at first with low water-mist concentrations and then decreases below its dry value when higher water-mist volumes are introduced in the tube. This phenomenon may be due in part to the heating of the unburned mixture ahead of the flame as a result of radiation absorption by the water droplets. For rich propane-air mixtures, similar behavior of flame speed vs. water concentration is encountered but in this case is mostly due to the formation of cellular flames. At high water loads both lean and rich flames exhibit extinction before reaching the end of the tube.

  14. Experimental and analytical efforts to characterize cutting fluid mist formation and behavior in machining.

    PubMed

    Michalek, Donna J; Hii, Wilson W-S; Sun, Jichao; Gunter, Kenneth L; Sutherland, John W

    2003-11-01

    The use of cutting fluids in machining operations is being carefully scrutinized by industry for several reasons, including its overall cost in the manufacturing process and its impact on worker health. Given the concerns associated with the use of cutting fluids, a number of experimental and analytical research efforts are being conducted to gain an understanding of the role of these fluids in various machining processes. The knowledge gained by this research will aid in the development and implementation of strategies to reduce or eliminate the negative effects of cutting fluids, while maintaining their beneficial role. This article presents the results of designed experiments focused on determining the significant variables that influence air quality during turning operations, as well as characterize the aerosol emissions associated with wet and dry turning. Air quality is characterized by measuring the mass concentration and particle size distribution of the dust and mist created during a set of machining experiments. The relative importance of vaporization/condensation and atomization as mist-generating mechanisms is also explored. The experiments revealed that spindle speed has a dominating effect on both mist mass concentration and aerodynamic particle size. Analytical models are presented that predict the average droplet size of the mist generated by atomization and are used to investigate droplet size trends for various cutting fluids and machining parameters. The results predicted by the models are consistent with the expected trends.

  15. Comparing materials used in mist eliminators

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Baleno, B.; Boles, G.L.; Telow, J.

    2007-11-15

    Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, or wet scrubbers, are notoriously capital - and maintenance-intensive. Mist eliminators are an integral part of most wet FGD systems. These are available in a variety of materials - polypropylene, fiberglass reinforced polymer (FRP), polysulfone and stainless steel. The article discusses the material properties, performance attributes and relative cost differences associated with each of these four materials. It describes the common problems with mist eliminators - fouling and corrosion. These can be minimised by routine cleaning and use of chemical additives to prevent deposition. An analysis was carried out to compare the four materials at APS Cholla power plant. As a result the facility is retrofitting its remaining wet scrubber towers in Unit 2 with mist eliminators constructed from polysulfone as each of the current ones of the existing polypropylene needs replacing. Polysulfone is cheaper to clean and components require replacing less frequently than polypropylene. Switching from stainless steel to polypropylene has proved advantageous on 22 wet scrubbers operated by PPL Montana. 5 figs. 2 tabs.

  16. MIST: a user-friendly metabolic simulator.

    PubMed

    Ehlde, M; Zacchi, G

    1995-04-01

    The Metabolic Interactive Simulation Tool, MIST, is a software package, running under Microsoft Windows 3.1, which can be used for dynamic simulations, stoichiometric calculations and control analysis of metabolic pathways. The pathways can be of any complexity and are defined by the user in a simple, interactive way. The user-defined enzymatic rate equations can be compiled either by an external or an internal compiler. Simulations of pathways compiled by an external compiler run significantly faster, but since these compilers are commercial software, they are not distributed together with MIST. The simulations are performed by numerical integration of a set of ordinary differential equations. The integration can be done by either an explicit fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm or a semi-implicit third-order Runge-Kutta algorithm, both with adjustable step size. The second algorithm can be used if the set of differential equations is stiff. Vector-based drawing facilities are included in the program, with which results can be presented in graphs. Results of simulations, including graphics, can be stored in files. MIST is a very user-friendly, flexible and yet powerful program, with the mathematical details regarding models, simulations and calculations hidden from the user. This makes it suitable for scientists and students with limited computer experience. PMID:7620994

  17. 76 FR 71559 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  18. 78 FR 64496 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  19. Mist control at a machining center, Part 2: Mist control following installation of air cleaners.

    PubMed

    Yacher, J M; Heitbrink, W A; Burroughs, G E

    2000-01-01

    At a machining center used to produce transaxle and transmission parts, aerosol instrumentation was used to quantitatively evaluate size-dependent mist generation of a synthetic metalworking fluid (MWF) consisting primarily of water and triethanolamine (TEA). This information was used to select an air cleaner for controlling the mist. During most machining operations, the MWF was flooded over the part. These machining operations were performed in a nearly complete enclosure that was exhausted to an air cleaner consisting of three sections: a fall-out chamber, a trifilter section to capture metal chips and mist, and a 1.13 m3/sec (2400 ft3/min) blower. The partnering company requested that National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers perform an evaluation of the effectiveness of a commercially available air cleaner. After NIOSH researchers characterized mist generation at the machining centers and found that performance of a test air cleaner appeared to be suitable, the company installed more than 25 air cleaners on different machining centers in this plant and enclosed the corresponding fluid filtration unit. The facility also has implemented a maintenance program for the air cleaners that involves regularly scheduled filter changes; performance is ensured by monitoring static pressure. A NIOSH-conducted air sampling evaluation showed that area TEA concentrations were reduced from a geometric mean of 0.25 to 0.03 mg/m3. Personal total particulate concentrations were reduced from a geometric mean of 0.22 to 0.06 mg/m3. These results show the effectiveness of this combination of enclosure, ventilation, and filtration to greatly reduce the exposure to MWF mist generated in modern machining centers.

  20. Water Misting and Injection of Commercial Aircraft Engines to Reduce Airport NOx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This report provides the first high level look at system design, airplane performance, maintenance, and cost implications of using water misting and water injection technology in aircraft engines for takeoff and climb-out NOx emissions reduction. With an engine compressor inlet water misting rate of 2.2 percent water-to-air ratio, a 47 percent NOx reduction was calculated. Combustor water injection could achieve greater reductions of about 85 percent, but with some performance penalties. For the water misting system on days above 59 F, a fuel efficiency benefit of about 3.5 percent would be experienced. Reductions of up to 436 F in turbine inlet temperature were also estimated, which could lead to increased hot section life. A 0.61 db noise reduction will occur. A nominal airplane weight penalty of less than 360 lb (no water) was estimated for a 305 passenger airplane. The airplane system cost is initially estimated at $40.92 per takeoff giving an attractive NOx emissions reduction cost/benefit ratio of about $1,663/ton.

  1. Mitigation of TNT and Destex explosion effects using water mist.

    PubMed

    Willauer, Heather D; Ananth, Ramagopal; Farley, John P; Williams, Frederick W

    2009-06-15

    The effects water mist has on the overpressures produced by the detonation of 50 lb equivalent of high explosives (HE) TNT and Destex in a chamber is reported. The overpressures for each charge density were measured with and without mist preemptively sprayed into the space. A droplet analyzer was placed in the chamber prior to the detonation experiments to characterize the water mist used to mitigate the explosion overpressures. The impulse, initial blast wave, and quasi-static overpressure measured in the blast mitigation experiments were reduced by as much as 40%, 36%, 35% for TNT and 43%, 25%, 33% for Destex when water mist was sprayed 60s prior to detonation at a concentration of 70 g/m(3) and droplet Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) 54 microm. These results suggest that current water mist technology is a potentially promising concept for the mitigation of overpressure effects produced from the detonation of high explosives. PMID:19097694

  2. Mitigation of TNT and Destex explosion effects using water mist.

    PubMed

    Willauer, Heather D; Ananth, Ramagopal; Farley, John P; Williams, Frederick W

    2009-06-15

    The effects water mist has on the overpressures produced by the detonation of 50 lb equivalent of high explosives (HE) TNT and Destex in a chamber is reported. The overpressures for each charge density were measured with and without mist preemptively sprayed into the space. A droplet analyzer was placed in the chamber prior to the detonation experiments to characterize the water mist used to mitigate the explosion overpressures. The impulse, initial blast wave, and quasi-static overpressure measured in the blast mitigation experiments were reduced by as much as 40%, 36%, 35% for TNT and 43%, 25%, 33% for Destex when water mist was sprayed 60s prior to detonation at a concentration of 70 g/m(3) and droplet Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) 54 microm. These results suggest that current water mist technology is a potentially promising concept for the mitigation of overpressure effects produced from the detonation of high explosives.

  3. Dual emission and double proton transfer in salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, D. D.; Joshi, H. C.; Bisht, P. B.; Tripathi, H. B.

    1994-07-01

    The photophysics of salicylic acid (SA) monomer and dimer has been studied by using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. Dilute solution in alkanes emits at 450 nm, which as in methyl salicylate is due to intramolecular proton transfer. In concentrated solutions and in solid state, the SA dimer shows two emissions, at 370 nm and 450 nm, with some unusual behaviour in both the steady state and the time domain fluorescence. The concept of double proton transfer and the tunneling mechanism in the excited state can rationalize the observed photophysical behaviour.

  4. Plant and Soil Emissions of Amines and Amino Acids: A Source of Secondary Aerosol Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. L.; Doskey, P. V.; Pypker, T. G.

    2011-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the most abundant alkaline gas in the atmosphere and forms secondary aerosol by neutralizing sulfuric and nitric acids that are released during combustion of fossil fuels. Ammonia is primarily emitted by cropping and livestock operations. However, C2 and C3 amines (pKb 3.3-3.4), which are stronger bases than NH3 (pKb 4.7) have been observed in nuclei mode aerosol that is the precursor to secondary aerosol. Mixtures of amines and amino acids have been identified in diverse environments in aerosol, fog water, cloud water, the soluble fraction of precipitation, and in dew. Glycine (pKb 4.2), serine (pKb 4.8) and alanine (pKb 3.7 and 4.1 for the D and L forms, respectively) are typically the most abundant species. The only reported values of gas-phase glycine, serine and alanine were in marine air and ranged from 6-14 pptv. The origin of atmospheric amines and amino acids has not been fully identified, although sources are likely similar to NH3. Nitrate assimilation in plants forms glycine, serine, and L-alanine, while D-alanine is present in bacterial cell walls. Glycine is converted to serine during C3 plant photorespiration, producing CO2 and NH3. Bacteria metabolize glycine and alanine to methylamine and ethylamine via decarboxylation. Likely sources of amino acids are plants and bacteria, thus concentrations near continental sources are likely greater than those measured in marine air. The overall goal of the research is to examine seasonal variations and relationships between the exchange of CO2, NH3, amines, and amino acids with a corn/soybean rotation in the Midwest Corn Belt. The study presents gaseous profiles of organic amine compounds from various species of vegetation using a mist chamber trapping technique and analysis of the derivatized species by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Amino acid and amine profiles were obtained for red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharinum), white pine (Pinus

  5. [Compositions of organic acids in PM10 emission sources in Xiamen urban atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-Yu; Huang, Xing-Xing; Zheng, An; Liu, Bi-Lian; Wu, Shui-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The possible organic acid emission sources in PM10 in Xiamen urban atmosphere such as cooking, biomass burning, vehicle exhaust and soil/dust were obtained using a re-suspension test chamber. A total of 15 organic acids including dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids and aromatic acids were determined using GC/MS after derivatization with BF3/n-butanol. The results showed that the highest total concentration of 15 organic acids (53%) was found in cooking emission and the average concentration of the sum of linoleic acid and oleic acid was 24% +/- 14%. However, oxalic acid was the most abundant species followed by phthalic acid in gasoline vehicle exhaust. The ratios of adipic to azelaic acid in gasoline combustion emissions were significantly higher than those in other emission sources, which can be used to qualitatively differentiate anthropogenic and biological source of dicarboxylic acids in atmospheric samples. The ratios of malonic to succinic acid in source emissions (except gasoline generator emissions) were lower (0.07-0.44) than ambient PM10 samples (0.61-3.93), which can be used to qualitatively differentiate the primary source and the secondary source of dicarboxylic acids in urban PM10.

  6. Ammonia emission factors for the NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) emission inventory. Final report, January 1985-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Misenheimer, D.C.; Warn, T.E.; Zelmanowitz, S.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides information on certain sources of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere for use in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emission inventories. Major anthropogenic sources of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere are identified, and emission factors for these sources are presented based on a review of the most recent data available. The emission factors developed are used to estimate nationwide emissions for base year 1980 and are compared to ammonia emission factors used in other emission inventories. Major anthropogenic source categories covered are cropland spreading of livestock wastes, beef cattle feedlots, fertilizer manufacture and use, fuel combustion, ammonia synthesis, petroleum refineries, and coke manufacture. Approximately 840,000 tons of ammonia is estimated to have been emitted in the U.S. in 1980; over 64% of which is estimated to have been from livestock wastes.

  7. CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159535.html CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective Agency advisors say the product has lost ... without the easier, nasal spray form of flu vaccine next flu season, a panel of experts decided ...

  8. MIUS Integration and Subsystem Test (MIST) data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pringle, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    A data system for use in testing integrated subsystems of a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) is presented. The MIUS integration and subsystem test (MIST) data system is reviewed from its conception through its checkout and operation as the controlling portion of the MIST facility. The MIST data system provides a real time monitoring and control function that allows for complete evaluation of the performance of the mechanical and electrical subsystems, as well as controls the operation of the various components of the system. In addition to the aforementioned capabilities, the MIST data system provides computerized control of test operations such that minimum manpower is necessary to set up, operate, and shut down subsystems during test periods.

  9. 18. View of fields, mountains and mist in Cades Cove ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of fields, mountains and mist in Cades Cove looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. CONTAINMENT SYSTEM, SPRAY CHAMBER, LOOKING NORTH WITH MIST COOLING MOLTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTAINMENT SYSTEM, SPRAY CHAMBER, LOOKING NORTH WITH MIST COOLING MOLTEN STEEL SLABS AS THEY PROGRESS THROUGH THIS CHAMBER. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  11. Water Mist Experiment Team in the NASA KC-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Members of the Water Mist experiment team float in the NASA KC-135 low-g aircraft during preflight tests of the experiment. At center is J. Thomas McKirnon (principal investigator); at right is Angel Abbud-Madrid (co-PI and project scientist). They are with the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space at the Colorado School of Mines. Water Mist will investigate how best to extinguish flames by using ultrafine droplets of water.

  12. Oil-air mist lubrication for helicopter gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of a once-through oil mist system to the lubrication of helicopter spur gears was investigated and compared to conventional jet spray lubrication. In the mist lubrication mode, cooling air was supplied at 366K (200 F) to the out of mesh location of the gear sets. The mist air was also supplied at 366K (200 F) to the radial position mist nozzle at a constant rate of 0.0632 mol/s (3 SCFM) per nozzle. The lubricant contained in the mist air varied between 32 - 44 cc/hour. In the recirculating jet spray mode, the flow rate was varied between 1893 - 2650 cc/hour. Visual inspection revealed the jet spray mode produced a superior surface finish on the gear teeth but a thermal energy survey showed a 15 - 20% increase in heat generated. The gear tooth condition in the mist lubrication mode system could be improved if the cooling air and lubricant/air flow ratio were increased. The test gearbox and the procedure used are described.

  13. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ∼30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  14. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  15. Particulate, carbon monoxide, and acid emission factors for residential wood burn stoves

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, P.G.; Edmisten, N.G.; Tiegs, P.E.; Houck, J.E.; Yoder, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    Emissions from residential wood burning stoves are of increasing concern in many areas. This concern is due to the magnitude of the emissions and the toxic and chemical characteristics of the pollutants. Recent testing of standard and new technology woodstoves has provided data for developing a family of particulate and carbon monoxide emission factor curves. This testing has also provided data illustrating the acidity of woodstove emissions. The particulate and carbon monoxide curves relate the actual stove emissions to the stove size and operating parameters of burn rate, fuel loading, and fuel moisture. Curves relating stove types to the acidity of emissions have also been constructed. Test data show actual emissions vary from 3 to 50 grams per kilogram for particles and from 50 to 300 grams per kilogram for carbon monoxide. Since woodstove emissions are the largest single category of particulate emissions in many area, it is essential that these emissions be quantified specifically for geographic regions, allowing meaningful impact analysis modeling to be accomplished. Emission factors for particles and carbon monoxide are presented from several stove sizes and burn rates. The acidic nature of woodstove emissions has been clearly demonstrated. Tests indicate woodstove flue gas condensate solutions to be predominantly in the 2.8 to 4.2 pH range. Condensate solutions from conventional woodstoves exhibited the characteristic buffering capacity of carboxylic acids when titrations were performed with a strong base. The environmental impact of buffered acidic woodstove emissions is not currently well understood; however, it is possible with the data presented here to make semi-quantitative estimates of acid emission from particulate and carbon monoxide emission factors and wood use inventories.

  16. Instrumentation, control and data management for the MIST (Modular Integrated Utility System) Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celino, V. A.

    1977-01-01

    An appendix providing the technical data required for computerized control and/or monitoring of selected MIST subsystems is presented. Specific computerized functions to be performed are as follows: (1) Control of the MIST heating load simulator and monitoring of the diesel engine generators' cooling system; (2) Control of the MIST heating load simulator and MIST heating subsystem including the heating load simulator; and (3) Control of the MIST air conditioning load simulator subsystem and the MIST air conditioning subsystem, including cold thermal storage and condenser water flows.

  17. Furnace-generated acid aerosols: speciation and pulmonary effects.

    PubMed

    Amdur, M O; Chen, L C

    1989-02-01

    Guinea pigs were exposed to ultrafine aerosols (less than 0.1 micron) of zinc oxide with a surface layer of sulfuric acid. These acid-coated aerosols are typical of primary emissions from smelters and coal combustors. Repeated daily 3-hr exposures for 5 days produce decrements in lung volumes and pulmonary diffusing capacity and elevations of lung weight/body weight ratio, protein, and number of neutrophils in pulmonary lavage fluid at concentrations of 20 micrograms/m3. A single 1-hr exposure to 20 micrograms/m3 causes increased bronchial reactivity. Higher concentrations of conventionally generated sulfuric acid mist are required to produce responses of similar magnitude.

  18. Metalworking fluids: oil mist and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Stephen L

    2003-11-01

    This article is based upon my own experiences with metalworking fluids and the adverse health effects and medical conditions associated with exposure to metalworking fluids. I have researched and witnessed the benefits that can be achieved when metalworking fluids are properly maintained and managed. My experiences have provided insight into how a shop operates, including comprehension of the equipment used, processes, mist generating points, engineering controls currently being adopted, and procedures that are used to maintain metalworking fluids. I have been able to share my personal experiences with the country's leading experts in the field of metalworking fluids. I have presented my insights on the topic in Washington, D.C., to the Standard Advisory Committee of OSHA, as well as at many other conferences nationwide. I have provided awareness training for a number of union and nonunion workers. Being a part of developing successful metal removal fluid programs, I realize the importance of transferring and sharing information. Many times an organization is not fully aware of certain conditions and how to combat them. My mission and intent is to properly educate those who are exposed to the harm that metalworking fluids can invoke and to inform those involved of the possible methods of reducing long- and short-term risk. One thing that must be kept in mind is the way we view these fluids. Many shops categorize the fluids as a type of "operating expense" when they should actually be seen as a sort of investment. Just as performing a scheduled maintenance on a machine promises the best possible longevity of that machine, the upkeep of metalworking fluid also provides longer "tool life." Monitoring and maintaining the fluids also provides for more effective and efficient productivity. If we fail to consider that proper management of the fluids can cut cost dramatically, then we will miss out on the financial impact they can have on a company. Try looking at the

  19. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for...

  1. Solution-based mist CVD technique for CH3NH3Pb(Br1- x Cl x )3 inorganic-organic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishinaka, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    We report the growth of inorganic-organic perovskites using a solution-based mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) technique and the successful growth of the alloying CH3NH3Pb(Br1- x Cl x )3 using mixture solutions of Br and Cl precursors. The formation mechanism of the inorganic-organic perovskite grown by the laminar flow-type mist CVD is suggested to be a vapor phase reaction, although solution precursors are used. The near-band-edge emissions from photoluminescence can be tuned from 500 to 550 nm by considering Br/Cl ratios in the solution without crystal phase segregation by incorporating Cl into crystalline CH3NH3PbBr3 films.

  2. Scoring Large Scale Affinity Purification Mass Spectrometry Datasets with MIST

    PubMed Central

    Verschueren, Erik; Von Dollen, John; Cimermancic, Peter; Gulbahce, Natali; Sali, Andrej; Krogan, Nevan

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput Affinity Purification Mass Spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments can identify a large number of protein interactions but only a fraction of these interactions are biologically relevant. Here, we describe a comprehensive computational strategy to process raw AP-MS data, perform quality controls and prioritize biologically relevant bait-prey pairs in a set of replicated AP-MS experiments with Mass spectrometry interaction STatistics (MiST). The MiST score is a linear combination of prey quantity (abundance), abundance invariability across repeated experiments (reproducibility), and prey uniqueness relative to other baits (specificity); We describe how to run the full MiST analysis pipeline in an R environment and discuss a number of configurable options that allow the lay user to convert any large-scale AP-MS data into an interpretable, biologically relevant protein-protein interaction network. PMID:25754993

  3. Controlling hyperhydration of carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) grown in a mist reactor.

    PubMed

    Correll, M J; Wu, Y; Weathers, P J

    Carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) grown in vitro often develop physiological abnormalities such as hyperhydration. The amount of hyperhydration and growth was compared between carnations grown in mist reactors and conventional semisolid micropropagation systems (vented or unvented GA7 culture boxes). Plants grown in the mist reactor with long misting times (10 min h(-1)) produced more dry mass than those grown with <10 min h(-1); however, more misting also produced more hyperhydrated plants (70% hyperhydration). Control of hyperhydration in the mist reactor involved either reducing the overall nutrient mist supply or altering the mist supply throughout the culturing period. Stepped decreases in the mist supply throughout the 3-week period or an overall decrease in the duration of misting reduced hyperhydration to 13% and 5%, respectively. However, for both misting regimes, the biomass of normal (healthy) plants (fresh and dry weights) was limited. Further analysis suggested that, although normal plant biomass increased with longer mist exposure, hyperhydration levels also increased while the water content, based on percent dry weight, approached that of hyperhydrated plants. Sufficient normal plant development (fresh weight, leaf and shoot numbers, height, and rooting) with < 50% hyperhydration was obtained by weekly, stepped increases in the nutrient mist supply.

  4. 42 CFR 84.1140 - Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance... Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1140 Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general. Dust, fume, and mist respirators and the individual components of each such device shall,...

  5. 42 CFR 84.1140 - Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance... Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1140 Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general. Dust, fume, and mist respirators and the individual components of each such device shall,...

  6. Cool Mist Irrigation Improves Heat Dissipation during Surgical Bone Drilling.

    PubMed

    Siljander, Breana R; Wang, Anthony C; Zhang, Lihui; Shih, Albert J; Sullivan, Stephen E; Tai, Bruce L

    2014-08-01

    Objective High-speed drilling generates heat in small cavities and may pose a risk for neurovascular tissues. We hypothesize that a continuous pressurized cold mist could be an alternative approach for better cooling during drilling of bone to access cranial lesions. This study aims to examine this idea experimentally. Design Ex-vivo drilling tests with controlled speed, feed, and depth were performed on cortical bone samples. Thermocouples were embedded underneath the drilling path to compare the temperature rises under mist cooling (at 3°C, < 300 mL/h) and flood irrigation (at 22°C, > 800 mL/h). Results A significant difference exists between these two systems (p value < 0.05). The measured temperature was ∼ 4°C lower for mist cooling than for flood irrigation, even with less than a third of the flow rate. Conclusion Experimental data indicate the capability of mist cooling to reduce heat generation while simultaneously enabling flow reduction and targeted cooling. An improved field of view in an extremely narrow access corridor may be achieved with this technology.

  7. Cool Mist Irrigation Improves Heat Dissipation during Surgical Bone Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Siljander, Breana R.; Wang, Anthony C.; Zhang, Lihui; Shih, Albert J.; Sullivan, Stephen E.; Tai, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High-speed drilling generates heat in small cavities and may pose a risk for neurovascular tissues. We hypothesize that a continuous pressurized cold mist could be an alternative approach for better cooling during drilling of bone to access cranial lesions. This study aims to examine this idea experimentally. Design Ex-vivo drilling tests with controlled speed, feed, and depth were performed on cortical bone samples. Thermocouples were embedded underneath the drilling path to compare the temperature rises under mist cooling (at 3°C, < 300 mL/h) and flood irrigation (at 22°C, > 800 mL/h). Results A significant difference exists between these two systems (p value < 0.05). The measured temperature was ∼ 4°C lower for mist cooling than for flood irrigation, even with less than a third of the flow rate. Conclusion Experimental data indicate the capability of mist cooling to reduce heat generation while simultaneously enabling flow reduction and targeted cooling. An improved field of view in an extremely narrow access corridor may be achieved with this technology. PMID:25093147

  8. A review of the development of Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler.

    PubMed

    Dalby, R; Spallek, M; Voshaar, T

    2004-09-28

    Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) is a new generation inhaler from Boehringer Ingelheim developed for use with respiratory drugs. The device functions by forcing a metered dose of drug solution through a unique and precisely engineered nozzle (the uniblock), producing two fine jets of liquid that converge at a pre-set angle. The collision of these two jets generates the soft mist. The soft mist contains a high fine particle fraction of approximately 65 to 80%. This is higher than aerosol clouds from conventional portable inhaler devices, such as pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs). In addition, the relatively long generation time of the aerosol cloud (approximately 1.5s) facilitates co-ordination of inhalation and actuation--a major problem with pMDIs. These features, together with the slow velocity of the soft mist, result in larger amounts of the drug reaching the lungs and less being deposited in the oropharynx compared with either pMDIs or DPIs. Generation of the soft mist from Respimat SMI is purely mechanical, so propellants are not necessary. The innovative design of Respimat SMI, using water-based drug formulations, ensures patients receive consistent and reliable doses of the drug with each actuation. The device was initially tested in scintigraphic lung deposition studies and produced encouraging results when compared with the chlorofluorocarbon-based pMDI (CFC-MDI). Subsequent clinical studies have confirmed that Respimat SMI is effective and safe in delivering bronchodilators to patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  9. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF CALCIUM SORBENTS FOR ACID GAS EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calcium sorbents for acid gas emission control were evaluated for effectiveness in removing SO2/HCl and SO2/NO from simulated incinerator and boiler flue gases. All tests were conducted in a bench-scale reactor (fixed-bed) simulating fabric filter conditions in an acid gas remova...

  10. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) Interim Assessment: the causes and effects of acidic deposition. Volume 2. Emissions and control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume on Emissions and Controls is the second in a four-volume set which comprises the NAPAP Interim Assessment. It contains three chapters, (1) Historical Emissions, (2) Emission Control Technologies, and (3) Future Emissions. Volume III, Atmospheric Processes and Deposition, contains chapters on (4) Atmospheric Processes, and (5) Acidic Deposition and Air Quality. The last volume, entitled, Effects of Acidic Deposition, covers (6) Agricultural Crops, (7) Forests, (8) Aquatics Systems, (9) 'Materials, and (10) Human Health and Visibility. Each of these chapters describes the National Program's research orientation and major conclusions within each of the ten primary areas of substantive concern. In order to learn how these first-order conclusions relate to the issue of acidic deposition in an overall, or synoptic, sense, the reader is directed to Volume I, Executive Summary, where the conclusions from each of the ten chapters are distilled in a manner that will allow interested parties to quickly reference the status of a variety of factors that pertain to the scientific understanding of acidic deposition.

  11. Factors Affecting Microcuttings of Stevia Using a Mist-Chamber Propagation Box

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Mohamad; Samsudin, Nur Syamimi; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a member of Compositae family. Stevia plant has zero calorie content and its leaves are estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sugar. This plant is believed to be the most ideal substitute for sugar and important to assist in medicinal value especially for diabetic patients. In this study, microcutting techniques using a mist-chamber propagation box were used as it was beneficial for propagation of Stevia and gave genetic uniformity to the plant. The effects of different treatments on root stimulation of Stevia in microcuttings technique were evaluated. Treatments studied were different sizes of shoot cuttings, plant growth regulators, lights, and shades. Data logger was used to record the mean value of humidity (>90% RH), light intensity (673–2045 lx), and temperature (28.6–30.1°C) inside the mist-chamber propagation box. From analysis of variance, there were significant differences between varieties and treatments in parameters studied (P < 0.05). For the size of shoot cuttings treatment, 6 nodes cuttings were observed to increase root number. As compared to control, shoot cuttings treated with indole butyric acid (IBA) had better performance regarding root length. Yellow light and 50% shade treatments showed higher root and leaf number and these conditions can be considered as crucial for potential propagation of Stevia. PMID:24470797

  12. Factors affecting microcuttings of Stevia using a mist-chamber propagation box.

    PubMed

    Osman, Mohamad; Samsudin, Nur Syamimi; Faruq, Golam; Nezhadahmadi, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a member of Compositae family. Stevia plant has zero calorie content and its leaves are estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sugar. This plant is believed to be the most ideal substitute for sugar and important to assist in medicinal value especially for diabetic patients. In this study, microcutting techniques using a mist-chamber propagation box were used as it was beneficial for propagation of Stevia and gave genetic uniformity to the plant. The effects of different treatments on root stimulation of Stevia in microcuttings technique were evaluated. Treatments studied were different sizes of shoot cuttings, plant growth regulators, lights, and shades. Data logger was used to record the mean value of humidity (>90% RH), light intensity (673-2045 lx), and temperature (28.6-30.1°C) inside the mist-chamber propagation box. From analysis of variance, there were significant differences between varieties and treatments in parameters studied (P < 0.05). For the size of shoot cuttings treatment, 6 nodes cuttings were observed to increase root number. As compared to control, shoot cuttings treated with indole butyric acid (IBA) had better performance regarding root length. Yellow light and 50% shade treatments showed higher root and leaf number and these conditions can be considered as crucial for potential propagation of Stevia. PMID:24470797

  13. Factors affecting microcuttings of Stevia using a mist-chamber propagation box.

    PubMed

    Osman, Mohamad; Samsudin, Nur Syamimi; Faruq, Golam; Nezhadahmadi, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a member of Compositae family. Stevia plant has zero calorie content and its leaves are estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sugar. This plant is believed to be the most ideal substitute for sugar and important to assist in medicinal value especially for diabetic patients. In this study, microcutting techniques using a mist-chamber propagation box were used as it was beneficial for propagation of Stevia and gave genetic uniformity to the plant. The effects of different treatments on root stimulation of Stevia in microcuttings technique were evaluated. Treatments studied were different sizes of shoot cuttings, plant growth regulators, lights, and shades. Data logger was used to record the mean value of humidity (>90% RH), light intensity (673-2045 lx), and temperature (28.6-30.1°C) inside the mist-chamber propagation box. From analysis of variance, there were significant differences between varieties and treatments in parameters studied (P < 0.05). For the size of shoot cuttings treatment, 6 nodes cuttings were observed to increase root number. As compared to control, shoot cuttings treated with indole butyric acid (IBA) had better performance regarding root length. Yellow light and 50% shade treatments showed higher root and leaf number and these conditions can be considered as crucial for potential propagation of Stevia.

  14. Effects of dicyandiamide and dolomite application on N2O emission from an acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Wu, Yupeng; Peng, Qi-an; Lin, Shan; Mo, Yongliang; Wu, Lei; Hu, Ronggui; Zhou, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Soil acidification is a major problem for sustainable agriculture since it limits productivity of several crops. Liming is usually adopted to ameliorate soil acidity that can trigger soil processes such as nitrification, denitrification, and loss of nitrogen (N) as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The loss of N following liming of acidic soils can be controlled by nitrification inhibitors (such as dicyandiamide). However, effects of nitrification inhibitors following liming of acidic soils are not well understood so far. Here, we conducted a laboratory study using an acidic soil to examine the effects of dolomite and dicyandiamide (DCD) application on N2O emissions. Three levels of DCD (0, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1); DCD0, DCD10, and DCD20, respectively) were applied to the acidic soil under two levels of dolomite (0 and 1 g kg(-1)) which were further treated with two levels of N fertilizer (0 and 200 mg N kg(-1)). Results showed that N2O emissions were highest at low soil pH levels in fertilizer-treated soil without application of DCD and dolomite. Application of DCD and dolomite significantly (P ≤ 0.001) reduced N2O emissions through decreasing rates of NH4 (+)-N oxidation and increasing soil pH, respectively. Total N2O emissions were reduced by 44 and 13% in DCD20 and dolomite alone treatments, respectively, while DCD20 + dolomite reduced N2O emissions by 54% when compared with DCD0 treatment. The present study suggests that application of DCD and dolomite to acidic soils can mitigate N2O emissions. PMID:26620858

  15. Energy technology and emissions control for acid rain abatement in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    After more than ten years of research, acid rain is a sufficiently serious problem in North America to warrant control action. The acid rain problem has become a threat to the Asian continent as well. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are already high and announces plans for increases in coal use by countries in the region imply a major increase in emissions in the future. This will inevitably lead to greater incidence of acid rain and probably significant environmental damage in some locations. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the issues relating to acid-rain-control technology in Asia and to suggest ways to include technology options in integrated simulation models of acid rain in Asia. 14 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs. (FL)

  16. Fog, Clouds and the Maintenance of Ecosystems: Mist Opportunities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathers, K. C.

    2006-12-01

    , by immersion in acidic clouds. In fog-enshrouded ecosystems such as these, it is of enormous ecological relevance to quantify how occult precipitation contributes to their maintenance or decline. Here I offer a brief review of the state-of-knowledge and summarize some of our recent results on occult precipitation and ecosystem function demonstrating that fog water inputs are spatially heterogeneous, controlled by canopy architecture and exposure, and, in many ecosystems, an order of magnitude lower than rain water inputs. Finally, I point to some of the mist opportunities-- the research needs in regard to where and how occult precipitation may be important in ecosystem processes.

  17. Emissions of Volatile Inorganic Halogens, Carboxylic Acids, NH3, and SO2 From Experimental Burns of Southern African Biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keene, W. C.; Lobert, J. M.; Lobert, J. M.; Maben, J. R.; Scharffe, D. H.; Crutzen, P. J.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2001-12-01

    As part of SAFARI 2000, biofuels (savanna grasses, shrubs, woody plants, litter, agricultural waste, and charcoal) were sampled during late summer and early autumn in the savannah of Kruger National Park, the Kalahari of Etosha National Park, and the Miombo woodlands in Zambia and Malawi. Sixty subsamples were experimentally burned under semi-controlled conditions at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany. Emissions were sampled with tandem mist chambers to quantify HCl, CH3COOH, HCOOH, NH3, and SO2 and with a high-volume filter pack to quantify volatile inorganic Cl, Br, and I. The elemental compositions of the fuel and ash from each burn were also analyzed. Molar emission ratios of these species relative to CO, CO2, and the elemental composition of the fuel will be calculated and used to estimate regional emissions from biomass burning over southern Africa. The relative contributions of each species to elemental mass balances during burns will also be assessed. >http://jurgenlobert.org/projects/mpi_safari/ and

  18. Suppression of methane/air explosion by ultrafine water mist containing sodium chloride additive.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xingyan; Ren, Jingjie; Zhou, Yihui; Wang, Qiuju; Gao, Xuliang; Bi, Mingshu

    2015-03-21

    The suppression effect of ultrafine mists on methane/air explosions with methane concentrations of 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% were experimentally studied in a closed visual vessel. Ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist as well as pure water mist was adopted and the droplet sizes of mists were measured by phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A high speed camera was used to record the flame evolution processes. In contrast to pure water mist, the flame propagation speed, the maximum explosion overpressure (ΔP(max)), and the maximum pressure rising rate ((dP/dt)max) decreased significantly, with the "tulip" flame disappearing and the flame getting brighter. The results show that the suppressing effect on methane explosion by ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist is influenced by the mist amount and methane concentration. With the increase of the mist amount, the pressure, and the flame speed both descended significantly. And when the mist amount reached 74.08 g/m(3) and 37.04 g/m(3), the flames of 6.5% and 13.5% methane explosions can be absolutely suppressed, respectively. All of results indicate that addition of NaCl can improve the suppression effect of ultrafine pure water mist on the methane explosions, and the suppression effect is considered due to the combination effect of physical and chemical inhibitions. PMID:25528229

  19. Suppression of methane/air explosion by ultrafine water mist containing sodium chloride additive.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xingyan; Ren, Jingjie; Zhou, Yihui; Wang, Qiuju; Gao, Xuliang; Bi, Mingshu

    2015-03-21

    The suppression effect of ultrafine mists on methane/air explosions with methane concentrations of 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% were experimentally studied in a closed visual vessel. Ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist as well as pure water mist was adopted and the droplet sizes of mists were measured by phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A high speed camera was used to record the flame evolution processes. In contrast to pure water mist, the flame propagation speed, the maximum explosion overpressure (ΔP(max)), and the maximum pressure rising rate ((dP/dt)max) decreased significantly, with the "tulip" flame disappearing and the flame getting brighter. The results show that the suppressing effect on methane explosion by ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist is influenced by the mist amount and methane concentration. With the increase of the mist amount, the pressure, and the flame speed both descended significantly. And when the mist amount reached 74.08 g/m(3) and 37.04 g/m(3), the flames of 6.5% and 13.5% methane explosions can be absolutely suppressed, respectively. All of results indicate that addition of NaCl can improve the suppression effect of ultrafine pure water mist on the methane explosions, and the suppression effect is considered due to the combination effect of physical and chemical inhibitions.

  20. Laboratory measurements of oil mist concentrations using filters and an electrostatic precipitator.

    PubMed

    Leith, D; Leith, F A; Boundy, M G

    1996-12-01

    This study investigated the potential for mineral oil mist to evaporate, during sampling, from filters and electrostatic precipitator substrates used to assess personal exposure. If sample evaporation occurs, reported mist concentrations will underestimate true exposure. Mineral oil used as a machining fluid is not normally considered volatile; however, when dispersed as mist its aggregate surface area is so high that significant evaporation can occur. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Method 5026 specifies that oil mist concentrations should be determined by collecting mist on filters of mixed cellulose esters (MCE) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Collected mist droplets remain dispersed on the filter surface and in contact with passing air while sampling continues, conditions that can lead to sample evaporation. Less evaporation should occur for samples taken with an electrostatic precipitator, where mist droplets are separated from the airflow by electrostatic force and coalesce on the precipitator wall to form a film with relatively low surface area. Collection of mineral oil mist was investigated using a precipitator designed for personal sampling and using either an MCE or a PVC filter. The amounts of oil mist collected using the precipitator were significantly higher than the amounts collected using the filters, p < 0.001. Further tests in which clean air passed through mist-loaded precipitators and filters showed that the precipitator retained substantially more collected mist than both filters, p < 0.001, and further suggested that the MCE filter retained more mist than the PVC filter, p = 0.059. Differences in sample collection and retention between the precipitator and the filters were particularly pronounced at mist loadings below 1 mg.

  1. Corrosion inhibition by control of gas composition during mist drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Snyder, T.L.

    1981-05-01

    Chemical compositional specifications have been generated for inert gases which reduce drill string corrosion when used in conjunction with mist drilling processes. These specifications are based on the assumption that the corrosion rate is dependent on the dissolved gaseous species concentrations. Data taken both from the literature and from a mist drilling field test with nitrogen in Valle Grande, NM, relate corrosion rates to fluid compositions. These solution compositions are then associated with gas phase compositions using equilibrium data available from the literature and material balances. Two sources of gas were considered: cryogenically purified nitrogen from air and exhaust gas from a diesel engine, which contain (in addition to N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/) CO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, and CO. A maximum concentration of 50 ppM O/sub 2/ in the gas phase is recommended to alleviate pitting corrosion.

  2. Fire extinct experiments with water mist by adding additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo

    2011-12-01

    The effects of fire extinguishment with water mist by adding different additives were studied. Tens of chemical substances (including alkali metal salt, dilution agent and surface active agent) were selected as additives due to their different extinct mechanisms. At first the performance of fire extinguishment with single additive was studied, then the effects of the same kinds of chemical substances under the same mass fraction were compared to study their influences on the fire extinguishment factors, including extinct time, fire temperature and oxygen concentration from which the fire extinct mechanism with additives could be concluded. Based on this the experiments were conducted to study the cooperate effect of the complexity of different additives. It indicated the relations between different firefighting mechanisms and different additives were competitive. From a large number of experiments the extinct mechanism with water mist by adding additives was concluded and an optimal compounding additive was selected.

  3. Multicomponent approach to light propagation in clouds and mists.

    PubMed

    Zege, E P; Katsev, L L; Polonsky, I N

    1993-05-20

    A new approach to calculating a light field with multiple scattering in media such as clouds, mists, and ocean water is given. It examines all characteristic properties of the real phase function and is applicable to a scattering medium of any optical thickness with an arbitrary single-scattering albedo. The phase function is represented as a sum of more simple functions. The radiance is given as a sum of appropriate components for which the equations, which can be solved by using a known method within domains in which they work best are obtained. The analytic solution of the problem of sunlight propagation in clouds and mists is given on this basis. It describes the complex multimodal angular radiance distribution. A comparison with different numerical calculations shows a fairly satisfactory accuracy of our analytic formulas.

  4. Sulphur Kβ emission spectra reveal protonation states of aqueous sulfuric acid

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, Johannes; Sahle, Christoph J.; Ruotsalainen, Kari O.; Müller, Harald; Kavčič, Matjaž; Žitnik, Matjaž; Bučar, Klemen; Petric, Marko; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report an X-ray emission study of bulk aqueous sulfuric acid. Throughout the range of molarities from 1 M to 18 M the sulfur Kβ emission spectra from H2SO4 (aq) depend on the molar fractions and related deprotonation of H2SO4. We compare the experimental results with results from emission spectrum calculations based on atomic structures of single molecules and structures from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the S Kβ emission spectrum is a sensitive probe of the protonation state of the acid molecules. Using non-negative matrix factorization we are able to extract the fractions of different protonation states in the spectra, and the results are in good agreement with the simulation for the higher part of the concentration range. PMID:26888159

  5. Sulphur Kβ emission spectra reveal protonation states of aqueous sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Johannes; Sahle, Christoph J; Ruotsalainen, Kari O; Müller, Harald; Kavčič, Matjaž; Žitnik, Matjaž; Bučar, Klemen; Petric, Marko; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo

    2016-02-18

    In this paper we report an X-ray emission study of bulk aqueous sulfuric acid. Throughout the range of molarities from 1 M to 18 M the sulfur Kβ emission spectra from H2SO4 (aq) depend on the molar fractions and related deprotonation of H2SO4. We compare the experimental results with results from emission spectrum calculations based on atomic structures of single molecules and structures from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the S Kβ emission spectrum is a sensitive probe of the protonation state of the acid molecules. Using non-negative matrix factorization we are able to extract the fractions of different protonation states in the spectra, and the results are in good agreement with the simulation for the higher part of the concentration range.

  6. Sampling Odor Substances by Mist-Cyclone System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Osamu; Jiang, Zhiheng; Toyama, Shigeki

    2009-05-01

    Many techniques have been developed to measure odor substances. However most of those methods are based on using aquatic solutions(1),(2). Many odor substances specifically at low density situation, are difficult to dissolve into water. To absorb odor substances and obtain highest concentration solutions are key problems for olfactory systems. By blowing odor substances contained air mixture through mist of water and then separating the liquid from two-phases fluid with a cyclone unit a high concentration solution was obtained.

  7. Effects of acidic deposition and other energy emissions on wildlife: a compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.R.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1985-10-01

    Energy emissions, including acidic depositions, pose potential problems for wildlife populations. Historical and recent events show both direct, acute effects and indirect, chronic effects from a variety of airborne pollutants. Information on effects of selected gaseous and particulate energy emissions on domestic animals and livestock and on wildlife is compared. Our understanding of wildlife effects can be improved by the evaluation of veterinary toxicological information and research on the ecological equivalents of domestic and laboratory animals. 42 references.

  8. A Proposal for a Mist Cooling Control and Measurement Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnham, Craig; Nakao, Masaki; Nishioka, Masatoshi; Nabeshima, Minako; Mizuno, Takeo

    Fine water mist sprays with average droplet diameters around 20 microns are being increasingly used as an energy-efficient means of cooling outdoor and semi-enclosed spaces such as rail platforms and shopping arcades. At high relative humidity there is a higher risk of wetting people and the ground beneath mist nozzles. Automated control systems are often set to run above a set dry bulb temperature and below a set relative humidity. Experiments show that mist evaporation rates before reaching the ground are closely related to the difference between the dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures, here labeled ΔTWB. Changing the operating parameters to include a minimum ΔTWB can allow use at higher relative humidity levels. If a common 28°C, 70% condition is sufficient to prevent floor-wetting, then a condition of 28°C with a ΔTWB > 4.3K should still prevent floor-wetting. This would allow operation at 75% relative humidity near 39°C.

  9. Review of respiratory morbidity from occupational exposure to oil mists.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, John A

    2003-11-01

    The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has recommended that the threshold limit value (TLV) for mineral oil mists be dramatically lowered, based on epidemiological evidence of respiratory health effects among machinists exposed to various metalworking fluid mists. A review of the literature regarding respiratory health effects from either metalworking or non-metalworking fluids suggest that machinists may have experienced slightly higher prevalence of common respiratory symptoms and mild and reversible cross-shift changes in some measures of pulmonary function. However, the inconsistency and potential for both random and systematic error in this body of literature argue against drawing definitive conclusions. There is also no substantive evidence that any of these effects led to permanent disease or impairment. The most likely causal agents for respiratory effects in these workers are microbial contaminants in water-based metalworking fluids, not straight mineral oils. This is consistent with the epidemic outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, bronchitis, and asthma reported at some work sites using water-based metalworking fluids. This highlights the importance of frequent cleaning and fluid changes for metalworking fluid reservoirs, as part of a systematic approach to managing metalworking fluid aerosol exposures. A dramatic drop in the TLV for mineral oil mists would not resolve this problem.

  10. Nitric acid emission from the F100 jet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T. M.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Hunton, D. E.; Viggiano, A. A.; Wey, C. C.; Anderson, B. E.

    2003-01-01

    A chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) from the Air Force Research Laboratory at Hanscom AFB was used to measure levels of HNO3 in the exhaust stream of the F100 jet engine both in a test cell at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) at simulated altitudes 3-17 km and in flight behind F-16 aircraft at 9-11 km altitude. The HNO3 concentrations have been expressed as emission indices (EI) by normalizing to engine-produced CO2 measured by GRC instruments in the test cell and NASA-Langley Research Center instruments in flight. The test cell data showed that EI(HNO3) is independent of fuel sulfur level, and is highly dependent upon altitude for altitudes at which most commercial aircraft fly (below 12 km), mainly because the emission is a strong function of combustor inlet temperature, which is lower at high altitudes. EI(HNO3) at military power was 0.003 g NO2 kg-1 fuel at low altitude (˜3 km), and increased to 0.02 g kg-1 for altitudes above 11 km. Operating the engine at 85% maximum turbine speed increased the figures above by a factor of about 2.5. At engine idle, EI(HNO3) was typically 0.14 g kg-1. The decrease in EI(HNO3) with combustor inlet temperature is attributed to the temperature dependence of the NO2 + OH reaction producing HNO3. Comparing HNO3 emission indices with those measured at GRC for NO and NOx allowed us to determine the fraction of NO2 which is converted into HNO3 in the combustion process as a function of inlet temperature. Conversion of NO2 to HNO3 is 0.9% at military power for altitudes ≥11 km, and twice that at 85% maximum turbine speed. The conversion fraction changes dramatically in the 8-11 km altitude range, and is only 0.02% at 3 km altitude, for military power, or 0.2% at 85% maximum turbine speed. At engine idle, this fraction was about 8% at all altitudes. The accuracy of the (average) figures quoted above is ±25%. The in situ data, obtained on 10 flights during the NASA Subsonic Near-Interaction Field (SNIF) experiment, are

  11. Microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Li, Juan; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Xue, Gang

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid were investigated. The indexes including crystal structure, unit cell volume, microstructure and infrared spectra were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the crystal structure was not changed; however, the unit cell volume decreased, the angularities of tourmaline particles became smooth, and there appeared nanohollows on their surfaces. The infrared emission properties were enhanced at proper concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions. PMID:20355630

  12. Microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Li, Juan; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Xue, Gang

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid were investigated. The indexes including crystal structure, unit cell volume, microstructure and infrared spectra were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the crystal structure was not changed; however, the unit cell volume decreased, the angularities of tourmaline particles became smooth, and there appeared nanohollows on their surfaces. The infrared emission properties were enhanced at proper concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions.

  13. Mist, substrate water potential and cutting water potential influence rooting of stem cuttings of loblolly pine.

    PubMed

    Lebude, Anthony V; Goldfarb, Barry; Blazich, Frank A; Wise, Farrell C; Frampton, John

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the influence of cutting water potential (Psicut) on rooting of juvenile hardwood (dormant) and softwood (succulent) stem cuttings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) propagated under varying substrate water potentials (Psisub) and volumes of mist application. Mist treatment and Psisub contributed to the Psicut of unrooted stem cuttings. When Psisub was held constant across mist treatments, mist treatment contributed strongly to Psicut. Substrate water potential affected rooting percentage when mist treatment was sub-optimal or excessive, otherwise mist treatment had a stronger effect than Psisub on rooting percentage. Cuttings rooted best when subjected to moderate cutting water potentials (-0.5 to -1.2 MPa) during the initial 4 or 5 weeks of the rooting period. Cuttings experiencing either severe water deficit or no water deficit rooted poorly. We conclude that the rooting environment should impose a moderate water stress on loblolly pine stem cuttings to achieve optimum rooting.

  14. Calculation of fire extinguishment time with water mist in an enclosed room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo; Xu, Zhenyu

    2010-12-01

    The fire extinguishment time is a major factor to evaluate the efficiency of fire extinguishment with water mist. In this paper the fire extinguishment time with water mist in an enclosed room is calculated. Before adding water mist, the chemical kinetics plays the role in combustion, where a dimensionless math model is established by using the Semenov theory. After adding water mist, the diffusion plays the role instead. Then another math model containing water mist and dominated by oxygen concentration is established. The fire temperature is integrated from Tm to extinguishment temperature TB and the extinguishment time can be obtained. The calculated values are compared with the experimental data under different conditions. The results show that this model can predict the fire extinguishment time accurately. Besides, this model also can be used to determine the critical water mist flux and evaluate which fire extinguishment mechanisms dominate the extinguishment.

  15. The difference of detecting water mist and smoke by electromagnetic wave in simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingdi; Cui, Bing; Xiao, Si

    2015-10-01

    Although mist is similar to smoke in morphology, their compositions are very different. Therefore there is a significant difference between mist and smoke when detected by electromagnetic wave. This paper puts forward a kind of feasible solution based on Ansoft HFSS software about how to determine the forest fire by distinguishing mist and smoke above the forest. The experiments simulate the difference between mist and smoke model when detected by electromagnetic wave in different wavelengths. We find the mist and smoke model cannot absorb or reflect electromagnetic wave efficiently in Megahertz band. While in Gigahertz band mist model began to absorb and reflect electromagnetic wave above 650 Gigahertz band, but no change in smoke model. And the biggest difference appears in Terahertz band.

  16. Stibine/arsine emissions from lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R.; Cook, G. M.; Yao, N. P.

    1980-01-01

    Antimonial lead alloys, which also contain some arsenic, have traditionally been used for the fabrication of lead-acid battery electrodes. The possible generation of arsine and stibine during battery operation must be considered in the development of batteries for electric vehicles, utility load-leveling, and solar electricity storage. Research on generation of arsine and stibine is summarized, and exposure limits are given. Published analytical procedures for determination of arsine and stibine and their sensitivities are discussed. The design and testing of a stibine/arsine monitoring field kit are described. A hydrogen-oxygen recombination device can recombine stoichiometric H/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ with about 97% efficiency while scavenging the charge gas of much of the SbH/sub 3/ and AsH/sub 3/; its principles are illustrated. Experiments to estimate exposure of drivers to AsH/sub 3/ and SbH/sub 3/ from lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles are under way. 4 figures, 2 tables. (RWR)

  17. The Fluid Dynamics of Secondary Cooling Air-Mist Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández C., I.; Acosta G., F. A.; Castillejos E., A. H.; Minchaca M., J. I.

    2008-10-01

    For the conditions of thin-slab continuous casting, air-mist secondary cooling occurs in the transition-boiling regime, possibly as a result of an enhanced intermittent contact of high- momentum water drops with the hot metallic surface. The dynamics of the intermittent contact or wetting/dewetting process should be primarily dependent on the drop size, drop impact-velocity and -angle and water-impact flux, which results from the nozzle design and the interaction of the drops with the conveying and entrained air stream. The aim of this article was to develop a model for predicting the last three parameters based on the design and operating characteristics of air-mist nozzles and on experimentally determined drop-size distributions. To do this, the Eulerian fluid-flow field of the air in three dimensions and steady state and the Lagrangian velocities and trajectories of water drops were computed by solving the turbulent Navier Stokes equation for the air coupled to the motion equation for the water drops. In setting this model, it was particularly important to specify appropriately the air-velocity profile at the nozzle orifice, as well as, the water-flux distribution, and the velocities (magnitude and angle) and exit positions of drops with the different sizes generated, hence special attention was given to these aspects. The computed drop velocities, water-impact flux distributions, and air-mist impact-pressure fields compared well with detailed laboratory measurements carried out at ambient temperature. The results indicate that under practical nozzle-operating conditions, the impinging-droplet Weber numbers are high, over most of the water footprint, suggesting that the droplets should establish an intimate contact with the solid surface. However, the associated high mean-droplet fluxes hint that this contact may be obstructed by drop interference at the surface, which would undermine the heat-extraction effectiveness of the impinging mist. The model also points

  18. Occupational exposure to metalworking fluid mist and sump fluid contaminants.

    PubMed

    Simpson, A T; Stear, M; Groves, J A; Piney, M; Bradley, S D; Stagg, S; Crook, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to assess fluid management and control, including bacterial and fines contamination in the machine sumps. In general, occupational exposure to mineral oil MWF mist was controlled to <3 mg/m(3) (8 h time-weighted average) and to <1 mg/m(3) for water-mix MWF mist (in terms of the concentrate). These exposure values do not necessarily represent best practice, but are believed to be achievable and representative of industry as a whole. Gravimetric analysis of the total inhalable particulate was found to be a good predictor of mineral oil MWF mist but not for water-mix MWF mist. Grinding and drilling operations produced higher exposures than turning and milling for water-mix fluids. There were insufficient data to compare machining operations for mineral oil MWFs. On the whole, fluid management was found to be poor, with most sites failing to meet industry good practice or Health & Safety Executive (HSE) standards. Some of the operating procedures utilized were deficient or unsatisfactory. Poor standards of fluid management were found at all sizes of company. High levels of bacteria, endotoxin and fines were found in sumps, and control of other factors, such as water-mix fluid concentration, was often poor. Mineral oils had higher levels of fines than water-mix fluids (medians of 395 and 18 mg/l, respectively), and grinding produced high levels of fines in both types of MWF. Many water-mix sumps contained bacterial levels of >1 x 10(6) CFU/ml, and endotoxin levels of >100 000 EU/ml were not uncommon. The median values were 109 000 CFU/ml and 8039 EU/ml, respectively. Mists could

  19. Quasi-multistatic MIST beamforming for the early detection of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Martin; Jones, Edward; Glavin, Martin

    2010-04-01

    Microwave imaging via space-time (MIST) beamforming has been shown to be one of the most promising imaging modalities for detecting small malignant breast tumors. This paper outlines two modifications to the MIST system developed by Hagness for the early detection of breast cancer, resulting in a quasi-multistatic MIST beamformer (multi-MIST). Multistatic MIST beamforming involves illuminating the breast with an ultrawideband (UWB) signal from one antenna while collecting the reflections at an array of antennas, as opposed to traditional monostatic MIST beamforming where only the transmitting antenna records the reflections from the breast. In order to process the multistatic data, traditional data-adaptive artifact removal algorithms have to be modified to accommodate signals from all antennas. Also, the MIST beamforming algorithm, which spatially focuses the signal and compensates for frequency-dependent propagation effects, has to be modified. The algorithms are tested on a 2-D anatomically accurate finite-difference time-domain model of the breast. The multi-MIST beamformer described here is shown to offer an improved signal to clutter ratio when compared to the traditional monostatic MIST beamformer.

  20. Changing trends in sulfur emissions in Asia: implications for acid deposition, air pollution, and climate.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Gregory R; Streets, David G; Calori, Giuseppe; Amann, Markus; Jacobson, Mark Z; Hansen, James; Ueda, Hiromasa

    2002-11-15

    In the early 1990s, it was projected that annual SO2 emissions in Asia might grow to 80-110 Tg yr(-1) by 2020. Based on new high-resolution estimates from 1975 to 2000, we calculate that SO2 emissions in Asia might grow only to 40-45 Tg yr(-1) by 2020. The main reason for this lower estimate is a decline of SO2 emissions from 1995 to 2000 in China, which emits about two-thirds of Asian SO2. The decline was due to a reduction in industrial coal use, a slowdown of the Chinese economy, and the closure of small and inefficient plants, among other reasons. One effect of the reduction in SO2 emissions in China has been a reduction in acid deposition not only in China but also in Japan. Reductions should also improve visibility and reduce health problems. SO2 emission reductions may increase global warming, but this warming effect could be partially offset by reductions in the emissions of black carbon. How SO2 emissions in the region change in the coming decades will depend on many competing factors (economic growth, pollution control laws, etc.). However a continuation of current trends would result in sulfur emissions lower than any IPCC forecasts.

  1. Evidence linking large reductions in acid rain to sulfur emissions cuts in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, V.C.; Lynch, J.A.; Grimm, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Concentrations of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) and free acidity (H{sup +}) in precipitation decreased by 10 to 25 percent over large areas of the eastern US in 1995. These decreases were extraordinary in magnitude and spatial extent, compared to the 1983--1994 record of observations from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). In contrast, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium concentrations generally increased in 1995. What`s more, the H+ and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} declines were highly correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.72), indicating a reduction of acid rain. The largest concentration decreases in both ions occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley. This is the same area where the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) set limits on SO{sub 2} emissions from 110 affected sources, 63 in states bordering the Ohio River Valley. Phase 1 of the CAAA required these limits be met by January 1, 1995. Indeed, sulfur dioxide emissions from Phase 1 sources dropped 40% in 1995 compared to 1994. This was a nearly 19% reduction in overall emissions in the 21 states with Phase 1 sources. Based on their analysis of emissions and NADP/NTN precipitation chemistry data, they infer that the substantial declines in acid rain in the eastern US in 1995 occurred because of large reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions in the same region.

  2. Amplified spontaneous emission from the exciplex state of a conjugated polymer "PFO" in oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idriss, Hajo; Taha, Kamal K.; Aldaghri, O.; Alhathlool, R.; AlSalhi, M. S.; Ibnaouf, K. H.

    2016-09-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) characteristics of a conjugated polymer poly (9, 9-dioctylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl) (PFO) in oleic acid have been studied under different concentrations and temperatures. Here, the ASE spectra of PFO in oleic acid have been obtained using a transverse cavity configuration where the conjugated PFO was pumped by laser pulses from the third harmonic of Nd: YAG laser (355 nm). The PFO in oleic acid produces ASE from an exciplex state - a new molecular species. The obtained results were compared with the PFO in benzene. Such ASE spectra from the exciplex state have not been observed for the PFO in benzene.

  3. Dolomite application to acidic soils: a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Peng, Qi-An; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Yupeng; Lin, Shan; Zhao, Jinsong

    2015-12-01

    Soil acidification is one of the main problems to crop productivity as well as a potent source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). Liming practice is usually performed for the amelioration of acidic soils, but the effects of dolomite application on N2O emissions from acidic soils are still not well understood. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to examine N2O emissions from an acidic soil following application of dolomite. Dolomite was applied to acidic soil in a factorial design under different levels of moisture and nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Treatments were as follows: dolomite was applied as 0, 1, and 2 g kg(-1) soil (named as CK, L, and H, respectively) under two levels of moisture [i.e., 55 and 90 % water-filled pore space (WFPS)]. All treatments of dolomite and moisture were further amended with 0 and 200 mg N kg(-1) soil as (NH4)2SO4. Soil properties such as soil pH, mineral N (NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil N2O emissions were analyzed throughout the study period. Application of N fertilizer rapidly increased soil N2O emissions and peaked at 0.59 μg N2O-N kg(-1) h(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite application. The highest cumulative N2O flux was 246.32 μg N2O-N kg(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite addition in fertilized soil. Addition of dolomite significantly (p ≤ 0.01) mitigated N2O emissions as soil pH increased, and H treatment was more effective for mitigating N2O emissions as compared to L treatment. The H treatment decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by up to 73 and 67 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in fertilized soil, and 60 and 68 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in unfertilized soil when compared to those without dolomite addition. Results demonstrated that application of dolomite to acidic soils is a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions. PMID:26289338

  4. Dolomite application to acidic soils: a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Peng, Qi-An; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Yupeng; Lin, Shan; Zhao, Jinsong

    2015-12-01

    Soil acidification is one of the main problems to crop productivity as well as a potent source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). Liming practice is usually performed for the amelioration of acidic soils, but the effects of dolomite application on N2O emissions from acidic soils are still not well understood. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to examine N2O emissions from an acidic soil following application of dolomite. Dolomite was applied to acidic soil in a factorial design under different levels of moisture and nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Treatments were as follows: dolomite was applied as 0, 1, and 2 g kg(-1) soil (named as CK, L, and H, respectively) under two levels of moisture [i.e., 55 and 90 % water-filled pore space (WFPS)]. All treatments of dolomite and moisture were further amended with 0 and 200 mg N kg(-1) soil as (NH4)2SO4. Soil properties such as soil pH, mineral N (NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil N2O emissions were analyzed throughout the study period. Application of N fertilizer rapidly increased soil N2O emissions and peaked at 0.59 μg N2O-N kg(-1) h(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite application. The highest cumulative N2O flux was 246.32 μg N2O-N kg(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite addition in fertilized soil. Addition of dolomite significantly (p ≤ 0.01) mitigated N2O emissions as soil pH increased, and H treatment was more effective for mitigating N2O emissions as compared to L treatment. The H treatment decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by up to 73 and 67 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in fertilized soil, and 60 and 68 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in unfertilized soil when compared to those without dolomite addition. Results demonstrated that application of dolomite to acidic soils is a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions.

  5. Real-time emission factor measurements of isocyanic acid from light duty gasoline vehicles.

    PubMed

    Brady, James M; Crisp, Timia A; Collier, Sonya; Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Forestieri, Sara D; Perraud, Véronique; Zhang, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J; Cappa, Christopher D; Bertram, Timothy H

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to gas-phase isocyanic acid (HNCO) has been previously shown to be associated with the development of atherosclerosis, cataracts and rheumatoid arthritis. As such, accurate emission inventories for HNCO are critical for modeling the spatial and temporal distribution of HNCO on a regional and global scale. To date, HNCO emission rates from light duty gasoline vehicles, operated under driving conditions, have not been determined. Here, we present the first measurements of real-time emission factors of isocyanic acid from a fleet of eight light duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDGVs) tested on a chassis dynamometer using the Unified Driving Cycle (UC) at the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Haagen-Smit test facility, all of which were equipped with three-way catalytic converters. HNCO emissions were observed from all vehicles, in contrast to the idealized laboratory measurements. We report the tested fleet averaged HNCO emission factors, which depend strongly on the phase of the drive cycle; ranging from 0.46 ± 0.13 mg kg fuel(-1) during engine start to 1.70 ± 1.77 mg kg fuel(-1) during hard acceleration after the engine and catalytic converter were warm. The tested eight-car fleet average fuel based HNCO emission factor was 0.91 ± 0.58 mg kg fuel(-1), within the range previously estimated for light duty diesel-powered vehicles (0.21-3.96 mg kg fuel(-1)). Our results suggest that HNCO emissions from LDGVs represent a significant emission source in urban areas that should be accounted for in global and regional models. PMID:25198906

  6. Real-time emission factor measurements of isocyanic acid from light duty gasoline vehicles.

    PubMed

    Brady, James M; Crisp, Timia A; Collier, Sonya; Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Forestieri, Sara D; Perraud, Véronique; Zhang, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J; Cappa, Christopher D; Bertram, Timothy H

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to gas-phase isocyanic acid (HNCO) has been previously shown to be associated with the development of atherosclerosis, cataracts and rheumatoid arthritis. As such, accurate emission inventories for HNCO are critical for modeling the spatial and temporal distribution of HNCO on a regional and global scale. To date, HNCO emission rates from light duty gasoline vehicles, operated under driving conditions, have not been determined. Here, we present the first measurements of real-time emission factors of isocyanic acid from a fleet of eight light duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDGVs) tested on a chassis dynamometer using the Unified Driving Cycle (UC) at the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Haagen-Smit test facility, all of which were equipped with three-way catalytic converters. HNCO emissions were observed from all vehicles, in contrast to the idealized laboratory measurements. We report the tested fleet averaged HNCO emission factors, which depend strongly on the phase of the drive cycle; ranging from 0.46 ± 0.13 mg kg fuel(-1) during engine start to 1.70 ± 1.77 mg kg fuel(-1) during hard acceleration after the engine and catalytic converter were warm. The tested eight-car fleet average fuel based HNCO emission factor was 0.91 ± 0.58 mg kg fuel(-1), within the range previously estimated for light duty diesel-powered vehicles (0.21-3.96 mg kg fuel(-1)). Our results suggest that HNCO emissions from LDGVs represent a significant emission source in urban areas that should be accounted for in global and regional models.

  7. Fine-Water-Mist Multiple-Orientation-Discharge Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butz, James R.; Turchi, Craig S.; Kimball, Amanda; McKinnon, Thomas; Riedel, Edward

    2010-01-01

    A fine-water-mist fire-suppression device has been designed so that it can be discharged uniformly in any orientation via a high-pressure gas propellant. Standard fire extinguishers used while slightly tilted or on their side will not discharge all of their contents. Thanks to the new design, this extinguisher can be used in multiple environments such as aboard low-gravity spacecraft, airplanes, and aboard vehicles that may become overturned prior to or during a fire emergency. Research in recent years has shown that fine water mist can be an effective alternative to Halons now banned from manufacture. Currently, NASA uses carbon dioxide for fire suppression on the International Space Station (ISS) and Halon chemical extinguishers on the space shuttle. While each of these agents is effective, they have drawbacks. The toxicity of carbon dioxide requires that the crew don breathing apparatus when the extinguishers are deployed on the ISS, and Halon use in future spacecraft has been eliminated because of international protocols on substances that destroy atmospheric ozone. A major advantage to the new system on occupied spacecraft is that the discharged system is locally rechargeable. Since the only fluids used are water and nitrogen, the system can be recharged from stores of both carried aboard the ISS or spacecraft. The only support requirement would be a pump to fill the water and a compressor to pressurize the nitrogen propellant gas. This system uses a gaseous agent to pressurize the storage container as well as to assist in the generation of the fine water mist. The portable fire extinguisher hardware works like a standard fire extinguisher with a single storage container for the agents (water and nitrogen), a control valve assembly for manual actuation, and a discharge nozzle. The design implemented in the proof-of-concept experiment successfully extinguished both open fires and fires in baffled enclosures.

  8. Occupational asthma due to an emulsified oil mist.

    PubMed Central

    Hendy, M S; Beattie, B E; Burge, P S

    1985-01-01

    A toolsetter developed occupational asthma due to the oil mist generated by his lathe on which it was used as a coolant. The diagnosis was confirmed by serial measurements of peak expiratory flow at home and work, including a prolonged period away from work. Occupational type bronchial provocation tests were performed using the whole emulsified oil and its components separately. He reacted specifically to the whole emulsified oil and to the reodorant, a pine oil preparation. He also reacted to colophony, a constituent of the emulsifier. PMID:3965015

  9. Evolution of the Mobile Information SysTem (MIST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Thompson, Shelby; Archer, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    The Mobile Information SysTem (MIST) had its origins in the need to determine whether commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies could improve intervehicular activities (IVA) on International Space Station (ISS) crew maintenance productivity. It began with an exploration of head mounted displays (HMDs), but quickly evolved to include voice recognition, mobile personal computing, and data collection. The unique characteristic of the MIST lies within its mobility, in which a vest is worn that contains a mini-computer and supporting equipment, and a headband with attachments for a HMD, lipstick camera, and microphone. Data is then captured directly by the computer running Morae(TM) or similar software for analysis. To date, the MIST system has been tested in numerous environments such as two parabolic flights on NASA's C-9 microgravity aircraft and several mockup facilities ranging from ISS to the Altair Lunar Sortie Lander. Functional capabilities have included its lightweight and compact design, commonality across systems and environments, and usefulness in remote collaboration. Human Factors evaluations of the system have proven the MIST's ability to be worn for long durations of time (approximately four continuous hours) with no adverse physical deficits, moderate operator compensation, and low workload being reported as measured by Corlett Bishop Discomfort Scale, Cooper-Harper Ratings, and the NASA Total Workload Index (TLX), respectively. Additionally, through development of the system, it has spawned several new applications useful in research. For example, by only employing the lipstick camera, microphone, and a compact digital video recorder (DVR), we created a portable, lightweight data collection device. Video is recorded from the participants point of view (POV) through the use of the camera mounted on the side of the head. Both the video and audio is recorded directly into the DVR located on a belt around the waist. This data is then transferred to

  10. Demystifying FluMist, a new intranasal, live influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2003-09-01

    FluMist--a cold-adapted, live-attenuated, trivalent, intranasal influenza virus vaccine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on June 17, 2003--has been shown to be safe and effective, but its role in the general prevention of influenza is yet to be defined. Intranasal administration is expected to be more acceptable than parenteral, particularly in children, but the potential for the shedding of live virus may pose a risk to anyone with a compromised immune system. PMID:14518575

  11. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  12. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air..., the maximum allowable resistance of complete dust, fume, and mist, and gas, vapor, or gas and vapor... Respirator types Pressure tightness test 1 Isoamyl acetate test 84.1141 84.1142 Dusts: Air...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... filters; minimum requirements; general. 84.1158 Section 84.1158 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general. (a) Three respirators with cartridges containing, or having attached to them, filters for protection against dusts, fumes, and mists, except the mists...

  19. Water Misting: Treating Self-Injurious Behavior in a Multiply Handicapped, Visually Impaired Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, A.; Beckwith, B. E.

    1989-01-01

    A water mist was employed as a punisher to reduce head hitting in a 10-year-old multiply handicapped, visually impaired child. Results indicated that water mist alone was effective in reducing the frequency of head hits during meals, but other situations required the addition of primary reinforcers, stimulus control, or both. (Author/JDD)

  20. 30 CFR 72.701 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. Respiratory equipment approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. 72.701 Section 72.701 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  1. Acid rain program emissions scorecard 1997. SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], heat input, and CO[sub 2] emission trends in the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    Established under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Acid Rain Program requires the electric utility industry to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]), the pollutants that cause acid rain. To ensure that the desired emission reductions are achieved, the program implements an innovative market-based regulatory approach with utilities having flexible compliance options. After each calendar year, EPA determines the compliance of each facility relating to its SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions requirements and publishes a report documenting the results.

  2. Viscometric and misting properties of polymer-modified fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grens, E. A., II; Williams, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Solutions of polyisobutylenes L160, L200, B200, and B230 in Jet-A were prepared at concentrations up to 3000 ppm. These polymers have molecular weights in the range 5 to 9 x 1,00,000 and have previously been shown to induce anti-misting properties in Jet-A. In connection with the pumpability of such solutions, especially at low temperatures, the shear viscosity, eta, of these solutions was measured at temperatures 25 C, 0 C, and -25 C. Concentration-dependence of eta was very similar for all four polymer solutes, the increase of eta(c) at 3000 ppm being roughly four-fold (relative to Jet-A) for the L-series and five-fold for the B-series. This behavior prevailed at all temperatures, and there was no evidence of phase separation or other chemical instability at -25 C at any concentration. In the more practical c-range for anti-misting applications, say within 1000 ppm, the increase of eta(c) was only twofold.

  3. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1143 Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter...

  4. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1143 Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter...

  5. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench..., fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. (a) Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against dusts, fumes, mists, and...

  6. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench..., fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. (a) Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against dusts, fumes, mists, and...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench..., fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. (a) Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against dusts, fumes, mists, and...

  8. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench..., fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. (a) Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against dusts, fumes, mists, and...

  9. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1143 Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. Dust, fume, and mist respirators will be tested in accordance with the... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1143 Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. Dust, fume, and mist respirators will be tested in accordance with the... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1143 Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. Dust, fume, and mist respirators will be tested in accordance with the... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter...

  12. Silencing Mist1 Gene Expression Is Essential for Recovery from Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Anju; Humphrey, Sean E.; Steele, Rebecca E.; Hess, David A.; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J.; Konieczny, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas are tasked with synthesizing, packaging and secreting vast quantities of pro-digestive enzymes to maintain proper metabolic homeostasis for the organism. Because the synthesis of high levels of hydrolases is potentially dangerous, the pancreas is prone to acute pancreatitis (AP), a disease that targets acinar cells, leading to acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), inflammation and fibrosis—events that can transition into the earliest stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Despite a wealth of information concerning the broad phenotype associated with pancreatitis, little is understood regarding specific transcriptional regulatory networks that are susceptible to AP and the role these networks play in acinar cell and exocrine pancreas responses. In this study, we examined the importance of the acinar-specific maturation transcription factor MIST1 to AP damage and organ recovery. Analysis of wild-type and Mist1 conditional null mice revealed that Mist1 gene transcription and protein accumulation were dramatically reduced as acinar cells underwent ADM alterations during AP episodes. To test if loss of MIST1 function was primarily responsible for the damaged status of the organ, mice harboring a Cre-inducible Mist1 transgene (iMist1) were utilized to determine if sustained MIST1 activity could alleviate AP damage responses. Unexpectedly, constitutive iMist1 expression during AP led to a dramatic increase in organ damage followed by acinar cell death. We conclude that the transient silencing of Mist1 expression is critical for acinar cells to survive an AP episode, providing cells an opportunity to suppress their secretory function and regenerate damaged cells. The importance of MIST1 to these events suggests that modulating key pancreas transcription networks could ease clinical symptoms in patients diagnosed with pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26717480

  13. Ratiometric emission fluorescent pH probe for imaging of living cells in extreme acidity.

    PubMed

    Niu, Weifen; Fan, Li; Nan, Ming; Li, Zengbo; Lu, Dongtao; Wong, Man Shing; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan

    2015-03-01

    A novel ratiometric emission fluorescent probe, 1,1-dimethyl-2-[2-(quinolin-4-yl)vinyl]-1H-benzo[e]indole (QVBI), is facilely synthesized via ethylene bridging of benzoindole and quinoline. The probe exhibits ratiometric fluorescence emission (F(522nm)/F(630nm)) characteristics with pKa 3.27 and linear response to extreme-acidity range of 3.8-2.0. Also, its high fluorescence quantum yield (Φ = 0.89) and large Stokes shift (110 nm) are favorable. Moreover, QVBI possesses highly selective response to H(+) over metal ions and some bioactive molecules, good photostability, and excellent reversibility. The probe has excellent cell membrane permeability and is further applied successfully to monitor pH fluctuations in live cells and imaging extreme acidity in Escherichia coli cells without influence of autofluorescence and native cellular species in biological systems. PMID:25664606

  14. The contribution from shipping emissions to air quality and acid deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Derwent, Richard G; Stevenson, David S; Doherty, Ruth M; Collins, William J; Sanderson, Michael G; Johnson, Colin E; Cofala, Janusz; Mechler, Reinhard; Amann, Markus; Dentener, Frank J

    2005-02-01

    A global three-dimensional Lagrangian chemistry-transport model STOCHEM is used to describe the European regional acid deposition and ozone air quality impacts along the Atlantic Ocean seaboard of Europe, from the SO2, NOx, VOCs and CO emissions from international shipping under conditions appropriate to the year 2000. Model-derived total sulfur deposition from international shipping reaches over 200 mg S m(-2) yr(-1) over the southwestern approaches to the British Isles and Brittany. The contribution from international shipping to surface ozone concentrations during the summertime, peaks at about 6 ppb over Ireland, Brittany and Portugal. Shipping emissions act as an external influence on acid deposition and ozone air quality within Europe and may require control actions in the future if strict deposition and air quality targets are to be met.

  15. Real-time emission factor measurements of isocyanic acid from light duty gasoline vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, J.; Crisp, T. A.; Collier, S.; Kuwayama, T.; Zhang, Q.; Kleeman, M.; Bertram, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the potential for vehicle based anthropogenic sources of the carcinogen isocyanic acid (HNCO) in urban environments. Although emission factors for HNCO have recently been measured for light duty diesel vehicles, light duty gasoline vehicles are not well characterized. Here we will present real-time emission factor measurements of HNCO for light duty gasoline vehicles measured at the California Air Resource Board's Haagen-Smit Laboratory in September of 2011 driven on a chassis dynamometer using the California Unified Driving Cycle. Emission factors for HNCO were determined for eight light duty gasoline vehicles utilizing a fast response chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer and simultaneous real-time measurements of CO, CO2, and NOx. We will discuss the potential production mechanism for HNCO by light duty gasoline vehicles as well as the potential drive cycle dependency of HNCO production.

  16. Impacts of acid emissions from Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, on selected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, Roderic A.; Burke, Kelly J.

    1990-07-01

    Emissions of acidic gases and thermal waters from Nevado del Ruiz volcano have recently increased in concert with the November 13, 1985 eruption. This study examines the downwind and downstream effects of these emissions on alpine ecosystems high on the slopes of the volcano (4100 m) and on coffee plantations at lower elevations (< 2000 m) and greater distances from the active vent (> 30 km). Samples of bulk deposition, rain, soils, soil solutions, and streams were collected over a six-month period (January-July, 1987) to examine the impacts of this volcanogenic acidity. Bulk deposition falling on the higher slopes of the volcano is usually acidified; however, deposition reaching the distal coffee plantations seldom is acidic. The sources of the acids are hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide in the plume of the volcano. Although sulfur dioxide is by far the more abundant gas, hydrogen chloride is most responsible for acidification of rain falling on the slopes of the volcano. With distance from the vent, the chloride/sulfate ratio drops exponentially. The only major influence on regional precipitation chemistry in addition to the volcano appears to be land-use-related activities around the coffee plantations. Deposition on these areas is enriched by an order of magnitude in nitrate and base cations, compared to all other stations. Throughfall chemistry in the coffee plantations shows a dramatic response to occasional acid-rain events. A base-leaching process on coffee plant leaves is triggered by acid rain. For each equivalent of hydrogen ion in rain on the leaf surface, over 23 equivalents of potassium ion are leached from the leaf. In spite of this dramatic response by the vegetation, the plantation soils appear relatively unaffected by acidic deposition. In contrast, the alpine soils on the volcano exhibit low pHs, high sulfate and chloride concentrations in soil solutions, and high extractable sulfate concentrations. All of these factors indicate that these

  17. Understanding the mechanism behind the nitrous acid (HONO) emissions from the northern soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Hem Raj; Siljanen, Henri MP; Biasi, Christina; Maljanen, Marja

    2016-04-01

    The interest of the flux of nitrous acid (HONO) from soils has recently increased. HONO is an important source of the oxidant OH- radical in the troposphere and thus results a reduction of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Soils have been recently found to be potential sources of HONO as these emissions are linked to other nitrogen cycle processes, especially presence of nitrite in soils. Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been suggested as possible yet substantial sources of HONO. Along with soil pH, other physical properties such as C:N, nitrogen availability, soil moisture and temperature may effect HONO emissions. Our preliminary results demonstrate that drained acidic peatlands with a low C:N produces higher NO, N2O and HONO emissions compared to those in pristine peatlands and upland forest soils. This study will identify the hotspots and the process involved in HONO emissions in northern ecosystems. Along with HONO, we will examine the emissions of NO and N2O to quantify the related N-gases emitted. These results will add a new piece of information in our knowledge of the nitrogen cycle. Soil samples will be collected from several boreal and arctic sites in Finland, Sweden and Russia. In the laboratory, soil samples will be manipulated based on previously described soil physical properties. This will be followed by labelling experiment coupled with selective nitrification inhibitor experiment in the soils. Our first hypothesis is that northern ecosystems are sources of HONO. Second, is that the soil properties (C:N ratio, moisture, N-availability, pH) regulate the magnitude of HONO emissions from northern soils. Third is that the first step of nitrification (ammonium oxidation) is the main pathway to produce HONO. This study will show that the northern ecosystems could be sources of HONO and therefore increasing the oxidizing capacity of the lower atmosphere.

  18. Trends in emissions and acid deposition over the northeastern US: Measurements and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehr, J. W.; Allen, D. J.; Dickerson, R. R.; Loughner, C.; Piety, C. A.

    2006-05-01

    In recent years, two large emissions reduction programs have taken place in and upwind of the Northeastern United States: the Acid Rain Program and the NOx SIP (State Implementation Plan) call. Other programs have been directed toward reducing emissions from mobile sources, and new programs such as the CAIR rule (Clean Air Interstate Rule) are coming on line, pushing emissions down even further. Trends in the emissions data to date suggest that the benefits of these programs should already be measurable using existing monitoring data. A brief analysis of acid deposition data from several sites around the region indicates that the trends in sulfate are all downward, while the trends in nitrate deposition are less dramatic, with a promising recent downward trend. The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) model - a one-atmosphere urban/regional smog, aerosol, and deposition model - has been used to estimate future trends in deposition with the implementation of new programs expected to come on line in the next several years.

  19. Effect of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of delayed light emission.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenglong; Xing, Da; Zeng, Lizhang; Ding, Chunfeng; Chen, Qun

    2005-01-01

    The structure and function of chloroplast in plant leaves can be affected by acid rain and air pollution. The photosystem II in a plant is considered the primary site where light-induced delayed light emission (DLE) is produced. With the lamina of zijinghua (Bauhinia variegata L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) as testing models, we studied the effects of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of DLE by using a home-made weak luminescence detection system. The results show that the changes in DLE intensity of green plants can reflect the changes in chloroplast intactness and function. With proper calibration, DLE may provide an alternative means of evaluating environmental acid stress on plants. The changes in DLE intensity may provide a new approach for the detection of environmental pollution and its impact on the ecosystem.

  20. Alcohol, volatile fatty acid, phenol, and methane emissions from dairy cows and fresh manure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huawei; Trabue, Steven L; Scoggin, Kenwood; Jackson, Wendi A; Pan, Yuee; Zhao, Yongjing; Malkina, Irina L; Koziel, Jacek A; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    There are approximately 2.5 million dairy cows in California. Emission inventories list dairy cows and their manure as the major source of regional air pollutants, but data on their actual emissions remain sparse, particularly for smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). We report measurements of alcohols, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and methane (CH4) emitted from nonlactating (dry) and lactating dairy cows and their manure under controlled conditions. The experiment was conducted in an environmental chamber that simulates commercial concrete-floored freestall cow housing conditions. The fluxes of methanol, ethanol, and CH4 were measured from cows and/or their fresh manure. The average estimated methanol and ethanol emissions were 0.33 and 0.51 g cow(-1) h(-1) from dry cows and manure and 0.7 and 1.27 g cow(-1) h(-1) from lactating cows and manure, respectively. Both alcohols increased over time, coinciding with increasing accumulation of manure on the chamber floor. Volatile fatty acids and phenols were emitted at concentrations close to their detection limit. Average estimated CH4 emissions were predominantly associated with enteric fermentation from cows rather than manure and were 12.35 and 18.23 g cow(-1) h(-1) for dry and lactating cows, respectively. Lactating cows produced considerably more gaseous VOCs and GHGs emissions than dry cows (P < 0.001). Dairy cows and fresh manure have the potential to emit considerable amounts of alcohols and CH4 and research is needed to determine effective mitigation.

  1. MIST Final Report: Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Michael A.; Medvick, Patricia A.; Foley, Michael G.; Foote, Harlan P.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Nuffer, Lisa L.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Barr, Jonathan L.; Renholds, Andrea S.

    2008-03-15

    The Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology (MIST) program was undertaken to advance exploitation tools for Long Wavelength Infra Red (LWIR) hyper-spectral imaging (HSI) analysis as applied to the discovery and quantification of nuclear proliferation signatures. The program focused on mitigating LWIR image background clutter to ease the analyst burden and enable a) faster more accurate analysis of large volumes of high clutter data, b) greater detection sensitivity of nuclear proliferation signatures (primarily released gasses) , and c) quantify confidence estimates of the signature materials detected. To this end the program investigated fundamental limits and logical modifications of the more traditional statistical discovery and analysis tools applied to hyperspectral imaging and other disciplines, developed and tested new software incorporating advanced mathematical tools and physics based analysis, and demonstrated the strength and weaknesses of the new codes on relevant hyperspectral data sets from various campaigns. This final report describes the content of the program and the outlines the significant results.

  2. Characteristics of sprinklers and water spray mists for fire safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, Louise A.; Lavelle, Stephen P.; Nolan, P. F.

    1991-04-01

    In order to predict the type of sprinkler or spray head required for fire safety in buildings and transport systems (e.g. aircraft) it is necessary to model the interaction of water droplets with the thermally buoyant fire gases. Such modelling requires a detailed knowledge of the mean droplet size, the droplet size distribution, droplet velocity and trajectory. Many existing systems for the characterisation of droplets are indirect in that an optical property is measured and the results are subject to "black box" data processing. A direct method can be developed using a synchronised metal vapour laser and high speed cine camera with appropriate optics. Results on both sprinkler and spray mist will be presented and a basis for the choice of active fire protection systems will be outlined.

  3. Experimental study of radiant-heat blocking function of fine water mist suppressing small-scale pool fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang

    2004-04-01

    Fine water mist with droplet diameter less than 20 microns is less studied in water mist family used as firefighting agent. Experiments were conducted to study the radiant heat blocking function of fine water mist in suppressing pool fire. The fine water mist was generated by a jet atomizer. The jet flow of mist was with low momentum when it exerted on the pool fire. The interaction of this kind of fine water mist with pool fire is quite different from those mists with large droplet size and momentum. A group of ethyl-alcohol and gasoline pool fires with different power is used in the research. Fine water mist was exerted on the pool fire from different distances. Radiant heat flux was measured before and after the mist application. The experiment results show that because of its small droplet size and low momentum, the fine water mist could not even penetrate the buoyant plum zone of relatively larger scale pool fire. No water mist could reach the surface of the flame and result in no radiant heat blocking function would realize in the flame zone. This function is valid in low power pool fire and this limitation is obtained from the research for the studied pool fire.

  4. Efficient Light Harvester Layer Prepared by Solid/Mist Interface Reaction for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiang; Li, Hongcui; Wu, Wenyi; Li, Yanhua; Fei, Dehou; Gao, Chunxiao; Liu, Xizhe

    2015-08-12

    A solid/mist reaction method is developed to produce well-crystallized light harvester layers without pinhole defects for perovskite solar cells. The reaction based on mist precursor can be facilely operated with low process temperature. And it can effectively control the volume of CH3NH3I solution and the reaction temperature, which affect the quality of perovskite harvester layers and the performance of perovskite solar cells remarkably. Under optimized condition, the efficiencies of devices reach 16.2% with the average efficiency of 14.9%. The solid/mist reaction is also used to fabricate planar junction solar cells and a PCE of 14.9% is obtained.

  5. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are specified in... include emission limits for hydrogen chloride at least as protective as the emission limits for hydrogen... hydrogen chloride contained in the gases discharged to the atmosphere from a designated facility is...

  6. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are specified in... include emission limits for hydrogen chloride at least as protective as the emission limits for hydrogen... hydrogen chloride contained in the gases discharged to the atmosphere from a designated facility is...

  7. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are specified in... include emission limits for hydrogen chloride at least as protective as the emission limits for hydrogen... hydrogen chloride contained in the gases discharged to the atmosphere from a designated facility is...

  8. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are specified in... include emission limits for hydrogen chloride at least as protective as the emission limits for hydrogen... hydrogen chloride contained in the gases discharged to the atmosphere from a designated facility is...

  9. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are specified in... include emission limits for hydrogen chloride at least as protective as the emission limits for hydrogen... hydrogen chloride contained in the gases discharged to the atmosphere from a designated facility is...

  10. Photochemical processing of diesel fuel emissions as a large secondary source of isocyanic acid (HNCO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, M. F.; Friedman, B.; Fulgham, R.; Brophy, P.; Galang, A.; Jathar, S. H.; Veres, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Farmer, D. K.

    2016-04-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO) is a well-known air pollutant that affects human health. Biomass burning, smoking, and combustion engines are known HNCO sources, but recent studies suggest that secondary production in the atmosphere may also occur. We directly observed photochemical production of HNCO from the oxidative aging of diesel exhaust during the Diesel Exhaust Fuel and Control experiments at Colorado State University using acetate ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Emission ratios of HNCO were enhanced, after 1.5 days of simulated atmospheric aging, from 50 to 230 mg HNCO/kg fuel at idle engine operating conditions. Engines operated at higher loads resulted in less primary and secondary HNCO formation, with emission ratios increasing from 20 to 40 mg HNCO/kg fuel under 50% load engine operating conditions. These results suggest that photochemical sources of HNCO could be more significant than primary sources in urban areas.

  11. Emission of short chained organic acids, aldehydes and monoterpenes from Quercus ilex L. and Pinus pinea L. in relation to physiological activities, carbon budget and emission algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselmeier, J.; Bode, K.; Hofmann, U.; Müller, H.; Schäfer, L.; Wolf, A.; Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Cecinato, A.; Frattoni, M.; Foster, P.; Ferrari, C.; Jacob, V.; Fugit, J. L.; Dutaur, L.; Simon, V.; Torres, L.

    We report on the emission of monoterpenes, short-chained organic acids and aldehydes from Mediterranean oak ( Quercus ilex L.) and pine (Pinus pinea L.). All studies were done with dynamic cuvettes enclosing intact branches at the top of the canopy flushed with ambient air. Daily trends are compared with the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature and the physiological activities of the enclosed branches, i.e. assimilation and transpiration, with special attention on the carbon budget. Oak emits monoterpenes in high amounts, up to 2% of the assimilated carbon. As compared with monoterpenes, short-chained organic acids and aldehydes are of minor importance for oak. However, on a leaf dry-weight basis equal amounts of acids and aldehydes are released from oak and pine. As pine emitted only low amounts of terpenes (below 0.2% of the assimilated carbon) the release of terpenes and oxygenated compounds is of equal importance for this species. A comparison of a modelled light and temperature driven emission with the observed volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions showed good agreement for monoterpenes as well as for organic acids emitted in the case of oak. For pine only the release of acids showed an adequate relation to the algorithm data, whereas the terpene emissions seemed to be dominated by temperature effects.

  12. Amplified spontaneous emission of Rhodamine 6G embedded in pure deoxyribonucleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Ileana; Szukalski, Adam; Sznitko, Lech; Miniewicz, Andrzej; Bartkiewicz, Stanislaw; Kajzar, Francois; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw

    2012-10-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is commonly viewed as a genetic information carrier. However, now it is recognized as a nanomaterial, rather than as a biological material, in the research field of nanotechnology. Here, we show that using pure DNA, doped with rhodamine 6G, we are able to observe amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) phenomenon. Moderate ASE threshold, photodegradation, and reasonable gain coefficient observed in this natural host gives some perspectives for practical applications of this system in biophotonics. Obtained results open the way and will be leading to construction of truly bio-lasers using nature made luminophores, such as anthocyanins.

  13. Nanoparticle-enhanced fluorescence emission for non-separation assays of carbohydrates using a boronic acid-alizarin complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianjin; Kamra, Tripta; Ye, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Addition of crosslinked polymer nanoparticles into a solution of a 3-nitrophenylboronic acid-alizarin complex leads to significant enhancement of fluorescence emission. Using the nanoparticle-enhanced boronic acid-alizarin system has improved greatly the sensitivity and extended the dynamic range of separation-free fluorescence assays for carbohydrates.

  14. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  19. Characterization of the ultrasound beam produced by the MIST therapy, wound healing system.

    PubMed

    Keltie, K; Reay, C A; Bousfield, D R; Cole, H; Ward, B; Oates, C P; Sims, A J

    2013-07-01

    The MIST Therapy wound healing device (Celleration, Eden Prairie, MN, USA), which uses low-frequency ultrasound to deliver an atomized saline spray to acute wounds, was evaluated in a laboratory environment. The output of the MIST device was characterized by its frequency, transmission in the presence and absence of the saline spray and intensity. When measured up to 500 mm away from the transducer tip, the transmission of 39.5 kHz ultrasound was not significantly attenuated by the saline itself. In the absence of the saline spray, the acoustic intensity range of the MIST device was calculated to be 429-188 mW cm(-2) across the manufacturer-specified treatment range (12.5-20 mm). Because of the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and soft tissue, the MIST Therapy device would deliver only 0.1% of this incident intensity into the wound site.

  20. Nitric acid and ammonia emissions from a mid-latitude prescribed wetlands fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebel, P. J.; Cofer, W. R., III; Levine, J. S.; Vay, S. A.; Roberts, P. D.

    1988-01-01

    The first simultaneous measurements of gaseous nitric acid and ammonia in the smoke plume of a wetlands biomass burn were obtained. The measurements were made using tungsten oxide-coated diffusion denuder tubes from a helicopter during a prescribed burn on November 9, 1987, at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, located at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The mean NH3 and HNO3 mixing ratios measured in the smoke plume were 19 ppbv and 14 ppbv, respectively, both significantly higher than background mixing ratios. Nitric acid correlated well with carbon dioxide produced by the combustion. The mean CO2-normalized emission ratio for HNO3 was found to be 0.00012. Ammonia, however, dit not correlate well with CO2, suggesting a more complex relationship between combustion and production/release of NH3.

  1. Nitric acid and ammonia emissions from a mid-latitude prescribed wetlands fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBel, P. J.; Cofer, W. R., III; Levine, J. S.; Vay, S. A.; Roberts, P. D.

    1988-08-01

    We have obtained the first simultaneous measurements of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3) in the smoke plume of a wetlands biomass burn. These measurements were made using tungsten oxide-coated diffusion denuder tubes from a helicopter during a prescribed burn at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, located at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on November 9, 1987. The mean NH3 and HNO3 mixing ratios measured in the smoke plume were 19 ppbv and 14 ppbv, respectively, both significantly higher than background mixing ratios. Nitric acid correlated well with carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the combustion. The mean CO2-normalized emission ratio for HNO3 was found to be 1.2 × 10-4. Ammonia, however, did not correlate well with CO2 suggesting a more complex relationship between combustion and production/release of NH3.

  2. Mist eliminators for freshwater production from open-cycle OTEC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.; Penney, T.

    1983-12-01

    For freshwater production from open-cycle OTEC systems, the suitability of commercially available mist eliminators is examined. The mist eliminators are characterized in terms of their liquid collection efficiencies, allowable vapor velocities at the onset of reentrainment, and pressure losses. Suitable design modifications can be projected to allow steam velocities of up to 35 m/s, with a corresponding parasitic power loss of less than 5% of the gross potential of an open-cycle OTEC power system.

  3. Characteristics of dioxin emissions from a Waelz plant with acid and basic kiln mode.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pao Chen; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chen, Mei Lien; Chang, Moo Been

    2012-01-30

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in the flue gas of a Waelz plant operated in acid and basic modes, respectively. To abate (PCDD/F) and other pollutants, the plant operates with a post-treatment of flue gases by activated carbon injection and subsequent filtration. Relatively high PCDD/F discharge by fly ashes is found with acid kiln mode of the Waelz process. Therefore, basic kiln mode of the Waelz process is investigated and compared in this plant. With the adsorbent injection rate of 7 kg/h (95 mg/Nm(3)), the PCDD/F concentration in stack gas was measured as 0.123 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) in the basic operating mode. The added Ca(OH)(2) reacted with metal catalysts and HCl((g)) in the flue gas and thus effectively suppressed the formation of PCDD/Fs. PCDD/F concentrations in fly ashes sampled from the dust settling chamber, cyclone, primary filter and secondary filter in basic kiln mode were significantly lower than that in acid kiln mode. Total PCDD/F emission on the basis of treating one kg of electric arc furnace dust in the basic operation mode was 269 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated which was significantly lower than that in acid mode (640 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated).

  4. Characteristics of dioxin emissions from a Waelz plant with acid and basic kiln mode.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pao Chen; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chen, Mei Lien; Chang, Moo Been

    2012-01-30

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in the flue gas of a Waelz plant operated in acid and basic modes, respectively. To abate (PCDD/F) and other pollutants, the plant operates with a post-treatment of flue gases by activated carbon injection and subsequent filtration. Relatively high PCDD/F discharge by fly ashes is found with acid kiln mode of the Waelz process. Therefore, basic kiln mode of the Waelz process is investigated and compared in this plant. With the adsorbent injection rate of 7 kg/h (95 mg/Nm(3)), the PCDD/F concentration in stack gas was measured as 0.123 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) in the basic operating mode. The added Ca(OH)(2) reacted with metal catalysts and HCl((g)) in the flue gas and thus effectively suppressed the formation of PCDD/Fs. PCDD/F concentrations in fly ashes sampled from the dust settling chamber, cyclone, primary filter and secondary filter in basic kiln mode were significantly lower than that in acid kiln mode. Total PCDD/F emission on the basis of treating one kg of electric arc furnace dust in the basic operation mode was 269 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated which was significantly lower than that in acid mode (640 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated). PMID:22178278

  5. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions.

    PubMed

    Delmelle, Pierre; Delfosse, Thomas; Delvaux, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    The continuous emissions of SO(2), HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH(4)F- and 0.016 M KH(2)PO(4)-extractable sulfate (NH(4)F-S and KH(2)PO(4)-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH(4)F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH(2)PO(4). This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from approximately 34 to 95% and approximately 65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH(2)PO(4)-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion distribution reflects preferential retention

  6. Exploratory study on the pyrolysis and PAH emissions of polylactic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yi-Chi; Liang, Chenju; Yang, Shu-hua

    2011-01-01

    The emission factors for 16 U.S. EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the polylactic acid (PLA) pyrolysis and the decomposition mechanism were investigated in this study. The fragments and gas compositions using on-line thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) were determined. A temperature series of 7 fragments was analyzed in helium, and was found to include: m/z = 16, which may represent methane; 28, which may be carbon monoxide; 44, which may be acetaldehyde; 56, which may be methylketene, 144, which may be oligomers of lactide. In addition, there are little amount of 100, and 200 which are oligomers of lactides observed in the pyrolysis of PLA. The pyrolysis of PLA is a non-radical, backbiting ester interchange reaction involving the OH chain ends. Depending on the size of the cyclic transition state, the product can be a lactide molecule, an oligomeric ring with more than two repeat units, methylketene, or acetaldehyde. Carbon monoxide and methane are contributions from the decomposition of acetaldehyde. Experimentally, not detected (n.d.)-40.47 μg of 16 PAH emissions were determined from per gram of PLA pyrolysis. The PAH profiles showed a predominance of naphthalene (58.9%), phenanthrene (12.5%), and fluoranthene (5.9%). The total PAH emissions for PLA pyrolysis is significantly lower than the values associated with PLA combustion. From the viewpoint of air pollution control, this result suggests that pyrolysis seems a better alternative than combustion for the disposal of waste PLA. Also, since pyrolysis is the first step for an incineration process, these results can provide important information on the control of PAHs formation for a commercialized incinerator.

  7. Morphology dependent field emission of acid-spun carbon nanotube fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, S. B.; Boeckl, J.; Back, T. C.; Ferguson, J. B.; Koerner, H.; Murray, P. T.; Maruyama, B.; Lange, M. A.; Cahay, M. M.; Behabtu, N.; Young, C. C.; Pasquali, M.; Lockwood, N. P.; Averett, K. L.; Gruen, G.; Tsentalovich, D. E.

    2015-03-01

    Acid spun carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers were investigated for their field emission properties and performance was determined to be dependent on fiber morphology. The fibers were fabricated by wet-spinning of pre-made CNTs. Fiber morphology was controlled by a fabrication method and processing conditions, as well as purity, size, and type of the CNT starting material. The internal fiber structure consisted of CNT fibrils held together by van der Waals forces. Alignment and packing density of the CNTs affects the fiber’s electrical and thermal conductivity. Fibers with similar diameters and differing morphology were compared, and those composed of the most densely packed and well aligned CNTs were the best field emitters as exhibited by a lower turn-on voltage and a larger field enhancement factor. Fibers with higher electrical and thermal conductivity demonstrated higher maximum current before failure and longer lifetimes. A stable emission current at 3 mA was obtained for 10 h at a field strength of <1 V μm-1. This stable high current operation makes these CNT fibers excellent candidates for use as low voltage electron sources for vacuum electronic devices.

  8. Morphology dependent field emission of acid-spun carbon nanotube fibers.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, S B; Boeckl, J; Back, T C; Ferguson, J B; Koerner, H; Murray, P T; Maruyama, B; Lange, M A; Cahay, M M; Behabtu, N; Young, C C; Pasquali, M; Lockwood, N P; Averett, K L; Gruen, G; Tsentalovich, D E

    2015-03-13

    Acid spun carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers were investigated for their field emission properties and performance was determined to be dependent on fiber morphology. The fibers were fabricated by wet-spinning of pre-made CNTs. Fiber morphology was controlled by a fabrication method and processing conditions, as well as purity, size, and type of the CNT starting material. The internal fiber structure consisted of CNT fibrils held together by van der Waals forces. Alignment and packing density of the CNTs affects the fiber's electrical and thermal conductivity. Fibers with similar diameters and differing morphology were compared, and those composed of the most densely packed and well aligned CNTs were the best field emitters as exhibited by a lower turn-on voltage and a larger field enhancement factor. Fibers with higher electrical and thermal conductivity demonstrated higher maximum current before failure and longer lifetimes. A stable emission current at 3 mA was obtained for 10 h at a field strength of <1 V μm(-1). This stable high current operation makes these CNT fibers excellent candidates for use as low voltage electron sources for vacuum electronic devices. PMID:25694166

  9. Preliminary results of the water-mist fire auppression experiment from the STS-107 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; McKinnon, J.; Gokoglu, S.

    A discussion of the preliminary results of the Water-Mist Fire Suppression experiment (Mist) from the STS-107 mission of the Space Shuttle is presented. The overall objective of the project is to study the feasibility of developing fine-water- mist systems as the next generation of fire suppressants that may replace the currently used halon-based systems. Halons (fluoro-bromo -carbons) are so effective at fire suppression that in the past it was not necessary to evaluate other options. However, as is well known now, halons are powerful ozone-depleting agents in the stratosphere. The realization of this attribute led to the ban of the manufacture of halons in the industrialized world by the Montreal Protocols starting in 1995. The Mist experiment studies the influence of water mists on premixed flames propagating in a cylindrical tube under low-gravity conditions and evaluates the role of thermal, physical, and chemical mechanisms in the water-mist/flame interaction. Prior to the orbital flight, a numerical simulation of this interaction was developed and reduced- gravity ground experiments were conducted to obtain the preliminary data necessary to define the scientific objectives and technical issues of the spacecraft experiments. The effects of droplet size and water concentration on the laminar flame speed and flame shape are used as the measure of fire suppression efficacy. A simplified numerical simulation of the flame/mist interaction shows the effect of water mist on flame speed and evaluates the relative importance of the latent and sensible heats of water droplets on fire suppression. The microgravity tests of the Mist experiment are performed in the Combustion Module (CM-2) facility in the Space Shuttle. These tests explore the efficacy of three droplet sizes and three water concentrations on the propagation of lean, stoichiometric, and rich premixed propane-air flames. The long duration and quality of microgravity in the spaceflight provide the required

  10. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts.

    PubMed

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-10-12

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers.

  11. Treatment of self-injurious behavior using a water mist: initial response suppression and generalization.

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, M F; Iwata, B A; Ong, P; McSween, T E

    1980-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a fine mist of water applied to the face contingent upon self-injurious behavior (SIB) exhibited by profoundly retarded persons. In Experiment 1, results of individual reversal designs showed substantial reductions in a variety of SIB's (mouthing, hand biting, skin tearing, and head banging) for seven participants. In Experiment 2, two participants who frequently bit their hands were each observed in two different settings. Following initial baselines in each setting, a series of manipulations was undertaken to compare the effects of mild verbal punishment ("No") with those of a combined treatment ("No" plus mist procedure). Results in one setting indicated that "No" suppressed SIB only after it was first paired with the water mist. Data also suggested that, once acquired, the punishing properties of "No" could be extended to a second setting in which the mist was never applied, and that these effects could be generalized across therapists. Results of these experiments indicate that the water mist procedure may be an effective alternative to traditional punishment techniques. Although conclusions regarding generalization are limited due to the brevity of the maintenance conditions, the data suggest that treatment gains may be transferred to more acceptable forms of social punishment and reinforcement. PMID:7380756

  12. A combined experimental and theoretical study of supercooling by two-phase mist flows

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zhihua.

    1991-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of cooling enhancement by mist flow was performed for a square channel with a smooth wall. A new method is proposed for the turbulent deposition of droplets from two-phase mist flow into the wall of the channel. The proposed analytical model shows satisfactory agreement with observations from an experimental measurement using a particle-sizing two-dimensional reference-model laser-Doppler anemometry technique. Supercooling is defined as the simultaneous attainment of high heat flux and a low temperature of a surface to be cooled. Surface cooling is by evaporation from the exposed side of the film. The film is maintained by the continuous deposition of a stream of turbulent mist. An analytical model is provided for the heat-transfer enhancement coefficient due to mist supercooling. Also, experiments were carried out to investigate cooling enhancement. A substantial supercooling by mist flow is reported. The effects on supercooling of flow rate, droplet concentration and size, and wall heat flux are also reported.

  13. Acid‐Responsive Absorption and Emission of 5‐N‐Arylaminothiazoles: Emission of White Light from a Single Fluorescent Dye and a Lewis Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Kirara; Guo, Jing‐Dong; Sasamori, Takahiro; Tokitoh, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Solutions of 5‐N‐arylaminothiazoles containing pyridyl groups exhibited clear halochromism and halofluorism upon addition of Brønsted and Lewis acids. The addition of triflic acid to solutions of 5‐N‐arylaminothiazoles in Et2O induced bathochromic shifts of the absorption and emission bands. DFT calculations suggested that the spectral changes arise from the protonation of the pyridyl group of the thiazoles in Et2O. Single‐crystal X‐ray diffraction analysis of a thiazole and its protonated form revealed the change of the conformation around the thiazole ring. The emission of white light was accomplished from a single fluorescent dye by adjusting the ratio of dye and B(C6F5)3, whereby the International Commission on Illumination coordinates showed a linear change from blue to orange. PMID:27777834

  14. Emissions of the natural acidic substance in the acid rain region: Dimethyl sulfide and hydrogen sulfide in the region of Xiamen, China

    SciTech Connect

    Yubao Wang; Miaoqin Lu

    1996-12-31

    The global anthropogenic emissions of sulfur, mainly SO2, are relatively well studied for most of the industrialized world, and relatively little is known to date about natural sulfur emission sources, such as, coastal waters and wetland. The most important atmospheric sulfur compounds originating from biogeochemical sources are DMS and H{sub 2}S. Previous studies suggest that biogenic DMS is mainly emitted from oceanic phytoplankton species. The global emission of sulfur by this process was estimated to be 40 Tg S/year. Major sources of biogenic H{sub 2}S in the atmosphere are believed to be bacterial sulfate reduction in anoxic soils and degradation of organic matter. The mentioned reduced sulfur compounds are partially oxidation in the troposphere to SO{sub 2} and further to sulfur acid, another strong acid produced from DMS oxidation is methane sulphonic acid (CH{sub 3}S(O{sub 2})OH). These compounds are strong acid and will influence the pH of precipitation and will be the important impact in acid rain phenomena.

  15. A Preliminary Study on the Vapor/Mist Phase Lubrication of a Spur Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphates have been the primary compounds used in vapor/mist phase lubrication studies involving ferrous bearing material. Experimental results have indicated that the initial formation of an iron phosphate film on a rubbing ferrous surface, followed by the growth (by cationic diffusion) of a lubricious pyrophosphate-type coating over the iron phosphate, is the reason organophosphates work well as vapor/mist phase lubricants. Recent work, however, has shown that this mechanism leads to the depletion of surface iron atoms and to eventual lubrication failure. A new organophosphate formulation was developed which circumvents surface iron depletion. This formulation was tested by generating an iron phosphate coating on an aluminum surface. The new formulation was then used to vapor/mist phase lubricate a spur gearbox in a preliminary study.

  16. Lipoid pneumonia caused by oil mist exposure from a steel rolling tandem mill

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, M.R.; Balmes, J.R.; Robins, J.M.; Smith, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Five of nine active tandem mill operators exposed at work to aerosolized hydrocarbon mist were referred for evaluation of respiratory complaints. The worker with the longest exposure had reduced lung volumes; he was admitted to the hospital for detailed study. Exercise studies revealed work load limited by ventilation and arterial oxygen desaturation. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy revealed evidence of lipoid pneumonia. Assessment of the mill revealed levels of respirable oil mist by personal samplers throughout the area far below the currently accepted standard of 5 mg/M3. These findings confirm a 20-year-old hypothesis of J.G. Jones regarding the hazard of oil mist in this industrial setting.

  17. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limits for municipal waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are... from that affected facility any gases that contain hydrogen chloride in excess of 29 parts per million by volume or 5 percent of the potential hydrogen chloride emission concentration...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limits for municipal waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are... from that affected facility any gases that contain hydrogen chloride in excess of 29 parts per million by volume or 5 percent of the potential hydrogen chloride emission concentration...

  19. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limits for municipal waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are... from that affected facility any gases that contain hydrogen chloride in excess of 29 parts per million by volume or 5 percent of the potential hydrogen chloride emission concentration...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limits for municipal waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are... from that affected facility any gases that contain hydrogen chloride in excess of 29 parts per million by volume or 5 percent of the potential hydrogen chloride emission concentration...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limits for municipal waste combustor acid gases, expressed as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, are... from that affected facility any gases that contain hydrogen chloride in excess of 29 parts per million by volume or 5 percent of the potential hydrogen chloride emission concentration...

  2. Prediction of methane emission from lactating dairy cows using milk fatty acids and mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    van Gastelen, Sanne; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Enteric methane (CH4 ) production is among the main targets of greenhouse gas mitigation practices for the dairy industry. A simple, robust and inexpensive measurement technique applicable on a large scale to estimate CH4 emission from dairy cattle would therefore be valuable. Milk fatty acids (MFA) are related to CH4 production because of the common biochemical pathway between CH4 and fatty acids in the rumen. A summary of studies that investigated the predictive power of MFA composition for CH4 emission indicated good potential, with predictive power ranging between 47% and 95%. Until recently, gas chromatography (GC) was the principal method used to determine the MFA profile, but GC is unsuitable for routine analysis. This has led to the application of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. The major advantages of using MIR spectroscopy to predict CH4 emission include its simplicity and potential practical application at large scale. Disadvantages include the inability to predict important MFA for CH4 prediction, and the moderate predictive power for CH4 emission. It may not be sufficient to predict CH4 emission based on MIR alone. Integration with other factors, like feed intake, nutrient composition of the feed, parity, and lactation stage may improve the prediction of CH4 emission using MIR spectra. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26996655

  3. Acid Rain Program: general provisions and permits, allowance system, continuous emissions monitoring, excess emissions and administrative appeals--EPA. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1993-01-11

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act (the Act), as amended November 15, 1990, requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) to establish an Acid Rain Program to reduce the adverse effects of acidic deposition. To implement this statutory mandate, the Acid Rain Program requirements will be codified in seven regulations. This action delineates all or portions of five final regulations that were initially proposed December 3, 1991: General Provisions and Permits; the Allowance System; Continuous Emissions Monitoring; Excess Emissions Penalties; and Administrative Appeals. (The administrative appeals procedures were originally proposed as a subpart of the permits rule; EPA has decided to remove it from part 72 and place it in a separate part 78.) In addition to the final rules, this action includes a brief overview of the acid rain problem, summaries of major provisions of the proposed rules, the public's comments on these proposals, and summaries of the major changes that have been made in this final rule. DATES: These rules become effective February 10, 1993. The incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in the regulations is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of February 10, 1993.

  4. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. 84.1153 Section 84.1153 Public..., fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. (a) Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against dusts, fumes, mists, and...

  5. 42 CFR 84.1152 - Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per... Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having...

  6. 42 CFR 84.1152 - Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per... Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1152 - Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per... Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having...

  8. 42 CFR 84.1152 - Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per... Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having...

  9. 42 CFR 84.1152 - Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per... Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having...

  10. 30 CFR 71.700 - Inhalation hazards; threshold limit values for gases, dust, fumes, mists, and vapors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gases, dust, fumes, mists, and vapors. 71.700 Section 71.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND... limit values for gases, dust, fumes, mists, and vapors. (a) No operator of an underground coal mine...

  11. 30 CFR 71.700 - Inhalation hazards; threshold limit values for gases, dust, fumes, mists, and vapors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gases, dust, fumes, mists, and vapors. 71.700 Section 71.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND... limit values for gases, dust, fumes, mists, and vapors. (a) No operator of an underground coal mine...

  12. Plant Habitat Telemetry / Command Interface and E-MIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Uriae M.

    2013-01-01

    (CAD) software was used to draft the E-MIST circuit. This required several component libraries to be created. Coding the sensors and obtaining sensor data involved using the Arduino Uno developmental board and coding language, and properly wiring peripheral sensors to the microcontroller (the central control unit of the experiment).

  13. Experimental Evaluation the Effectiveness of Water Mist Fire Extinguishing Systems at Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyashina, G. S.; Medvedev, V. V.; Shevyrev, S. A.; Vysokomornaya, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    Currently mist water is one of the most promising areas of fire protection. We performed an experimental study of phase transformations drops of water mist (range 50 - 500 microns) in motion in a high-temperature (500 - 2000 K) typical products of combustion of petroleum products (gasoline, kerosene, acetone, alcohol). We used high speed (the speed of shooting at least 105 frames per second) and optical methods of recording streams of liquid and gas medium. We determined the effect of the parameters of the test process (the initial temperature and the initial droplet size) at the rate of evaporation of atomized water under these conditions.

  14. Experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of water mist automated fire extinguishing systems for oil transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Nyashina, G. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Volkov, R. S.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental investigation of regularities of carryover of water mist droplets (radius of 50 - 500 μm) by high temperature (500 - 1800 K) products of combustion of typical petroleum products (oil, gasoline, kerosene, etc.) was carried out. The panoramic optical methods and high-speed hardware and software systems were used. Speeds of droplets after mixing with oncoming high temperature gases were determined. Conditions of continuation of droplets movement through combustion products with preservation of initial trajectory in spite of intensive evaporation and braking were found. The predictive evaluation of effectiveness of water mist use for extinguishing of fires involving oil and typical petroleum products.

  15. Singlet oxygen-sensitized delayed emissions from hydrogen peroxide/gallic acid/potassium ferricyanide systems containing organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Tsukino, Kazuo; Sekine, Masahiko; Nakata, Munetaka

    2009-06-01

    Fourier-transform chemiluminescence spectra of H 2O 2/gallic acid/K 3[Fe(CN) 6] systems containing organic solvents were measured. Emission bands with peaks around 530 and 700 nm were observed in systems containing solvents with a carbonyl group such as N, N-dimethylformamide, and those with a hydroxyl group such as methanol, respectively. The relative band intensities depended strongly on the concentration of these organic solvents. The emission species are attributed to gallic acid-ferricyanide complexes excited by energy transfer from singlet oxygen dimol, ( 1O 2) 2. The effects of organic solvents are interpreted in terms of intermolecular interactions of gallic acid-ferricyanide complexes, water molecules and organic solvents.

  16. The growth response of Alternanthera philoxeroides in a simulated post-combustion emission with ultrahigh [CO2] and acidic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Griffin, Kevin L; Blazier, John C; Craig, Elizabeth C; Gilbert, Dominique S; Sritrairat, Sanpisa; Anderson, O Roger; Castaldi, Marco J; Beaumont, Larry

    2009-07-01

    Although post-combustion emissions from power plants are a major source of air pollution, they contain excess CO2 that could be used to fertilize commercial greenhouses and stimulate plant growth. We addressed the combined effects of ultrahigh [CO2] and acidic pollutants in flue gas on the growth of Alternanthera philoxeroides. When acidic pollutants were excluded, the biomass yield of A. philoxeroides saturated near 2000 micromol mol(-1) [CO2] with doubled biomass accumulation relative to the ambient control. The growth enhancement was maintained at 5000 micromol mol(-1) [CO2], but declined when [CO2] rose above 1%, in association with a strong photosynthetic inhibition. Although acidic components (SO2 and NO2) significantly offset the CO2 enhancement, the aboveground yield increased considerably when the concentration of pollutants was moderate (200 times dilution). Our results indicate that using excess CO2 from the power plant emissions to optimize growth in commercial green house could be viable.

  17. Organic Acids Over Equatorial Africa: Results from DECAFE 88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helas, Günter; Bingemer, Heinz; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    1992-04-01

    Gaseous short chain organic acids were measured during the dry season (February) in and above the rain forest of the northern Congo. Samples were taken at ground level and during several flights up to 4 km altitude. The organic acids were concentrated from the atmosphere by using "mist scrubbers," which expose a mist of deionized water to the air to be probed. The organic acids absorbed in the water were subsequently analyzed by ion chromatography. Formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids were identified in the samples. At ground level, average mixing ratios of gaseous formic and acetic acid of 0.5±0.6 and 0.6±0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (1 s), respectively, were found. Boundary layer mixing ratios, however, were significantly higher (3.7±1.0 and 2.7±0.9 ppbv). This indicates a downward net flux of these atmospheric trace components from the boundary layer to the surface. Free tropospheric samples taken above the cloud convection layer show lower mixing ratios again (0.9±0.3 and 0.7±0.1 ppbv). On the basis of this vertical distribution, direct emission by vegetation is not considered to be the dominant source. Biomass burning and photochemical oxidation of biogenic precursors are the major processes contributing to the enhancement of organic acids observed in the boundary layer. The organic acids parallel the profiles of ozone and CO, which suggests that their generation processes are closely related. Pyruvic acid is not correlated with formic acid, indicating that the oxidation of isoprene is not of major importance. In emissions from biomass fires, CO correlates well with formic and acetic acid, and thus some of the enhancement of organic acids in the boundary layer can be explained due to burning. However, an additional gas phase source for organic acids must exist to explain the observed ratio of formic to acetic acid. This is most likely the ozonolysis of olefins which were released as pyrolysis products from biomass burning.

  18. Enhanced extinction of visible radiation due to hydrated aerosols in mist and fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Dupont, J.-C.; Hammer, E.; Hoyle, C. R.; Haeffelin, M.; Burnet, F.; Jolivet, D.

    2015-06-01

    The study assesses the contribution of aerosols to the extinction of visible radiation in the mist-fog-mist cycle. Relative humidity is large in the mist-fog-mist cycle, and aerosols most efficient in interacting with visible radiation are hydrated and compose the accumulation mode. Measurements of the microphysical and optical properties of these hydrated aerosols with diameters larger than 0.4 μm were carried out near Paris, during November 2011, under ambient conditions. Eleven mist-fog-mist cycles were observed, with a cumulated fog duration of 96 h, and a cumulated mist-fog-mist cycle duration of 240 h. In mist, aerosols grew by taking up water at relative humidities larger than 93%, causing a visibility decrease below 5 km. While visibility decreased down from 5 to a few kilometres, the mean size of the hydrated aerosols increased, and their number concentration (Nha) increased from approximately 160 to approximately 600 cm-3. When fog formed, droplets became the strongest contributors to visible radiation extinction, and liquid water content (LWC) increased beyond 7 mg m-3. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode co-existed with droplets, as interstitial non-activated aerosols. Their size continued to increase, and some aerosols achieved diameters larger than 2.5 μm. The mean transition diameter between the aerosol accumulation mode and the small droplet mode was 4.0 ± 1.1 μm. Nha also increased on average by 60 % after fog formation. Consequently, the mean contribution to extinction in fog was 20 ± 15% from hydrated aerosols smaller than 2.5 μm and 6 ± 7% from larger aerosols. The standard deviation was large because of the large variability of Nha in fog, which could be smaller than in mist or 3 times larger. The particle extinction coefficient in fog can be computed as the sum of a droplet component and an aerosol component, which can be approximated by 3.5 Nha (Nha in cm-3 and particle extinction coefficient in Mm-1. We observed an influence of

  19. Reduction and avoidance of lubricant mist demands an integrated assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Wahlmüller, E; Neubauer, H; Höflinger, W

    1999-08-01

    A case study to identify major factors for lubricant mist exposure covered 15 metal machining sites. The investigation included milling, turning, drilling and grinding applications. Systematic analysis considered all relevant data concerning the machine tool, the lubricant and the suction plant. The efficiency of the implemented maintenance program at the installed filter systems was checked by concentration measurements immediately before and after service. All performed measurements of lubricant aerosol and vapor loads upstream and downstream of the installed filter systems were carried out according to VDI 2066 and BIA 3110, respectively. The selection criteria for the sites to be investigated, the systematic nature of the data acquisition and the procedure of the analysis are demonstrated in detail by performing comparisons between selected applications using emulsions and those employing straight oil for lubrication. The results of the study identify recirculation of ventilated air as the major source of workplace exposure to airborne lubricant emissions. More than 60% of the demisters investigated emit air at total lubricant loads (aerosols and vapor) above the limit of 20 mg m-3 at any time of operation; which also means immediately after service. A common reason for exceeded aerosol loads in recirculated air is e.g. the fact that the type of filter system applied is often not suitable for the separation problem. Loads of lubricant vapor are usually higher at the processes which use water emulsions as lubricant. In a quarter of the cases the limits were exceeded solely due to high vapor loads even immediately after service. The exposure can be reduced by replacing the lubricant, installation of a vapor separation plant or avoiding air recirculation. Maintenance time of the demisting system and aerosol separation efficiency of state-of-the-art demisting systems can be expanded by implementation of enhanced preliminary filter stages. This study confirms that

  20. Reduction and avoidance of lubricant mist demands an integrated assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Wahlmüller, E; Neubauer, H; Höflinger, W

    1999-08-01

    A case study to identify major factors for lubricant mist exposure covered 15 metal machining sites. The investigation included milling, turning, drilling and grinding applications. Systematic analysis considered all relevant data concerning the machine tool, the lubricant and the suction plant. The efficiency of the implemented maintenance program at the installed filter systems was checked by concentration measurements immediately before and after service. All performed measurements of lubricant aerosol and vapor loads upstream and downstream of the installed filter systems were carried out according to VDI 2066 and BIA 3110, respectively. The selection criteria for the sites to be investigated, the systematic nature of the data acquisition and the procedure of the analysis are demonstrated in detail by performing comparisons between selected applications using emulsions and those employing straight oil for lubrication. The results of the study identify recirculation of ventilated air as the major source of workplace exposure to airborne lubricant emissions. More than 60% of the demisters investigated emit air at total lubricant loads (aerosols and vapor) above the limit of 20 mg m-3 at any time of operation; which also means immediately after service. A common reason for exceeded aerosol loads in recirculated air is e.g. the fact that the type of filter system applied is often not suitable for the separation problem. Loads of lubricant vapor are usually higher at the processes which use water emulsions as lubricant. In a quarter of the cases the limits were exceeded solely due to high vapor loads even immediately after service. The exposure can be reduced by replacing the lubricant, installation of a vapor separation plant or avoiding air recirculation. Maintenance time of the demisting system and aerosol separation efficiency of state-of-the-art demisting systems can be expanded by implementation of enhanced preliminary filter stages. This study confirms that

  1. Optimizing Techology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2004-01-31

    More than 56,000 coal quality data records from five public data sets have been selected for use in this project. These data will be used to create maps showing where coals with low mercury and acid-gas emissions might be found for power plants classified by air-pollution controls. Average coal quality values, calculated for 51,156 commercial coals by U.S. county-of-origin, are listed in the appendix. Coal moisture values are calculated for commercially shipped coal from 163 U.S. counties, where the raw assay data (including mercury and chlorine values) are reported on a dry basis. The calculated moisture values are verified by comparison with observed moisture values in commercial coal. Moisture in commercial U.S. coal shows provincial variation. For example, high volatile C bituminous rank coal from the Interior province has 3% to 4% more moisture than equivalent Rocky Mountain province coal. Mott-Spooner difference values are calculated for 4,957 data records for coals collected from coal mines and exploration drill holes. About 90% of the records have Mott-Spooner difference values within {+-}250 Btu/lb.

  2. Growth mechanism, surface and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures deposited on various Au-seeded thickness obtained by mist-atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Asib, N. A. M.; Mohamed, R.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures on non-seeded glass, 6 nm and 12 nm Au seed layer obtained by mist-atomization was proposed. ZnO films were successfully deposited on glass substrate with different thickness of Au seed layer i.e. 6 nm and 12 nm. The surface and optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and photoluminescence (PL). FESEM micrograph show that ZnO nanostructure deposited on 6 nm Au seed layer has uniform formation and well distributed. From PL spectroscopy, the UV emission shows that ZnO deposited on 6 nm Au seed layer has the more intense UV intensity which proved that high crystal quality of nanostructured ZnO deposited on 6 nm Au seed layer.

  3. Throughfall chemistry and canopy interactions in a Sitka spruce plantation sprayed with six different simulated polluted mist treatments.

    PubMed

    Chiwa, M; Crossley, A; Sheppard, L J; Sakugawa, H; Cape, J N

    2004-01-01

    Throughfall chemistry was studied in a mature Sitka spruce plantation in order to investigate canopy interactions, such as nitrogen absorption, cation leaching, and neutralization of rainfall passing through the canopy. The plantation had been exposed to six different simulated mist treatments including N (NH(4)NO(3)) and S (H(2)SO(4) at pH 2.5) in four replicated blocks since 1996. Throughfall and rainfall were collected from May to September 2000. The results showed that 30-35% of the applied N was retained by the canopy. There were linear relationships between the loss of H(+) and increased K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) deposition through the canopy. However these increases in K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) deposition accounted for only about 50% of total neutralization of the acidity. The relationship between the anion deficits in throughfall and the loss of H(+) implied that weak organic acid anions were involved in the neutralization of the acidity in throughfall.

  4. Measuring tropospheric HNO3 - Problems and prospects for Nylon filter and mist chamber techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Vijgen, A. S.; Harriss, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    A series of laboratory and field measurements was performed to evaluate the mist chamber technique for determining tropospheric HNO3 concentrations. Both the mist chamber and standard Nylon filter techniques exhibit high collection efficiency and excellent agreement measuring HNO3 vapors from a permeation source. When simultaneously sampling ambient air in eastern Virginia, the Nylon filter measured an average of 70 percent higher HNO3 concentration than the mist chamber technique. The results indicate that O3 causes a low-level positive artifact interference in HNO3 measurements performed with the filter technique. This O3-induced error is small, however, compared to the large difference between atmospheric HNO3 concentrations determined with the two techniques. It is hypothesized that unidentified (organic?) nitrogen species in the atmosphere react for form NO3(-) on the filter and this phenomenon may interfere with Nylon filter measurements of HNO3 vapor. These potential interferences did not appear to affect measurements of HNO3 with the mist chamber method.

  5. Mist Interval and Hormone Concentration Influence Rooting of Florida and Piedmont Azalea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native azalea (Rhododendron spp.) vegetative propagation information is limited. The objective of this experiment is to determine optimal levels of K-IBA and mist intervals for propagation of Florida azalea (Rhododendron austrinum) and Piedmont azalea (Rhododendron canescens). Florida azalea roote...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.55 - Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1926.55 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.55 Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists. (a) Exposure of employees to...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.55 - Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1926.55 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.55 Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists. (a) Exposure of employees to...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.55 - Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1926.55 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.55 Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists. (a) Exposure of employees to...

  9. On the use of capture-recapture models in mist-net studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Pradel, R.; Hines, J.E.; Ralph, C. John; Dunn, E.H.

    2004-01-01

    Capture-recapture models provide a statistical framework for estimating population parameters from mist-net data. Although Cormack-Jolly-Seber and related models have recently been used to estimate survival rates of birds sampled with mist nets, we believe that the full potential for use of capture-recapture models has not been realized by many researchers involved in mist-net studies. We present a brief discussion of the overall framework for estimation using capture-recapture methods, and review several areas in which recent statistical methods can be, but generally have not yet been, applied to mist-net studies. These areas include estimation of (I) rates of movement among areas; (2) survival rates in the presence of transients: (3) population sizes or migrating birds: (4) proportion of birds alive but not present at a breeding site (one definition of proportion of nonbreeding birds in a population): (5) population change and recruitment: and (6) species richness. Using these models will avoid the possible bias associated with use of indices. and provide statistically valid variance estimates and inference.

  10. Development and Research on the Mechanism of Novel Mist Etching Method for Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Hirao, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    A novel etching process with etchant mist was developed and applied to oxide thin films such as zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc magnesium oxide (ZnMgO), and indium tin oxide (ITO). By using this process, it was shown that precise control of the etching characteristics is possible with a reasonable etching rate, for example, in the range of 10-100 nm/min, and a fine pattern of high accuracy can also be realized, even though this is usually very difficult by conventional wet etching processes, for ZnO and ZnMgO. The mist etching process was found to be similarly and successfully applied to ITO. The mechanism of mist etching has been studied by examining the etching temperature dependence of pattern accuracy, and it was shown that the mechanism was different from that of conventional liquid-phase spray etching. It was ascertained that fine pattern etching was attained using mist droplets completely (or partly) gasified by the heat applied to the substrate. This technique was applied to the fabrication of a ZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) with a ZnO active channel length of 4 µm. The electrical properties of the TFT were found to be excellent with fine uniformity over the entire 4-in. wafer.

  11. Ozone-mist spray sterilization for pest control in agricultural management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Norihito; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Baba, Seiji; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Pawlat, Joanna; Teii, Shinriki; Sung, Ta-Lun

    2013-02-01

    We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2‒) and ozonide radical ion (*O3‒) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  12. Instruction Workbook for Tracheostomy Suctioning and Misting in a School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Karen McKinney; Roach, Antionette Andolfatto

    The handbook presents California guidelines for training school personnel to provide skilled nursing procedures such as tracheostomy suctioning and misting for students with special health needs. The workbook begins with an overview of the anatomy and function of the respiratory system, specifically breathing mechanics. Part 2 considers the…

  13. [The weather chart pattern inducing asthma attack: the advocacy of "fine mist" as a provocative factor].

    PubMed

    Kanaya, K

    2001-05-01

    Outbreaks of asthma attack on 345 patients were studied in relation to the atmospheric phenomena. About 76% of days in which multiple attacks took place were fit with either of the following atmospheric conditions, 1) the trough of atmospheric pressure, 2) the approach of Typhoon, 3) the cold advection, in Japan. The common feature of these different atmospheric conditions are the tendency to turn excess vapor into fine water particles (fine mist). The fine mist could stimulate irritable airway to asthma attacks ("fine mist" hypothesis). To verity this hypothesis each asthmatic attack was further studied. It fitted in 70.7% of the attacks (fitting group) and not in 29.3% of the attacks (non-fitting group). Frequency of asthmatic attacks varied in every month on fitting group, but was nearly constant on non-fitting group. The average of the daily change of vapor density was calculated monthly. And it appeared that its graphic pattern was similar to the graphic pattern of asthmatic attack frequency. Thus it is supposed that there are at least two factors that could induce asthmatic attacks, one would be fine mist, others are unknown.

  14. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. 70.305 Section 70.305 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  15. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. 70.305 Section 70.305 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  16. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. 70.305 Section 70.305 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  17. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. 70.305 Section 70.305 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  18. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. 70.305 Section 70.305 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  19. A Study of Flame Propagation on Water-Mist Laden Gas Mixtures in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; Riedel, E. P.; McKinnon, J. T.

    1999-01-01

    The use of water mists (very fine water sprays) for fire suppression is currently receiving increased attention as a replacement technology for halogen-based chemical agents-such as Halon 1301 (CF3Br)--the manufacturing of which has been banned by the Montreal Protocol due to their high ozone depletion potential. Water mist technology has been found effective for a wide range of applications such as Class B pool fires, shipboard machinery, aircraft cabins, computers, and electronic equipment. There are five distinct mechanisms by which water droplets may interact with a flame. First, the high enthalpy of vaporization of water (2450 kJ/kg) leads to heat removal from the flame front as the liquid droplets turn to steam. Second, as water vaporizes its volume increases approximately three orders of magnitude, which leads to the dilution of the oxygen and vaporized fuel required to maintain the flame. The third effect is the recombination of H-atoms and other radicals on the droplet surface. A fourth effect of water mists in fires is the retardation of surface propagation rates due to the wetting of walls and surfaces. The last potential impact of fine water mists affects the radiative propagation of the fire by forming an optically thick barrier to infrared radiation which prevents ignition of the unburned regions. Unfortunately, little fundamental information exists on the interaction of a flame with a water mist. To date, there is no widely accepted interpretation of the critical concentration of droplets required to suppress a flame or of the fundamental mechanisms involved in flame extinguishment by water mists. One of the main obstacles to obtaining such understanding is the difficulty of providing a simple, well-defined experimental setup for the flame front/water mist interaction. Some of the difficulty stems from the problem of generating, distributing and maintaining a homogeneous concentration of droplets throughout a chamber while gravity depletes the

  20. MIST: An Open Source Environmental Modelling Programming Language Incorporating Easy to Use Data Parallelism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerby, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Model Integration System (MIST) is open-source environmental modelling programming language that directly incorporates data parallelism. The language is designed to enable straightforward programming structures, such as nested loops and conditional statements to be directly translated into sequences of whole-array (or more generally whole data-structure) operations. MIST thus enables the programmer to use well-understood constructs, directly relating to the mathematical structure of the model, without having to explicitly vectorize code or worry about details of parallelization. A range of common modelling operations are supported by dedicated language structures operating on cell neighbourhoods rather than individual cells (e.g.: the 3x3 local neighbourhood needed to implement an averaging image filter can be simply accessed from within a simple loop traversing all image pixels). This facility hides details of inter-process communication behind more mathematically relevant descriptions of model dynamics. The MIST automatic vectorization/parallelization process serves both to distribute work among available nodes and separately to control storage requirements for intermediate expressions - enabling operations on very large domains for which memory availability may be an issue. MIST is designed to facilitate efficient interpreter based implementations. A prototype open source interpreter is available, coded in standard FORTRAN 95, with tools to rapidly integrate existing FORTRAN 77 or 95 code libraries. The language is formally specified and thus not limited to FORTRAN implementation or to an interpreter-based approach. A MIST to FORTRAN compiler is under development and volunteers are sought to create an ANSI-C implementation. Parallel processing is currently implemented using OpenMP. However, parallelization code is fully modularised and could be replaced with implementations using other libraries. GPU implementation is potentially possible.

  1. Synergism in the effect of prior jasmonic acid application on herbivore-induced volatile emission by Lima bean plants: transcription of a monoterpene synthase gene and volatile emission.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Tila R; Weldegergis, Berhane T; David, Anja; Boland, Wilhelm; Gols, Rieta; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-09-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in induced plant defence e.g. by regulating the biosynthesis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that mediate the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. Moreover, exogenous application of JA can be used to elicit plant defence responses similar to those induced by biting-chewing herbivores and mites that pierce cells and consume their contents. In the present study, we used Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants to explore how application of a low dose of JA followed by minor herbivory by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) affects transcript levels of P. lunatus (E)-β-ocimene synthase (PlOS), emission of (E)-β-ocimene and nine other plant volatiles commonly associated with herbivory. Furthermore, we investigated the plant's phytohormonal response. Application of a low dose of JA increased PlOS transcript levels in a synergistic manner when followed by minor herbivory for both simultaneous and sequential infestation. Emission of (E)-β-ocimene was also increased, and only JA, but not SA, levels were affected by treatments. Projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of other volatiles showed overlap between treatments. Thus, a low-dose JA application results in a synergistic effect on gene transcription and an increased emission of a volatile compound involved in indirect defence after herbivore infestation.

  2. Synergism in the effect of prior jasmonic acid application on herbivore-induced volatile emission by Lima bean plants: transcription of a monoterpene synthase gene and volatile emission

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Tila R.; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; David, Anja; Boland, Wilhelm; Gols, Rieta; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in induced plant defence e.g. by regulating the biosynthesis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that mediate the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. Moreover, exogenous application of JA can be used to elicit plant defence responses similar to those induced by biting-chewing herbivores and mites that pierce cells and consume their contents. In the present study, we used Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants to explore how application of a low dose of JA followed by minor herbivory by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) affects transcript levels of P. lunatus (E)-β-ocimene synthase (PlOS), emission of (E)-β-ocimene and nine other plant volatiles commonly associated with herbivory. Furthermore, we investigated the plant’s phytohormonal response. Application of a low dose of JA increased PlOS transcript levels in a synergistic manner when followed by minor herbivory for both simultaneous and sequential infestation. Emission of (E)-β-ocimene was also increased, and only JA, but not SA, levels were affected by treatments. Projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of other volatiles showed overlap between treatments. Thus, a low-dose JA application results in a synergistic effect on gene transcription and an increased emission of a volatile compound involved in indirect defence after herbivore infestation. PMID:25318119

  3. Enhanced extinction of visible radiation due to hydrated aerosols in mist and fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Dupont, J.-C.; Hammer, E.; Hoyle, C. R.; Haeffelin, M.; Burnet, F.; Jolivet, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study assesses the contribution of aerosols to the extinction of visible radiation in the mist-fog-mist cycle. Measurements of the microphysical and optical properties of hydrated aerosols with diameters larger than 400 nm, composing the accumulation mode, which are the most efficient to interact with visible radiation, were carried out near Paris, during November 2011, in ambient conditions. Eleven mist-fog-mist cycles were observed, with cumulated fog duration of 95 h, and cumulated mist-fog-mist duration of 240 h. In mist, aerosols grew up by taking up water at relative humidities larger than 93%, causing a visibility decrease below 5 km. While visibility decreased down to few km, the mean size of the hydrated aerosols increased, and their number concentration (Nha) increased from approximately 160 to approximately 600 cm-3. When fog formed, droplets became the strongest contributors to visible radiation extinction, and liquid water content (LWC) increased beyond 7 mg m-3. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode co-existed with droplets, as interstitial non-activated aerosols. Their size continued to increase, and a significant proportion of aerosols achieved diameters larger than 2.5 μm. The mean transition diameter between the accumulation mode and the small droplet mode was 4.0 ± 1.1 μm. Moreover Nha increased on average by 60% after fog formation. Consequently the mean aerosol contribution to extinction in fog was 20 ± 15% for diameter smaller than 2.5 μm and 6 ± 7% beyond. The standard deviation is large because of the large variability of Nha in fog, which could be smaller than in mist or three times larger. The particle extinction coefficient in fog can be computed as the sum of a droplet component and an aerosol component, which can be approximated by 3.5 Nha (Nha in cm-3 and particle extinction coefficient in Mm-1). We observed an influence of the main formation process on Nha, but not on the contribution to fog extinction by aerosols

  4. On the primary emission of formic acid from light duty gasoline vehicles and ocean-going vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Timia A.; Brady, James M.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Collier, Sonya; Forestieri, Sara D.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Lerner, Brian M.; Williams, Eric J.; Zhang, Qi; Bertram, Timothy H.

    2014-12-01

    We present determinations of fuel-based emission factors for formic acid (EFHCOOH) from light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) and in-use ocean-going vessels. Emission ratios, from which the emission factors were derived, were determined from LDGVs through measurement of HCOOH and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the exhaust of a fleet of eight LDGVs driven under the California Unified Cycle at the California Air Resources Board's Haagen-Smit Laboratory. Emission ratios from in-use ocean-going vessels were determined through direct measurement of HCOOH and CO2 in ship plumes intercepted by the R/V Atlantis during the 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign within 24 nautical miles of the California coast. The eight car fleet average EFHCOOH was 0.94 ± 0.32 (1σ) and 0.57 ± 0.18 mg (kg fuel)-1 for the cold start and hot running phases of the drive cycle, respectively. This difference suggests that catalytic converter performance and the air/fuel equivalence ratio are important metrics contributing to EFHCOOH. EFHCOOH was determined to be 1.94 ± 1.06 mg (kg fuel)-1 for a single diesel vehicle driven under highway driving conditions, higher on average than any individual LDGV tested. In comparison, HCOOH primary emissions from in-use ocean-going vessels were substantially larger, averaging 20.89 ± 8.50 mg (kg fuel)-1. On a global scale, HCOOH primary emissions from fossil fuel combustion are likely to be insignificant relative to secondary production mechanisms, however primary emissions may contribute more significantly on a finer, regional scale in urban locations.

  5. Alcohol, volatile fatty acid, phenol, and methane emissions from dairy cows and fresh manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 2.5 million dairy cows in California. Emission inventories list dairy cows and their waste as the major source of regional air pollutants, but data on their actual emissions remain sparse, particularly for smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) and greenhouse gases (GH...

  6. Evaluation of a new mist-chamber bioreactor for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Tscheschke, Bernd; Dreimann, Janis; von der Ruhr, Jürgen W; Schmidt, Timo; Stahl, Frank; Just, Lothar; Scheper, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    In this article we describe the development, the characterization and the evaluation of a novel bioreactor type for the cultivation of different pro- and eukaryotic cell-systems: the mist-chamber bioreactor. This innovative bioreactor meets the demand of cultivation systems for shear stress sensitive cells with high requirements for gas supply. Within the mist-chamber bioreactor the cells are cultivated inside an aerosol of vaporized medium generated by ultrasonic vaporization. In contrast to many established bioreactor systems the mist-chamber bioreactor offers an environment with an excellent gas supply without any impeller or gas bubble induced shear stress. A mist-chamber bioreactor prototype has been manufactured and characterized during this work. In the technical and chemical characterization we evaluated the vaporization process, resulting in a vaporization performance of 32 mL/h at working conditions. On this basis we calculated a biomass of 1.4 g (S. cerevisiae, qs  = 3.45 × 10-3 mol/g/h) and 3.4 g (Aspergillus niger, qs  = 1.33 × 10-3 mol/g/h) where the growth rate becomes limited by transport processes. Additionally, we determined a homogenous cultivation area to a height of 3 cm giving a total volume of 0.45 L for the cultivation. Medium components were examined according to their stability during vaporization with the result that all components are stable for at least 5 days. After the technical characterization we demonstrated the feasibility to cultivate S. cerevisiae and F. velupites in the mist-chamber bioreactor. The results demonstrated that the mist-chamber bioreactor is able to transport a sufficient amount of nutrients consistently to the cell samples and offers an excellent oxygen supply without any shear stress inducing aeration. Furthermore we successfully cultivated F. velupites in a solid state cultivation in a long term experiment. The data indicate that the new bioreactor concept can contribute to

  7. Evaluation of a new mist-chamber bioreactor for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Tscheschke, Bernd; Dreimann, Janis; von der Ruhr, Jürgen W; Schmidt, Timo; Stahl, Frank; Just, Lothar; Scheper, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    In this article we describe the development, the characterization and the evaluation of a novel bioreactor type for the cultivation of different pro- and eukaryotic cell-systems: the mist-chamber bioreactor. This innovative bioreactor meets the demand of cultivation systems for shear stress sensitive cells with high requirements for gas supply. Within the mist-chamber bioreactor the cells are cultivated inside an aerosol of vaporized medium generated by ultrasonic vaporization. In contrast to many established bioreactor systems the mist-chamber bioreactor offers an environment with an excellent gas supply without any impeller or gas bubble induced shear stress. A mist-chamber bioreactor prototype has been manufactured and characterized during this work. In the technical and chemical characterization we evaluated the vaporization process, resulting in a vaporization performance of 32 mL/h at working conditions. On this basis we calculated a biomass of 1.4 g (S. cerevisiae, qs  = 3.45 × 10-3 mol/g/h) and 3.4 g (Aspergillus niger, qs  = 1.33 × 10-3 mol/g/h) where the growth rate becomes limited by transport processes. Additionally, we determined a homogenous cultivation area to a height of 3 cm giving a total volume of 0.45 L for the cultivation. Medium components were examined according to their stability during vaporization with the result that all components are stable for at least 5 days. After the technical characterization we demonstrated the feasibility to cultivate S. cerevisiae and F. velupites in the mist-chamber bioreactor. The results demonstrated that the mist-chamber bioreactor is able to transport a sufficient amount of nutrients consistently to the cell samples and offers an excellent oxygen supply without any shear stress inducing aeration. Furthermore we successfully cultivated F. velupites in a solid state cultivation in a long term experiment. The data indicate that the new bioreactor concept can contribute to

  8. Evaluation of mist-net sampling as an index to productivity in Kirtland's Warblers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, J.; Kepler, C.; Sykes, P.; Bocetti, C.I.

    1999-01-01

    In summary, in our study (1) capture rates (number of HY birds/number of AHY birds) were not useful as a direct measure of productivity in Kirtland's Warblers because HY birds were about 1.7 times more likely than AHY birds to be captured in mist nets; (2) capture rates varied substantially among sites, presumably because of changes in habitat that affected movements during late summer (thus, capture rates at a single site did not provide a useful index to population-wide productivity); and (3) population-wide capture rates provided useful indices to population-wide productivity. As noted previously, the first two conclusions are already accepted by specialists in the use of mist netting to index productivity. Our study presents the first evidence that annual variation in relative capture rates is sufficiently small that mist netting at multiple sites in a region can provide a useful index to region-wide productivity. The region must be large relative to late-summer movements by the study species, which means that obtaining habitat-specific productivity rates will be possible only within large patches of habitat. It should also be recognized that many species will move much farther than Kirtland's Warblers (owing to their limited breeding distribution). Our results suggest that mist-netting programs like MAPS and the Constant Effort Sites used in Britain can provide useful measures of temporal patterns, large-scale spatial patterns, and year-specific patterns in avian productivity. Furthermore, unlike most nest-monitoring studies, mist netting in late summer measures season-long productivity, the quantity of greatest use in most demographic analyses. Late-summer mist netting thus appears to be a useful method for studying avian productivity provided that investigators realize that results from at least six to eight sites that are well distributed across a large region must be combined to obtain a valid index, and that results obtained in this manner describe

  9. Developing Standards to Qualify a Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen systems increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide, so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. Fine Water Mist extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. Compared to the carbon dioxide based Portable Fire Extinguisher, the flight qualification of Fine Water Mist systems requires special care. Qualification of the CO2 based Portable Fire Extinguisher began with the assumption that any fire on ISS would be extinguished if the air in the fire environment reached a critical concentration of CO2. Qualification of a CO2 based system requires the developers to make assertions and assumptions about vehicle geometry and the ability of the extinguisher to deliver CO2 in different geometric configurations, but the developers did not need to make assertions or assumptions about the size of the fire, the

  10. Improvement of sensitivity of electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury using acetic acid medium.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, R

    2012-05-15

    A method has been developed to improve the sensitivity of the electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury determination. Effects of various low molecular weight organic solvents at different volume percentages as well as at different acid molarities on the mercury signal were investigated using ELCAD-AES. The addition of few percent of organic solvent, acetic acid produced significant enhancement in mercury signal. Acetic acid of 5% (v/v) with the 0.2M acidity has been found to give 500% enhancement for mercury signal in flow injection mode. Under the optimized parameters the repeatability, expressed as the percentage relative standard deviation of spectral peak area for mercury with 5% acetic acid was found to be 10% for acid blank solution and 5% for 20 ng/mL mercury standard based on multiple measurements with a multiple sample loading in flow injection mode. Limit of detection of this method was determined to be 2 ng/mL for inorganic mercury. The proposed method has been validated by determining mercury in certified reference materials, Tuna fish (IAEA-350) and Aquatic plant (BCR-060). Accuracy of the method for the mercury determination in the reference materials has been found to be between 3.5% and 5.9%. This study enhances the utility of ELCAD-AES for various types of biological and environmental materials to quantify total mercury at very low levels. PMID:22483872

  11. Improvement of sensitivity of electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury using acetic acid medium.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, R

    2012-05-15

    A method has been developed to improve the sensitivity of the electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury determination. Effects of various low molecular weight organic solvents at different volume percentages as well as at different acid molarities on the mercury signal were investigated using ELCAD-AES. The addition of few percent of organic solvent, acetic acid produced significant enhancement in mercury signal. Acetic acid of 5% (v/v) with the 0.2M acidity has been found to give 500% enhancement for mercury signal in flow injection mode. Under the optimized parameters the repeatability, expressed as the percentage relative standard deviation of spectral peak area for mercury with 5% acetic acid was found to be 10% for acid blank solution and 5% for 20 ng/mL mercury standard based on multiple measurements with a multiple sample loading in flow injection mode. Limit of detection of this method was determined to be 2 ng/mL for inorganic mercury. The proposed method has been validated by determining mercury in certified reference materials, Tuna fish (IAEA-350) and Aquatic plant (BCR-060). Accuracy of the method for the mercury determination in the reference materials has been found to be between 3.5% and 5.9%. This study enhances the utility of ELCAD-AES for various types of biological and environmental materials to quantify total mercury at very low levels.

  12. Atmospheric-pressure epitaxial growth technique of a multiple quantum well by mist chemical vapor deposition based on Leidenfrost droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Dang, Giang T.; Nitta, Noriko

    2016-10-01

    A multiple quantum well α-Fe2O3/α-Ga2O3 with parallel and coherent formation of uniform and highly single-crystalline layers on a sapphire substrate has been fabricated by open-air atmospheric-pressure solution-processed mist chemical vapor deposition (Mist CVD). This report demonstrates that complicated structures with atomic-level control can be fabricated even in non-vacuum conditions by the Mist CVD. This can be achieved via the precise control of the precursor flow and ambient temperature combined with the formation of mist droplets of the special Leidenfrost state, which increased the atomic migration length by 108 times more than that of traditional vacuum techniques. This work could be a milestone in the transformation from vacuum to non-vacuum thin film deposition techniques towards a green and sustainable industry.

  13. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  14. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  15. The Transcription Factor MIST1 Is a Novel Human Gastric Chief Cell Marker Whose Expression Is Lost in Metaplasia, Dysplasia, and Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lennerz, Jochen K. M.; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Oates, Edward L.; Huh, Won Jae; Doherty, Jason M.; Tian, Xiaolin; Bredemeyer, Andrew J.; Goldenring, James R.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Shin, Young-Kee; Mills, Jason C.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of reliable molecular markers for normal differentiated epithelial cells limits understanding of human gastric carcinogenesis. Recognized precursor lesions for gastric adenocarcinoma are intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM), defined here by ectopic CDX2 and TFF2 expression, respectively. In mice, expression of the bHLH transcription factor MIST1, normally restricted to mature chief cells, is down-regulated as chief cells undergo experimentally induced metaplasia. Here, we show MIST1 expression is also a specific marker of human chief cells. SPEM, with and without MIST1, is present in human lesions and, akin to murine data, likely represents transitional (TFF2+/MIST1+ = “hybrid”-SPEM) and established (TFF2+/MIST1− = SPEM) stages. Co-visualization of MIST1 and CDX2 shows similar progressive loss of MIST1 with a transitional, CDX2+/MIST1− hybrid-intestinal metaplasia stage. Interinstitutional analysis and comparison of findings in tissue microarrays, resection specimens, and biopsies (n > 400 samples), comprising the entire spectrum of recognized stages of gastric carcinogenesis, confirm MIST1 expression is restricted to the chief cell compartment in normal oxyntic mucosa, rare in established metaplastic lesions, and lost in intraepithelial neoplasia/dysplasia and carcinoma of various types with the exception of rare chief cell carcinoma (∼1%). Our findings implicate MIST1 as a reliable marker of mature, healthy chief cells, and we provide the first evidence that metaplasia in humans arises at least in part from the chief cell lineage. PMID:20709804

  16. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2004-07-31

    County-average hydrogen values are calculated for the part 2, 1999 Information Collection Request (ICR) coal-quality data, published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These data are used together with estimated, county-average moisture values to calculate average net heating values for coal produced in U.S. counties. Finally, 10 draft maps of the contiguous U.S. showing the potential uncontrolled sulfur, chlorine and mercury emissions of coal by U.S. county-of-origin, as well as expected mercury emissions calculated for existing emission control technologies, are presented and discussed.

  17. Effect of micro mist sauna bathing on thermoregulatory and circulatory functions and thermal sensation in humans.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of micro mist sauna bathing, produced by water crushing method, we exposed ten male subjects to five cases of micro mist sauna, namely (1) room temperature (RT) 38 °C with 100 % (actually 91 %) relative humidity (RH), (2) RT 41.5 °C with 80 % (actually 81 %) RH, (3) RT 41.5 °C with 100 % (actually 96 %) RH, (4) RT 45.0 °C with 64 % (actually 61 %) RH, and (5) RT 45.0 °C with 100 % (actually 86 %) RH, and measured tympanic temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate (HR), and cheek moisture content, as well as ratings of thermal and sweating sensation tympanic temperatures at RT 45 °C were significantly higher at 86 % RH than those at 61 % RH; however, those at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH were higher than those with 86 % RH during recovery. There were no significant differences at RT 41.5 °C between with 81 % RH and with 96 % RH. Mean skin temperature was the highest at RT 45 °C 86 % RH case, followed by at RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH, RT 45 °C 61 % RH, RT 41.5 °C 81 % RH, and finally at RT 38 °C 91 % RH. HR change showed the same order as for mean skin temperature. A significant difference in cheek moisture content was observed between RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH 10 min after the micro mist bathing. There were no significant differences between ratings of thermal sensation at RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH. Between RT 45 °C with 86 % RH and RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH, there was a tendency for interaction (0.05 < p < 0.1). Other cases showed significant higher ratings of thermal sensation at higher room temperature or higher relative humidity. The ratings of sweating sensation 10 min after the mist sauna bathing were significantly higher at higher RT and RH except between RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH and RT 45 °C 86 % RH which exhibited no significant difference. We concluded that the micro mist sauna produced by water crushing method induced

  18. Effect of micro mist sauna bathing on thermoregulatory and circulatory functions and thermal sensation in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of micro mist sauna bathing, produced by water crushing method, we exposed ten male subjects to five cases of micro mist sauna, namely (1) room temperature (RT) 38 °C with 100 % (actually 91 %) relative humidity (RH), (2) RT 41.5 °C with 80 % (actually 81 %) RH, (3) RT 41.5 °C with 100 % (actually 96 %) RH, (4) RT 45.0 °C with 64 % (actually 61 %) RH, and (5) RT 45.0 °C with 100 % (actually 86 %) RH, and measured tympanic temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate (HR), and cheek moisture content, as well as ratings of thermal and sweating sensation tympanic temperatures at RT 45 °C were significantly higher at 86 % RH than those at 61 % RH; however, those at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH were higher than those with 86 % RH during recovery. There were no significant differences at RT 41.5 °C between with 81 % RH and with 96 % RH. Mean skin temperature was the highest at RT 45 °C 86 % RH case, followed by at RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH, RT 45 °C 61 % RH, RT 41.5 °C 81 % RH, and finally at RT 38 °C 91 % RH. HR change showed the same order as for mean skin temperature. A significant difference in cheek moisture content was observed between RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH 10 min after the micro mist bathing. There were no significant differences between ratings of thermal sensation at RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH. Between RT 45 °C with 86 % RH and RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH, there was a tendency for interaction (0.05 < p < 0.1). Other cases showed significant higher ratings of thermal sensation at higher room temperature or higher relative humidity. The ratings of sweating sensation 10 min after the mist sauna bathing were significantly higher at higher RT and RH except between RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH and RT 45 °C 86 % RH which exhibited no significant difference. We concluded that the micro mist sauna produced by water crushing method induced more

  19. Production of water mist from electrolyte surface in contact with atmospheric-pressure dc helium glow plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, K.; Ishigame, H.; Nishiyama, S.

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-liquid interaction is a new subject which has been opened by developments of atmospheric-pressure plasma sources. In this work, we adopted laser Mie scattering to examine an atmospheric-pressure dc helium glow plasma in contact with NaCl solution. The plasma was produced by applying a dc voltage between a stainless-steel gas nozzle and the electrolyte via a register of 100 k Ω. The gap distance between the electrolyte surface and the electrode was 4 mm. Helium as a working gas was fed from the nozzle toward the electrolyte surface. The discharge space was illuminated using a cw laser beam at a wavelength of 457 nm, and the scattered laser light was captured using a high-speed camera with an image intensifier via an interference filter at the laser wavelength. The scattered laser light told us the existence of particulates or water mists in the discharge space. The water mists were produced from the electrolyte surface explosively as well as randomly. The trajectories of the mists were basically parabolic. We sometimes observed the expansion of the mist size in the gas phase. The expansion was followed by the disappearance of the mist. This may be due to the evaporation of the mist, and is considered to be the production mechanism of Na in the gas phase.

  20. A technique to prevent capturing birds in unattended, furled mist nets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A technique was developed to prevent the inadvertent capturing of birds in unattended mist nets left in place for long periods of time. This was accomplished by placing furled nets on top of 9-inch wide strips of 30-pound roofing felt secured to the ground between net support poles. All materials used are widely available and procedures used to make the felt strips and install them are described.

  1. Emission control for precursors causing acid rain (V): Improvement of acid soil with the bio-briquette combustion ash.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xu-Hui; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Wang, Wei; Gao, Shi-Dong; Isobe, Yugo

    2004-01-01

    The bio-briquette technique which mixes coal, biomass and sulfur fixation agent and bio-briquettes under 3-5 t/cm2 line pressure has aroused people's attention in view of controlling the air pollution and the acid rain. In this paper, the physicochemical properties of bio-briquette and its ash were investigated. And the acid soil was improved by the bio-briquette combustion ash, which contained nutritive substances such as P, N, K and had the acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). The pH, EC, effective nutrient elements (Ca, Mg, K, P and N), heavy metal elements (Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn) and acid-neutralizing capacity change of ash-added soils within the range of 0-10%, were also studied. Specially, when 5% bio-briquette combustion ash was added to the tested soil, the content of the effective elements such as Ca, Mg and K rose by 100 times, 7 times and twice, respectively. The total nitrogen also increased by about twice. The results showed the oxyanions such as that of Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn were not potentially dangerous, because they were about the same as the averages of them in Chinese soil. It is shown that the ANC became stronger, though the ANC hardly increases in the ash-added soil. On the basis of the evaluation indices, it is concluded that the best mixture ratio is to add 2.5%-8% of the bio-briquette combustion ash to the tested soil.

  2. Will reduced sulphur emissions under the Second Sulphur Protocol lead to recovery of acid sensitive sites in UK?

    PubMed

    Jenkins, A; Helliwell, R C; Swingewood, P J; Sefton, C; Renshaw, M; Ferrier, R C

    1998-01-01

    A conceptual model of the combined effects of acid deposition and land-use, Model of Acidification of Groundwater In Catchments (MAGIC), was applied to 21 upland sites in the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network (AWMN) to assess the likely future recovery in response to the latest international agreements controlling anthropogenic sulphur emissions throughout Europe. Future estimates of sulphur deposition were generated by the Hull Acid Rain Model (HARM), based on the agreed reductions outlined in the Second Sulphur Protocol. The results indicate only a limited degree of recovery in surface-water chemistry at all sites over the next 50 years; moreover, a continuing decline in soil base status is predicted to occur at 70% of sites, resulting in longer term reacidification of surface-water at 38% of sites. However, compared with a 'business as usual' scenario the recovery is pronounced, although acidified sites will require further reductions in acidic deposition if recovery to pre-industrial chemical conditions are to be achieved. Furthermore, land-use scenarios at afforested sites suggest that replanting of felled forest will lead to a further increase in acidification. This strengthens the argument that plantation forestry should be avoided in areas considered geologically sensitive to acidic deposition.

  3. A chamber study of the influence of boreal BVOC emissions and sulfuric acid on nanoparticle formation rates at ambient concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Maso, M.; Liao, L.; Wildt, J.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Tillmann, R.; Sipilä, M.; Hakala, J.; Lehtipalo, K.; Ehn, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D.; Mentel, T.

    2016-02-01

    Aerosol formation from biogenic and anthropogenic precursor trace gases in continental background areas affects climate via altering the amount of available cloud condensation nuclei. Significant uncertainty still exists regarding the agents controlling the formation of aerosol nanoparticles. We have performed experiments in the Jülich plant-atmosphere simulation chamber with instrumentation for the detection of sulfuric acid and nanoparticles, and present the first simultaneous chamber observations of nanoparticles, sulfuric acid, and realistic levels and mixtures of biogenic volatile compounds (BVOCs). We present direct laboratory observations of nanoparticle formation from sulfuric acid and realistic BVOC precursor vapour mixtures performed at atmospherically relevant concentration levels. We directly measured particle formation rates separately from particle growth rates. From this, we established that in our experiments, the formation rate was proportional to the product of sulfuric acid and biogenic VOC emission strength. The formation rates were consistent with a mechanism in which nucleating BVOC oxidation products are rapidly formed and activate with sulfuric acid. The growth rate of nanoparticles immediately after birth was best correlated with estimated products resulting from BVOC ozonolysis.

  4. Effect of aspartame-derived phenylalanine on neutral amino acid uptake in human brain: a positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Koeppe, R A; Shulkin, B L; Rosenspire, K C; Shaw, L A; Betz, A L; Mangner, T; Price, J C; Agranoff, B W

    1991-05-01

    The possible effects of elevation of the plasma phenylalanine level secondary to the ingestion of aspartame on brain amino acid uptake in human subjects have been investigated by means of positron emission tomography (PET). 1-[11C]Aminocyclohexanecarboxylate [( 11C]ACHC) is a poorly metabolized synthetic amino acid that crosses the blood-brain barrier by the same carrier that transports naturally occurring large neutral amino acids. Quantitative test-retest PET studies were performed on 15 individuals. Seven received two identical baseline scans, whereas eight received a baseline scan followed by a scan performed approximately 40-45 min following ingestion of an orange-flavored beverage containing 34 mg/kg of body weight of the low-calorie sweetener aspartame, a dose equivalent to the amount in 5 L of diet soft drink consumed all at once by the study subjects, weighing an average of 76 kg. The 40-45-min interval was selected to maximize the detection of possible decreases in ACHC uptake resulting from increased competition for the carrier, because the plasma phenylalanine level is known to peak at this time. We observed an 11.5% decrease in the amino acid transport rate constant K1 and a smaller decrease in the tissue distribution volume of ACHC (6%). Under conditions of normal dietary use, aspartame is thus unlikely to cause changes in brain amino acid uptake that are measurable by PET.

  5. Pulmonary fibrosis in cable plant workers exposed to mist and vapor of petroleum distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Skyberg, K.; Roenneberg, A.; Kamoey, J.I.; Dale, K.; Borgersen, A.

    1986-08-01

    Twenty-five cable plant workers exposed to mists and vapors of mineral oils and kerosene for 5-35 years have investigated in a cross-sectional, matched pairs study. The exposed cohort and the referents were examined by radiology, pulmonary function measurements, and a questionnaire for symptoms of respiratory disease. Lung tissue from a deceased worker with 35 years of exposure was investigated by histopathologic methods and by scanning electron microscopy. Exposure measurements were performed by personal sampling. Previous employment and smoking habits were recorded for all subjects. An increased prevalence of slight basal lung fibrosis was found in chest films of the exposed workers. Pulmonary fibrosis was confirmed histopathologically. A moderately decreased vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV/sub 1/) was found. Oil mist was measured to time-weighted average levels of 0.15-0.30 mg/m/sup 3/ with short-term vapor exposure of up to 4000 mg/m/sup 3/. It is concluded that mists and vapors from petroleum distillates are the most probable caused of the findings.

  6. Recapture Heterogeneity in Cliff Swallows: Increased Exposure to Mist Nets Leads to Net Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Charles R.; Brown, Mary Bomberger; Lear, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often use mark-recapture to estimate demographic variables such as abundance, growth rate, or survival for samples of wild animal populations. A common assumption underlying mark-recapture is that all animals have an equal probability of detection, and failure to meet or correct for this assumption–as when certain members of the population are either easier or more difficult to capture than other animals–can lead to biased and inaccurate demographic estimates. We built within-year and among-years Cormack-Jolly-Seber recaptures-only models to identify causes of capture heterogeneity for a population of colonially nesting cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) caught using mist-netting as a part of a 20-year mark-recapture study in southwestern Nebraska, U.S.A. Daily detection of cliff swallows caught in stationary mist nets at their colony sites declined as the birds got older and as the frequency of netting at a site within a season increased. Experienced birds’ avoidance of the net could be countered by sudden disturbances that startled them into a net, such as when we dropped a net over the side of a bridge or flushed nesting cliff swallows into a stationary net positioned at a colony entrance. Our results support the widely held, but seldom tested, belief that birds learn to avoid stationary mist nets over time, but also show that modifications of traditional field methods can reduce this source of recapture heterogeneity. PMID:23472138

  7. Feasibility Study of Vapor-Mist Phase Reaction Lubrication Using a Thioether Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.; Krantz, Timothy L.

    2007-01-01

    A primary technology barrier preventing the operation of gas turbine engines and aircraft gearboxes at higher temperatures is the inability of currently used liquid lubricants to survive at the desired operating conditions over an extended time period. Current state-of-the-art organic liquid lubricants rapidly degrade at temperatures above 300 C; hence, another form of lubrication is necessary. Vapor or mist phase reaction lubrication is a unique, alternative technology for high temperature lubrication. The majority of past studies have employed a liquid phosphate ester that was vaporized or misted, and delivered to bearings or gears where the phosphate ester reacted with the metal surfaces generating a solid lubricious film. This method resulted in acceptable operating temperatures suggesting some good lubrication properties, but the continuous reaction between the phosphate ester and the iron surfaces led to wear rates unacceptable for gas turbine engine or aircraft gearbox applications. In this study, an alternative non-phosphate liquid was used to mist phase lubricate a spur gearbox rig operating at 10,000 rpm under highly loaded conditions. After 21 million shaft revolutions of operation the gears exhibited only minor wear.

  8. The MiST2 database: a comprehensive genomics resource on microbial signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Luke E.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2010-01-01

    The MiST2 database (http://mistdb.com) identifies and catalogs the repertoire of signal transduction proteins in microbial genomes. Signal transduction systems regulate the majority of cellular activities including the metabolism, development, host-recognition, biofilm production, virulence, and antibiotic resistance of human pathogens. Thus, knowledge of the proteins and interactions that comprise these communication networks is an essential component to furthering biomedical discovery. These are identified by searching protein sequences for specific domain profiles that implicate a protein in signal transduction. Compared to the previous version of the database, MiST2 contains a host of new features and improvements including the following: draft genomes; extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor protein identification; enhanced classification of signaling proteins; novel, high-quality domain models for identifying histidine kinases and response regulators; neighboring two-component genes; gene cart; better search capabilities; enhanced taxonomy browser; advanced genome browser; and a modern, biologist-friendly web interface. MiST2 currently contains 966 complete and 157 draft bacterial and archaeal genomes, which collectively contain more than 245 000 signal transduction proteins. The majority (66%) of these are one-component systems, followed by two-component proteins (26%), chemotaxis (6%), and finally ECF factors (2%). PMID:19900966

  9. Acceleration of potential-induced degradation by salt-mist preconditioning in crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Soh; Nishiyama, Naoki; Yoshino, Seiji; Ujiro, Takumi; Watanabe, Shin; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi; Tanahashi, Tadanori

    2015-08-01

    We examined the sequential effects of salt-mist stress followed by high-system-voltage stress on the power loss of crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules to determine whether a crucial failure as potential-induced degradation (PID) is accelerated by material-property changes caused by the long-term effects of a less harmful stress such as salt-mist spraying. Degradation profiles confirmed in this study show that PID is accelerated by certain types of salt-mist preconditioning. For the acceleration of PID, the contribution of sodium ions liberated from the front glass of the PV module seems to be excluded. Therefore, we consider that the sodium ions penetrating into the PV modules from the ambient environment may also cause degradation according to the proposed mechanisms of PID, as the sodium ions existing in the front glass cause PID. Furthermore, this type of degradation may indicate the wear-out phenomenon after a long-term exposure in the field (especially near the coast).

  10. Priming by Hexanoic Acid Induce Activation of Mevalonic and Linolenic Pathways and Promotes the Emission of Plant Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Eugenio; Camañes, Gemma; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Hexanoic acid (Hx) is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of Hx in response to the challenge pathogen A. alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used 13C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of 13C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than 200 molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by Hx. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of Hx this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application. PMID:27148319

  11. Diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis with technetium 99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, C.A.; Keeffe, E.B.; Lieberman, D.A.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Gilbert, S.; Eklem, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid planar biliary scintigraphy combined with single photon emission computed tomography could detect sclerosing cholangitis and provide additional information regarding the extent and severity of disease. Thirteen patients with sclerosing cholangitis and 13 normal control subjects were studied. Scintigraphic results were also compared with previously reported studies of patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction and with primary biliary cirrhosis. The planar scintigraphy in patients with sclerosing cholangitis showed beading or bandlike constrictions of the biliary tract corresponding to lesions seen on cholangiography, and the image pattern was distinctly different from images obtained from patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction or primary biliary cirrhosis. The single photon emission computed tomography images of the liver in patients with sclerosing cholangitis demonstrated multiple focal areas of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid retention, representing bile stasis in intrahepatic bile ducts. Compared to controls, the mean hepatic clearance half-time of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid was markedly delayed in patients with sclerosing cholangitis (6-10 times normal). Individual patients with sclerosing cholangitis had wider variation in isotope clearance half-time from three regions of the liver than patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction, consistent with regional difference in disease severity and variable impairment of bile flow. In 4 patients with sclerosing cholangitis with incomplete filling of the right and left hepatic ducts at cholangiography, planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy provided evidence of significant intrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis.

  12. Developing Standards to Qualify a Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen systems increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide, so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. Fine Water Mist extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with elevated CO2. Compared to the carbon dioxide based Portable Fire Extinguisher, the flight qualification of Fine Water Mist systems requires special care. Qualification of the CO2 based Portable Fire Extinguisher began with the assumption that any fire on ISS would be extinguished if the air in the fire environment reached a critical concentration of CO2. Qualification of a CO2 based system requires the developers to make assertions and assumptions about vehicle geometry and the ability of the extinguisher to deliver CO2 in different geometric configurations, but the developers did not need to make assertions or assumptions about the size of the fire, the temperature, or the heat

  13. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA) offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen system increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide (CO2), so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. Fine Water Mist extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. From a flight hardware design perspective, the fine water mist fire extinguisher has two major elements: (1) the nozzle and crew interface, and (2) the tank. The nozzle and crew interface has been under development for several years. It has gone through several design iterations, and has been part of more than 400 fire challenge and spray characterizations. The crew and vehicle interface aspects of the design will use the heritage of the CO2 based Portable Fire Extinguisher, to minimize the disruption to the crew and integration impacts to the ISS. The microgravity use environment of the system poses a set of unique design requirements

  14. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  15. Dynamics of the enhanced emissions of monoterpenes and methyl salicylate, and decreased uptake of formaldehyde, by Quercus ilex leaves after application of jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Filella, Iolanda; Peñuelas, Josep; Llusià, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a signalling compound with a key role in both stress and development in plants, and is reported to elicit the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here we studied the dynamics of such emissions and the linkage with photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance. We sprayed JA on leaves of the Mediterranean tree species Quercus ilex and measured the photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductances, and emissions and uptake of VOCs using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and gas chromatography after a dark-light transition. Jasmonic acid treatment delayed the induction of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance by approx. 20 min, and decreased them 24 h after spraying. Indications were found of both stomatal and nonstomatal limitations of photosynthesis. Monoterpene emissions were enhanced (20-30%) after JA spraying. Jasmonic acid also increased methyl salicylate (MeSa) emissions (more than twofold) 1 h after treatment, although after 24 h this effect had disappeared. Formaldehyde foliar uptake decreased significantly 24 h after JA treatment. Both biotic and abiotic stresses can thus affect plant VOC emissions through their strong impact on JA levels. Jasmonic acid-mediated increases in monoterpene and MeSa emissions might have a protective role when confronting biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:16390425

  16. Reducing N2O Emission from a Domestic-Strength Nitrifying Culture by Free Nitrous Acid-Based Sludge Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin; Laloo, Andrew Elohim; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-07-19

    An increase of nitrite in the domestic-strength range is generally recognized to stimulate nitrous oxide (N2O) production by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). It was found in this study, however, that N2O emission from a mainstream nitritation system (cyclic nitrite = 25-45 mg of N/L) that was established by free nitrous acid (FNA)-based sludge treatment was not higher but much lower than that from the initial nitrifying system with full conversion of NH4(+)-N to NO3(-)-N. Under dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 2.5-3.0 mg/L, N2O emission from the nitritation stage was 76% lower than that from the initial stage. Even when the DO level was reduced to 0.3-0.8 mg/L, N2O emission from the nitritation stage was still 40% lower. An investigation of the mechanism showed that FNA treatment caused a shift of the stimulation threshold of nitrite on N2O emission. At the nitritation stage, the maximal N2O emission factor occurred at ∼16 mg of N/(L of nitrite). However, it increased with increasing nitrite in the range of 0-56 mg of N/L at the initial stage. FNA treatment decreased the biomass-specific N2O production rate, suggesting that the enzymes relevant to nitrifier denitrification were inhibited. Microbial analysis revealed that FNA treatment decreased the microbial community diversity but increased the abundances of AOB and denitrifiers. PMID:27294698

  17. Effects of feeding algal meal high in docosahexaenoic acid on feed intake, milk production, and methane emissions in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Hannah, M C; Eckard, R J; Auldist, M J; Ribaux, B E; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2013-05-01

    This study examined effects on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid concentrations and methane (CH4) emissions when dairy cows were offered diets containing different amounts of algal meal. The algal meal contained 20% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and cows were offered either 0, 125, 250, or 375 g/cow per d of algal meal corresponding to 0, 25, 50, or 75 g of DHA/cow per d. Thirty-two Holstein cows in mid lactation were allocated to 4 treatment groups, and cows in all groups were individually offered 5.9k g of dry matter (DM) per day of concentrates [683 g/kg of cracked wheat (Triticum aestivum), 250 g/kg of cold-pressed canola, 46 g/kg of granulated dried molasses, and 21 g/kg of mineral mix] and ad libitum alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay. The algal meal supplement was added to the concentrate allowance and was fed during the morning and afternoon milking, whereas the alfalfa hay was fed individually in pens. Cows were gradually introduced to their diets over 7d and then fed their treatment diets for a further 16d. Dry matter intake and milk yield were measured daily, and milk composition was measured on a sample representative of the daily milk yield on Thursday of each week. For the last 2d of the experiment, cows were individually housed in respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emissions. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were also measured while cows were in the respiration chambers. Cows ate all their offered concentrates, but measured intake of alfalfa decreased with increasing dose of DHA by 16.2, 16.4, 15.1, and 14.3 kg of DM/d, respectively. Milk yield (22.6, 23.5, 22.6, and 22.6 kg/cow per d) was not affected by DHA dose, but milk fat concentrations (49.7, 37.8, 37.0, and 38.3g/kg) and, consequently, milk fat yields (1.08, 0.90, 0.83, and 0.85 kg/d) decreased with addition of DHA. The feeding of algal meal high in DHA was associated with substantial increases in the concentrations of DHA (0.04, 0.36, 0.60, and 0.91 g/100g

  18. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on methane emission in a paddy field and rice root exudation of low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    PubMed

    He, Yongmei; Zhan, Fangdong; Li, Yuan; Xu, Weiwei; Zu, Yanqun; Yue, Ming

    2016-06-01

    A local rice variety, "Baijiaolaojing", was grown in a paddy field in the Yuanyang rice terraces under ambient and supplemental levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-315 nm) radiation. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation (5 and 10 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) on methane emissions in the paddy field were evaluated using a closed-chamber gas chromatography-based system, and the contents of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in root exudates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peaks in methane emissions in the paddy field were detected at 60, 80 and 100 days after rice transplantation. The highest level of cumulative methane emissions occurred at the tillering stage, followed by the jointing-booting and maturity stages. The lowest level was found at the flowering stage. The enhanced UV-B radiation did not change the seasonal variation in methane emissions in the paddy field; however, it induced a significant increase in the flux of methane emissions at the jointing-booting and maturity stages, as well as a significant increase in the cumulative flux of methane emissions throughout the growth period. In addition, the enhanced UV-B radiation caused an increase in the contents of oxalic acid and succinic acid and a decrease in the contents of tartaric acid and malic acid in rice root exudates. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.725, p < 0.01) was found between the content of oxalic acid and the methane emissions in the paddy field. The results indicated that enhanced UV-B radiation promoted methane emissions in the paddy field, which was closely associated with its impact on the exudation of LMWOAs by rice roots. PMID:27194164

  19. Detection and Assessment Using Positron Emission Tomography of Genetically Determined Defects in Myocardial Fatty Acid Utilization. Final report, 8/1/93-6/30/97

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Steven R.

    2000-04-09

    An approach using positron emission tomography (PET) was developed, validated and used to measure myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with inherited forms of heart failure. Abnormalities were correlated with the severity of the clinical illness. The approach developed was also shown to identify abnormalities in myocardial fatty acid metabolism in some patients with acquired forms of heart failure. The PET technique thus permits identification of abnormal fatty acid metabolism and provides an approach to evaluate the efficacy of interventional strategies.

  20. Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure.

  1. Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure. PMID:19750406

  2. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  3. Feeding reduced crude protein diets with crystalline amino acids supplementation reduce air gas emissions from housing.

    PubMed

    Li, Q-F; Trottier, N; Powers, W

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP by 1.5% and supplementing crystalline AA (CAA) to meet the standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA requirements for growing and finishing pigs decreases air emissions of ammonia (NH), nitrous oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO) compared with an industry standard diet, without reducing growth performance. Seventy-two pigs were allocated to 12 rooms (6 pigs per room) and 2 diets (6 rooms per diet) formulated according to a 5-phase feeding program across the grow-finish period (107 d total). The diets consisted of a standard diet containing 18.5 to 12.2% CP or a reduced CP diet containing 17.5 to 11.0% CP + CAA over the course of the 5-phase feeding program. Gases (NH, NO, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nonmethane total hydrocarbon, and CO) and ventilation rates were measured continuously from the rooms. Compared with standard diet, ADG and feed conversion of pigs fed reduced CP + CAA diets did not differ (2.7 kg gain/d and 0.37 kg gain/kg feed, respectively). Compared with standard diet, feeding reduced CP + CAA diets decreased ( < 0.01) NH emissions by 46% over the 107-d period (5.4 and 2.9 g · pig · d, respectively). Change in NH emissions for each percentage unit reduction in dietary CP concentration corresponded with 47.9, 53.2, 26.8, 26.5, and 51.6% during Phases 1 through 5, respectively. Emissions of other gases did not differ between diets. Feeding reduced CP diets formulated based on SID AA requirements for grow-finisher swine is effective in reducing NH emissions from housing compared with recent industry formulations and does not impact growth performances.

  4. EPA`s overview of the Acid Rain Program`s emissions tracking system (ETS) quarterly report process

    SciTech Connect

    Wockenfuss, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Acid Rain Program`s Emission Tracking System (ETS) was developed to collect, quality assure and publish the monitored and sampled emissions data collected and reported by the electric utility industry. Data are collected from fossil-fuel burning electrical generating stations that are affected by the Acid Rain Program. Since its operational start in 1993 the ETS and the data collection that surrounds it, the quarterly report process, has evolved to handle the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) increased expectations of quarterly report data quality. The quarterly report process that supports the ETS provides utilities with multiple data submission options. It also provides software tools so that utilities can perform their own data assessment. This paper highlights the quarterly report process and the systems that are at the center of that process. It also analyzes utility performance relating to their 1995 and 1996 quarterly data reports and previews how the EPA`s quarterly report process will evolve over the next year.

  5. (18) F-labeled folic acid derivatives for imaging of the folate receptor via positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Schieferstein, Hanno; Ross, Tobias L

    2013-01-01

    The folate receptor (FR) is already known as a proven target in diagnostics and therapy of cancer. Furthermore, the FR is involved in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The major advantage as a valuable target is its strongly limited expression in healthy tissues. Over the past two decades, several folic acid-based radiopharmaceuticals addressing the FR have been developed, and some of them show great potential for applications in clinical routine. However, most of these radiofolates were developed for single photon emission computed tomography imaging, and only a few can be used for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The development of suitable (18) F-labeled derivatives for PET imaging of the FR has aroused great interest and recent studies revealed very promising candidates for further development and translation into human applications. In this review, we focus on the development of (18) F-labeled folic acid derivatives for PET imaging of the FR and discuss various radiochemical strategies and approaches towards (18) F-folates. Besides radiochemistry and (18) F-labeling, we briefly look into the crucial pharmacological parameters and the preclinical in vivo performance of those (18) F-folates.

  6. Effects of acetic acid injection and operating conditions on NO emission in a vortexing fluidized bed combustor using response surface methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Fuping Qian; Chiensong Chyang; Weishen Yen

    2009-07-15

    The effects of acetic acid injection and operating conditions on NO emission were investigated in a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC), an integration of circular freeboard and a rectangular combustion chamber. Operating conditions, such as the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber, the bed temperature and the injecting location of acetic acid, were determined by means of response surface methodology (RSM), which enables the examination of parameters with a moderate number of experiments. In RSM, NO emission concentration after acetic acid injection and NO removal percentage at the exit of the VFBC are used as the objective function. The results show that the bed temperature has a more important effect on the NO emission than the injecting location of acetic acid and the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber. Meanwhile, the injecting location of acetic acid and the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber have a more important effect on the NO removal percentage than the bed temperature. NO emission can be decreased by injecting the acetic acid into the combustion chamber, and NO emission decreases with the height of the acetic acid injecting location above the distributor. On the other hand, NO removal percentage increases with the height of the acetic acid injecting location, and NO emission increases with the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber and the bed temperature. NO removal percentage increases with the stoichiometric oxygen, and increases first, then decreases with the bed temperature. Also, a higher NO removal percentage could be obtained at 850{sup o}C. 26 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Exploring the nitrous acid (HONO) formation mechanism in winter Beijing: direct emissions and heterogeneous production in urban and suburban areas.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengrui; Hou, Siqi; Zhang, Ying; Chu, Biwu; Liu, Yongchun; He, Hong; Zhao, Pusheng; Ge, Maofa

    2016-07-18

    Continuous measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) were performed from December 12 to December 22, 2015 in both urban and suburban areas of Beijing to study the formation mechanism of HONO. The measurement campaign in both sites included a clean-haze-clean transformation process. HONO concentrations showed similar variations in the two sites, while they were always higher in the urban area. Moreover, correlations of HONO with NOx, NO2, NO, PM2.5 and relative humidity (RH) were studied to explore possible HONO formation pathways, and the contributions of direct emissions, heterogeneous reactions, and homogeneous reactions were also calculated. This showed that HONO in urban and suburban areas underwent totally different formation procedures, which were affected by meteorological conditions, PM2.5 concentrations, direct emissions, homogeneous reactions and heterogeneous reactions. PM2.5 concentrations and RH would influence the NO2 conversion efficiency. Heterogeneous reactions of NO2 were more efficient in suburban areas and in clean periods while direct emissions and homogeneous reactions contributed more in urban areas and in polluted periods when the concentrations of NOx and NO were at a high level. PMID:27081740

  8. An experimental study of gaseous exhaust emissions of diesel engine using blend of natural fatty acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Samo, Khalid; Faturachman, Danny

    2012-09-01

    Vegetable oil form in Natural Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) has their own advantages: first of all they are available everywhere in the world. Secondly, they are renewable as the vegetables which produce oil seeds can be planted year after year. Thirdly, they are friendly with our environment, as they seldom contain sulphur element in them. This makes vegetable fuel studies become current among the various popular investigations. This study is attempt to optimization of using blend FAME on diesel engine by experimental laboratory. The investigation experimental project is comparison between using blend FAME and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment is conducted with YANMAR TF120M single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed with constant load. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at difference engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission NOx, but slightly higher on CO2 emission. The result also shown that the blends FAME are good in fuel consumption and potentially good substitute fuels for diesel engine

  9. Effects of air emissions on wildlife resources. Air pollution and acid rain report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    This publication describes in general the pathways of contamination, direct and indirect effects of air emissions on wildlife resources, and the potential use of wildlife as biological indicators of air quality degradation. Also included in the report are summaries of air pollution incidents involving wildlife, responses of wildlife to air pollution, major target systems of selected air pollutants, and information on the capacity of some air pollutants to accumulate in body tissues.

  10. Application of atomic force microscopy in determining the fractal dimension of the mirror, mist, and hackle region of silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.L. Mecholsky, J.J.

    2011-05-15

    Fractal analysis has been used as a method to study fracture surfaces of brittle materials. However, it has not been determined if the fractal characteristics of brittle materials is consistent throughout the fracture surface. Therefore, the fractal dimensional increment of the mirror, mist, and hackle regions of the fracture surface of silica glass was determined using atomic force microscopy. The fractal dimensional increment of the mirror region (0.17-0.26) was determined to be statistically greater than that for the mist (0.08-0.12) and hackle (0.08-0.13) regions. It is thought that the increase in the fractal dimensional increment is caused by a greater tortuosity in the mirror region due to, most likely, the slower crack velocity of the propagating crack in that region and that there is a point between the mirror and mist region at which the fractal dimension decreases and becomes constant. - Research Highlights: {yields} The fracture surface of silica glass does not have a constant fractal dimension. {yields} Mirror region has greater fractal dimension than mist or hackle region. {yields} Fractal dimension decreases between mirror and mist region. {yields} Greater fractal dimension could be due to slower crack velocity in mirror region.

  11. MIST - MINIMUM-STATE METHOD FOR RATIONAL APPROXIMATION OF UNSTEADY AERODYNAMIC FORCE COEFFICIENT MATRICES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpel, M.

    1994-01-01

    Various control analysis, design, and simulation techniques of aeroservoelastic systems require the equations of motion to be cast in a linear, time-invariant state-space form. In order to account for unsteady aerodynamics, rational function approximations must be obtained to represent them in the first order equations of the state-space formulation. A computer program, MIST, has been developed which determines minimum-state approximations of the coefficient matrices of the unsteady aerodynamic forces. The Minimum-State Method facilitates the design of lower-order control systems, analysis of control system performance, and near real-time simulation of aeroservoelastic phenomena such as the outboard-wing acceleration response to gust velocity. Engineers using this program will be able to calculate minimum-state rational approximations of the generalized unsteady aerodynamic forces. Using the Minimum-State formulation of the state-space equations, they will be able to obtain state-space models with good open-loop characteristics while reducing the number of aerodynamic equations by an order of magnitude more than traditional approaches. These low-order state-space mathematical models are good for design and simulation of aeroservoelastic systems. The computer program, MIST, accepts tabular values of the generalized aerodynamic forces over a set of reduced frequencies. It then determines approximations to these tabular data in the LaPlace domain using rational functions. MIST provides the capability to select the denominator coefficients in the rational approximations, to selectably constrain the approximations without increasing the problem size, and to determine and emphasize critical frequency ranges in determining the approximations. MIST has been written to allow two types data weighting options. The first weighting is a traditional normalization of the aerodynamic data to the maximum unit value of each aerodynamic coefficient. The second allows weighting the

  12. Multi-element determination in acid-digested soy protein formulations by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Morte, Elane S Boa; Costa, Leticia M; Nobrega, Joaquim A; Korn, Maria das Gracas A

    2008-05-01

    The concentrations of major (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) and trace elements (Al, Cu and Fe) in soy protein formulations sold in Bahia (Brazil) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Liquid and powdered soy protein formulation samples, both whole and light, were digested using a conventional heating program on a hot-plate. The powdered samples were prepared according to the label instructions for human consumption. A 5.0-ml aliquot of the soy protein emulsion was transferred to a borosilicate Erlenmeyer and concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid added. After a digestion time of approximately 50 min, hydrogen peroxide was added and heating continued to give a final volume of approximately 5 ml; the colorless digests were then made up to 15.0 ml with deionised water. Residual acid content was determined by acid-base titration. Good agreement between measured and certified values for all analytes in a non-fat milk powder (NIST SRM 1549) indicated that the method was suitable for major and trace elements determination in soy protein formulations. PMID:18473216

  13. Airborne water droplets in mist or fog may affect nocturnal attacks in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Kosuke; Itonaga, Kotaro; Moroi, Toshihiro

    2003-06-01

    Our study objectives were to evaluate whether or not airborne water droplets in mist or fog affect the occurrence of nocturnal attacks of asthmatic children using a retrospective study. This study included 971 visits by children with bronchial asthma to the emergency department at nighttime (from 18:00 to 09:00) during a 3-year period (April 1, 1998-March 31, 2001). Meteorological data were checked at a local fire station and regional meteorological observatory. We divided nighttime into five 3-hour periods to evaluate the relationship between chronological changes in the frequency of the emergency department visits of asthmatic children and of meteorological conditions. In four of five periods of nighttime, multivariate analysis showed that mist or fog, average atmospheric temperature, and barometric pressure were related to the number of emergency department visits (n=1096, r=0.165-0.263, p<0.0001). We divided the year into four seasons to eliminate differences between atmospheric temperature and barometric pressure on clear nights and on misty or foggy nights; we also found the mean number of emergency department visits was higher on misty or foggy nights than on clear nights in each seasonal period (p<0.01). In addition, average atmospheric temperature on misty or foggy nights with the emergency department visits was higher than that on misty or foggy nights without any visits (p<0.01). Asthmatic children frequently visited the emergency department on misty or foggy nights, especially during midnight to dawn periods with high atmospheric temperature. Because a higher atmospheric temperature on misty or foggy nights indicates a larger saturated amount of airborne water droplets, our results suggest that mist and fog, in particular a saturated amount of airborne water droplets, may be a stimulus for bronchoconstriction. PMID:12870836

  14. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    PubMed

    Marques, João Tiago; Ramos Pereira, Maria J; Marques, Tiago A; Santos, Carlos David; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  15. Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: acute ocular and respiratory effects

    PubMed Central

    Wieslander, G; Norback, D; Lindgren, T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Propylene glycol (PG) (1-2 propanediol; CAS No 57-55-6) is a low toxicity compound widely used as a food additive, in pharmaceutical preparations, in cosmetics, and in the workplace—for example, water based paints, de-icing fluids, and cooling liquids. Exposure to PG mist may occur from smoke generators in discotheques, theatres, and aviation emergency training. Propylene glycol may cause contact allergy, but there is sparse information on health effects from occupational exposure to PG.
METHODS—Non-asthmatic volunteers (n=27) were exposed in an aircraft simulator to PG mist over 1 minute, during realistic training conditions. Geometric mean concentration of PG was 309 mg/m3 (range 176-851 mg/m3), with the highest concentrations in the afternoon. The medical investigation was performed both before and after the exposure (within 15 minutes). It included an estimate of tear film stability break up time, nasal patency by acoustic rhinometry, dynamic spirometry, and a doctor's administered questionnaire on symptoms.
RESULTS—After exposure to PG mist for 1 minute tear film stability decreased, ocular and throat symptoms increased, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) was slightly reduced, and self rated severity of dyspnoea was slightly increased. No effect was found for nasal patency, vital capacity (VC), FVC, nasal symptoms, dermal symptoms, smell of solvent, or any systemic symptoms. Those exposed to the higher concentrations in the afternoon had a more pronounced increase of throat symptoms, and a more pronounced decrease of tear film stability. In four subjects who reported development of irritative cough during exposure to PG, FEV1 was decreased by 5%, but FEV1 was unchanged among those who did not develop a cough. Those who developed a cough also had an increased perception of mild dyspnoea.
CONCLUSION—Short exposure to PG mist from artificial smoke generators may cause acute ocular and upper airway

  16. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher ICES Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna L.; Carlile, Christie; Graf, John; Young, Gina

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA) offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen system increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide (CO2), so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. FWM extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. The following paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE. In addition, the NASA ISS specific fire standards will be described which were developed to establish acceptable extinguisher performance. The paper will also discuss the flight hardware design. The fin e water mist fire extinguisher has two major elements: (1) the nozzle and crew interface, and (2) the tank. The nozzle and crew interface have been under development for several years. They have gone through several design iterations, and have been part of more than 400 fire challenge and spray characterizations. The

  17. High T(sub c) superconductors fabricated by plasma aerosol mist deposition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, X. W.; Vuong, K. D.; Leone, A.; Shen, C. Q.; Williams, J.; Coy, M.

    1995-01-01

    We report new results on high T(sub c) superconductors fabricated by a plasma aerosol mist deposition technique, in atmospheric environment. Materials fabricated are YBaCuO, BiPbSrCaCuO, BaCaCuO precursor films for TlBaCaCuO, and other buffers such as YSZ. Depending on processing conditions, sizes of crystallites and/or particles are between dozens of nano-meters and several micrometers. Superconductive properties and other material characteristics can also be tailored.

  18. Induction of endogenous uncoupling protein 3 suppresses mitochondrial oxidant emission during fatty acid-supported respiration.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ethan J; Yamazaki, Hanae; Neufer, P Darrell

    2007-10-26

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression increases dramatically in skeletal muscle under metabolic states associated with elevated lipid metabolism, yet the function of UCP3 in a physiological context remains controversial. Here, in situ mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission and respiration were measured in permeabilized fiber bundles prepared from both rat and mouse (wild-type) gastrocnemius muscle after a single bout of exercise plus 18 h of recovery (Ex/R) that induced a approximately 2-4-fold increase in UCP3 protein. Elevated uncoupling activity (i.e. GDP inhibitable) was evident in Ex/R fibers only upon the addition of palmitate (known activator of UCP3) or under substrate conditions eliciting substantial rates of H(2)O(2) production (i.e. respiration supported by succinate or palmitoyl-L-carnitine/malate but not pyruvate/malate), indicative of UCP3 activation by endogenous reactive oxygen species. In mice completely lacking UCP3 (ucp3(-/-)), Ex/R failed to induce uncoupling activity. Surprisingly, when UCP3 activity was inhibited by GDP (rats) or in the absence of UCP3 (ucp3(-/-)), H(2)O(2) emission was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Ex/R versus non-exercised control fibers. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the oxidant emitting potential of mitochondria is increased in skeletal muscle during recovery from exercise, possibly as a consequence of prolonged reliance on lipid metabolism and/or altered mitochondrial biochemistry/morphology and that induction of UCP3 in vivo mediates an increase in uncoupling activity that restores mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission to non-exercised, control levels.

  19. Butyric Acid- and Dimethyl Disulfide-Assimilating Microorganisms in a Biofilter Treating Air Emissions from a Livestock Facility▿

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Anja; Lindholst, Sabine; Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Per H.; Neufeld, Josh D.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2011-01-01

    Biofiltration has proven an efficient tool for the elimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia from livestock facilities, thereby reducing nuisance odors and ammonia emissions to the local environment. The active microbial communities comprising these filter biofilms have not been well characterized. In this study, a trickle biofilter treating air from a pig facility was investigated and proved efficient in removing carboxylic acids (>70% reduction), mainly attributed to the primary filter section within which reduced organic sulfur compounds were also depleted (up to 50%). The secondary filter eliminated several aromatic compounds: phenol (81%), p-cresol (89%), 4-ethylphenol (68%), indole (48%), and skatole (69%). The active butyric acid degrading bacterial community of an air filter sample was identified by DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and microautoradiography, combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH). The predominant 16S rRNA gene sequences from a clone library derived from “heavy” DNA from [13C4]butyric acid incubations were Microbacterium, Gordonia, Dietzia, Rhodococcus, Propionibacterium, and Janibacter, all from the Actinobacteria. Actinobacteria were confirmed and quantified by MAR-FISH as being the major bacterial phylum assimilating butyric acid along with several Burkholderiales-related Betaproteobacteria. The active bacterial community assimilating dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was characterized by DNA-SIP and MAR-FISH and found to be associated with the Actinobacteria, along with a few representatives of Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria. Interestingly, ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria were also implicated in DMDS degradation, as were fungi. Thus, multiple isotope-based methods provided complementary data, enabling high-resolution identification and quantitative assessments of odor-eliminating Actinobacteria-dominated populations of these biofilter environments. PMID:22003018

  20. Fluorogenic Thorium Sensors Based on 2,6-Pyridinedicarboxylic Acid-Substituted Tetraphenylethenes with Aggregation-Induced Emission Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jun; Dong, Liang; Hu, Sheng; Li, Weiyi; Li, Shuo; Wang, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    A novel fluorescent sensor based on tetraphenylethene (TPE) modified with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDA) that shows aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics for thorium recognition with remarkable fluoresence enhancement response has been synthesized. This sensor is capable of visually distinguishing Th(4+) among lanthanides, transition metals, and alkali metals under UV light. Th(4+) can be detected by the naked eye at ppb levels owing to the AIE phenomenon. The sensor showed high selectivity for Th(4+) compared to all other metals tested, and this recognition displayed good anti-interference qualities. This study represents the first application of a AIE fluorescence sensor in actinide metal recognition and it has potential applications in environmental systems for thorium ion detection. PMID:26419754

  1. 42 CFR 84.1144 - Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist... Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum... the chamber will not be less than 50 nor more than 60 milligrams of flint (99+ percent free...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1144 - Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist... Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum... the chamber will not be less than 50 nor more than 60 milligrams of flint (99+ percent free...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1144 - Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist... Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum... the chamber will not be less than 50 nor more than 60 milligrams of flint (99+ percent free...

  4. 42 CFR 84.1144 - Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist... Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum... the chamber will not be less than 50 nor more than 60 milligrams of flint (99+ percent free...

  5. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF PROCESS CONDITIONS ON THE MASS CONCENTRATION OF CUTTING FLUID MIST IN TURNING. (R825370C057)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cutting fluid mists that are generated during machining processes represent a significant waste stream as well as a health hazard to humans. Epidemiological studies have shown a link between worker exposure to cutting fluid mist and an increase in respiratory ailments and seve...

  6. Emission of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCA) from heated surfaces made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) applied in food contact materials and consumer products.

    PubMed

    Schlummer, Martin; Sölch, Christina; Meisel, Theresa; Still, Mona; Gruber, Ludwig; Wolz, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been widely discussed as a source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which has been used in the production of fluoropolymers. PTFE may also contain unintended perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) caused by thermolysis of PTFE, which has been observed at temperatures above 300°C. Common PTFE coated food contact materials and consumer goods are operated at temperatures above 200°C. However, knowledge on possible emissions of PFCAs is limited. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to investigate and evaluate the emission of PFCAs from PTFE coated products with both, normal use and overheating scenarios. Four pans, claimed to be PFOA free, and nine consumer products were investigated. At normal use conditions (<230°C), emissions from PTFE surfaces were trapped for 1h. Overheating scenarios (>260°C) recorded emissions during a 30min heating of empty pans on a stove. Emissions were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS. Results indicate the emission of PFCAs, whereas no perfluorinated sulfonic acids were traced. At normal use conditions total emissions of PFCAs accounted for 4.75ng per hour. Overheated pans, however, released far higher amounts with up to 12190ng PFCAs per hour at 370°C. Dominating contributors where PFBA and PFOA at normal use and PFBA and PFPeA during overheating. Temperature seems to be the main factor controlling the emission of PFCAs. A worst case estimation of human exposure revealed that emissions of PFCAs from heated PTFE surfaces would be far below the TDI of 1500ng PFOA per kg body weight.

  7. Studies on remote sensing method of particle size and water density distribution in mists and clouds using laser radar techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, H.; Kobayasi, T.; Inaba, H.

    1979-01-01

    A method of remote measurement of the particle size and density distribution of water droplets was developed. In this method, the size of droplets is measured from the Mie scattering parameter which is defined as the total-to-backscattering ratio of the laser beam. The water density distribution is obtained by a combination of the Mie scattering parameter and the extinction coefficient of the laser beam. This method was examined experimentally for the mist generated by an ultrasonic mist generator and applied to clouds containing rain and snow. Compared with the conventional sampling method, the present method has advantages of remote measurement capability and improvement in accuracy.

  8. Embedded Systems Hardware Integration and Code Development for Maraia Capsule and E-MIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carretero, Emmanuel S.

    2015-01-01

    The cost of sending large spacecraft to orbit makes them undesirable for carrying out smaller scientific missions. Small spacecraft are more economical and can be tailored for missions where specific tasks need to be carried out, the Maraia capsule is such a spacecraft. Maraia will allow for samples of experiments conducted on the International Space Station to be returned to earth. The use of balloons to conduct experiments at the edge of space is a practical approach to reducing the large expense of using rockets. E-MIST is a payload designed to fly on a high altitude balloon. It can maintain science experiments in a controlled manner at the edge of space. The work covered here entails the integration of hardware onto each of the mentioned systems and the code associated with such work. In particular, the resistance temperature detector, pressure transducers, cameras, and thrusters for Maraia are discussed. The integration of the resistance temperature detectors and motor controllers to E-MIST is described. Several issues associated with sensor accuracy, code lock-up, and in-flight reset issues are mentioned. The solutions and proposed solutions to these issues are explained.

  9. Microorganisms in the Stratosphere (MIST): In-flight Sterilization with UVC Leds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Gregory Michael; Smith, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The stratosphere (10 km to 50 km above sea level) is a unique place on Earth for astrobiological studies of microbes in extreme environments due to the combination of harsh conditions (high ultraviolet radiation, low pressure, desiccation, and low temperatures). Microorganisms in the Stratosphere (MIST) will attempt to characterize the diversity of microbes at these altitudes using a balloon collection device on a meteorological weather balloon. A major challenge of such an aerobiology study is the potential for ground contamination that makes it difficult to distinguish between collected microbes and contaminants. One solution is to use germicidal ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) to sterilize the collection strip. To use this solution, an optimal spatial arrangement of the lights had to be determined to ensure the greatest chance of complete sterilization within the 30 to 60 minute time of balloon ascent. A novel, 3D-printed test stand was developed to experimentally determine viable Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spore reduction after exposure to ultraviolet radiation at various times, angles, and distances. Taken together, the experimental simulations suggested that the UV LEDs on the MIST flight hardware should be active for at least 15 minutes and mounted within 4 cm of the illuminated surface at any angle to achieve optimal sterilization. These findings will aid in the production of the balloon collection device to ensure pristine stratospheric microbial samples are collected. Flight hardware capable of in-flight self-sterilization will enable future life detection missions to minimize both forward contamination and false positives.

  10. Mesa Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST). I. Solar-scaled Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jieun; Dotter, Aaron; Conroy, Charlie; Cantiello, Matteo; Paxton, Bill; Johnson, Benjamin D.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first of a series of papers presenting the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) project, a new comprehensive set of stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones computed using MESA, a state-of-the-art open-source 1D stellar evolution package. In this work, we present models with solar-scaled abundance ratios covering a wide range of ages (5≤slant {log}({Age}) [{year}]≤slant 10.3), masses (0.1≤slant M/{M}⊙ ≤slant 300), and metallicities (-2.0≤slant [{{Z}}/{{H}}]≤slant 0.5). The models are self-consistently and continuously evolved from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the end of hydrogen burning, the white dwarf cooling sequence, or the end of carbon burning, depending on the initial mass. We also provide a grid of models evolved from the PMS to the end of core helium burning for -4.0≤slant [{{Z}}/{{H}}]\\lt -2.0. We showcase extensive comparisons with observational constraints as well as with some of the most widely used existing models in the literature. The evolutionary tracks and isochrones can be downloaded from the project website at http://waps.cfa.harvard.edu/MIST/.

  11. Using water mist to reduce self-injurious and stereotypic behavior.

    PubMed

    Bailey, S L; Pokrzywinski, J; Bryant, L E

    1983-01-01

    A mist of water sprayed in the face was used as a punisher for stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors by a boy diagnosed as severely mentally retarded with autistic-like behaviors. The boy had a long history of mouthing and hand-biting behaviors. The latter behavior was evinced by noticeable scar tissue on the backs of his hands. The study took place in a self-contained public school classroom for autistic children and other children with severe communication disorders and functional mental retardation. An ABAB withdrawal design with no treatment probes demonstrated the rapid and dramatic suppressive effects that the response-contingent water mist had on the target behaviors. This procedure was taught to classroom personnel who were able to maintain the suppression with minimal interruption of educational programming for the subject or his peers. No adverse physical effects were observed nor did the child attempt to escape or struggle against the procedure. The results are discussed in relation to ethical considerations and the use of response-contingent aversive stimulation. PMID:6660866

  12. Mesa Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST). I. Solar-scaled Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jieun; Dotter, Aaron; Conroy, Charlie; Cantiello, Matteo; Paxton, Bill; Johnson, Benjamin D.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first of a series of papers presenting the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) project, a new comprehensive set of stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones computed using MESA, a state-of-the-art open-source 1D stellar evolution package. In this work, we present models with solar-scaled abundance ratios covering a wide range of ages (5≤slant {log}({Age}) [{year}]≤slant 10.3), masses (0.1≤slant M/{M}ȯ ≤slant 300), and metallicities (-2.0≤slant [{{Z}}/{{H}}]≤slant 0.5). The models are self-consistently and continuously evolved from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the end of hydrogen burning, the white dwarf cooling sequence, or the end of carbon burning, depending on the initial mass. We also provide a grid of models evolved from the PMS to the end of core helium burning for -4.0≤slant [{{Z}}/{{H}}]\\lt -2.0. We showcase extensive comparisons with observational constraints as well as with some of the most widely used existing models in the literature. The evolutionary tracks and isochrones can be downloaded from the project website at http://waps.cfa.harvard.edu/MIST/.

  13. Observations of chemical properties and visibility related to fog, mist and haze

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.S.; Kim, H.S.; Yoon, M.B.

    1996-12-31

    Since 1970 the yearly consumption of fossil fuel in south Korea has steadily increased to 100 MT from 14.2 MT. Meanwhile, it has been found that the number of days of low visibility (< 10 km) has significantly increased due to the occurrence of fog, mist and haze. For example, the low visibility days in Seoul during 1989 were over 207 days in comparison with 21 days at a rural site, Choo-poong-ryong. This similar trend also occurred in other large cities. In Chongwon, daily measurements of visibility at 09 LST have been made since 1991. It was observed that the increase in the frequency of low visibility days was related with the increase in anthropogenic air pollution and water vapor in the study area. According to analyses of data obtained in 1995, the pH values for 73.5% of all samples collected from fog and mist were less than 5.6. The lowest pH value of fog was 4.0. On the other hand, pH values observed for dew and frost in early spring were generally neutral to alkaline in nature, although there was an abundant existence of sulfates and nitrates. This suggests that characteristics of yellow sand occurring in spring appear to determine the pH values in hydrometeors occurring on the Korean peninsula.

  14. Faraday effect of bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist CVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Situ; Sato, Takafumi; Kaneko, Kentaro; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2015-06-01

    Metastable bismuth iron garnet (BIG, an abbreviation of Bi3Fe5O12), one kind of garnet-type ferrites, is known to manifest very large Faraday rotation as well as low optical absorption in the visible to infrared region. We report on successful synthesis of thin film composed of single-phase BIG epitaxially grown on single-crystalline gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd3Ga5O12, GGG) substrate by using mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, which is an emerging technique for preparation of thin films. The crystal structure, surface morphology, and magnetic, optical and magneto-optical properties of the resultant thin films have been explored. The BIG thin film has a relatively flat surface free from roughness compared to those prepared by other vapor deposition methods. Saturation magnetization is about 1620 G at room temperature, which is close to that expected from the ideal magnetic structure of BIG. The maximum value of Faraday rotation angle reaches 54.3 deg/µm at a wavelength of 424 nm. This value is rather large when compared with those reported for BIG thin films prepared by other techniques. The wavelength dependence of Faraday rotation angle is analyzed well in terms of the crystal electric field (CEF) level schema. Our result suggests that the mist CVD method is a simple and effective technique to synthesize BIG thin film with excellent magneto-optical properties.

  15. Evaluation of three elevated mist-net systems for sampling birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.; Pardieck, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Three light-weight, low-canopy mist-net systems were developed and tested in dry tropical scrub, mangrove and forest habitats. One plastic (polyvinyl chloride) and two aluminum pole systems (with and without pulleys) were used to support mist nets to heights of up to 7.3 m. Although the aluminum telescoping-pole system (without pulleys) was expensive initially ( 79-141/unit (US)), its use reduced capture of nontarget species and may have increased capture of target species when compared with ground-level netting. In one year, its use also reduced labor costs by 756, which completely offset the higher cost of the aluminum telescoping-pole system when compared to the plastic-pole system ( 19/unit). Unlike the plastic-pole system, the aluminum telescoping-pole system was adjustable to any height within its range of 1.8 to 7.3 m, was 1.5 m higher, was more efficient to operate in the field, and was easily moved to new locations. For capture of psittacines, the pulleys of the aluminum telescoping-pole system were not necessary, but their use may assist in efficiently retrieving large numbers of birds from the nets. The aluminum telescoping-pole system was efficient in capturing psittacines, columbids, passerines and possibly chiropterans in habitats with canopies lt 10 m or in the forest subcanopy.

  16. Emission spectroscopy of the predissociative excited state dynamics of acrolein, acrylic acid, and acryloyl chloride at 199 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, M.F.; Browning, P.W.; Butler, L.J.

    1995-10-08

    The emission spectroscopy of acrolein (C{sub 3}H{sub 4}O), acrylic acid (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}COOH), and acryloyl chloride (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}COCl) excited at 199 nm elucidates the dominant electronic character of the excited state reached by the optical transition at this wavelength. Progressions in the C=C and C=O stretching overtones and various combination bands suggest the antibonding orbital has mixed {pi}*(C=C)/{pi}*(C=O) character. We interpret the results in conjunction with {ital ab} {ital initio} calculations at the configuration interaction singles level to identify the influence of resonance in the excited state of these conjugated molecules. The results on acrylic acid are of particular interest as excitation in this absorption band produces the HOCO intermediate of the OH+CO{r_arrow}H+CO{sub 2} reaction that is important in combustion. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  17. 2005 Crater Lake Formation, Lahar, Acidic Flood, and Gas Emission From Chiginagak Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, J. R.; Scott, W. E.; McGimsey, R. G.; Jorgenson, J.

    2005-12-01

    A 400-m-wide crater lake developed in the formerly snow-and-ice-filled crater of Mount Chiginagak volcano sometime between August 2004 and June 2005, presumably due to increased heat flux from the hydrothermal system. We are also evaluating the possible role of magma intrusion and degassing. In early summer 2005, clay-rich debris and an estimated 5.6 million cubic meters of acidic water from the crater exited through tunnels in the base of a glacier that breaches the south crater rim. Over 27 kilometers downstream, the acidic waters of the flood reached approximately 1.5 meters above current water levels and inundated an important salmon spawning drainage, acidifying at least the surface water of Mother Goose Lake (approximately 1 cubic kilometer in volume) and preventing the annual salmon run. No measurements of pH were taken until late August 2005. At that time the pH of water sampled from the Mother Goose Lake inlet, lake surface, and outlet stream (King Salmon River) was 3.2. Defoliation and leaf damage of vegetation along affected streams, in areas to heights of over 70 meters in elevation above flood level, indicates that a cloud of detrimental gas or aerosol accompanied the flood waters. Analysis of stream water, lake water, and vegetation samples is underway to better determine the agent responsible for the plant damage. This intriguing pattern of gas-damaged vegetation concentrated along and above the flood channels is cause for further investigation into potential hazards associated with Chiginagak's active crater lake. Anecdotal evidence from local lodge owners and aerial photographs from 1953 suggest that similar releases occurred in the mid-1970s and early 1950s.

  18. Proton triggered emission and selective sensing of picric acid by the fluorescent aggregates of 6,7-dimethyl-2,3-bis-(2-pyridyl)-quinoxaline.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Prativa; Maity, Samir; Shyamal, Milan; Das, Debasish; Sahoo, Gobinda Prasad; Misra, Ajay

    2016-03-14

    A heteroatom containing organic fluorophore 6,7-dimethyl-2,3-bis-(2-pyridyl)-quinoxaline (BPQ) is weakly emissive in solution but its emission properties are highly enhanced in the aggregated state due to the restriction of intramolecular rotation (RIR) and large amplitude vibrational modes, demonstrating the phenomenon, aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE). It has strong proton capture capability, allowing reversible fluorescence switching in basic and acidic medium and the emission color changes from blue to green in the aggregated state through protonation. It has been explained as a competition between intramolecular charge transfers (ICTs) and the AIEE phenomena at a lower pH range (pH ∼1-4). Such behavior enables it as a fluorescent pH sensor for detection in acidic and basic medium. Morphologies of the particles are characterized using optical and field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) studies. The turn off fluorescence properties of aggregated BPQ have been utilized for the selective detection of picric acid and the fluorescence quenching is explained due to ground state complexation with a strong quenching constant, 7.81 × 10(4) M(-1).

  19. Proton triggered emission and selective sensing of picric acid by the fluorescent aggregates of 6,7-dimethyl-2,3-bis-(2-pyridyl)-quinoxaline.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Prativa; Maity, Samir; Shyamal, Milan; Das, Debasish; Sahoo, Gobinda Prasad; Misra, Ajay

    2016-03-14

    A heteroatom containing organic fluorophore 6,7-dimethyl-2,3-bis-(2-pyridyl)-quinoxaline (BPQ) is weakly emissive in solution but its emission properties are highly enhanced in the aggregated state due to the restriction of intramolecular rotation (RIR) and large amplitude vibrational modes, demonstrating the phenomenon, aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE). It has strong proton capture capability, allowing reversible fluorescence switching in basic and acidic medium and the emission color changes from blue to green in the aggregated state through protonation. It has been explained as a competition between intramolecular charge transfers (ICTs) and the AIEE phenomena at a lower pH range (pH ∼1-4). Such behavior enables it as a fluorescent pH sensor for detection in acidic and basic medium. Morphologies of the particles are characterized using optical and field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) studies. The turn off fluorescence properties of aggregated BPQ have been utilized for the selective detection of picric acid and the fluorescence quenching is explained due to ground state complexation with a strong quenching constant, 7.81 × 10(4) M(-1). PMID:26608816

  20. Occupational exposure to mineral oil metalworking fluid (MWFs) mist: Development of new methodologies for mist sampling and analysis. Results from an inter-laboratory comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Huynh, C.; Herrera, H.; Parrat, J.; Wolf, R.; Perret, V.

    2009-02-01

    Metalworking Fluids (MWFs) are largely used in the sector of undercutting, a large professional activity in Switzerland, in particular in the fine mechanic and watch making industry. France proposes a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 1 mg.m-3 of aerosol. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) sets its value at 5 mg.m-3 but a proposal to lower the standard ("intended changes") to 0.2 mg.m-3 of aerosol is pending since 2001. However, it has not become a recognized threshold limit value for exposure. Since 2003, the new Swiss PEL (MAK) recommendations would be 0.2 mg.m-3 of aerosol (oil with boiling point > 350°C without additives) and/or 20 mg.m-3 of oil aerosol + vapour for medium or light oil. To evaluate evaporative losses of sampled oil, the German "Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit" (BGIA) recommends the use of a XAD-2 cartridge behind the filter. The method seems to work perfectly for MWFs in a clean occupational atmosphere free from interference of light vapour cleaning solvent such as White Spirit. But, in real situation, machine shop atmosphere contaminated with traces of White Spirit, the BGIA method failed to estimate the MWFs levels (over-estimation). In this paper, we propose a new approach meant to measure both oil vapours and aerosols. Five inter-laboratory comparisons are discussed, based on the production of oil mist in an experimental chamber under controlled conditions.

  1. Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) on PCDD/F Emissions from Open Burning of Biomass

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of pesticides prior to agricultural burning and overspray onto forests and grasslands prior to fires has been cited as a cause of halogenated organic compound emissions from biomass combustion. Some pesticides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are used in conside...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air...) All single air-purifying respirator filter units will be tested in an atmosphere concentration of 100... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOP filter test; respirators designed...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air...) All single air-purifying respirator filter units will be tested in an atmosphere concentration of 100... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DOP filter test; respirators designed...

  4. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory... a test chamber containing 100 parts (by volume) of isoamyl-acetate vapor per million parts of...

  5. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory... a test chamber containing 100 parts (by volume) of isoamyl-acetate vapor per million parts of...

  6. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory... a test chamber containing 100 parts (by volume) of isoamyl-acetate vapor per million parts of...

  7. Field evaluations of residual pesticide applications and misting system on militarily relevant materials against medically important mosquitoes in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key strategy to reduce insect-borne disease is to reduce contact between disease vectors and hosts. In the current study, residual pesticide application and misting system were applied on militarily relevant materials and evaluated against medically important mosquitoes. Field evaluations were car...

  8. Enhanced Removal of Hydrophobic Gas by Aerial Ultrasonic Waves and Two Kinds of Water Mists of Different Particle Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Keisuke; Miura, Hikaru

    2012-07-01

    Air pollutants can cause health problems, such as bronchitis and cancer, and are now recognized as a social problem. Hence, a method is proposed for the collection and removal of gaseous air pollutants by aerial ultrasonic waves and water mist. Typically, gas removal effects are studied using lemon oil vapor (“lemon gas”), which is a hydrophobic gas. Previous experiments using lemon gas have shown that a removal rate of up to 40% can be achieved in an intense standing wave at 20 kHz, for an amount of water mist of 1.39 cm3/s and an electrical input power of 50 W. Increasing the surface area of the water mist leads to greater removal of hydrophobic gas. In this study, the effects of gas removal are examined by conducting experiments using intense aerial ultrasonic waves to disperse two kinds of water mists, each composed of particles of different sizes: small particles (diameter: ≈3 µm) and conventional large particles (diameter: ≈60 µm).

  9. Computer simulation of thermal and fluid systems for MIUS integration and subsystems test /MIST/ laboratory. [Modular Integrated Utility System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochelle, W. C.; Liu, D. K.; Nunnery, W. J., Jr.; Brandli, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the SINDA (systems improved numerical differencing analyzer) computer program to simulate the operation of the NASA/JSC MIUS integration and subsystems test (MIST) laboratory. The MIST laboratory is designed to test the integration capability of the following subsystems of a modular integrated utility system (MIUS): (1) electric power generation, (2) space heating and cooling, (3) solid waste disposal, (4) potable water supply, and (5) waste water treatment. The SINDA/MIST computer model is designed to simulate the response of these subsystems to externally impressed loads. The computer model determines the amount of recovered waste heat from the prime mover exhaust, water jacket and oil/aftercooler and from the incinerator. This recovered waste heat is used in the model to heat potable water, for space heating, absorption air conditioning, waste water sterilization, and to provide for thermal storage. The details of the thermal and fluid simulation of MIST including the system configuration, modes of operation modeled, SINDA model characteristics and the results of several analyses are described.

  10. Vapor/Mist Used to Lubricate Gears After Loss of Primary Lubrication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Morales, Wilfredo

    2001-01-01

    Loss of lubrication in rotorcraft drive systems is a demanding requirement placed on drive system manufacturers. The drive system must operate for at least 30 minutes once the primary lubrication system has failed. This test is a military requirement that must be passed prior to certification of the aircraft. As new aircraft engines, operating at higher speeds, are fielded, the requirements for the drive system become increasingly more difficult. Also, the drive system must be lightweight, which minimizes the opportunity to use the gear bodies to absorb the tremendous amount of heating that takes place. In many cases, the amount of heat generated because of the high speed and load requires an emergency lubrication system that negatively impacts the aircraft's weight, complexity, and cost. A single mesh spur gear test rig is being used at the NASA Glenn Research Center to investigate possible emergency lubrication system improvements that will minimize the impact of having these systems onboard rotorcraft. A technique currently being investigated uses a vapor/mist system to lubricate the contacting surfaces after the primary lubrication system has been shut down. A number of tests were conducted in which the vapor/mist used the same lubricant as the primary system, but at a greatly reduced flow rate. Each test was initiated with the primary lubrication system operational and at steady-state conditions for a given speed and load. Then the primary lubrication system was shut down, and the vapor/mist lubrication system was initiated. An example of the tests conducted is shown in the figures. These preliminary tests have uncovered a mechanism that provides a lubricious, carbonaceous solid on the surface that actually reduces the surface temperature of the meshing gear teeth during operation. Surface analysis of the carbonaceous solid revealed it was graphitic. This mechanism is the synthetic lubricant "coking" on the active profile of the gears, which reduces the

  11. Material Ignition and Suppression Test (MIST) in Space Exploration Atmospheres, Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Pello, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The Material Ignition and Suppression Test (MIST) project has had the objective of evaluating the ease of ignition and the fire suppression of materials used in spacecraft under environmental condition expected in a spacecraft. For this purpose, an experimental and theoretical research program is being conducted on the effect of space exploration atmospheres (SEA) on the piloted ignition of representative combustible materials, and on their fire suppression characteristics. The experimental apparatus and test methodology is derived from the Forced Ignition and Flame Spread Test (FIST), a well-developed bench scale test designed to extract material properties relevant to prediction of material flammability. In the FIST test, materials are exposed to an external radiant flux and the ignition delay and critical mass flux at ignition are determined as a function of the type of material and environmental conditions. In the original MIST design, a small-scale cylindrical flow duct with fuel samples attached to its inside wall was heated by a cylindrical heater located at the central axis of the cylinder. However, as the project evolved it was decided by NASA that it would be better to produce an experimental design that could accommodate other experiments with different experimental concepts. Based on those instructions and input from the requirements of other researchers that may share the hardware in an ISS/CIR experiment, a cylindrical design based on placing the sample at the center of an optically transparent tube with heaters equally spaced along the exterior of the cylinder was developed. Piloted ignition is attained by a hot wire igniter downstream of the fuel sample. Environment variables that can be studied via this experimental apparatus include: external radiant flux, oxidizer oxygen concentration, flow velocity, ambient pressure, and gravity level (if flown in the ISS/CIR). This constitutes the current experimental design, which maintains fairly good

  12. Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2011-05-01

    Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40

  13. Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2011-05-01

    Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40

  14. Near-Roadway Emission of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds and Other Non-Criteria Pollutants at a Southern California Freeway Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, J. A.; Baum, M.; Castonguay, A. E.; Aguirre, V., Jr.; Pesta, A.; Fanter, R. K.; Anderson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Emission control systems in light-duty motor vehicles (LDMVs) have played an important role in improving regional air quality by dramatically reducing the concentration of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides) in exhaust emissions. Unintended side-reactions occurring on the surface of three-way catalysts may lead to emission of a number of non-criteria pollutants whose identity and emission rates are poorly understood. A series of near-roadway field studies conducted between 2009-2015 has investigated LDMV emissions of these pollutants with unprecedented depth of coverage, including reactive nitrogen compounds (NH3, amines, HCN, HONO, and HNO3), organic peroxides, and carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids). Methods to collect these pollutants using mist chambers, annular denuders, impingers, and solid-phase cartridges and quantify their concentration using GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, IC, and colorimetry were developed and validated in the laboratory and field. These methods were subsequently used in near-roadway field studies where the concentrations of the target compounds integrated over 1-4 hour blocks were measured at the edge of a freeway and at a background site 140 m from the roadway. Concentrations followed a steep decreasing gradient from the freeway to the background site. Emission factors (pollutant mass emitted per mass fuel consumed) were calculated by carbon mass balance using the difference in concentration measured between the freeway and background sites for the emitted pollutant and CO2 as a measure of carbon mass in the vehicle exhaust. The significance of these results will be discussed in terms of emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California, emission trends at this site over the period of 2009-2015, and for NH3, emission measurements conducted by our group and others over the period 2000-2015.

  15. Physical and Mathematical Modeling of Thin Steel Slab Continuous Casting Secondary Cooling Zone Air-Mist Impingement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León B., Melecio; Castillejos E., A. Humberto

    2015-10-01

    This study is an attempt to unveil the fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during interaction of air-mists with the surface of the steel strand during its pass through the continuous casting secondary cooling system. Air-mists generated under conditions of practical interest are studied while impacting on a vertical wall at room temperature. Experimentally a spatial multiple-counting technique based on capturing instantaneous double-exposure shadowgraphs is used to visualize the internal structure of mists at distances between 0 and 4 mm from the wall. Analysis of single exposure images allows determination of size distributions of primary (impinging) and secondary (ejecting) drops and of fluctuating thickness of water films formed on the wall surface. Besides, examination of image pairs enables measurement of velocity and trajectory angles of both kinds of drops. These results aided in the formulation and validation of a transient, turbulent, 3D, multiphase fluid dynamic model for simulating impinging air-mists. The model is based on KIVA-3V and for simulating the airborne mist region it solves the continuity equations—mass, momentum, turbulence quantities—for the air coupled with the equation of motion for drops sampled randomly from distributions assumed to govern their size and volume flux at the nozzle orifice. While for the impingement region submodels are established to estimate the results of drop/wall interaction, i.e., the dynamics of secondary drops and water films formed by the impingement of primary drops. The model forecasts reasonably well the random distributions of diameters, velocities, trajectory angles, and Weber numbers of both kind of drops moving near the wall. Additionally, it predicts well the average thickness of the water film and the important effect that air nozzle pressure has on the normal impinging velocity of drops; high pressures result in large drop velocities favoring intimate contact with the surface.

  16. Atmospheric mercury speciation: laboratory and field evaluation of a mist chamber method for measuring reactive gaseous mercury.

    PubMed

    Stratton, W J; Lindberg, S E; Perry, C J

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of atmospheric mercury speciation is critical to modeling its fate. Thus there is a crucial need for reliable methods to measure the fraction of gaseous atmospheric Hg which is in the oxidized Hg(II) form (termed reactive gaseous mercury, RGM). We have developed a novel method for measurement of RGM using a refluxing mist chamber, and we recently reported the results of sampling campaigns for RGM in Tennessee and Indiana. In general, measured RGM levels were about 3% of total gaseous mercury (TGM), and our results support prevailing hypotheses about the nature and behavior of RGM in ambient air. Because its use for RGM is growing, we now report in more detail the development and testing of the mist chamber method. Several styles of mist chambers have been investigated. The most versatile design employs a single nebulizer nozzle and can operate at flows of 15-20 L/min. The water-soluble Hg is collected in ca. 20 mL of absorbing solution, which is then analyzed for Hg(II) by SnCl2 reduction and CVAFS. One-hour samples (ca. 1 m3 of air) generally contain 50-200 pg of RGM. The method detection limit for 1-h samples is approximately 6-10 pg/m3. Thus short sample times can reveal temporal variations in RGM that would not otherwise be observable. The efficiency of collecting RGM in mist chambers is highly dependent on Cl- concentration in the absorbing solution, in keeping with equilibrium calculations. Artifact formation of Hg(II) by oxidation of Hg0 under ozone ambient conditions appears to be sufficiently slow so as to be negligible for the short (ca. 1 h) runs that are typically employed. We observed no significant error from cosampled particles or aerosols in rural nonimpacted air samples. We have developed a simple approach to analyzing mist chamber samples in the field using an automated Hg sampler.

  17. Multipathway human health risk assessment concerning air emissions from combustion of Orimulsion fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Teaf, C.M.; Coleman, R.M.; Manning, M.J.; Covert, D.J.; Phelps, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    A multipathway human health risk assessment was conducted concerning air emissions from the combustion of Orimulsion. Exposure was considered for nearby residents who might be exposed by oral, dermal or inhalation pathways, including ingestion of analytes that may be present in meat and agricultural products from nearby areas. Occupational exposure were evaluated via the same intake pathways, except for potential ingestion of food products. Pathways included airborne exposures, deposition on crops, exposures to soils, and uptake by livestock and plants. Livestock intake included ingestion of analytes retained by plants and inhalation of soil-bound particulates. Analytes of potential concern included compounds identified as combustion products of the orimulsion fuel. Air concentrations of analytes, and the areal distribution of these concentrations resulting from stack emissions, were predicted using transport and deposition models. A worst cast scenario for air and cumulative soil concentrations was considered to represent the entire facility project lifetime (20 years) for dry deposition as well as predicted air concentrations occurring at continuous 100% facility operating capacity. Potential exposures to sulfuric acid mist and lead were shown to be much less than levels protective of human populations. Based upon the airborne emissions estimates and the deposition estimates for other constituents of interest, as well as the strongly conservative estimates of the potential for human intake, local health risks contributed from the combustion of Orimulsion fuel at the facility were judged to be negligible.

  18. Glass bead size and morphology characteristics in support of Crystal Mist field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.

    1995-03-01

    One of the tasks of the Lethality Group within US Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC) is the development of a capability to simulate various missile intercept scenarios using computer codes. Currently under development within USASSDC and its various contractor organizations is a group of codes collected under a master code called PEGEM for Post Event Ground Effects Model. Among the various components of the code are modules which are used to predict atmospheric dispersion and transport of particles or droplets following release at the altitude specified in the missile intercept scenario. The atmospheric transport code takes into account various source term data from the intercept such as: initial cloud size; droplet or particle size distribution; and, total mass of agent released. An ongoing USASSDC experimental program termed Crystal Mist involved release of precision glass beads under various altitude and meteorological conditions to assist in validation and refinement of various codes that are components of PEGEM used to predict particle atmospheric transport and diffusion following a missile intercept. Here, soda-lime glass beads used in the Crystal Mist series of atmospheric transport and diffusion tests were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and automated image processing routines in order to fully define their size distributions and morphology. Four bead size classifications ranging from a median count diameter of 45 to 200 micrometers were found to be approximately spherical and to fall within the supplier`s sizing specifications. Log-normal functions fit to the measured size distributions resulted in geometric standard deviations ranging from 1.08 to 1.12, thereby fulfilling the field trial requirements for a relatively narrow bead size distribution.

  19. 40 CFR 62.9601 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.9601 Identification of plan. (a) The... are no sulfuric acid plants in the County subject to part 60, subpart B of this chapter. (b) A plan for the control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  20. 40 CFR 62.9601 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.9601 Identification of plan. (a) The... are no sulfuric acid plants in the County subject to part 60, subpart B of this chapter. (b) A plan for the control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  1. 40 CFR 62.9601 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.9601 Identification of plan. (a) The... are no sulfuric acid plants in the County subject to part 60, subpart B of this chapter. (b) A plan for the control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  2. 40 CFR 62.9601 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.9601 Identification of plan. (a) The... are no sulfuric acid plants in the County subject to part 60, subpart B of this chapter. (b) A plan for the control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  3. Effects of lactic acid bacteria silage inoculation on methane emission and productivity of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J L; Hindrichsen, I K; Klop, G; Kinley, R D; Milora, N; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-09-01

    Inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used to improve silage quality and prevent spoilage via increased production of lactic acid and other organic acids and a rapid decline in silage pH. The addition of LAB inoculants to silage has been associated with increases in silage digestibility, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield. Given the potential change in silage and rumen fermentation conditions accompanying these silage additives, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LAB silage inoculants on DMI, digestibility, milk yield, milk composition, and methane (CH4) production from dairy cows in vivo. Eight mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were grouped into 2 blocks of 4 cows (multiparous and primiparous) and used in a 4×4 double Latin square design with 21-d periods. Methane emissions were measured by indirect calorimetry. Treatments were grass silage (mainly ryegrass) with no inoculant (GS), with a long-term inoculant (applied at harvest; GS+L), with a short-term inoculant (applied 16h before feeding; GS+S), or with both long and short-term inoculants (GS+L+S). All diets consisted of grass silage and concentrate (75:25 on a dry matter basis). The long-term inoculant consisted of a 10:20:70 mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactobacillus buchneri, and the short-term inoculant was a preparation of Lc. lactis. Dry matter intake was not affected by long-term or short-term silage inoculation, nor was dietary neutral detergent fiber or fat digestibility, or N or energy balance. Milk composition (except milk urea) and fat and protein-corrected milk yield were not affected by long- or short-term silage inoculation, nor was milk microbial count. However, milk yield tended to be greater with long-term silage inoculation. Methane expressed in units of grams per day, grams per kilogram of DMI, grams per kilogram of milk, or grams per kilogram of fat and protein-corrected milk yield was not affected by long- or short

  4. Effect of bromochloromethane on methane emission, rumen fermentation pattern, milk yield, and fatty acid profile in lactating dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Abecia, L; Toral, P G; Martín-García, A I; Martínez, G; Tomkins, N W; Molina-Alcaide, E; Newbold, C J; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R

    2012-04-01

    Several technologies have been tested to reduce enteric methanogenesis, but very few have been successfully used in practical conditions for livestock. Furthermore, the consequences of reduced rumen methane production on animal performance and milk quality are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of feeding bromochloromethane (BCM), a halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon with potential antimethanogenic activity, to dairy goats on rumen methane production, fermentation pattern, the abundance of major microbial groups, and on animal performance and milk composition. Eighteen goats were allocated to 2 experimental groups of 9 animals each: treated (BCM+) or not (BCM-) with 0.30 g of BCM/100 kg of body weight per day. The BCM was administered per os in 2 equal doses per day from parturition to 2 wk postweaning (10 wk). After weaning, methane emissions were recorded over 2 consecutive days (d 57 and 58 on treatment) in polycarbonate chambers. On d 59, individual rumen fluid samples were collected for volatile fatty acid (VFA) analysis and quantification of bacterial, protozoal, and archaeal numbers by real-time PCR. On d 69 and 70, daily milk production was recorded and samples were collected for determination of fat, protein, lactose, casein, and total solids concentration by infrared spectrophotometry, and fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Treatment with BCM reduced methane production by 33% (21.6 vs. 14.4 L/kg of DMI) compared with nontreated animals, although it did not affect the abundance of rumen bacteria, protozoa, and total methanogenic archaea. The observed improvement in the efficiency of digestive processes was accompanied by a 36% increase in milk yield, probably due to the more propionic type of rumen fermentation and an increase in VFA production. The increase in milk yield was not accompanied by any changes in the concentrations or yields of fat, protein, or lactose. Despite the substantial decrease in methane

  5. Effects of lactic acid bacteria silage inoculation on methane emission and productivity of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J L; Hindrichsen, I K; Klop, G; Kinley, R D; Milora, N; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-09-01

    Inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used to improve silage quality and prevent spoilage via increased production of lactic acid and other organic acids and a rapid decline in silage pH. The addition of LAB inoculants to silage has been associated with increases in silage digestibility, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield. Given the potential change in silage and rumen fermentation conditions accompanying these silage additives, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LAB silage inoculants on DMI, digestibility, milk yield, milk composition, and methane (CH4) production from dairy cows in vivo. Eight mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were grouped into 2 blocks of 4 cows (multiparous and primiparous) and used in a 4×4 double Latin square design with 21-d periods. Methane emissions were measured by indirect calorimetry. Treatments were grass silage (mainly ryegrass) with no inoculant (GS), with a long-term inoculant (applied at harvest; GS+L), with a short-term inoculant (applied 16h before feeding; GS+S), or with both long and short-term inoculants (GS+L+S). All diets consisted of grass silage and concentrate (75:25 on a dry matter basis). The long-term inoculant consisted of a 10:20:70 mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactobacillus buchneri, and the short-term inoculant was a preparation of Lc. lactis. Dry matter intake was not affected by long-term or short-term silage inoculation, nor was dietary neutral detergent fiber or fat digestibility, or N or energy balance. Milk composition (except milk urea) and fat and protein-corrected milk yield were not affected by long- or short-term silage inoculation, nor was milk microbial count. However, milk yield tended to be greater with long-term silage inoculation. Methane expressed in units of grams per day, grams per kilogram of DMI, grams per kilogram of milk, or grams per kilogram of fat and protein-corrected milk yield was not affected by long- or short

  6. Excited state intramolecular proton transfer and dual emission of the cyclic homo- and heterodimers of 2-hydroxy and 2,6-dihydroxy benzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, G. S.; Golubev, N. S.; Schreiber, V. M.; Shajakhmedov, Sh. S.; Shurukhina, A. V.

    1996-07-01

    The fluorescence and excitation spectra of homo- and heterodimers formed by salicylic and 2,6-dihydroxy benzoic acids (SA and DHBA respectively) with various carboxylic acids were obtained in the crystalline state, liquid and frozen glassy solutions within the temperature range 300-90 K. In all the cases, dual emission has been found with the low frequency band attributed to the excited state with intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and the high frequency one to a state without ESIPT. The relative intensities of these bands depend strongly on the temperature, excitation wavelength and the pK a value of the second acid molecule involved in a cyclic dimer. The dual emission of molecules like methyl salicylate is conventionally explained in terms of the ground state tautomeric equilibrium with the OH ⋯ OH intramolecularly hydrogen bonded isomer incapable of ESIPT. Since in the case of 2,6-dihydroxy benzoic acid the only stable isomer with two hydrogen bonds can exist, this explanation seems to be at least insufficient. Other explanations of the dual emission origin are discussed. An attempt is made to explain the available experimental data using the hypothesis involving double well potential surface of the cyclic dimer in the excited state. In the framework of this hypothesis, the barrier between two wells emerges from the reorganization of the whole hydrogen bonded system of a dimer.

  7. The stem-II regional scale acid deposition and photochemical oxidant model—IV. The impact of emission reductions on mesoscale acid deposition in the lower ohio river valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Rohit; Saylor, Rick D.; Peters, Leonard K.

    Assessment of the effect of reduction in emissions of primary sources on eventual levels of pollutants, pH of precipitation and total wet deposition is crucial in designing acid-rain control strategies. The STEM-II/ASM model is used to investigate the effect of reduction in emissions on the ultimate deposition patterns and amounts of major acidic pollutants in a mesoscale region. This work also investigates the effect of background levels of primary pollutant species on the eventual levels and deposition amounts of SO 4= and NO 3-. A series of mesoscale simulations were conducted in which emissions of primary sources of NO x and SO 2 were reduced and/or background concentrations of certain key species were changed. The results indicate that the dominant effect on the eventual deposition amounts of SO 4= and NO 3- is due to background concentrations of key precursor species such as SO x and NO x. With relatively high background concentrations, reducing SO 2 emissions by 50% and NO x emissions by 40% resulted in reductions of 2-3% for SO 4= wet deposition aand about 15% for NO 3- wet deposition. However, reducing the background concentrations of SO 2 and SO 4= by 50% and NO, NO 2 and HNO 3 by 40% resulted in substantial reductions in wet deposition; SO 4= deposition was reduced by 40-50% and NO 3- deposition was reduced by approximately 35%.

  8. Density distributions of OH, Na, water vapor, and water mist in atmospheric-pressure dc helium glow plasmas in contact with NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Koichi; Ishigame, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Shusuke

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports the density distributions of OH, Na, water vapor and water mist in atmospheric-pressure dc helium glow plasmas in contact with NaCl solution. The densities of OH, Na and H2O had different spatial distributions, while the Na density had a similar distribution to mist, suggesting that mist is the source of Na in the gas phase. When the flow rate of helium toward the electrolyte surface was increased, the distributions of all the species densities concentrated in the neighboring region to the electrolyte surface more significantly. The densities of all the species were sensitive to the electric polarity of the power supply. In particular, we never detected Na and mist when the electrolyte worked as the anode of the dc discharge. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  9. IMAGING SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION VIA ARACHIDONIC ACID IN THE HUMAN BRAIN DURING VISUAL STIMULATION, BY MEANS OF POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Der, Margaret; Liow, Jeih-San; Bhattacharjee, Abesh K.; Ma, Kaizong; Herscovitch, Peter; Channing, Michael; Eckelman, William C.; Hallett, Mark; Carson, Richard E.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2007-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), an important second messenger, is released from membrane phospholipid following receptor mediated activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). This signaling process can be imaged in brain as a regional brain AA incorporation coefficient K*. Hypothesis K* will be increased in brain visual areas of subjects submitted to visual stimulation. Subjects and methods Regional values of K* were measured with positron emission tomography (PET), following the intravenous injection of [1-11C]AA, in 16 healthy volunteers subjected to visual stimulation at flash frequencies 2.9 Hz (8 subjects) or 7.8 Hz (8 subjects), compared with the dark (0 Hz) condition. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with intravenous [15O]water under comparable conditions. Results During flash stimulation at 2.9 Hz or 7.8 Hz vs. 0 Hz, K* was increased significantly by 2.3–8.9% in Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19, and in additional frontal, parietal and temporal cortical regions. rCBF was increased significantly by 3.1% – 22%, often in comparable regions. Increments at 7.8 Hz often exceeded those at 2.9 Hz for both K* and rCBF. Decrements in both parameters also were produced, particularly in frontal brain regions. Conclusions AA plays a role in signaling processes provoked by visual stimulation, since visual stimulation at flash frequencies of 2.9 and 7.8 Hz compared to 0 Hz modifies both K* for AA and rCBF in visual and related areas of the human brain. The two-stimulus condition paradigm of this study might be used with PET to image effects of other functional activations and of drugs on brain signaling via AA. PMID:17196833

  10. Assessing the Parameterization of Nitric Oxide Emissions By Lightning in a Chemical Transport Model with Nitric Acid Columns from the IASI Satellite Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, M.; Martin, R.; Wespes, C.; Coheur, P. F.; Clerbaux, C.; Murray, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) in the free troposphere largely control the production of ozone (O3), an important greenhouse gas and atmospheric oxidant. As HNO3 is the dominant sink of tropospheric NOx, improved understanding of its production and loss mechanisms can help to better constrain NOx emissions, and in turn improve understanding of ozone production and its effect on climate. However, this understanding is inhibited by the scarcity of direct measurements of free tropospheric HNO3, particularly in the tropics. We interpret tropical tropospheric nitric acid columns from the IASI satellite instrument with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Overall GEOS-Chem generally agrees with IASI, however we find that the simulation underestimates IASI nitric acid over Southeast Asia by a factor of two. The bias is confirmed by comparing the GEOS-Chem simulation with additional satellite (HIRDLS, ACE-FTS) and aircraft (PEM-Tropics A and PEM-West B) observations of the middle and upper troposphere. We show that this bias can be explained by the parameterization of lightning NOx emissions, primarily from the misrepresentation of concentrated subgrid lightning NOx plumes. We tested a subgrid lightning plume parameterization and found that an additional 0.5 Tg N with an ozone production efficiency of 15 mol/mol would reduce the regional nitric acid bias from 92% to 6% without perturbing the rest of the tropics. Other sensitivity studies such as modified NOx yield per flash, increased altitude of lightning NOx emissions, or changes to convective mass flux or wet deposition of nitric acid required unrealistic changes to reduce the bias. This work demonstrates the importance of a comprehensive lightning parameterization to constraining NOx emissions.

  11. European hazard classification advice for crude oil-derived lubricant base oils compared with the proposed mineral oil mist TLV.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Jan H; Lobo, Rupert C; Riley, Anthony J

    2003-11-01

    The notice of intended change for the threshold limit value (TLV) for mineral oil mist contains a notation for human carcinogenicity. A description is provided of the current European regulatory approach used to distinguish between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic mineral base oils on the basis of oil refining process and chemical marker information. This approach has proven effective in creating a market situation in the countries of the European Union where many customers require severely refined, non-carcinogenic oils. It is recommended that ACGIH consolidate the distinction between poorly and severely refined base oils in the recommended TLV for mineral oil mist and use different toxicological considerations to derive exposure control guidelines.

  12. Are perfluoroalkyl acids in waste water treatment plant effluents the result of primary emissions from the technosphere or of environmental recirculation?

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Marko; Berger, Urs

    2015-06-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been suggested to be one of the major pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from the technosphere to the aquatic environment. The origin of PFAAs in WWTP influents is either from current primary emissions or a result of recirculation of PFAAs that have been residing and transported in the environment for several years or decades. Environmental recirculation can then occur when PFAAs from the environment enter the wastewater stream in, e.g., tap water. In this study 13 PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were analyzed in tap water as well as WWTP influent, effluent and sludge from three Swedish cities: Bromma (in the metropolitan area of Stockholm), Bollebygd and Umeå. A mass balance of the WWTPs was assembled for each PFAA. Positive mass balances were observed for PFHxA and PFOA in all WWTPs, indicating the presence of precursor compounds in the technosphere. With regard to environmental recirculation, tap water was an important source of PFAAs to the Bromma WWTP influent, contributing >40% for each quantified sulfonic acid and up to 30% for the carboxylic acids. The PFAAs in tap water from Bollebygd and Umeå did not contribute significantly to the PFAA load in the WWTP influents. Our results show that in order to estimate current primary emissions from the technosphere, it may be necessary to correct the PFAA emission rates in WWTP effluents for PFAAs present in tap water, especially in the case of elevated levels in tap water.

  13. Characterizing the release of different composition of dissolved organic matter in soil under acid rain leaching using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Song, Cunyi; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng

    2009-09-01

    Although excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM), there has no report that EEMS has been used to study the effects of acid rain on DOM and its composition in soil. In this work, we employed three-dimensional EEMS to characterize the compositions of DOM leached by simulated acid rain from red soil. The red soil was subjected to leaching of simulated acid rain of different acidity, and the leached DOM presented five main peaks in its EEMS: peak-A, related to humic acid-like (HA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 310-330/395-420nm; peak-B, related to UV fulvic acid-like (FA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 230-280/400-435nm; peak-C and peak-D, both related to microbial byproduct-like material, at Ex/Em of 250-280/335-355nm and 260-280/290-320nm, respectively; and peak-E, related to simple aromatic proteins, at Ex/Em of 210-240/290-340nm. EEMS analysis results indicated that most DOM could be lost from red soil in the early phase of acid rain leaching. In addition to the effects of the pH of acid rain, the loss of DOM also depended on the properties of its compositions and the solubility of their complexes with aluminum. HA-like and microbial byproduct-like materials could be more easily released from red soil by acid rain at both higher pH (4.5 and 5.6) and lower pH (2.5 and 3) than that at middle pH (3.5). On the contrary, FA-like material lost in a similar manner under the action of different acid rains with pH ranging from 2.5 to 5.6.

  14. Characterizing the release of different composition of dissolved organic matter in soil under acid rain leaching using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Song, Cunyi; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng

    2009-09-01

    Although excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM), there has no report that EEMS has been used to study the effects of acid rain on DOM and its composition in soil. In this work, we employed three-dimensional EEMS to characterize the compositions of DOM leached by simulated acid rain from red soil. The red soil was subjected to leaching of simulated acid rain of different acidity, and the leached DOM presented five main peaks in its EEMS: peak-A, related to humic acid-like (HA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 310-330/395-420nm; peak-B, related to UV fulvic acid-like (FA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 230-280/400-435nm; peak-C and peak-D, both related to microbial byproduct-like material, at Ex/Em of 250-280/335-355nm and 260-280/290-320nm, respectively; and peak-E, related to simple aromatic proteins, at Ex/Em of 210-240/290-340nm. EEMS analysis results indicated that most DOM could be lost from red soil in the early phase of acid rain leaching. In addition to the effects of the pH of acid rain, the loss of DOM also depended on the properties of its compositions and the solubility of their complexes with aluminum. HA-like and microbial byproduct-like materials could be more easily released from red soil by acid rain at both higher pH (4.5 and 5.6) and lower pH (2.5 and 3) than that at middle pH (3.5). On the contrary, FA-like material lost in a similar manner under the action of different acid rains with pH ranging from 2.5 to 5.6. PMID:19577791

  15. The Influence of Asian Dust, Haze, Mist, and Fog on Hospital Visits for Airway Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinkyeong; Lim, Myoung Nam; Hong, Yoonki

    2015-01-01

    Background Asian dust is known to have harmful effects on the respiratory system. Respiratory conditions are also influenced by environmental conditions regardless of the presence of pollutants. The same pollutant can have different effects on the airway when the air is dry compared with when it is humid. We investigated hospital visits for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma in relation to the environmental conditions. Methods We conducted a retrospective study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service claims database of patients who visited hospitals in Chuncheon between January 2006 and April 2012. Asian dust, haze, mist, and fog days were determined using reports from the Korea Meteorological Administration. Hospital visits for asthma or COPD on the index days were compared with the comparison days. We used two-way case-crossover techniques with one to two matching. Results The mean hospital visits for asthma and COPD were 59.37 ± 34.01 and 10.04 ± 6.18 per day, respectively. Hospital visits for asthma significantly increased at lag0 and lag1 for Asian dust (relative risk [RR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.19; p<0.05) and haze (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.22; p<0.05), but were significantly lower on misty (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99; p<0.05) and foggy (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.93; p<0.05) days than on control days. The hospital visits for COPD also significantly increased on days with Asian dust (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.05-1.59; p<0.05), and were significantly lower at lag4 for foggy days, compared with days without fog (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-0.97; p<0.05). Conclusion Asian dust showed an association with airway diseases and had effects for several days after the exposure. In contrast to Asian dust, mist and fog, which occur in humid air conditions, showed the opposite effects on airway diseases, after adjusting to the pollutants. It would require more research to investigate the effects of various air conditions on

  16. Effects of water-misting spray combined with forced ventilation on heat induced meat gelation in broiler after summer transport.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhao, Yingying; Jiang, Nannan; Li, Ke; Xing, Tong; Chen, Lin; Wang, Xiaoming; Tang, Yong; Xu, Xinglian

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to explore the use of non-chemical addition in improving the functions of meat proteins in broilers transported during summer. The effects of a water-misting spray with forced ventilation on heat induced ground meat gelation in broilers were investigated through rheology, texture, and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. The facilities of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation characterized with an extremely thin droplet (diameter: approximately 0.05 mm) and supplying updraughting air ventilation in an enclosed space were examined. For comparison, typical processing treatments using sodium bicarbonate or sodium tripolyphosphate were performed to grind the broiler meat which had not undergone water-misting and forced ventilation. Results showed that transport for 45-min followed by application of water-misting spray with forced ventilation for 15-min and resting for 45-min (TWFR) increased water holding capacity (WHC) by 2.51%; this finding was not significantly different from the effect of transport for 45 min followed by 1 h rest and sodium tripolyphosphate treatment (TRT) on meat batter (P > 0.05). TWFR treatment exhibited the highest storage modulus increase among four samples well as significant higher hardness and chewiness values on than those of sample treated with 45-min transport and 1-h rest (TR) (P < 0.05). TWFR, 45 min of transport, 1 h rest, and addition of sodium bicarbonate (TRB) and TRT induced T22 (relaxation time of water trapped within myofibrils) shift to shorter relaxation time and narrower relaxation distribution compared with TR. Overall, TWFR treatment can be a potential non-chemical addition method for improving the heat induced gelation protein function after broiler undergoing summer transport. PMID:27418661

  17. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  18. White light emission from Mn2 + doped ZnS nanocrystals through the surface chelating of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Xiaodan; Yang, Jing; Fu, Yuqin; Liu, Qianqian; Qi, Bin; Lü, Changli; Su, Zhongmin

    2010-03-01

    White light emitting semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have been successfully synthesized from 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS) decorated manganese doped ZnS NCs through fine tuning the surface-coordination emission and dopant emission of the NC host. The HQS functionalized manganese doped ZnS NCs (QS-ZnS:Mn), with a cubic crystal structure, have the same diameter of about 4.0 nm as ZnS:Mn NCs without HQS. The intensity of the surface-coordination emission peak increased with increasing HQS content or augmenting excited wavelength. The emission of white light was achieved by carefully controlling the dosage of HQS in NCs and appropriately tuning the excited wavelength. The color coordinates (0.35, 0.34) for the efficient white light emitting NCs were very close to the ideal Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates for pure white light (0.33, 0.33). The photoluminescence (PL) decay study revealed that the white light emitting NCs exhibited maximum lifetime values at different emission peaks for different NC samples. The study results also indicated that the HQS molecules were attached to the surface of ZnS:Mn NCs in a single coordination fashion due to the steric hindrance effect of the special spherical surface of NCs, which made the QS-ZnS:Mn NCs possess stable and high fluorescent properties in different organic solvents as compared with the conventional small molecule complexes.

  19. White light emission from Mn2 + doped ZnS nanocrystals through the surface chelating of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiaodan; Yang, Jing; Fu, Yuqin; Liu, Qianqian; Qi, Bin; Lü, Changli; Su, Zhongmin

    2010-03-19

    White light emitting semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have been successfully synthesized from 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS) decorated manganese doped ZnS NCs through fine tuning the surface-coordination emission and dopant emission of the NC host. The HQS functionalized manganese doped ZnS NCs (QS-ZnS:Mn), with a cubic crystal structure, have the same diameter of about 4.0 nm as ZnS:Mn NCs without HQS. The intensity of the surface-coordination emission peak increased with increasing HQS content or augmenting excited wavelength. The emission of white light was achieved by carefully controlling the dosage of HQS in NCs and appropriately tuning the excited wavelength. The color coordinates (0.35, 0.34) for the efficient white light emitting NCs were very close to the ideal Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates for pure white light (0.33, 0.33). The photoluminescence (PL) decay study revealed that the white light emitting NCs exhibited maximum lifetime values at different emission peaks for different NC samples. The study results also indicated that the HQS molecules were attached to the surface of ZnS:Mn NCs in a single coordination fashion due to the steric hindrance effect of the special spherical surface of NCs, which made the QS-ZnS:Mn NCs possess stable and high fluorescent properties in different organic solvents as compared with the conventional small molecule complexes.

  20. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on PCDD/F emissions from open burning of biomass.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Maria; Gullett, Brian K; Touati, Abderrahmane; Font, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    To understand the effect of leaf-surface pesticides on emissions of PCDD/F during biomass burns, nine combustion experiments simulating the open burning of biomass were conducted. Needles and branches of Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) were sprayed with the pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at 1 and 10 times the manufacturer's recommended application concentration. The biomass was then dried overnight, burned in an open burn test facility, and emission samples were collected, analyzed, and compared against emission samples from burning untreated biomass. Blank tests and analysis of PCDD/F in the raw biomass were also performed. Emission results from burning a water-sprayed control show a ~20-fold increase in PCDD/F levels above that of the raw biomass alone, implicating combustive formation versus simple volatilization. Results from burns of pine branches sprayed with pesticide showed a statistically significant increase in the PCDD/F TEQ emissions when burning biomass at ten times the recommended pesticide concentration (from 0.22 to 1.14 ng TEQ/kg carbon burned (C(b)), both ND = 0). Similarly, a 150-fold increase in the total PCDD/F congener mass (tetra- to octa-chlorinated D/F) above that of the control was observed (from 52 to 7800 ng/kg C(b)), confirming combustive formation of PCDD/F from 2,4-D. More replicate testing is needed to evaluate effects at lower pesticide concentrations.

  1. Reducing NO(x) emissions from a nitric acid plant of domestic petrochemical complex: enhanced conversion in conventional radial-flow reactor of selective catalytic reduction process.

    PubMed

    Abbasfard, Hamed; Hashemi, Seyed Hamid; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad; Ghader, Sattar

    2013-01-01

    The nitric acid plant of a domestic petrochemical complex is designed to annually produce 56,400 metric tons (based on 100% nitric acid). In the present work, radial-flow spherical bed reactor (RFSBR) for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides (NO(x)) from the stack of this plant was modelled and compared with the conventional radial-flow reactor (CRFR). Moreover, the proficiency of a radial-flow (water or nitrogen) membrane reactor was also compared with the CRFR which was found to be inefficient at identical process conditions. In the RFSBR, the space between the two concentric spheres is filled by a catalyst. A mathematical model, including conservation of mass has been developed to investigate the performance of the configurations. The model was checked against the CRFR in a nitric acid plant located at the domestic petrochemical complex. A good agreement was observed between the modelling results and the plant data. The effects of some important parameters such as pressure and temperature on NO(x) conversion were analysed. Results show 14% decrease in NO(x) emission annually in RFSBR compared with the CRFR, which is beneficial for the prevention of NO(x) emission, global warming and acid rain.

  2. Reducing NO(x) emissions from a nitric acid plant of domestic petrochemical complex: enhanced conversion in conventional radial-flow reactor of selective catalytic reduction process.

    PubMed

    Abbasfard, Hamed; Hashemi, Seyed Hamid; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad; Ghader, Sattar

    2013-01-01

    The nitric acid plant of a domestic petrochemical complex is designed to annually produce 56,400 metric tons (based on 100% nitric acid). In the present work, radial-flow spherical bed reactor (RFSBR) for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides (NO(x)) from the stack of this plant was modelled and compared with the conventional radial-flow reactor (CRFR). Moreover, the proficiency of a radial-flow (water or nitrogen) membrane reactor was also compared with the CRFR which was found to be inefficient at identical process conditions. In the RFSBR, the space between the two concentric spheres is filled by a catalyst. A mathematical model, including conservation of mass has been developed to investigate the performance of the configurations. The model was checked against the CRFR in a nitric acid plant located at the domestic petrochemical complex. A good agreement was observed between the modelling results and the plant data. The effects of some important parameters such as pressure and temperature on NO(x) conversion were analysed. Results show 14% decrease in NO(x) emission annually in RFSBR compared with the CRFR, which is beneficial for the prevention of NO(x) emission, global warming and acid rain. PMID:24527652

  3. NONLINEARITIES IN THE SULFATE SECONDARY FINE PARTICULATE RESPONSE TO NOX EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS AS MODELED BY THE REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention is increasingly being devoted to the health effects of fine particulates. In regions that have a large production of sulfate, sulfuric acid and nitric acid compete for the available ammonia to form aerosols. In addition, the available nitric acid is the result of ur...

  4. An in vitro study to assess facial and ocular deposition from Respimat Soft Mist inhaler.

    PubMed

    Newman, Stephen P; Steed, Karen P; Reader, Sandie J; Pavia, Demetri; Sohal, Anil K

    2007-01-01

    Respimat Soft Mist() inhaler (SMI) is a novel multidose propellant-free inhaler device for delivery of inhaled drugs to patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In vitro studies have been undertaken to assess facial and ocular deposition from Respimat SMI in several potential misuse situations. A placebo aqueous drug formulation in Respimat SMI was radiolabeled by addition of (99m)Tc. Deposition was quantified by gamma camera on a removable facemask that was fitted over the head of a resuscitation mannequin. The eyes were simulated by adhesive plaster patches. When Respimat SMI was fired in three preselected positions away from the head, total face deposition (% ex-valve dose) averaged 7.3%, 7.8%, and 9.1%, and eye deposition averaged 0.6%, 0.1%, and 0.3%. When the inhaler was fired into a simulated exhalation, upper face deposition (mean 3.8%) and eye deposition (mean 0.1%) were also small. It is concluded that low deposition on the face, and especially in the eyes, is to be expected when Respimat SMI is fired accidentally outside the body, or is fired at the same time as the patient exhales. When Respimat SMI is misused in the ways described in this study, there is likely to be little potential for unwanted side effects resulting from ocular deposition.

  5. A test stand for the evaluation of high efficiency mist eliminators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-10-01

    High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are airstream filtering elements primarily used to remove liquid and solid aerosols. HEME elements are designed to reduce aerosol load on downstream high efficiency particulate air filters and to have a liquid particle removal efficiency of 99.5% for aerosols as small as 1 μm in size. The test stand described herein is designed to evaluate the loading capacity and filtering efficiency of a single HEME element. The loading capacity was determined with or without use of a water spray cleaning system to wash the interior surface of the element. The HEME element is challenged with a liquid waste surrogate using Laskin nozzles and large dispersion nozzles. The waste surrogate used was a highly caustic solution with both suspended and dissolved solids representative of actual exposures at mixed, hazardous, and radiological, waste treatment facilities. The filtering efficiency performance was determined by challenging the element with a dried waste surrogate aerosol and di-octyl phthalate intermittently during the loading process. Capabilities of the test stand and representative results obtained during testing are presented.

  6. Numerical study of chemical reactions in a surface microdischarge tube with mist flow based on experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, T.; Nishiyama, H.

    2014-03-01

    Recently, a water treatment method of spraying solution into a discharge region has been developed and shows high energy efficiency. In this study, a simulation model of a water treatment method using a surface microdischarge (SMD) tube with mist flow is proposed for further understanding the detailed chemical reactions. Our model has three phases (plasma, gas and liquid) and three simulation steps. The carrier gas is humid air including 2% or 3% water vapour. The chemical species diffusion characteristics in the SMD tube and the concentrations in a droplet are clarified in a wide pH interval. The simulation results show that the chemical species generated on the SMD tube inner wall are diffused to the central axis and dissolved into fine droplets. Especially, OH radicals dissolve into droplets a few mm away from the SMD tube wall because of acidification of the droplets. Furthermore, the hydrogen peroxide density, which is the most important indicator of a radical reaction in water, is influenced by the initial solution pH. This pH dependence results from ozone self-decomposition in water.

  7. The development and evaluation of water-mist fire extinguishing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beason, D.G.; Staggs, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    Fire protection for underfloor space is primarily provided by Halon 1301 which has proven to be very effective. However, due to the link between halons and the possible depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, plans have been implemented to eventually phase out Halon 1301 and 1211. In September 1987 the Montreal Protocol concerning chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and halons was signed by the United States, the European Economic Community, and 23 other nations. The Montreal Protocol calls for freezing halon production at 1986 levels. Because the majority of underfloor fire protection at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) sites, is either Halon 1301 or sprinklers, some other means of suppression will have to be developed and verified. The potential loss to facilities housing computer or control rooms damaged by underfloor fires can be extreme. These losses would not only include hardware and software replacement costs, but also lost computing and control capability. Here at LLNL technical research in a facility could be severely affected. Recent studies conducted by the Fire Research Discipline of the Special Projects Division have shown that severe fires fueled by cable insulation can develop within as little as a 6-in-high underfloor space (even with mechanical ventilation shut off). Studies also show that conventional sprinklers may not be effective in preventing this destruction. Therefore, we are investigating the water-mist fire extinguishing system as an alternative to Halon 1301 and sprinklers.

  8. Development of the International Space Station Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Young, GIna

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segments, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the United States Orbital Segments, which include Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Currently, there are operational and compatibility concerns with the emergency breathing equipment and the carbon dioxide extinguisher. ISS emergency response breathing equipment does not filter carbon dioxide; therefore, crew members are required to have an oxygen supply present during a fire event since the carbon dioxide PFE creates an unsafe breathing environment. The ISS program recommended a nontoxic fire extinguisher to mitigate this operational risk. The FWM PFE can extinguish a fire without creating a hazardous breathing environment for crewmembers. This paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE, identify unique microgravity design considerations for liquid and gas systems, and discuss the NASA ISS specific fire standards that were developed to establish an acceptable portable fire extinguisher s performance.

  9. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Graf, John; Carlile, Christie; Young, GIna

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the United States Orbital Segments, which include Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Currently, there are operational concerns with the emergency breathing equipment and the carbon dioxide extinguisher. The toxicity of the carbon dioxide requires the crew members to have an oxygen supply present during a fire event, therefore inherently creating an unsafe environment. The FWM PFE extinguishes a fire without creating a hazardous breathing environment for crew members. The following paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE, identify unique microgravity design considerations for liquid and gas systems, as well as discuss the NASA ISS specific fire standards that were developed to establish an acceptable portable fire extinguisher s performance.

  10. Artifact removal algorithms for stroke detection using a multistatic MIST beamforming algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ricci, E; Di Domenico, S; Cianca, E; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Microwave imaging (MWI) has been recently proved as a promising imaging modality for low-complexity, low-cost and fast brain imaging tools, which could play a fundamental role to efficiently manage emergencies related to stroke and hemorrhages. This paper focuses on the UWB radar imaging approach and in particular on the processing algorithms of the backscattered signals. Assuming the use of the multistatic version of the MIST (Microwave Imaging Space-Time) beamforming algorithm, developed by Hagness et al. for the early detection of breast cancer, the paper proposes and compares two artifact removal algorithms. Artifacts removal is an essential step of any UWB radar imaging system and currently considered artifact removal algorithms have been shown not to be effective in the specific scenario of brain imaging. First of all, the paper proposes modifications of a known artifact removal algorithm. These modifications are shown to be effective to achieve good localization accuracy and lower false positives. However, the main contribution is the proposal of an artifact removal algorithm based on statistical methods, which allows to achieve even better performance but with much lower computational complexity.

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: From Ancient Mists: Presolar and Nebular Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "From Ancient Mists: Presolar and Nebular Processes" included the following reports: Interpretation of the Meteoritic Extinct Radioactivity - Mean Life Relation; On the Issue of Molybdenum Isotopic Anomalies in Meteorites: Is It Still "FUN"?; (26Al/27Al)o of the Solar Nebula Inferred from Al-Mg Systematic in Bulk CAIs from CV3 Chondrites; Magnesium Isotopic Compositions of Igneous CAIs in the CR Carbonaceous Chondrites: Evidence for an Early and Late-stage Melting of CAIs; The 26Al-26Mg Chronology of a Type C CAI and POIs in Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite; Bulk Compositions of CAIs and Al-rich Chondrules: Implications of the Reversal of the Anorthite / Forsterite Condensation Sequence at Low Nebular Pressures; Synthesis of Refractory Minerals by High-Temperature Condensation of a Gas of Solar Composition; Elemental and Isotopic Fractionation by Diffusion-limited Evaporation; "Nonideal" Isotopic Fractionation Behavior of Magnesium in Evaporation Residues; Determination of Primordial Refractory Inclusion Compositions; Zoning Patterns in Spinel from Type B Ca-Al-rich Inclusions: Constraints on Sub-Solidus Thermal History; Radial Migration of Materials from Inner to Outer Solar Nebula: Evidence from Meteorite Matrix; and Refractory Forsterites in Chondritic Meteorites, a Link Between CAIs and Chondrules.

  12. Stomatal plugs of Drimys winteri (Winteraceae) protect leaves from mist but not drought

    PubMed Central

    Feild, Taylor S.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Donoghue, Michael J.; Holbrook, N. Michele

    1998-01-01

    Two outstanding features of the flowering plant family Winteraceae are the occlusion of their stomatal pores by cutin plugs and the absence of water-conducting xylem vessels. An adaptive relationship between these two unusual features has been suggested whereby stomatal plugs restrict gas exchange to compensate for the presumed poor conductivity of their vesselless wood. This hypothesized connection fueled evolutionary arguments that the vesselless condition is ancestral in angiosperms. Here we show that in Drimys winteri, a tree common to wet forests, these stomatal occlusions pose only a small fixed resistance to water loss. In addition, they modify the humidity response of guard cells such that under high evaporative demand, leaves with plugs lose water at a faster rate than leaves from which the plugs have been experimentally removed. Instead of being adaptations for drought, we present evidence that these cuticular structures function to maintain photosynthetic activity under conditions of excess water on the leaf surface. Stomatal plugs decrease leaf wettability by preventing the formation of a continuous water film that would impede diffusion of CO2 into the leaf. Misting of leaves had no effect on photosynthetic rate of leaves with plugs, but resulted in a marked decrease (≈40%) in leaves from which the plugs had been removed. These findings do not support a functional association between stomatal plugs and hydraulic competence and provide a new perspective on debates surrounding the evolution of vessels in angiosperms. PMID:9826687

  13. Efficiency and Loading Evaluation of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME) - 12003

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-07-01

    High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are filters primarily used to remove moisture and/or liquid aerosols from an air stream. HEME elements are designed to reduce aerosol and particulate load on primary High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and to have a liquid particle removal efficiency of approximately 99.5% for aerosols down to sub-micron size particulates. The investigation presented here evaluates the loading capacity of the element in the absence of a water spray cleaning system. The theory is that without the cleaning system, the HEME element will suffer rapid buildup of solid aerosols, greatly reducing the particle loading capacity. Evaluation consists of challenging the element with a waste surrogate dry aerosol and di-octyl phthalate (DOP) at varying intervals of differential pressure to examine the filtering efficiency of three different element designs at three different media velocities. Also, the elements are challenged with a liquid waste surrogate using Laskin nozzles and large dispersion nozzles. These tests allow the loading capacity of the unit to be determined and the effectiveness of washing down the interior of the elements to be evaluated. (authors)

  14. A method of studying wild bird populations by mist-netting and banding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamm, D.D.; Davis, D.E.; Robbins, C.S.

    1960-01-01

    1. Progress is reported toward development of a method of bird-population study based on mist-netting and banding. A definite pattern of arrangement and schedule of operation are presented. 2. Nets were operated for a total of 4200 net-hours during which 966 captures were made (23.0 birds per 100 net-hours). A total of 431 adult breeding birds were banded and 38 per cent of them were recaptured. 3. A breeding bird census was made simultaneously in the same area by the Williams spot-mapping technique. 4. Estimates of population by recapture agreed closely with the spot-mappmg census. 5. Some birds are demonstrated to have overlapping home-ranges much larger than their singing territories. 6. Recruitment and net-shyness distort recapture estimates of population .but the method allows detection and assessment of their influence in the population dealt with here. 7. The method produced integrated information on population density and dynamics, movement and behavior. 8. The procedure is especially well adapted to studies of disease agents in bird populations. 9. A simple scheme for description of the habitat in terms of relative abundance and frequency of occurrence of tree species was used.

  15. Passivation properties of aluminum oxide films deposited by mist chemical vapor deposition for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Shohei; Iguchi, Koji; Kitano, Sho; Hayakashi, Koki; Hotta, Yasushi; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Ogura, Atsushi; Satoh, Shin-ichi; Arafune, Koji

    2015-08-01

    Aluminum oxide (AlOx) films were deposited by mist chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) in air for p-type crystalline silicon, and the effects of the deposition temperature (Tdep) and AlOx film thickness on the maximum surface recombination velocities (Smax) were evaluated. It was found that Smax was improved with increasing Tdep. The AlOx film deposited at 400 °C exhibited the best Smax value of 2.8 cm/s, and the passivation quality was comparable to that of AlOx deposited by other vacuum-based techniques. Smax was also improved with increasing film thickness. When the film thickness was above 10 nm, Smax was approximately 10 cm/s. From the Fourier transform infrared spectra, it was found that the AlOx films deposited by MCVD consisted of an AlOx layer and a Si-diffused AlOx layer. In addition, it is important for the layers to be thick enough to obtain high-quality passivation.

  16. Artifact removal algorithms for stroke detection using a multistatic MIST beamforming algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ricci, E; Di Domenico, S; Cianca, E; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Microwave imaging (MWI) has been recently proved as a promising imaging modality for low-complexity, low-cost and fast brain imaging tools, which could play a fundamental role to efficiently manage emergencies related to stroke and hemorrhages. This paper focuses on the UWB radar imaging approach and in particular on the processing algorithms of the backscattered signals. Assuming the use of the multistatic version of the MIST (Microwave Imaging Space-Time) beamforming algorithm, developed by Hagness et al. for the early detection of breast cancer, the paper proposes and compares two artifact removal algorithms. Artifacts removal is an essential step of any UWB radar imaging system and currently considered artifact removal algorithms have been shown not to be effective in the specific scenario of brain imaging. First of all, the paper proposes modifications of a known artifact removal algorithm. These modifications are shown to be effective to achieve good localization accuracy and lower false positives. However, the main contribution is the proposal of an artifact removal algorithm based on statistical methods, which allows to achieve even better performance but with much lower computational complexity. PMID:26736661

  17. Emissions of formaldehyde, acetic acid, methanol, and other trace gases from biomass fires in North Carolina measured by airborne Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Goode, J. G.; Ward, D. E.; Susott, R. A.; Babbitt, R. E.; Wade, D. D.; Bertschi, I.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Hao, W. M.

    1999-12-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of many trace gases in the global troposphere. We have constructed an airborne trace gas measurement system consisting of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) coupled to a "flow-through" multipass cell (AFTIR) and installed it on a U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service King Air B-90. The first measurements with the new system were conducted in North Carolina during April 1997 on large, isolated biomass fire plumes. Simultaneous measurements included Global Positioning System (GPS); airborne sonde; particle light scattering, CO, and CO2; and integrated filter and canister samples. AFTIR spectra acquired within a few kilometers of the fires yielded excess mixing ratios for 10 of the most common trace gases in the smoke: water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, formaldehyde, acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, ethylene, and ammonia. Emission ratios to carbon monoxide for formaldehyde, acetic acid, and methanol were each 2.5±1%. This is in excellent agreement with (and confirms the relevance of) our results from laboratory fires. However, these ratios are significantly higher than the emission ratios reported for these compounds in some previous studies of "fresh" smoke. We present a simple photochemical model calculation that suggests that oxygenated organic compounds should be included in the assessment of ozone formation in smoke plumes. Our measured emission factors indicate that biomass fires could account for a significant portion of the oxygenated organic compounds and HOx present in the tropical troposphere during the dry season. Our fire measurements, along with recent measurements of oxygenated biogenic emissions and oxygenated organic compounds in the free troposphere, indicate that these rarely measured compounds play a major, but poorly understood, role in the HOx, NOx, and O3 chemistry of the troposphere.

  18. Size and Velocity Characteristics of Droplets Generated by Thin Steel Slab Continuous Casting Secondary Cooling Air-Mist Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchaca M, J. I.; Castillejos E, A. H.; Acosta G, F. A.

    2011-06-01

    Direct spray impingement of high temperature surfaces, 1473 K to 973 K (1200 °C to 700 °C), plays a critical role in the secondary cooling of continuously cast thin steel slabs. It is known that the spray parameters affecting the local heat flux are the water impact flux w as well as the droplet velocity and size. However, few works have been done to characterize the last two parameters in the case of dense mists ( i.e., mists with w in the range of 2 to 90 L/m2s). This makes it difficult to rationalize how the nozzle type and its operating conditions must be selected to control the cooling process. In the present study, particle/droplet image analysis was used to determine the droplet size and velocity distributions simultaneously at various locations along the major axis of the mist cross section at a distance where the steel strand would stand. The measurements were carried out at room temperature for two standard commercial air-assisted nozzles of fan-discharge type operating over a broad range of conditions of practical interest. To achieve statistically meaningful samples, at least 6000 drops were analyzed at each location. Measuring the droplet size revealed that the number and volume frequency distributions were fitted satisfactorily by the respective log-normal and Nukiyama-Tanasawa distributions. The correlation of the parameters of the distribution functions with the water- and air-nozzle pressures allowed for reasonable estimation of the mean values of the size of the droplets generated. The ensemble of measurements across the mist axis showed that the relationship between the droplet velocity and the diameter exhibited a weak positive correlation. Additionally, increasing the water flow rate at constant air pressure caused a decrease in the proportion of the water volume made of finer droplets, whereas the volume proportion of faster droplets augmented until the water flow reached a certain value, after which it decreased. Diminishing the air

  19. Combusting vegetable oils in diesel engines: the impact of unsaturated fatty acids on particle emissions and mutagenic effects of the exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Bünger, Jörn F; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz A

    2016-06-01

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. Four different vegetable oils (coconut oil, CO; linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; and rapeseed oil, RO) and common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The exhausts were investigated for particle emissions and mutagenic effects in direct comparison with emissions of DF. The engine was operated using the European Stationary Cycle. Particle masses were measured gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison with DF, it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by CO and PO, which were scarcely above DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. Further investigations have to elucidate the causal relationship.

  20. Combusting vegetable oils in diesel engines: the impact of unsaturated fatty acids on particle emissions and mutagenic effects of the exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Bünger, Jörn F; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz A

    2016-06-01

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. Four different vegetable oils (coconut oil, CO; linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; and rapeseed oil, RO) and common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The exhausts were investigated for particle emissions and mutagenic effects in direct comparison with emissions of DF. The engine was operated using the European Stationary Cycle. Particle masses were measured gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison with DF, it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by CO and PO, which were scarcely above DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. Further investigations have to elucidate the causal relationship. PMID:26126632

  1. Evaluation of the protective effect of α-lipoic acid on cisplatin ototoxicity using distortion-product otoacoustic emission measurements: an experimental animal study.

    PubMed

    Ozkul, Yilmaz; Songu, Murat; Basoglu, Mehmet Sinan; Ozturkcan, Sedat; Katilmis, Huseyin

    2014-07-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the effectiveness of intratympanic α-lipoic acid injection as an otoprotective agent against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in guinea pigs. Twenty-four adult male albino guinea pigs with normal hearing were divided into 4 groups. The guinea pigs received intraperitoneal cisplatin in group 1, intraperitoneal cisplatin and intratympanic α-lipoic acid in group 2, intratympanic α-lipoic acid in group 3, as well as intraperitoneal cisplatin and intratympanic saline in group 4. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission measurements were obtained for both ears at the following time points: before administration (baseline recording) and on day 3 (72 h later). In group 1 (cisplatin), significant deterioration was observed at all frequencies on day 3 (P < 0.05). In group 2 (cisplatin + α-lipoic acid), deterioration was observed at all frequencies on day 3; however, this deterioration did not reach a statistical significance (P > 0.05). In group 3 (α-lipoic acid), no significant difference was observed between baseline and day 3 (P > 0.05). In group 4 (cisplatin + saline), deterioration was observed at all frequencies on day 3; however, this deterioration did not reach a statistical significance (P > 0.05). Cisplatin-induced hearing loss in the guinea pigs may be limited to some extent by the concomitant use of α-lipoic acid. Dose-dependent changes in the possible effects of α-lipoic acid need further investigation. Future morphologic studies may contribute to expose clearly the protective effect of α-lipoic acid.

  2. Emissions of metals, chromium and nickel species, and organics from municipal waste-water-sludge incinerators. Volume 8. Site 9 emission-test report. Final report, 1989-91

    SciTech Connect

    DeWees, W.G.; Segall, R.R.; Lewis, F.M.

    1992-03-01

    Site 9 is a secondary plant designed for 15 million gallons per day (MGD) of wastewater flow. The sludge incinerator at Site 9 is a seven (7) hearth, multiple hearth furnace (MHF) built by Nichols Engineering in 1974 controlled by an adjustable throat venturi, with a nominal pressure drop of 20 in. w.c.. After leaving the venturi, the gases pass upward through a three (3) plate tray scrubber with a Chevron mist eliminator. A 10 ft. x 10 ft., upflow, wet electrostatic precipitator, manufacturer by Beltran Associates, Inc., was installed during the first week of testing. The ratio of nickel subsulfide to total nickel in the emission at Site 9 is extremely low, with the sulfidic nickel species being measured at less than detection limit (about 1 to 2 percent of the total nickel). The ratio of hexavalent chromium to total chromium in the emissions at Site 9 was significantly higher that had been anticipated. Site 9 had only two semivolatile organic compounds detected under normal and improved combustion conditions benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid. Several additional compounds were found in the emissions for the normal or improved combustion conditions at Site 9; these compounds were 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 2-nitrophenol, 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene, naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, dibenzofuran, phenanthrene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, phenol, 4-methylphenol, and 4-nitrophenol. The volatile organic compounds detected in the Site 9 multiple hearth incinerator emissions were similar to the compounds reported for Sites 1, 2, and 4 (other multiple hearth incinerator tested). Carbon tetrachloride and carbon tetrachloride, reported in the emissions at the other three sites, were not found in the emissions from Site 9.

  3. 40 CFR 60.85 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... operator shall determine compliance with the SO2 acid mist, and visible emission standards in §§ 60.82 and 60.83 as follows: (1) The emission rate (E) of acid mist or SO2 shall be computed for each run...

  4. 40 CFR 60.85 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... operator shall determine compliance with the SO2 acid mist, and visible emission standards in §§ 60.82 and 60.83 as follows: (1) The emission rate (E) of acid mist or SO2 shall be computed for each run...

  5. 40 CFR 60.85 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... operator shall determine compliance with the SO2 acid mist, and visible emission standards in §§ 60.82 and 60.83 as follows: (1) The emission rate (E) of acid mist or SO2 shall be computed for each run...

  6. 40 CFR 60.85 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... operator shall determine compliance with the SO2 acid mist, and visible emission standards in §§ 60.82 and 60.83 as follows: (1) The emission rate (E) of acid mist or SO2 shall be computed for each run...

  7. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  8. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  9. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  10. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  11. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  12. Multicomponent Molecular Puzzles for Photofunction Design: Emission Color Variation in Lewis Acid-Base Pair Crystals Coupled with Guest-to-Host Charge Transfer Excitation.

    PubMed

    Ono, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hisaeda, Yoshio

    2015-08-01

    Simple yet ubiquitous multimolecular assembly systems with color-tunable emissions are realized by cooperative electron donor-acceptor interactions, such as the boron-nitrogen (B-N) dative bond as a Lewis acid-base pair and charge transfer (CT) interactions. These are ternary-component systems consisting of a naphthalenediimide derivative (NDI), tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane (TPFB), and aromatic molecules (guest) with an NDI:TPFB:guest ratio of 1:2:2. The crystal shows guest-dependent color-tunable emissions such as deep blue to orange when a guest molecule of benzene is replaced with other π-conjugated systems. A good correlation between the emission wavelength and ionization potential of the guest and electronic structure calculations indicated that the emission is due to the CT transition from the guest to the NDI. The present study suggests that a rational solution of multcomponent molecular puzzles would be useful for obtaining novel photofunctional solid-state systems. PMID:26211567

  13. A theoretical study on the pH dependence of X-ray emission spectra for aqueous acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Naohiro; Tokushima, Takashi; Takahashi, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    We performed theoretical calculations to reproduce the site-selective XES spectra for aqueous acetic acid at the oxygen K-edge. The shape of the experimental XES spectra obtained from aqueous acetic acid drastically changed when the pH value was high. Structure sampling of an aqueous acetic acid cluster model was performed by the ab initio molecular dynamics trajectory. Relative XES peak intensities for the core-hole excited state dynamics simulations were calculated using density functional theory. We found that the theoretical XES spectra reproduced well the experimental spectra and that these calculations gave us electronic and molecular structure information about aqueous acetic acid.

  14. Penetration of biomass-burning emissions from South Asia through the Himalayas: new insights from atmospheric organic acids.

    PubMed

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kang, Shichang; Fu, Pingqing

    2015-01-01

    High levels of carbonaceous aerosol exist over South Asia, the area adjacent to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Little is known about if they can be transported across the Himalayas, and as far inland as the Tibetan Plateau. As important constituents of aerosols, organic acids have been recognized as unique fingerprints to identify the atmospheric process. Here we measured dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in aerosols on the northern slope of Mt. Everest (Qomolangma, 4276 m a.s.l.). Strong positive correlations were observed for dicarboxylic acids with biomass burning tracers, levoglucosan and K(+), demonstrating that this area was evidently affected by biomass burning. The seasonal variation pattern of dicarboxylic acids is consistent with OC and EC, being characterized by a pronounced maximum in the pre-monsoon season. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds (malonic acid/succinic acid, maleic acid/fumaric acid) further support this finding. We suggest that the local meteorological conditions and regional atmospheric flow process could facilitate the penetration of the carbonaceous aerosols from South Asia throughout the Himalayas. With the consideration of the darkening force of carbonaceous aerosols, our finding has important implication for this climate-sensitive area, where the glacier melting supplies water for billions of people downstream. PMID:25854556

  15. Penetration of biomass-burning emissions from South Asia through the Himalayas: new insights from atmospheric organic acids.

    PubMed

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kang, Shichang; Fu, Pingqing

    2015-04-09

    High levels of carbonaceous aerosol exist over South Asia, the area adjacent to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Little is known about if they can be transported across the Himalayas, and as far inland as the Tibetan Plateau. As important constituents of aerosols, organic acids have been recognized as unique fingerprints to identify the atmospheric process. Here we measured dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in aerosols on the northern slope of Mt. Everest (Qomolangma, 4276 m a.s.l.). Strong positive correlations were observed for dicarboxylic acids with biomass burning tracers, levoglucosan and K(+), demonstrating that this area was evidently affected by biomass burning. The seasonal variation pattern of dicarboxylic acids is consistent with OC and EC, being characterized by a pronounced maximum in the pre-monsoon season. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds (malonic acid/succinic acid, maleic acid/fumaric acid) further support this finding. We suggest that the local meteorological conditions and regional atmospheric flow process could facilitate the penetration of the carbonaceous aerosols from South Asia throughout the Himalayas. With the consideration of the darkening force of carbonaceous aerosols, our finding has important implication for this climate-sensitive area, where the glacier melting supplies water for billions of people downstream.

  16. Penetration of biomass-burning emissions from South Asia through the Himalayas: new insights from atmospheric organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kang, Shichang; Fu, Pingqing

    2015-04-01

    High levels of carbonaceous aerosol exist over South Asia, the area adjacent to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Little is known about if they can be transported across the Himalayas, and as far inland as the Tibetan Plateau. As important constituents of aerosols, organic acids have been recognized as unique fingerprints to identify the atmospheric process. Here we measured dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in aerosols on the northern slope of Mt. Everest (Qomolangma, 4276 m a.s.l.). Strong positive correlations were observed for dicarboxylic acids with biomass burning tracers, levoglucosan and K+, demonstrating that this area was evidently affected by biomass burning. The seasonal variation pattern of dicarboxylic acids is consistent with OC and EC, being characterized by a pronounced maximum in the pre-monsoon season. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds (malonic acid/succinic acid, maleic acid/fumaric acid) further support this finding. We suggest that the local meteorological conditions and regional atmospheric flow process could facilitate the penetration of the carbonaceous aerosols from South Asia throughout the Himalayas. With the consideration of the darkening force of carbonaceous aerosols, our finding has important implication for this climate-sensitive area, where the glacier melting supplies water for billions of people downstream.

  17. Mercaptopropionic acid-capped Mn(2+):ZnSe/ZnO quantum dots with both downconversion and upconversion emissions for bioimaging applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bingxia; Yao, Yulian; Yang, Kai; Rong, Pengfei; Huang, Peng; Sun, Kang; An, Xiao; Li, Zhiming; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Wanwan

    2014-11-01

    Doped quantum dots (d-dots) can serve as fluorescent biosensors and biolabels for biological applications. Our study describes a synthesis of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped Mn(2+):ZnSe/ZnO d-dots through a facile, cost-efficient hydrothermal route. The as-prepared water-soluble d-dots exhibit strong emission at ca. 580 nm, with a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) as high as 31%, which is the highest value reported to date for such particles prepared via an aqueous route. They also exhibit upconversion emission when excited at 800 nm. With an overall diameter of around 6.7 nm, the d-dots could gain access to the cell nucleus without any surface decoration, demonstrating their promising broad applications as fluorescent labels. PMID:25189675

  18. Laboratory measurement of the millimeter wave properties of liquid sulfuric acid (H2SO4). [study of microwave emission from Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahd, Antoine K.; Steffes, Paul G.

    1991-01-01

    The methodology and the results of laboratory measurements of the millimeter wave properties of liquid sulfuric acid are presented. Measurements conducted at 30-40 and 90-100 GHz are reported, using different concentrations of liquid H2SO4. The measured data are used to compute the expected opacity of H2SO4 condensates and their effects on the millimeter wave emission from Venus. The cloud condensate is found to have an effect on the emission from Venus. The calculated decrease in brightness temperature is well below the observed decrease in brightness temperature found by de Pater et al. (1991). It is suggested that other constituents such as gaseous H2SO4 also affect the observed variation in the brightness temperature.

  19. The effectiveness of peppermint and thyme essential oil mist in reducing bacterial contamination in broiler houses.

    PubMed

    Witkowska, D; Sowinska, J

    2013-11-01

    The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been demonstrated by various in vitro studies, whereas their effect on poultry farm hygiene has not been thoroughly investigated, in particular with reference to aerial treatment. The present study aims to assess the antibacterial effects of natural essential oils in broiler houses. Two experimental rooms were fogged with aqueous solutions of peppermint and thyme oils. The control room was sprayed with pure water. The experiment was conducted on broilers aged 1 to 42 d. The rooms were fogged every 3 d. One day after fogging, the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and mannitol-positive staphylococci were determined. Samples were collected from the air, litter, walls, and drinkers. The results of the study demonstrate that essential oil mist may improve hygiene standards in broiler farms. During broiler growth, the mean total counts of mesophilic bacteria in the rooms treated with essential oils were lower (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. Enterobacteriaceae and staphylococci counts were also higher in the control group. A single exception was noted in a litter sample where the mean count of Enterobacteriaceae in the room fogged with peppermint oil was higher than in the control. Both oils reduced bacterial counts, but thyme oil was more effective in reducing coliform bacteria, whereas peppermint oil had a higher inhibitory effect on the proliferation of staphylococci. These promising results encourage further research to determine the optimal doses and the effects of essential oils and their combinations on the living conditions and health status of broiler chickens.

  20. The effectiveness of peppermint and thyme essential oil mist in reducing bacterial contamination in broiler houses.

    PubMed

    Witkowska, D; Sowinska, J

    2013-11-01

    The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been demonstrated by various in vitro studies, whereas their effect on poultry farm hygiene has not been thoroughly investigated, in particular with reference to aerial treatment. The present study aims to assess the antibacterial effects of natural essential oils in broiler houses. Two experimental rooms were fogged with aqueous solutions of peppermint and thyme oils. The control room was sprayed with pure water. The experiment was conducted on broilers aged 1 to 42 d. The rooms were fogged every 3 d. One day after fogging, the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and mannitol-positive staphylococci were determined. Samples were collected from the air, litter, walls, and drinkers. The results of the study demonstrate that essential oil mist may improve hygiene standards in broiler farms. During broiler growth, the mean total counts of mesophilic bacteria in the rooms treated with essential oils were lower (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. Enterobacteriaceae and staphylococci counts were also higher in the control group. A single exception was noted in a litter sample where the mean count of Enterobacteriaceae in the room fogged with peppermint oil was higher than in the control. Both oils reduced bacterial counts, but thyme oil was more effective in reducing coliform bacteria, whereas peppermint oil had a higher inhibitory effect on the proliferation of staphylococci. These promising results encourage further research to determine the optimal doses and the effects of essential oils and their combinations on the living conditions and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:24135585

  1. Assessing conservation status of resident and migrant birds on Hispaniola with mist-netting

    PubMed Central

    Rimmer, Christopher C.; McFarland, Kent P.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed temporal trends in mist-net capture rates of resident (n = 8) and overwintering Nearctic-Neotropical migrant (n = 3) bird species at two sites in montane broadleaf forest of the Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic, with the goal of providing quantitative information on population trends that could inform conservation assessments. We conducted sampling at least once annually during the winter months of January–March from 1997 to 2010. We found evidence of declines in capture rates for three resident species, including one species endemic to Hispaniola. Capture rate of Rufous-throated Solitaire (Myadestes genibarbis) declined by 3.9% per year (95% CL = 0%, 7.3%), Green-tailed Ground-Tanager (Microligea palustris) by 6.8% (95% CL = 3.9%, 8.8%), and Greater Antillean Bullfinch (Loxigilla violacea) by 4.9% (95% CL = 0.9%, 9.2%). Two rare and threatened endemics, Hispaniolan Highland-Tanager (Xenoligea montana) and Western Chat-Tanager (Calyptophilus tertius), showed statistically significant declines, but we have low confidence in these findings because trends were driven by exceptionally high capture rates in 1997 and varied between sites. Analyses that excluded data from 1997 revealed no trend in capture rate over the course of the study. We found no evidence of temporal trends in capture rates for any other residents or Nearctic-Neotropical migrants. We do not know the causes of the observed declines, nor can we conclude that these declines are not a purely local phenomenon. However, our findings, along with other recent reports of declines in these same species, suggest that a closer examination of their conservation status is warranted. Given the difficulty in obtaining spatially extensive, long-term estimates of population change for Hispaniolan birds, we suggest focusing on other metrics of vulnerability that are more easily quantified yet remain poorly described, such as extent of occurrence. PMID:26844015

  2. Assessing conservation status of resident and migrant birds on Hispaniola with mist-netting.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John D; Rimmer, Christopher C; McFarland, Kent P

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed temporal trends in mist-net capture rates of resident (n = 8) and overwintering Nearctic-Neotropical migrant (n = 3) bird species at two sites in montane broadleaf forest of the Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic, with the goal of providing quantitative information on population trends that could inform conservation assessments. We conducted sampling at least once annually during the winter months of January-March from 1997 to 2010. We found evidence of declines in capture rates for three resident species, including one species endemic to Hispaniola. Capture rate of Rufous-throated Solitaire (Myadestes genibarbis) declined by 3.9% per year (95% CL = 0%, 7.3%), Green-tailed Ground-Tanager (Microligea palustris) by 6.8% (95% CL = 3.9%, 8.8%), and Greater Antillean Bullfinch (Loxigilla violacea) by 4.9% (95% CL = 0.9%, 9.2%). Two rare and threatened endemics, Hispaniolan Highland-Tanager (Xenoligea montana) and Western Chat-Tanager (Calyptophilus tertius), showed statistically significant declines, but we have low confidence in these findings because trends were driven by exceptionally high capture rates in 1997 and varied between sites. Analyses that excluded data from 1997 revealed no trend in capture rate over the course of the study. We found no evidence of temporal trends in capture rates for any other residents or Nearctic-Neotropical migrants. We do not know the causes of the observed declines, nor can we conclude that these declines are not a purely local phenomenon. However, our findings, along with other recent reports of declines in these same species, suggest that a closer examination of their conservation status is warranted. Given the difficulty in obtaining spatially extensive, long-term estimates of population change for Hispaniolan birds, we suggest focusing on other metrics of vulnerability that are more easily quantified yet remain poorly described, such as extent of occurrence.

  3. Effects of Water-misting Sprays with Forced Ventilation after Transport during Summer on Meat Quality, Stress Parameters, Glycolytic Potential and Microstructures of Muscle in Broilers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, N N; Xing, T; Wang, P; Xie, C; Xu, X L

    2015-12-01

    Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport during summer on meat quality, stress parameters, glycolytic potential and microstructures of muscle in broilers were investigated. A total of 105 mixed-sex Arbor Acres broilers were divided into three treatment groups: i) 45-min transport without rest (T group), ii) 45-min transport with 1-h rest (TR group), iii) 45-min transport with 15-min water-misting sprays with forced ventilation and 45-min rest (TWFR group). The results showed the TWFR group significantly increased (p<0.05) initial muscle pH (pHi) and ultimate pH (pHu) and significantly reduced L* (p<0.05), drip loss, cook loss, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase activity, plasma glucose content, lactate and glycolytic potential when compared with other groups. Microstructure of the muscle from TWFR group broilers under light microscopy showed smaller intercellular spaces among muscle fibers and bundles compared with T group. In conclusion this study indicated water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport could relieve the stress caused by transport under high temperature, which was favorable for the broilers' welfare. Furthermore, water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport slowed down the postmortem glycolysis rate and inhibited the occurrence of PSE-like meat in broilers. Although rest after transport could also improve the meat quality, the effect was not as significant as water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport. PMID:26580445

  4. Effects of Water-misting Sprays with Forced Ventilation after Transport during Summer on Meat Quality, Stress Parameters, Glycolytic Potential and Microstructures of Muscle in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, N. N.; Xing, T.; Wang, P.; Xie, C.; Xu, X. L.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport during summer on meat quality, stress parameters, glycolytic potential and microstructures of muscle in broilers were investigated. A total of 105 mixed-sex Arbor Acres broilers were divided into three treatment groups: i) 45-min transport without rest (T group), ii) 45-min transport with 1-h rest (TR group), iii) 45-min transport with 15-min water-misting sprays with forced ventilation and 45-min rest (TWFR group). The results showed the TWFR group significantly increased (p<0.05) initial muscle pH (pHi) and ultimate pH (pHu) and significantly reduced L* (p<0.05), drip loss, cook loss, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase activity, plasma glucose content, lactate and glycolytic potential when compared with other groups. Microstructure of the muscle from TWFR group broilers under light microscopy showed smaller intercellular spaces among muscle fibers and bundles compared with T group. In conclusion this study indicated water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport could relieve the stress caused by transport under high temperature, which was favorable for the broilers’ welfare. Furthermore, water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport slowed down the postmortem glycolysis rate and inhibited the occurrence of PSE-like meat in broilers. Although rest after transport could also improve the meat quality, the effect was not as significant as water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport. PMID:26580445

  5. Low to middle tropospheric profiles and biosphere/troposphere fluxes of acidic gases in the summertime Canadian taiga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, O.; Talbot, R. W.; Fitzgerald, D. R.; Klemm, K. I.; Lefer, B. L.

    1994-01-01

    We report features of acidic gases in the troposphere from 9 to 5000 m altitude above ground over the Canadian taiga in the summer of 1990. The measurements were conducted at a 30-m meteorological tower and from the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft as part of the joint U.S.-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B Northern Wetland Studies (NOWES). We sampled air for acidic gases using the mist chamber collector coupled with subsequent analysis using ion chromatography. At the tower we collected samples at two heights during a 13-day period, including diurnal studies. Using eddy flux and profile data, we estimated the biosphere/troposphere fluxes of nitric, formic, and acetic acids and sulfur dioxide. For the organic acids, emissions from the taiga in the afternoon hours and deposition during the predawn morning hours were observed. The flux intensities alone were however not high enough to explain the observed changes in mixing ratios. The measured deposition fluxes of nitric acid were high enough to have a significant influence on its mixing ratio in the boundary layer. On three days we measured vertical profiles of nitric, formic, and acetic acids through the lower to midtroposphere. We found that the chemical composition of the troposphere was extremely heterogenous. Pronounced layers of polluted air were readily apparent from our measurements. Local photochemical production and episodic long-range transport of trace components, originating from biomass burning and possibly industrial emissions, appear to have a strong influence on the composition of the troposphere and biosphere/troposphere fluxes of acidic gases at this site.

  6. How effective has been the reduction of SO2 emissions on the effect of acid rain on ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Gimeno, L; Marín, E; del Teso, T; Bourhim, S

    2001-07-25

    The paper attempts to assess the effectiveness of the reduction of SO2 emissions over recent years for protection of ecosystems in both Europe and eastern USA by analysis of temporal changes in the acidifying potential (AP) of wet deposition defined as [SO4(2-)] - ([Ca2+] + [Mg2+]). Spatial and temporal patterns of acidifying potential were studied. The main result is that there is no statistical evidence for a trend towards improvement in the acidifying potential, because there have been declines in Ca precipitation. This suggests that the reduction of SO2 emissions has not been effective as an abatement strategy.

  7. Comparison of the aerosol velocity and spray duration of Respimat Soft Mist inhaler and pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Hochrainer, Dieter; Hölz, Hubert; Kreher, Christoph; Scaffidi, Luigi; Spallek, Michael; Wachtel, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Apart from particle size distribution, spray velocity is one of the most important aerosol characteristics that influence lung deposition of inhaled drugs. The time period over which the aerosol is released (spray duration) is also important for coordination of inhalation. Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) is a new generation, propellant-free inhaler that delivers drug to the lung much more efficiently than pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). The objective of this study was to compare the velocity and spray duration of aerosol clouds produced by Respimat SMI with those from a variety of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) pMDIs. All inhalers contained solutions or suspensions of bronchodilators. A videorecording method was used to determine the aerosol velocity. For spray duration, the time for generation of the Soft Mist by Respimat SMI was initially determined using three different methods (videorecording [techniques A and B], laser light diffraction and rotating disc). Videorecording was then used to compare the spray duration of Respimat SMI with those from the other inhalers. The Soft Mist produced by Respimat SMI moved much more slowly and had a more prolonged duration than aerosol clouds from pMDIs (mean velocity at a 10-cm distance from the nozzle: Respimat SMI, 0.8 m/sec; pMDIs, 2.0-8.4 m/sec; mean duration: Respimat SMI, 1.5 sec; pMDIs, 0.15-0.36 sec). These characteristics should result in improved lung and reduced oropharyngeal deposition, and are likely to simplify coordination of inhaler actuation and inhalation compared with pMDIs.

  8. The MIST /MIUS Integration and Subsystems Test/ laboratory - A testbed for the MIUS /Modular Integrated Utility System/ program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckham, W. S., Jr.; Keune, F. A.

    1974-01-01

    The MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility System) concept is to be an energy-conserving, economically feasible, integrated community utility system to provide five necessary services: electricity generation, space heating and air conditioning, solid waste processing, liquid waste processing, and residential water purification. The MIST (MIUS Integration and Subsystem Test) integrated system testbed constructed at the Johnson Space Center in Houston includes subsystems for power generation, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), wastewater management, solid waste management, and control and monitoring. The key design issues under study include thermal integration and distribution techniques, thermal storage, integration of subsystems controls and displays, incinerator performance, effluent characteristics, and odor control.

  9. Heat Transfer and Observation of Droplet-Surface Interactions During Air-Mist Cooling at CSP Secondary System Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta L., Mario E.; Mejía G., M. Esther; Castillejos E., A. Humberto

    2016-04-01

    Air-mists are key elements in the secondary cooling of modern thin steel slab continuous casters. The selection of water, W, and air, A, flow rates, and pressures in pneumatic nozzles open up a wide spectrum of cooling possibilities by their influence on droplet diameter, d, droplet velocity, v, and water impact flux, w. Nonetheless, due to the harsh environment resulting from the high temperatures and dense mists involved, there is very little information about the correlation between heat flux extracted, - q, and mist characteristics, and none about the dynamics of drop-wall interactions. For obtaining both kinds of information, this work combines a steady-state heat flux measuring method with a visualization technique based on a high-speed camera and a laser illumination system. For wall temperatures, T w, between ~723 K and ~1453 K (~450 °C and ~1180 °C), which correspond to film boiling regime, it was confirmed that - q increases with increase in v, w, and T w and with decrease in d. It should be noticed, however, that the increase in w generally decreases the spray cooling effectiveness because striking drops do not evaporate efficiently due to the interference by liquid remains from previous drops. Visualization of the events happening close to the surface also reveals that the contact time of the liquid with the surface is very brief and that rebounding, splashing, sliding, and levitation of drops lead to ineffective contact with the surface. At the center of the mist footprint, where drops impinge nearly normal to the surface those with enough momentum establish intimate contact with it before forming a vapor layer that pushes away the remaining liquid. Also, some drops are observed sliding upon the surface or levitating close to it; these are drops with low momentum which are influenced by the deflecting air stream. At footprint positions where oblique impingement occurs, frequently drops are spotted sliding or levitating and liquid films flowing in

  10. Stereoselective synthesis and biological evaluation of syn-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutyl-1-carboxylic acid as a potential positron emission tomography brain tumor imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiping; Williams, Larry; Camp, Vernon M; Malveaux, Eugene; Olson, Jeffrey J; Goodman, Mark M

    2009-03-01

    Amino acid syn-1-amino-3-fluoro-cyclobutyl-1-carboxylic acid (syn-FACBC) 12, the isomer of anti-FACBC, has been selectively synthesized and [(18)F] radiofluorinated in 52% decay-corrected yield using no-carrier-added [(18)F]fluoride. The key step in the synthesis of the desired isomer involved stereoselective reduction using lithium alkylborohydride/zinc chloride, which improved the ratio of anti-alcohol to syn-alcohol from 17:83 to 97:3. syn-FACBC 12 entered rat 9L gliosarcoma cells primarily via L-type amino acid transport in vitro with high uptake of 16% injected dose per 5 x 10(5) cells. Biodistribution studies in rats with 9L gliosarcoma brain tumors demonstrated high tumor to brain ratio of 12:1 at 30 min post injection. In this model, amino acid syn-[(18)F]FACBC 12 is a promising metabolically based radiotracer for positron emission tomography brain tumor imaging.

  11. Sensitivity of mitochondria isolated from liver and kidney of rat and bovine to lipid peroxidation: a comparative study of light emission and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Gavazza, Mariana; Marmunti, Mónica; Catalá, Angel

    2005-12-01

    Much work has been carried out on non-enzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation of mitochondria obtained from different tissues of monogastric animals, but little information is available about this process in poligastric animals. Studies were carried out to determine the sensitivity of mitochondria isolated from liver and kidney of rat and bovine to lipid peroxidation (ascorbate-Fe2+ dependent) by comparison of light emission and fatty acid profiles. Mitochondria from both species were susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Measurements of chemiluminescence indicate that the lipid peroxidation process was more effective in mitochondria from rat liver than in the organelle obtained from bovine, whereas changes were not observed in mitochondria from rat and bovine kidney. The fatty acid composition of total lipids isolated from liver and kidney mitochondria of both species was substantially modified when subjected to non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation with a decrease of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition was higher in mitochondria obtained from rat liver (43.11+/- 4.16) than in bovine (15.78 +/- 0.76). As a consequence, the unsaturation index (UI), was higher in mitochondria of rat liver than in bovine. Nevertheless, the PUFA composition of kidney mitochondria from both species was similar; therefore, statistically significant differences in the UI were not observed. The results suggest that mainly the PUFAs present in hepatic and kidney mitochondria were sensitive to oxidative damage. The lipid peroxidation process was more effective in rat liver mitochondria than in bovine.

  12. 40 CFR 62.7850 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plan was officially submitted as follows: (1) Sulfuric acid plants on May 15, 1981. (c) Affected facilities: The plan includes the following facilities: (1) Sulfuric acid plants. Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions From Sulfuric Acid Plants...

  13. 40 CFR 62.7850 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... plan was officially submitted as follows: (1) Sulfuric acid plants on May 15, 1981. (c) Affected facilities: The plan includes the following facilities: (1) Sulfuric acid plants. Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions From Sulfuric Acid Plants...

  14. 40 CFR 62.7850 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... plan was officially submitted as follows: (1) Sulfuric acid plants on May 15, 1981. (c) Affected facilities: The plan includes the following facilities: (1) Sulfuric acid plants. Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions From Sulfuric Acid Plants...

  15. 40 CFR 62.7850 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plan was officially submitted as follows: (1) Sulfuric acid plants on May 15, 1981. (c) Affected facilities: The plan includes the following facilities: (1) Sulfuric acid plants. Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions From Sulfuric Acid Plants...

  16. 40 CFR 62.7850 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... plan was officially submitted as follows: (1) Sulfuric acid plants on May 15, 1981. (c) Affected facilities: The plan includes the following facilities: (1) Sulfuric acid plants. Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions From Sulfuric Acid Plants...

  17. Comparative Studies on Polyphenolic Composition, Antioxidant and Diuretic Effects of Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin) and Nigella damascena L. (Lady-in-a-Mist) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Toma, Claudia-Crina; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Vlase, Laurian; Mogoșan, Cristina; Mocan, Andrei

    2015-05-26

    This study was performed to evaluate the phenolic profile, antioxidant and diuretic effects of black cumin and lady-in-a-mist seeds. In the phenolic profile, differences between the two species are significant. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the phenolic compounds were performed using a HPLC-UV/MS method. Hyperoside was the only identified flavonoid glycoside (1.08 ± 0.01 μg∙g-1 dw plant material), in the N. damascena extract. Regarding the flavonol profile, kaempferol was identified before the hydrolysis, only in the N. sativa extract (6.06 ± 0.02 μg∙g-1 dw plant material) and quercetin only in N. damascena seeds (14.35 ± 0.02 μg∙g-1 dw plant material). The antioxidant potential of the two species was tested through several electron transfer assays, which indicated, excepting for the FRAP assay, N. damascena as exhibiting a higher free radical scavenging activity. The diuretic activity of the two extracts was tested using a rat-experimental model on acute diuresis. Administration of the ethanolic extract of N. sativa (100 mg∙kg-1) resulted in a significant increase in urine volume, although less than found with the reference drug; in addition N. damascena extract did not present a diuretic effect. In reference to the elimination of Na+, K+ and uric acid, the black cumin extract exhibited a higher natriuretic than kaluretic effect and a similar uricosuric effect with control and N. damascena. For N. damascena, the Na+/K+ ratio was sub unitary, but not due to an increasing of the kaluretic effect, but mostly to a decrease of Na+ excretion.

  18. Comparative Studies on Polyphenolic Composition, Antioxidant and Diuretic Effects of Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin) and Nigella damascena L. (Lady-in-a-Mist) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Toma, Claudia-Crina; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Vlase, Laurian; Mogoșan, Cristina; Mocan, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the phenolic profile, antioxidant and diuretic effects of black cumin and lady-in-a-mist seeds. In the phenolic profile, differences between the two species are significant. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the phenolic compounds were performed using a HPLC-UV/MS method. Hyperoside was the only identified flavonoid glycoside (1.08 ± 0.01 μg∙g-1 dw plant material), in the N. damascena extract. Regarding the flavonol profile, kaempferol was identified before the hydrolysis, only in the N. sativa extract (6.06 ± 0.02 μg∙g-1 dw plant material) and quercetin only in N. damascena seeds (14.35 ± 0.02 μg∙g-1 dw plant material). The antioxidant potential of the two species was tested through several electron transfer assays, which indicated, excepting for the FRAP assay, N. damascena as exhibiting a higher free radical scavenging activity. The diuretic activity of the two extracts was tested using a rat-experimental model on acute diuresis. Administration of the ethanolic extract of N. sativa (100 mg∙kg-1) resulted in a significant increase in urine volume, although less than found with the reference drug; in addition N. damascena extract did not present a diuretic effect. In reference to the elimination of Na+, K+ and uric acid, the black cumin extract exhibited a higher natriuretic than kaluretic effect and a similar uricosuric effect with control and N. damascena. For N. damascena, the Na+/K+ ratio was sub unitary, but not due to an increasing of the kaluretic effect, but mostly to a decrease of Na+ excretion. PMID:26016547

  19. Genetic Variation in Jasmonic Acid- and Spider Mite-Induced Plant Volatile Emission of Cucumber Accessions and Attraction of the Predator Phytoseiulus persimilis

    PubMed Central

    Verstappen, Francel W. A.; Luckerhoff, Ludo L. P.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Dicke, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) respond to spider–mite (Tetranychus urticae) damage with the release of specific volatiles that are exploited by predatory mites, the natural enemies of the spider mites, to locate their prey. The production of volatiles also can be induced by exposing plants to the plant hormone jasmonic acid. We analyzed volatile emissions from 15 cucumber accessions upon herbivory by spider mites and upon exposure to jasmonic acid using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. Upon induction, cucumber plants emitted over 24 different compounds, and the blend of induced volatiles consisted predominantly of terpenoids. The total amount of volatiles was higher in plants treated with jasmonic acid than in those infested with spider mites, with (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and (E)-β-ocimene as the most abundant compounds in all accessions in both treatments. Significant variation among the accessions was found for the 24 major volatile compounds. The accessions differed strongly in total amount of volatiles emitted, and displayed very different odor profiles. Principal component analysis performed on the relative quantities of particular compounds within the blend revealed clusters of highly correlated volatiles, which is suggestive of common metabolic pathways. A number of cucumber accessions also were tested for their attractiveness to Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of spider mites. Differences in the attraction of predatory mites by the various accessions correlated to differences in the individual chemical profiles of these accessions. The presence of genetic variation in induced plant volatile emission in cucumber shows that it is possible to breed for cucumber varieties that are more attractive to predatory mites and other biological control agents. PMID:20383796

  20. Ice core sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from southern Greenland document North American and European air pollution and suggest a decline in regional biogenic sulfur emissions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasteris, D. R.; McConnell, J. R.; Burkhart, J. F.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfate aerosols have an important cooling effect on the Earth because they scatter sunlight back to space and form cloud condensation nuclei. However, understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle is incomplete, leading to uncertainty in the assessment of past, present and future climate forcing. Here we use annually resolved observations of sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentration in an array of precisely dated Southern Greenland ice cores to assess the history of sulfur pollution emitted from North America and Europe and the history of biogenic sulfate aerosol derived from the North Atlantic Ocean over the last 250 years. The ice core sulfur time series is found to closely track sulfur concentrations in North American and European precipitation since records began in 1965, and also closely tracks estimated sulfur emissions since 1850 within the air mass source region as determined by back trajectory analysis. However, a decline to near-preindustrial sulfur concentrations in the ice cores after 1995 that is not so extensive in the source region emissions indicates that there has been a change in sulfur cycling over the last 150 years. The ice core MSA time series shows a decline of 60% since the 1860s, and is well correlated with declining sea ice concentrations around Greenland, suggesting that the phytoplankton source of biogenic sulfur has declined due to a loss of marginal sea ice zone habitat. Incorporating the implied decrease in biogenic sulfur in our analysis improves the match between the ice core sulfur record and the source region emissions throughout the last 150 years, and solves the problem of the recent return to near-preindustrial levels in the Greenland ice. These findings indicate that the transport efficiency of sulfur air pollution has been relatively stable through the industrial era and that biogenic sulfur emissions in the region have declined.

  1. Facile Route to the Controlled Synthesis of Tetragonal and Orthorhombic SnO2 Films by Mist Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jae-Yoon; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Park, Jin-Seong

    2015-06-10

    Two types of tin dioxide (SnO2) films were grown by mist chemical vapor deposition (Mist-CVD), and their electrical properties were studied. A tetragonal phase is obtained when methanol is used as the solvent, while an orthorhombic structure is formed with acetone. The two phases of SnO2 exhibit different electrical properties. Tetragonal SnO2 behaves as a semiconductor, and thin-film transistors (TFTs) incorporating this material as the active layer exhibit n-type characteristics with typical field-effect mobility (μ(FE)) values of approximately 3-4 cm(2)/(V s). On the other hand, orthorhombic SnO2 is found to behave as a metal-like transparent conductive oxide. Density functional theory calculations reveal that orthorhombic SnO2 is more stable under oxygen-rich conditions, which correlates well with the experimentally observed solvent effects. The present study paves the way for the controlled synthesis of functional materials by atmospheric pressure growth techniques. PMID:25984757

  2. Experimental und numerical investigations on cooling efficiency of Air-Mist nozzles on steel during continuous casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arth, G.; Taferner, M.; Bernhard, C.; Michelic, S.

    2016-07-01

    Cooling strategies in continuous casting of steel can vary from rapid cooling to slow cooling, mainly controlled by adjusting the amount of water sprayed onto the surface of the product. Inadequate adjustment however can lead to local surface undercooling or reheating, leading to surface and inner defects. This paper focuses on cooling efficiency of Air-Mist nozzles on casted steel and the experimental and numerical prediction of surface temperature distributions over the product width. The first part explains the determination of heat transfer coefficients (HTC) on laboratory scale, using a so called nozzle measuring stand (NMS). Based on measured water distributions and determined HTC's for air-mist nozzles using the NMS, surface temperatures are calculated by a transient 2D-model on a simple steel plate, explained in the second part of this paper. Simulations are carried out varying water impact density and spray water distribution, consequently influencing the local HTC distribution over the plate width. Furthermore, these results will be interpreted with regard to their consequence for surface and internal quality of the cast product. The results reveal the difficulty of correct adjustment of the amount of sprayed water, concurrent influencing water distribution and thus changing HTC distribution and surface temperature.

  3. Lattice dynamics of a mist-chemical vapor deposition-grown corundum-like Ga2O3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuscó, R.; Domènech-Amador, N.; Hatakeyama, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Honda, T.; Artús, L.

    2015-05-01

    The lattice dynamical properties of the corundum-like α-phase of Ga2O3 are investigated by means of Raman scattering experiments and ab-initio calculations. A high-quality, single-crystal thick epilayer was grown on sapphire by the mist-chemical vapor deposition method. The phonon frequencies at the Brillouin zone center of all the Raman-active modes are determined by polarized Raman scattering measurements on an α-Ga2O3 single crystal. By performing backscattering measurements from (0001) and (10 1 ¯ 0 ) faces, all Raman active modes are unambiguously identified. Density functional perturbation theory calculations were carried out to determine the symmetry and the frequency of the α-Ga2O3 lattice modes. We find a good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the Raman spectra. The relative intensity of the different modes and their polarizability are discussed. The Raman spectrum is dominated by a narrow A1g peak which indicates the high crystalline quality of the layers grown by the mist chemical vapor deposition method.

  4. Evaluation of Peanut Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Sprays, Combustion, and Emissions, for Use in an Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The paper provides an analysis of 100% peanut fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and peanut FAME/ULSD#2 blends (P20, P35, and P50) in an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine (for auxiliary power unit applications) in comparison to ultralow sulfur diesel no. 2 (ULSD#2) at various speeds and 100% load...

  5. Sewage sludge biochar influence upon rice (Oryza sativa L) yield, metal bioaccumulation and greenhouse gas emissions from acidic paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sardar; Chao, Cai; Waqas, Muhammad; Arp, Hans Peter H; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-08-01

    Biochar addition to soil has been proposed to improve plant growth by increasing soil fertility, minimizing bioaccumulation of toxic metal(liod)s and mitigating climate change. Sewage sludge (SS) is an attractive, though potentially problematic, feedstock of biochar. It is attractive because of its large abundance; however, it contains elevated concentrations of metal(loid)s and other contaminants. The pyrolysis of SS to biochar (SSBC) may be a way to reduce the availability of these contaminants to the soil and plants. Using rice plant pot experiments, we investigated the influence of SSBC upon biomass yield, bioaccumulation of nutrients, and metal(loid)s, and green housegas (GHG) emissions. SSBC amendments increased soil pH, total nitrogen, soil organic carbon and available nutrients and decreased bioavailable As, Cr, Co, Ni, and Pb (but not Cd, Cu, and Zn). Regarding rice plant properties, SSBC amendments significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased shoot biomass (71.3-92.2%), grain yield (148.8-175.1%), and the bioaccumulation of phosphorus and sodium, though decreased the bioaccumulation of nitrogen (except in grain) and potassium. Amendments of SSBC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the bioaccumulation of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb, but increased that of Cd and Zn, though not above limits set by Chinese regulations. Finally regarding GHG emissions, SSBC significantly (P < 0.01) reduced N2O emissions and stimulated the uptake/oxidation of CH4 enough to make both the cultivated and uncultivated paddy soil a CH4 sink. SSBC can be beneficial in rice paddy soil but the actual associated benefits will depend on site-specific conditions and source of SS; long-term effects remain a further unknown. PMID:23796060

  6. Sewage sludge biochar influence upon rice (Oryza sativa L) yield, metal bioaccumulation and greenhouse gas emissions from acidic paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sardar; Chao, Cai; Waqas, Muhammad; Arp, Hans Peter H; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-08-01

    Biochar addition to soil has been proposed to improve plant growth by increasing soil fertility, minimizing bioaccumulation of toxic metal(liod)s and mitigating climate change. Sewage sludge (SS) is an attractive, though potentially problematic, feedstock of biochar. It is attractive because of its large abundance; however, it contains elevated concentrations of metal(loid)s and other contaminants. The pyrolysis of SS to biochar (SSBC) may be a way to reduce the availability of these contaminants to the soil and plants. Using rice plant pot experiments, we investigated the influence of SSBC upon biomass yield, bioaccumulation of nutrients, and metal(loid)s, and green housegas (GHG) emissions. SSBC amendments increased soil pH, total nitrogen, soil organic carbon and available nutrients and decreased bioavailable As, Cr, Co, Ni, and Pb (but not Cd, Cu, and Zn). Regarding rice plant properties, SSBC amendments significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased shoot biomass (71.3-92.2%), grain yield (148.8-175.1%), and the bioaccumulation of phosphorus and sodium, though decreased the bioaccumulation of nitrogen (except in grain) and potassium. Amendments of SSBC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the bioaccumulation of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb, but increased that of Cd and Zn, though not above limits set by Chinese regulations. Finally regarding GHG emissions, SSBC significantly (P < 0.01) reduced N2O emissions and stimulated the uptake/oxidation of CH4 enough to make both the cultivated and uncultivated paddy soil a CH4 sink. SSBC can be beneficial in rice paddy soil but the actual associated benefits will depend on site-specific conditions and source of SS; long-term effects remain a further unknown.

  7. Metalworking fluid mist occupational exposure limits: a discussion of alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard; White, Eugene M

    2006-09-01

    NIOSH published a recommended exposure limit (REL) for metalworking fluids (MWF) in 1998 that was designed to prevent respiratory disorders associated with these industrial lubricants. The REL of 0.4 mg/m(3) (as a time-weighted average for up to 10 hours) was for the fraction of aerosol corresponding to deposition in the thoracic region of the lungs. This nonregulatory occupational exposure limit (OEL) corresponded to approximately 0.5 mg/m(3) for total particulate mass. Although this REL was designed to prevent respiratory disorders from MWF exposures, NIOSH acknowledged that exposures below the REL may still result in occupational asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis--two of the most significant respiratory illnesses associated with MWF. In the 8 years since the publication of the NIOSH MWF REL, neither the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) nor the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has recommended an exposure limit for water-soluble MWF specifically, other than their previous exposure limits for mineral oil. An informal effort to benchmark companies involved in the manufacture of automobiles and automotive parts in North America indicated that most companies are using the NIOSH MWF REL as a guide for the purchase of new equipment. Furthermore, most companies have adopted a goal to limit exposures to below 1.0 mg/m3. We failed to find any company that has strictly enforced an OEL of 1.0 mg/m(3) through the use of either administrative controls or personal protective equipment, when engineering controls failed to bring the exposures to below this limit. We also found that most companies have failed to implement specific medical surveillance programs for those employees exposed to MWF mist above 1.0 mg/m(3). Organization Resources Counselors (ORC) published in 1999 (on their website) a "best practices" manual for maintaining MWF systems and reducing the likelihood of MWF-related illnesses. The emphasis of this

  8. 42 CFR 84.1144 - Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum requirements. 84.1144 Section 84.1144 Public Health... Silica dust test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; single-use or reusable filters; minimum requirements. (a) Three non-powered respirators with single-use filters will be tested for periods of...

  9. Preparation of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries by a mist CVD process

    SciTech Connect

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro; Duran, Alicia; Aparacio, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were prepared by using the mist CVD process. • An aqueous solution of lithium and manganese acetates is used for the precursor solution. • The cell with the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g. • The cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles. - Abstract: LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries were prepared by using so-called the “mist CVD process”, employing an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, as the source of Li and Mn, respectively. The aqueous solution of starting materials was ultrasonically atomized to form mist particles, and mists were transferred by nitrogen gas to silica glass substrate to form thin films. FE-SEM observation revealed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 750 nm were obtained. The electrochemical cell with the thin films obtained by sintering at 700 °C exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles.

  10. Comparison Between Oil-mist and Oil-jet Lubrication of High-speed, Small-bore, Angular-contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  11. Lewis acid-assisted isotopic 18F-19F exchange in BODIPY dyes: facile generation of positron emission tomography/fluorescence dual modality agents for tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuanglong; Lin, Tzu-Pin; Li, Dan; Leamer, Lauren; Shan, Hong; Li, Zibo; Gabbaï, François P; Conti, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful technique for imaging biological pathways in vivo, particularly those that are key targets in disease processes. In contrast, fluorescence imaging has demonstrated to be a superior method for image-guided surgery, such as tumor removal. Although the integration of PET and optical imaging could provide an attractive strategy for patient management, there is a significant shortage of established platforms/methods for PET/optical probe construction. In this study, various reaction conditions were explored to develop a simple and fast method allowing for the introduction of [(18)F]-fluoride into BODIPY dyes. Through a systematic optimization of the reaction conditions, we found that BODIPY dyes, including commercial amine-reactive BODIPY succinimidyl esters, may be converted into their radioactive analogues in the matter of minutes via a (18)F-(19)F isotopic exchange reaction promoted by a Lewis acid such as SnCl4. An integrin-targeting RGD peptide was also conjugated with [(18)F]BODIPY® R6G , derived from the commercially available BODIPY® R6G fluorescent tag, to provide a [(18)F]-RGD conjugate in 82% yield. In vivo evaluation of this imaging probe showed a discernible tumor uptake in the U87MG xenograft model. The dual modality imaging properties of the probe was confirmed by ex vivo fluorescence and microPET imaging experiments. In summary, in the matter of minutes, BODIPY dyes were converted into their "hot" radioactive analogues via a (18)F-(19)F isotopic exchange reaction promoted by a Lewis acid. This approach, which can be applied to commercial BODIPY dyes, provides easy access to positron emission tomography/fluorescence dual modality imaging agents. PMID:23471211

  12. Interference-free determination of indole-3-acetic acid in two real systems using second-order calibration method coupled with excitation-emission matrix fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiu-Fang; Wu, Hai-Long; Qing, Xiang-Dong; Sun, Yan-Mei; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a simple and practicable method that combines excitation-emission matrix (EEMs) fluorescence with a second-order calibration method based on parallel factor analysis-alternative least-squares (PARAFAC-ALS) algorithm was developed for the direct interference-free determination of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in two real systems, coconut water (CW) and coconut milk (CM). Although the excitation and emission profiles of IAA heavily overlapped with that of unknown interferents in the complex real systems, the actual contents and satisfactory recoveries were still obtained successfully. The contents of IAA in CW and CM were 10.8 ± 0.3 and 4.9 ± 0.2 μg mL(-1), respectively, which were consistent with those reported by LC-MS/MS assays in the reference material. The average spike recoveries of IAA in the validation set based on CW and CM were 102.1 ± 3.2 and 98.0 ± 1.9%, respectively. In addition, routine experiments were performed for establishing the validity of the assay to internationally accepted criteria. PMID:24717659

  13. Combined Flux Chamber and Genomics Approach Links Nitrous Acid Emissions to Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in Urban and Agricultural Soil.

    PubMed

    Scharko, Nicole K; Schütte, Ursel M E; Berke, Andrew E; Banina, Lauren; Peel, Hannah R; Donaldson, Melissa A; Hemmerich, Chris; White, Jeffrey R; Raff, Jonathan D

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a photochemical source of hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide in the atmosphere that stems from abiotic and biogenic processes, including the activity of ammonia-oxidizing soil microbes. HONO fluxes were measured from agricultural and urban soil in mesocosm studies aimed at characterizing biogenic sources and linking them to indigenous microbial consortia. Fluxes of HONO from agricultural and urban soil were suppressed by addition of a nitrification inhibitor and enhanced by amendment with ammonium (NH4(+)), with peaks at 19 and 8 ng m(-2) s(-1), respectively. In addition, both agricultural and urban soils were observed to convert (15)NH4(+) to HO(15)NO. Genomic surveys of soil samples revealed that 1.5-6% of total expressed 16S rRNA sequences detected belonged to known ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Peak fluxes of HONO were directly related to the abundance of ammonia-oxidizer sequences, which in turn depended on soil pH. Peak HONO fluxes under fertilized conditions are comparable in magnitude to fluxes reported during field campaigns. The results suggest that biogenic HONO emissions will be important in soil environments that exhibit high nitrification rates (e.g., agricultural soil) although the widespread occurrence of ammonia oxidizers implies that biogenic HONO emissions are also possible in the urban and remote environment.

  14. Contrasting denitrifier communities relate to contrasting N2O emission patterns from acidic peat soils in arctic tundra

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Katharina; Biasi, Christina; Horn, Marcus A

    2012-01-01

    Cryoturbated peat circles (that is, bare surface soil mixed by frost action; pH 3–4) in the Russian discontinuous permafrost tundra are nitrate-rich ‘hotspots' of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in arctic ecosystems, whereas adjacent unturbated peat areas are not. N2O was produced and subsequently consumed at pH 4 in unsupplemented anoxic microcosms with cryoturbated but not in those with unturbated peat soil. Nitrate, nitrite and acetylene stimulated net N2O production of both soils in anoxic microcosms, indicating denitrification as the source of N2O. Up to 500 and 10 μ nitrate stimulated denitrification in cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils, respectively. Apparent maximal reaction velocities of nitrite-dependent denitrification were 28 and 18 nmol N2O gDW−1 h−1, for cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils, respectively. Barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing of narG, nirK/nirS and nosZ (encoding nitrate, nitrite and N2O reductases, respectively) yielded ≈49 000 quality-filtered sequences with an average sequence length of 444 bp. Up to 19 species-level operational taxonomic units were detected per soil and gene, many of which were distantly related to cultured denitrifiers or environmental sequences. Denitrification-associated gene diversity in cryoturbated and in unturbated peat soils differed. Quantitative PCR (inhibition-corrected per DNA extract) revealed higher copy numbers of narG in cryoturbated than in unturbated peat soil. Copy numbers of nirS were up to 1000 × higher than those of nirK in both soils, and nirS nirK−1 copy number ratios in cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils differed. The collective data indicate that the contrasting N2O emission patterns of cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils are associated with contrasting denitrifier communities. PMID:22134649

  15. Contrasting denitrifier communities relate to contrasting N2O emission patterns from acidic peat soils in arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Katharina; Biasi, Christina; Horn, Marcus A

    2012-05-01

    Cryoturbated peat circles (that is, bare surface soil mixed by frost action; pH 3-4) in the Russian discontinuous permafrost tundra are nitrate-rich 'hotspots' of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions in arctic ecosystems, whereas adjacent unturbated peat areas are not. N(2)O was produced and subsequently consumed at pH 4 in unsupplemented anoxic microcosms with cryoturbated but not in those with unturbated peat soil. Nitrate, nitrite and acetylene stimulated net N(2)O production of both soils in anoxic microcosms, indicating denitrification as the source of N(2)O. Up to 500 and 10 μM nitrate stimulated denitrification in cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils, respectively. Apparent maximal reaction velocities of nitrite-dependent denitrification were 28 and 18 nmol N(2)O g(DW)(-1) h(-1), for cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils, respectively. Barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing of narG, nirK/nirS and nosZ (encoding nitrate, nitrite and N(2)O reductases, respectively) yielded ≈49 000 quality-filtered sequences with an average sequence length of 444 bp. Up to 19 species-level operational taxonomic units were detected per soil and gene, many of which were distantly related to cultured denitrifiers or environmental sequences. Denitrification-associated gene diversity in cryoturbated and in unturbated peat soils differed. Quantitative PCR (inhibition-corrected per DNA extract) revealed higher copy numbers of narG in cryoturbated than in unturbated peat soil. Copy numbers of nirS were up to 1000 × higher than those of nirK in both soils, and nirS nirK(-1) copy number ratios in cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils differed. The collective data indicate that the contrasting N(2)O emission patterns of cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils are associated with contrasting denitrifier communities.

  16. 40 CFR 62.3300 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Illinois Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Plants § 62.3300 Identification of plan. (a) Title of Plan: “Illinois Plan for the Control of Sulfuric Acid Mist from Existing Contract...

  17. 40 CFR 62.3300 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Illinois Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Plants § 62.3300 Identification of plan. (a) Title of Plan: “Illinois Plan for the Control of Sulfuric Acid Mist from Existing Contract...

  18. 40 CFR 62.3300 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Illinois Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Plants § 62.3300 Identification of plan. (a) Title of Plan: “Illinois Plan for the Control of Sulfuric Acid Mist from Existing Contract...

  19. Seasonal FluMist vaccination induces cross-reactive T cell immunity against H1N1 (2009) influenza and secondary bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Sun, Keer; Ye, Jianqiang; Perez, Daniel R; Metzger, Dennis W

    2011-01-15

    T cell epitopes have been found to be shared by circulating, seasonal influenza virus strains and the novel pandemic H1N1 influenza infection, but the ability of these common epitopes to provide cross-protection is unknown. We have now directly tested this by examining the ability of live seasonal influenza vaccine (FluMist) to mediate protection against swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus infection. Naive mice demonstrated considerable susceptibility to H1N1 Cal/04/09 infection, whereas FluMist-vaccinated mice had markedly decreased morbidity and mortality. In vivo depletion of CD4(+) or CD8(+) immune cells after vaccination indicated that protective immunity was primarily dependent upon FluMist-induced CD4(+) cells but not CD8(+) T cells. Passive protection studies revealed little role for serum or mucosal Abs in cross-protection. Although H1N1 influenza infection of naive mice induced intensive phagocyte recruitment, pulmonary innate defense against secondary pneumococcal infection was severely suppressed. This increased susceptibility to bacterial infection was correlated with augmented IFN-γ production produced during the recovery stage of H1N1 influenza infection, which was completely suppressed in mice previously immunized with FluMist. Furthermore, susceptibility to secondary bacterial infection was decreased in the absence of type II, but not type I, IFN signaling. Thus, seasonal FluMist treatment not only promoted resistance to pandemic H1N1 influenza infection but also restored innate immunity against complicating secondary bacterial infections.

  20. 40 CFR 62.855 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.855 Identification of sources. (a) The plan applies to existing facilities at the following existing sulfuric acid plant: (1) El...

  1. 40 CFR 62.13351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Virgin Islands Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.13351 Identification of... November 8, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  2. 40 CFR 62.1102 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1102 Identification of sources. The plan applies to existing facilities at the following sulfuric acid production units:...

  3. 40 CFR 62.11375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Vermont Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.11375 Identification..., 1978, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 62.7375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hampshire Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.7375 Identification of plan... certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to part 60, subpart B of...

  5. 40 CFR 62.13351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Virgin Islands Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.13351 Identification of... November 8, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  6. 40 CFR 62.7375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hampshire Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.7375 Identification of plan... certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to part 60, subpart B of...

  7. 40 CFR 62.855 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.855 Identification of sources. (a) The plan applies to existing facilities at the following existing sulfuric acid plant: (1) El...

  8. 40 CFR 62.13351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Virgin Islands Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.13351 Identification of... November 8, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  9. 40 CFR 62.11375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Vermont Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.11375 Identification..., 1978, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 62.1102 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1102 Identification of sources. The plan applies to existing facilities at the following sulfuric acid production units:...

  11. 40 CFR 62.13351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Virgin Islands Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.13351 Identification of... November 8, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  12. 40 CFR 62.11375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Vermont Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.11375 Identification..., 1978, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 62.855 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.855 Identification of sources. (a) The plan applies to existing facilities at the following existing sulfuric acid plant: (1) El...

  14. 40 CFR 62.5351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Massachusetts Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.5351 Identification of plan... that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Total...

  15. 40 CFR 62.1102 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1102 Identification of sources. The plan applies to existing facilities at the following sulfuric acid production units:...

  16. 40 CFR 62.11375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Vermont Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.11375 Identification..., 1978, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 60.32d - Compliance times.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 60.32d Compliance times. Sulfuric acid production units. Planning, awarding of contracts, and... sulfuric acid mist....

  18. 40 CFR 60.32d - Compliance times.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 60.32d Compliance times. Sulfuric acid production units. Planning, awarding of contracts, and... sulfuric acid mist....

  19. 40 CFR 62.6875 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Nebraska Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.6875 Identification of plan... Environmental Control submitted on December 9, 1977, certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid...

  20. 40 CFR 62.5351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Massachusetts Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.5351 Identification of plan... that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Total...

  1. 40 CFR 62.13351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Virgin Islands Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.13351 Identification of... November 8, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  2. 40 CFR 62.1102 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1102 Identification of sources. The plan applies to existing facilities at the following sulfuric acid production units:...

  3. 40 CFR 62.7375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hampshire Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.7375 Identification of plan... certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to part 60, subpart B of...

  4. 40 CFR 62.6875 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Nebraska Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.6875 Identification of plan... Environmental Control submitted on December 9, 1977, certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid...

  5. 40 CFR 62.855 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.855 Identification of sources. (a) The plan applies to existing facilities at the following existing sulfuric acid plant: (1) El...

  6. 40 CFR 62.11375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Vermont Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.11375 Identification..., 1978, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to...

  7. 40 CFR 62.6875 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Nebraska Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.6875 Identification of plan... Environmental Control submitted on December 9, 1977, certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid...

  8. 40 CFR 62.1102 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1102 Identification of sources. The plan applies to existing facilities at the following sulfuric acid production units:...

  9. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Mounted Cold Mist Spray of Permethrin and Tetramethylfluthrin Targeting Aedes albopictus in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Dong, Yan-De; Zhou, Ming-Hao; Zhang, Heng-Duan; Chen, Hong-Na; Tian, Ye; Yang, Wei-Fang; Wu, Xiao-Qun; Chu, Hong-Liang; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-03-01

    Aedes albopictus is the primary vector of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in China. Although there are previous studies on the application of adulticides to control this species, the application methods have either been back-pack or vehicle-mounted systems. However, many sites are too large to be effectively treated with back-pack sprayers, and the lack of roads restricts the use of vehicle-mounted sprayers. This paper provides the first study of using unmanned aerial vehicles to conduct cold mist sprays on Ae. albopictus habitats. A spray containing 4% permethrin and 1% tetramethylfluthrin was applied at an effective application rate of 9.0 mg/m(2). This method reduced Ae. albopictus populations by more than 90%. The results indicate this novel spray system is a powerful method to achieve a rapid decline of mosquito population in Ae. albopictus habitats in China.

  10. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Mounted Cold Mist Spray of Permethrin and Tetramethylfluthrin Targeting Aedes albopictus in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Dong, Yan-De; Zhou, Ming-Hao; Zhang, Heng-Duan; Chen, Hong-Na; Tian, Ye; Yang, Wei-Fang; Wu, Xiao-Qun; Chu, Hong-Liang; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-03-01

    Aedes albopictus is the primary vector of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in China. Although there are previous studies on the application of adulticides to control this species, the application methods have either been back-pack or vehicle-mounted systems. However, many sites are too large to be effectively treated with back-pack sprayers, and the lack of roads restricts the use of vehicle-mounted sprayers. This paper provides the first study of using unmanned aerial vehicles to conduct cold mist sprays on Ae. albopictus habitats. A spray containing 4% permethrin and 1% tetramethylfluthrin was applied at an effective application rate of 9.0 mg/m(2). This method reduced Ae. albopictus populations by more than 90%. The results indicate this novel spray system is a powerful method to achieve a rapid decline of mosquito population in Ae. albopictus habitats in China. PMID:27105218

  11. Water Content Effect on Oxides Yield in Gas and Liquid Phase Using DBD Arrays in Mist Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bingyan; Zhu, Changping; Fei, Juntao; He, Xiang; Yin, Cheng; Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Yongfeng; Chen, Longwei; Gao, Yuan; Han, Qingbang

    2016-01-01

    Electric discharge in and in contact with water can accompany ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electron impact, which can generate a large number of active species such as hydroxyl radicals (OH), oxygen radical (O), ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this paper, a nonthermal plasma processing system was established by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) arrays in water mist spray. The relationship between droplet size and water content was examined, and the effects of the concentrations of oxides in both treated water and gas were investigated under different water content and discharge time. The relative intensity of UV spectra from DBD in water mist was a function of water content. The concentrations of both O3 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in DBD room decreased with increasing water content. Moreover, the concentrations of H2O2, O3 and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in treated water decreased with increasing water content, and all the ones enhanced after discharge. The experimental results were further analyzed by chemical reaction equations and commented by physical principles as much as possible. At last, the water containing phenol was tested in this system for the concentration from 100 mg/L to 9.8 mg/L in a period of 35 min. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11274092, 51107033, 11404092, 11274091), the Nantong Science and Technology Project, China (No. BK2014024), the Open Project of Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, China (No. KF2014001), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (No. 2014B11414)

  12. Lung cancer among newspaper printers exposed to ink mist: a study of trade union members in Manchester, England.

    PubMed Central

    Leon, D A; Thomas, P; Hutchings, S

    1994-01-01

    A nested case-control study of lung cancer among men exposed to ink mist in newspaper production with rotary letterpress technology is presented. It is based within a historical cohort of 9232 printing workers in Manchester (1949-63). Men who operated newspaper rotary letterpress machines had a lung cancer standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 179 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 144-218) when compared with rates for England and Wales for the follow up period 1950-83. When adjustment was made for the higher rates in the local area, the SMR was reduced to 122 (95% CI 98-148). The nested case control study was based on 110 lung cancer cases (1949-86) and 316 matched controls. Duration of work in a rotary letterpress machine room was positively associated with risk of lung cancer (chi 2 linear trend = 3.30, p = 0.07); mean with 30 or more years duration of exposure had a risk of 1.73 (95% CI 0.94-3.17), relative to those with less than 20 years of exposure. Adjustment for period of first exposure in a machine room reduced the strength of the positive duration effect. The magnitude of the SMRs found in the cohort study could be explained by confounding with smoking. The duration effect seen in the case-control study, however, suggests that there may be a real effect of exposure to letterpress ink mists. This is biologically plausible, as benzo[a]pyrene, a known human carcinogen, has been found in appreciable concentrations in the atmosphere of rotary letterpress machine rooms. PMID:8111469

  13. Color-tunable and white-light emission of one-dimensional L-di-2-thenoyltartaric acid mixed-lanthanide coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chang; Sun, Jing-Wen; Yan, Peng-Fei; Li, Yu-Xin; Liu, Tian-Qi; Sun, Qing-Yan; Li, Guang-Ming

    2015-03-14

    A series of L-di-2-thenoyltartaric acid lanthanide coordination polymers, namely, {[La2L3(CH3OH)6(H2O)]·CH3OH·H2O}n (1), {[Ln2L3(CH3OH)x(H2O)6−x]·aCH3OH·bH2O}n, [Ln = Eu (2), x = 2, a = 0.5, b = 0.25; Ln = Gd (3), x = 3, a = 1, b = 0; Ln = Tb (4), x = 2, a = 1, b = 0], {[(Eu0.037Tb0.963)2L3(CH3OH)2(H2O)4]·CH3OH·2.75H2O}n (5), {[(Eu0.051Tb0.406La0.543)2L3(CH3OH)2(H2O)4]·0.5CH3OH·2H2O}n (6), and {[(Eu0.068Tb0.363Gd0.569)2L3(CH3OH)3(H2O)3]·CH3OH·H2O}n (7), have been synthesized using facile reactions of H2L (H2L = L-di-2-thenoyltartaric acid) with LnCl3·6H2O under ambient temperature. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that complexes 1–4 are isostructural, featuring one-dimensional (1D) ladder-like chain structures, in which the Ln(3+) ions are bridged by the carboxylate groups of the ligands. The luminescent spectra in the solid state at room temperature reveal that complexes 2 and 4 exhibit the characteristic red and green luminescence of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions, respectively, whereas complexes 1 and 3 display the blue emission of the ligand with a broad band centered at 422 nm. Notably, the mixed-lanthanide coordination polymers 5–7 exhibit color-tunable luminescence from yellow and white to blue upon variation of the excitation wavelength. It realizes color-tunable and white-light emission in 1D carboxylic acid mixed-lanthanide coordination polymers. PMID:25661972

  14. T-shaped monopyridazinotetrathiafulvalene-amino acid diad based chiral organogels with aggregation-induced fluorescence emission.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Liu, Yucun; Jin, Longyi; Yin, Bingzhu

    2016-08-14

    A series of pyridazine coupled tetrathiafulvalene T-shaped derivatives with varying amino acid moieties have been synthesized and their gelation properties were studied in various organic solvents. Among these derivatives, two gelators bearing glycine or phenylalanine units display efficient gelation in aromatic and polar solvents. Interestingly, these gelators, except for the gelator containing two tryptophan units, are able to gel DMF via a solution-to-gel transformation when triggered with sonication for less than 20 s or cooled below zero. A number of experiments revealed that these gelator molecules self-assembled into elastically interpenetrating three-dimensional chiral fibrillar aggregates. Importantly, all of the resulting gels result in a dramatic enhancement of the fluorescence intensity compared with their hot solution in spite of the absence of a conventional fluorophore unit and the fluorescence was effectively quenched by the introduction of C60. Moreover, the gelators can be utilized for the removal of different types of toxic molecules, such as aromatic solvents and cationic dyes, from wastewater. PMID:27418524

  15. Quantification of re-evaporated mass from loaded fibre-mist eliminators.

    PubMed

    Riss, B; Wahlmüller, E; Höflinger, W

    1999-08-01

    Airborne lubricant emissions are a serious health hazard for employees in the metal working industry. The basic components of lubricants are oils and additives for adapting the properties to achieve the process demands. The oils used in lubricants are either mineral, synthetic or of biological origin. The lubricants are used as water-emulsions and also as straight oils. Extreme process conditions cause considerable amounts of aerosol and vapour emissions of lubricants into the working environment. Fibre filters are used in industrial demisters for pollution control and also for sampling purposes. Re-evaporation of separated lubricants from loaded fibre filters causes increased vapour emissions. Quantification of lubricant vapour emission was the subject of this research. An apparatus and an appropriate procedure for measuring the dynamic behaviour of evaporative losses from fibre filters were developed. The test piece of a loaded fibre filter was fixed in a sampling probe according to VDI 2066. The vapour concentration of organic compounds in downstream air was measured in real-time by using a photo-ionisation detector (PID). The PID was checked by sampling the vapour on an oleophilic adsorbent resin, solvent extraction and quantitative IR analysis and also gravimetrically. The two basic processes of filtering volatile aerosols are, on the one hand, collecting droplets on the fibres and, on the other hand, the evaporation of collected liquid. These two processes had to be separated in order to measure the increase of the vapour concentration caused by the tested fibre filter. The experiments were carried out using pure dodecane and hexadecane in order to avoid difficulties due to the unknown chemical composition of lubricant vapour. The variation of the air flow and the initial liquid mass on the filter covered the relevant range for industrial fibre demisters and for sampling methods based on collecting aerosols on fibre filters. It was found that the downstream

  16. Study of LAT1 Expression in Brain Metastases: Towards a Better Understanding of the Results of Positron Emission Tomography Using Amino Acid Tracers

    PubMed Central

    Papin-Michault, Caroline; Bonnetaud, Christelle; Dufour, Maxime; Almairac, Fabien; Coutts, Mickael; Patouraux, Stéphanie; Virolle, Thierry; Darcourt, Jacques; Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography using radiolabeled amino acid (PET-AA) appears to be promising in distinguishing between recurrent tumour and radionecrosis in the follow-up of brain metastasis (BM). The amino acid transporter LAT1 and its cofactor CD98, which are involved in AA uptake, have never been investigated in BM. The aim of our study was to determine and compare the expression of LAT1 and CD98 in BM and in non-tumoral brain tissue (NT). The expression of LAT1 and CD98 were studied by immunohistochemistry in 67 BM, including 18 BM recurrences after radiotherapy, in 53 NT, and in 13 cases of patients with previously irradiated brain tumor and investigated by [18F] FDOPA-PET. LAT1 and CD98 expression were detected in 98.5% and 59.7% of BM respectively and were significantly associated with BM tissue as compared to NT (p<0.001). LAT1 expression in recurrent BM was significantly increased as compared to newly occurring BM. Ten cases investigated by [18F] FDOPA-PET corresponding to recurrent BM displayed significant [18F] FDOPA uptake and LAT1 overexpression whereas three cases corresponding to radionecrosis showed no or low uptake and LAT1 expression. LAT1 expression level and [18F] FDOPA uptake were significantly correlated. In conclusion, we hypothesized that BM may overexpress the AA transporter LAT1. We have shown that LAT1 overexpression was common in BM and was specific for BM as compared to healthy brain. These results could explain the specific BM uptake on PET-AA. PMID:27276226

  17. Mist1 Expressing Gastric Stem Cells Maintain the Normal and Neoplastic Gastric Epithelium and Are Supported by a Perivascular Stem Cell Niche.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Stancikova, Jitka; Sakitani, Kosuke; Asfaha, Samuel; Renz, Bernhard W; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida A; Shibata, Wataru; Wang, Hongshan; Westphalen, Christoph B; Chen, Xiaowei; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Kim, Woosook; Khurana, Shradha S; Tailor, Yagnesh; Nagar, Karan; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Setlik, Wanda; Gershon, Michael D; Saha, Subhrajit; Ding, Lei; Shen, Zeli; Fox, James G; Friedman, Richard A; Konieczny, Stephen F; Worthley, Daniel L; Korinek, Vladimir; Wang, Timothy C

    2015-12-14

    The regulation and stem cell origin of normal and neoplastic gastric glands are uncertain. Here, we show that Mist1 expression marks quiescent stem cells in the gastric corpus isthmus. Mist1(+) stem cells serve as a cell-of-origin for intestinal-type cancer with the combination of Kras and Apc mutation and for diffuse-type cancer with the loss of E-cadherin. Diffuse-type cancer development is dependent on inflammation mediated by Cxcl12(+) endothelial cells and Cxcr4(+) gastric innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). These cells form the perivascular gastric stem cell niche, and Wnt5a produced from ILCs activates RhoA to inhibit anoikis in the E-cadherin-depleted cells. Targeting Cxcr4, ILCs, or Wnt5a inhibits diffuse-type gastric carcinogenesis, providing targets within the neoplastic gastric stem cell niche.

  18. In vitro antifungal activity of extracts obtained from Hypericum perforatum adventitious roots cultured in a mist bioreactor against planktonic cells and biofilm of Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Giovanna; Tocci, Noemi; Valletta, Alessio; Brasili, Elisa; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Idoux, Alicia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Xanthone-rich extracts from Hypericum perforatum root cultures grown in a Mist Bioreactor as antifungal agents against Malassezia furfur. Extracts of Hypericum perforatum roots grown in a bioreactor showed activity against planktonic cells and biofilm of Malassezia furfur. Dried biomass, obtained from roots grown under controlled conditions in a ROOTec mist bioreactor, has been extracted with solvents of increasing polarity (i.e. chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol). The methanolic fraction was the richest in xanthones (2.86 ± 0.43 mg g(-1) DW) as revealed by HPLC. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the methanol extract against M. furfur planktonic cells was 16 μg mL(-1). The inhibition percentage of biofilm formation, at a concentration of 16 μg mL(-1), ranged from 14% to 39%. The results show that H. perforatum root extracts could be used as new antifungal agents in the treatment of Malassezia infections.

  19. Radiolabeling of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) Nanoparticles with Biotinylated F-18 Prosthetic Groups and Imaging of Their Delivery to the Brain with Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The avidin–biotin interaction permits rapid and nearly irreversible noncovalent linkage between biotinylated molecules and avidin-modified substrates. We designed a biotinylated radioligand intended for use in the detection of avidin-modified polymer nanoparticles in tissue with positron emission tomography (PET). Using an F-18 labeled prosthetic group, [18F]4-fluorobenzylamine, and a commercially available biotin derivate, NHS-PEG4-biotin, [18F]-fluorobenzylamide-poly(ethylene glycol)4-biotin ([18F]NPB4) was prepared with high purity and specific activity. The attachment of the [18F]NPB4 radioligand to avidin-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles was tested by using PET imaging to measure the kinetics of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of nanoparticles of varying size to the rat brain. PET imaging enabled the direct observation of nanoparticle delivery by measurement of the spatial volume of distribution of radiolabeled nanoparticles as a function of time, both during and after the infusion. This work thus validates new methods for radiolabeling PEG-biotin derivatives and also provides insight into the fate of nanoparticles that have been infused directly into the brain. PMID:25322194

  20. Water-Soluble Nonconjugated Polymer Nanoparticles with Strong Fluorescence Emission for Selective and Sensitive Detection of Nitro-Explosive Picric Acid in Aqueous Medium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi Gang; Luo, Dan; Li, Na; Zhang, Wei; Lei, Jing Lei; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2016-08-24

    Water-soluble nonconjugated polymer nanoparticles (PNPs) with strong fluorescence emission were prepared from hyperbranched poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and d-glucose via Schiff base reaction and self-assembly in aqueous phase. Preparation of the PEI-d-glucose (PEI-G) PNPs was facile (one-pot reaction) and environmentally friendly under mild conditions. Also, PEI-G PNPs showed a high fluorescence quantum yield in aqueous solution, and the fluorescence properties (such as concentration- and solvent-dependent fluorescence) and origin of intrinsic fluorescence were investigated and discussed. PEI-G PNPs were then used to develop a fluorescent probe for fast, selective, and sensitive detection of nitro-explosive picric acid (PA) in aqueous medium, because the fluorescence can be easily quenched by PA whereas other nitro-explosives and structurally similar compounds only caused negligible quenching. A wide linear range (0.05-70 μM) and a low detection limit (26 nM) were obtained. The fluorescence quenching mechanism was carefully explored, and it was due to a combined effect of electron transfer, resonance energy transfer, and inner filter effect between PA and PEI-G PNPs, which resulted in good selectivity and sensitivity for PA. Finally, the developed sensor was successfully applied to detection of PA in environmental water samples. PMID:27471907