Science.gov

Sample records for acid mist emissions

  1. Enhanced ethylene emissions from red and Norway spruce exposed to acidic mists

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yimin; Wellburn, A.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Acidic cloudwater is believed to cause needle injury and to decrease winter hardiness in conifers. During simulations of these adverse conditions, rates of ethylene emissions from and levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) in both red and Norway spruce needles increased as a result of treatment with acidic mists but amounts of 1-malonyl(amino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid remained unchanged. However, release of significant quantities of ethylene by another mechanism independent of ACC was also detected from brown needles. Application of exogenous plant growth regulators such as auxin, kinetic, abscisic acid and gibberellic acid (each 0.1 millimolar) had no obvious effects on the rates of basal or stress ethylene production from Norway spruce needles. The kinetics of ethylene formation by acidic mist-stressed needles suggest that there is no active inhibitive mechanism in spruce to prevent stress ethylene being released once ACC has been formed.

  2. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83...

  3. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83...

  4. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83...

  5. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83...

  6. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to...

  7. Response of bush bean exposed to acid mist

    SciTech Connect

    Hindawi, I.J.; Rea, J.A.; Griffis, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris l. Cv. contender) were treated once a week for six weeks with simulated acid mist at five pH levels ranging from 5.5 to 2.0. Leaf injury developed on plants exposed to acid concentrations below pH 3 and many leaves developed a flecking symptom similar to that caused by ozone. An adaxial, interveinal bleached area resembling SO/sub 2/ injury also developed on some trifoliate leaves at the low pH treatments. Microscopic observation of injured trifoliates indicated that the pallisade cells were plasmolyzed and that the chloroplasts lost structural integrity. Reductions in plant weight and chlorophyll content were detected across the pH gradient. Seed and pod growth were reduced at some intermediate acid depositions even though no visible foliar injury developed. Foliar losses of nitrogen, calcium, magnesium and phosphorous increased with decreases in acid mist pH, whereas foliar potassium concentrations were unaffected by acid mist treatment.

  8. Acid mist and ozone effects on the leaf chemistry of two western conifer species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Temple, Patrick J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ozone and acid-mist exposures on the leaf chemistry of Jeffrey pine and giant sequoia seedlings grown in filtered-air greenhouses were investigated. Acid-mist treatments (pH 4.1, 3.4, 2.7, or 2.0) were administered for 3 h, and ozone exposures (0, 0.10, and 0.20 microliter/liter), which followed acid-mist treatments, for 4 h, each for three days a week for six to nine weeks. It was found that seedlings were more susceptible to acid-mist and acid mist/ozone combinations, than to ozone alone. Acid mist treatment resulted in higher levels of nitrogen and sulfur (both present in acid mist) as well as Na. Leaves of giant sequoia exhibited increased K and decreased Mn, while Jeffrey pine showed increases in Fe and Mn. In sequoia leaves, concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Ba decreased. Acid treatment also reduced chlorophyll b concentrations in both conifer species. Extensive changes induced by acid mist are consistent with earlier observations of changes in spectral reflectance of conifer seedlings observed after three weeks of fumigation.

  9. Acid mist and ozone effects on the leaf chemistry of two western conifer species.

    PubMed

    Westman, W E; Temple, P J

    1989-01-01

    Seedlings of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantea) were more susceptible to leaf chemical changes following exposure to acid mist (pH 3.4-2.0) or acid mist/ozone combinations, than to ozone alone (0.1-0.2 microl/litre), when plants were exposed to alternating doses of these pollutants for 6-9 weeks. Under acid mist treatment, leaves exhibited higher levels of nitrogen and sulfur, two elements applied in acid mist. In addition, levels of foliar sodium, and, in the case of giant sequia, potassium, as well, increased under acid mist treatment. Iron and manganese were also mobilized, resulting in significant increases in these elements in pine, and decreases in manganese in giant sequoia foliage. The acid treatment also reduced chlorophyll b concentrations in pine, and, to a less significant extent, in giant sequoia. Calcium, magnesium, barium and strontium were differentially accumulated in giant sequoia compared to Jeffrey pine. Under acid mist treatment, all of these elements (except strontium) declined in concentration in giant sequoia, with calcium showing the most significant trend. The more extensive changes in leaf chemistry induced by acid mist are consistent with earlier observations of significant changes in spectral reflectance of these seedlings after 3 weeks of fumigation. Limited foliage samples collected from these two species in 1985 and 1986 in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks in the southern Sierra Nevada do not in themselves indicate any clearcut or severe effects of ozone alone on leaf chemistry of these species, but a mild influence of nitrate-laden acid deposition, possibly in combination with ozone, is consistent with the rise in nitrogen and lignin levels in Jeffrey pine on sites observed to have moderate visible injury symptoms. No firm conclusions about effects of pollutants on leaf chemistry in these field sites is possible without further study.

  10. Influence of liquid and gas flow rates on sulfuric acid mist removal from air by packed bed tower

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The possible emission of sulfuric acid mists from a laboratory scale, counter-current packed bed tower operated with a caustic scrubbing solution was studied. Acid mists were applied through a local exhaust hood. The emissions from the packed bed tower were monitored in three different categories of gas flow rate as well as three liquid flow rates, while other influencing parameters were kept almost constant. Air sampling and sulfuric acid measurement were carried out iso-kinetically using USEPA method 8. The acid mists were measured by the barium-thorin titration method. According to the results when the gas flow rate increased from 10 L/s to 30 L/s, the average removal efficiency increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 76.8 ± 1.8% to 85.7 ± 1.2%. Analysis of covariance method followed by Tukey post-hoc test of 92 tests did not show a significant change in removal efficiency between liquid flow rates of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 L/min (p = 0.811). On the other hand, with fixed pressure loss across the tower, by increasing the liquid/gas (L/G) mass ratio, the average removal efficiency decreased significantly (p = 0.001) from 89.9% at L/G of <2 to 83.1% at L/G of 2–3 and further to 80.2% at L/G of >3, respectively. L/G of 2–3 was recommended for designing purposes of a packed tower for sulfuric acid mists and vapors removal from contaminated air stream. PMID:23369487

  11. Influence of liquid and gas flow rates on sulfuric acid mist removal from air by packed bed tower.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Ghasemi, Roohollah; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Yazdanbakhsh, Ahmad Reza; Hajibabaei, Majid

    2012-12-10

    The possible emission of sulfuric acid mists from a laboratory scale, counter-current packed bed tower operated with a caustic scrubbing solution was studied. Acid mists were applied through a local exhaust hood. The emissions from the packed bed tower were monitored in three different categories of gas flow rate as well as three liquid flow rates, while other influencing parameters were kept almost constant. Air sampling and sulfuric acid measurement were carried out iso-kinetically using USEPA method 8. The acid mists were measured by the barium-thorin titration method. According to the results when the gas flow rate increased from 10 L/s to 30 L/s, the average removal efficiency increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 76.8 ± 1.8% to 85.7 ± 1.2%. Analysis of covariance method followed by Tukey post-hoc test of 92 tests did not show a significant change in removal efficiency between liquid flow rates of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 L/min (p = 0.811). On the other hand, with fixed pressure loss across the tower, by increasing the liquid/gas (L/G) mass ratio, the average removal efficiency decreased significantly (p = 0.001) from 89.9% at L/G of <2 to 83.1% at L/G of 2-3 and further to 80.2% at L/G of >3, respectively. L/G of 2-3 was recommended for designing purposes of a packed tower for sulfuric acid mists and vapors removal from contaminated air stream.

  12. Performance of a pilot-scale wet electrostatic precipitator for the control of sulfuric acid mist.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiayu; Wang, Hongmei; Shi, Yingjie; Zhang, Fan; Dang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Hui; Shu, Yun; Deng, Shuang; Liu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The use of a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is often regarded as a viable option to reduce sulfuric acid mist emitted from the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) tower in coal-fired power plants. In this study, a pilot-scale wet electrostatic precipitator equipped with a wall-cooled collection electrode is investigated for the control of sulfuric acid mist from a simulated WFGD system. The results show that due to partial charging effect, the removal efficiency of sulfuric acid aerosol decreases when the aerosol size decreases to several tens of nanometers. Moreover, due to the plasma-induced effect, a large number of ultrafine sulfuric acid aerosols below 50 nm formed at a voltage higher than 24 kV inside the WESP. The percentages of submicron-sized aerosols significantly increase together with the voltage. To minimize the adverse plasma-induced effect, a WESP should be operated at a high gas velocity with an optimum high voltage. Even at a high flue gas velocity of 2.3 m s(-1), the mass concentration and the total number concentration of uncaptured sulfuric acid aerosols at the WESP outlet are as low as ca. 0.6 mg m(-3) and ca. 10(4) 1 cm(-3) at 28 kV, respectively. The corresponding removal efficiencies were respectively higher than 99.4 and 99.9 % and are very similar to that at 1.1 and 1.6 m s(-1). Moreover, the condensation-induced aerosol growth enhances the removal of sulfuric acid mist inside a WESP and enables a low emission concentration of ca. 0.65 mg m(-3) with a corresponding removal efficiency superior to 99.4 % even at a low voltage of 21 kV, and of ca. 0.35 mg m(-3) with a corresponding removal efficiency superior to 99.6 % at a higher voltage level of 26 kV.

  13. Size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentrations at phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facilities in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Lundgren, Dale A; Birky, Brian K

    2007-01-01

    Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid were identified as a 'known human carcinogen' in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) report where phosphate fertilizer manufacture was listed as one of many occupational exposures to strong acids. To properly assess the occupational exposure to sulfuric acid mists in modern facilities, approved National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7903 and a cascade impactor were used for measuring the total sulfuric acid mist concentration and size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentration, respectively. Sampling was conducted at eight phosphate fertilizer plants and two background sites in Florida and there were 24 sampling sites in these plants. Samples were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) to quantify the water-soluble ion species. The highest sulfuric acid concentrations by the cascade impactor were obtained at the sulfuric acid pump tank area. When high aerosol mass concentrations (100 micro g m(-3)) were observed at this area, the sulfuric acid mists were in the coarse mode. The geometric mean sulfuric acid concentrations (+/-geometric standard deviation) of PM(23) (aerodynamic cut size smaller than 23 micro m), PM(10) and PM(2.5) from the cascade impactor were 41.7 (+/-5.5), 37.9 (+/-5.8) and 22.1 (+/-4.5) micro g m(-3), respectively. The geometric mean (+/-geometric standard deviation) for total sulfuric acid concentration from the NIOSH method samples was 143 (+/-5.08) micro g m(-3). Sulfuric acid mist concentrations varied significantly among the plants and even at the same location. The measurements by the NIOSH method were 1.5-229 times higher than those by the cascade impactor. Moreover, using the NIOSH method, the sulfuric acid concentrations measured at the lower flow rate (0.30 Lpm) were higher than those at the higher flow rate (0.45 Lpm). One possible reason for the significant differences between the results from the cascade impactor and the NIOSH method is the potential

  14. Removal of sulfuric acid mist from lead-acid battery plants by coal fly ash-based sorbents.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yuehong; Wei, Xiangyu; Fang, Yu; Lan, Bingyan; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-04-09

    Sorbents from coal fly ash (CFA) activated by NaOH, CaO and H2O were prepared for H2SO4 mist removal from lead-acid battery plants. The effects of parameters including temperature, time, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid during sorbent preparation were investigated. It is found that the synthesized sorbents exhibit much higher removal capacity for H2SO4 mist when compared with that of raw coal fly ash and CaO except for H2O activated sorbent and this sorbent was hence excluded from the study because of its low capacity. The H2SO4 mist removal efficiency increases with the increasing of preparation time length and temperature. In addition, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid also impact the removal efficiency, and the optimum preparation conditions are identified as: a water/solid ratio of 10:1 at 120 °C for 10h, a CFA:CaO weight ratio of 10:1, and a NaOH solution concentration of 3 mol/L. The formation of rough surface structure and an increased surface area after NaOH/CaO activation favor the sorption of H2SO4 mist and possible sorption mechanisms might be electrostatic attractions and chemical precipitation between the surface of sorbents and H2SO4 mist.

  15. Mannitol can mitigate negative effects of simulated acid mist and fluoranthene in juvenile Japanese red pine (P. densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.).

    PubMed

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Bandai, Sayuri; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    The negative health effects of simulated acid mists and fluoranthene on juvenile Japanese red pine were investigated, and the methods of protection from these pollutants were examined. The needle gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, chemical contents and visual damage to needles caused by acid mist applied alone or its conjunction with fluoranthene were investigated over 60 d and 20 d, respectively. Acid mist at pH 2 and 3 caused physiological and visual damage, which was enhanced by the addition of fluoranthene to the mist. However, fluoranthene and acid mist at pH 4 and 5 showed only minor effects. These findings indicate that acid mist may be more harmful to pine trees if it occurs in conjunction with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Moreover, suppression of the singular and additive effects of these compounds was achieved using mannitol, which may be widely applicable to suppression of reactive oxygen species-mediated plant damage.

  16. Sampling and analysis of hexavalent chromium during exposure to chromic acid mist and welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, G; Nilsson, C A; Nygren, O

    1983-12-01

    Sampling and analysis of hexavalent chromium during exposure to chromic acid mist and welding fumes. Scand j work environ & health 9 (1983) 489-495. In view of the serious health effects of hexavalent chromium, the problems involved in its sampling and analysis in workroom air have been the subject of much concern. In this paper, the stability problems arising from the reduction of hexavalent to trivalent chromium during sampling, sample storage, and analysis are discussed. Replacement of sulfuric acid by a sodium acetate buffer (pH 4) as a leaching solution prior to analysis with the diphenylcarbazide (DPC) method is suggested and is demonstrated to be necessary in order to avoid reduction. Field samples were taken from two different industrial processes-manual metal arc welding on stainless steel without shield gas and chromium plating. A comparison was made of the DPC method, acidic dissolution with atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) analysis, and the carbonate method. For chromic acid mist, the DPC method and AAS analysis were shown to give the same results. In the analysis of welding fumes, the modified DPC method gave the same results as the laborious and less sensitive carbonate method.

  17. A new measuring method to detect the emissions of metal working fluid mist.

    PubMed

    Wlaschitz, Peter; Höflinger, Wilhelm

    2007-06-18

    During metal machining the rotating machine tool or grinding wheel is generating fine droplets and vapor which can cause occupational health problems. A new continuous measuring method was developed to detect both droplets and vapor of metalworking fluid mist and to provide information about the droplet size distribution. According to this method, an air sample of the metalworking fluid mist is segregated by impactors of different cut sizes, carried out in several successive passes. In each pass the droplets that are not collected in the impactor are fed into an evaporator that immediately evaporates all droplets, and subsequently the sample is analyzed in-line by a Flame Ionization Detector (FID). By subtraction of the value measured at the respectively next smaller fraction, the oil amount of the metalworking fluid mist found in a certain droplet size range is obtained. The metalworking fluid mist is thus segregated according to the droplet size, and a definite cut size between droplet and vapor can be defined, below which we can say "vapor". This method was calibrated with Di-2-Ethylhexyl-Sebacat (DEHS) as equivalence substance for further measurements applied on various metalworking fluids.

  18. Mist separator

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, T.M.

    1984-04-17

    An apparatus for the removal of particulates from a flowing gas stream and a process for its use are provided. A perforated screen separator formed as a plate having parallel rows of perforations formed by pushing alternating strips of the plate material forward and backward from the plane of the plate is used. The perforated screen separator may be used alone or with a fiber bed mist eliminator for increased particulate removal.

  19. The effect of the use of NP305 masks in improving respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to sulfuric acid mists in plating and pickling units

    PubMed Central

    Rafieepour, Athena; Dolatshahi, Narges Gholamzadeh Taj; Ghasemkhan, Alireza Haj; Asghari, Mehdi; Sadeghian, Marzieh; Asadi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Plating and pickling processes are the most effective ways for increasing the strength of metal structures, and workers in these units are exposed to various contaminants, including acid mists. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of protective masks in decreasing the respiratory symptoms and the aerobic capacity of workers that are exposed sulfuric acid mist. Methods: This interventional study was based on National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard 7903 in which silica gel tubes are used for sampling the air in plating and pickling units for eight hours. After the samples were acquired and prepared, they were analyzed by ion chromatography and were compared with the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) exposure limits. Respiratory symptoms were evaluated among two sets of test subjects, i.e., those who used NP305 masks in the workplace and those who did not use the mask. Results: The results showed that the concentration of sulfuric acid mist in the plating units was greater than the exposure limits, and concentrations at this level can cause an increase in symptoms related to irritation of the airway and a slight decrease in respiratory capacity. In this study, smoking had no significant effect on the severity of pulmonary dysfunction. Conclusion: The results indicated that the use of an NP305 mask is effective for decreasing symptoms resulting from exposure to sulfuric acid mist and improving respiratory capacity. PMID:26120392

  20. 40 CFR 62.4621 - Emission standards and compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... met since the test methods and procedures for determining compliance with the sulfuric acid mist emission standards are not specified. (b) Emissions from sulfuric acid plants must be measured by...

  1. 40 CFR 62.4621 - Emission standards and compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... met since the test methods and procedures for determining compliance with the sulfuric acid mist emission standards are not specified. (b) Emissions from sulfuric acid plants must be measured by...

  2. 40 CFR 62.4621 - Emission standards and compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... met since the test methods and procedures for determining compliance with the sulfuric acid mist emission standards are not specified. (b) Emissions from sulfuric acid plants must be measured by...

  3. 40 CFR 62.4621 - Emission standards and compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... met since the test methods and procedures for determining compliance with the sulfuric acid mist emission standards are not specified. (b) Emissions from sulfuric acid plants must be measured by...

  4. 40 CFR 62.4621 - Emission standards and compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... met since the test methods and procedures for determining compliance with the sulfuric acid mist emission standards are not specified. (b) Emissions from sulfuric acid plants must be measured by...

  5. Autumn MIST 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, Colin

    2010-02-01

    MEETING REPORT Colin Forsyth, Nicola Longden, Andrew Walsh and Robert Wicks summarize a MIST meeting where ground-based ionospheric science came under the spotlight, amid the broader concerns of the MIST community.

  6. Practical slot hood design for acid mist control of a battery charging operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.L.; Hale, J.F.

    1998-09-01

    An enclosed system approach was designed for controlling sulfuric acid generation from a battery plate formation process. Individual design elements were based on practical applications of a variety of parameters common to open surface tank ventilation designs. Beginning with a basic slot/plenum design, improvements such as tank covers with slots and interior baffles to assure equal distribution of the air flow and reduce the capture velocity required for proper control were incorporated. Comparison of exposure levels before and after installation of the system demonstrated that the design increased the capture and control ability of the ventilation system for the same air volume. The system achieved exposure goals and required low air volume without compromising operational requirements.

  7. Water Mist Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002 in the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. The Center for the Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, is investigating the properties of mist fire suppression in microgravity with Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. These experiments consist of varying water droplet sizes and water mist concentrations applied to flame fronts of different propane/air mixtures. Observations from these tests will provide valuable information on the change of flame speed in the presence of water mist. Shown here is a flame front propagating through the Mist flame tube during 1-g testing at NASA/Glenn Research Center.

  8. Autumn MIST 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanani, Sheila; Williams, Anthony; Kiyani, Khurom; Forsyth, Colin

    2011-06-01

    MEETING REPORT Sheila Kanani, Anthony Williams, Khurom Kiyani and Colin Forsyth summarize the themes of the annual autumn meeting of the UK MIST community: multi-perspective views of interacting plasma environments and other hot topics.

  9. 40 CFR 60.31d - Emissions guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Acid Production Units § 60.31d Emissions guidelines. Sulfuric acid production units. The emission guideline for designated facilities is 0.25 grams sulfuric acid mist (as measured by EPA Reference Method 8 of appendix A of this part) per kilogram (0.5 pounds per ton) of sulfuric acid produced,...

  10. 40 CFR 60.31d - Emissions guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Acid Production Units § 60.31d Emissions guidelines. Sulfuric acid production units. The emission guideline for designated facilities is 0.25 grams sulfuric acid mist (as measured by EPA Reference Method 8 of appendix A of this part) per kilogram (0.5 pounds per ton) of sulfuric acid produced,...

  11. 40 CFR 60.31d - Emissions guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Acid Production Units § 60.31d Emissions guidelines. Sulfuric acid production units. The emission guideline for designated facilities is 0.25 grams sulfuric acid mist (as measured by EPA Reference Method 8 of appendix A of this part) per kilogram (0.5 pounds per ton) of sulfuric acid produced,...

  12. 40 CFR 60.31d - Emissions guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Acid Production Units § 60.31d Emissions guidelines. Sulfuric acid production units. The emission guideline for designated facilities is 0.25 grams sulfuric acid mist (as measured by EPA Reference Method 8 of appendix A of this part) per kilogram (0.5 pounds per ton) of sulfuric acid produced,...

  13. 40 CFR 60.31d - Emissions guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Acid Production Units § 60.31d Emissions guidelines. Sulfuric acid production units. The emission guideline for designated facilities is 0.25 grams sulfuric acid mist (as measured by EPA Reference Method 8 of appendix A of this part) per kilogram (0.5 pounds per ton) of sulfuric acid produced,...

  14. Slanted baffle mist eliminator

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Richard F.

    1995-11-07

    An apparatus for the elimination of mist from off-gas during vitrification f nuclear waste, where baffles are installed on a slant toward the flow of the off-gasses eliminating the need to expand the cross-sectional area of the duct size.

  15. Mist lift analysis summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The mist flow open-cycle OTEC concept proposed by S.L. Ridgway has much promise, but the fluid mechanics of the mist flow are not well understood. The creation of the mist and the possibility of droplet growth leading to rainout (when the vapor can no longer support the mist) are particularly troublesome. This report summarizes preliminary results of a numerical analysis initiated at SERI in FY79 to study the mist-lift process. The analysis emphasizes the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the steady-state mist flow and is based on one-dimensional models of the mist flow developed for SERI by Graham Wallis. One of Wallis's models describes a mist composed of a single size of drops and another considers several drop sizes. The latter model, further developed at SERI, considers a changing spectrum of discrete drop sizes and incorporates the mathematics describing collisions and growth of the droplets by coalescence. The analysis results show that under conditions leading to maximum lift in the single-drop-size model, the multigroup model predicts significantly reduced lift because of the growth of droplets by coalescence. The predicted lift height is sensitive to variations in the mass flow rate and inlet pressure. Inclusion of a coasting section, in which the drops would rise ballistically without change in temperature, may lead to increased lift within the existing range of operation.

  16. Elastocapillary mist collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat, Camille; Labbé, Romain; Rewakowicz, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous media are commonly used to collect droplets from an aerosol. In particular, woven textiles are used to harvest fresh water from fog, and coalescing filters made of non-woven entangled fibers are used to extract oil drops from gas streams. We propose a novel mist collector made of a forest of vertical flexible threads. As the droplets accumulate on the fibers, capillary bridges are formed, leading to the collapse of adjacent fibers thus forming liquid columns. This improve the liquid collection by preventing clogging, enabling high capture and precluding re-entrainment of drops in the gas stream due to the immediate coalescence of incoming droplets, and promoting fast drainage. We find that the collection flow rate is constant and can be adjusted by varying the fibers arrangement and flexibility. We show that there is an optimal situation for which this collection rate, i.e. the global efficiency, is maximal due to an elastocapillary coupling that we further characterize with a model experiment. Specifically, we study the drainage between two flexible fibers. Depending on the geometry and the fiber deformations, several flow regimes are observed. We characterize these regimes, and discuss the consequences on the drainage velocity, and thus the collection efficiency.

  17. Oil Mist Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  18. Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST): MIST Facility Functional Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, T F; Koksal, C G; Moskal, T E; Rush, G C; Gloudemans, J R

    1991-04-01

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST was specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the Once Through Integral System (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and OTIS are used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST Functional Specification documents as-built design features, dimensions, instrumentation, and test approach. It also presents the scaling basis for the facility and serves to define the scope of work for the facility design and construction. 13 refs., 112 figs., 38 tabs.

  19. HONO (nitrous acid) emissions from acidic northern soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljanen, Marja; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2015-04-01

    The photolysis of HONO (nitrous acid) is an important source of OH radical, the key oxidizing agent in the atmosphere, contributing also to removal of atmospheric methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of HONO from soils have been recently reported in few studies. Soil HONO emissions are regarded as missing sources of HONO when considering the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. The soil-derived HONO has been connected to soil nitrite (NO2-) and also directly to the activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, which has been studied with one pure culture. Our hypothesis was that boreal acidic soils with high nitrification activity could be also sources of HONO and the emissions of HONO are connected with nitrification. We selected a range of dominant northern acidic soils and showed in microcosm experiments that soils which have the highest nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions (drained peatlands) also have the highest HONO production rates. The emissions of HONO are thus linked to nitrogen cycle and also NO and N2O emissions. Natural peatlands and boreal coniferous forests on mineral soils had the lowest HONO emissions. It is known that in natural peatlands with high water table and in boreal coniferous forest soils, low nitrification activity (microbial production of nitrite and nitrate) limits their N2O production. Low availability of nitrite in these soils is the likely reason also for their low HONO production rates. We also studied the origin of HONO in one peat soil with acetylene and other nitrification inhibitors and we found that HONO production is not closely connected to ammonium oxidation (nitrification). Acetylene blocked NO emissions but did not affect HONO or N2O emissions, thus there is another source behind HONO emission from these soils than ammonium oxidation. It is still an open question if this process is microbial or chemical origin.

  20. Water Mist fire suppression experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002. This investigation will be flown as an Experimental Mounting Structure (EMS) insert into the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. (The investigation hardware is shown here mounted in a non-flight frame similar to the EMS.) Water Mist is a commercial research program by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, in Golden, CO and Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. The program is focused on developing water mist as a replacement for bromine-based chemical fire suppression agents (halons). By conducting the experiments in microgravity, interference from convection currents is minimized and fundamental knowledge can be gained. This knowledge is incorporated into models, which can be used to simulate a variety of physical environments. The immediate objective of the project is to study the effect of a fine water mist on a laminar propagating flame generated in a propane-air mixture at various equivalence ratios. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the speed of the flame front is used as a measure of the effectiveness of fire suppression in this highly controlled experimental environment.

  1. Additives for Water Mist Fire Suppression Systems: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    this. Water mist produces no acid gases and therefore can be discharged in a space where persons are present. It consists of small water droplets...investigated include film forming additives for Class B fires (generally fluorinated surfactants), alkali metals salts, transition metal chlorides, sulphates ...et portatif sur les navires militaires continue de croître pour plusieurs raisons. Le brouillard d’eau ne contient pas de gaz acides et, par

  2. Effervescent Liquid Fine Mist Apparatus and Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-05

    SUBTITLE Effervescent Liquid Fine Mist Apparatus and Method 6. AUTHOR(S) Joseph E. Wolfe 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...chamber connected to the container; and at least one convergent/divergent nozzle connected to the mixing chamber. A method of forming an effervescent fine...mist, effervescent liquid mist 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: unclassified a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE

  3. Capturing birds with mist nets: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keyes, B.E.; Grue, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Herein we have tried to provide a comprehensive review of mist-netting techniques suitable for both novice and experienced netters. General mist-netting procedures and modifications developed by netters for particular bird species and habitats are included. Factors which influence capture success, including site selection, net specifications and placement, weather, and time of day, are discussed. Guidelines are presented for the care of netted birds and the use of mist-net data in the study of bird communities. The advantages of the use of mist nets over other methods of capturing birds are also discussed.

  4. Control of Impingement Heat Transfer Using Mist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Azusa; Hiwada, Munehiko; Mimatsu, Junji; Sugimoto, Hiraku; Oyakawa, Kenyuu

    Impingement heat transfer from a circular orifice jet by using latent heat of water mists was studied experimentally. The amounts of mists of about Zauter's mean diameter 14 µm were from 60 to 200 g/h within a range where liquid films were not formed on the target plate and mists were added near the orifice edge. Experiments covered Reynolds numbers from 12,500 to 50,000 and a heat flux is 1,400 W/m2. The experimental results indicate that adding mists had little influence on free jet mean velocity profiles and target plate pressure coefficients. On the other hand, mists had a strong influence on temperature and humidity profiles of a free jet and they also influenced Nusselt number distributions on the target plate. Increases of mists and Reynolds number caused increases in Nusselt number on the developed region. In addition, we investigated influence of the way mists were added and these results showed that Nusselt number was influenced not only by the amounts of mists but also by the adding method. Local Nusselt number profiles with mists were closely related to temperature distributions of the free jet at the location corresponding to the target plate.

  5. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  6. Emissions of volatile fatty acids from feed at dairy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis, Phillip; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Campbell, Sean; Hasson, Alam S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that dairy operations may be a major source of non-methane volatile organic compounds in dairy-intensive regions such as Central California, with short chain carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids or VFAs) as the major components. Emissions of four VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid and hexanoic acid) were measured from two feed sources (silage and total mixed rations (TMR)) at six Central California Dairies over a fifteen-month period. Measurements were made using a combination of flux chambers, solid phase micro-extraction fibers coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) and infra-red photoaccoustic detection (IR-PAD for acetic acid only). The relationship between acetic acid emissions, source surface temperature and four sample composition factors (acetic acid content, ammonia-nitrogen content, water content and pH) was also investigated. As observed previously, acetic acid dominates the VFA emissions. Fluxes measured by IR-PAD were systematically lower than SPME/GC-MS measurements by a factor of two. High signals in field blanks prevented emissions from animal waste sources (flush lane, bedding, open lot) from being quantified. Acetic acid emissions from feed sources are positively correlated with surface temperature and acetic acid content. The measurements were used to derive a relationship between surface temperature, acetic acid content and the acetic acid flux. The equation derived from SPME/GC-MS measurements predicts estimated annual average acetic acid emissions of (0.7 + 1/-0.4) g m -2 h -1 from silage and (0.2 + 0.3/-0.1) g m -2 h -1 from TMR using annually averaged acetic acid content and meteorological data. However, during the summer months, fluxes may be several times higher than these values.

  7. Emissions of sulfur trioxide from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Miller, C A; Erickson, C; Jambhekar, R

    2004-06-01

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough to not cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur (S) in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired combustion devices such as electric utility boilers. The emissions of SO3 from such a boiler depend on coal S content, combustion conditions, flue gas characteristics, and air pollution devices being used. It is well known that the catalyst used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for nitrogen oxides control oxidizes a small fraction of sulfur dioxide in the flue gas to SO3. The extent of this oxidation depends on the catalyst formulation and SCR operating conditions. Gas-phase SO3 and sulfuric acid, on being quenched in plant equipment (e.g., air preheater and wet scrubber), result in fine acidic mist, which can cause increased plume opacity and undesirable emissions. Recently, such effects have been observed at plants firing high-S coal and equipped with SCR systems and wet scrubbers. This paper investigates the factors that affect acidic mist production in coal-fired electric utility boilers and discusses approaches for mitigating emission of this mist.

  8. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. 84.1147 Section 84.1147 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL...

  9. Dietary adipic acid reduces ammonia emission from swine excreta.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, T A

    2001-09-01

    Adipic acid is only partially catabolized when it is fed to animals, and a portion of it is excreted in urine. The excreted portion may lower urinary pH and, as a result, ammonia emission. The present study tested this hypothesis. In Exp. 1, nursery pigs (n = 14) were fed (for a period of 7 d) either a standard nursery diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% adipic acid to assess effects on urinary pH (collected on d 5 or 6) and in vitro ammonia emission from the collected urine samples that were mixed with control feces. In Exp. 2, grower pigs housed 10 each in one of two chambers were fed a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% adipic acid. Ventilated air was quantified and analyzed for ammonia using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine the effects of feeding 1% adipic acid on ammonia emission. The results from Exp. 1 showed that adipic acid strongly reduced urinary pH (from 7.7 to 5.5, P < 0.05). In vitro ammonia emission from these urine samples was significantly reduced at all the time points evaluated (1, 3, 18, and 46 h with reductions of 94, 93, 70, and 39%, respectively, P < 0.05). Experiment 2 showed that adipic acid supplementation reduced ammonia emission by 25% (P < 0.05), which corresponded to the predicted reduction in ammonia emission based on the reduction in manure pH observed. In conclusion, feeding adipic acid lowers urinary pH and reduces ammonia emission. The reduction in ammonia emission, though, does not correspond to the reduction in urinary pH but corresponds to the reduction in fecal pH as a result of mixing the urine and feces, in which feces act as a strong buffer.

  10. The Water-Mist Fire Suppression Experiment (Mist): Preliminary Results From The STS-107 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Amon, Francine; Gokoglu, Suleyman

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of water mists on premixed flame propagation has been conducted onboard the Space Shuttle to take advantage of the prolonged microgravity environment to study the effect of uniformly distributed clouds of polydisperse water mists on the speed and shape of propagating propane-air premixed flames. The suspension of a quiescent and uniform water mist cloud was confirmed during the microgravity tests. Preliminary results show good agreement with trends obtained by the numerical predictions of a computational model that uses a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation to simulate the two-phase, flame/mist interaction. Effective flame suppression is observed at progressively higher water loadings and smaller water droplet sizes. Other unusual flame behavior, such as flame front breakup and pulsating flames, is still under investigation. The promising results from the microgravity tests will be used to assess the feasibility of using water mists as fire suppressants on Earth and on spacecraft.

  11. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by misting fountains.

    PubMed

    Koschel, Dirk; Stark, Wolfram; Karmann, Fritz; Sennekamp, Jochen; Müller-Wening, Dietrich

    2005-08-01

    Recently, an increasing number of patients were presented to our clinics with febrile and respiratory symptoms associated with exposure to a new type of domestic ultrasonic humidifier. We report on 11 patients who developed recurrent episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after repeated exposure to ultrasonic misting fountains at home. A diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or toxic alveolitis was made on the basis of the history and the clinical, radiological, laboratory and immunological findings. Eight patients were subjected to inhalative challenge tests with their own ultrasonic misting fountains, and all of them exhibited positive reactions. Nine patients were diagnosed with an EAA (humidifier lung) and two patients with a toxic alveolitis (humidifier fever). This study demonstrates the potential for ultrasonic misting fountains to cause illness in the home. In view of the increasing popularity of these devices, humidifier lung and humidifier fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained pulmonary or flu-like illnesses with fever.

  12. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... minutes each at a continuous airflow rate of 32 liters per minute. (b) The room temperature in the...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... minutes each at a continuous airflow rate of 32 liters per minute. (b) The room temperature in the...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... minutes each at a continuous airflow rate of 32 liters per minute. (b) The room temperature in the...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... minutes each at a continuous airflow rate of 32 liters per minute. (b) The room temperature in the...

  16. Development of a Mist Singlet Oxygen Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Shigeki; Endo, Masamori; Nanri, Kenzo; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2002-08-01

    The singlet oxygen generator (SOG) generates singlet oxygen for a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL), using the gas-liquid reaction between basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) and Cl2 gas. The Jet-SOG has been widely used, wherein jet BHP from small orifices reacts with Cl2 gas, and the BHP utilization is less than 1% in a single pass through the reaction zone. To improve BHP utilization, the reaction surface with Cl2 gas should be increased, and the droplet diameter of BHP should be decreased. In this study, two types of mist generators were tested for the SOG, with which 65-μm- and 15-μm-diameter droplets were generated. In the 65 μm mist generator, BHP utilization was 22.5% at the Cl2 flow rate of 8.3 mmol/s, and in the 15 μm mist generator, BHP utilization was 41.5% at the Cl2 flow rate of 9.0 mmol/s, that is, BHP utilization of the new SOG, Mist-SOG, markedly exceeded that of the conventional Jet-SOG.

  17. Experimental and analytical efforts to characterize cutting fluid mist formation and behavior in machining.

    PubMed

    Michalek, Donna J; Hii, Wilson W-S; Sun, Jichao; Gunter, Kenneth L; Sutherland, John W

    2003-11-01

    The use of cutting fluids in machining operations is being carefully scrutinized by industry for several reasons, including its overall cost in the manufacturing process and its impact on worker health. Given the concerns associated with the use of cutting fluids, a number of experimental and analytical research efforts are being conducted to gain an understanding of the role of these fluids in various machining processes. The knowledge gained by this research will aid in the development and implementation of strategies to reduce or eliminate the negative effects of cutting fluids, while maintaining their beneficial role. This article presents the results of designed experiments focused on determining the significant variables that influence air quality during turning operations, as well as characterize the aerosol emissions associated with wet and dry turning. Air quality is characterized by measuring the mass concentration and particle size distribution of the dust and mist created during a set of machining experiments. The relative importance of vaporization/condensation and atomization as mist-generating mechanisms is also explored. The experiments revealed that spindle speed has a dominating effect on both mist mass concentration and aerodynamic particle size. Analytical models are presented that predict the average droplet size of the mist generated by atomization and are used to investigate droplet size trends for various cutting fluids and machining parameters. The results predicted by the models are consistent with the expected trends.

  18. Comparing materials used in mist eliminators

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Baleno, B.; Boles, G.L.; Telow, J.

    2007-11-15

    Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, or wet scrubbers, are notoriously capital - and maintenance-intensive. Mist eliminators are an integral part of most wet FGD systems. These are available in a variety of materials - polypropylene, fiberglass reinforced polymer (FRP), polysulfone and stainless steel. The article discusses the material properties, performance attributes and relative cost differences associated with each of these four materials. It describes the common problems with mist eliminators - fouling and corrosion. These can be minimised by routine cleaning and use of chemical additives to prevent deposition. An analysis was carried out to compare the four materials at APS Cholla power plant. As a result the facility is retrofitting its remaining wet scrubber towers in Unit 2 with mist eliminators constructed from polysulfone as each of the current ones of the existing polypropylene needs replacing. Polysulfone is cheaper to clean and components require replacing less frequently than polypropylene. Switching from stainless steel to polypropylene has proved advantageous on 22 wet scrubbers operated by PPL Montana. 5 figs. 2 tabs.

  19. Massive production of nanoparticles via mist reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ran; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2009-06-01

    A novel conceptual nanoparticle fabrication method is proposed in this paper. It can be easily implemented for the preparation of micro or nanoparticles through a reaction between mists with different specific chemical compounds produced by ultrasonic atomization technology. Ultrasonic atomization is an established technology that easily atomizes liquid to produce very small droplets-in the orders of tens to hundreds of micrometers. The results reveal that metal oxide nanoparticles, such as iron oxide can be massively produced via reactions between metal chlorides and sodium carbonate in an experimental set-up based on physical and chemical principles. The density of the nanoparticle distribution is also investigated and determined to be dependent on the amount of mist reacted and the collection time. Moreover, since the vibrational frequency of ultrasound can be adjusted, we can control the size of micro-droplets of reactants, hence producing particles of different dimensions. Given that the double mist reaction method is easily controllable, environmentally friendly and extremely low in cost, it can potentially become a significant method for making micro/nano particles in the newly emerging field of nanofabrication and integration.

  20. 78 FR 64496 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  1. 76 FR 71559 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  2. Size distribution of mist generated during metal machining.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, J; Leith, D

    2000-08-01

    Mist generated by machining processes is formed by three mechanisms: impaction, centrifugal force, and evaporation/condensation. This study characterized the size distribution of soluble and mineral oil mists that resulted from these formation mechanisms. Salient parameters influencing the particle size distributions also were identified. Variables investigated included metalworking fluid and machining characteristics. The size distribution of the mist generated on a small lathe by each mechanism was measured using an Aerosizer LD. For impaction, only the mineral oil viscosity influenced the mass median diameter of the mist. No parameter affected the geometric standard deviation. High-viscosity mineral oil mist had a mass median diameter of 6.1 microns and a geometric standard deviation of 2.0. Low-viscosity mineral oil mist had a mass median diameter of 21.9 microns and a geometric standard deviation of 2.2. The mass median diameter of the mist generated by centrifugal force depended on the type of metalworking fluid, fluid flow, and rotational speed of the lathe. Mass median diameters for low-viscosity mineral oil mist ranged from 5 to 110 microns. Mass median diameters for soluble oil mist varied between 40 and 80 microns. The average geometric standard deviation was 2.4, and was not affected by any parameter. The mass median diameter and geometric standard deviation of the mist generated by evaporation/condensation varied with the type of metalworking fluid. The mineral oil mist and soluble oil mist mass median diameters were 2.1 microns and 3.2 microns, respectively. No machining or fluid parameter was important because the mist size distribution depended on the rate of condensation, coagulation processes, and the dynamics of the apparatus. Using the size distribution data from all three mechanisms, the estimated inhalable, thoracic, and respirable fractions of the total mass generated for each metalworking fluid were 60 percent, 12 percent, and 8 percent

  3. Year-round records of gas and particulate carboxylic acids (formate and acetate) in the boundary layer at Dumont d'Urville (coastal Antarctica): Production of carboxylic acids from biogenic NMHC emissions from the Antarctic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Jourdain, B.

    2003-04-01

    Multiple year-round concentrations of acetic and formic acids were measured both in gas and aerosol phases at Dumont d'Urville (DDU, a coastal Antarctic site: 66^o40'S, 140^o01'E) by using mist chamber and aerosol filter sampling. Aerosol levels of the 2 carboxylates range from less than one ng m-3 in winter to 5--10 ng m-3 in summer. Comparison with gas phase concentrations shows that almost 99% of the 2 carboxylic acids are present in the gas phase. Concentrations of formic acid in the gas phase are minima in June--July (70 ng m-3) and increase regularly towards summer months when levels reach ˜400 ng m-3. Concentrations of acetic acid in the gas phase exhibit a more well-marked seasonal cycle with values remaining close to 50 ng m-3 from April to October and strongly increase during summer months (mean value of 800 ng m-3). Such a strong seasonal cycle of carboxylic acids in the high southern latitude marine boundary layer displays with observations made at numerous continental sites where a more weak seasonality is generally observed. It is suggested that carboxylic acids present at DDU mainly originate from biogenic emissions from the Antarctic ocean which are expected to closely follow annual cycle of the sea ice extent and solar radiation, affecting in particular photochemical production of alkenes from dissolved organic carbon released from phytoplancton. Summer levels of carboxylic acids are discussed in terms of air-sea fluxes of NMHCs and photochemical production of carboxylic acids from ozone-alkene reactions and HO_2 reaction with peroxyacetal radical in these poor NOx environments.

  4. Water Misting and Injection of Commercial Aircraft Engines to Reduce Airport NOx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This report provides the first high level look at system design, airplane performance, maintenance, and cost implications of using water misting and water injection technology in aircraft engines for takeoff and climb-out NOx emissions reduction. With an engine compressor inlet water misting rate of 2.2 percent water-to-air ratio, a 47 percent NOx reduction was calculated. Combustor water injection could achieve greater reductions of about 85 percent, but with some performance penalties. For the water misting system on days above 59 F, a fuel efficiency benefit of about 3.5 percent would be experienced. Reductions of up to 436 F in turbine inlet temperature were also estimated, which could lead to increased hot section life. A 0.61 db noise reduction will occur. A nominal airplane weight penalty of less than 360 lb (no water) was estimated for a 305 passenger airplane. The airplane system cost is initially estimated at $40.92 per takeoff giving an attractive NOx emissions reduction cost/benefit ratio of about $1,663/ton.

  5. Acid deposition and vehicle emissions: European environmental pressures on Britain

    SciTech Connect

    Brackley, P.

    1987-01-01

    This study, from the Joint Energy Programme and the Policy Studies Institute, examines the increasing political pressure being placed on Britain by members of the European community to take major steps toward improved environmental protection. Taking acid rain and vehicle emissions as typical examples of the conflict, the author examines Sweden, West Germany and France, as well as Britain, and unravels the criticisms, the arguments and the various approaches being taken to deal with environmental concerns. His conclusions point to widespread conflicts between differing national priorities and indicate that Britain may not be the only 'black sheep' in this continuing debate.

  6. Mitigation of TNT and Destex explosion effects using water mist.

    PubMed

    Willauer, Heather D; Ananth, Ramagopal; Farley, John P; Williams, Frederick W

    2009-06-15

    The effects water mist has on the overpressures produced by the detonation of 50 lb equivalent of high explosives (HE) TNT and Destex in a chamber is reported. The overpressures for each charge density were measured with and without mist preemptively sprayed into the space. A droplet analyzer was placed in the chamber prior to the detonation experiments to characterize the water mist used to mitigate the explosion overpressures. The impulse, initial blast wave, and quasi-static overpressure measured in the blast mitigation experiments were reduced by as much as 40%, 36%, 35% for TNT and 43%, 25%, 33% for Destex when water mist was sprayed 60s prior to detonation at a concentration of 70 g/m(3) and droplet Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) 54 microm. These results suggest that current water mist technology is a potentially promising concept for the mitigation of overpressure effects produced from the detonation of high explosives.

  7. Mist collection on parallel fiber arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbé, Romain; Duprat, Camille

    2016-11-01

    Fog is an important source of fresh water in specific arid regions such as the Atacama Desert in Chile. The method used to collect water passively from fog, either for domestic consumption or research purposes, consists in erecting large porous fiber nets on which the mist droplets impact. The two main mechanisms involved with this process are the impact of the drops on the fibers and the drainage of the fluid from the net, while the main limiting factor is the clogging of the mesh by accumulated water. We consider a novel collection system, made of an array of parallel fibers, that we study experimentally with a wind mist tunnel. In addition, we develop theoretical models considering the coupling of wind flow, droplet trajectories and wetting of the fibers. We find that the collection efficiency strongly depends on the size and distribution of the drops formed on the fibers, and thus on the fibers diameter, inclination angle and wetting properties. In particular, we show that the collection efficiency is greater when large drops are formed on the fibers. By adjusting the fibers diameter and the inter-fiber spacing, we look for an optimal structure that maximizes the collection surface and the drainage, while avoiding flow deviations.

  8. Plant and Soil Emissions of Amines and Amino Acids: A Source of Secondary Aerosol Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. L.; Doskey, P. V.; Pypker, T. G.

    2011-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the most abundant alkaline gas in the atmosphere and forms secondary aerosol by neutralizing sulfuric and nitric acids that are released during combustion of fossil fuels. Ammonia is primarily emitted by cropping and livestock operations. However, C2 and C3 amines (pKb 3.3-3.4), which are stronger bases than NH3 (pKb 4.7) have been observed in nuclei mode aerosol that is the precursor to secondary aerosol. Mixtures of amines and amino acids have been identified in diverse environments in aerosol, fog water, cloud water, the soluble fraction of precipitation, and in dew. Glycine (pKb 4.2), serine (pKb 4.8) and alanine (pKb 3.7 and 4.1 for the D and L forms, respectively) are typically the most abundant species. The only reported values of gas-phase glycine, serine and alanine were in marine air and ranged from 6-14 pptv. The origin of atmospheric amines and amino acids has not been fully identified, although sources are likely similar to NH3. Nitrate assimilation in plants forms glycine, serine, and L-alanine, while D-alanine is present in bacterial cell walls. Glycine is converted to serine during C3 plant photorespiration, producing CO2 and NH3. Bacteria metabolize glycine and alanine to methylamine and ethylamine via decarboxylation. Likely sources of amino acids are plants and bacteria, thus concentrations near continental sources are likely greater than those measured in marine air. The overall goal of the research is to examine seasonal variations and relationships between the exchange of CO2, NH3, amines, and amino acids with a corn/soybean rotation in the Midwest Corn Belt. The study presents gaseous profiles of organic amine compounds from various species of vegetation using a mist chamber trapping technique and analysis of the derivatized species by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Amino acid and amine profiles were obtained for red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharinum), white pine (Pinus

  9. Ammonia emission factors for the NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) emission inventory. Final report, January 1985-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Misenheimer, D.C.; Warn, T.E.; Zelmanowitz, S.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides information on certain sources of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere for use in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emission inventories. Major anthropogenic sources of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere are identified, and emission factors for these sources are presented based on a review of the most recent data available. The emission factors developed are used to estimate nationwide emissions for base year 1980 and are compared to ammonia emission factors used in other emission inventories. Major anthropogenic source categories covered are cropland spreading of livestock wastes, beef cattle feedlots, fertilizer manufacture and use, fuel combustion, ammonia synthesis, petroleum refineries, and coke manufacture. Approximately 840,000 tons of ammonia is estimated to have been emitted in the U.S. in 1980; over 64% of which is estimated to have been from livestock wastes.

  10. [Compositions of organic acids in PM10 emission sources in Xiamen urban atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-Yu; Huang, Xing-Xing; Zheng, An; Liu, Bi-Lian; Wu, Shui-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The possible organic acid emission sources in PM10 in Xiamen urban atmosphere such as cooking, biomass burning, vehicle exhaust and soil/dust were obtained using a re-suspension test chamber. A total of 15 organic acids including dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids and aromatic acids were determined using GC/MS after derivatization with BF3/n-butanol. The results showed that the highest total concentration of 15 organic acids (53%) was found in cooking emission and the average concentration of the sum of linoleic acid and oleic acid was 24% +/- 14%. However, oxalic acid was the most abundant species followed by phthalic acid in gasoline vehicle exhaust. The ratios of adipic to azelaic acid in gasoline combustion emissions were significantly higher than those in other emission sources, which can be used to qualitatively differentiate anthropogenic and biological source of dicarboxylic acids in atmospheric samples. The ratios of malonic to succinic acid in source emissions (except gasoline generator emissions) were lower (0.07-0.44) than ambient PM10 samples (0.61-3.93), which can be used to qualitatively differentiate the primary source and the secondary source of dicarboxylic acids in urban PM10.

  11. Spray mist cooling heat transfer in glass tempering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozbir, Nedim; Yao, S. C.

    2016-10-01

    Energy saving is a very important issue in glass plants, especially in a glass tempering process, where very high velocity air jet impingement is applied during the cooling process of glass tempering. In fact, air compressor energy may be reduced by a spray cooling due to its high heat transfer capabilities. Presently, in this paper, both pure air and water mist spray cooling are investigated in the glass tempering process. The test results indicate that thin and low-cost tempered glass can be made by mist cooling without fracture. It is possible to find the optimal water flux and duration of mist application to achieve a desirable temperature distribution in the glass for deep penetration of the cooling front but without inducing cracking during the tempering. The use of mist cooling could give about 29 % air pressure reduction for 2-mm glass plate and 50 % reduction for both 3- and 4-mm glass plates.

  12. MIUS Integration and Subsystem Test (MIST) data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pringle, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    A data system for use in testing integrated subsystems of a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) is presented. The MIUS integration and subsystem test (MIST) data system is reviewed from its conception through its checkout and operation as the controlling portion of the MIST facility. The MIST data system provides a real time monitoring and control function that allows for complete evaluation of the performance of the mechanical and electrical subsystems, as well as controls the operation of the various components of the system. In addition to the aforementioned capabilities, the MIST data system provides computerized control of test operations such that minimum manpower is necessary to set up, operate, and shut down subsystems during test periods.

  13. Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment: MISTE science requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the MISTE (Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment) is to provide a stringent test of scaling theory predictions for critical behavior near a liquid-gas critical point both in the asymptomatic and crossover regions.

  14. Water Mist Experiment Team in the NASA KC-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Members of the Water Mist experiment team float in the NASA KC-135 low-g aircraft during preflight tests of the experiment. At center is J. Thomas McKirnon (principal investigator); at right is Angel Abbud-Madrid (co-PI and project scientist). They are with the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space at the Colorado School of Mines. Water Mist will investigate how best to extinguish flames by using ultrafine droplets of water.

  15. Oil-air mist lubrication for helicopter gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of a once-through oil mist system to the lubrication of helicopter spur gears was investigated and compared to conventional jet spray lubrication. In the mist lubrication mode, cooling air was supplied at 366K (200 F) to the out of mesh location of the gear sets. The mist air was also supplied at 366K (200 F) to the radial position mist nozzle at a constant rate of 0.0632 mol/s (3 SCFM) per nozzle. The lubricant contained in the mist air varied between 32 - 44 cc/hour. In the recirculating jet spray mode, the flow rate was varied between 1893 - 2650 cc/hour. Visual inspection revealed the jet spray mode produced a superior surface finish on the gear teeth but a thermal energy survey showed a 15 - 20% increase in heat generated. The gear tooth condition in the mist lubrication mode system could be improved if the cooling air and lubricant/air flow ratio were increased. The test gearbox and the procedure used are described.

  16. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  17. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ∼30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  18. New Vapor/Mist Phase Lubricant Formulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    To meet the increased thermal stresses of future advanced aircraft engines, new lubricants will have to be developed to replace the currently used ester-based liquid lubricants. If a suitable conventional replacement cannot be found, a different lubrication method will have to be used. The conventional method circulates bulk lubricant (stored in a sump) through a lubricating system containing cooling and filtering elements. Solid lubricants have been studied as a replacement for bulk liquid lubricants, and have been found to provide reasonable lubrication for lightly loaded systems. Solid lubricants, however, have proved inadequate for highly loaded, high-speed applications. Vapor/mist phase lubrication (VMPL), on the other hand, may be a viable alternative. VMPL has been used successfully to lubricate high-temperature bearings or gears. It can be used as an emergency backup system or as the primary source of lubrication. With VMPL, minimal weight is added to the system and minimal debris is formed. It works over a wide temperature range.

  19. Instrumentation, control and data management for the MIST (Modular Integrated Utility System) Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celino, V. A.

    1977-01-01

    An appendix providing the technical data required for computerized control and/or monitoring of selected MIST subsystems is presented. Specific computerized functions to be performed are as follows: (1) Control of the MIST heating load simulator and monitoring of the diesel engine generators' cooling system; (2) Control of the MIST heating load simulator and MIST heating subsystem including the heating load simulator; and (3) Control of the MIST air conditioning load simulator subsystem and the MIST air conditioning subsystem, including cold thermal storage and condenser water flows.

  20. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for...

  3. Solution-based mist CVD technique for CH3NH3Pb(Br1- x Cl x )3 inorganic-organic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishinaka, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    We report the growth of inorganic-organic perovskites using a solution-based mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) technique and the successful growth of the alloying CH3NH3Pb(Br1- x Cl x )3 using mixture solutions of Br and Cl precursors. The formation mechanism of the inorganic-organic perovskite grown by the laminar flow-type mist CVD is suggested to be a vapor phase reaction, although solution precursors are used. The near-band-edge emissions from photoluminescence can be tuned from 500 to 550 nm by considering Br/Cl ratios in the solution without crystal phase segregation by incorporating Cl into crystalline CH3NH3PbBr3 films.

  4. Evaluating performance of high efficiency mist eliminators

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, Charles A.; Parsons, Michael S.; Giffin, Paxton K.

    2013-07-01

    Processing liquid wastes frequently generates off gas streams with high humidity and liquid aerosols. Droplet laden air streams can be produced from tank mixing or sparging and processes such as reforming or evaporative volume reduction. Unfortunately these wet air streams represent a genuine threat to HEPA filters. High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are one option for removal of liquid aerosols with high dissolved or suspended solids content. HEMEs have been used extensively in industrial applications, however they have not seen widespread use in the nuclear industry. Filtering efficiency data along with loading curves are not readily available for these units and data that exist are not easily translated to operational parameters in liquid waste treatment plants. A specialized test stand has been developed to evaluate the performance of HEME elements under use conditions of a US DOE facility. HEME elements were tested at three volumetric flow rates using aerosols produced from an iron-rich waste surrogate. The challenge aerosol included submicron particles produced from Laskin nozzles and super micron particles produced from a hollow cone spray nozzle. Test conditions included ambient temperature and relative humidities greater than 95%. Data collected during testing HEME elements from three different manufacturers included volumetric flow rate, differential temperature across the filter housing, downstream relative humidity, and differential pressure (dP) across the filter element. Filter challenge was discontinued at three intermediate dPs and the filter to allow determining filter efficiency using dioctyl phthalate and then with dry surrogate aerosols. Filtering efficiencies of the clean HEME, the clean HEME loaded with water, and the HEME at maximum dP were also collected using the two test aerosols. Results of the testing included differential pressure vs. time loading curves for the nine elements tested along with the mass of moisture and solid

  5. Acid rain and emissions trading. Implementing a market approach to pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Raufer, R.K.; Feldman, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    A key policy proposal in the current debate over the control of acid rain and other pollutants is permitting companies to buy, sell, or lease emissions rights or ''credits.'' This book is a study of the theoretical and practical difficulties involved in the creation of a national emissions trading program, a survey of the positions of the utilities and public regulatory commissions toward such a program, and estimates of the potential environmental and economic impact of emissions trading. The authors demonstrate the advantages of controlling acid rain through a market approach rather than through a regulatory approach.

  6. Cool Mist Irrigation Improves Heat Dissipation during Surgical Bone Drilling.

    PubMed

    Siljander, Breana R; Wang, Anthony C; Zhang, Lihui; Shih, Albert J; Sullivan, Stephen E; Tai, Bruce L

    2014-08-01

    Objective High-speed drilling generates heat in small cavities and may pose a risk for neurovascular tissues. We hypothesize that a continuous pressurized cold mist could be an alternative approach for better cooling during drilling of bone to access cranial lesions. This study aims to examine this idea experimentally. Design Ex-vivo drilling tests with controlled speed, feed, and depth were performed on cortical bone samples. Thermocouples were embedded underneath the drilling path to compare the temperature rises under mist cooling (at 3°C, < 300 mL/h) and flood irrigation (at 22°C, > 800 mL/h). Results A significant difference exists between these two systems (p value < 0.05). The measured temperature was ∼ 4°C lower for mist cooling than for flood irrigation, even with less than a third of the flow rate. Conclusion Experimental data indicate the capability of mist cooling to reduce heat generation while simultaneously enabling flow reduction and targeted cooling. An improved field of view in an extremely narrow access corridor may be achieved with this technology.

  7. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF CALCIUM SORBENTS FOR ACID GAS EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calcium sorbents for acid gas emission control were evaluated for effectiveness in removing SO2/HCl and SO2/NO from simulated incinerator and boiler flue gases. All tests were conducted in a bench-scale reactor (fixed-bed) simulating fabric filter conditions in an acid gas remova...

  8. Suppression of rice methane emission by sulfate deposition in simulated acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy B.; Howell, Graham; Jenkins, Meaghan E.

    2008-09-01

    Sulfate in acid rain is known to suppress methane (CH4) emissions from natural freshwater wetlands. Here we examine the possibility that CH4 emissions from rice agriculture may be similarly affected by acid rain, a major and increasing pollution problem in Asia. Our findings suggest that acid rain rates of SO42- deposition may help to reduce CH4 emissions from rice agriculture. Emissions from rice plants treated with simulated acid rain at levels of SO42- consistent with the range of deposition in Asia were reduced by 24% during the grain filling and ripening stage of the rice season which accounts for 50% of the overall CH4 that is normally emitted in a rice season. A single application of SO42- at a comparable level reduced CH4 emission by 43%. We hypothesize that the reduction in CH4 emission may be due to a combination of effects. The first mechanism is that the low rates of SO42- may be sufficient to boost yields of rice and, in so doing, may cause a reduction in root exudates to the rhizosphere, a key substrate source for methanogenesis. Decreasing a major substrate source for methanogens is also likely to intensify competition with sulfate-reducing microorganisms for whom prior SO42- limitation had been lifted by the simulated acid rain S deposition.

  9. A review of the development of Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler.

    PubMed

    Dalby, R; Spallek, M; Voshaar, T

    2004-09-28

    Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) is a new generation inhaler from Boehringer Ingelheim developed for use with respiratory drugs. The device functions by forcing a metered dose of drug solution through a unique and precisely engineered nozzle (the uniblock), producing two fine jets of liquid that converge at a pre-set angle. The collision of these two jets generates the soft mist. The soft mist contains a high fine particle fraction of approximately 65 to 80%. This is higher than aerosol clouds from conventional portable inhaler devices, such as pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs). In addition, the relatively long generation time of the aerosol cloud (approximately 1.5s) facilitates co-ordination of inhalation and actuation--a major problem with pMDIs. These features, together with the slow velocity of the soft mist, result in larger amounts of the drug reaching the lungs and less being deposited in the oropharynx compared with either pMDIs or DPIs. Generation of the soft mist from Respimat SMI is purely mechanical, so propellants are not necessary. The innovative design of Respimat SMI, using water-based drug formulations, ensures patients receive consistent and reliable doses of the drug with each actuation. The device was initially tested in scintigraphic lung deposition studies and produced encouraging results when compared with the chlorofluorocarbon-based pMDI (CFC-MDI). Subsequent clinical studies have confirmed that Respimat SMI is effective and safe in delivering bronchodilators to patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  10. Acidic and total primary sulfates: development of emission factors for major stationary combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goklany, I.M.; Hoffnagle, G.F.; Brackbill, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    ''Best estimates'' of emission factors for major sources of acidic and total primary sulfates are developed for use in the compilation of emission inventories for the eastern U.S. These may, in turn, be used for modeling of acidic or sulfate deposition. The factors are based upon a critical evaluation of the generic measurement methods used to quantify total and acidic primary sulfate emissions, and an exhaustive review and critique of individual papers and studies available in the open literature which present measurement data on primary sulfate emissions. It develops a qualitative rating scheme which specifies the level of confidence that should be attached to the emission factor determinations. The paper concludes that much of the existing data on primary sulfates from stationary combustion sources are, probably, significantly biased upward and, therefore, inappropriate for the derivation of emission factors. Therefore, existing estimates of primary sulfate emissions for these source categories are, probably, substanitally inflated. It also concludes that, for most source categories, very little confidence can be attached to the best estimates because of the paucity of data obtained from measurement techniques which are likely to be free of systematic bias. 68 references.

  11. Global formic acid measurements from space: The importance of biomass burning emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaliyakunnel, S.; Millet, D. B.; Wells, K. C.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Shephard, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    Formic acid is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere, and a dominant source of acidity in the global troposphere. In this work, we present the first global retrievals of formic acid from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite instrument. We apply the GEOS-Chem Chemical Transport Model (CTM) and an ensemble of airborne and ground observations to evaluate the TES data, and find that the formic acid distributions derived from TES are consistent with in situ measurements. The space-based formic acid data reveal a severe model underestimate that manifests globally; however, the simulated and observed concentrations are spatially well-correlated. The discrepancy between GEOS-Chem and TES is most prominent over tropical biomass burning regions, indicating a major missing source of organic acids from fires. We use the TES data to derive new top-down constraints on the pyrogenic source of formic acid to the atmosphere.

  12. Effects of dicyandiamide and dolomite application on N2O emission from an acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Wu, Yupeng; Peng, Qi-an; Lin, Shan; Mo, Yongliang; Wu, Lei; Hu, Ronggui; Zhou, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Soil acidification is a major problem for sustainable agriculture since it limits productivity of several crops. Liming is usually adopted to ameliorate soil acidity that can trigger soil processes such as nitrification, denitrification, and loss of nitrogen (N) as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The loss of N following liming of acidic soils can be controlled by nitrification inhibitors (such as dicyandiamide). However, effects of nitrification inhibitors following liming of acidic soils are not well understood so far. Here, we conducted a laboratory study using an acidic soil to examine the effects of dolomite and dicyandiamide (DCD) application on N2O emissions. Three levels of DCD (0, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1); DCD0, DCD10, and DCD20, respectively) were applied to the acidic soil under two levels of dolomite (0 and 1 g kg(-1)) which were further treated with two levels of N fertilizer (0 and 200 mg N kg(-1)). Results showed that N2O emissions were highest at low soil pH levels in fertilizer-treated soil without application of DCD and dolomite. Application of DCD and dolomite significantly (P ≤ 0.001) reduced N2O emissions through decreasing rates of NH4 (+)-N oxidation and increasing soil pH, respectively. Total N2O emissions were reduced by 44 and 13% in DCD20 and dolomite alone treatments, respectively, while DCD20 + dolomite reduced N2O emissions by 54% when compared with DCD0 treatment. The present study suggests that application of DCD and dolomite to acidic soils can mitigate N2O emissions.

  13. Emissions of Volatile Inorganic Halogens, Carboxylic Acids, NH3, and SO2 From Experimental Burns of Southern African Biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keene, W. C.; Lobert, J. M.; Lobert, J. M.; Maben, J. R.; Scharffe, D. H.; Crutzen, P. J.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2001-12-01

    As part of SAFARI 2000, biofuels (savanna grasses, shrubs, woody plants, litter, agricultural waste, and charcoal) were sampled during late summer and early autumn in the savannah of Kruger National Park, the Kalahari of Etosha National Park, and the Miombo woodlands in Zambia and Malawi. Sixty subsamples were experimentally burned under semi-controlled conditions at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany. Emissions were sampled with tandem mist chambers to quantify HCl, CH3COOH, HCOOH, NH3, and SO2 and with a high-volume filter pack to quantify volatile inorganic Cl, Br, and I. The elemental compositions of the fuel and ash from each burn were also analyzed. Molar emission ratios of these species relative to CO, CO2, and the elemental composition of the fuel will be calculated and used to estimate regional emissions from biomass burning over southern Africa. The relative contributions of each species to elemental mass balances during burns will also be assessed. >http://jurgenlobert.org/projects/mpi_safari/ and

  14. Factors affecting microcuttings of Stevia using a mist-chamber propagation box.

    PubMed

    Osman, Mohamad; Samsudin, Nur Syamimi; Faruq, Golam; Nezhadahmadi, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a member of Compositae family. Stevia plant has zero calorie content and its leaves are estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sugar. This plant is believed to be the most ideal substitute for sugar and important to assist in medicinal value especially for diabetic patients. In this study, microcutting techniques using a mist-chamber propagation box were used as it was beneficial for propagation of Stevia and gave genetic uniformity to the plant. The effects of different treatments on root stimulation of Stevia in microcuttings technique were evaluated. Treatments studied were different sizes of shoot cuttings, plant growth regulators, lights, and shades. Data logger was used to record the mean value of humidity (>90% RH), light intensity (673-2045 lx), and temperature (28.6-30.1°C) inside the mist-chamber propagation box. From analysis of variance, there were significant differences between varieties and treatments in parameters studied (P < 0.05). For the size of shoot cuttings treatment, 6 nodes cuttings were observed to increase root number. As compared to control, shoot cuttings treated with indole butyric acid (IBA) had better performance regarding root length. Yellow light and 50% shade treatments showed higher root and leaf number and these conditions can be considered as crucial for potential propagation of Stevia.

  15. Factors Affecting Microcuttings of Stevia Using a Mist-Chamber Propagation Box

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Mohamad; Samsudin, Nur Syamimi; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a member of Compositae family. Stevia plant has zero calorie content and its leaves are estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sugar. This plant is believed to be the most ideal substitute for sugar and important to assist in medicinal value especially for diabetic patients. In this study, microcutting techniques using a mist-chamber propagation box were used as it was beneficial for propagation of Stevia and gave genetic uniformity to the plant. The effects of different treatments on root stimulation of Stevia in microcuttings technique were evaluated. Treatments studied were different sizes of shoot cuttings, plant growth regulators, lights, and shades. Data logger was used to record the mean value of humidity (>90% RH), light intensity (673–2045 lx), and temperature (28.6–30.1°C) inside the mist-chamber propagation box. From analysis of variance, there were significant differences between varieties and treatments in parameters studied (P < 0.05). For the size of shoot cuttings treatment, 6 nodes cuttings were observed to increase root number. As compared to control, shoot cuttings treated with indole butyric acid (IBA) had better performance regarding root length. Yellow light and 50% shade treatments showed higher root and leaf number and these conditions can be considered as crucial for potential propagation of Stevia. PMID:24470797

  16. Energy technology and emissions control for acid rain abatement in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    After more than ten years of research, acid rain is a sufficiently serious problem in North America to warrant control action. The acid rain problem has become a threat to the Asian continent as well. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are already high and announces plans for increases in coal use by countries in the region imply a major increase in emissions in the future. This will inevitably lead to greater incidence of acid rain and probably significant environmental damage in some locations. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the issues relating to acid-rain-control technology in Asia and to suggest ways to include technology options in integrated simulation models of acid rain in Asia. 14 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs. (FL)

  17. Acid deposition in Asia: Emissions, deposition, and ecosystem effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lei; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zifa; Pan, Yuepeng; Larssen, Thorjørn; Tang, Jie; Mulder, Jan

    2016-12-01

    We review and synthesize the current state of knowledge regarding acid deposition and its environmental effects across Asia. The extent and magnitude of acid deposition in Asia became apparent only about one decade after this issue was well described in Europe and North America. In addition to the temperate zone, much of eastern and southern Asia is situated in the tropics and subtropics, climate zones hitherto little studied with respect to the effects of high loads of acid deposition. Surface waters across Asia are generally not sensitive to the effects of acid deposition, whereas soils in some regions are sensitive to acidification due to low mineral weathering. However, soil acidification was largely neutralized by such processes as base cation deposition, nitrate (NO3-) denitrification, and sulfate (SO42-) adsorption. Accompanying the decrease in S deposition in recent years, N deposition is of increasing concern in Asia. The acidifying effect of N deposition may be more important than S deposition in well drained tropical/subtropical soils due to high SO42- adsorption. The risk of regional soil acidification is a major threat in Eastern Asia, indicated by critical load exceedance in large areas.

  18. Acidic and total primary sulfates: development of emission factors for major stationary combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goklamy, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    This paper develops 'best estimates' of emission factors for major sources of acidic and total primary sulphates for use in the compilation of emission inventories for the eastern US, which may, in turn, be used for modelling acidic or sulphate deposition. The authors conclude that much of the existing data on primary sulphates from stationary combustion sources are probably significantly biased upward and, therefore, inappropriate for the derivation of emission factors. Existing estimates of primary sulphate emissions for these source categories are probably substantially inflated. It also concludes that for most source categories, very little confidence can be attached to the best estimates because of the paucity of data obtained from measurement techniques which are likely to be free of systematic bias.

  19. Sulphur Kβ emission spectra reveal protonation states of aqueous sulfuric acid

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, Johannes; Sahle, Christoph J.; Ruotsalainen, Kari O.; Müller, Harald; Kavčič, Matjaž; Žitnik, Matjaž; Bučar, Klemen; Petric, Marko; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report an X-ray emission study of bulk aqueous sulfuric acid. Throughout the range of molarities from 1 M to 18 M the sulfur Kβ emission spectra from H2SO4 (aq) depend on the molar fractions and related deprotonation of H2SO4. We compare the experimental results with results from emission spectrum calculations based on atomic structures of single molecules and structures from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the S Kβ emission spectrum is a sensitive probe of the protonation state of the acid molecules. Using non-negative matrix factorization we are able to extract the fractions of different protonation states in the spectra, and the results are in good agreement with the simulation for the higher part of the concentration range. PMID:26888159

  20. Fog, Clouds and the Maintenance of Ecosystems: Mist Opportunities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathers, K. C.

    2006-12-01

    , by immersion in acidic clouds. In fog-enshrouded ecosystems such as these, it is of enormous ecological relevance to quantify how occult precipitation contributes to their maintenance or decline. Here I offer a brief review of the state-of-knowledge and summarize some of our recent results on occult precipitation and ecosystem function demonstrating that fog water inputs are spatially heterogeneous, controlled by canopy architecture and exposure, and, in many ecosystems, an order of magnitude lower than rain water inputs. Finally, I point to some of the mist opportunities-- the research needs in regard to where and how occult precipitation may be important in ecosystem processes.

  1. Suppression of methane/air explosion by ultrafine water mist containing sodium chloride additive.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xingyan; Ren, Jingjie; Zhou, Yihui; Wang, Qiuju; Gao, Xuliang; Bi, Mingshu

    2015-03-21

    The suppression effect of ultrafine mists on methane/air explosions with methane concentrations of 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% were experimentally studied in a closed visual vessel. Ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist as well as pure water mist was adopted and the droplet sizes of mists were measured by phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A high speed camera was used to record the flame evolution processes. In contrast to pure water mist, the flame propagation speed, the maximum explosion overpressure (ΔP(max)), and the maximum pressure rising rate ((dP/dt)max) decreased significantly, with the "tulip" flame disappearing and the flame getting brighter. The results show that the suppressing effect on methane explosion by ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist is influenced by the mist amount and methane concentration. With the increase of the mist amount, the pressure, and the flame speed both descended significantly. And when the mist amount reached 74.08 g/m(3) and 37.04 g/m(3), the flames of 6.5% and 13.5% methane explosions can be absolutely suppressed, respectively. All of results indicate that addition of NaCl can improve the suppression effect of ultrafine pure water mist on the methane explosions, and the suppression effect is considered due to the combination effect of physical and chemical inhibitions.

  2. Laboratory measurements of oil mist concentrations using filters and an electrostatic precipitator.

    PubMed

    Leith, D; Leith, F A; Boundy, M G

    1996-12-01

    This study investigated the potential for mineral oil mist to evaporate, during sampling, from filters and electrostatic precipitator substrates used to assess personal exposure. If sample evaporation occurs, reported mist concentrations will underestimate true exposure. Mineral oil used as a machining fluid is not normally considered volatile; however, when dispersed as mist its aggregate surface area is so high that significant evaporation can occur. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Method 5026 specifies that oil mist concentrations should be determined by collecting mist on filters of mixed cellulose esters (MCE) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Collected mist droplets remain dispersed on the filter surface and in contact with passing air while sampling continues, conditions that can lead to sample evaporation. Less evaporation should occur for samples taken with an electrostatic precipitator, where mist droplets are separated from the airflow by electrostatic force and coalesce on the precipitator wall to form a film with relatively low surface area. Collection of mineral oil mist was investigated using a precipitator designed for personal sampling and using either an MCE or a PVC filter. The amounts of oil mist collected using the precipitator were significantly higher than the amounts collected using the filters, p < 0.001. Further tests in which clean air passed through mist-loaded precipitators and filters showed that the precipitator retained substantially more collected mist than both filters, p < 0.001, and further suggested that the MCE filter retained more mist than the PVC filter, p = 0.059. Differences in sample collection and retention between the precipitator and the filters were particularly pronounced at mist loadings below 1 mg.

  3. Microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Li, Juan; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Xue, Gang

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid were investigated. The indexes including crystal structure, unit cell volume, microstructure and infrared spectra were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the crystal structure was not changed; however, the unit cell volume decreased, the angularities of tourmaline particles became smooth, and there appeared nanohollows on their surfaces. The infrared emission properties were enhanced at proper concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions.

  4. Incorporate the latest FGD trends into mist-eliminator design

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, W.; Egan, R.

    1984-03-01

    Mist eliminators for flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) units remove liquid droplets entrained in the flue gas leaving the SO/sub 2/-absorber vessels. Today this function is more important than ever because of advancements in FGD-system design and because of continuing reliability concerns. The overwhelming trend toward using spray-tower-type absorber vessels raises mist-eliminator liquid loadings-in some cases, by about 1-2 gal/min per ft/sup 2/-over the loadings for tray and packed towers. Inlet liquid loadings are the highest in limestone scrubbing systems treating flue gas from high-sulfur-coal combustion because the liquid-to-gas ratios must be able to achieve required SO/sub 2/-removal rates.

  5. Demystifying FluMist, a new intranasal, live influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2003-09-01

    FluMist--a cold-adapted, live-attenuated, trivalent, intranasal influenza virus vaccine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on June 17, 2003--has been shown to be safe and effective, but its role in the general prevention of influenza is yet to be defined. Intranasal administration is expected to be more acceptable than parenteral, particularly in children, but the potential for the shedding of live virus may pose a risk to anyone with a compromised immune system.

  6. Review of respiratory morbidity from occupational exposure to oil mists.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, John A

    2003-11-01

    The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has recommended that the threshold limit value (TLV) for mineral oil mists be dramatically lowered, based on epidemiological evidence of respiratory health effects among machinists exposed to various metalworking fluid mists. A review of the literature regarding respiratory health effects from either metalworking or non-metalworking fluids suggest that machinists may have experienced slightly higher prevalence of common respiratory symptoms and mild and reversible cross-shift changes in some measures of pulmonary function. However, the inconsistency and potential for both random and systematic error in this body of literature argue against drawing definitive conclusions. There is also no substantive evidence that any of these effects led to permanent disease or impairment. The most likely causal agents for respiratory effects in these workers are microbial contaminants in water-based metalworking fluids, not straight mineral oils. This is consistent with the epidemic outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, bronchitis, and asthma reported at some work sites using water-based metalworking fluids. This highlights the importance of frequent cleaning and fluid changes for metalworking fluid reservoirs, as part of a systematic approach to managing metalworking fluid aerosol exposures. A dramatic drop in the TLV for mineral oil mists would not resolve this problem.

  7. Stibine/arsine emissions from lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R.; Cook, G. M.; Yao, N. P.

    1980-01-01

    Antimonial lead alloys, which also contain some arsenic, have traditionally been used for the fabrication of lead-acid battery electrodes. The possible generation of arsine and stibine during battery operation must be considered in the development of batteries for electric vehicles, utility load-leveling, and solar electricity storage. Research on generation of arsine and stibine is summarized, and exposure limits are given. Published analytical procedures for determination of arsine and stibine and their sensitivities are discussed. The design and testing of a stibine/arsine monitoring field kit are described. A hydrogen-oxygen recombination device can recombine stoichiometric H/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ with about 97% efficiency while scavenging the charge gas of much of the SbH/sub 3/ and AsH/sub 3/; its principles are illustrated. Experiments to estimate exposure of drivers to AsH/sub 3/ and SbH/sub 3/ from lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles are under way. 4 figures, 2 tables. (RWR)

  8. Changing trends in sulfur emissions in Asia: implications for acid deposition, air pollution, and climate.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Gregory R; Streets, David G; Calori, Giuseppe; Amann, Markus; Jacobson, Mark Z; Hansen, James; Ueda, Hiromasa

    2002-11-15

    In the early 1990s, it was projected that annual SO2 emissions in Asia might grow to 80-110 Tg yr(-1) by 2020. Based on new high-resolution estimates from 1975 to 2000, we calculate that SO2 emissions in Asia might grow only to 40-45 Tg yr(-1) by 2020. The main reason for this lower estimate is a decline of SO2 emissions from 1995 to 2000 in China, which emits about two-thirds of Asian SO2. The decline was due to a reduction in industrial coal use, a slowdown of the Chinese economy, and the closure of small and inefficient plants, among other reasons. One effect of the reduction in SO2 emissions in China has been a reduction in acid deposition not only in China but also in Japan. Reductions should also improve visibility and reduce health problems. SO2 emission reductions may increase global warming, but this warming effect could be partially offset by reductions in the emissions of black carbon. How SO2 emissions in the region change in the coming decades will depend on many competing factors (economic growth, pollution control laws, etc.). However a continuation of current trends would result in sulfur emissions lower than any IPCC forecasts.

  9. TOTAL PARTICLE, SULFATE, AND ACIDIC AEROSOL EMISSIONS FROM KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chamber studies were conducted on four unvented kerosene space heaters to assess emissions of total particle, sulfate, and acidic aerosol. The heaters tested represented four burner designs currently in use by the public. Kerosene space heaters are a potential source of fine part...

  10. Occupational exposure to metalworking fluid mist and sump fluid contaminants.

    PubMed

    Simpson, A T; Stear, M; Groves, J A; Piney, M; Bradley, S D; Stagg, S; Crook, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to assess fluid management and control, including bacterial and fines contamination in the machine sumps. In general, occupational exposure to mineral oil MWF mist was controlled to <3 mg/m(3) (8 h time-weighted average) and to <1 mg/m(3) for water-mix MWF mist (in terms of the concentrate). These exposure values do not necessarily represent best practice, but are believed to be achievable and representative of industry as a whole. Gravimetric analysis of the total inhalable particulate was found to be a good predictor of mineral oil MWF mist but not for water-mix MWF mist. Grinding and drilling operations produced higher exposures than turning and milling for water-mix fluids. There were insufficient data to compare machining operations for mineral oil MWFs. On the whole, fluid management was found to be poor, with most sites failing to meet industry good practice or Health & Safety Executive (HSE) standards. Some of the operating procedures utilized were deficient or unsatisfactory. Poor standards of fluid management were found at all sizes of company. High levels of bacteria, endotoxin and fines were found in sumps, and control of other factors, such as water-mix fluid concentration, was often poor. Mineral oils had higher levels of fines than water-mix fluids (medians of 395 and 18 mg/l, respectively), and grinding produced high levels of fines in both types of MWF. Many water-mix sumps contained bacterial levels of >1 x 10(6) CFU/ml, and endotoxin levels of >100 000 EU/ml were not uncommon. The median values were 109 000 CFU/ml and 8039 EU/ml, respectively. Mists could

  11. Amplified spontaneous emission from the exciplex state of a conjugated polymer "PFO" in oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idriss, Hajo; Taha, Kamal K.; Aldaghri, O.; Alhathlool, R.; AlSalhi, M. S.; Ibnaouf, K. H.

    2016-09-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) characteristics of a conjugated polymer poly (9, 9-dioctylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl) (PFO) in oleic acid have been studied under different concentrations and temperatures. Here, the ASE spectra of PFO in oleic acid have been obtained using a transverse cavity configuration where the conjugated PFO was pumped by laser pulses from the third harmonic of Nd: YAG laser (355 nm). The PFO in oleic acid produces ASE from an exciplex state - a new molecular species. The obtained results were compared with the PFO in benzene. Such ASE spectra from the exciplex state have not been observed for the PFO in benzene.

  12. 42 CFR 84.1140 - Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1140 - Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1140 - Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1140 - Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High...

  16. Laboratory investigation of three distinct emissions monitors for hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Dene, Charles E; Pisano, John T; Durbin, Thomas D; Bumiller, Kurt; Crabbe, Keith; Muzio, Lawrence J

    2016-12-01

    The measurement of hydrochloric acid (HCl) on a continuous basis in coal-fired plants is expected to become more important if HCl standards become implemented as part of the Federal Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) standards that are under consideration. For this study, the operational performance of three methods/instruments, including tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, were evaluated over a range of real-world operating environments. Evaluations were done over an HCl concentration range of 0-25 ppmv and temperatures of 25, 100, and 185 °C. The average differences with respect to temperature were 3.0% for the TDL for values over 2.0 ppmv and 6.9% of all concentrations, 3.3% for the CRDS, and 4.5% for the FTIR. Interference tests for H2O, SO2, and CO, CO2, and NO for a range of concentrations typical of flue gases from coal-fired power plants did not show any strong interferences. The possible exception was an interference from H2O with the FTIR. The instrument average precision over the entire range was 4.4% for the TDL with better precision seen for concentrations levels of 2.0 ppmv and above, 2.5% for the CRDS, and 3.5% for the FTIR. The minimum detection limits were all on the order of 0.25 ppmv, or less, utilizing the TDL values with a 5-m path. Zero drift was found to be 1.48% for the TDL, 0.88% for the CRDS, and 1.28% for the FTIR.

  17. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... limits for nitrogen oxides at least as protective as the emission limits listed in table 1 of...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  19. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... limits for nitrogen oxides at least as protective as the emission limits listed in table 1 of...

  20. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... limits for nitrogen oxides at least as protective as the emission limits listed in table 1 of...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  2. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  3. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... limits for nitrogen oxides at least as protective as the emission limits listed in table 1 of...

  4. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... limits for nitrogen oxides at least as protective as the emission limits listed in table 1 of...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... nitrogen oxides in excess of the emission limits listed in table 2 of this subpart for affected...

  7. Real-time emission factor measurements of isocyanic acid from light duty gasoline vehicles.

    PubMed

    Brady, James M; Crisp, Timia A; Collier, Sonya; Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Forestieri, Sara D; Perraud, Véronique; Zhang, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J; Cappa, Christopher D; Bertram, Timothy H

    2014-10-07

    Exposure to gas-phase isocyanic acid (HNCO) has been previously shown to be associated with the development of atherosclerosis, cataracts and rheumatoid arthritis. As such, accurate emission inventories for HNCO are critical for modeling the spatial and temporal distribution of HNCO on a regional and global scale. To date, HNCO emission rates from light duty gasoline vehicles, operated under driving conditions, have not been determined. Here, we present the first measurements of real-time emission factors of isocyanic acid from a fleet of eight light duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDGVs) tested on a chassis dynamometer using the Unified Driving Cycle (UC) at the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Haagen-Smit test facility, all of which were equipped with three-way catalytic converters. HNCO emissions were observed from all vehicles, in contrast to the idealized laboratory measurements. We report the tested fleet averaged HNCO emission factors, which depend strongly on the phase of the drive cycle; ranging from 0.46 ± 0.13 mg kg fuel(-1) during engine start to 1.70 ± 1.77 mg kg fuel(-1) during hard acceleration after the engine and catalytic converter were warm. The tested eight-car fleet average fuel based HNCO emission factor was 0.91 ± 0.58 mg kg fuel(-1), within the range previously estimated for light duty diesel-powered vehicles (0.21-3.96 mg kg fuel(-1)). Our results suggest that HNCO emissions from LDGVs represent a significant emission source in urban areas that should be accounted for in global and regional models.

  8. Dolomite application to acidic soils: a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Peng, Qi-An; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Yupeng; Lin, Shan; Zhao, Jinsong

    2015-12-01

    Soil acidification is one of the main problems to crop productivity as well as a potent source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). Liming practice is usually performed for the amelioration of acidic soils, but the effects of dolomite application on N2O emissions from acidic soils are still not well understood. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to examine N2O emissions from an acidic soil following application of dolomite. Dolomite was applied to acidic soil in a factorial design under different levels of moisture and nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Treatments were as follows: dolomite was applied as 0, 1, and 2 g kg(-1) soil (named as CK, L, and H, respectively) under two levels of moisture [i.e., 55 and 90 % water-filled pore space (WFPS)]. All treatments of dolomite and moisture were further amended with 0 and 200 mg N kg(-1) soil as (NH4)2SO4. Soil properties such as soil pH, mineral N (NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil N2O emissions were analyzed throughout the study period. Application of N fertilizer rapidly increased soil N2O emissions and peaked at 0.59 μg N2O-N kg(-1) h(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite application. The highest cumulative N2O flux was 246.32 μg N2O-N kg(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite addition in fertilized soil. Addition of dolomite significantly (p ≤ 0.01) mitigated N2O emissions as soil pH increased, and H treatment was more effective for mitigating N2O emissions as compared to L treatment. The H treatment decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by up to 73 and 67 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in fertilized soil, and 60 and 68 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in unfertilized soil when compared to those without dolomite addition. Results demonstrated that application of dolomite to acidic soils is a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions.

  9. Fine-Water-Mist Multiple-Orientation-Discharge Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butz, James R.; Turchi, Craig S.; Kimball, Amanda; McKinnon, Thomas; Riedel, Edward

    2010-01-01

    A fine-water-mist fire-suppression device has been designed so that it can be discharged uniformly in any orientation via a high-pressure gas propellant. Standard fire extinguishers used while slightly tilted or on their side will not discharge all of their contents. Thanks to the new design, this extinguisher can be used in multiple environments such as aboard low-gravity spacecraft, airplanes, and aboard vehicles that may become overturned prior to or during a fire emergency. Research in recent years has shown that fine water mist can be an effective alternative to Halons now banned from manufacture. Currently, NASA uses carbon dioxide for fire suppression on the International Space Station (ISS) and Halon chemical extinguishers on the space shuttle. While each of these agents is effective, they have drawbacks. The toxicity of carbon dioxide requires that the crew don breathing apparatus when the extinguishers are deployed on the ISS, and Halon use in future spacecraft has been eliminated because of international protocols on substances that destroy atmospheric ozone. A major advantage to the new system on occupied spacecraft is that the discharged system is locally rechargeable. Since the only fluids used are water and nitrogen, the system can be recharged from stores of both carried aboard the ISS or spacecraft. The only support requirement would be a pump to fill the water and a compressor to pressurize the nitrogen propellant gas. This system uses a gaseous agent to pressurize the storage container as well as to assist in the generation of the fine water mist. The portable fire extinguisher hardware works like a standard fire extinguisher with a single storage container for the agents (water and nitrogen), a control valve assembly for manual actuation, and a discharge nozzle. The design implemented in the proof-of-concept experiment successfully extinguished both open fires and fires in baffled enclosures.

  10. Acid rain program emissions scorecard 1997. SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], heat input, and CO[sub 2] emission trends in the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    Established under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Acid Rain Program requires the electric utility industry to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]), the pollutants that cause acid rain. To ensure that the desired emission reductions are achieved, the program implements an innovative market-based regulatory approach with utilities having flexible compliance options. After each calendar year, EPA determines the compliance of each facility relating to its SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions requirements and publishes a report documenting the results.

  11. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  12. Evolution of the Mobile Information SysTem (MIST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Thompson, Shelby; Archer, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    The Mobile Information SysTem (MIST) had its origins in the need to determine whether commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies could improve intervehicular activities (IVA) on International Space Station (ISS) crew maintenance productivity. It began with an exploration of head mounted displays (HMDs), but quickly evolved to include voice recognition, mobile personal computing, and data collection. The unique characteristic of the MIST lies within its mobility, in which a vest is worn that contains a mini-computer and supporting equipment, and a headband with attachments for a HMD, lipstick camera, and microphone. Data is then captured directly by the computer running Morae(TM) or similar software for analysis. To date, the MIST system has been tested in numerous environments such as two parabolic flights on NASA's C-9 microgravity aircraft and several mockup facilities ranging from ISS to the Altair Lunar Sortie Lander. Functional capabilities have included its lightweight and compact design, commonality across systems and environments, and usefulness in remote collaboration. Human Factors evaluations of the system have proven the MIST's ability to be worn for long durations of time (approximately four continuous hours) with no adverse physical deficits, moderate operator compensation, and low workload being reported as measured by Corlett Bishop Discomfort Scale, Cooper-Harper Ratings, and the NASA Total Workload Index (TLX), respectively. Additionally, through development of the system, it has spawned several new applications useful in research. For example, by only employing the lipstick camera, microphone, and a compact digital video recorder (DVR), we created a portable, lightweight data collection device. Video is recorded from the participants point of view (POV) through the use of the camera mounted on the side of the head. Both the video and audio is recorded directly into the DVR located on a belt around the waist. This data is then transferred to

  13. Water Mist Fire Tests For Class 2 & 3 Engine Rooms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    system, the fire-test-procedure working group at FP39 focused on water mist systems. Only limited data(3) were available to the working group on water...sources described in Table 2. The working group initially felt that, given the limited testing experience, a protocol was appropriate for spaces 10 m x 10...greater than 5 m, no data were available to the working group at FP39. (Note that Class II engine rooms are between 500 m3 and 3000 M3 in volume, while

  14. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece,...

  19. Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior Using a Water Mist: Initial Response Suppression and Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Michael F.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of a fine mist of water applied to the face contingent upon self-injurious behavior (SIB) exhibited by profoundly retarded persons. Results indicated that the water mist procedure may be an effective alternative to traditional punishment techniques. (Author)

  20. Real-time emission factor measurements of isocyanic acid from light duty gasoline vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, J.; Crisp, T. A.; Collier, S.; Kuwayama, T.; Zhang, Q.; Kleeman, M.; Bertram, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the potential for vehicle based anthropogenic sources of the carcinogen isocyanic acid (HNCO) in urban environments. Although emission factors for HNCO have recently been measured for light duty diesel vehicles, light duty gasoline vehicles are not well characterized. Here we will present real-time emission factor measurements of HNCO for light duty gasoline vehicles measured at the California Air Resource Board's Haagen-Smit Laboratory in September of 2011 driven on a chassis dynamometer using the California Unified Driving Cycle. Emission factors for HNCO were determined for eight light duty gasoline vehicles utilizing a fast response chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer and simultaneous real-time measurements of CO, CO2, and NOx. We will discuss the potential production mechanism for HNCO by light duty gasoline vehicles as well as the potential drive cycle dependency of HNCO production.

  1. Understanding the mechanism behind the nitrous acid (HONO) emissions from the northern soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Hem Raj; Siljanen, Henri MP; Biasi, Christina; Maljanen, Marja

    2016-04-01

    The interest of the flux of nitrous acid (HONO) from soils has recently increased. HONO is an important source of the oxidant OH- radical in the troposphere and thus results a reduction of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Soils have been recently found to be potential sources of HONO as these emissions are linked to other nitrogen cycle processes, especially presence of nitrite in soils. Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been suggested as possible yet substantial sources of HONO. Along with soil pH, other physical properties such as C:N, nitrogen availability, soil moisture and temperature may effect HONO emissions. Our preliminary results demonstrate that drained acidic peatlands with a low C:N produces higher NO, N2O and HONO emissions compared to those in pristine peatlands and upland forest soils. This study will identify the hotspots and the process involved in HONO emissions in northern ecosystems. Along with HONO, we will examine the emissions of NO and N2O to quantify the related N-gases emitted. These results will add a new piece of information in our knowledge of the nitrogen cycle. Soil samples will be collected from several boreal and arctic sites in Finland, Sweden and Russia. In the laboratory, soil samples will be manipulated based on previously described soil physical properties. This will be followed by labelling experiment coupled with selective nitrification inhibitor experiment in the soils. Our first hypothesis is that northern ecosystems are sources of HONO. Second, is that the soil properties (C:N ratio, moisture, N-availability, pH) regulate the magnitude of HONO emissions from northern soils. Third is that the first step of nitrification (ammonium oxidation) is the main pathway to produce HONO. This study will show that the northern ecosystems could be sources of HONO and therefore increasing the oxidizing capacity of the lower atmosphere.

  2. FarAway: shoot video through haze, mist, and smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talmi, Amos

    2005-05-01

    Anybody can mount a zooming lens on his camera and observe distant objects. FarAway penetrates the blanket of haze that obscures such objects, regardless of the origin - mist, smoke, dust, rain, aerosols, etc. The system works with live Video, 25 frames/second, performing the restoration in real time on a PC hardware. No pre-knowledge about the obscurants, targets or distances is required. The novelty lies in performance; the system does not use image-processing tricks or contrast-stretching, but rather restores the original true image with its true colors. The current version is capable of relative-contrast enhancement of up to 90 times in color and up to 130 in B/W or NIR, the limit dictated by electrical noise. Facing the sun, this means a three-fold and more increase in detection and recognition ranges. Both color and NIR systems were extensively and successfully tested under rain, mists, haze and dust storms at ranges from 0.2 to 65 km. Turbulence effects are treated crudely, reducing apparent turbulence dance and smear by a factor of 2 to 4. Tests have proved its superiority over existing top-rank military systems. A related technology is Very Far Away. While Far Away uses commercial as-is cameras, the Very Far Away uses a specially designed color camera. The special camera allows extension of the visibility range by a further 70%.

  3. Numerical Simulation of a Mist Singlet Oxygen Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Muto, Shigeki; Fujioka, Tomoo; Nanri, Kenzo

    2002-01-01

    A numerical simulation code for a mist singlet oxygen generator (SOG) is developed. Unlike previous SOGs, a mist SOG utilizes fine droplets of basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) to achieve a stoichiometric reaction with chlorine gas in a single pass through a reaction zone. The numerical model presented in the present paper deals with the depletion of superficial HO2- density and the diffusive redistribution of each droplet, water evaporation, temperature variation of the droplet due to chemical reaction and evaporation, and heat exchange between the gas and liquid phases. Under identical initial conditions, the calculated results are consistent with the results from previous experiments. The heterogeneous quenching probability of O2(1Δ) to the BHP surface (γ) was determined by a comparison between the experimental and calculated results, and was found to be 2× 10-3. The process conditions were then varied to establish the theoretical limit of BHP utilization. For a very small (15 μm) droplet diameter, it was shown that 50% BHP could be utilized with an output of 64% O2(1Δ) yield and 88% Cl2 utilization.

  4. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an...

  5. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an...

  6. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench..., fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. (a) Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against dusts, fumes, mists, and...

  8. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench..., fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. (a) Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against dusts, fumes, mists, and...

  9. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench..., fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. (a) Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against dusts, fumes, mists, and...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench..., fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. (a) Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against dusts, fumes, mists, and...

  11. Contribution of natural and anthropogenic emissions to acid precipitation formation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, L.; Barrera, G.; Castellanos, L.; Moreno, D.

    1996-12-31

    The emissions of precursor compounds that contribute significantly the formation of acid precipitation in urban areas are associated with the burning of fossils fuels from mobile, area and point sources. In Mexico City, these include services, institutions and residences aggregated as area sources, as well as industrial point sources, including smelting, refinement of petroleum and power generation. In addition, dusts from soil erosion and lack of vegetation in the urban landscape contribute to modification of natural rain water. It is common knowledge that acid precipitation characterizes a large variety of compounds, as much related to precursor emissions as to prevailing environmental factors. This study attempts to establish the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions during the rainy season by analysis of spatial and temporal distributions, as of different ions in solution with rain water, as well as the modeling of wind patterns, as represented by using the arc/info software. This study`s results also show the geographic areas impacted by the acid rain phenomenon and the acidification rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the past 3 years.

  12. Impacts of acid emissions from Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, on selected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, Roderic A.; Burke, Kelly J.

    1990-07-01

    Emissions of acidic gases and thermal waters from Nevado del Ruiz volcano have recently increased in concert with the November 13, 1985 eruption. This study examines the downwind and downstream effects of these emissions on alpine ecosystems high on the slopes of the volcano (4100 m) and on coffee plantations at lower elevations (< 2000 m) and greater distances from the active vent (> 30 km). Samples of bulk deposition, rain, soils, soil solutions, and streams were collected over a six-month period (January-July, 1987) to examine the impacts of this volcanogenic acidity. Bulk deposition falling on the higher slopes of the volcano is usually acidified; however, deposition reaching the distal coffee plantations seldom is acidic. The sources of the acids are hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide in the plume of the volcano. Although sulfur dioxide is by far the more abundant gas, hydrogen chloride is most responsible for acidification of rain falling on the slopes of the volcano. With distance from the vent, the chloride/sulfate ratio drops exponentially. The only major influence on regional precipitation chemistry in addition to the volcano appears to be land-use-related activities around the coffee plantations. Deposition on these areas is enriched by an order of magnitude in nitrate and base cations, compared to all other stations. Throughfall chemistry in the coffee plantations shows a dramatic response to occasional acid-rain events. A base-leaching process on coffee plant leaves is triggered by acid rain. For each equivalent of hydrogen ion in rain on the leaf surface, over 23 equivalents of potassium ion are leached from the leaf. In spite of this dramatic response by the vegetation, the plantation soils appear relatively unaffected by acidic deposition. In contrast, the alpine soils on the volcano exhibit low pHs, high sulfate and chloride concentrations in soil solutions, and high extractable sulfate concentrations. All of these factors indicate that these

  13. Silencing Mist1 Gene Expression Is Essential for Recovery from Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Anju; Humphrey, Sean E.; Steele, Rebecca E.; Hess, David A.; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J.; Konieczny, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas are tasked with synthesizing, packaging and secreting vast quantities of pro-digestive enzymes to maintain proper metabolic homeostasis for the organism. Because the synthesis of high levels of hydrolases is potentially dangerous, the pancreas is prone to acute pancreatitis (AP), a disease that targets acinar cells, leading to acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), inflammation and fibrosis—events that can transition into the earliest stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Despite a wealth of information concerning the broad phenotype associated with pancreatitis, little is understood regarding specific transcriptional regulatory networks that are susceptible to AP and the role these networks play in acinar cell and exocrine pancreas responses. In this study, we examined the importance of the acinar-specific maturation transcription factor MIST1 to AP damage and organ recovery. Analysis of wild-type and Mist1 conditional null mice revealed that Mist1 gene transcription and protein accumulation were dramatically reduced as acinar cells underwent ADM alterations during AP episodes. To test if loss of MIST1 function was primarily responsible for the damaged status of the organ, mice harboring a Cre-inducible Mist1 transgene (iMist1) were utilized to determine if sustained MIST1 activity could alleviate AP damage responses. Unexpectedly, constitutive iMist1 expression during AP led to a dramatic increase in organ damage followed by acinar cell death. We conclude that the transient silencing of Mist1 expression is critical for acinar cells to survive an AP episode, providing cells an opportunity to suppress their secretory function and regenerate damaged cells. The importance of MIST1 to these events suggests that modulating key pancreas transcription networks could ease clinical symptoms in patients diagnosed with pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26717480

  14. Effect of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of delayed light emission.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenglong; Xing, Da; Zeng, Lizhang; Ding, Chunfeng; Chen, Qun

    2005-01-01

    The structure and function of chloroplast in plant leaves can be affected by acid rain and air pollution. The photosystem II in a plant is considered the primary site where light-induced delayed light emission (DLE) is produced. With the lamina of zijinghua (Bauhinia variegata L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) as testing models, we studied the effects of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of DLE by using a home-made weak luminescence detection system. The results show that the changes in DLE intensity of green plants can reflect the changes in chloroplast intactness and function. With proper calibration, DLE may provide an alternative means of evaluating environmental acid stress on plants. The changes in DLE intensity may provide a new approach for the detection of environmental pollution and its impact on the ecosystem.

  15. Percutaneous carbon dioxide mist treatment has protective effects in experimental myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Takanori; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Shiota, Masayuki; Shimada, Kenei; Miura, Katsuyuki; Iwao, Hiroshi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Izumi, Yasukatsu

    2015-04-01

    Percutaneous treatment with carbon dioxide (CO2) mist, CO2 gas dissolved in water, contributes to improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated pretreatment with CO2 mist on cardiac dysfunction after MI. The CO2 mist was generated by a dry mist production unit. The whole body of rats below the axilla was wrapped in a polyethylene bag, which was sealed and filled with the CO2 mist in the draft cabinet for 30 min daily for 7 days. MI was induced by ligation of the coronary artery in untreated (UT), CO2 gas-pretreated (CG), and CO2 mist-pretreated (CM) rats. The infarct size and the increase in oxidative stress due to MI were significantly smaller in the CM rats than in the UT rats. Furthermore, the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and fibrosis-related genes, such as transforming growth factor-β1, was significantly suppressed in the CM rats. The CM rats had a better left ventricular ejection fraction than the UT rats 7 days after MI. These parameters in the CG rats were the same as in the UT group. Thus, CO2 mist preparative treatment may be potentially useful for the reduction of MI.

  16. MIST Final Report: Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Michael A.; Medvick, Patricia A.; Foley, Michael G.; Foote, Harlan P.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Nuffer, Lisa L.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Barr, Jonathan L.; Renholds, Andrea S.

    2008-03-15

    The Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology (MIST) program was undertaken to advance exploitation tools for Long Wavelength Infra Red (LWIR) hyper-spectral imaging (HSI) analysis as applied to the discovery and quantification of nuclear proliferation signatures. The program focused on mitigating LWIR image background clutter to ease the analyst burden and enable a) faster more accurate analysis of large volumes of high clutter data, b) greater detection sensitivity of nuclear proliferation signatures (primarily released gasses) , and c) quantify confidence estimates of the signature materials detected. To this end the program investigated fundamental limits and logical modifications of the more traditional statistical discovery and analysis tools applied to hyperspectral imaging and other disciplines, developed and tested new software incorporating advanced mathematical tools and physics based analysis, and demonstrated the strength and weaknesses of the new codes on relevant hyperspectral data sets from various campaigns. This final report describes the content of the program and the outlines the significant results.

  17. Characteristics of sprinklers and water spray mists for fire safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, Louise A.; Lavelle, Stephen P.; Nolan, P. F.

    1991-04-01

    In order to predict the type of sprinkler or spray head required for fire safety in buildings and transport systems (e.g. aircraft) it is necessary to model the interaction of water droplets with the thermally buoyant fire gases. Such modelling requires a detailed knowledge of the mean droplet size, the droplet size distribution, droplet velocity and trajectory. Many existing systems for the characterisation of droplets are indirect in that an optical property is measured and the results are subject to "black box" data processing. A direct method can be developed using a synchronised metal vapour laser and high speed cine camera with appropriate optics. Results on both sprinkler and spray mist will be presented and a basis for the choice of active fire protection systems will be outlined.

  18. [Mist irrigation system at drilling in spinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Takao; Miyoshi, Yasuyuki; Date, Isao

    2010-12-01

    The "mist irrigation system" (MIS) is a new and effective method at drilling in spinal surgery. In this report, MIS is introduced with subsequent demonstration that visibility at drilling is better with MIS because of the reduction of smoke, blood and irrigation water. Additionally using a 5 mm-thick acryl plate, the time for perforation by drilling and temperature after drilling with MIS, drip-irrigation (DI) or no irrigation, were measured respectivily. Using the acryl plate significantly reduced drilling time and high temperature after perforation in the group without irrigation were recognized, compared to cases in the groups with MIS or DI. The results might indicate that the high temperature of the drill might melt the acryl plate immediately. As a conclusion, MIS might help surgeons to drill in the deep and narrow operative field. Additionally it might help to reduce the risks of heat injury to neuronal tissue by cooling efficiently.

  19. Characteristics of prototype mist singlet-oxygen generator for COIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, S.; Tei, Kazuyoku; Nanri, Kenzo; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2005-03-01

    A mist singlet oxygen generator is possible to improve the HO2 utilization at the one pass reaction between basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) and chlorine. In this investigation, BHP was atomized to small droplets by the gas flow. Chlorine, which is required for stoichiometric reaction with HO2 in the BHP, was used for atomization of BHP in order to reduce the buffer flow rate for atomization. We obtained the results that the conversion efficiency from chlorine to singlet oxygen (Ux Y) was 9.7% with purely chlorine atomization and 16% with x0.93 dilution ratio of nitrogen buffer at 18.7 mmol/s input chlorine flow and 5.8 ml/s BHP flow rate in a free space reaction chamber.

  20. Emission of short chained organic acids, aldehydes and monoterpenes from Quercus ilex L. and Pinus pinea L. in relation to physiological activities, carbon budget and emission algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselmeier, J.; Bode, K.; Hofmann, U.; Müller, H.; Schäfer, L.; Wolf, A.; Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Cecinato, A.; Frattoni, M.; Foster, P.; Ferrari, C.; Jacob, V.; Fugit, J. L.; Dutaur, L.; Simon, V.; Torres, L.

    We report on the emission of monoterpenes, short-chained organic acids and aldehydes from Mediterranean oak ( Quercus ilex L.) and pine (Pinus pinea L.). All studies were done with dynamic cuvettes enclosing intact branches at the top of the canopy flushed with ambient air. Daily trends are compared with the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature and the physiological activities of the enclosed branches, i.e. assimilation and transpiration, with special attention on the carbon budget. Oak emits monoterpenes in high amounts, up to 2% of the assimilated carbon. As compared with monoterpenes, short-chained organic acids and aldehydes are of minor importance for oak. However, on a leaf dry-weight basis equal amounts of acids and aldehydes are released from oak and pine. As pine emitted only low amounts of terpenes (below 0.2% of the assimilated carbon) the release of terpenes and oxygenated compounds is of equal importance for this species. A comparison of a modelled light and temperature driven emission with the observed volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions showed good agreement for monoterpenes as well as for organic acids emitted in the case of oak. For pine only the release of acids showed an adequate relation to the algorithm data, whereas the terpene emissions seemed to be dominated by temperature effects.

  1. Placing Tactical Data into the MIST and LC2IEDM Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    Technology (MIST) database and the Land Command and Control Information Exchange Data Model (LC2IEDM) in the context of storing sonar contact...base de données Maritime Information Sharing Technology (MIST) et du modèle de données d’échange d’information de commandement et de contrôle (Terre...database structures are investigated in this report. The Maritime Information Sharing Technology (MIST) is a joint US-UK effort to define contact

  2. Photochemical processing of diesel fuel emissions as a large secondary source of isocyanic acid (HNCO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, M. F.; Friedman, B.; Fulgham, R.; Brophy, P.; Galang, A.; Jathar, S. H.; Veres, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Farmer, D. K.

    2016-04-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO) is a well-known air pollutant that affects human health. Biomass burning, smoking, and combustion engines are known HNCO sources, but recent studies suggest that secondary production in the atmosphere may also occur. We directly observed photochemical production of HNCO from the oxidative aging of diesel exhaust during the Diesel Exhaust Fuel and Control experiments at Colorado State University using acetate ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Emission ratios of HNCO were enhanced, after 1.5 days of simulated atmospheric aging, from 50 to 230 mg HNCO/kg fuel at idle engine operating conditions. Engines operated at higher loads resulted in less primary and secondary HNCO formation, with emission ratios increasing from 20 to 40 mg HNCO/kg fuel under 50% load engine operating conditions. These results suggest that photochemical sources of HNCO could be more significant than primary sources in urban areas.

  3. Nanoparticle-enhanced fluorescence emission for non-separation assays of carbohydrates using a boronic acid-alizarin complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianjin; Kamra, Tripta; Ye, Lei

    2016-03-04

    Addition of crosslinked polymer nanoparticles into a solution of a 3-nitrophenylboronic acid-alizarin complex leads to significant enhancement of fluorescence emission. Using the nanoparticle-enhanced boronic acid-alizarin system has improved greatly the sensitivity and extended the dynamic range of separation-free fluorescence assays for carbohydrates.

  4. Nitric acid and ammonia emissions from a mid-latitude prescribed wetlands fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBel, P. J.; Cofer, W. R., III; Levine, J. S.; Vay, S. A.; Roberts, P. D.

    1988-08-01

    We have obtained the first simultaneous measurements of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3) in the smoke plume of a wetlands biomass burn. These measurements were made using tungsten oxide-coated diffusion denuder tubes from a helicopter during a prescribed burn at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, located at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on November 9, 1987. The mean NH3 and HNO3 mixing ratios measured in the smoke plume were 19 ppbv and 14 ppbv, respectively, both significantly higher than background mixing ratios. Nitric acid correlated well with carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the combustion. The mean CO2-normalized emission ratio for HNO3 was found to be 1.2 × 10-4. Ammonia, however, did not correlate well with CO2 suggesting a more complex relationship between combustion and production/release of NH3.

  5. Nitric acid and ammonia emissions from a mid-latitude prescribed wetlands fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebel, P. J.; Cofer, W. R., III; Levine, J. S.; Vay, S. A.; Roberts, P. D.

    1988-01-01

    The first simultaneous measurements of gaseous nitric acid and ammonia in the smoke plume of a wetlands biomass burn were obtained. The measurements were made using tungsten oxide-coated diffusion denuder tubes from a helicopter during a prescribed burn on November 9, 1987, at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, located at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The mean NH3 and HNO3 mixing ratios measured in the smoke plume were 19 ppbv and 14 ppbv, respectively, both significantly higher than background mixing ratios. Nitric acid correlated well with carbon dioxide produced by the combustion. The mean CO2-normalized emission ratio for HNO3 was found to be 0.00012. Ammonia, however, dit not correlate well with CO2, suggesting a more complex relationship between combustion and production/release of NH3.

  6. Characterization of the ultrasound beam produced by the MIST therapy, wound healing system.

    PubMed

    Keltie, K; Reay, C A; Bousfield, D R; Cole, H; Ward, B; Oates, C P; Sims, A J

    2013-07-01

    The MIST Therapy wound healing device (Celleration, Eden Prairie, MN, USA), which uses low-frequency ultrasound to deliver an atomized saline spray to acute wounds, was evaluated in a laboratory environment. The output of the MIST device was characterized by its frequency, transmission in the presence and absence of the saline spray and intensity. When measured up to 500 mm away from the transducer tip, the transmission of 39.5 kHz ultrasound was not significantly attenuated by the saline itself. In the absence of the saline spray, the acoustic intensity range of the MIST device was calculated to be 429-188 mW cm(-2) across the manufacturer-specified treatment range (12.5-20 mm). Because of the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and soft tissue, the MIST Therapy device would deliver only 0.1% of this incident intensity into the wound site.

  7. Growth mechanisms of zinc oxide and zinc sulfide films by mist chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Yamasaki, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    The growth mechanisms of zinc oxide and zinc sulfide films by mist chemical vapor deposition (mist-CVD) were experimentally investigated from the viewpoint of mist behaviors and chemical reactions. The proper growth model, either vaporization or the Leidenfrost model, was studied by supplying two kinds of mists with different kinds of sources, such as H2 16O and H2 18O for ZnO growth and ZnCl2 and thiourea for ZnS growth. Moreover, the origin of the oxygen atoms of ZnO was investigated using a quantitative analysis. The role of chloro complex of zinc in the growth of ZnS from aqueous solutions was also examined by systematic studies.

  8. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... minutes each at a continuous airflow rate of 32 liters per minute. (b) The relative humidity in the...

  9. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... minutes each at a continuous airflow rate of 32 liters per minute. (b) The relative humidity in the...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High... minutes each at a continuous airflow rate of 32 liters per minute. (b) The relative humidity in the...

  11. Characteristics of dioxin emissions from a Waelz plant with acid and basic kiln mode.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pao Chen; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chen, Mei Lien; Chang, Moo Been

    2012-01-30

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in the flue gas of a Waelz plant operated in acid and basic modes, respectively. To abate (PCDD/F) and other pollutants, the plant operates with a post-treatment of flue gases by activated carbon injection and subsequent filtration. Relatively high PCDD/F discharge by fly ashes is found with acid kiln mode of the Waelz process. Therefore, basic kiln mode of the Waelz process is investigated and compared in this plant. With the adsorbent injection rate of 7 kg/h (95 mg/Nm(3)), the PCDD/F concentration in stack gas was measured as 0.123 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) in the basic operating mode. The added Ca(OH)(2) reacted with metal catalysts and HCl((g)) in the flue gas and thus effectively suppressed the formation of PCDD/Fs. PCDD/F concentrations in fly ashes sampled from the dust settling chamber, cyclone, primary filter and secondary filter in basic kiln mode were significantly lower than that in acid kiln mode. Total PCDD/F emission on the basis of treating one kg of electric arc furnace dust in the basic operation mode was 269 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated which was significantly lower than that in acid mode (640 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated).

  12. Caged [(18)F]FDG Glycosylamines for Imaging Acidic Tumor Microenvironments Using Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Flavell, Robert R; Truillet, Charles; Regan, Melanie K; Ganguly, Tanushree; Blecha, Joseph E; Kurhanewicz, John; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Keshari, Kayvan R; Chang, Christopher J; Evans, Michael J; Wilson, David M

    2016-01-20

    Solid tumors are hypoxic with altered metabolism, resulting in secretion of acids into the extracellular matrix and lower relative pH, a feature associated with local invasion and metastasis. Therapeutic and diagnostic agents responsive to this microenvironment may improve tumor-specific delivery. Therefore, we pursued a general strategy whereby caged small-molecule drugs or imaging agents liberate their parent compounds in regions of low interstitial pH. In this manuscript, we present a new acid-labile prodrug method based on the glycosylamine linkage, and its application to a class of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging tracers, termed [(18)F]FDG amines. [(18)F]FDG amines operate via a proposed two-step mechanism, in which an acid-labile precursor decomposes to form the common radiotracer 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose, which is subsequently accumulated by glucose avid cells. The rate of decomposition of [(18)F]FDG amines is tunable in a systematic fashion, tracking the pKa of the parent amine. In vivo, a 4-phenylbenzylamine [(18)F]FDG amine congener showed greater relative accumulation in tumors over benign tissue, which could be attenuated upon tumor alkalinization using previously validated models, including sodium bicarbonate treatment, or overexpression of carbonic anhydrase. This new class of PET tracer represents a viable approach for imaging acidic interstitial pH with potential for clinical translation.

  13. Mist eliminators for freshwater production from open-cycle OTEC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.; Penney, T.

    1983-12-01

    For freshwater production from open-cycle OTEC systems, the suitability of commercially available mist eliminators is examined. The mist eliminators are characterized in terms of their liquid collection efficiencies, allowable vapor velocities at the onset of reentrainment, and pressure losses. Suitable design modifications can be projected to allow steam velocities of up to 35 m/s, with a corresponding parasitic power loss of less than 5% of the gross potential of an open-cycle OTEC power system.

  14. Optical emissions of Ce3+ doped Sulphamic acid single crystals by low temperature unidirectional growth technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmaji, B.; Rajyalakshmi, S.; Satya Kamal, Ch; Atla, Veerendra; Veeraiah, V.; Venkateswara Rao, K.; Ramachandra Rao, K.

    2017-02-01

    Cerium doped Sulphamic acid (SA) single crystal was synthesized and grown in large size for its cerium ion optical emissions. The photoluminescence emission of unidirectional grown crystals was found to have a broad band from 300 nm to 400 nm, centered at 318 nm (5d → 4f (2F5/2, 2F7/2), due to ground state crystal field splitting. The respective excitation spectra show peak at 273 nm, which is attributed to transitions from the 4f(2F5/2) ground state to first and second excited level of 5d configuration of Ce3+. The nature of decay curve is bi exponential with an average decay life time (τavg) of 20.12 ns. The lattice parameters were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and the crystalline perfection of grown single crystals have been checked by High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD) studies. The vacancy defects are predominant and causes tensile stress in the lattice by incorporation of Ce3+ ions. Functional group analysis and SEM with EDAX reveals that Ce3+ ion is incorporated in the crystal system. The lower cutoff wavelength found at 340 nm and the respective band gap was calculated as 4.6eV. The dielectric measurements were done at different temperatures and the nonlinear optical efficiency was observed as 3.5 times that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) single crystals. In the present study, sulphamic acid acts as a prominent host material for probing Ce3+ ion emissions for optical device applications.

  15. Experimental research on the characteristics of methane/air explosion affected by ultrafine water mist.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xingyan; Ren, Jingjie; Bi, Mingshu; Zhou, Yihui; Li, Yiming

    2017-02-15

    The inhibition effects of ultrafine water mists on 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% methane explosions were experimentally studied in a sealed visual vessel. The mist (10μm) produced by a mist generation system in the vessel was measured by a phase doppler particle analyzer. A high-speed camera was used to record the explosion flame affected by spraying concentration and a high frequency pressure sensor was used to acquire the explosion pressure. Meanwhile, the relationship between flame propagation and pressure rising with time was analyzed. The appearance height of "tulip" flame was increased and appearance moment was delayed obviously with the mist amount increased. The variation trend was illustrated from the viewpoint of the interactions among the flame front, the flame-induced reverse flow and the vortices. Moreover, cellular structure appeared in the burned zone and experienced four developing stages, and its formation indicates that water vapor can cause the intrinsic flame instability and absorb heat on the burned zone further. The pressure underwent two accelerating rises, which was affected by mist amount. The accelerating rise processes were related to the accelerating propagation of combustion wave. Furthermore, methane explosion can be absolutely suppressed by the mist.

  16. Toward The Absolute Age of M92 With MIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jieun; Conroy, Charlie; Dotter, Aaron; Weisz, Daniel; Rosenfield, Philip; Dolphin, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Globular clusters provide a fundamental link between stars and galaxies. For example, it has been suggested that ultra faint dwarf galaxies formed all of their stars prior to the epoch of reionization, but this conclusion hinges entirely on the striking similarity of their stellar populations to the ancient, metal-poor globular cluster M92. The accurate measurement of absolute ages of ancient globular clusters therefore has direct implications for the formation histories of the smallest galaxies in the Universe. However, a reliable determination of the absolute ages of globular clusters has proven to be a challenge due to uncertainties in stellar physics and complications in how the models are compared to observations. I will present preliminary results from a comprehensive study to measure the absolute age of M92 using high-quality HST archival imaging data. We pair our new MESA Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) models with a full CMD fitting framework to jointly fit multi-color CMDs, taking into account the uncertainties in abundances, distance, and stellar physics. The goal of this project is two-fold. First, we aim to provide the most secure absolute age of M92 to date with robustly estimated uncertainties. Second, we explore and quantify the degeneracies between uncertain physical quantities and model variables, such as the distance, mixing-length-alpha parameter, and helium abundance, with the ultimate goal of better constraining these unknowns with data from ongoing and future surveys such as K2, Gaia, TESS, JWST, and WFIRST.

  17. Asthma patients prefer Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler to Turbuhaler.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Rick; Reese, Pat Ray; Slaton, Terra

    2009-01-01

    Device satisfaction and preference are important patient-reported outcomes to consider when choosing inhaled therapy. A subset of adults (n = 153) with moderate or severe asthma participating in a randomized parallel-group, double-dummy trial that compared the efficacy and safety of 12 weeks' treatment with budesonide delivered via Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) (200 or 400 microg bd) or Turbuhaler dry powder inhaler (400 microg bd), completed a questionnaire on patient device preference and satisfaction (PASAPQ) as part of a psychometric validation. As the study used a double-dummy design to maintain blinding, patients used and assessed both devices, rating their satisfaction with, preference for, and willingness to continue using each device. The mean age of patients was 41 years, 69% were female and the mean duration of disease was 16 years. Total PASAPQ satisfaction scores were 85.5 and 76.9 for Respimat SMI and Turbuhaler respectively (p < 0.0001); 112 patients (74%) preferred Respimat SMI and 26 (17%) preferred Turbuhaler. Fourteen subjects (9%) indicated no preference for either inhaler. Willingness to continue using Respimat SMI was higher than that for Turbuhaler (mean scores: 80/100 and 62/100, respectively). Respimat SMI was preferred to Turbuhaler by adult asthma patients who used both devices in a clinical trial setting.

  18. Use of Respimat Soft Mist inhaler in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Events of the past decade have stimulated development of new drug formulations and delivery devices that have improved the efficiency, ease of use, and environmental impact of inhaled drug therapy. Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler is a novel, multidose, propellant-free, hand-held, liquid inhaler that represents a new category of inhaler devices. The aerosol cloud generated by Respimat contains a higher fraction of fine particles than most pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs), and the aerosol spray exits the inhaler more slowly and for a longer duration than with pMDIs. This translates into higher lung drug deposition and lower oropharyngeal deposition, making it possible to give lower nominal doses of delivered drugs without lowering efficacy. In clinical trials in patients with COPD, bronchodilator drugs delivered from Respimat were equally effective at half of the dose delivered from a pMDI. In one study of inhaler preference, Respimat was preferred over the pMDI by patients with COPD and other obstructive lung diseases. Respimat is a valuable addition to the range of inhaler devices available to the patient with COPD.

  19. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...

  3. Synthesis and Properties of Gelators Derived from Tetraphenylethylene and Gallic Acid with Aggregation-Induced Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Miao; Zhou, Xie; Chi, Zhenguo; Ma, Chunping; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Siwei; Xu, Jiarui

    2013-09-01

    Two novel organogelators (TEG and TAG) based on tetraphenylethylene and 3,4,5-tris(dodecyloxy) benzoic acid were synthesized through ester bond and amido bond linkages, respectively. Compounds TEG and TAG were able to induce gelation in ethanol. Aggregation-induced enhanced emission was observed in these organogelator molecules, with increased fluorescence intensity from the solutions to the gels. The completely thermoreversible gelation occurred due to the aggregation of the organogelators. In the process, a fibrous network was formed by a combination of intermolecular hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking and van der Waals interactions. These phenomena were observed in the xerogels by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results of differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy indicated that compound TAG exhibited stable liquid crystalline phases over a wide temperature range. The linking groups have severe influence on the properties of the organogelators, which was mainly attributed to the hydrogen bonding interaction in compound TAG.

  4. Importance of direct anthropogenic emissions of formic acid measured by a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS) during the Winter ClearfLo Campaign in London, January 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannan, Thomas J.; Bacak, Asan; Muller, Jennifer B. A.; Booth, A. Murray; Jones, Benjamin; Le Breton, Michael; Leather, Kimberley E.; Ghalaieny, Mohamed; Xiao, Ping; Shallcross, Dudley E.; Percival, Carl J.

    2014-02-01

    Formic acid, an ubiquitous trace gas in the atmosphere, was measured using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS) during the winter ClearfLo campaign in London, 2012. Daily calibrations of formic acid gave sensitivities of 3 ion counts s-1 pptv-1 for the complete campaign and a limit of detection of 2 ppt. No correlation with nitric acid was observed, R2 of 0.137, indicating no significant secondary source of formic acid. However, a strong positive correlation with NOx, CO, and production in line with rush hour periods indicated a direct anthropogenic emission of formic acid from vehicle emissions. Peaks of 6.7 ppb of formic acid were observed with a mean of 610 ppt. Global models indicated that this emission source dominates in the northern hemisphere where global models underestimate formic acid most significantly, thus increasing the accuracy of modelling of global formic acid emissions.

  5. Preliminary results of the water-mist fire auppression experiment from the STS-107 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; McKinnon, J.; Gokoglu, S.

    A discussion of the preliminary results of the Water-Mist Fire Suppression experiment (Mist) from the STS-107 mission of the Space Shuttle is presented. The overall objective of the project is to study the feasibility of developing fine-water- mist systems as the next generation of fire suppressants that may replace the currently used halon-based systems. Halons (fluoro-bromo -carbons) are so effective at fire suppression that in the past it was not necessary to evaluate other options. However, as is well known now, halons are powerful ozone-depleting agents in the stratosphere. The realization of this attribute led to the ban of the manufacture of halons in the industrialized world by the Montreal Protocols starting in 1995. The Mist experiment studies the influence of water mists on premixed flames propagating in a cylindrical tube under low-gravity conditions and evaluates the role of thermal, physical, and chemical mechanisms in the water-mist/flame interaction. Prior to the orbital flight, a numerical simulation of this interaction was developed and reduced- gravity ground experiments were conducted to obtain the preliminary data necessary to define the scientific objectives and technical issues of the spacecraft experiments. The effects of droplet size and water concentration on the laminar flame speed and flame shape are used as the measure of fire suppression efficacy. A simplified numerical simulation of the flame/mist interaction shows the effect of water mist on flame speed and evaluates the relative importance of the latent and sensible heats of water droplets on fire suppression. The microgravity tests of the Mist experiment are performed in the Combustion Module (CM-2) facility in the Space Shuttle. These tests explore the efficacy of three droplet sizes and three water concentrations on the propagation of lean, stoichiometric, and rich premixed propane-air flames. The long duration and quality of microgravity in the spaceflight provide the required

  6. Optimal excitation and emission wavelengths to analyze amino acids and optimize neurotransmitters quantification using precolumn OPA-derivatization by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Perucho, J; Gonzalo-Gobernado, R; Bazan, E; Casarejos, M J; Jiménez-Escrig, A; Asensio, M J; Herranz, A S

    2015-05-01

    We describe an analytical methodology to obtain high sensitivity and better resolution through the study of fluorometric excitation (λex) and emission (λem) spectrum wavelengths of OPA-amino acids. The spectrum emission study revealed a maximum signal peak at 450 nm for aspartate and glutamine. For glycine, taurine, and GABA, the maximum signal peak was at 448 and for glutamate at 452 nm. The remaining amino acids analyzed showed a maximum emission around 450 nm. The best signal obtained within the spectrum excitation experiments was using 229- to 450-nm λex-λem. The drawbacks observed at these wavelengths were a baseline drift and negative peaks occurrence. Thus, the excitation wavelength of 240 nm was chosen (240- to 450-nm λex-λem) as a compromise between a very good signal response and a baseline stability to resolve the 18 amino acids studied. Furthermore, this protocol was properly validated. On the other hand, the elution gradient program used for neuroactive amino acids (aspartate, glutamate, glycine, taurine and GABA) showed separation to the baseline, in a 15-min run in all of them. Other amino acids, up to 18, also exhibited a very good separation in a 25-min run. In conclusion, we propose the use of 240- to 450-nm λex-λem wavelengths, in OPA-amino acids analysis, as the most suitable protocol to obtain the best signal response, maintaining an optimum chromatographic resolution.

  7. Emissions of the natural acidic substance in the acid rain region: Dimethyl sulfide and hydrogen sulfide in the region of Xiamen, China

    SciTech Connect

    Yubao Wang; Miaoqin Lu

    1996-12-31

    The global anthropogenic emissions of sulfur, mainly SO2, are relatively well studied for most of the industrialized world, and relatively little is known to date about natural sulfur emission sources, such as, coastal waters and wetland. The most important atmospheric sulfur compounds originating from biogeochemical sources are DMS and H{sub 2}S. Previous studies suggest that biogenic DMS is mainly emitted from oceanic phytoplankton species. The global emission of sulfur by this process was estimated to be 40 Tg S/year. Major sources of biogenic H{sub 2}S in the atmosphere are believed to be bacterial sulfate reduction in anoxic soils and degradation of organic matter. The mentioned reduced sulfur compounds are partially oxidation in the troposphere to SO{sub 2} and further to sulfur acid, another strong acid produced from DMS oxidation is methane sulphonic acid (CH{sub 3}S(O{sub 2})OH). These compounds are strong acid and will influence the pH of precipitation and will be the important impact in acid rain phenomena.

  8. Treatment of self-injurious behavior using a water mist: initial response suppression and generalization.

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, M F; Iwata, B A; Ong, P; McSween, T E

    1980-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a fine mist of water applied to the face contingent upon self-injurious behavior (SIB) exhibited by profoundly retarded persons. In Experiment 1, results of individual reversal designs showed substantial reductions in a variety of SIB's (mouthing, hand biting, skin tearing, and head banging) for seven participants. In Experiment 2, two participants who frequently bit their hands were each observed in two different settings. Following initial baselines in each setting, a series of manipulations was undertaken to compare the effects of mild verbal punishment ("No") with those of a combined treatment ("No" plus mist procedure). Results in one setting indicated that "No" suppressed SIB only after it was first paired with the water mist. Data also suggested that, once acquired, the punishing properties of "No" could be extended to a second setting in which the mist was never applied, and that these effects could be generalized across therapists. Results of these experiments indicate that the water mist procedure may be an effective alternative to traditional punishment techniques. Although conclusions regarding generalization are limited due to the brevity of the maintenance conditions, the data suggest that treatment gains may be transferred to more acceptable forms of social punishment and reinforcement. PMID:7380756

  9. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers. PMID:26456005

  10. A combined experimental and theoretical study of supercooling by two-phase mist flows

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zhihua.

    1991-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of cooling enhancement by mist flow was performed for a square channel with a smooth wall. A new method is proposed for the turbulent deposition of droplets from two-phase mist flow into the wall of the channel. The proposed analytical model shows satisfactory agreement with observations from an experimental measurement using a particle-sizing two-dimensional reference-model laser-Doppler anemometry technique. Supercooling is defined as the simultaneous attainment of high heat flux and a low temperature of a surface to be cooled. Surface cooling is by evaporation from the exposed side of the film. The film is maintained by the continuous deposition of a stream of turbulent mist. An analytical model is provided for the heat-transfer enhancement coefficient due to mist supercooling. Also, experiments were carried out to investigate cooling enhancement. A substantial supercooling by mist flow is reported. The effects on supercooling of flow rate, droplet concentration and size, and wall heat flux are also reported.

  11. A Preliminary Study on the Vapor/Mist Phase Lubrication of a Spur Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphates have been the primary compounds used in vapor/mist phase lubrication studies involving ferrous bearing material. Experimental results have indicated that the initial formation of an iron phosphate film on a rubbing ferrous surface, followed by the growth (by cationic diffusion) of a lubricious pyrophosphate-type coating over the iron phosphate, is the reason organophosphates work well as vapor/mist phase lubricants. Recent work, however, has shown that this mechanism leads to the depletion of surface iron atoms and to eventual lubrication failure. A new organophosphate formulation was developed which circumvents surface iron depletion. This formulation was tested by generating an iron phosphate coating on an aluminum surface. The new formulation was then used to vapor/mist phase lubricate a spur gearbox in a preliminary study.

  12. Development of a mist singlet oxygen generator for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Shigeki; Endo, Masamori; Nanri, Kenzo; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2003-11-01

    Mist singlet oxygen generator (Mist-SOG) has been developed in order to increase the BHP utilization. On the other hand, Mist-SOG generates much more water vapor than conventional SOG because the heat capacity of the BHP is small. It is well known that the water vapor deactivates the excited iodine. In order to remove the water vapor, we developed a jet-cold trap. In this method, a nozzle sprayed a chilled H2O2 at 238K with a thin layer form to the gas flow directly in order to get the large specific surface for the water vapor. As a result of experiment, Water vapor partial pressure reduced from 3.3 Torr at the BHP flow rate of 2.2 ml/s and Cl2 flow rate of 3.5 mmol/s for the 65μm BHP droplets.

  13. Lipoid pneumonia caused by oil mist exposure from a steel rolling tandem mill

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, M.R.; Balmes, J.R.; Robins, J.M.; Smith, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Five of nine active tandem mill operators exposed at work to aerosolized hydrocarbon mist were referred for evaluation of respiratory complaints. The worker with the longest exposure had reduced lung volumes; he was admitted to the hospital for detailed study. Exercise studies revealed work load limited by ventilation and arterial oxygen desaturation. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy revealed evidence of lipoid pneumonia. Assessment of the mill revealed levels of respirable oil mist by personal samplers throughout the area far below the currently accepted standard of 5 mg/M3. These findings confirm a 20-year-old hypothesis of J.G. Jones regarding the hazard of oil mist in this industrial setting.

  14. Revisiting Nitrous Acid (HONO) Emission from On-road Vehicles: A Tunnel Study with a Mixed Fleet.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yutong; Zha, Qiaozhi; Wang, Weihao; Cui, Long; Lui, Ka Hei; Ho, Kin Fai; Wang, Zhe; Lee, Shun-Cheng; Wang, Tao

    2017-02-21

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important precursor of OH radicals in the atmosphere. In urban areas, emissions from vehicles are the main source of air pollutants including reactive nitrogen. Previously reported emission ratios of HONO (HONO/NOx) from vehicles were measured in the late 1990s which needs to be updated due to the significant changes in emission control technologies. We measured the emission ratio of a fleet of vehicles (38% diesel on average) from 11 to 21 March, 2015 in a road tunnel in Hong Kong. The emission ratio 1.24% (± 0.35%) obtained is greater than the commonly adopted 0.8% or 0.3%. The elevated emission ratio is found to be related to the presence of vehicles equipped with Diesel Particle Filters (DPFs). Positive correlation between HONO and Black Carbon (BC) shows that HONO and BC were emitted together, while the lack of correlation or even anti-correlation between HONO/NOx and BC indicates that the BC-mediated conversion of NO2 to HONO in the dark was insignificant in the immediate vicinity of the emission sources. Implications Vehicular emission is a key source for HONO in the urban atmosphere. However, the most commonly used emission ratio HONO/NOx in modeling studies were measured more than 15 years ago. Our tunnel study suggests that a mixed fleet nowadays has a higher emission ratio, possibly because of the Diesel Particle Filter (DPF) retrofit program and the growing share of Euro IV or more advanced diesel vehicles. Our study also provides new insight into the role of Black Carbon in HONO formation from vehicles.

  15. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist;...

  16. Airway responsiveness, respiratory symptoms, and exposures to soluble oil mist in mechanical workers.

    PubMed Central

    Massin, N; Bohadana, A B; Wild, P; Goutet, P; Kirstetter, H; Toamain, J P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the relation between measured levels of exposure to soluble oil mists in a plant manufacturing ball bearings, and both respiratory symptoms and airway responsiveness in the workforce. METHODS: 114 male workers exposed to oil mist and 55 unexposed male controls from nearby factories were studied. Soluble oil mist concentrations were measured with area samplers. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by questionnaire and measurement of airway responsiveness to methacholine with an abbreviated method. Subjects were labelled positive to methacholine airway challenge (MAC+) if forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) fell by > or = 20%. The linear dose-response slope was calculated as the percentage fall in FEV1 at the last dose divided by the total dose given. RESULTS: Geometric mean concentrations of oil mists ranged from 0.65 mg/m3 (GSD 1.29) to 2.20 mg/m3 (GSD 1.55) based on 92 measurements obtained from 1979-93. The prevalence of chronic cough or phlegm, bouts of bronchitis, and dyspnoea was greater among exposed workers than among controls (odds ratio (OR) 4.64, P = 0.002 for chronic cough and phlegm). After adjustment for smoking and age, dyspnoea was significantly related to an index of cumulative exposure to oil mist (OR 1.44, P = 0.006/10 y.mg/m3). The proportion of MAC+ subjects was similar in the two groups. However, after adjustment for baseline FEV1 and age, the dose-response slope was significantly steeper among exposed workers than among controls (P = 0.01), a finding indicating airway hyperresponsiveness in the exposed workers. Furthermore, the dose-response slope was significantly related to baseline FEV1, age, and, after adjustment for FEV1, the index of cumulative exposure to oil (P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Subjects with exposure to soluble oil mist in the metal industry are at risk of developing both respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:9038798

  17. Degradation of organic gases using ultrasonic mist generated from TiO2 suspension.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Kazuhiko; Noshiroya, Daisuke; Handa, Misako; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Namiki, Norikazu

    2010-09-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of organic gases with mist particles that were formed by ultrasonic atomization of a TiO(2) suspension was performed with three different ultraviolet light sources. Three aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs; toluene, p-xylene, and styrene) and aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) were chosen as model organic gases for the degradation experiment. Under UV(365) irradiation, toluene was decomposed by a photocatalytic reaction on the surface of mist particles. Under UV(254+185) irradiation, the removal efficiency and mineralization ratio of the VOC gases were higher than those under UV(365) or UV(254) irradiation. Under UV(254+185) irradiation, it was found that VOC gases were immediately degraded and converted to water-soluble intermediates by not only direct photolysis but also oxidation by OH radical, since the removal efficiency of several organic gases depended on the reaction rate with OH radical and the primary effect of generated ozone was to complete the mineralization of the intermediates. On the other hand, water-soluble aldehyde gases were rapidly trapped by mist particles before reaction on their surface. Furthermore, water-soluble intermediates that formed via the decomposition of VOC gases were completely trapped in the mist and were not detected at the reactor exit. Therefore, notable secondary particle generation was not observed, even under UV(254+185) irradiation. Based on these results as well as the size distribution of the mist droplets, it was found that primarily submicron-scale droplets contributed to the photocatalytic reaction. Lastly, we propose a mechanism for the degradation of organic gaseous pollutants on the surface of mist particles.

  18. Singlet oxygen-sensitized delayed emissions from hydrogen peroxide/gallic acid/potassium ferricyanide systems containing organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Tsukino, Kazuo; Sekine, Masahiko; Nakata, Munetaka

    2009-06-01

    Fourier-transform chemiluminescence spectra of H 2O 2/gallic acid/K 3[Fe(CN) 6] systems containing organic solvents were measured. Emission bands with peaks around 530 and 700 nm were observed in systems containing solvents with a carbonyl group such as N, N-dimethylformamide, and those with a hydroxyl group such as methanol, respectively. The relative band intensities depended strongly on the concentration of these organic solvents. The emission species are attributed to gallic acid-ferricyanide complexes excited by energy transfer from singlet oxygen dimol, ( 1O 2) 2. The effects of organic solvents are interpreted in terms of intermolecular interactions of gallic acid-ferricyanide complexes, water molecules and organic solvents.

  19. The growth response of Alternanthera philoxeroides in a simulated post-combustion emission with ultrahigh [CO2] and acidic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Griffin, Kevin L; Blazier, John C; Craig, Elizabeth C; Gilbert, Dominique S; Sritrairat, Sanpisa; Anderson, O Roger; Castaldi, Marco J; Beaumont, Larry

    2009-07-01

    Although post-combustion emissions from power plants are a major source of air pollution, they contain excess CO2 that could be used to fertilize commercial greenhouses and stimulate plant growth. We addressed the combined effects of ultrahigh [CO2] and acidic pollutants in flue gas on the growth of Alternanthera philoxeroides. When acidic pollutants were excluded, the biomass yield of A. philoxeroides saturated near 2000 micromol mol(-1) [CO2] with doubled biomass accumulation relative to the ambient control. The growth enhancement was maintained at 5000 micromol mol(-1) [CO2], but declined when [CO2] rose above 1%, in association with a strong photosynthetic inhibition. Although acidic components (SO2 and NO2) significantly offset the CO2 enhancement, the aboveground yield increased considerably when the concentration of pollutants was moderate (200 times dilution). Our results indicate that using excess CO2 from the power plant emissions to optimize growth in commercial green house could be viable.

  20. Temporal and spatial characteristics of lead emissions from the lead-acid battery manufacturing industry in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Tian, Jinping; Chen, Lujun; Guo, Yang

    2017-01-01

    An inventory of lead emissions was established for the lead-acid battery (LAB) manufacturing industry in China from 2000 to 2014. The lead emissions from the LAB manufacturing industry increased from 133 t in 2000 to a peak at 281 t in 2010 with the rapid development of LAB industry. Since 2011, a mandatory national clean action on LAB industry and a series of retrofitting measures have been implemented in China. As a result, more than 80% of small and low-efficient LAB manufacturers were closed, and technical-environmental performance of the industry has been improved significantly. Thus the lead emissions from the industry declined to 113 t in 2014. Geographically, lead emissions were attributed to several provinces with intensive LAB manufacturers, including Zhejiang, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Hebei Province. Spatial transfer of the LAB manufacturing industry from developed areas to developing areas in China was manifest due to strict environmental regulation, posing potential environmental risks to the areas undertaking the industry transfer. In light of the effectiveness of the national clean action, the LAB manufacturing industry will reduce lead emissions further by implementing the entry criteria strictly, adopting policy of total lead emissions control, and establishing a long-term regulatory mechanism for LAB manufacturers. The local authorities in some developing areas should improve abilities of environmental supervision and environmental risk prevention to deal with the spillover of lead emissions.

  1. Experimental Evaluation the Effectiveness of Water Mist Fire Extinguishing Systems at Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyashina, G. S.; Medvedev, V. V.; Shevyrev, S. A.; Vysokomornaya, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    Currently mist water is one of the most promising areas of fire protection. We performed an experimental study of phase transformations drops of water mist (range 50 - 500 microns) in motion in a high-temperature (500 - 2000 K) typical products of combustion of petroleum products (gasoline, kerosene, acetone, alcohol). We used high speed (the speed of shooting at least 105 frames per second) and optical methods of recording streams of liquid and gas medium. We determined the effect of the parameters of the test process (the initial temperature and the initial droplet size) at the rate of evaporation of atomized water under these conditions.

  2. Plant Habitat Telemetry / Command Interface and E-MIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Uriae M.

    2013-01-01

    (CAD) software was used to draft the E-MIST circuit. This required several component libraries to be created. Coding the sensors and obtaining sensor data involved using the Arduino Uno developmental board and coding language, and properly wiring peripheral sensors to the microcontroller (the central control unit of the experiment).

  3. New insights in the conformation of α 1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid). Quenching resolved emission anisotropy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albani, J. R.

    1999-09-01

    Quenching resolved emission anisotropy method was applied to study the dynamics of the two classes of Trp residues of human α 1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid), in the absence and presence of progesterone. In the absence of progesterone, the values of the anisotropies of the surface and buried Trp residues are 0.155 and 0.178, respectively. These values lower than the limiting anisotropy (0.267) indicate that both classes of Trp residues display residual motions. In the presence of progesterone, the values of the anisotropies decrease from 0.155 to 0.146 and from 0.178 to 0.167. Thus, binding of progesterone to orosomucoid increases the internal dynamics of the protein. Also, the fact that in the absence or in the presence of progesterone, the anisotropies of both classes are close, means that the amplitudes of the motions of the two classes are not significantly different. From our data and from the well-known position of the carbohydrate residues on orosomucoid, we suggest the presence of a hydrophobic pocket within the protein and where the 'buried' Trp residues can be found.

  4. Optimizing Techology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2004-01-31

    More than 56,000 coal quality data records from five public data sets have been selected for use in this project. These data will be used to create maps showing where coals with low mercury and acid-gas emissions might be found for power plants classified by air-pollution controls. Average coal quality values, calculated for 51,156 commercial coals by U.S. county-of-origin, are listed in the appendix. Coal moisture values are calculated for commercially shipped coal from 163 U.S. counties, where the raw assay data (including mercury and chlorine values) are reported on a dry basis. The calculated moisture values are verified by comparison with observed moisture values in commercial coal. Moisture in commercial U.S. coal shows provincial variation. For example, high volatile C bituminous rank coal from the Interior province has 3% to 4% more moisture than equivalent Rocky Mountain province coal. Mott-Spooner difference values are calculated for 4,957 data records for coals collected from coal mines and exploration drill holes. About 90% of the records have Mott-Spooner difference values within {+-}250 Btu/lb.

  5. Mice lacking the transcription factor Mist1 exhibit an altered stress response and increased sensitivity to caerulein-induced pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Agnes S; Johnson, Charis L; Chadi, Sami A; Weston, Jacqueline Y; Fazio, Elena N; Pin, Christopher L

    2007-04-01

    Several animal models have been developed to investigate the pathobiology of pancreatitis, but few studies have examined the effects that altered pancreatic gene expression have in these models. In this study, the sensitivity to secretagogue-induced pancreatitis was examined in a mouse line that has an altered acinar cell environment due to the targeted deletion of Mist1. Mist1 is an exocrine specific transcription factor important for the complete differentiation and function of pancreatic acinar cells. Mice lacking the Mist1 gene [Mist1 knockout (KO) mice] exhibit cellular disorganization and functional defects in the exocrine pancreas but no gross morphological defects. Following the induction of pancreatitis with caerulein, a CCK analog, we observed elevated serum amylase levels, necrosis, and tissue damage in Mist1 KO mice, indicating increased pancreatic damage. There was also a delay in the regeneration of acinar tissue in Mist1 KO animals. Molecular profiling revealed an altered activation of stress response genes in Mist1 KO pancreatic tissue compared with wild-type (WT) tissue following the induction of pancreatitis. In particular, Western blot analysis for activating transcription factor 3 and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha), mediators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, indicated limited activation of this pathway in Mist1 KO animals compared with WT controls. Conversely, Mist1 KO pancreatic tissue exhibits increased expression of growth arrest and DNA damage inducible 34 protein, an inhibitor of eIF2alpha phosphorylation, before and after the induction of pancreatitis. These finding suggest that activation of the ER stress pathway is a protective event in the progression of pancreatitis and highlight the Mist1 KO mouse line as an important new model for studying the molecular events that contribute to the sensitivity to pancreatic injury.

  6. Enhanced extinction of visible radiation due to hydrated aerosols in mist and fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Dupont, J.-C.; Hammer, E.; Hoyle, C. R.; Haeffelin, M.; Burnet, F.; Jolivet, D.

    2015-06-01

    The study assesses the contribution of aerosols to the extinction of visible radiation in the mist-fog-mist cycle. Relative humidity is large in the mist-fog-mist cycle, and aerosols most efficient in interacting with visible radiation are hydrated and compose the accumulation mode. Measurements of the microphysical and optical properties of these hydrated aerosols with diameters larger than 0.4 μm were carried out near Paris, during November 2011, under ambient conditions. Eleven mist-fog-mist cycles were observed, with a cumulated fog duration of 96 h, and a cumulated mist-fog-mist cycle duration of 240 h. In mist, aerosols grew by taking up water at relative humidities larger than 93%, causing a visibility decrease below 5 km. While visibility decreased down from 5 to a few kilometres, the mean size of the hydrated aerosols increased, and their number concentration (Nha) increased from approximately 160 to approximately 600 cm-3. When fog formed, droplets became the strongest contributors to visible radiation extinction, and liquid water content (LWC) increased beyond 7 mg m-3. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode co-existed with droplets, as interstitial non-activated aerosols. Their size continued to increase, and some aerosols achieved diameters larger than 2.5 μm. The mean transition diameter between the aerosol accumulation mode and the small droplet mode was 4.0 ± 1.1 μm. Nha also increased on average by 60 % after fog formation. Consequently, the mean contribution to extinction in fog was 20 ± 15% from hydrated aerosols smaller than 2.5 μm and 6 ± 7% from larger aerosols. The standard deviation was large because of the large variability of Nha in fog, which could be smaller than in mist or 3 times larger. The particle extinction coefficient in fog can be computed as the sum of a droplet component and an aerosol component, which can be approximated by 3.5 Nha (Nha in cm-3 and particle extinction coefficient in Mm-1. We observed an influence of

  7. Organic Acids Over Equatorial Africa: Results from DECAFE 88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helas, Günter; Bingemer, Heinz; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    1992-04-01

    Gaseous short chain organic acids were measured during the dry season (February) in and above the rain forest of the northern Congo. Samples were taken at ground level and during several flights up to 4 km altitude. The organic acids were concentrated from the atmosphere by using "mist scrubbers," which expose a mist of deionized water to the air to be probed. The organic acids absorbed in the water were subsequently analyzed by ion chromatography. Formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids were identified in the samples. At ground level, average mixing ratios of gaseous formic and acetic acid of 0.5±0.6 and 0.6±0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (1 s), respectively, were found. Boundary layer mixing ratios, however, were significantly higher (3.7±1.0 and 2.7±0.9 ppbv). This indicates a downward net flux of these atmospheric trace components from the boundary layer to the surface. Free tropospheric samples taken above the cloud convection layer show lower mixing ratios again (0.9±0.3 and 0.7±0.1 ppbv). On the basis of this vertical distribution, direct emission by vegetation is not considered to be the dominant source. Biomass burning and photochemical oxidation of biogenic precursors are the major processes contributing to the enhancement of organic acids observed in the boundary layer. The organic acids parallel the profiles of ozone and CO, which suggests that their generation processes are closely related. Pyruvic acid is not correlated with formic acid, indicating that the oxidation of isoprene is not of major importance. In emissions from biomass fires, CO correlates well with formic and acetic acid, and thus some of the enhancement of organic acids in the boundary layer can be explained due to burning. However, an additional gas phase source for organic acids must exist to explain the observed ratio of formic to acetic acid. This is most likely the ozonolysis of olefins which were released as pyrolysis products from biomass burning.

  8. Photometric and fluorometric continuous kinetic assay of acid phosphatases with new substrates possessing longwave absorption and emission maxima.

    PubMed

    Koller, E; Wolfbeis, O S

    1984-11-15

    A direct and continuous kinetic method for the photometric and fluorometric determination of various acid phosphatases is described. It is based on new coumarin-derived phosphates, which after enzymatic hydrolysis undergo dissociation to form intensely colored and strongly fluorescent phenolate anions. The latter have absorption maxima ranging from 385 to 505 nm, and fluorescence maxima between 470 and 595 nm. The new substrates were compared with respect to their rate of enzymatic hydrolysis, optimum pH, and detection limits of acid phosphatase from potato and wheat germ. Detection limits of 0.001 unit/ml were found by photometry, and as low as 0.00006 unit/ml by fluorometry. The principal advantages of the new substrates over existing ones are longwave absorptions and emissions, large Stokes shifts, and the low pKa values of the corresponding phenols, thus allowing a direct and continuous assay of acid phosphatase even in weakly acidic solutions.

  9. Development and Research on the Mechanism of Novel Mist Etching Method for Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Hirao, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    A novel etching process with etchant mist was developed and applied to oxide thin films such as zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc magnesium oxide (ZnMgO), and indium tin oxide (ITO). By using this process, it was shown that precise control of the etching characteristics is possible with a reasonable etching rate, for example, in the range of 10-100 nm/min, and a fine pattern of high accuracy can also be realized, even though this is usually very difficult by conventional wet etching processes, for ZnO and ZnMgO. The mist etching process was found to be similarly and successfully applied to ITO. The mechanism of mist etching has been studied by examining the etching temperature dependence of pattern accuracy, and it was shown that the mechanism was different from that of conventional liquid-phase spray etching. It was ascertained that fine pattern etching was attained using mist droplets completely (or partly) gasified by the heat applied to the substrate. This technique was applied to the fabrication of a ZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) with a ZnO active channel length of 4 µm. The electrical properties of the TFT were found to be excellent with fine uniformity over the entire 4-in. wafer.

  10. Instruction Workbook for Tracheostomy Suctioning and Misting in a School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Karen McKinney; Roach, Antionette Andolfatto

    The handbook presents California guidelines for training school personnel to provide skilled nursing procedures such as tracheostomy suctioning and misting for students with special health needs. The workbook begins with an overview of the anatomy and function of the respiratory system, specifically breathing mechanics. Part 2 considers the…

  11. Mist Interval and Hormone Concentration Influence Rooting of Florida and Piedmont Azalea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native azalea (Rhododendron spp.) vegetative propagation information is limited. The objective of this experiment is to determine optimal levels of K-IBA and mist intervals for propagation of Florida azalea (Rhododendron austrinum) and Piedmont azalea (Rhododendron canescens). Florida azalea roote...

  12. On the use of capture-recapture models in mist-net studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Pradel, R.; Hines, J.E.; Ralph, C. John; Dunn, Erica H.

    2004-01-01

    Capture-recapture models provide a statistical framework for estimating population parameters from mist-net data. Although Cormack-Jolly-Seber and related models have recently been used to estimate survival rates of birds sampled with mist nets, we believe that the full potential for use of capture-recapture models has not been realized by many researchers involved in mist-net studies. We present a brief discussion of the overall framework for estimation using capture-recapture methods, and review several areas in which recent statistical methods can be, but generally have not yet been, applied to mist-net studies. These areas include estimation of (I) rates of movement among areas; (2) survival rates in the presence of transients: (3) population sizes or migrating birds: (4) proportion of birds alive but not present at a breeding site (one definition of proportion of nonbreeding birds in a population): (5) population change and recruitment: and (6) species richness. Using these models will avoid the possible bias associated with use of indices. and provide statistically valid variance estimates and inference.

  13. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air... Requirements for Canisters and Cartridges Type of pesticide respirator Test concentration p.p.m. CCl4 Flow rate... The flow rate shall be the effective flow rate of the device, but shall be not less than 115 l.p.m....

  14. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Respiratory Equipment § 70.305 Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. Respiratory equipment approved...

  15. Ozone-mist spray sterilization for pest control in agricultural management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Norihito; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Baba, Seiji; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Pawlat, Joanna; Teii, Shinriki; Sung, Ta-Lun

    2013-02-01

    We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2‒) and ozonide radical ion (*O3‒) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  16. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. 84.1146 Section 84.1146 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1140 - Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general. 84.1140 Section 84.1140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general. 84.1158 Section 84.1158 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED...

  19. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Respiratory Equipment § 70.305 Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. Respiratory equipment approved...

  20. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Respiratory Equipment § 70.305 Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. Respiratory equipment approved...

  1. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Respiratory Equipment § 70.305 Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. Respiratory equipment approved...

  2. 30 CFR 72.701 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 72.701 Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. Respiratory equipment approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84...

  3. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Respiratory Equipment § 70.305 Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. Respiratory equipment approved...

  4. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. 84.1146 Section 84.1146 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL...

  5. Measuring tropospheric HNO3 - Problems and prospects for Nylon filter and mist chamber techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Vijgen, A. S.; Harriss, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    A series of laboratory and field measurements was performed to evaluate the mist chamber technique for determining tropospheric HNO3 concentrations. Both the mist chamber and standard Nylon filter techniques exhibit high collection efficiency and excellent agreement measuring HNO3 vapors from a permeation source. When simultaneously sampling ambient air in eastern Virginia, the Nylon filter measured an average of 70 percent higher HNO3 concentration than the mist chamber technique. The results indicate that O3 causes a low-level positive artifact interference in HNO3 measurements performed with the filter technique. This O3-induced error is small, however, compared to the large difference between atmospheric HNO3 concentrations determined with the two techniques. It is hypothesized that unidentified (organic?) nitrogen species in the atmosphere react for form NO3(-) on the filter and this phenomenon may interfere with Nylon filter measurements of HNO3 vapor. These potential interferences did not appear to affect measurements of HNO3 with the mist chamber method.

  6. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air... Requirements for Canisters and Cartridges Type of pesticide respirator Test concentration p.p.m. CCl4 Flow...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air... Requirements for Canisters and Cartridges Type of pesticide respirator Test concentration p.p.m. CCl4 Flow...

  8. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air... Requirements for Canisters and Cartridges Type of pesticide respirator Test concentration p.p.m. CCl4 Flow...

  9. Influence of ameliorating soil acidity with dolomite on the priming of soil C content and CO2 emission.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Wu, Lei; Peng, Qi-An; van Zwieten, Lukas; Chhajro, Muhammad Afzal; Wu, Yupeng; Lin, Shan; Ahmed, Muhammad Mahmood; Khalid, Muhammad Salman; Abid, Muhammad; Hu, Ronggui

    2017-02-21

    Lime or dolomite is commonly implemented to ameliorate soil acidity. However, the impact of dolomite on CO2 emissions from acidic soils is largely unknown. A 53-day laboratory study was carried out to investigate CO2 emissions by applying dolomite to an acidic Acrisol (rice-rapeseed rotation [RR soil]) and a Ferralsol (rice-fallow/flooded rotation [RF soil]). Dolomite was dosed at 0, 0.5, and 1.5 g 100 g(-1) soil, herein referred to as CK, L, and H, respectively. The soil pH(H2O) increased from 5.25 to 7.03 and 7.62 in L and H treatments of the RR soil and from 5.52 to 7.27 and 7.77 in L and H treatments of the RF soil, respectively. Dolomite application significantly (p ≤ 0.001) increased CO2 emissions in both RR and RF soils, with higher emissions in H as compared to L dose of dolomite. The cumulative CO2 emissions with H dose of dolomite were greater 136% in the RR soil and 149% in the RF soil as compared to CK, respectively. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased and reached at 193 and 431 mg kg(-1) in the RR soil and 244 and 481 mg kg(-1) in the RF soil by H treatments. The NH4(-)-N and NO3(-)-N were also increased by dolomite application. The increase in C and N contents stimulated microbial activities and therefore higher respiration in dolomite-treated soil as compared to untreated. The results suggest that CO2 release in dolomite-treated soils was due to the priming of soil C content rather than chemical reactions.

  10. A Study of Flame Propagation on Water-Mist Laden Gas Mixtures in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; Riedel, E. P.; McKinnon, J. T.

    1999-01-01

    The use of water mists (very fine water sprays) for fire suppression is currently receiving increased attention as a replacement technology for halogen-based chemical agents-such as Halon 1301 (CF3Br)--the manufacturing of which has been banned by the Montreal Protocol due to their high ozone depletion potential. Water mist technology has been found effective for a wide range of applications such as Class B pool fires, shipboard machinery, aircraft cabins, computers, and electronic equipment. There are five distinct mechanisms by which water droplets may interact with a flame. First, the high enthalpy of vaporization of water (2450 kJ/kg) leads to heat removal from the flame front as the liquid droplets turn to steam. Second, as water vaporizes its volume increases approximately three orders of magnitude, which leads to the dilution of the oxygen and vaporized fuel required to maintain the flame. The third effect is the recombination of H-atoms and other radicals on the droplet surface. A fourth effect of water mists in fires is the retardation of surface propagation rates due to the wetting of walls and surfaces. The last potential impact of fine water mists affects the radiative propagation of the fire by forming an optically thick barrier to infrared radiation which prevents ignition of the unburned regions. Unfortunately, little fundamental information exists on the interaction of a flame with a water mist. To date, there is no widely accepted interpretation of the critical concentration of droplets required to suppress a flame or of the fundamental mechanisms involved in flame extinguishment by water mists. One of the main obstacles to obtaining such understanding is the difficulty of providing a simple, well-defined experimental setup for the flame front/water mist interaction. Some of the difficulty stems from the problem of generating, distributing and maintaining a homogeneous concentration of droplets throughout a chamber while gravity depletes the

  11. Synergism in the effect of prior jasmonic acid application on herbivore-induced volatile emission by Lima bean plants: transcription of a monoterpene synthase gene and volatile emission

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Tila R.; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; David, Anja; Boland, Wilhelm; Gols, Rieta; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in induced plant defence e.g. by regulating the biosynthesis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that mediate the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. Moreover, exogenous application of JA can be used to elicit plant defence responses similar to those induced by biting-chewing herbivores and mites that pierce cells and consume their contents. In the present study, we used Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants to explore how application of a low dose of JA followed by minor herbivory by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) affects transcript levels of P. lunatus (E)-β-ocimene synthase (PlOS), emission of (E)-β-ocimene and nine other plant volatiles commonly associated with herbivory. Furthermore, we investigated the plant’s phytohormonal response. Application of a low dose of JA increased PlOS transcript levels in a synergistic manner when followed by minor herbivory for both simultaneous and sequential infestation. Emission of (E)-β-ocimene was also increased, and only JA, but not SA, levels were affected by treatments. Projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of other volatiles showed overlap between treatments. Thus, a low-dose JA application results in a synergistic effect on gene transcription and an increased emission of a volatile compound involved in indirect defence after herbivore infestation. PMID:25318119

  12. Effect of high-oleic-acid soybeans on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and enteric methane emission in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, J C; Harper, M T; Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Smith, L; Ortega-Perez, A M; Harper, S A; Melgar, A; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 soybean sources differing in fatty acid profile and processing method on productivity, milk composition, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and enteric methane emission in lactating dairy cows. The soybean sources were conventional, high-linoleic-acid variety extruded soybean meal (ESBM; 8.7% ether extract with 15% oleic and 54% linoleic acids); extruded Plenish (DuPont Pioneer, Johnston, IA), high-oleic-acid variety soybean meal (EPSBM; 8.4% ether extract with 73% oleic and 8% linoleic acids); and whole, heated Plenish soybeans (WPSB; 20.2% ether extract). The study involved 15 Holstein cows in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The inclusion rate of the soybean sources in the diet was (dry matter basis) 17.1, 17.1, and 7.4% for ESBM, EPSBM, and WPSB, respectively, which resulted in ether extract concentration of the diets of 3.99, 3.94, and 4.18%, respectively. Compared with ESBM, the Plenish diets tended to increase dry matter intake and decreased feed efficiency (but had no effect on energy-corrected milk feed efficiency). The Plenish diets increased milk fat concentration on average by 5.6% and tended to increase milk fat yield, compared with ESBM. The WPSB diet tended to increased milk true protein compared with the extruded soybean meal diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation and enteric methane or carbon dioxide emissions, except pH was higher for WPSB versus EPSBM. The Plenish diets decreased the prevalence of Ruminococcus and increased that of Eubacterium and Treponema in whole ruminal contents. Total-tract apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein were decreased by WPSB compared with ESBM and EPSBM. Compared with the other treatments, urinary N excretion was increased by EPSBM and fecal N excretion was greater for WPSB. Treatments had marked effects on milk fatty acid profile. Generally, the Plenish diets increased mono

  13. On the primary emission of formic acid from light duty gasoline vehicles and ocean-going vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Timia A.; Brady, James M.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Collier, Sonya; Forestieri, Sara D.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Lerner, Brian M.; Williams, Eric J.; Zhang, Qi; Bertram, Timothy H.

    2014-12-01

    We present determinations of fuel-based emission factors for formic acid (EFHCOOH) from light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) and in-use ocean-going vessels. Emission ratios, from which the emission factors were derived, were determined from LDGVs through measurement of HCOOH and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the exhaust of a fleet of eight LDGVs driven under the California Unified Cycle at the California Air Resources Board's Haagen-Smit Laboratory. Emission ratios from in-use ocean-going vessels were determined through direct measurement of HCOOH and CO2 in ship plumes intercepted by the R/V Atlantis during the 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign within 24 nautical miles of the California coast. The eight car fleet average EFHCOOH was 0.94 ± 0.32 (1σ) and 0.57 ± 0.18 mg (kg fuel)-1 for the cold start and hot running phases of the drive cycle, respectively. This difference suggests that catalytic converter performance and the air/fuel equivalence ratio are important metrics contributing to EFHCOOH. EFHCOOH was determined to be 1.94 ± 1.06 mg (kg fuel)-1 for a single diesel vehicle driven under highway driving conditions, higher on average than any individual LDGV tested. In comparison, HCOOH primary emissions from in-use ocean-going vessels were substantially larger, averaging 20.89 ± 8.50 mg (kg fuel)-1. On a global scale, HCOOH primary emissions from fossil fuel combustion are likely to be insignificant relative to secondary production mechanisms, however primary emissions may contribute more significantly on a finer, regional scale in urban locations.

  14. Enhanced extinction of visible radiation due to hydrated aerosols in mist and fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Dupont, J.-C.; Hammer, E.; Hoyle, C. R.; Haeffelin, M.; Burnet, F.; Jolivet, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study assesses the contribution of aerosols to the extinction of visible radiation in the mist-fog-mist cycle. Measurements of the microphysical and optical properties of hydrated aerosols with diameters larger than 400 nm, composing the accumulation mode, which are the most efficient to interact with visible radiation, were carried out near Paris, during November 2011, in ambient conditions. Eleven mist-fog-mist cycles were observed, with cumulated fog duration of 95 h, and cumulated mist-fog-mist duration of 240 h. In mist, aerosols grew up by taking up water at relative humidities larger than 93%, causing a visibility decrease below 5 km. While visibility decreased down to few km, the mean size of the hydrated aerosols increased, and their number concentration (Nha) increased from approximately 160 to approximately 600 cm-3. When fog formed, droplets became the strongest contributors to visible radiation extinction, and liquid water content (LWC) increased beyond 7 mg m-3. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode co-existed with droplets, as interstitial non-activated aerosols. Their size continued to increase, and a significant proportion of aerosols achieved diameters larger than 2.5 μm. The mean transition diameter between the accumulation mode and the small droplet mode was 4.0 ± 1.1 μm. Moreover Nha increased on average by 60% after fog formation. Consequently the mean aerosol contribution to extinction in fog was 20 ± 15% for diameter smaller than 2.5 μm and 6 ± 7% beyond. The standard deviation is large because of the large variability of Nha in fog, which could be smaller than in mist or three times larger. The particle extinction coefficient in fog can be computed as the sum of a droplet component and an aerosol component, which can be approximated by 3.5 Nha (Nha in cm-3 and particle extinction coefficient in Mm-1). We observed an influence of the main formation process on Nha, but not on the contribution to fog extinction by aerosols

  15. Improvement of sensitivity of electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury using acetic acid medium.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, R

    2012-05-15

    A method has been developed to improve the sensitivity of the electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury determination. Effects of various low molecular weight organic solvents at different volume percentages as well as at different acid molarities on the mercury signal were investigated using ELCAD-AES. The addition of few percent of organic solvent, acetic acid produced significant enhancement in mercury signal. Acetic acid of 5% (v/v) with the 0.2M acidity has been found to give 500% enhancement for mercury signal in flow injection mode. Under the optimized parameters the repeatability, expressed as the percentage relative standard deviation of spectral peak area for mercury with 5% acetic acid was found to be 10% for acid blank solution and 5% for 20 ng/mL mercury standard based on multiple measurements with a multiple sample loading in flow injection mode. Limit of detection of this method was determined to be 2 ng/mL for inorganic mercury. The proposed method has been validated by determining mercury in certified reference materials, Tuna fish (IAEA-350) and Aquatic plant (BCR-060). Accuracy of the method for the mercury determination in the reference materials has been found to be between 3.5% and 5.9%. This study enhances the utility of ELCAD-AES for various types of biological and environmental materials to quantify total mercury at very low levels.

  16. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2004-07-31

    County-average hydrogen values are calculated for the part 2, 1999 Information Collection Request (ICR) coal-quality data, published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These data are used together with estimated, county-average moisture values to calculate average net heating values for coal produced in U.S. counties. Finally, 10 draft maps of the contiguous U.S. showing the potential uncontrolled sulfur, chlorine and mercury emissions of coal by U.S. county-of-origin, as well as expected mercury emissions calculated for existing emission control technologies, are presented and discussed.

  17. Evaluation of a new mist-chamber bioreactor for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Tscheschke, Bernd; Dreimann, Janis; von der Ruhr, Jürgen W; Schmidt, Timo; Stahl, Frank; Just, Lothar; Scheper, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    In this article we describe the development, the characterization and the evaluation of a novel bioreactor type for the cultivation of different pro- and eukaryotic cell-systems: the mist-chamber bioreactor. This innovative bioreactor meets the demand of cultivation systems for shear stress sensitive cells with high requirements for gas supply. Within the mist-chamber bioreactor the cells are cultivated inside an aerosol of vaporized medium generated by ultrasonic vaporization. In contrast to many established bioreactor systems the mist-chamber bioreactor offers an environment with an excellent gas supply without any impeller or gas bubble induced shear stress. A mist-chamber bioreactor prototype has been manufactured and characterized during this work. In the technical and chemical characterization we evaluated the vaporization process, resulting in a vaporization performance of 32 mL/h at working conditions. On this basis we calculated a biomass of 1.4 g (S. cerevisiae, qs  = 3.45 × 10-3 mol/g/h) and 3.4 g (Aspergillus niger, qs  = 1.33 × 10-3 mol/g/h) where the growth rate becomes limited by transport processes. Additionally, we determined a homogenous cultivation area to a height of 3 cm giving a total volume of 0.45 L for the cultivation. Medium components were examined according to their stability during vaporization with the result that all components are stable for at least 5 days. After the technical characterization we demonstrated the feasibility to cultivate S. cerevisiae and F. velupites in the mist-chamber bioreactor. The results demonstrated that the mist-chamber bioreactor is able to transport a sufficient amount of nutrients consistently to the cell samples and offers an excellent oxygen supply without any shear stress inducing aeration. Furthermore we successfully cultivated F. velupites in a solid state cultivation in a long term experiment. The data indicate that the new bioreactor concept can contribute to

  18. Evaluation of mist-net sampling as an index to productivity in Kirtland's Warblers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, J.; Kepler, C.; Sykes, P.; Bocetti, C.I.

    1999-01-01

    In summary, in our study (1) capture rates (number of HY birds/number of AHY birds) were not useful as a direct measure of productivity in Kirtland's Warblers because HY birds were about 1.7 times more likely than AHY birds to be captured in mist nets; (2) capture rates varied substantially among sites, presumably because of changes in habitat that affected movements during late summer (thus, capture rates at a single site did not provide a useful index to population-wide productivity); and (3) population-wide capture rates provided useful indices to population-wide productivity. As noted previously, the first two conclusions are already accepted by specialists in the use of mist netting to index productivity. Our study presents the first evidence that annual variation in relative capture rates is sufficiently small that mist netting at multiple sites in a region can provide a useful index to region-wide productivity. The region must be large relative to late-summer movements by the study species, which means that obtaining habitat-specific productivity rates will be possible only within large patches of habitat. It should also be recognized that many species will move much farther than Kirtland's Warblers (owing to their limited breeding distribution). Our results suggest that mist-netting programs like MAPS and the Constant Effort Sites used in Britain can provide useful measures of temporal patterns, large-scale spatial patterns, and year-specific patterns in avian productivity. Furthermore, unlike most nest-monitoring studies, mist netting in late summer measures season-long productivity, the quantity of greatest use in most demographic analyses. Late-summer mist netting thus appears to be a useful method for studying avian productivity provided that investigators realize that results from at least six to eight sites that are well distributed across a large region must be combined to obtain a valid index, and that results obtained in this manner describe

  19. Developing Standards to Qualify a Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen systems increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide, so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. Fine Water Mist extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. Compared to the carbon dioxide based Portable Fire Extinguisher, the flight qualification of Fine Water Mist systems requires special care. Qualification of the CO2 based Portable Fire Extinguisher began with the assumption that any fire on ISS would be extinguished if the air in the fire environment reached a critical concentration of CO2. Qualification of a CO2 based system requires the developers to make assertions and assumptions about vehicle geometry and the ability of the extinguisher to deliver CO2 in different geometric configurations, but the developers did not need to make assertions or assumptions about the size of the fire, the

  20. Atmospheric-pressure epitaxial growth technique of a multiple quantum well by mist chemical vapor deposition based on Leidenfrost droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Dang, Giang T.; Nitta, Noriko

    2016-10-01

    A multiple quantum well α-Fe2O3/α-Ga2O3 with parallel and coherent formation of uniform and highly single-crystalline layers on a sapphire substrate has been fabricated by open-air atmospheric-pressure solution-processed mist chemical vapor deposition (Mist CVD). This report demonstrates that complicated structures with atomic-level control can be fabricated even in non-vacuum conditions by the Mist CVD. This can be achieved via the precise control of the precursor flow and ambient temperature combined with the formation of mist droplets of the special Leidenfrost state, which increased the atomic migration length by 108 times more than that of traditional vacuum techniques. This work could be a milestone in the transformation from vacuum to non-vacuum thin film deposition techniques towards a green and sustainable industry.

  1. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions and Market Effects under the Clean Air Act Acid Rain Program.

    PubMed

    Zipper, Carl E; Gilroy, Leonard

    1998-09-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) established a national program to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from electricity generation. CAAA90's market-based approach includes trading and banking of Soumissions allowances. We analyzed data describing electric utility SO2 emissions in 1995, the first year of the program's Phase I, and market effects over the 1990-1995 period. Fuel switching and flue-gas desulfurization were the dominant means used in 1995 by targeted generators to reduce emissions to 51% of 1990 levels. Flue-gas desulfur-ization costs, emissions allowance prices, low-sulfur coal prices, and average sulfur contents of coals shipped to electric utilities declined over the 1990-1995 period. Projections indicate that 13-15 million allowances will have been banked during the program's Phase I, which ends in 1999, a quantity expected to last through the first decade of the program's stricter Phase II controls. In 1995, both allowance prices and SO2 emissions were below pre-CAAA90 expectations. The reduction of SO2 emissions beyond pre-CAAA90 expectations, combined with lower-than-expected allowance prices and declining compliance costs, can be viewed as a success for market-based environmental controls.

  2. The Transcription Factor MIST1 Is a Novel Human Gastric Chief Cell Marker Whose Expression Is Lost in Metaplasia, Dysplasia, and Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lennerz, Jochen K. M.; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Oates, Edward L.; Huh, Won Jae; Doherty, Jason M.; Tian, Xiaolin; Bredemeyer, Andrew J.; Goldenring, James R.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Shin, Young-Kee; Mills, Jason C.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of reliable molecular markers for normal differentiated epithelial cells limits understanding of human gastric carcinogenesis. Recognized precursor lesions for gastric adenocarcinoma are intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM), defined here by ectopic CDX2 and TFF2 expression, respectively. In mice, expression of the bHLH transcription factor MIST1, normally restricted to mature chief cells, is down-regulated as chief cells undergo experimentally induced metaplasia. Here, we show MIST1 expression is also a specific marker of human chief cells. SPEM, with and without MIST1, is present in human lesions and, akin to murine data, likely represents transitional (TFF2+/MIST1+ = “hybrid”-SPEM) and established (TFF2+/MIST1− = SPEM) stages. Co-visualization of MIST1 and CDX2 shows similar progressive loss of MIST1 with a transitional, CDX2+/MIST1− hybrid-intestinal metaplasia stage. Interinstitutional analysis and comparison of findings in tissue microarrays, resection specimens, and biopsies (n > 400 samples), comprising the entire spectrum of recognized stages of gastric carcinogenesis, confirm MIST1 expression is restricted to the chief cell compartment in normal oxyntic mucosa, rare in established metaplastic lesions, and lost in intraepithelial neoplasia/dysplasia and carcinoma of various types with the exception of rare chief cell carcinoma (∼1%). Our findings implicate MIST1 as a reliable marker of mature, healthy chief cells, and we provide the first evidence that metaplasia in humans arises at least in part from the chief cell lineage. PMID:20709804

  3. Mechanism of Suppression and Extinguishment of Communication Cable Fire by Ultra Fine Water Mist in Cross-Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-14

    of Communication Cable Fire by Ultra Fine Water Mist in Cross-Flow Chuka C. Ndubizu,* Ramagopal Ananth, Damian Rouson , and Frederick W. Williams NRL...Ultra Fine Water Mist in Cross-Flow April 14, 2006 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. RAMAGOPAL ANANTH DAMIAN ROUSON FREDERICK W... WILLIAMS Navy Technology Center for Safety and Survivability Chemistry Division CHUKA C. NDUBIZU Geo-Centers, Inc. Arlington, VA i REPORT

  4. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  5. Novel emissive bio-inspired non-proteinogenic coumarin-alanine amino acid: fluorescent probe for polyfunctional systems.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Elisabete; Capelo, José Luis; Lima, João Carlos; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Two new bio-inspired non-proteinogenic compounds L1 and L2, containing coumarin and/or acridine chromophores and bearing as spacer an alanine amino acid were successfully synthesized and fully characterized by elemental analysis, (1)H and (13)C NMR, infrared spectroscopy (KBr discs), melting point, ESI-TOF (electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass), UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopy, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime measurements. A relative fluorescence quantum yield of 0.02 was determined for both compounds. In L2 the presence of an intramolecular energy transfer from the coumarin to the acridine unit was observed. L1 and L2 are quite sensitive to the basicity of the environment. At alkaline values both compounds show a strong quenching in the fluorescence emission, attributed to the photoinduced electron transfer (PET). However, both deprotonated forms recover the emission with the addition of Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Al(3+) metal ions. As multifunctional emissive probes, the titration of L1 and L2 with lanthanides (III), Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) was also explored as new visible bio-probes in the absence and in the presence of liposomes. In a liposomal environment a lower energy transfer was observed.

  6. Effect of micro mist sauna bathing on thermoregulatory and circulatory functions and thermal sensation in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of micro mist sauna bathing, produced by water crushing method, we exposed ten male subjects to five cases of micro mist sauna, namely (1) room temperature (RT) 38 °C with 100 % (actually 91 %) relative humidity (RH), (2) RT 41.5 °C with 80 % (actually 81 %) RH, (3) RT 41.5 °C with 100 % (actually 96 %) RH, (4) RT 45.0 °C with 64 % (actually 61 %) RH, and (5) RT 45.0 °C with 100 % (actually 86 %) RH, and measured tympanic temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate (HR), and cheek moisture content, as well as ratings of thermal and sweating sensation tympanic temperatures at RT 45 °C were significantly higher at 86 % RH than those at 61 % RH; however, those at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH were higher than those with 86 % RH during recovery. There were no significant differences at RT 41.5 °C between with 81 % RH and with 96 % RH. Mean skin temperature was the highest at RT 45 °C 86 % RH case, followed by at RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH, RT 45 °C 61 % RH, RT 41.5 °C 81 % RH, and finally at RT 38 °C 91 % RH. HR change showed the same order as for mean skin temperature. A significant difference in cheek moisture content was observed between RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH 10 min after the micro mist bathing. There were no significant differences between ratings of thermal sensation at RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH. Between RT 45 °C with 86 % RH and RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH, there was a tendency for interaction (0.05 < p < 0.1). Other cases showed significant higher ratings of thermal sensation at higher room temperature or higher relative humidity. The ratings of sweating sensation 10 min after the mist sauna bathing were significantly higher at higher RT and RH except between RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH and RT 45 °C 86 % RH which exhibited no significant difference. We concluded that the micro mist sauna produced by water crushing method induced more

  7. Mathematical modeling of oil mist formation, deposition, and drainage during oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    A mathematical model of oil mist formation and deposition, and liquid oil drainage during retorting has been formulated. The model was incorporated into the one-dimensional model of oil shale retorting developed by Braun. In this report a description of the development of the model is given. Results of a simulation of a batch retort are presented and compared with results from Braun's original model. The model predicts the expected physical behavior of liquid oil in a retort: accumulation in the cooler sections of the retort by deposition of mist, downward flow by gravity after a residual saturation is reached, and evaporation of residual oil as the retort front moves through the retort. The model is applicable both to modified in situ retorts and to surface batch retorts. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi3Fe5O12, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches -5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods.

  9. Effect of micro mist sauna bathing on thermoregulatory and circulatory functions and thermal sensation in humans.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of micro mist sauna bathing, produced by water crushing method, we exposed ten male subjects to five cases of micro mist sauna, namely (1) room temperature (RT) 38 °C with 100 % (actually 91 %) relative humidity (RH), (2) RT 41.5 °C with 80 % (actually 81 %) RH, (3) RT 41.5 °C with 100 % (actually 96 %) RH, (4) RT 45.0 °C with 64 % (actually 61 %) RH, and (5) RT 45.0 °C with 100 % (actually 86 %) RH, and measured tympanic temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate (HR), and cheek moisture content, as well as ratings of thermal and sweating sensation tympanic temperatures at RT 45 °C were significantly higher at 86 % RH than those at 61 % RH; however, those at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH were higher than those with 86 % RH during recovery. There were no significant differences at RT 41.5 °C between with 81 % RH and with 96 % RH. Mean skin temperature was the highest at RT 45 °C 86 % RH case, followed by at RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH, RT 45 °C 61 % RH, RT 41.5 °C 81 % RH, and finally at RT 38 °C 91 % RH. HR change showed the same order as for mean skin temperature. A significant difference in cheek moisture content was observed between RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH 10 min after the micro mist bathing. There were no significant differences between ratings of thermal sensation at RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH. Between RT 45 °C with 86 % RH and RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH, there was a tendency for interaction (0.05 < p < 0.1). Other cases showed significant higher ratings of thermal sensation at higher room temperature or higher relative humidity. The ratings of sweating sensation 10 min after the mist sauna bathing were significantly higher at higher RT and RH except between RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH and RT 45 °C 86 % RH which exhibited no significant difference. We concluded that the micro mist sauna produced by water crushing method induced

  10. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in oil mist-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvholm, B.; Bake, B.; Lavenius, B.; Thiringer, G.; Vokmann, R.

    1982-06-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was registered and ventilatory function was determined in 164 men exposed to oil mist. The average exposure time was 16.2 years. One hundred fifty-nine office workers served as controls. The exposed men reported more respiratory symptoms: 14% of the exposed nonsmokers v. 2% of the nonsmoking controls having cough at least three months a year. There were non significant differences between spirometric measurements and chest roentgenograms of the men exposed to oil mist and those of the office workers. The lung function of 25 nonsmoking exposed men was further examined with other lung function tests. The mean values for closing volume, slope of the alveolar plateau, total lung capacity, residual volume, elastic recoil at various lung volumes, and diffusion capacity did not differ significantly.

  11. Recommendations for the use of mist nets for inventory and monitoring of bird populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralph, C. John; Dunn, Erica H.; Peach, Will J.; Handel, Colleen M.; Ralph, C. John; Dunn, Erica H.

    2004-01-01

    We provide recommendations on the best practices for mist netting for the purposes of monitoring population parameters such as abundance and demography. Studies should be carefully thought out before nets are set up, to ensure that sampling design and estimated sample size will allow study objectives to be met. Station location, number of nets, type of nets, net placement, and schedule of operation should be determined by the goals of the particular project, and we provide guidelines for typical mist-net studies. In the absence of study-specific requirements for novel protocols, commonly used protocols should be used to enable comparison of results among studies. Regardless of the equipment, net layout, or netting schedule selected, it is important for all studies that operations be strictly standardized, and a well-written operation protocol will help in attaining this goal. We provide recommendations for data to be collected on captured birds, and emphasize the need for good training of project personnel

  12. A chamber study of the influence of boreal BVOC emissions and sulfuric acid on nanoparticle formation rates at ambient concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Maso, M.; Liao, L.; Wildt, J.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Tillmann, R.; Sipilä, M.; Hakala, J.; Lehtipalo, K.; Ehn, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D.; Mentel, T.

    2016-02-01

    Aerosol formation from biogenic and anthropogenic precursor trace gases in continental background areas affects climate via altering the amount of available cloud condensation nuclei. Significant uncertainty still exists regarding the agents controlling the formation of aerosol nanoparticles. We have performed experiments in the Jülich plant-atmosphere simulation chamber with instrumentation for the detection of sulfuric acid and nanoparticles, and present the first simultaneous chamber observations of nanoparticles, sulfuric acid, and realistic levels and mixtures of biogenic volatile compounds (BVOCs). We present direct laboratory observations of nanoparticle formation from sulfuric acid and realistic BVOC precursor vapour mixtures performed at atmospherically relevant concentration levels. We directly measured particle formation rates separately from particle growth rates. From this, we established that in our experiments, the formation rate was proportional to the product of sulfuric acid and biogenic VOC emission strength. The formation rates were consistent with a mechanism in which nucleating BVOC oxidation products are rapidly formed and activate with sulfuric acid. The growth rate of nanoparticles immediately after birth was best correlated with estimated products resulting from BVOC ozonolysis.

  13. A technique to prevent capturing birds in unattended, furled mist nets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    A technique was developed to prevent the inadvertent capturing of birds in unattended mist nets left in place for long periods of time. This was accomplished by placing furled nets on top of 9-inch wide strips of 30-pound roofing felt secured to the ground between net support poles. All materials used are widely available and procedures used to make the felt strips and install them are described.

  14. An in-hospital evaluation of the sonic mist ultrasonic room humidifier.

    PubMed

    Chatburn, R L; Lough, M D; Klinger, J D

    1984-09-01

    It is generally recognized that nebulizers can be a source of nosocomial infection. 'Cold mist' room humidifiers are a particular problem because they are difficult to sterilize. We evaluated a new device, the Sonic Mist ultrasonic room humidifier, to determine how quickly it became contaminated during continuous use by a population of cystic fibrosis patients. In addition, the study was designed to test the effectiveness of placing a bacterial filter on the air inlet of the humidifier. We found that the entire humidifier could withstand repeated gas sterilization. Data obtained from 18 humidifiers involving cystic fibrosis patients indicate that the earliest humidifier contamination occurred after 5 days of continuous use. Although all patients had large numbers of gram-negative bacilli as predominant sputum flora, only 7 episodes of contamination were found during 34 humidifier-use periods. Three units equipped with filters became contaminated (5-7 days) and four unfiltered units became contaminated (6-11 days), indicating that the use of an inlet filter made no apparent difference. The organisms recovered from contaminated units were not found as sputum flora and would not generally be considered of clinical significance in cystic fibrosis sputum cultures. Probable sources of the organisms were room dust and hand contamination. A further test of the inlet filter was performed by exposing filtered and unfiltered units to mist from an intentionally contaminated humidifier. Again, the contamination rate was low and the filter apparently made no difference. These results indicate that the Sonic Mist humidifier may be appropriate for hospital use if adequate sterilization and contamination-monitoring practices are followed.

  15. Priming by Hexanoic Acid Induce Activation of Mevalonic and Linolenic Pathways and Promotes the Emission of Plant Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Eugenio; Camañes, Gemma; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Hexanoic acid (Hx) is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of Hx in response to the challenge pathogen A. alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used 13C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of 13C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than 200 molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by Hx. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of Hx this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application. PMID:27148319

  16. Diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis with technetium 99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, C.A.; Keeffe, E.B.; Lieberman, D.A.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Gilbert, S.; Eklem, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid planar biliary scintigraphy combined with single photon emission computed tomography could detect sclerosing cholangitis and provide additional information regarding the extent and severity of disease. Thirteen patients with sclerosing cholangitis and 13 normal control subjects were studied. Scintigraphic results were also compared with previously reported studies of patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction and with primary biliary cirrhosis. The planar scintigraphy in patients with sclerosing cholangitis showed beading or bandlike constrictions of the biliary tract corresponding to lesions seen on cholangiography, and the image pattern was distinctly different from images obtained from patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction or primary biliary cirrhosis. The single photon emission computed tomography images of the liver in patients with sclerosing cholangitis demonstrated multiple focal areas of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid retention, representing bile stasis in intrahepatic bile ducts. Compared to controls, the mean hepatic clearance half-time of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid was markedly delayed in patients with sclerosing cholangitis (6-10 times normal). Individual patients with sclerosing cholangitis had wider variation in isotope clearance half-time from three regions of the liver than patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction, consistent with regional difference in disease severity and variable impairment of bile flow. In 4 patients with sclerosing cholangitis with incomplete filling of the right and left hepatic ducts at cholangiography, planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy provided evidence of significant intrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis.

  17. The MiST2 database: a comprehensive genomics resource on microbial signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Luke E; Zhulin, Igor B

    2010-01-01

    The MiST2 database (http://mistdb.com) identifies and catalogs the repertoire of signal transduction proteins in microbial genomes. Signal transduction systems regulate the majority of cellular activities including the metabolism, development, host-recognition, biofilm production, virulence, and antibiotic resistance of human pathogens. Thus, knowledge of the proteins and interactions that comprise these communication networks is an essential component to furthering biomedical discovery. These are identified by searching protein sequences for specific domain profiles that implicate a protein in signal transduction. Compared to the previous version of the database, MiST2 contains a host of new features and improvements including the following: draft genomes; extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor protein identification; enhanced classification of signaling proteins; novel, high-quality domain models for identifying histidine kinases and response regulators; neighboring two-component genes; gene cart; better search capabilities; enhanced taxonomy browser; advanced genome browser; and a modern, biologist-friendly web interface. MiST2 currently contains 966 complete and 157 draft bacterial and archaeal genomes, which collectively contain more than 245 000 signal transduction proteins. The majority (66%) of these are one-component systems, followed by two-component proteins (26%), chemotaxis (6%), and finally ECF factors (2%).

  18. Recapture Heterogeneity in Cliff Swallows: Increased Exposure to Mist Nets Leads to Net Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Charles R.; Brown, Mary Bomberger; Lear, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often use mark-recapture to estimate demographic variables such as abundance, growth rate, or survival for samples of wild animal populations. A common assumption underlying mark-recapture is that all animals have an equal probability of detection, and failure to meet or correct for this assumption–as when certain members of the population are either easier or more difficult to capture than other animals–can lead to biased and inaccurate demographic estimates. We built within-year and among-years Cormack-Jolly-Seber recaptures-only models to identify causes of capture heterogeneity for a population of colonially nesting cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) caught using mist-netting as a part of a 20-year mark-recapture study in southwestern Nebraska, U.S.A. Daily detection of cliff swallows caught in stationary mist nets at their colony sites declined as the birds got older and as the frequency of netting at a site within a season increased. Experienced birds’ avoidance of the net could be countered by sudden disturbances that startled them into a net, such as when we dropped a net over the side of a bridge or flushed nesting cliff swallows into a stationary net positioned at a colony entrance. Our results support the widely held, but seldom tested, belief that birds learn to avoid stationary mist nets over time, but also show that modifications of traditional field methods can reduce this source of recapture heterogeneity. PMID:23472138

  19. The MiST2 database: a comprehensive genomics resource on microbial signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Luke E.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2010-01-01

    The MiST2 database (http://mistdb.com) identifies and catalogs the repertoire of signal transduction proteins in microbial genomes. Signal transduction systems regulate the majority of cellular activities including the metabolism, development, host-recognition, biofilm production, virulence, and antibiotic resistance of human pathogens. Thus, knowledge of the proteins and interactions that comprise these communication networks is an essential component to furthering biomedical discovery. These are identified by searching protein sequences for specific domain profiles that implicate a protein in signal transduction. Compared to the previous version of the database, MiST2 contains a host of new features and improvements including the following: draft genomes; extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor protein identification; enhanced classification of signaling proteins; novel, high-quality domain models for identifying histidine kinases and response regulators; neighboring two-component genes; gene cart; better search capabilities; enhanced taxonomy browser; advanced genome browser; and a modern, biologist-friendly web interface. MiST2 currently contains 966 complete and 157 draft bacterial and archaeal genomes, which collectively contain more than 245 000 signal transduction proteins. The majority (66%) of these are one-component systems, followed by two-component proteins (26%), chemotaxis (6%), and finally ECF factors (2%). PMID:19900966

  20. Controllable surface morphology and properties via mist polymerization on a plasma-treated polymethyl methacrylate surface.

    PubMed

    Wan, S J; Wang, L; Xu, X J; Zhao, C H; Liu, X D

    2014-02-14

    Surface modification by grafting polymers on solid materials is an important strategy used to improve surface properties. This article reports that under appropriate conditions, very thin layers with desired morphologies may be constructed on a plasma-treated substrate by feeding a small quantity of a monomer with a mist stream carrying droplets produced from monomer solutions. We investigate the effects of process parameters that affect layer morphology, including exposure time to the mist stream, concentration of the monomer solution, and solvent selectivity. For a methyl methacrylate solution in ethanol, nanoparticles are uniformly grown with increasing monomer concentration or exposure time and finally form a porous layer at 3.65 mol L(-1) for 30 min. Decreasing solvent polarity not only affects surface morphology, but also increases hydrophobicity of the resulting surface. With 2,2,3,4,4,4-hexafluorobutyl methacrylate as the monomer, SEM and AFM micrographs indicated that mist polymerization results in numerous microspheres on the activated surface. These experimental results were interpreted by a mechanism in terms of an in situ polymerization accompanied by a phase transformation of the resulting polymer. Specifically, plasma treatment provides highly active cations and radicals to initiate very rapid polymerization, and the resulting polymers are consequently deposited from the liquid onto the surface under phase transition mechanisms.

  1. Feasibility Study of Vapor-Mist Phase Reaction Lubrication Using a Thioether Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.; Krantz, Timothy L.

    2007-01-01

    A primary technology barrier preventing the operation of gas turbine engines and aircraft gearboxes at higher temperatures is the inability of currently used liquid lubricants to survive at the desired operating conditions over an extended time period. Current state-of-the-art organic liquid lubricants rapidly degrade at temperatures above 300 C; hence, another form of lubrication is necessary. Vapor or mist phase reaction lubrication is a unique, alternative technology for high temperature lubrication. The majority of past studies have employed a liquid phosphate ester that was vaporized or misted, and delivered to bearings or gears where the phosphate ester reacted with the metal surfaces generating a solid lubricious film. This method resulted in acceptable operating temperatures suggesting some good lubrication properties, but the continuous reaction between the phosphate ester and the iron surfaces led to wear rates unacceptable for gas turbine engine or aircraft gearbox applications. In this study, an alternative non-phosphate liquid was used to mist phase lubricate a spur gearbox rig operating at 10,000 rpm under highly loaded conditions. After 21 million shaft revolutions of operation the gears exhibited only minor wear.

  2. Removal of Water Vapor in a Mist Singlet Oxygen Generator for Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Shigeki; Endo, Masamori; Nanri, Kenzo; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2004-02-01

    The mist singlet oxygen generator (Mist-SOG) for a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) has been developed in order to increase basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) utilization. It was clarified that the Mist-SOG generated much more water vapor than conventional SOGs because the heat capacity of BHP is small. The water vapor deactivates the excited iodine and depresses the laser power. Therefore, a jet-cold trap was developed in order to remove the water vapor while maintaining a minimum deactivation of singlet oxygen. In this method, a nozzle was used to spray chilled H2O2 at 238 K as a thin layer directly to the gas flow to achieve a large specific surface area for water vapor. As a result, the water vapor mole fraction was reduced to 7% from 18% with the BHP utilization of 21% at the Cl2 consumption rate of 3.5 mmol/s (Cl2 input flow rate of 8.0 mmol/s) for 65-μm-diameter BHP droplets.

  3. Aspartic acid interaction with cobalt(II) in dilute aqueous solution: A 57Co emission Mössbauer spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; Kovács, Krisztina; Homonnay, Zoltan; Kuzmann, Erno; Vértes, Attila

    2012-03-01

    Emission (57Co) Mössbauer spectra of the aspartic acid—57CoCl2 system were measured at T = 80 K in frozen aqueous solution and in the form of a dried residue of this solution. The Mössbauer spectra, besides a weak contribution from after-effects, showed two Fe2 + /Co2 + components which were ascribed to octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated 57CoII microenvironments in the Asp-cobalt(II) complex. This dual coordination mode may be due to the involvement of the second terminal carboxylic group of aspartic acid in the coordination sphere of Co.

  4. Low incidence of paradoxical bronchoconstriction in asthma and COPD patients during chronic use of Respimat soft mist inhaler.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Rick; Pavia, Demetri; Dewberry, Helen; Alexander, Karen; Iacono, Philippe; Ponitz, Hans; Beck, Ekkehard

    2005-09-01

    Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) is a new-generation inhaler that offers improved lung deposition compared with chlorofluorocarbon metered dose inhalers (CFC-MDIs). Bronchodilators administered via Respimat SMI are preserved and stabilised with low concentrations of benzalkonium chloride and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid, both of which have been reported to cause dose-related paradoxical bronchoconstriction. The aim of this analysis was to compare the incidence of paradoxical bronchoconstriction after chronic use of bronchodilators via Respimat SMI and CFC-MDI. Data from three clinical trials, in which patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) received ipratropium bromide alone or in combination with fenoterol hydrobromide, or placebo via Respimat SMI or CFC-MDI for 12 weeks, were included in the analysis. In order to evaluate the risk of paradoxical bronchoconstriction, we identified four respiratory events that might have occurred within 30 min of inhalation on four test days; these were: 'bronchospasm', 'other respiratory adverse events', 'rescue medication use' and 'asymptomatic drop in FEV(1) 15% from baseline'. In total, 631 asthma and 1538 COPD patients participated in the three studies. No occurrences of bronchospasm were reported with Respimat SMI on any test day. Overall, the incidence of respiratory events possibly indicative of paradoxical bronchoconstriction was low and similar for both devices. There was no increase in the incidence of events during 12 weeks' treatment. Delivery of bronchodilators by Respimat SMI is safe with regard to paradoxical bronchoconstriction during chronic use in patients with asthma or COPD.

  5. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  6. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on methane emission in a paddy field and rice root exudation of low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    PubMed

    He, Yongmei; Zhan, Fangdong; Li, Yuan; Xu, Weiwei; Zu, Yanqun; Yue, Ming

    2016-06-08

    A local rice variety, "Baijiaolaojing", was grown in a paddy field in the Yuanyang rice terraces under ambient and supplemental levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-315 nm) radiation. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation (5 and 10 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) on methane emissions in the paddy field were evaluated using a closed-chamber gas chromatography-based system, and the contents of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in root exudates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peaks in methane emissions in the paddy field were detected at 60, 80 and 100 days after rice transplantation. The highest level of cumulative methane emissions occurred at the tillering stage, followed by the jointing-booting and maturity stages. The lowest level was found at the flowering stage. The enhanced UV-B radiation did not change the seasonal variation in methane emissions in the paddy field; however, it induced a significant increase in the flux of methane emissions at the jointing-booting and maturity stages, as well as a significant increase in the cumulative flux of methane emissions throughout the growth period. In addition, the enhanced UV-B radiation caused an increase in the contents of oxalic acid and succinic acid and a decrease in the contents of tartaric acid and malic acid in rice root exudates. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.725, p < 0.01) was found between the content of oxalic acid and the methane emissions in the paddy field. The results indicated that enhanced UV-B radiation promoted methane emissions in the paddy field, which was closely associated with its impact on the exudation of LMWOAs by rice roots.

  7. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA) offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen system increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide (CO2), so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. Fine Water Mist extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. From a flight hardware design perspective, the fine water mist fire extinguisher has two major elements: (1) the nozzle and crew interface, and (2) the tank. The nozzle and crew interface has been under development for several years. It has gone through several design iterations, and has been part of more than 400 fire challenge and spray characterizations. The crew and vehicle interface aspects of the design will use the heritage of the CO2 based Portable Fire Extinguisher, to minimize the disruption to the crew and integration impacts to the ISS. The microgravity use environment of the system poses a set of unique design requirements

  8. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  9. Feeding reduced crude protein diets with crystalline amino acids supplementation reduce air gas emissions from housing.

    PubMed

    Li, Q-F; Trottier, N; Powers, W

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP by 1.5% and supplementing crystalline AA (CAA) to meet the standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA requirements for growing and finishing pigs decreases air emissions of ammonia (NH), nitrous oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO) compared with an industry standard diet, without reducing growth performance. Seventy-two pigs were allocated to 12 rooms (6 pigs per room) and 2 diets (6 rooms per diet) formulated according to a 5-phase feeding program across the grow-finish period (107 d total). The diets consisted of a standard diet containing 18.5 to 12.2% CP or a reduced CP diet containing 17.5 to 11.0% CP + CAA over the course of the 5-phase feeding program. Gases (NH, NO, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nonmethane total hydrocarbon, and CO) and ventilation rates were measured continuously from the rooms. Compared with standard diet, ADG and feed conversion of pigs fed reduced CP + CAA diets did not differ (2.7 kg gain/d and 0.37 kg gain/kg feed, respectively). Compared with standard diet, feeding reduced CP + CAA diets decreased ( < 0.01) NH emissions by 46% over the 107-d period (5.4 and 2.9 g · pig · d, respectively). Change in NH emissions for each percentage unit reduction in dietary CP concentration corresponded with 47.9, 53.2, 26.8, 26.5, and 51.6% during Phases 1 through 5, respectively. Emissions of other gases did not differ between diets. Feeding reduced CP diets formulated based on SID AA requirements for grow-finisher swine is effective in reducing NH emissions from housing compared with recent industry formulations and does not impact growth performances.

  10. Detection and Assessment Using Positron Emission Tomography of Genetically Determined Defects in Myocardial Fatty Acid Utilization. Final report, 8/1/93-6/30/97

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Steven R.

    2000-04-09

    An approach using positron emission tomography (PET) was developed, validated and used to measure myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with inherited forms of heart failure. Abnormalities were correlated with the severity of the clinical illness. The approach developed was also shown to identify abnormalities in myocardial fatty acid metabolism in some patients with acquired forms of heart failure. The PET technique thus permits identification of abnormal fatty acid metabolism and provides an approach to evaluate the efficacy of interventional strategies.

  11. EPA`s overview of the Acid Rain Program`s emissions tracking system (ETS) quarterly report process

    SciTech Connect

    Wockenfuss, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Acid Rain Program`s Emission Tracking System (ETS) was developed to collect, quality assure and publish the monitored and sampled emissions data collected and reported by the electric utility industry. Data are collected from fossil-fuel burning electrical generating stations that are affected by the Acid Rain Program. Since its operational start in 1993 the ETS and the data collection that surrounds it, the quarterly report process, has evolved to handle the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) increased expectations of quarterly report data quality. The quarterly report process that supports the ETS provides utilities with multiple data submission options. It also provides software tools so that utilities can perform their own data assessment. This paper highlights the quarterly report process and the systems that are at the center of that process. It also analyzes utility performance relating to their 1995 and 1996 quarterly data reports and previews how the EPA`s quarterly report process will evolve over the next year.

  12. Effects of acetic acid injection and operating conditions on NO emission in a vortexing fluidized bed combustor using response surface methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Fuping Qian; Chiensong Chyang; Weishen Yen

    2009-07-15

    The effects of acetic acid injection and operating conditions on NO emission were investigated in a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC), an integration of circular freeboard and a rectangular combustion chamber. Operating conditions, such as the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber, the bed temperature and the injecting location of acetic acid, were determined by means of response surface methodology (RSM), which enables the examination of parameters with a moderate number of experiments. In RSM, NO emission concentration after acetic acid injection and NO removal percentage at the exit of the VFBC are used as the objective function. The results show that the bed temperature has a more important effect on the NO emission than the injecting location of acetic acid and the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber. Meanwhile, the injecting location of acetic acid and the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber have a more important effect on the NO removal percentage than the bed temperature. NO emission can be decreased by injecting the acetic acid into the combustion chamber, and NO emission decreases with the height of the acetic acid injecting location above the distributor. On the other hand, NO removal percentage increases with the height of the acetic acid injecting location, and NO emission increases with the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber and the bed temperature. NO removal percentage increases with the stoichiometric oxygen, and increases first, then decreases with the bed temperature. Also, a higher NO removal percentage could be obtained at 850{sup o}C. 26 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure.

  14. Tropospheric sulfur cycle: How acidity and ship emission impact on it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, H.; Prather, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    The global tropospheric sulfur cycle has been simulated by a global three-dimensional chemistry-transport model (CTM) using a O3-NOx-NMHC-SOx photochemical model with four sulfur species SO2, SO-24, MSA, and DMS. A new emission inventory of sea ships and diagnosed pH value instead of fixed pH value have been used in the 3D CTM. Results indicate that sulfur simulations have been improved over the ocean areas by including ship emission and over the heavy pollutant areas by considering diagnosed pH value. The global mean tropospheric lifetimes of SO2, SO-24, MSA, and DMS are comparable to the previous researches. Model data of consistent and high mean molar ratios of MSA/nss-SO2-4 around high latitude south hemisphere and low ratios at low-to-middle latitudes of the south Pacific are consistent with the observations.

  15. Biomass Production of Hairy Roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a Scaled-Up Mist Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Liu, Chunzhao; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy roots have the potential to produce a variety of valuable small and large molecules. The mist reactor is a gas phase bioreactor that has shown promise for low-cost culture of hairy roots. Using a newer, disposable culture bag, mist reactor performance was studied with two species, Artemisia annua L. and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), at scales from 1 to 20 L. Both species of hairy roots when grown at 1 L in the mist reactor showed growth rates that surpassed that in shake flasks. From the information gleaned at 1 L, Arachis was scaled further to 4 and then 20 L. Misting duty cycle, culture medium flow rate, and timing of when flow rate was increased were varied. In a mist reactor increasing the misting cycle or increasing the medium flow rate are the two alternatives for increased delivery of liquid nutrients to the root bed. Longer misting cycles beyond 2–3 min were generally deemed detrimental to growth. On the other hand, increasing the medium flow rate to the sonic nozzle especially during the exponential phase of root growth (weeks 2–3) was the most important factor for increasing growth rates and biomass yields in the 20 L reactors. A. hypogaea growth in 1 L reactors was μ = 0.173 day−1 with biomass yield of 12.75 g DWL−1. This exceeded that in shake flasks at μ = 0.166 day−1 and 11.10 g DWL−1. Best growth rate and biomass yield at 20 L was μ = 0.147 and 7.77 g DWL−1, which was mainly achieved when medium flow rate delivery was increased. The mist deposition model was further evaluated using this newer reactor design and when the apparent thickness of roots (+hairs) was taken into account, the empirical data correlated with model predictions. Together these results establish the most important conditions to explore for future optimization of the mist bioreactor for culture of hairy roots. PMID:20687140

  16. Sodium cromoglycate and atropine block the fall in FEV1 but not the cough induced by hypotonic mist.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, R W; Collier, J G

    1984-01-01

    In a group of patients with mild asthma the inhalation of mist derived from ultrasonically nebulised distilled water caused an increase in cough and a fall in FEV1. Double blind administration for five minutes of sodium cromoglycate (from an original solution containing 30 mg/ml) or atropine (2 mg/ml) by inhalation from a Minineb nebuliser, 30 minutes before the mist challenge, caused a significant reduction in the fall in FEV1 (p less than 0.05), but not in cough, by comparison with the protection afforded by placebo (saline). In a second study the fall in FEV1 caused by the inhalation of distilled water was not significantly different from that seen in response to hypotonic sodium chloride (1.7 g/l, 58 mmol/l), but both produced a significantly greater fall than did a similar mist containing sodium cromoglycate at an original concentration of 10 mg/ml (58 mmol/l). The results show that both atropine and sodium cromoglycate can block the fall in FEV1 due to mist and that protection by sodium cromoglycate is immediate. These results suggest that sodium cromoglycate blocks the nervous reflexes concerned in the response to mist, probably in the afferent limb of the reflex. PMID:6437001

  17. Application of atomic force microscopy in determining the fractal dimension of the mirror, mist, and hackle region of silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.L. Mecholsky, J.J.

    2011-05-15

    Fractal analysis has been used as a method to study fracture surfaces of brittle materials. However, it has not been determined if the fractal characteristics of brittle materials is consistent throughout the fracture surface. Therefore, the fractal dimensional increment of the mirror, mist, and hackle regions of the fracture surface of silica glass was determined using atomic force microscopy. The fractal dimensional increment of the mirror region (0.17-0.26) was determined to be statistically greater than that for the mist (0.08-0.12) and hackle (0.08-0.13) regions. It is thought that the increase in the fractal dimensional increment is caused by a greater tortuosity in the mirror region due to, most likely, the slower crack velocity of the propagating crack in that region and that there is a point between the mirror and mist region at which the fractal dimension decreases and becomes constant. - Research Highlights: {yields} The fracture surface of silica glass does not have a constant fractal dimension. {yields} Mirror region has greater fractal dimension than mist or hackle region. {yields} Fractal dimension decreases between mirror and mist region. {yields} Greater fractal dimension could be due to slower crack velocity in mirror region.

  18. Coping with mist-net capture-rate bias: Canopy height and several extrinsic factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallory, Elizabeth P.; Brokaw, Nicholas V. L.; Hess, Steven C.

    2004-01-01

    Many factors other than a species' actual abundance can affect mist-net capture rates. We used ANCOVA models to quantify some potential biases and control their effects, producing adjusted estimates of capture rates that are more directly comparable among mist-net stations. Data came from 46 two-day mist-net sessions from September 1990 to May 1992 at six subtropical forest stations in the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, northwest Belize. Factors evaluated included canopy height at net sites, long-term net shyness (days elapsed between first and last netting day of the entire study period), season (wet vs. dry), total rainfall during a netting session, and temperature. Number of individuals and species captured/10 net-h declined at each net with increasing canopy height above the net. Capture rates differed significantly among some of the stations. Elapsed days and rainfall caused significant bias in capture rates, which were statistically controlled within the ANCOVA, whereas season and temperature did not. Capture rates varied among sessions, but there was a slight and significant decline over the entire study period for all stations combined. Rainfall significantly depressed capture rates somewhat on a daily basis, but capture rates did not differ between wet and dry seasons. When we replaced the station variable in the ANCOVA with mean canopy height, the model was still highly significant, but did not explain as much of the variation in capture rates. Statistical analysis provides an objective means of interpreting data and estimating reliability, but only if statistical assumptions of the analyses are met. We discuss the need for including randomization in the experimental design, standardizing netting protocol, and quantifying sources of bias in the field, before ANCOVA or other parametric statistical techniques can be used to partition effects of biases.

  19. Optimizing Sampling Design to Deal with Mist-Net Avoidance in Amazonian Birds and Bats

    PubMed Central

    Marques, João Tiago; Ramos Pereira, Maria J.; Marques, Tiago A.; Santos, Carlos David; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas. PMID:24058579

  20. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    PubMed

    Marques, João Tiago; Ramos Pereira, Maria J; Marques, Tiago A; Santos, Carlos David; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  1. Emission of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCA) from heated surfaces made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) applied in food contact materials and consumer products.

    PubMed

    Schlummer, Martin; Sölch, Christina; Meisel, Theresa; Still, Mona; Gruber, Ludwig; Wolz, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been widely discussed as a source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which has been used in the production of fluoropolymers. PTFE may also contain unintended perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) caused by thermolysis of PTFE, which has been observed at temperatures above 300°C. Common PTFE coated food contact materials and consumer goods are operated at temperatures above 200°C. However, knowledge on possible emissions of PFCAs is limited. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to investigate and evaluate the emission of PFCAs from PTFE coated products with both, normal use and overheating scenarios. Four pans, claimed to be PFOA free, and nine consumer products were investigated. At normal use conditions (<230°C), emissions from PTFE surfaces were trapped for 1h. Overheating scenarios (>260°C) recorded emissions during a 30min heating of empty pans on a stove. Emissions were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS. Results indicate the emission of PFCAs, whereas no perfluorinated sulfonic acids were traced. At normal use conditions total emissions of PFCAs accounted for 4.75ng per hour. Overheated pans, however, released far higher amounts with up to 12190ng PFCAs per hour at 370°C. Dominating contributors where PFBA and PFOA at normal use and PFBA and PFPeA during overheating. Temperature seems to be the main factor controlling the emission of PFCAs. A worst case estimation of human exposure revealed that emissions of PFCAs from heated PTFE surfaces would be far below the TDI of 1500ng PFOA per kg body weight.

  2. Effect of DL-malic acid supplementation on feed intake, methane emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Foley, P A; Kenny, D A; Callan, J J; Boland, T M; O'Mara, F P

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary concentration of dl-malic acid (MA) on DMI, CH(4) emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle. Two Latin square experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, six beef heifers (19 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned in a duplicated Latin square to 1 of 3 dietary concentrations of MA on a DMI basis (0%, MA-0; 3.75%, MA-3.75; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) over 3 periods. In Exp. 2, four rumen-fistulated steers (48 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary concentrations of MA (0%, MA-0; 2.5%, MA-2.5; 5.0%, MA-5.0; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) on a DMI basis, over 4 periods. Both experimental diets consisted of grass silage and pelleted concentrate (containing MA). Silage was fed ad libitum once daily (a.m.), whereas concentrate was fed twice daily (a.m. and p.m.) with the aim of achieving a total DMI of 40:60 silage:concentrate. In both Exp. 1 and 2, experimental periods consisted of 28 d, incorporating a 13-d acclimatization, a 5-d measurement period, and a 10-d washout period. In Exp. 1, enteric CH(4), feed apparent digestibility, and feed intake were measured over the 5-d measurement period. In Exp. 2, rumen fluid was collected on d 16 to 18, immediately before (a.m.) feeding and 2, 4, 6, and 8 h thereafter. Rumen pH was determined and samples were taken for protozoa count, VFA, and ammonia analysis. Enteric CH(4) emissions were estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique and feed apparent digestibility was estimated by using chromic oxide as an external marker for fecal output. In Exp. 1, increasing dietary MA led to a linear decrease in total DMI (P < 0.001) and total daily CH(4) emissions (P < 0.001). Compared with the control diet, the greatest concentration of MA decreased total daily CH(4) emissions by 16%, which corresponded to a 9% reduction per unit of DMI. Similarly, in Exp. 2, inclusion of MA reduced DMI in a linear (P = 0.002) and quadratic (P < 0.001) fashion. Increasing dietary MA led to a linear

  3. Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: acute ocular and respiratory effects

    PubMed Central

    Wieslander, G; Norback, D; Lindgren, T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Propylene glycol (PG) (1-2 propanediol; CAS No 57-55-6) is a low toxicity compound widely used as a food additive, in pharmaceutical preparations, in cosmetics, and in the workplace—for example, water based paints, de-icing fluids, and cooling liquids. Exposure to PG mist may occur from smoke generators in discotheques, theatres, and aviation emergency training. Propylene glycol may cause contact allergy, but there is sparse information on health effects from occupational exposure to PG.
METHODS—Non-asthmatic volunteers (n=27) were exposed in an aircraft simulator to PG mist over 1 minute, during realistic training conditions. Geometric mean concentration of PG was 309 mg/m3 (range 176-851 mg/m3), with the highest concentrations in the afternoon. The medical investigation was performed both before and after the exposure (within 15 minutes). It included an estimate of tear film stability break up time, nasal patency by acoustic rhinometry, dynamic spirometry, and a doctor's administered questionnaire on symptoms.
RESULTS—After exposure to PG mist for 1 minute tear film stability decreased, ocular and throat symptoms increased, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) was slightly reduced, and self rated severity of dyspnoea was slightly increased. No effect was found for nasal patency, vital capacity (VC), FVC, nasal symptoms, dermal symptoms, smell of solvent, or any systemic symptoms. Those exposed to the higher concentrations in the afternoon had a more pronounced increase of throat symptoms, and a more pronounced decrease of tear film stability. In four subjects who reported development of irritative cough during exposure to PG, FEV1 was decreased by 5%, but FEV1 was unchanged among those who did not develop a cough. Those who developed a cough also had an increased perception of mild dyspnoea.
CONCLUSION—Short exposure to PG mist from artificial smoke generators may cause acute ocular and upper airway

  4. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher ICES Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Anna L.; Carlile, Christie; Graf, John; Young, Gina

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA) offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen system increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide (CO2), so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. FWM extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. The following paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE. In addition, the NASA ISS specific fire standards will be described which were developed to establish acceptable extinguisher performance. The paper will also discuss the flight hardware design. The fin e water mist fire extinguisher has two major elements: (1) the nozzle and crew interface, and (2) the tank. The nozzle and crew interface have been under development for several years. They have gone through several design iterations, and have been part of more than 400 fire challenge and spray characterizations. The

  5. High T(sub c) superconductors fabricated by plasma aerosol mist deposition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, X. W.; Vuong, K. D.; Leone, A.; Shen, C. Q.; Williams, J.; Coy, M.

    1995-01-01

    We report new results on high T(sub c) superconductors fabricated by a plasma aerosol mist deposition technique, in atmospheric environment. Materials fabricated are YBaCuO, BiPbSrCaCuO, BaCaCuO precursor films for TlBaCaCuO, and other buffers such as YSZ. Depending on processing conditions, sizes of crystallites and/or particles are between dozens of nano-meters and several micrometers. Superconductive properties and other material characteristics can also be tailored.

  6. Field enhancements of packed-bed performance for low-concentration acidic and basic-waste gases from semiconductor manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Chein, Hung Min; Aggarwal, Shankar Gopala; Wu, Hsin Hsien; Chen, Tzu Ming; Huang, Chun-Chao

    2005-05-01

    Low-concentration acidic and basic-waste gas pollutants contribute significantly in the total emission of a facility. Previous results show that the control of high volumetric flow rate (approximately 500 m3/min), low-concentration acidic (< 1 ppm by vol) and basic (< 3 ppm by vol) gases from semiconductor process vent, by conventional wet scrubbing technique is a challenging task. This work was targeted to enhance the performance of packed beds for high-volumetric flow rate, low-concentration acidic (HF, HCl), and basic (NH3)-waste gases from the semiconductor manufacturing process. The methodology used to meet the goal was the application of fine-water mist over the inlet stream before entering to the packed bed and use of the surfactant with mist/packed-bed liquid in low concentration. An experimental study was carried out in two acid-packed beds to optimize the operating conditions, such as pH of the liquid, circulating liquid flow rate, blow-down cycle, and so forth. The relationship among liquid pH, liquid ionic concentration, and the removal efficiency of the packed bed for the pollutants has been discussed considering chemical equilibrium, two-film theory, and Henry's law. For the potential utilization of scrubbing water, the dependency of the efficiency on blow-down cycle was studied, and a mechanism is suggested. The proposed water-mist surfactant system was installed in two acid-packed beds, and performance of the packed beds was compared. The background efficiencies of the acid-packed beds for HF, HCl, and NH3 were found max to be (n = 11) 53, 40, and 27%, whereas after installation of the system, they increased significantly and became 76 +/- 13% (n = 10), 76 +/- 8% (n = 7), and 78 +/- 7% (n = 7), respectively, for inlet concentrations of HF and HCl < 1 ppm and NH3 < 14 ppm. The mechanism by which the surfactants operate to enhance the removal in scrubbing process is suggested considering the hydrodynamic effect and the interfacial effect with the

  7. Influence of surfactant on dynamics of photoinduced motions and light emission of a dye-doped deoxyribonucleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sznitko, Lech; Parafiniuk, Kacper; Miniewicz, Andrzej; Rau, Ileana; Kajzar, Francois; Niziol, Jacek; Hebda, Edyta; Pielichowski, Jan; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw

    2013-10-01

    Pure deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is known to be soluble in water only and exhibits poor temperature stability. In contrary, it is well known that the complex of DNA - with cetyltrimethyl ammonium (CTMA) is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohols and can be processed into very good optical quality thin films by solution casting or spin deposition. Despite the success of DNA-CTMA, there is still need for new cationic surfactants which would extend the range of available solvents for DNA complex. We test and present experimental results of influence of new surfactants replacing CTMA in the DNA complex and based on benzalkonium chloride (BA) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDCA) on their optical properties. Particularly, we were interested in all optical switching and light generation in amplified spontaneous emission process in these materials.

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Misting for Control of Aedes in Cryptic Ground Containers in North Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jacups, Susan P.; Rapley, Luke P.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Benjamin, Seleena; Ritchie, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    In Australia, dengue is not endemic, although the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is established in far north Queensland (FNQ). Aedes albopictus has recently invaded the Torres Strait region, but is not established on mainland Australia. To maintain dengue-free, public health departments in FNQ closely monitor introduced dengue infections and confine outbreaks through rigorous vector control responses. To safeguard mainland Australia from Ae. albopictus establishment, pre-emptive strategies are required to reduce its breeding in difficult to access habitats. We compare the residual efficacy of VectoBac WDG, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) formulation, as a residual treatment when misted across a typical FNQ bushland using a backpack mister (Stihl SR 420 Mist Blower) at two dose rates up to 16 m. Semi-field condition results, over 16 weeks, indicate that Bti provided high mortality rates (> 80%) sustained for 11 weeks. Mist application penetrated 16 m of dense bushland without efficacy decline over distance. PMID:23358637

  9. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis misting for control of Aedes in cryptic ground containers in north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P; Rapley, Luke P; Johnson, Petrina H; Benjamin, Seleena; Ritchie, Scott A

    2013-03-01

    In Australia, dengue is not endemic, although the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is established in far north Queensland (FNQ). Aedes albopictus has recently invaded the Torres Strait region, but is not established on mainland Australia. To maintain dengue-free, public health departments in FNQ closely monitor introduced dengue infections and confine outbreaks through rigorous vector control responses. To safeguard mainland Australia from Ae. albopictus establishment, pre-emptive strategies are required to reduce its breeding in difficult to access habitats. We compare the residual efficacy of VectoBac WDG, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) formulation, as a residual treatment when misted across a typical FNQ bushland using a backpack mister (Stihl SR 420 Mist Blower) at two dose rates up to 16 m. Semi-field condition results, over 16 weeks, indicate that Bti provided high mortality rates (> 80%) sustained for 11 weeks. Mist application penetrated 16 m of dense bushland without efficacy decline over distance.

  10. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF PROCESS CONDITIONS ON THE MASS CONCENTRATION OF CUTTING FLUID MIST IN TURNING. (R825370C057)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cutting fluid mists that are generated during machining processes represent a significant waste stream as well as a health hazard to humans. Epidemiological studies have shown a link between worker exposure to cutting fluid mist and an increase in respiratory ailments and seve...

  11. Studies on remote sensing method of particle size and water density distribution in mists and clouds using laser radar techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, H.; Kobayasi, T.; Inaba, H.

    1979-01-01

    A method of remote measurement of the particle size and density distribution of water droplets was developed. In this method, the size of droplets is measured from the Mie scattering parameter which is defined as the total-to-backscattering ratio of the laser beam. The water density distribution is obtained by a combination of the Mie scattering parameter and the extinction coefficient of the laser beam. This method was examined experimentally for the mist generated by an ultrasonic mist generator and applied to clouds containing rain and snow. Compared with the conventional sampling method, the present method has advantages of remote measurement capability and improvement in accuracy.

  12. Mesa Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST). I. Solar-scaled Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jieun; Dotter, Aaron; Conroy, Charlie; Cantiello, Matteo; Paxton, Bill; Johnson, Benjamin D.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first of a series of papers presenting the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) project, a new comprehensive set of stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones computed using MESA, a state-of-the-art open-source 1D stellar evolution package. In this work, we present models with solar-scaled abundance ratios covering a wide range of ages (5≤slant {log}({Age}) [{year}]≤slant 10.3), masses (0.1≤slant M/{M}⊙ ≤slant 300), and metallicities (-2.0≤slant [{{Z}}/{{H}}]≤slant 0.5). The models are self-consistently and continuously evolved from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the end of hydrogen burning, the white dwarf cooling sequence, or the end of carbon burning, depending on the initial mass. We also provide a grid of models evolved from the PMS to the end of core helium burning for -4.0≤slant [{{Z}}/{{H}}]\\lt -2.0. We showcase extensive comparisons with observational constraints as well as with some of the most widely used existing models in the literature. The evolutionary tracks and isochrones can be downloaded from the project website at http://waps.cfa.harvard.edu/MIST/.

  13. Microorganisms in the Stratosphere (MIST): In-flight Sterilization with UVC Leds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Gregory Michael; Smith, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The stratosphere (10 km to 50 km above sea level) is a unique place on Earth for astrobiological studies of microbes in extreme environments due to the combination of harsh conditions (high ultraviolet radiation, low pressure, desiccation, and low temperatures). Microorganisms in the Stratosphere (MIST) will attempt to characterize the diversity of microbes at these altitudes using a balloon collection device on a meteorological weather balloon. A major challenge of such an aerobiology study is the potential for ground contamination that makes it difficult to distinguish between collected microbes and contaminants. One solution is to use germicidal ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) to sterilize the collection strip. To use this solution, an optimal spatial arrangement of the lights had to be determined to ensure the greatest chance of complete sterilization within the 30 to 60 minute time of balloon ascent. A novel, 3D-printed test stand was developed to experimentally determine viable Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spore reduction after exposure to ultraviolet radiation at various times, angles, and distances. Taken together, the experimental simulations suggested that the UV LEDs on the MIST flight hardware should be active for at least 15 minutes and mounted within 4 cm of the illuminated surface at any angle to achieve optimal sterilization. These findings will aid in the production of the balloon collection device to ensure pristine stratospheric microbial samples are collected. Flight hardware capable of in-flight self-sterilization will enable future life detection missions to minimize both forward contamination and false positives.

  14. [Scattering properties of core-shell structure of mist wrapped dust particles].

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi-qi; Song, Wei; Wang, Yan; Miao, Xin-hui; Xu, Li-jun; Liu, Yu; Li, Cheng; Li Wen-long; Wang, Yi-ran; Cai, Hong-xing

    2014-12-01

    The authors have investigated the optical properties of core-shell structure of mist wrapped dust particles based on the method of discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The influence on the thickness of the elliptical core-shell structure were calculated which the ratio of long axis and short axis is 2:1, and the change of scattering angle for scattering characteristics. The results shows that the thickness of outer layer increase from 1.2 to 4.8 μm with the scattering and extinction coefficient of double core-shell layers particles decrease from 3.4 and 3.43 to 2.543 and 2.545, when the size of inner core isn't change. And scattering relative strength also increased obviously. The thickness of inner core increase from 0.6 to 2.4 μm with the of scattering and extinction coefficient change from 2.59 and 2.88 to 2.6 and 2.76 when thickness of outer remain constant. Effect of the thickness of visible outer layer on the scattering characteristics of double core-shell layers particles is greater, because of the interaction between scattering light and outer materials. The scattering relative intensity decrease with wavelength increased, while increased with the scale of core-shell structure increase. The results make a promotion on the study of the transportation characteristics of laser and scattering characteristics when the atmospheric aerosol and water mist interact together.

  15. Evaluation of three elevated mist-net systems for sampling birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.; Pardieck, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Three light-weight, low-canopy mist-net systems were developed and tested in dry tropical scrub, mangrove and forest habitats. One plastic (polyvinyl chloride) and two aluminum pole systems (with and without pulleys) were used to support mist nets to heights of up to 7.3 m. Although the aluminum telescoping-pole system (without pulleys) was expensive initially ( 79-141/unit (US)), its use reduced capture of nontarget species and may have increased capture of target species when compared with ground-level netting. In one year, its use also reduced labor costs by 756, which completely offset the higher cost of the aluminum telescoping-pole system when compared to the plastic-pole system ( 19/unit). Unlike the plastic-pole system, the aluminum telescoping-pole system was adjustable to any height within its range of 1.8 to 7.3 m, was 1.5 m higher, was more efficient to operate in the field, and was easily moved to new locations. For capture of psittacines, the pulleys of the aluminum telescoping-pole system were not necessary, but their use may assist in efficiently retrieving large numbers of birds from the nets. The aluminum telescoping-pole system was efficient in capturing psittacines, columbids, passerines and possibly chiropterans in habitats with canopies lt 10 m or in the forest subcanopy.

  16. Embedded Systems Hardware Integration and Code Development for Maraia Capsule and E-MIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carretero, Emmanuel S.

    2015-01-01

    The cost of sending large spacecraft to orbit makes them undesirable for carrying out smaller scientific missions. Small spacecraft are more economical and can be tailored for missions where specific tasks need to be carried out, the Maraia capsule is such a spacecraft. Maraia will allow for samples of experiments conducted on the International Space Station to be returned to earth. The use of balloons to conduct experiments at the edge of space is a practical approach to reducing the large expense of using rockets. E-MIST is a payload designed to fly on a high altitude balloon. It can maintain science experiments in a controlled manner at the edge of space. The work covered here entails the integration of hardware onto each of the mentioned systems and the code associated with such work. In particular, the resistance temperature detector, pressure transducers, cameras, and thrusters for Maraia are discussed. The integration of the resistance temperature detectors and motor controllers to E-MIST is described. Several issues associated with sensor accuracy, code lock-up, and in-flight reset issues are mentioned. The solutions and proposed solutions to these issues are explained.

  17. Observations of chemical properties and visibility related to fog, mist and haze

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.S.; Kim, H.S.; Yoon, M.B.

    1996-12-31

    Since 1970 the yearly consumption of fossil fuel in south Korea has steadily increased to 100 MT from 14.2 MT. Meanwhile, it has been found that the number of days of low visibility (< 10 km) has significantly increased due to the occurrence of fog, mist and haze. For example, the low visibility days in Seoul during 1989 were over 207 days in comparison with 21 days at a rural site, Choo-poong-ryong. This similar trend also occurred in other large cities. In Chongwon, daily measurements of visibility at 09 LST have been made since 1991. It was observed that the increase in the frequency of low visibility days was related with the increase in anthropogenic air pollution and water vapor in the study area. According to analyses of data obtained in 1995, the pH values for 73.5% of all samples collected from fog and mist were less than 5.6. The lowest pH value of fog was 4.0. On the other hand, pH values observed for dew and frost in early spring were generally neutral to alkaline in nature, although there was an abundant existence of sulfates and nitrates. This suggests that characteristics of yellow sand occurring in spring appear to determine the pH values in hydrometeors occurring on the Korean peninsula.

  18. Using water mist to reduce self-injurious and stereotypic behavior.

    PubMed

    Bailey, S L; Pokrzywinski, J; Bryant, L E

    1983-01-01

    A mist of water sprayed in the face was used as a punisher for stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors by a boy diagnosed as severely mentally retarded with autistic-like behaviors. The boy had a long history of mouthing and hand-biting behaviors. The latter behavior was evinced by noticeable scar tissue on the backs of his hands. The study took place in a self-contained public school classroom for autistic children and other children with severe communication disorders and functional mental retardation. An ABAB withdrawal design with no treatment probes demonstrated the rapid and dramatic suppressive effects that the response-contingent water mist had on the target behaviors. This procedure was taught to classroom personnel who were able to maintain the suppression with minimal interruption of educational programming for the subject or his peers. No adverse physical effects were observed nor did the child attempt to escape or struggle against the procedure. The results are discussed in relation to ethical considerations and the use of response-contingent aversive stimulation.

  19. Modelling binary homogeneous nucleation of water-sulfuric acid vapours: parameterisation for high temperature emissions.

    PubMed

    Vehkamäki, H; Kulmala, M; Lehtinen, K E J; Noppel, M

    2003-08-01

    Particles formed in the automobile exhaust might form a significant fraction of fine particles in urban air. We have developed a model and produced parametrizations for predicting the particle formation rate at exhaust conditions. We studied the formation in the mixture of water and sulfuric acid vapors and at temperatures between 300 and 400 K. A thermodynamically consistent version of the classical binary homogeneous nucleation model was used. The needed thermodynamical input data (vapor pressures, chemical activities, surface tensions, densities) are carefully investigated and utilized in thermodynamically consistent way. The obtained nucleation rates are parametrized in order to be able to use this nucleation model in aerosol dynamic models, exhaust models, or other process models. The parametrization reduces computational time at least by a factor of 500.

  20. 2005 Crater Lake Formation, Lahar, Acidic Flood, and Gas Emission From Chiginagak Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, J. R.; Scott, W. E.; McGimsey, R. G.; Jorgenson, J.

    2005-12-01

    A 400-m-wide crater lake developed in the formerly snow-and-ice-filled crater of Mount Chiginagak volcano sometime between August 2004 and June 2005, presumably due to increased heat flux from the hydrothermal system. We are also evaluating the possible role of magma intrusion and degassing. In early summer 2005, clay-rich debris and an estimated 5.6 million cubic meters of acidic water from the crater exited through tunnels in the base of a glacier that breaches the south crater rim. Over 27 kilometers downstream, the acidic waters of the flood reached approximately 1.5 meters above current water levels and inundated an important salmon spawning drainage, acidifying at least the surface water of Mother Goose Lake (approximately 1 cubic kilometer in volume) and preventing the annual salmon run. No measurements of pH were taken until late August 2005. At that time the pH of water sampled from the Mother Goose Lake inlet, lake surface, and outlet stream (King Salmon River) was 3.2. Defoliation and leaf damage of vegetation along affected streams, in areas to heights of over 70 meters in elevation above flood level, indicates that a cloud of detrimental gas or aerosol accompanied the flood waters. Analysis of stream water, lake water, and vegetation samples is underway to better determine the agent responsible for the plant damage. This intriguing pattern of gas-damaged vegetation concentrated along and above the flood channels is cause for further investigation into potential hazards associated with Chiginagak's active crater lake. Anecdotal evidence from local lodge owners and aerial photographs from 1953 suggest that similar releases occurred in the mid-1970s and early 1950s.

  1. Near-Roadway Emission of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds and Other Non-Criteria Pollutants at a Southern California Freeway Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, J. A.; Baum, M.; Castonguay, A. E.; Aguirre, V., Jr.; Pesta, A.; Fanter, R. K.; Anderson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Emission control systems in light-duty motor vehicles (LDMVs) have played an important role in improving regional air quality by dramatically reducing the concentration of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides) in exhaust emissions. Unintended side-reactions occurring on the surface of three-way catalysts may lead to emission of a number of non-criteria pollutants whose identity and emission rates are poorly understood. A series of near-roadway field studies conducted between 2009-2015 has investigated LDMV emissions of these pollutants with unprecedented depth of coverage, including reactive nitrogen compounds (NH3, amines, HCN, HONO, and HNO3), organic peroxides, and carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids). Methods to collect these pollutants using mist chambers, annular denuders, impingers, and solid-phase cartridges and quantify their concentration using GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, IC, and colorimetry were developed and validated in the laboratory and field. These methods were subsequently used in near-roadway field studies where the concentrations of the target compounds integrated over 1-4 hour blocks were measured at the edge of a freeway and at a background site 140 m from the roadway. Concentrations followed a steep decreasing gradient from the freeway to the background site. Emission factors (pollutant mass emitted per mass fuel consumed) were calculated by carbon mass balance using the difference in concentration measured between the freeway and background sites for the emitted pollutant and CO2 as a measure of carbon mass in the vehicle exhaust. The significance of these results will be discussed in terms of emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California, emission trends at this site over the period of 2009-2015, and for NH3, emission measurements conducted by our group and others over the period 2000-2015.

  2. Dynamics of carbohydrate residues of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) followed by red-edge excitation spectra and emission anisotropy studies of Calcofluor White.

    PubMed

    Albani, J R; Sillen, A; Coddeville, B; Plancke, Y D; Engelborghs, Y

    1999-11-23

    Dynamics studies on Calcofluor White bound to the carbohydrate residues of sialylated and asialylated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) have been performed. The interaction between the fluorophore and the protein was found to occur preferentially with the glycan residues with a dependence on their spatial conformation. In the presence of sialylated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, excitation at the red edge of the absorption spectrum of calcofluor does not lead to a shift in the fluorescence emission maximum (440 nm) of the fluorophore. Thus, the emission of calcofluor occurs from a relaxed state. This is confirmed by anisotropy studies as a function of temperature (Perrin plot). In the presence of asialylated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, red-edge excitation spectra show an important shift (8 nm) of the fluorescence emission maximum of the probe. This reveals that emission of calcofluor occurs before relaxation of the surrounding carbohydrate residues occurs. Emission from a non-relaxed state means that Calcofluor molecules are bound tightly to the carbohydrate residues, a result confirmed by anisotropy studies.

  3. Concentrations of nitrous acid, nitric acid, nitrite and nitrate in the gas and aerosol phase at a site in the emission zone during ESCOMPTE 2001 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, K.; Möller, D.; Auel, R.; Wieprecht, W.; Kalaß, D.

    2005-03-01

    Ground-based measurements were performed at the "Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphérique et de Transport d`Emissions" (ESCOMPTE) field site E3 (Realtor) about 30 km north of the urban environment of Marseille and east of the industrial centre Berre pond to investigate the formation of nitrous and nitric acid and to detect the distribution of reactive N-species between the gas and particle phase during photochemical pollution events. A wet denuder sampling for gases followed by a steam jet collection for aerosols was both coupled to anion chromatographic analysis. The analytical system provided data continuously with 30-min time resolution between June 13 and July 13, 2001. Indications for heterogeneous formation of nitrous acid during nighttime and daytime on ground and aerosol surfaces were found, the average HNO 2/NO 2 ratio was 6%. Highest concentrations were observed during two episodes of strong pollution accumulation when sea breeze transported industrial, traffic and urban pollution land-inwards. After nocturnal heterogeneous formation (about 0.1 ppb v h -1 were estimated corresponding to increasing HNO 2/NO 2 ratios) and accumulation processes up to 1.2 ppb v HNO 2 were observed. Their photolysis produces up to 5-9×10 6 OH cm -3 s -1 and will contribute significantly to initiation of the daily photochemistry in the lowest part of the troposphere. For the key tropospheric species, HNO 3 daily peaks up to 4 ppb v were detected.

  4. Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) on PCDD/F Emissions from Open Burning of Biomass

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of pesticides prior to agricultural burning and overspray onto forests and grasslands prior to fires has been cited as a cause of halogenated organic compound emissions from biomass combustion. Some pesticides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are used in conside...

  5. Multipathway human health risk assessment concerning air emissions from combustion of Orimulsion fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Teaf, C.M.; Coleman, R.M.; Manning, M.J.; Covert, D.J.; Phelps, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    A multipathway human health risk assessment was conducted concerning air emissions from the combustion of Orimulsion. Exposure was considered for nearby residents who might be exposed by oral, dermal or inhalation pathways, including ingestion of analytes that may be present in meat and agricultural products from nearby areas. Occupational exposure were evaluated via the same intake pathways, except for potential ingestion of food products. Pathways included airborne exposures, deposition on crops, exposures to soils, and uptake by livestock and plants. Livestock intake included ingestion of analytes retained by plants and inhalation of soil-bound particulates. Analytes of potential concern included compounds identified as combustion products of the orimulsion fuel. Air concentrations of analytes, and the areal distribution of these concentrations resulting from stack emissions, were predicted using transport and deposition models. A worst cast scenario for air and cumulative soil concentrations was considered to represent the entire facility project lifetime (20 years) for dry deposition as well as predicted air concentrations occurring at continuous 100% facility operating capacity. Potential exposures to sulfuric acid mist and lead were shown to be much less than levels protective of human populations. Based upon the airborne emissions estimates and the deposition estimates for other constituents of interest, as well as the strongly conservative estimates of the potential for human intake, local health risks contributed from the combustion of Orimulsion fuel at the facility were judged to be negligible.

  6. UV-A emission from fluorescent energy-saving light bulbs alters local retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Heuser, Isabella; Regen, Francesca

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide bans on incandescent light bulbs (ILBs) drive the use of compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs, which emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Potential health issues of these light sources have already been discussed, including speculation about the putative biological effects on light exposed tissues, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized photoisomerization of all-trans retinoic acid (at-RA), a highly light sensitive morphogen, into biologically less active isomers, as a mechanism mediating biological effects of CFLs. Local at-RA is anti-carcinogenic, entrains molecular rhythms and is crucial for skin homeostasis. Therefore, we quantified the impact of CFL irradiation on extra- and intracellular levels of RA isomers using an epidermal cell culture model. Moreover, a biologically relevant impact of CFL irradiation was assessed using highly at-RA-sensitive human neuroblastoma cells. Dose-dependent conversion of extra- and intracellular at-RA into the biologically less active 13-cis-isomer was significantly higher in CFL vs. ILB exposure and completely preventable by employing a UV-filter. Moreover, pre-irradiation of culture media by CFL attenuated at-RA-specific effects on cell viability in human at-RA-sensitive cells in a dose-dependent manner. These findings point towards a biological relevance of CFL-induced at-RA decomposition, providing a mechanism for CFL-mediated effects on environmental health.

  7. New molecular motif for recognizing sialic acid using emissive lanthanide-macrocyclic polyazacarboxylate complexes: deprotonation of a coordinated water molecule controls specific binding.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazuki; Saito, Shingo; Shibukawa, Masami

    2013-06-03

    A new molecular motif--lanthanide-macrocyclic polyazacarboxylate hexadentate complexes, Ln(3+)-ABNOTA--was found to specifically bind to sialic acid with strong emission enhancement and high affinity. The selectivity toward sialic acid over other monosaccharides was one of the highest among artificial receptors. Also, the novel binding mechanism was investigated in detail; binding selectivity is controlled by interactions between sialic acid and both the central metal and a hydroxyl group produced by deprotonation of a coordinated water molecule in the Ln(3+) complex.

  8. Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Nucleic Acid Hybridization Assays on Paper-Based Platforms Using Emissive Nanoparticles as Donors.

    PubMed

    Doughan, Samer; Noor, M Omair; Han, Yi; Krull, Ulrich J

    2017-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) are luminescent nanoparticles (NPs) commonly used in bioassays and biosensors as resonance energy transfer (RET) donors. The narrow and tunable emissions of both QDs and UCNPs make them versatile RET donors that can be paired with a wide range of acceptors. Ratiometric signal processing that compares donor and acceptor emission in RET-based transduction offers improved precision, as it accounts for fluctuations in the absolute photoluminescence (PL) intensities of the donor and acceptor that can result from experimental and instrumental variations. Immobilizing NPs on a solid support avoids problems such as those that can arise with their aggregation in solution, and allows for facile layer-by-layer assembly of the interfacial chemistry. Paper is an attractive solid support for the development of point-of-care diagnostic assays given its ubiquity, low-cost, and intrinsic fluid transport by capillary action. Integration of nanomaterials with paper-based analytical devices (PADs) provides avenues to augment the analytical performance of PADs, given the unique optoelectronic properties of nanomaterials. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of PADs using QDs and UCNPs as RET donors for optical transduction of nucleic acid hybridization. Immobilization of green-emitting QDs (gQDs) on imidazole functionalized cellulose paper is described for use as RET donors with Cy3 molecular dye as acceptors for the detection of SMN1 gene fragment. We also describe the covalent immobilization of blue-emitting UCNPs on aldehyde modified cellulose paper for use as RET donors with orange-emitting QDs (oQDs) as acceptors for the detection of HPRT1 gene fragment. The data described herein is acquired using an epifluorescence microscope, and can also be collected using technology such as a typical electronic camera.

  9. Occupational exposure to mineral oil metalworking fluid (MWFs) mist: Development of new methodologies for mist sampling and analysis. Results from an inter-laboratory comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Huynh, C.; Herrera, H.; Parrat, J.; Wolf, R.; Perret, V.

    2009-02-01

    Metalworking Fluids (MWFs) are largely used in the sector of undercutting, a large professional activity in Switzerland, in particular in the fine mechanic and watch making industry. France proposes a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 1 mg.m-3 of aerosol. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) sets its value at 5 mg.m-3 but a proposal to lower the standard ("intended changes") to 0.2 mg.m-3 of aerosol is pending since 2001. However, it has not become a recognized threshold limit value for exposure. Since 2003, the new Swiss PEL (MAK) recommendations would be 0.2 mg.m-3 of aerosol (oil with boiling point > 350°C without additives) and/or 20 mg.m-3 of oil aerosol + vapour for medium or light oil. To evaluate evaporative losses of sampled oil, the German "Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit" (BGIA) recommends the use of a XAD-2 cartridge behind the filter. The method seems to work perfectly for MWFs in a clean occupational atmosphere free from interference of light vapour cleaning solvent such as White Spirit. But, in real situation, machine shop atmosphere contaminated with traces of White Spirit, the BGIA method failed to estimate the MWFs levels (over-estimation). In this paper, we propose a new approach meant to measure both oil vapours and aerosols. Five inter-laboratory comparisons are discussed, based on the production of oil mist in an experimental chamber under controlled conditions.

  10. Multicomponent Molecular Puzzles for Photofunction Design: Emission Color Variation in Lewis Acid-Base Pair Crystals Coupled with Guest-to-Host Charge Transfer Excitation.

    PubMed

    Ono, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hisaeda, Yoshio

    2015-08-05

    Simple yet ubiquitous multimolecular assembly systems with color-tunable emissions are realized by cooperative electron donor-acceptor interactions, such as the boron-nitrogen (B-N) dative bond as a Lewis acid-base pair and charge transfer (CT) interactions. These are ternary-component systems consisting of a naphthalenediimide derivative (NDI), tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane (TPFB), and aromatic molecules (guest) with an NDI:TPFB:guest ratio of 1:2:2. The crystal shows guest-dependent color-tunable emissions such as deep blue to orange when a guest molecule of benzene is replaced with other π-conjugated systems. A good correlation between the emission wavelength and ionization potential of the guest and electronic structure calculations indicated that the emission is due to the CT transition from the guest to the NDI. The present study suggests that a rational solution of multcomponent molecular puzzles would be useful for obtaining novel photofunctional solid-state systems.

  11. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05... contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter and against radionuclides; minimum requirements....

  12. 42 CFR 84.1152 - Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per... air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter and against radionuclides;...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05... contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter and against radionuclides; minimum requirements....

  14. 42 CFR 84.1152 - Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per... air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter and against radionuclides;...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. 84.1143 Section 84.1143 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL...

  16. An Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effects of Design Parameters on Water Mist Suppression of Liquid Pool Fires.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    subjected to a steady water mist spray from a single hollow cone nozzle mounted above the fire. The large plume to flame thrust ratio in their...1983) 21. Boris, J.P. and Book, D.L., (1973) "Flux-corrected Transport I. SHASTA A Fluid Transport Algorithm That Works," Journal of Computational

  17. Field evaluations of residual pesticide applications and misting system on militarily relevant materials against medically important mosquitoes in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key strategy to reduce insect-borne disease is to reduce contact between disease vectors and hosts. In the current study, residual pesticide application and misting system were applied on militarily relevant materials and evaluated against medically important mosquitoes. Field evaluations were car...

  18. Patterned mist deposition of tri-colour CdSe/ZnS quantum dot films toward RGB LED devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, S.; Kshirsagar, A.; Ruzyllo, J.; Xu, J.

    2012-06-01

    In this experiment a technique of mist deposition was explored as a way to form patterned ultra-thin-films of CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystalline quantum dots using colloidal solutions. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of mist deposition as a patterning method for creating multicolour quantum dot light emitting diodes. Mist deposition was used to create three rows of quantum dot light emitting diodes on a single device with each row having a separate colour. The colours chosen were red, green and yellow with corresponding peak wavelengths of 620 nm, 558 nm, and 587 nm. The results obtained from this experiment show that it is possible to create multicolour devices on a single substrate. The peak brightnesses obtained in this experiment for the red, green, and yellow were 508 cd/m, 507 cd/m, and 665 cd/m, respectively. The similar LED brightness is important in display technologies using colloidal quantum dots in a precursor solution to ensure one colour does not dominate the emitted spectrum. Results obtained in-terms of brightness were superior to those achieved with inkjet deposition. This study has shown that mist deposition is a viable method for patterned deposition applied to quantum dot light emitting diode display technologies.

  19. Computer simulation of thermal and fluid systems for MIUS integration and subsystems test /MIST/ laboratory. [Modular Integrated Utility System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochelle, W. C.; Liu, D. K.; Nunnery, W. J., Jr.; Brandli, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the SINDA (systems improved numerical differencing analyzer) computer program to simulate the operation of the NASA/JSC MIUS integration and subsystems test (MIST) laboratory. The MIST laboratory is designed to test the integration capability of the following subsystems of a modular integrated utility system (MIUS): (1) electric power generation, (2) space heating and cooling, (3) solid waste disposal, (4) potable water supply, and (5) waste water treatment. The SINDA/MIST computer model is designed to simulate the response of these subsystems to externally impressed loads. The computer model determines the amount of recovered waste heat from the prime mover exhaust, water jacket and oil/aftercooler and from the incinerator. This recovered waste heat is used in the model to heat potable water, for space heating, absorption air conditioning, waste water sterilization, and to provide for thermal storage. The details of the thermal and fluid simulation of MIST including the system configuration, modes of operation modeled, SINDA model characteristics and the results of several analyses are described.

  20. Enhanced Removal of Hydrophobic Gas by Aerial Ultrasonic Waves and Two Kinds of Water Mists of Different Particle Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Keisuke; Miura, Hikaru

    2012-07-01

    Air pollutants can cause health problems, such as bronchitis and cancer, and are now recognized as a social problem. Hence, a method is proposed for the collection and removal of gaseous air pollutants by aerial ultrasonic waves and water mist. Typically, gas removal effects are studied using lemon oil vapor (“lemon gas”), which is a hydrophobic gas. Previous experiments using lemon gas have shown that a removal rate of up to 40% can be achieved in an intense standing wave at 20 kHz, for an amount of water mist of 1.39 cm3/s and an electrical input power of 50 W. Increasing the surface area of the water mist leads to greater removal of hydrophobic gas. In this study, the effects of gas removal are examined by conducting experiments using intense aerial ultrasonic waves to disperse two kinds of water mists, each composed of particles of different sizes: small particles (diameter: ≈3 µm) and conventional large particles (diameter: ≈60 µm).

  1. Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2011-05-01

    Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40

  2. Vapor/Mist Used to Lubricate Gears After Loss of Primary Lubrication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Morales, Wilfredo

    2001-01-01

    Loss of lubrication in rotorcraft drive systems is a demanding requirement placed on drive system manufacturers. The drive system must operate for at least 30 minutes once the primary lubrication system has failed. This test is a military requirement that must be passed prior to certification of the aircraft. As new aircraft engines, operating at higher speeds, are fielded, the requirements for the drive system become increasingly more difficult. Also, the drive system must be lightweight, which minimizes the opportunity to use the gear bodies to absorb the tremendous amount of heating that takes place. In many cases, the amount of heat generated because of the high speed and load requires an emergency lubrication system that negatively impacts the aircraft's weight, complexity, and cost. A single mesh spur gear test rig is being used at the NASA Glenn Research Center to investigate possible emergency lubrication system improvements that will minimize the impact of having these systems onboard rotorcraft. A technique currently being investigated uses a vapor/mist system to lubricate the contacting surfaces after the primary lubrication system has been shut down. A number of tests were conducted in which the vapor/mist used the same lubricant as the primary system, but at a greatly reduced flow rate. Each test was initiated with the primary lubrication system operational and at steady-state conditions for a given speed and load. Then the primary lubrication system was shut down, and the vapor/mist lubrication system was initiated. An example of the tests conducted is shown in the figures. These preliminary tests have uncovered a mechanism that provides a lubricious, carbonaceous solid on the surface that actually reduces the surface temperature of the meshing gear teeth during operation. Surface analysis of the carbonaceous solid revealed it was graphitic. This mechanism is the synthetic lubricant "coking" on the active profile of the gears, which reduces the

  3. Material Ignition and Suppression Test (MIST) in Space Exploration Atmospheres, Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Pello, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The Material Ignition and Suppression Test (MIST) project has had the objective of evaluating the ease of ignition and the fire suppression of materials used in spacecraft under environmental condition expected in a spacecraft. For this purpose, an experimental and theoretical research program is being conducted on the effect of space exploration atmospheres (SEA) on the piloted ignition of representative combustible materials, and on their fire suppression characteristics. The experimental apparatus and test methodology is derived from the Forced Ignition and Flame Spread Test (FIST), a well-developed bench scale test designed to extract material properties relevant to prediction of material flammability. In the FIST test, materials are exposed to an external radiant flux and the ignition delay and critical mass flux at ignition are determined as a function of the type of material and environmental conditions. In the original MIST design, a small-scale cylindrical flow duct with fuel samples attached to its inside wall was heated by a cylindrical heater located at the central axis of the cylinder. However, as the project evolved it was decided by NASA that it would be better to produce an experimental design that could accommodate other experiments with different experimental concepts. Based on those instructions and input from the requirements of other researchers that may share the hardware in an ISS/CIR experiment, a cylindrical design based on placing the sample at the center of an optically transparent tube with heaters equally spaced along the exterior of the cylinder was developed. Piloted ignition is attained by a hot wire igniter downstream of the fuel sample. Environment variables that can be studied via this experimental apparatus include: external radiant flux, oxidizer oxygen concentration, flow velocity, ambient pressure, and gravity level (if flown in the ISS/CIR). This constitutes the current experimental design, which maintains fairly good

  4. Acid air and lung cancer: the numbers add up in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Findings of a seven-year study show a significant correlation between high incidences of lung cancer along the southeastern Atlantic coast and high concentrations of sulfuric acid particles suspended in air. The study suggests that smokers living along the Georgia and North Florida coasts may increase their chances of contracting lung cancer by breathing air that is acidic. There is evidence that mist-like sulfuric acid aerosol, blown into Florida from major industrial centers scattered along the eastern seaboard, may be a thousand times more acidic than very acid rain. Because the liquid or solid particles in the aerosols are so small, they are capable of going deeper into the human respiratory tract than ordinary dust particles. The combined effect of breathing such highly acidic aerosol particles and smoking cigarettes may make the lungs more vulnerable to cancer. Florida industries are rapidly following a national trend toward switching from oil to coal as a primary fuel and utility companies plan to build about 10 new coal-fired power plants within the next decade. Threatening to aggravate this situation is a federal effort to ease clean-air standards to give U.S. industry an economic break. The rise in sulfur dioxide emissions in Florida may already be enough to ovecome the diluting effect normally associated with cleaner marine air. (JMT)

  5. Physical and Mathematical Modeling of Thin Steel Slab Continuous Casting Secondary Cooling Zone Air-Mist Impingement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León B., Melecio; Castillejos E., A. Humberto

    2015-10-01

    This study is an attempt to unveil the fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during interaction of air-mists with the surface of the steel strand during its pass through the continuous casting secondary cooling system. Air-mists generated under conditions of practical interest are studied while impacting on a vertical wall at room temperature. Experimentally a spatial multiple-counting technique based on capturing instantaneous double-exposure shadowgraphs is used to visualize the internal structure of mists at distances between 0 and 4 mm from the wall. Analysis of single exposure images allows determination of size distributions of primary (impinging) and secondary (ejecting) drops and of fluctuating thickness of water films formed on the wall surface. Besides, examination of image pairs enables measurement of velocity and trajectory angles of both kinds of drops. These results aided in the formulation and validation of a transient, turbulent, 3D, multiphase fluid dynamic model for simulating impinging air-mists. The model is based on KIVA-3V and for simulating the airborne mist region it solves the continuity equations—mass, momentum, turbulence quantities—for the air coupled with the equation of motion for drops sampled randomly from distributions assumed to govern their size and volume flux at the nozzle orifice. While for the impingement region submodels are established to estimate the results of drop/wall interaction, i.e., the dynamics of secondary drops and water films formed by the impingement of primary drops. The model forecasts reasonably well the random distributions of diameters, velocities, trajectory angles, and Weber numbers of both kind of drops moving near the wall. Additionally, it predicts well the average thickness of the water film and the important effect that air nozzle pressure has on the normal impinging velocity of drops; high pressures result in large drop velocities favoring intimate contact with the surface.

  6. 40 CFR 62.9601 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.9601 Identification of plan. (a) The... are no sulfuric acid plants in the County subject to part 60, subpart B of this chapter. (b) A plan for the control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  7. 40 CFR 62.9601 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.9601 Identification of plan. (a) The... are no sulfuric acid plants in the County subject to part 60, subpart B of this chapter. (b) A plan for the control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  8. 40 CFR 62.9601 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.9601 Identification of plan. (a) The... are no sulfuric acid plants in the County subject to part 60, subpart B of this chapter. (b) A plan for the control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  9. 40 CFR 62.9601 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.9601 Identification of plan. (a) The... are no sulfuric acid plants in the County subject to part 60, subpart B of this chapter. (b) A plan for the control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  10. 40 CFR 62.9601 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.9601 Identification of plan. (a) The... are no sulfuric acid plants in the County subject to part 60, subpart B of this chapter. (b) A plan for the control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  11. Selective Host-Guest Co-crystallization of Pyridine-Functionalized Tetraphenylethylenes with Phthalic Acids and Multicolor Emission of the Co-crystals.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hai-Tao; Xiong, Jia-Bin; Luo, Jun; Feng, Wen-Fang; Yang, Desuo; Zheng, Yan-Song

    2017-01-12

    Tetraphenylethylene (TPE) and its derivatives are the most typical and most widely studied organic compounds showing aggregation-induced emission (AIE). Due to their propeller-like structures, V-like clefts exist between the aryl rings, which make them promising host compounds. However, such a possibility is seldom explored. Herein, it is reported that TPE derivatives bearing two or four pyridine rings at the para positions of the phenyl rings (TPE-Pys) can selectively include triangular (Δ-like) m-phthalic acid from a mixture of o-, m-, and p-phthalic acids due to their shape complementary to form host-guest co-crystals, which showed redder emission than the TPE-Pys themselves. The emission of co-crystals 1-5 could be reversibly switched between yellow and red by alternating exposure to HCl and ammonia vapor. The host-guest co-crystals not only exhibited great potential for selectively recognizing and separating m-phthalic acid and as multicolor emission materials, but are also suitable for use as secret ink due to their reversible color change on varying the host-guest interactions.

  12. Contributions of vehicular emissions and secondary formation to nitrous acid concentrations in ambient urban air in Tokyo in the winter.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Saito, Shinji; Hoshi, Junya; Ueno, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-15

    Nitrous acid (HONO) plays an important role in the formation of OH radicals, which are involved in photochemical oxidation. HONO concentrations in ambient air at urban sites have previously been measured, but very few studies have been performed in central Tokyo. In this study, HONO concentrations in ambient air in southeast central Tokyo (near Tokyo Bay) in winter were determined by incoherent cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. The O3, NO, NO2, and SO2 concentrations were simultaneously determined. The NO concentrations were used to classify the parts of the study period into types I (high pollution), II (medium pollution), and III (low pollution). The maximum HONO concentrations in the type I, II, and III periods were 7.1, 4.5, and 3.0ppbv, respectively. These concentrations were comparable to concentrations previously found in other Asian megacities. The mean HONO concentration varied diurnally, and HONO was depleted between 00:00 and 03:00 each day. The sampling site is surrounded by roads with high traffic loads, but vehicular emissions were estimated to contribute <10% of the HONO concentrations. Two positive and negative relative humidity dependences of the HONO to NO2 ratio were confirmed, implying the existence of the two different secondary formation process of HONO. The NO2 to HONO conversion rates at night in the type I, II, and III periods were 6.3×10(-3), 7.6×10(-3), and 4.2×10(-3)h(-1), respectively.

  13. Incorporation of yttrium to yttrium iron garnet thin films fabricated by mist CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Suwa, Yuta; Sato, Shota; Nakasone, Yoshiaki; Nishi, Misaki; Dang, Giang T.; Pradeep, Ellawala K. C.; Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki

    2017-04-01

    Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates under atmospheric pressure by a mist CVD technique, and their chemical composition and optical properties were examined. The thin films deposited at 450 °C showed an [Y]/[Fe] ratio of 0.57, indicating the deposition of yttrium iron oxide, while the molar ratio of [Y]/[Fe] in the precursor solution was set at 1.5. A thermodynamic model was developed to explain the reaction paths of the YIG thin film fabrication process using thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) results. The model indicates that the decomposition rate of yttrium acetylacetonate [Y(acac)3 • nH2O] was much lower than that of iron acetylacetonate [Fe(acac)3], providing a plausible explanation for the large difference between the composition ratio of the thin films and that of the precursor solutions.

  14. Effects of lactic acid bacteria silage inoculation on methane emission and productivity of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J L; Hindrichsen, I K; Klop, G; Kinley, R D; Milora, N; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-09-01

    Inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used to improve silage quality and prevent spoilage via increased production of lactic acid and other organic acids and a rapid decline in silage pH. The addition of LAB inoculants to silage has been associated with increases in silage digestibility, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield. Given the potential change in silage and rumen fermentation conditions accompanying these silage additives, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LAB silage inoculants on DMI, digestibility, milk yield, milk composition, and methane (CH4) production from dairy cows in vivo. Eight mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were grouped into 2 blocks of 4 cows (multiparous and primiparous) and used in a 4×4 double Latin square design with 21-d periods. Methane emissions were measured by indirect calorimetry. Treatments were grass silage (mainly ryegrass) with no inoculant (GS), with a long-term inoculant (applied at harvest; GS+L), with a short-term inoculant (applied 16h before feeding; GS+S), or with both long and short-term inoculants (GS+L+S). All diets consisted of grass silage and concentrate (75:25 on a dry matter basis). The long-term inoculant consisted of a 10:20:70 mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactobacillus buchneri, and the short-term inoculant was a preparation of Lc. lactis. Dry matter intake was not affected by long-term or short-term silage inoculation, nor was dietary neutral detergent fiber or fat digestibility, or N or energy balance. Milk composition (except milk urea) and fat and protein-corrected milk yield were not affected by long- or short-term silage inoculation, nor was milk microbial count. However, milk yield tended to be greater with long-term silage inoculation. Methane expressed in units of grams per day, grams per kilogram of DMI, grams per kilogram of milk, or grams per kilogram of fat and protein-corrected milk yield was not affected by long- or short

  15. Effect of bromochloromethane on methane emission, rumen fermentation pattern, milk yield, and fatty acid profile in lactating dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Abecia, L; Toral, P G; Martín-García, A I; Martínez, G; Tomkins, N W; Molina-Alcaide, E; Newbold, C J; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R

    2012-04-01

    Several technologies have been tested to reduce enteric methanogenesis, but very few have been successfully used in practical conditions for livestock. Furthermore, the consequences of reduced rumen methane production on animal performance and milk quality are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of feeding bromochloromethane (BCM), a halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon with potential antimethanogenic activity, to dairy goats on rumen methane production, fermentation pattern, the abundance of major microbial groups, and on animal performance and milk composition. Eighteen goats were allocated to 2 experimental groups of 9 animals each: treated (BCM+) or not (BCM-) with 0.30 g of BCM/100 kg of body weight per day. The BCM was administered per os in 2 equal doses per day from parturition to 2 wk postweaning (10 wk). After weaning, methane emissions were recorded over 2 consecutive days (d 57 and 58 on treatment) in polycarbonate chambers. On d 59, individual rumen fluid samples were collected for volatile fatty acid (VFA) analysis and quantification of bacterial, protozoal, and archaeal numbers by real-time PCR. On d 69 and 70, daily milk production was recorded and samples were collected for determination of fat, protein, lactose, casein, and total solids concentration by infrared spectrophotometry, and fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Treatment with BCM reduced methane production by 33% (21.6 vs. 14.4 L/kg of DMI) compared with nontreated animals, although it did not affect the abundance of rumen bacteria, protozoa, and total methanogenic archaea. The observed improvement in the efficiency of digestive processes was accompanied by a 36% increase in milk yield, probably due to the more propionic type of rumen fermentation and an increase in VFA production. The increase in milk yield was not accompanied by any changes in the concentrations or yields of fat, protein, or lactose. Despite the substantial decrease in methane

  16. TRAC PF1/MOD1 calculations and data comparisons for mist feed and bleed and steam generator tube rupture experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Siebe, D.A.; Boyack, B.E.; Steiner, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a participant in the Integral System Test (IST) program initiated in June 1983 for the purpose of providing integral system test data on specific issues/phenomena relevant to post-small-break loss-of-coolant accidents, loss of feedwater and other transients in Babcock and Wilcox (BandW) plant designs. The Multi-Loop Integral System Test (MIST) facility is the largest single component in the IST program. MIST is a 2 /times/ 4 (two hot legs and steam generators (SGs), four cold legs and reactor coolant pumps) representation of lowered-loop reactor system of the BandW design. It is a full-height, full-pressure facility with 1/817 power and volume scaling. Two other integral experimental facilities are included in the IST program: test loops at the University of Maryland, College Park, and at SRI International (SRI-2). The objective of the IST tests is to generate high-quality experimental data to be used for assessing thermal-hydraulic safety computer codes. Efforts are under way at Los Alamos to assess TRAC-PF1/MOD1 against data from each of the IST facilities. Calculations and data comparisons for TRAC-PF1/MOD1 assessment are presented for two transients run in the MIST facility. These are MIST Test 330302, a feed and bleed test with delayed high-pressure injection; and Test 3404AA, an SG tube-rupture test with the affected SG isolated. Only MIST assessment results are presented in this paper. The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 calculations completed to date for MIST tests are in reasonable agreement with the data from these tests. Reasonable agreement is defined as meaning that major trends are predicted correctly, although TRAC values are frequently outside the range of data uncertainty. We believe that correct conclusions will be reached if the code is used in similar applications despite minor code/model deficiencies. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. IMAGING SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION VIA ARACHIDONIC ACID IN THE HUMAN BRAIN DURING VISUAL STIMULATION, BY MEANS OF POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Der, Margaret; Liow, Jeih-San; Bhattacharjee, Abesh K.; Ma, Kaizong; Herscovitch, Peter; Channing, Michael; Eckelman, William C.; Hallett, Mark; Carson, Richard E.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2007-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), an important second messenger, is released from membrane phospholipid following receptor mediated activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). This signaling process can be imaged in brain as a regional brain AA incorporation coefficient K*. Hypothesis K* will be increased in brain visual areas of subjects submitted to visual stimulation. Subjects and methods Regional values of K* were measured with positron emission tomography (PET), following the intravenous injection of [1-11C]AA, in 16 healthy volunteers subjected to visual stimulation at flash frequencies 2.9 Hz (8 subjects) or 7.8 Hz (8 subjects), compared with the dark (0 Hz) condition. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with intravenous [15O]water under comparable conditions. Results During flash stimulation at 2.9 Hz or 7.8 Hz vs. 0 Hz, K* was increased significantly by 2.3–8.9% in Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19, and in additional frontal, parietal and temporal cortical regions. rCBF was increased significantly by 3.1% – 22%, often in comparable regions. Increments at 7.8 Hz often exceeded those at 2.9 Hz for both K* and rCBF. Decrements in both parameters also were produced, particularly in frontal brain regions. Conclusions AA plays a role in signaling processes provoked by visual stimulation, since visual stimulation at flash frequencies of 2.9 and 7.8 Hz compared to 0 Hz modifies both K* for AA and rCBF in visual and related areas of the human brain. The two-stimulus condition paradigm of this study might be used with PET to image effects of other functional activations and of drugs on brain signaling via AA. PMID:17196833

  18. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from two acidic soils of Nova Scotia fertilised with liquid hog manure mixed with or without dicyandiamide.

    PubMed

    Mkhabela, M S; Gordon, R; Burton, D; Madani, A; Hart, W; Elmi, A

    2006-11-01

    Gaseous nitrogen (N) loss from field-applied manure in the form of ammonia (NH(3)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) has negative agronomic, environmental and health implications. This study was undertaken to evaluate the combined effect of soil type and dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH(3) and N(2)O emissions following application of liquid hog manure. Soil samples (100g) were placed in 500 mL screw-top Mason-jars and de-ionised water was added to bring the soil samples to 50%, 70% and 90% water-filled pore space (WFPS). Slurry and slurry+DCD treatments were applied at a rate of 116000 l ha(-1). The jars were then sealed and incubated at 21 degrees C for 21 d. Ammonia volatilisation was quantified using boric acid traps while N(2)O gas concentrations were analysed using gas chromatography. Results showed that DCD had no effect (p>0.05) on either NH(3) or N(2)O emissions. However, soil type had a significant effect (p<0.05) on both gases. Overall, the Pugwash soil produced 3 and 2.5 times more NH(3) and N(2)O, respectively, than the Acadia soil. N(2)O emissions from both soils increased with an increase in %WFPS, indicating that during the spring and fall in Atlantic Canada, when soils are generally wet, a significant amount of N(2)O may be emitted from these soils. The relationship between cumulative N(2)O and %WFPS was best described by an exponential function R(2)=0.83 and p<0.05 (both soils). Therefore, soil type should be taken into consideration when formulating N(2)O emission factors. The addition of DCD together with slurry may not be a viable strategy to mitigate N(2)O emissions from acidic soils. To reduce emissions of both gases, livestock slurry should not be applied on wet soils.

  19. Are perfluoroalkyl acids in waste water treatment plant effluents the result of primary emissions from the technosphere or of environmental recirculation?

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Marko; Berger, Urs

    2015-06-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been suggested to be one of the major pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from the technosphere to the aquatic environment. The origin of PFAAs in WWTP influents is either from current primary emissions or a result of recirculation of PFAAs that have been residing and transported in the environment for several years or decades. Environmental recirculation can then occur when PFAAs from the environment enter the wastewater stream in, e.g., tap water. In this study 13 PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were analyzed in tap water as well as WWTP influent, effluent and sludge from three Swedish cities: Bromma (in the metropolitan area of Stockholm), Bollebygd and Umeå. A mass balance of the WWTPs was assembled for each PFAA. Positive mass balances were observed for PFHxA and PFOA in all WWTPs, indicating the presence of precursor compounds in the technosphere. With regard to environmental recirculation, tap water was an important source of PFAAs to the Bromma WWTP influent, contributing >40% for each quantified sulfonic acid and up to 30% for the carboxylic acids. The PFAAs in tap water from Bollebygd and Umeå did not contribute significantly to the PFAA load in the WWTP influents. Our results show that in order to estimate current primary emissions from the technosphere, it may be necessary to correct the PFAA emission rates in WWTP effluents for PFAAs present in tap water, especially in the case of elevated levels in tap water.

  20. Venturi/vortex scrubber technology for controlling/recycling chromium electroplating emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, K.J.; Qi, S.; Holden, B.; Helgeson, N.; Fraser, M.E.

    1999-03-01

    Chromium electroplating is an essential DOD process. Chromium has a combination of qualities that are very difficult to substitute, however, the process itself is inefficient, resulting in the production of byproduct gases that rise and create a mist of chromic acid (strongly regulated as an air pollutant) above the plating tank. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology (VVST) was designed to control chromium electroplating emissions by collecting the gas bubbles before they burst at the solution`s surface. This project demonstrated the Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology at the Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) in Albany, GA. This study concluded that the PLRS was able to reduce the flow rate of the current conventional ventilation system at the one tank chromium electroplating facility at MCLB Albany by 63 percent. If new ventilation and control equipment were to be installed at MCLB Albany, this system would offer a 25 percent reduction in capital costs and a 48 percent reduction in annual costs, representing 36 percent in life-cycle cost savings. This study also presented a strong case for the use of Spark-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for monitoring real-time chromium emissions above a chromium electroplating tank.

  1. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  2. Characterizing the release of different composition of dissolved organic matter in soil under acid rain leaching using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Song, Cunyi; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng

    2009-09-01

    Although excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM), there has no report that EEMS has been used to study the effects of acid rain on DOM and its composition in soil. In this work, we employed three-dimensional EEMS to characterize the compositions of DOM leached by simulated acid rain from red soil. The red soil was subjected to leaching of simulated acid rain of different acidity, and the leached DOM presented five main peaks in its EEMS: peak-A, related to humic acid-like (HA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 310-330/395-420nm; peak-B, related to UV fulvic acid-like (FA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 230-280/400-435nm; peak-C and peak-D, both related to microbial byproduct-like material, at Ex/Em of 250-280/335-355nm and 260-280/290-320nm, respectively; and peak-E, related to simple aromatic proteins, at Ex/Em of 210-240/290-340nm. EEMS analysis results indicated that most DOM could be lost from red soil in the early phase of acid rain leaching. In addition to the effects of the pH of acid rain, the loss of DOM also depended on the properties of its compositions and the solubility of their complexes with aluminum. HA-like and microbial byproduct-like materials could be more easily released from red soil by acid rain at both higher pH (4.5 and 5.6) and lower pH (2.5 and 3) than that at middle pH (3.5). On the contrary, FA-like material lost in a similar manner under the action of different acid rains with pH ranging from 2.5 to 5.6.

  3. Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission from gasoline and diesel vehicles under real-world driving test cycles.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Ha T; Imanishi, Katsuma; Morikawa, Tazuko; Hagino, Hiroyuki; Takenaka, Norimichi

    2017-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen species emission from the exhausts of gasoline and diesel vehicles, including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrous acid (HONO), contributes as a significant source of photochemical oxidant precursors in the ambient air. Multiple laboratory and on-road exhaust measurements have been performed to estimate the NOx emission factors from various vehicles and their contribution to atmospheric pollution. Meanwhile, HONO emission from vehicle exhaust has been under-measured despite the fact that HONO can contribute up to 60% of the total hydroxyl budget during daytime and its formation pathway is not fully understood. A profound traffic-induced HONO to NOx ratio of 0.8%, established by Kurtenbach et al. since 2001, has been widely applied in various simulation studies and possibly linked to under-estimation of HONO mixing ratios and OH radical budget in the morning. The HONO/NOx ratios from direct traffic emission have become debatable when it lacks measurements for direct HONO emission from vehicles upon the fast-changing emission reduction technology. Several recent studies have reported updated values for this ratio. This study has reported the measurement of HONO and NOx emission as well as the estimation of exhaust-induced HONO/NOx ratios from gasoline and diesel vehicles using different chassis dynamometer tests under various real-world driving cycles. For the tested gasoline vehicle, which was equipped with three-way catalyst after-treatment device, HONO/NOx ratios ranged from 0 to 0.95 % with very low average HONO concentrations. For the tested diesel vehicle equipped with diesel particulate active reduction device, HONO/NOx ratios varied from 0.16 to 1.00 %. The HONO/NOx ratios in diesel exhaust were inversely proportional to the average speeds of the tested vehicles.

  4. Comparison of methods for the measurement of mist and vapor from light mineral oil-based metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew T

    2003-11-01

    The measurement of oil mist derived from metalworking fluids formulated with light mineral oils can be highly inaccurate when using traditional filter sampling. This is due to evaporation of oil from the filter. In this work the practicability of an alternative approach measuring total oil mist and vapor was investigated. Combinations of inhalable particle samplers with backup sorbent vapor traps and standard vapor sampling on pumped and diffusive sorbent tubes were evaluated with gravimetric, infrared spectroscopic, and gas chromatographic analytical methods against the performance requirements of European Standard EN 482. An artificial aerosol was used to compare the methods against a reference method of filter sampler in series with three impingers. Multi-orifice samplers were used with standard 8-mm diameter charcoal tubes at 2 L/min without any signs of channelling or significant breakthrough, as were conical inhalable samplers with XAD-2 tubes at 1 L/min. Most combinations of samplers had a bias of less than 3 percent, but solitary pumped charcoal tubes underestimated total oil by 13 percent. Diffusive sampling was affected by impaction of mist particles and condensation of oil vapor. Gravimetric analysis of filters revealed significant potential sample loss during storage, with 4 percent being lost after one day when stored at room temperature and 2 percent when refrigerated. Samples left overnight in the balance room to equilibrate lost 24 percent. Infrared spectroscopy gave more precise results for vapor than gas chromatography (p = 0.002). Gas chromatography was less susceptible to bias from contaminating solvent vapors than infrared spectroscopy, but was still vulnerable to petroleum distillates. Under the specific test conditions (one oil type and mist particle size), all combinations of methods examined complied with the requirements of European Standard EN 484. Total airborne oil can be measured accurately; however, care must be taken to avoid

  5. Particle size distributions of oil mists in workplace atmospheres and their exposure concentrations to workers in a fastener manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Ru; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chang, Chih-Ching; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2007-07-19

    This study was set out to characterize size distributions of oil mists in three workplace atmospheres of the forming, threading, and heat treatment in a fastener manufacturing industry and to assess their exposures to workers. Particle size segregating samplings were conducted on the workplace atmospheres of the three selected industrial processes by using the modified Marple 8-stage cascade impactor (m-Marple). We found that mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the fine mode and coarse mode fell to the range 0.309-0.501 microm and 8.16-13.0 microm, respectively. The fractions of inhaled particles exposed to different regions of the respiratory tracts found that the alveolar region was consistently higher than both head and tracheobronchial regions in all three studied exposure groups. Personal inhalable oil mist samplings were conducted on workers in the three selected processes revealed their exposure levels as: threading workers (2.11 mg/m3)>forming workers (1.58 mg/m3)>heat treatment workers (0.0801 mg/m3). The estimated respirable exposure concentrations for both forming and threading workers (1.34 mg/m3 and 1.40 mg/m3, respectively) were higher than the level known for "increased risk of pulmonary injury" (0.20 mg/m3) suggesting that appropriate control measures should be taken to reduce their exposures to the oil mists of the respirable fraction immediately.

  6. Unpredicted surface termination of α-Fe2O3(0001) film grown by mist chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osaka, Shun; Kubo, Osamu; Takahashi, Kazuki; Oda, Masaya; Kaneko, Kentaro; Tabata, Hiroshi; Fujita, Shizuo; Katayama, Mitsuhiro

    2017-06-01

    We analyze the surface structure of an α-Fe2O3(0001) film grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate by mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which has been recently developed as a simple, safe, and cost-effective film growth method. Using coaxial impact-collision ion scattering spectroscopy, we found that the atomic-layer sequence of the surface termination of an α-Fe2O3(0001) film grown by mist CVD was Fe-O3-Fe- from the top layer. This surface termination is predicted to form in an oxygen-poor environment by density functional theory combined with a thermodynamical approach despite that the mist CVD process is performed with atmospheric-pressure air. The surface structure markedly changes after annealing above 600 °C in ultrahigh vacuum. We found that only a couple of layers from the top layer transform into Fe3O4(111) after 650 °C annealing, which would be so-called biphase reconstruction. Complete transformation into a Fe3O4(111) film occurs at 700 °C, whose atomic-layer sequence is determined to be Fe-O4-Fe3- from the top layer.

  7. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  8. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  9. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  10. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  11. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  12. NONLINEARITIES IN THE SULFATE SECONDARY FINE PARTICULATE RESPONSE TO NOX EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS AS MODELED BY THE REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention is increasingly being devoted to the health effects of fine particulates. In regions that have a large production of sulfate, sulfuric acid and nitric acid compete for the available ammonia to form aerosols. In addition, the available nitric acid is the result of ur...

  13. Combusting vegetable oils in diesel engines: the impact of unsaturated fatty acids on particle emissions and mutagenic effects of the exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Bünger, Jörn F; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz A

    2016-06-01

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. Four different vegetable oils (coconut oil, CO; linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; and rapeseed oil, RO) and common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The exhausts were investigated for particle emissions and mutagenic effects in direct comparison with emissions of DF. The engine was operated using the European Stationary Cycle. Particle masses were measured gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison with DF, it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by CO and PO, which were scarcely above DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. Further investigations have to elucidate the causal relationship.

  14. Determination of visual range during fog and mist using digital camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John R.; Moogan, Jamie C.

    2010-08-01

    During the winter of 2008, daily time series of images of five "unit-cell chequerboard" targets were acquired using a digital camera. The camera and targets were located in the Majura Valley approximately 3 km from Canberra airport. We show how the contrast between the black and white sections of the targets is related to the meteorological range (or standard visual range), and compare estimates of this quantity derived from images acquired during fog and mist conditions with those from the Vaisala FD-12 visibility meter operated by the Bureau of Meteorology at Canberra Airport. The two sets of ranges are consistent but show the variability of visibility in the patchy fog conditions that often prevail in the Majura Valley. Significant spatial variations of the light extinction coefficient were found to occur over the longest 570 m optical path sampled by the imaging system. Visual ranges could be estimated out to ten times the distance to the furthest target, or approximately 6 km, in these experiments. Image saturation of the white sections of the targets was the major limitation on the quantitative interpretation of the images. In the future, the camera images will be processed in real time so that the camera exposure can be adjusted to avoid saturation.

  15. The development and evaluation of water-mist fire extinguishing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beason, D.G.; Staggs, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    Fire protection for underfloor space is primarily provided by Halon 1301 which has proven to be very effective. However, due to the link between halons and the possible depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, plans have been implemented to eventually phase out Halon 1301 and 1211. In September 1987 the Montreal Protocol concerning chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and halons was signed by the United States, the European Economic Community, and 23 other nations. The Montreal Protocol calls for freezing halon production at 1986 levels. Because the majority of underfloor fire protection at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) sites, is either Halon 1301 or sprinklers, some other means of suppression will have to be developed and verified. The potential loss to facilities housing computer or control rooms damaged by underfloor fires can be extreme. These losses would not only include hardware and software replacement costs, but also lost computing and control capability. Here at LLNL technical research in a facility could be severely affected. Recent studies conducted by the Fire Research Discipline of the Special Projects Division have shown that severe fires fueled by cable insulation can develop within as little as a 6-in-high underfloor space (even with mechanical ventilation shut off). Studies also show that conventional sprinklers may not be effective in preventing this destruction. Therefore, we are investigating the water-mist fire extinguishing system as an alternative to Halon 1301 and sprinklers.

  16. Study of process parameter on mist lubrication of Titanium (Grade 5) alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Kalipada; Pradhan, Swastik

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with mist cooling lubrication using carbide inserts. The influence of process parameter on the cutting forces, evolution of tool wear, surface finish of the workpiece, material removal rate and chip reduction coefficient have been investigated. Weighted principal component analysis coupled with grey relational analysis optimization is applied to identify the optimum setting of the process parameter. Optimal condition of the process parameter was cutting speed at 160 m/min, feed at 0.16 mm/rev and depth of cut at 1.6 mm. Effects of cutting speed and depth of cut on the type of chips formation were observed. Most of the chips forms were long tubular and long helical type. Image analyses of the segmented chip were examined to study the shape and size of the saw tooth profile of serrated chips. It was found that by increasing cutting speed from 95 m/min to 160 m/min, the free surface lamella of the chips increased and the visibility of the saw tooth segment became clearer.

  17. Combinatorial approach for ferroelectric material libraries prepared by liquid source misted chemical deposition method

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Woong; Jeon, Min Ku; Oh, Kwang Seok; Kim, Tai Suk; Kim, Yun Seok; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial approach for discovering novel functional materials in the huge diversity of chemical composition and processing conditions has become more important for breakthrough in thin film electronic and energy-conversion devices. The efficiency of combinatorial method depends on the preparation of a reliable high-density composition thin-film library. The physico-chemical properties of each sample on the library should be similar to those of the corresponding samples prepared by one-by-one conventional methods. We successfully developed the combinatorial liquid source misted chemical deposition (LSMCD) method and demonstrated its validity in screening the chemical composition of Bi3.75LaxCe0.25-xTi3O12 (BLCT) for high remanent polarization (Pr). LSMCD is a cheap promising combinatorial screening tool. It can control the composition up to ppm level and produce homogeneous multicomponent library. LSMCD method allows us to prepare BLCT thin-film library at the variation of 0.4 mol% of La. Maximum 2Pr is 35 μC/cm−2 at x = 0.21. The intensity of (117) XRD peak is quantitatively related to 2Pr. Newly developed scanning piezoelectric deformation measurement for nano-sized samples using scanning probe microscope (SPM) is also found out to be reliable for determining the relative ranking of Pr value rapidly. PMID:17218453

  18. A method of studying wild bird populations by mist-netting and banding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamm, D.D.; Davis, D.E.; Robbins, C.S.

    1960-01-01

    1. Progress is reported toward development of a method of bird-population study based on mist-netting and banding. A definite pattern of arrangement and schedule of operation are presented. 2. Nets were operated for a total of 4200 net-hours during which 966 captures were made (23.0 birds per 100 net-hours). A total of 431 adult breeding birds were banded and 38 per cent of them were recaptured. 3. A breeding bird census was made simultaneously in the same area by the Williams spot-mapping technique. 4. Estimates of population by recapture agreed closely with the spot-mappmg census. 5. Some birds are demonstrated to have overlapping home-ranges much larger than their singing territories. 6. Recruitment and net-shyness distort recapture estimates of population .but the method allows detection and assessment of their influence in the population dealt with here. 7. The method produced integrated information on population density and dynamics, movement and behavior. 8. The procedure is especially well adapted to studies of disease agents in bird populations. 9. A simple scheme for description of the habitat in terms of relative abundance and frequency of occurrence of tree species was used.

  19. Efficiency and Loading Evaluation of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME) - 12003

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-07-01

    High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are filters primarily used to remove moisture and/or liquid aerosols from an air stream. HEME elements are designed to reduce aerosol and particulate load on primary High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and to have a liquid particle removal efficiency of approximately 99.5% for aerosols down to sub-micron size particulates. The investigation presented here evaluates the loading capacity of the element in the absence of a water spray cleaning system. The theory is that without the cleaning system, the HEME element will suffer rapid buildup of solid aerosols, greatly reducing the particle loading capacity. Evaluation consists of challenging the element with a waste surrogate dry aerosol and di-octyl phthalate (DOP) at varying intervals of differential pressure to examine the filtering efficiency of three different element designs at three different media velocities. Also, the elements are challenged with a liquid waste surrogate using Laskin nozzles and large dispersion nozzles. These tests allow the loading capacity of the unit to be determined and the effectiveness of washing down the interior of the elements to be evaluated. (authors)

  20. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: From Ancient Mists: Presolar and Nebular Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "From Ancient Mists: Presolar and Nebular Processes" included the following reports: Interpretation of the Meteoritic Extinct Radioactivity - Mean Life Relation; On the Issue of Molybdenum Isotopic Anomalies in Meteorites: Is It Still "FUN"?; (26Al/27Al)o of the Solar Nebula Inferred from Al-Mg Systematic in Bulk CAIs from CV3 Chondrites; Magnesium Isotopic Compositions of Igneous CAIs in the CR Carbonaceous Chondrites: Evidence for an Early and Late-stage Melting of CAIs; The 26Al-26Mg Chronology of a Type C CAI and POIs in Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite; Bulk Compositions of CAIs and Al-rich Chondrules: Implications of the Reversal of the Anorthite / Forsterite Condensation Sequence at Low Nebular Pressures; Synthesis of Refractory Minerals by High-Temperature Condensation of a Gas of Solar Composition; Elemental and Isotopic Fractionation by Diffusion-limited Evaporation; "Nonideal" Isotopic Fractionation Behavior of Magnesium in Evaporation Residues; Determination of Primordial Refractory Inclusion Compositions; Zoning Patterns in Spinel from Type B Ca-Al-rich Inclusions: Constraints on Sub-Solidus Thermal History; Radial Migration of Materials from Inner to Outer Solar Nebula: Evidence from Meteorite Matrix; and Refractory Forsterites in Chondritic Meteorites, a Link Between CAIs and Chondrules.

  1. Development of the International Space Station (ISS) Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Graf, John; Carlile, Christie; Young, GIna

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the United States Orbital Segments, which include Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Currently, there are operational concerns with the emergency breathing equipment and the carbon dioxide extinguisher. The toxicity of the carbon dioxide requires the crew members to have an oxygen supply present during a fire event, therefore inherently creating an unsafe environment. The FWM PFE extinguishes a fire without creating a hazardous breathing environment for crew members. The following paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE, identify unique microgravity design considerations for liquid and gas systems, as well as discuss the NASA ISS specific fire standards that were developed to establish an acceptable portable fire extinguisher s performance.

  2. Development of the International Space Station Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Young, GIna

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a Fine Water Mist (FWM) Portable Fire Extinguisher (PFE) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segments, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the United States Orbital Segments, which include Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Currently, there are operational and compatibility concerns with the emergency breathing equipment and the carbon dioxide extinguisher. ISS emergency response breathing equipment does not filter carbon dioxide; therefore, crew members are required to have an oxygen supply present during a fire event since the carbon dioxide PFE creates an unsafe breathing environment. The ISS program recommended a nontoxic fire extinguisher to mitigate this operational risk. The FWM PFE can extinguish a fire without creating a hazardous breathing environment for crewmembers. This paper will discuss the unique functional and performance requirements that have been levied on the FWM PFE, identify unique microgravity design considerations for liquid and gas systems, and discuss the NASA ISS specific fire standards that were developed to establish an acceptable portable fire extinguisher s performance.

  3. An in vitro study to assess facial and ocular deposition from Respimat Soft Mist inhaler.

    PubMed

    Newman, Stephen P; Steed, Karen P; Reader, Sandie J; Pavia, Demetri; Sohal, Anil K

    2007-01-01

    Respimat Soft Mist() inhaler (SMI) is a novel multidose propellant-free inhaler device for delivery of inhaled drugs to patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In vitro studies have been undertaken to assess facial and ocular deposition from Respimat SMI in several potential misuse situations. A placebo aqueous drug formulation in Respimat SMI was radiolabeled by addition of (99m)Tc. Deposition was quantified by gamma camera on a removable facemask that was fitted over the head of a resuscitation mannequin. The eyes were simulated by adhesive plaster patches. When Respimat SMI was fired in three preselected positions away from the head, total face deposition (% ex-valve dose) averaged 7.3%, 7.8%, and 9.1%, and eye deposition averaged 0.6%, 0.1%, and 0.3%. When the inhaler was fired into a simulated exhalation, upper face deposition (mean 3.8%) and eye deposition (mean 0.1%) were also small. It is concluded that low deposition on the face, and especially in the eyes, is to be expected when Respimat SMI is fired accidentally outside the body, or is fired at the same time as the patient exhales. When Respimat SMI is misused in the ways described in this study, there is likely to be little potential for unwanted side effects resulting from ocular deposition.

  4. Artifact removal algorithms for stroke detection using a multistatic MIST beamforming algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ricci, E; Di Domenico, S; Cianca, E; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Microwave imaging (MWI) has been recently proved as a promising imaging modality for low-complexity, low-cost and fast brain imaging tools, which could play a fundamental role to efficiently manage emergencies related to stroke and hemorrhages. This paper focuses on the UWB radar imaging approach and in particular on the processing algorithms of the backscattered signals. Assuming the use of the multistatic version of the MIST (Microwave Imaging Space-Time) beamforming algorithm, developed by Hagness et al. for the early detection of breast cancer, the paper proposes and compares two artifact removal algorithms. Artifacts removal is an essential step of any UWB radar imaging system and currently considered artifact removal algorithms have been shown not to be effective in the specific scenario of brain imaging. First of all, the paper proposes modifications of a known artifact removal algorithm. These modifications are shown to be effective to achieve good localization accuracy and lower false positives. However, the main contribution is the proposal of an artifact removal algorithm based on statistical methods, which allows to achieve even better performance but with much lower computational complexity.

  5. Numerical study of chemical reactions in a surface microdischarge tube with mist flow based on experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, T.; Nishiyama, H.

    2014-03-01

    Recently, a water treatment method of spraying solution into a discharge region has been developed and shows high energy efficiency. In this study, a simulation model of a water treatment method using a surface microdischarge (SMD) tube with mist flow is proposed for further understanding the detailed chemical reactions. Our model has three phases (plasma, gas and liquid) and three simulation steps. The carrier gas is humid air including 2% or 3% water vapour. The chemical species diffusion characteristics in the SMD tube and the concentrations in a droplet are clarified in a wide pH interval. The simulation results show that the chemical species generated on the SMD tube inner wall are diffused to the central axis and dissolved into fine droplets. Especially, OH radicals dissolve into droplets a few mm away from the SMD tube wall because of acidification of the droplets. Furthermore, the hydrogen peroxide density, which is the most important indicator of a radical reaction in water, is influenced by the initial solution pH. This pH dependence results from ozone self-decomposition in water.

  6. Relationships between methane emission of Holstein Friesian dairy cows and fatty acids, volatile metabolites and non-volatile metabolites in milk.

    PubMed

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Dijkstra, J

    2017-02-21

    This study investigated the relationships between methane (CH4) emission and fatty acids, volatile metabolites (V) and non-volatile metabolites (NV) in milk of dairy cows. Data from an experiment with 32 multiparous dairy cows and four diets were used. All diets had a roughage : concentrate ratio of 80 : 20 based on dry matter (DM). Roughage consisted of either 1000 g/kg DM grass silage (GS), 1000 g/kg DM maize silage (MS), or a mixture of both silages (667 g/kg DM GS and 333 g/kg DM MS; 333 g/kg DM GS and 677 g/kg DM MS). Methane emission was measured in climate respiration chambers and expressed as production (g/day), yield (g/kg dry matter intake; DMI) and intensity (g/kg fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM). Milk was sampled during the same days and analysed for fatty acids by gas chromatography, for V by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and for NV by nuclear magnetic resonance. Several models were obtained using a stepwise selection of (1) milk fatty acids (MFA), V or NV alone, and (2) the combination of MFA, V and NV, based on the minimum Akaike's information criterion statistic. Dry matter intake was 16.8±1.23 kg/day, FPCM yield was 25.0±3.14 kg/day, CH4 production was 406±37.0 g/day, CH4 yield was 24.1±1.87 g/kg DMI and CH4 intensity was 16.4±1.91 g/kg FPCM. The observed CH4 emissions were compared with the CH4 emissions predicted by the obtained models, based on concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) analysis. The best models with MFA alone predicted CH4 production, yield and intensity with a CCC of 0.80, 0.71 and 0.69, respectively. The best models combining the three types of metabolites included MFA and NV for CH4 production and CH4 yield, whereas for CH4 intensity MFA, NV and V were all included. These models predicted CH4 production, yield and intensity better with a higher CCC of 0.92, 0.78 and 0.93, respectively, and with increased accuracy (C b ) and precision (r). The results indicate that MFA alone have moderate to good potential

  7. Size and Velocity Characteristics of Droplets Generated by Thin Steel Slab Continuous Casting Secondary Cooling Air-Mist Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchaca M, J. I.; Castillejos E, A. H.; Acosta G, F. A.

    2011-06-01

    Direct spray impingement of high temperature surfaces, 1473 K to 973 K (1200 °C to 700 °C), plays a critical role in the secondary cooling of continuously cast thin steel slabs. It is known that the spray parameters affecting the local heat flux are the water impact flux w as well as the droplet velocity and size. However, few works have been done to characterize the last two parameters in the case of dense mists ( i.e., mists with w in the range of 2 to 90 L/m2s). This makes it difficult to rationalize how the nozzle type and its operating conditions must be selected to control the cooling process. In the present study, particle/droplet image analysis was used to determine the droplet size and velocity distributions simultaneously at various locations along the major axis of the mist cross section at a distance where the steel strand would stand. The measurements were carried out at room temperature for two standard commercial air-assisted nozzles of fan-discharge type operating over a broad range of conditions of practical interest. To achieve statistically meaningful samples, at least 6000 drops were analyzed at each location. Measuring the droplet size revealed that the number and volume frequency distributions were fitted satisfactorily by the respective log-normal and Nukiyama-Tanasawa distributions. The correlation of the parameters of the distribution functions with the water- and air-nozzle pressures allowed for reasonable estimation of the mean values of the size of the droplets generated. The ensemble of measurements across the mist axis showed that the relationship between the droplet velocity and the diameter exhibited a weak positive correlation. Additionally, increasing the water flow rate at constant air pressure caused a decrease in the proportion of the water volume made of finer droplets, whereas the volume proportion of faster droplets augmented until the water flow reached a certain value, after which it decreased. Diminishing the air

  8. Determination of nitrous acid emission factors from a gasoline vehicle using a chassis dynamometer combined with incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2017-01-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a well-known source of hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere. Vehicle exhaust is considered to be one of the primary emission sources of HONO. In this study, measurements of HONO in gasoline vehicle exhaust were carried out using a chassis dynamometer combined with incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy. When catalysts were warm, concentrations of HONO were higher than those prior to catalysts warming. Other species, such as CO, and total hydrocarbons (THCs), showed the opposite pattern. There were no correlations evident between HONO and other trace species concentrations immediately after emission. The HONO/NOx ratio, a good proxy for the formation of HONO in atmosphere, ranged from 1.1 to 6.8×10(-3), which was consistent with previous studies. HONO emission factors (EFs) were calculated to be 0.01-3.6mgkg(-1) fuel, which was different from the vehicle's specifications and those reported under different driving cycles. Annual HONO emissions in Japan were estimated using the calculated EFs and other statistical data.

  9. 40 CFR 60.85 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... operator shall determine compliance with the SO2 acid mist, and visible emission standards in §§ 60.82 and 60.83 as follows: (1) The emission rate (E) of acid mist or SO2 shall be computed for each run...

  10. 40 CFR 60.85 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... operator shall determine compliance with the SO2 acid mist, and visible emission standards in §§ 60.82 and 60.83 as follows: (1) The emission rate (E) of acid mist or SO2 shall be computed for each run...

  11. 40 CFR 60.85 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... operator shall determine compliance with the SO2 acid mist, and visible emission standards in §§ 60.82 and 60.83 as follows: (1) The emission rate (E) of acid mist or SO2 shall be computed for each run...

  12. 40 CFR 60.85 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... operator shall determine compliance with the SO2 acid mist, and visible emission standards in §§ 60.82 and 60.83 as follows: (1) The emission rate (E) of acid mist or SO2 shall be computed for each run...

  13. 40 CFR 60.85 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... operator shall determine compliance with the SO2 acid mist, and visible emission standards in §§ 60.82 and 60.83 as follows: (1) The emission rate (E) of acid mist or SO2 shall be computed for each run...

  14. Mercaptopropionic acid-capped Mn2+:ZnSe/ZnO quantum dots with both downconversion and upconversion emissions for bioimaging applications†

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bingxia; Yao, Yulian; Yang, Kai; Rong, Pengfei; Huang, Peng; An, Xiao; Li, Zhiming; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Doped quantum dots (d-dots) can serve as fluorescent biosensors and biolabels for biological applications. Our study describes a synthesis of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped Mn2+:ZnSe/ZnO d-dots through a facile, cost-efficient hydrothermal route. The as-prepared water-soluble d-dots exhibit strong emission at ca. 580 nm, with a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) as high as 31%, which is the highest value reported to date for such particles prepared via an aqueous route. They also exhibit upconversion emission when excited at 800 nm. With an overall diameter of around 6.7 nm, the d-dots could gain access to the cell nucleus without any surface decoration, demonstrating their promising broad applications as fluorescent labels. PMID:25189675

  15. Laboratory measurement of the millimeter wave properties of liquid sulfuric acid (H2SO4). [study of microwave emission from Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahd, Antoine K.; Steffes, Paul G.

    1991-01-01

    The methodology and the results of laboratory measurements of the millimeter wave properties of liquid sulfuric acid are presented. Measurements conducted at 30-40 and 90-100 GHz are reported, using different concentrations of liquid H2SO4. The measured data are used to compute the expected opacity of H2SO4 condensates and their effects on the millimeter wave emission from Venus. The cloud condensate is found to have an effect on the emission from Venus. The calculated decrease in brightness temperature is well below the observed decrease in brightness temperature found by de Pater et al. (1991). It is suggested that other constituents such as gaseous H2SO4 also affect the observed variation in the brightness temperature.

  16. Penetration of biomass-burning emissions from South Asia through the Himalayas: new insights from atmospheric organic acids

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kang, Shichang; Fu, Pingqing

    2015-01-01

    High levels of carbonaceous aerosol exist over South Asia, the area adjacent to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Little is known about if they can be transported across the Himalayas, and as far inland as the Tibetan Plateau. As important constituents of aerosols, organic acids have been recognized as unique fingerprints to identify the atmospheric process. Here we measured dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in aerosols on the northern slope of Mt. Everest (Qomolangma, 4276 m a.s.l.). Strong positive correlations were observed for dicarboxylic acids with biomass burning tracers, levoglucosan and K+, demonstrating that this area was evidently affected by biomass burning. The seasonal variation pattern of dicarboxylic acids is consistent with OC and EC, being characterized by a pronounced maximum in the pre-monsoon season. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds (malonic acid/succinic acid, maleic acid/fumaric acid) further support this finding. We suggest that the local meteorological conditions and regional atmospheric flow process could facilitate the penetration of the carbonaceous aerosols from South Asia throughout the Himalayas. With the consideration of the darkening force of carbonaceous aerosols, our finding has important implication for this climate-sensitive area, where the glacier melting supplies water for billions of people downstream. PMID:25854556

  17. A theoretical study on the pH dependence of X-ray emission spectra for aqueous acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Naohiro; Tokushima, Takashi; Takahashi, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    We performed theoretical calculations to reproduce the site-selective XES spectra for aqueous acetic acid at the oxygen K-edge. The shape of the experimental XES spectra obtained from aqueous acetic acid drastically changed when the pH value was high. Structure sampling of an aqueous acetic acid cluster model was performed by the ab initio molecular dynamics trajectory. Relative XES peak intensities for the core⿿hole excited state dynamics simulations were calculated using density functional theory. We found that the theoretical XES spectra reproduced well the experimental spectra and that these calculations gave us electronic and molecular structure information about aqueous acetic acid.

  18. Penetration of biomass-burning emissions from South Asia through the Himalayas: new insights from atmospheric organic acids.

    PubMed

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kang, Shichang; Fu, Pingqing

    2015-04-09

    High levels of carbonaceous aerosol exist over South Asia, the area adjacent to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Little is known about if they can be transported across the Himalayas, and as far inland as the Tibetan Plateau. As important constituents of aerosols, organic acids have been recognized as unique fingerprints to identify the atmospheric process. Here we measured dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in aerosols on the northern slope of Mt. Everest (Qomolangma, 4276 m a.s.l.). Strong positive correlations were observed for dicarboxylic acids with biomass burning tracers, levoglucosan and K(+), demonstrating that this area was evidently affected by biomass burning. The seasonal variation pattern of dicarboxylic acids is consistent with OC and EC, being characterized by a pronounced maximum in the pre-monsoon season. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds (malonic acid/succinic acid, maleic acid/fumaric acid) further support this finding. We suggest that the local meteorological conditions and regional atmospheric flow process could facilitate the penetration of the carbonaceous aerosols from South Asia throughout the Himalayas. With the consideration of the darkening force of carbonaceous aerosols, our finding has important implication for this climate-sensitive area, where the glacier melting supplies water for billions of people downstream.

  19. Effects of soil moisture, temperature, and inorganic nitrogen on nitric oxide emissions from acidic tropical savannah soils

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, L.; Sanhueza, E.; Rondon, A.; Johansson, C.

    1993-08-20

    NO fluxes from soils with a wide range of soil moistures, soil inorganic-N concentrations, and soil temperatures were measured during the wet and the dry season at a Venezuelan savannah site. Maximum NO emissions ({approximately} 12 ngN m{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}) were observed at soil gravimetric moistures between 10% and 18%. Deviation from this optimum range results in decreased NO fluxes; very low emissions (< 2 ngN m{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}) were recorded at low (< 2%) and high (< 25%) soil moistures. Both NO production in soil and its transport within the soil play important roles in the emission of NO to the atmosphere. Under most conditions no temperature effect was observed. NO emission was strongly stimulated by the addition of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and only very weakly by the addition of NH{sub 4}{sup +}; at low and moderate soil moistures, soil nitrate and the NO flux were positively correlated. At low (natural) soil nitrate content and comparable soil moisture and temperature, NO emissions were greater during the dry season than during the rainy season, suggesting that other factors (i.e., soil physical structure) may also govern NO flux from savannah soil. 29 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. (18)F-Fluorination of Unactivated C-H Bonds in Branched Aliphatic Amino Acids: Direct Synthesis of Oncological Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Agents.

    PubMed

    Nodwell, Matthew B; Yang, Hua; Čolović, Milena; Yuan, Zheliang; Merkens, Helen; Martin, Rainer E; Bénard, François; Schaffer, Paul; Britton, Robert

    2017-03-15

    A mild and selective photocatalytic C-H (18)F-fluorination reaction has been developed that provides direct access to (18)F-fluorinated amino acids. The biodistribution and uptake of three (18)F-labeled leucine analogues via LAT1 mediated transport in several cancer cell lines is reported. Positron emission tomography imaging of mice bearing PC3 (prostate) or U87 (glioma) xenografts using 5-[(18)F]-fluorohomoleucine showed high tumor uptake and excellent tumor visualization, highlighting the utility of this strategy for rapid tracer discovery for oncology.

  1. [Determination of nine hazardous elements in textiles by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer after microwave-assisted dilute nitric acid extraction].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Xu, Dian-dou; Tang, Xiao-ping; Cao, Jing; Liu, Ya-ting; Deng, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Textiles are easily contaminated by heavy metals in the course of processing. In order to monitor the quality of textiles, a new method was developed for simultaneous determination of arsenic, antimony, lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel and mercury in textiles by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave-assisted dilute nitric acid extraction. After optimizing extraction conditions, we ultimately selected 5% nitric acid as extractant and 5 min as extraction time with the extraction temperature of 120 degrees C and instrument power of 400W in the microwave-assisted extraction procedure. Nine hazardous elements were detected sequentially by ICP-OES. The results showed that the detection limits were 0.3-15 microg x L(-1) and the recoveries 73.6%-105% with the RSDs (n = 3) of 0.1%-3%. The proposed method was successfully used to determine nine elements in cotton, wool, terylene and acrylic.

  2. Amino acid distribution and metabolism in pituitary adenomas using positron emission tomography with D-(/sup 11/C)methionine and L-(/sup 11/C)methionine

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstroem, M.M.; Muhr, C.; Lundberg, P.O.; Bergstroem, K.L.; Lundqvist, H.; Antoni, G.; Fasth, K.J.; Langstroem B3

    1987-05-01

    Four patients with hormonally inactive pituitary adenomas were examined with positron emission tomography (PET) after injection, during different examinations, of L-(methyl-/sup 11/C)methionine and D-(methyl-/sup 11/C)methionine, respectively. After the rapid distribution phase, the enantiomer L-(/sup 11/C)methionine, which is metabolically active, showed a considerable continuous irreversible trapping attributed to amino acid metabolism. The stereoisomer D-(/sup 11/C)methionine, which does not participate in protein synthesis, showed a rapid distribution within the whole adenoma tissue, with a distribution space on the order of 100%. A minimal irreversible trapping was observed which could be explained by technical factors. It is concluded that PET using the two enantiomers allows a separation of passive distribution and metabolism, and that L-(/sup 11/C)methionine can be used for in vivo quantitative studies of amino acid metabolism of pituitary adenomas.

  3. Assessing conservation status of resident and migrant birds on Hispaniola with mist-netting

    PubMed Central

    Rimmer, Christopher C.; McFarland, Kent P.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed temporal trends in mist-net capture rates of resident (n = 8) and overwintering Nearctic-Neotropical migrant (n = 3) bird species at two sites in montane broadleaf forest of the Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic, with the goal of providing quantitative information on population trends that could inform conservation assessments. We conducted sampling at least once annually during the winter months of January–March from 1997 to 2010. We found evidence of declines in capture rates for three resident species, including one species endemic to Hispaniola. Capture rate of Rufous-throated Solitaire (Myadestes genibarbis) declined by 3.9% per year (95% CL = 0%, 7.3%), Green-tailed Ground-Tanager (Microligea palustris) by 6.8% (95% CL = 3.9%, 8.8%), and Greater Antillean Bullfinch (Loxigilla violacea) by 4.9% (95% CL = 0.9%, 9.2%). Two rare and threatened endemics, Hispaniolan Highland-Tanager (Xenoligea montana) and Western Chat-Tanager (Calyptophilus tertius), showed statistically significant declines, but we have low confidence in these findings because trends were driven by exceptionally high capture rates in 1997 and varied between sites. Analyses that excluded data from 1997 revealed no trend in capture rate over the course of the study. We found no evidence of temporal trends in capture rates for any other residents or Nearctic-Neotropical migrants. We do not know the causes of the observed declines, nor can we conclude that these declines are not a purely local phenomenon. However, our findings, along with other recent reports of declines in these same species, suggest that a closer examination of their conservation status is warranted. Given the difficulty in obtaining spatially extensive, long-term estimates of population change for Hispaniolan birds, we suggest focusing on other metrics of vulnerability that are more easily quantified yet remain poorly described, such as extent of occurrence. PMID:26844015

  4. Enhancing sampling design in mist-net bat surveys by accounting for sample size optimization.

    PubMed

    Trevelin, Leonardo Carreira; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Colas-Rosas, Paul François; Benathar, Thayse Cristhina Melo; Peres, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of mist-netting, the main technique used in Neotropical bat community studies to date, include logistical implementation, standardization and sampling representativeness. Nonetheless, study designs still have to deal with issues of detectability related to how different species behave and use the environment. Yet there is considerable sampling heterogeneity across available studies in the literature. Here, we approach the problem of sample size optimization. We evaluated the common sense hypothesis that the first six hours comprise the period of peak night activity for several species, thereby resulting in a representative sample for the whole night. To this end, we combined re-sampling techniques, species accumulation curves, threshold analysis, and community concordance of species compositional data, and applied them to datasets of three different Neotropical biomes (Amazonia, Atlantic Forest and Cerrado). We show that the strategy of restricting sampling to only six hours of the night frequently results in incomplete sampling representation of the entire bat community investigated. From a quantitative standpoint, results corroborated the existence of a major Sample Area effect in all datasets, although for the Amazonia dataset the six-hour strategy was significantly less species-rich after extrapolation, and for the Cerrado dataset it was more efficient. From the qualitative standpoint, however, results demonstrated that, for all three datasets, the identity of species that are effectively sampled will be inherently impacted by choices of sub-sampling schedule. We also propose an alternative six-hour sampling strategy (at the beginning and the end of a sample night) which performed better when resampling Amazonian and Atlantic Forest datasets on bat assemblages. Given the observed magnitude of our results, we propose that sample representativeness has to be carefully weighed against study objectives, and recommend that the trade-off between

  5. Enhancing sampling design in mist-net bat surveys by accounting for sample size optimization

    PubMed Central

    Trevelin, Leonardo Carreira; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Colas-Rosas, Paul François; Benathar, Thayse Cristhina Melo; Peres, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of mist-netting, the main technique used in Neotropical bat community studies to date, include logistical implementation, standardization and sampling representativeness. Nonetheless, study designs still have to deal with issues of detectability related to how different species behave and use the environment. Yet there is considerable sampling heterogeneity across available studies in the literature. Here, we approach the problem of sample size optimization. We evaluated the common sense hypothesis that the first six hours comprise the period of peak night activity for several species, thereby resulting in a representative sample for the whole night. To this end, we combined re-sampling techniques, species accumulation curves, threshold analysis, and community concordance of species compositional data, and applied them to datasets of three different Neotropical biomes (Amazonia, Atlantic Forest and Cerrado). We show that the strategy of restricting sampling to only six hours of the night frequently results in incomplete sampling representation of the entire bat community investigated. From a quantitative standpoint, results corroborated the existence of a major Sample Area effect in all datasets, although for the Amazonia dataset the six-hour strategy was significantly less species-rich after extrapolation, and for the Cerrado dataset it was more efficient. From the qualitative standpoint, however, results demonstrated that, for all three datasets, the identity of species that are effectively sampled will be inherently impacted by choices of sub-sampling schedule. We also propose an alternative six-hour sampling strategy (at the beginning and the end of a sample night) which performed better when resampling Amazonian and Atlantic Forest datasets on bat assemblages. Given the observed magnitude of our results, we propose that sample representativeness has to be carefully weighed against study objectives, and recommend that the trade-off between

  6. The effectiveness of peppermint and thyme essential oil mist in reducing bacterial contamination in broiler houses.

    PubMed

    Witkowska, D; Sowinska, J

    2013-11-01

    The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been demonstrated by various in vitro studies, whereas their effect on poultry farm hygiene has not been thoroughly investigated, in particular with reference to aerial treatment. The present study aims to assess the antibacterial effects of natural essential oils in broiler houses. Two experimental rooms were fogged with aqueous solutions of peppermint and thyme oils. The control room was sprayed with pure water. The experiment was conducted on broilers aged 1 to 42 d. The rooms were fogged every 3 d. One day after fogging, the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and mannitol-positive staphylococci were determined. Samples were collected from the air, litter, walls, and drinkers. The results of the study demonstrate that essential oil mist may improve hygiene standards in broiler farms. During broiler growth, the mean total counts of mesophilic bacteria in the rooms treated with essential oils were lower (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. Enterobacteriaceae and staphylococci counts were also higher in the control group. A single exception was noted in a litter sample where the mean count of Enterobacteriaceae in the room fogged with peppermint oil was higher than in the control. Both oils reduced bacterial counts, but thyme oil was more effective in reducing coliform bacteria, whereas peppermint oil had a higher inhibitory effect on the proliferation of staphylococci. These promising results encourage further research to determine the optimal doses and the effects of essential oils and their combinations on the living conditions and health status of broiler chickens.

  7. A randomized study of tiotropium Respimat Soft Mist inhaler vs. ipratropium pMDI in COPD.

    PubMed

    Voshaar, T; Lapidus, R; Maleki-Yazdi, R; Timmer, W; Rubin, E; Lowe, L; Bateman, E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of these studies was to compare the efficacy and the safety of tiotropium, delivered via Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI), a novel multi-dose, propellant-free inhaler, with ipratropium pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Two identical, 12-week, multi-national, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, active- and placebo-controlled studies were performed. COPD patients were randomized to treatment with either inhaled tiotropium (5 or 10 microg) via Respimat SMI administered once daily, ipratropium (36 microg) pMDI QID or placebo. The primary endpoint was the mean trough forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1)) response after 12 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints included other spirometry measures and rescue medication use. A total of 719 patients were randomized; the majority were male (69%) with a mean pre-bronchodilator FEV(1) (% predicted) of 40.7%. The mean treatment differences between tiotropium 5 and 10 microg and placebo for the primary endpoint (mean trough FEV(1) response at week 12) were 0.118 and 0.149L, respectively (both P<0.0001). Treatment differences between tiotropium 5 and 10 microg and ipratropium were 0.064L (P=0.006) and 0.095L (P<0.0001). The increases in peak FEV(1), FEV(1) AUC((0-6h)) and FVC for both tiotropium doses were statistically superior to placebo (P<0.01) and higher than ipratropium. All active treatments significantly reduced the rescue medication use compared with placebo, but only tiotropium 10 microg was statistically superior to ipratropium (P=0.04). The incidence of adverse events was comparable across groups. In conclusion, tiotropium 5 and 10 microg daily, delivered via Respimat SMI, significantly improved lung function compared with ipratropium pMDI and placebo.

  8. Improved delivery of ipratropium bromide/fenoterol from Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Kilfeather, S A; Ponitz, H H; Beck, E; Schmidt, P; Lee, A; Bowen, I; Hesse, Ch

    2004-05-01

    We performed a multicentre, randomised, double-blind (within-device), placebo- and active-controlled, parallel-group study to compare the efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide plus fenoterol hydrobromide (IB/FEN; Berodual) delivered via the novel, propellant-free Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) and from a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-metered-dose inhaler (MDI) in moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. After 2-weeks' run-in (CFC-MDI [IB 20 microg/FEN 50 microg per actuation] two actuations q.i.d. [MDI 40/100]), 892 patients were randomised to Respimat SMI containing IB 10 microg/FEN 25 microg (Respimat SMI 10/25), IB 20 microg/FEN 50 microg (Respimat SMI 20/50) or placebo (one actuation q.i.d.), or a CFC-MDI containing IB 20 microg/FEN 50 microg (MDI 40/100) or placebo (two actuations q.i.d.) for 12 weeks. Analysis of the primary endpoint (change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] in the first 60 min after dosing [area under the curve; AUC0-1h]) on day 85 showed that the efficacy of Respimat SMI 20/50 (but not Respimat SMI 10/25) was not inferior to that of MDI 40/100. The safety profile of Respimat SMI was comparable to CFC-MDI. Switching from MDI 40/100 to Respimat SMI was well tolerated. Respimat SMI enables a 50% reduction of the nominal inhaled dose of IB/FEN in COPD patients while offering similar therapeutic efficacy and safety to the CFC-MDI.

  9. Patient preferences for inhaler devices in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: experience with Respimat Soft Mist inhaler.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Richard; Price, David

    2009-01-01

    Current guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend the regular use of inhaled bronchodilator therapy in order to relieve symptoms and prevent exacerbations. A variety of inhaler devices are currently available to COPD patients, and the choice of device is an important consideration because it can influence patients' adherence to treatment, and thus potentially affect the long-term outcome. The Respimat((R)) Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) generates a slow-moving aerosol with a high fine particle fraction, resulting in deposition of a higher proportion of the dose in the lungs than pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) or some dry powder inhalers (DPIs). We review clinical studies of inhaler satisfaction and preference comparing Respimat((R)) SMI against other inhalers in COPD patients. Using objective and validated patient satisfaction instruments, Respimat((R)) SMI was consistently shown to be well accepted by COPD patients, largely due to its inhalation and handling characteristics. In comparative studies with pMDIs, the patient total satisfaction score with Respimat((R)) SMI was statistically and clinically significantly higher than with the pMDI. In comparative studies with DPIs, the total satisfaction score was statistically significantly higher than for the Turbuhaler((R)) DPI, but only the performance domain of satisfaction was clinically significantly higher for Respimat((R)) SMI. Whether the observed higher levels of patient satisfaction reported with Respimat((R)) SMI might be expected to result in improved adherence to therapy and thus provide benefits consistent with those recently shown to be associated with sustained bronchodilator treatment in patients with COPD remains to be proven.

  10. Effects of Water-misting Sprays with Forced Ventilation after Transport during Summer on Meat Quality, Stress Parameters, Glycolytic Potential and Microstructures of Muscle in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, N. N.; Xing, T.; Wang, P.; Xie, C.; Xu, X. L.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport during summer on meat quality, stress parameters, glycolytic potential and microstructures of muscle in broilers were investigated. A total of 105 mixed-sex Arbor Acres broilers were divided into three treatment groups: i) 45-min transport without rest (T group), ii) 45-min transport with 1-h rest (TR group), iii) 45-min transport with 15-min water-misting sprays with forced ventilation and 45-min rest (TWFR group). The results showed the TWFR group significantly increased (p<0.05) initial muscle pH (pHi) and ultimate pH (pHu) and significantly reduced L* (p<0.05), drip loss, cook loss, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase activity, plasma glucose content, lactate and glycolytic potential when compared with other groups. Microstructure of the muscle from TWFR group broilers under light microscopy showed smaller intercellular spaces among muscle fibers and bundles compared with T group. In conclusion this study indicated water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport could relieve the stress caused by transport under high temperature, which was favorable for the broilers’ welfare. Furthermore, water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport slowed down the postmortem glycolysis rate and inhibited the occurrence of PSE-like meat in broilers. Although rest after transport could also improve the meat quality, the effect was not as significant as water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport. PMID:26580445

  11. Experimental and Computational Studies on Water Mist Flow in the Horizontal Bore of a Superconducting Magnet: Example of Magnetic Force Application on Micron-Sized Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian; Lu, ShuShen; Hirano, Hiroyuki; Tagawa, Toshio; Ozoe, Hiroyuki

    2005-11-01

    The effect of a magnetic field on water mist (diamagnetic) is studied both experimentally and numerically. The water mist is produced by ultrasonic atomizers and is fed to a Plexiglas pipe (90 mm inner diameter and 1 m long) which is horizontally placed in a horizontal bore (d=100 mm) of a superconducting magnet (10 T at the magnet center). The water mist is found to flow out of the other end of the pipe opening when there is no magnetic field (b=0 T). At b=8 and 10 T, the mist is stopped at an intermediate location in the pipe and flows out from the inlet opening. In the computation, the water mist is simulated with 1000 particles of 0.01-5 μm in diameter. Brownian motion is considered and the Langevin equation is solved. Various magnitudes of magnetic strength, particle diameters and pressure gradients for air flow are numerically tested. The magnetic effect is obvious for particles with diameters larger than 1 μm. For example, for 3 μm particles, only a small amount of particles are able to pass through the weak magnetic field near the cylinder axis to the downstream and sediment over the downward pipe wall.

  12. Venous blood gas and lactate values of mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), boat-tailed grackles (Quiscalus major), and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) after capture by mist net, banding, and venipuncture.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Harms, Ronald V

    2012-03-01

    Blood gas partial pressures, pH, and bicarbonate and lactate concentrations were measured from the basilic vein of mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) and the jugular vein of boat-tailed grackles (Quiscalus major) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to assess immediate impacts of mist net capture and handling for banding and venipuncture. Mourning doves and house sparrows exhibited mild acidemia (median [minimum-maximum] venous blood pH(41 degrees C) = 7.394 [7.230-7.496] and 7.395 [7.248-7.458], respectively), relative to boat-tailed grackles (Quiscalus major; 7.452 [7.364-7.512]), but for different reasons. Mourning doves exhibited relative metabolic acidosis (lower venous blood pH, higher lactate concentrations, lower bicarbonate, and no significant differences in partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) or partial pressure of O2 (pO2) compared with boat-tailed grackles). House sparrows exhibited relative respiratory acidosis (lower venous blood pH, higher pCO2, lower pO2, and no significant differences in bicarbonate and lactate concentrations compared with boat-tailed grackles). All birds captured by mist net and handled for banding and venipuncture experienced some degree of lactic acidemia; and values were greater in mourning doves (lactate, 7.72 [3.94-14.14] mmol/L) than in boat-tailed grackles (5.74 [3.09-8.75] mmol/L) and house sparrows (4.77 [2.66-12.03] mmol/L), despite mourning doves resisting least and being easiest to disentangle from the mist net. House sparrows were more susceptible to respiratory acidosis, warranting particular care in handling birds <30 g to minimize interference with ventilation. The different sample collection site for mourning doves may have affected results in comparison with the other two species, due to activity of the wing muscles. However, despite the higher lactate concentrations, pCO2 was relatively low in doves. The metabolic, respiratory, and acid-base alterations observed in this study were minor in most cases, indicative of

  13. Low to middle tropospheric profiles and biosphere/troposphere fluxes of acidic gases in the summertime Canadian taiga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, O.; Talbot, R. W.; Fitzgerald, D. R.; Klemm, K. I.; Lefer, B. L.

    1994-01-01

    We report features of acidic gases in the troposphere from 9 to 5000 m altitude above ground over the Canadian taiga in the summer of 1990. The measurements were conducted at a 30-m meteorological tower and from the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft as part of the joint U.S.-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B Northern Wetland Studies (NOWES). We sampled air for acidic gases using the mist chamber collector coupled with subsequent analysis using ion chromatography. At the tower we collected samples at two heights during a 13-day period, including diurnal studies. Using eddy flux and profile data, we estimated the biosphere/troposphere fluxes of nitric, formic, and acetic acids and sulfur dioxide. For the organic acids, emissions from the taiga in the afternoon hours and deposition during the predawn morning hours were observed. The flux intensities alone were however not high enough to explain the observed changes in mixing ratios. The measured deposition fluxes of nitric acid were high enough to have a significant influence on its mixing ratio in the boundary layer. On three days we measured vertical profiles of nitric, formic, and acetic acids through the lower to midtroposphere. We found that the chemical composition of the troposphere was extremely heterogenous. Pronounced layers of polluted air were readily apparent from our measurements. Local photochemical production and episodic long-range transport of trace components, originating from biomass burning and possibly industrial emissions, appear to have a strong influence on the composition of the troposphere and biosphere/troposphere fluxes of acidic gases at this site.

  14. Application of CE with novel dynamic coatings and field-amplified sample injection to the sensitive determination of isomeric benzoic acids in atmospheric aerosols and vehicular emission.

    PubMed

    Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Piechowski, Maria

    2007-10-01

    A simple and reliable CE method with direct UV detection has been developed to separate eight isomeric benzoic acids in atmospheric aerosols and vehicular emission without complex sample pretreatment. Optimal electrophoretic conditions, with migration times under 5 min, were obtained by using a 50 mM acetate buffer (pH 4.7) containing a dynamic surface coating EOTrol LN (0.005% w/v). The separations were carried out in a cathode to anode direction (-30 kV) allowing the low cathodal EOF ( approximately 1 x 10(-9) m(2)V(-1)s(-1)) to extend the effective separation by slowing the movement of the studied aromatic acids. Moreover, the sensitivity of the method at 200 nm was enhanced by using a field-amplified sample injection (FASI) with electrokinetic (EK) sample injection (-2 kV, 60 s). Prior to sample injection, a short water plug (3 s at 0.5 psi) was introduced. Under these conditions, the method was capable of detecting the analytes in deionized water with LODs (S/N = 3) as low as 0.1 microg/L for most of the studied acids. In the presence of 10 mg/L of sulphate (added to simulate a sample matrix), LODs ranged from 0.26 to 0.62 microg/L. The validation of the method has proven an excellent separation performance and accuracy for the determination of isomeric benzoic acids in the studied matrices.

  15. Secondary acidification: Changes in gas-aerosol partitioning of semivolatile nitric acid and enhancement of its deposition due to increased emission and concentration of SOx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajino, Mizuo; Ueda, Hiromasa; Nakayama, Shinji

    2008-02-01

    Secondary acidification, or the indirect enhancement of semivolatile air pollutant deposition associated with increased SO42- concentrations, is shown to occur in general air pollution using data collected from six stations of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) in Japan. This effect was first detected as a result of volcanic SO2 plumes in our previous studies. Results indicate that as SO42- concentration increases, gas-aerosol partitioning of nitric acid shifts to the gas phase, increasing the HNO3 gas concentration. Since the dry and wet deposition rates of HNO3 gas are very high, deposition can be enhanced even when the emission of NOx remains unchanged. In western Japan, the indirect effect for wet deposition is most apparent from spring to autumn, when the Asian continental outflow carries sulfate-rich contaminated air masses. However, it is not pronounced in air masses containing abundant sea-salt particles and related cation components in aerosols. In areas such as forests or farmlands with low surface resistance, dry deposition of nitric acid is more pronounced than wet deposition as the dry deposition velocity of HNO3 gas is high. Increased dry deposition of t-NO3 due to the indirect effect and consequent vegetation damage is thus of considerable concern in such regions. The deposition of other semivolatile components, such as hydrochloric acid and ammonia, can be altered and can also induce secondary acidification.

  16. Comparison of the aerosol velocity and spray duration of Respimat Soft Mist inhaler and pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Hochrainer, Dieter; Hölz, Hubert; Kreher, Christoph; Scaffidi, Luigi; Spallek, Michael; Wachtel, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Apart from particle size distribution, spray velocity is one of the most important aerosol characteristics that influence lung deposition of inhaled drugs. The time period over which the aerosol is released (spray duration) is also important for coordination of inhalation. Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) is a new generation, propellant-free inhaler that delivers drug to the lung much more efficiently than pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). The objective of this study was to compare the velocity and spray duration of aerosol clouds produced by Respimat SMI with those from a variety of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) pMDIs. All inhalers contained solutions or suspensions of bronchodilators. A videorecording method was used to determine the aerosol velocity. For spray duration, the time for generation of the Soft Mist by Respimat SMI was initially determined using three different methods (videorecording [techniques A and B], laser light diffraction and rotating disc). Videorecording was then used to compare the spray duration of Respimat SMI with those from the other inhalers. The Soft Mist produced by Respimat SMI moved much more slowly and had a more prolonged duration than aerosol clouds from pMDIs (mean velocity at a 10-cm distance from the nozzle: Respimat SMI, 0.8 m/sec; pMDIs, 2.0-8.4 m/sec; mean duration: Respimat SMI, 1.5 sec; pMDIs, 0.15-0.36 sec). These characteristics should result in improved lung and reduced oropharyngeal deposition, and are likely to simplify coordination of inhaler actuation and inhalation compared with pMDIs.

  17. Heat Transfer and Observation of Droplet-Surface Interactions During Air-Mist Cooling at CSP Secondary System Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta L., Mario E.; Mejía G., M. Esther; Castillejos E., A. Humberto

    2016-04-01

    Air-mists are key elements in the secondary cooling of modern thin steel slab continuous casters. The selection of water, W, and air, A, flow rates, and pressures in pneumatic nozzles open up a wide spectrum of cooling possibilities by their influence on droplet diameter, d, droplet velocity, v, and water impact flux, w. Nonetheless, due to the harsh environment resulting from the high temperatures and dense mists involved, there is very little information about the correlation between heat flux extracted, - q, and mist characteristics, and none about the dynamics of drop-wall interactions. For obtaining both kinds of information, this work combines a steady-state heat flux measuring method with a visualization technique based on a high-speed camera and a laser illumination system. For wall temperatures, T w, between ~723 K and ~1453 K (~450 °C and ~1180 °C), which correspond to film boiling regime, it was confirmed that - q increases with increase in v, w, and T w and with decrease in d. It should be noticed, however, that the increase in w generally decreases the spray cooling effectiveness because striking drops do not evaporate efficiently due to the interference by liquid remains from previous drops. Visualization of the events happening close to the surface also reveals that the contact time of the liquid with the surface is very brief and that rebounding, splashing, sliding, and levitation of drops lead to ineffective contact with the surface. At the center of the mist footprint, where drops impinge nearly normal to the surface those with enough momentum establish intimate contact with it before forming a vapor layer that pushes away the remaining liquid. Also, some drops are observed sliding upon the surface or levitating close to it; these are drops with low momentum which are influenced by the deflecting air stream. At footprint positions where oblique impingement occurs, frequently drops are spotted sliding or levitating and liquid films flowing in

  18. The MIST /MIUS Integration and Subsystems Test/ laboratory - A testbed for the MIUS /Modular Integrated Utility System/ program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckham, W. S., Jr.; Keune, F. A.

    1974-01-01

    The MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility System) concept is to be an energy-conserving, economically feasible, integrated community utility system to provide five necessary services: electricity generation, space heating and air conditioning, solid waste processing, liquid waste processing, and residential water purification. The MIST (MIUS Integration and Subsystem Test) integrated system testbed constructed at the Johnson Space Center in Houston includes subsystems for power generation, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), wastewater management, solid waste management, and control and monitoring. The key design issues under study include thermal integration and distribution techniques, thermal storage, integration of subsystems controls and displays, incinerator performance, effluent characteristics, and odor control.

  19. 40 CFR 62.7850 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... plan was officially submitted as follows: (1) Sulfuric acid plants on May 15, 1981. (c) Affected facilities: The plan includes the following facilities: (1) Sulfuric acid plants. Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions From Sulfuric Acid Plants...

  20. 40 CFR 62.7850 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plan was officially submitted as follows: (1) Sulfuric acid plants on May 15, 1981. (c) Affected facilities: The plan includes the following facilities: (1) Sulfuric acid plants. Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions From Sulfuric Acid Plants...

  1. 40 CFR 62.7850 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... plan was officially submitted as follows: (1) Sulfuric acid plants on May 15, 1981. (c) Affected facilities: The plan includes the following facilities: (1) Sulfuric acid plants. Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions From Sulfuric Acid Plants...

  2. 40 CFR 62.7850 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... plan was officially submitted as follows: (1) Sulfuric acid plants on May 15, 1981. (c) Affected facilities: The plan includes the following facilities: (1) Sulfuric acid plants. Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions From Sulfuric Acid Plants...

  3. 40 CFR 62.7850 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plan was officially submitted as follows: (1) Sulfuric acid plants on May 15, 1981. (c) Affected facilities: The plan includes the following facilities: (1) Sulfuric acid plants. Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions From Sulfuric Acid Plants...

  4. 40 CFR 62.100 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... officially submitted as follows. (1) Control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid... applies to existing facilities in the following categories of sources: (1) Sulfuric acid plants; (2... combustors. (5) Existing hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators. Sulfuric Acid Mist From...

  5. 40 CFR 62.100 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... officially submitted as follows. (1) Control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid... applies to existing facilities in the following categories of sources: (1) Sulfuric acid plants; (2... combustors. (5) Existing hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators. Sulfuric Acid Mist From...

  6. 40 CFR 62.100 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... officially submitted as follows. (1) Control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid... applies to existing facilities in the following categories of sources: (1) Sulfuric acid plants; (2... combustors. (5) Existing hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators. Sulfuric Acid Mist From...

  7. 40 CFR 62.100 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... officially submitted as follows. (1) Control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid... applies to existing facilities in the following categories of sources: (1) Sulfuric acid plants; (2... combustors. (5) Existing hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators. Sulfuric Acid Mist From...

  8. 40 CFR 62.100 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... officially submitted as follows. (1) Control of sulfuric acid mist emissions from existing sulfuric acid... applies to existing facilities in the following categories of sources: (1) Sulfuric acid plants; (2... combustors. (5) Existing hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators. Sulfuric Acid Mist From...

  9. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A brief description of TES is listed below. TES is a spectrometer that measures the infrared-light energy (radiance) emitted by Earth's surface and by gases and particles in Earth's atmosphere. Every substance warmer than absolute zero emits infrared radiation at certain signature wavelengths. Spectrometers measure this radiation as a means of identifying the substances.TES has very high spectral resolution, which gives it the ability to pinpoint the wavelengths at which the substances are emitting. This enables precise identification of the substances, and also provides information about their location in the atmosphere. Emission wavelengths can vary with temperature and pressure, so seeing the emissions with great precision enables scientists to infer the temperature and pressure of the chemicals from which they came. This, in turn, implies that the chemicals being observed are at a certain altitude where those temperatures and pressures apply. The ability to determine the altitude of the observed chemicals enables TES to distinguish radiation from the upper and lower atmosphere, and focus on the lower layer - the troposphere.Since it observes light in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, similar to night-vision goggles, TES can observe both day and night. Its spectral range overlaps t

  10. Ice core sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from southern Greenland document North American and European air pollution and suggest a decline in regional biogenic sulfur emissions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasteris, D. R.; McConnell, J. R.; Burkhart, J. F.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfate aerosols have an important cooling effect on the Earth because they scatter sunlight back to space and form cloud condensation nuclei. However, understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle is incomplete, leading to uncertainty in the assessment of past, present and future climate forcing. Here we use annually resolved observations of sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentration in an array of precisely dated Southern Greenland ice cores to assess the history of sulfur pollution emitted from North America and Europe and the history of biogenic sulfate aerosol derived from the North Atlantic Ocean over the last 250 years. The ice core sulfur time series is found to closely track sulfur concentrations in North American and European precipitation since records began in 1965, and also closely tracks estimated sulfur emissions since 1850 within the air mass source region as determined by back trajectory analysis. However, a decline to near-preindustrial sulfur concentrations in the ice cores after 1995 that is not so extensive in the source region emissions indicates that there has been a change in sulfur cycling over the last 150 years. The ice core MSA time series shows a decline of 60% since the 1860s, and is well correlated with declining sea ice concentrations around Greenland, suggesting that the phytoplankton source of biogenic sulfur has declined due to a loss of marginal sea ice zone habitat. Incorporating the implied decrease in biogenic sulfur in our analysis improves the match between the ice core sulfur record and the source region emissions throughout the last 150 years, and solves the problem of the recent return to near-preindustrial levels in the Greenland ice. These findings indicate that the transport efficiency of sulfur air pollution has been relatively stable through the industrial era and that biogenic sulfur emissions in the region have declined.

  11. Small-angle x-ray scattering measurement of a mist of ethanol nanodroplets: An approach to understanding ultrasonic separation of ethanol-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yohko F.; Matsuura, Kazuo; Fukazu, Tetsuo; Abe, Fusatsugu; Wakisaka, Akihiro; Kobara, Hitomi; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Kumagai, Atsushi; Katsuya, Yoshio; Tanaka, Masahiko

    2007-07-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering measurements using a brilliant x-ray source revealed nanometer sized liquid droplets in a mist formed by ultrasonic atomization. Ultrasonic atomization of ethanol-water mixtures produced a combination of water-rich droplets of micrometer order and ethanol-rich droplets as small as 1nm, which is 10-3 times smaller than the predicted size. These sizes were also obtained for mists generated from the pure liquids. These results will help to clarify the mechanism of "ultrasonic ethanol separation," which has the potential to become an alternative to distillation.

  12. Small-angle x-ray scattering measurement of a mist of ethanol nanodroplets: an approach to understanding ultrasonic separation of ethanol-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yohko F; Matsuura, Kazuo; Fukazu, Tetsuo; Abe, Fusatsugu; Wakisaka, Akihiro; Kobara, Hitomi; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Kumagai, Atsushi; Katsuya, Yoshio; Tanaka, Masahiko

    2007-07-21

    Small-angle x-ray scattering measurements using a brilliant x-ray source revealed nanometer sized liquid droplets in a mist formed by ultrasonic atomization. Ultrasonic atomization of ethanol-water mixtures produced a combination of water-rich droplets of micrometer order and ethanol-rich droplets as small as 1 nm, which is 10(-3) times smaller than the predicted size. These sizes were also obtained for mists generated from the pure liquids. These results will help to clarify the mechanism of "ultrasonic ethanol separation," which has the potential to become an alternative to distillation.

  13. Comparative Studies on Polyphenolic Composition, Antioxidant and Diuretic Effects of Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin) and Nigella damascena L. (Lady-in-a-Mist) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Toma, Claudia-Crina; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Vlase, Laurian; Mogoșan, Cristina; Mocan, Andrei

    2015-05-26

    This study was performed to evaluate the phenolic profile, antioxidant and diuretic effects of black cumin and lady-in-a-mist seeds. In the phenolic profile, differences between the two species are significant. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the phenolic compounds were performed using a HPLC-UV/MS method. Hyperoside was the only identified flavonoid glycoside (1.08 ± 0.01 μg∙g-1 dw plant material), in the N. damascena extract. Regarding the flavonol profile, kaempferol was identified before the hydrolysis, only in the N. sativa extract (6.06 ± 0.02 μg∙g-1 dw plant material) and quercetin only in N. damascena seeds (14.35 ± 0.02 μg∙g-1 dw plant material). The antioxidant potential of the two species was tested through several electron transfer assays, which indicated, excepting for the FRAP assay, N. damascena as exhibiting a higher free radical scavenging activity. The diuretic activity of the two extracts was tested using a rat-experimental model on acute diuresis. Administration of the ethanolic extract of N. sativa (100 mg∙kg-1) resulted in a significant increase in urine volume, although less than found with the reference drug; in addition N. damascena extract did not present a diuretic effect. In reference to the elimination of Na+, K+ and uric acid, the black cumin extract exhibited a higher natriuretic than kaluretic effect and a similar uricosuric effect with control and N. damascena. For N. damascena, the Na+/K+ ratio was sub unitary, but not due to an increasing of the kaluretic effect, but mostly to a decrease of Na+ excretion.

  14. Experimental und numerical investigations on cooling efficiency of Air-Mist nozzles on steel during continuous casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arth, G.; Taferner, M.; Bernhard, C.; Michelic, S.

    2016-07-01

    Cooling strategies in continuous casting of steel can vary from rapid cooling to slow cooling, mainly controlled by adjusting the amount of water sprayed onto the surface of the product. Inadequate adjustment however can lead to local surface undercooling or reheating, leading to surface and inner defects. This paper focuses on cooling efficiency of Air-Mist nozzles on casted steel and the experimental and numerical prediction of surface temperature distributions over the product width. The first part explains the determination of heat transfer coefficients (HTC) on laboratory scale, using a so called nozzle measuring stand (NMS). Based on measured water distributions and determined HTC's for air-mist nozzles using the NMS, surface temperatures are calculated by a transient 2D-model on a simple steel plate, explained in the second part of this paper. Simulations are carried out varying water impact density and spray water distribution, consequently influencing the local HTC distribution over the plate width. Furthermore, these results will be interpreted with regard to their consequence for surface and internal quality of the cast product. The results reveal the difficulty of correct adjustment of the amount of sprayed water, concurrent influencing water distribution and thus changing HTC distribution and surface temperature.

  15. Negative effects of fluoranthene on the ecophysiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fluoranthene mists negatively affected tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant.

  16. Evaluation of peanut fatty acid methyl ester sprays, combustion, and emissions, for use in an indirect injection diesel engine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The paper provides an analysis of 100% peanut fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and peanut FAME/ULSD#2 blends (P20, P35, and P50) in an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine (for auxiliary power unit applications) in comparison to ultralow sulfur diesel no. 2 (ULSD#2) at various speeds and 100% load...

  17. Sewage sludge biochar influence upon rice (Oryza sativa L) yield, metal bioaccumulation and greenhouse gas emissions from acidic paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sardar; Chao, Cai; Waqas, Muhammad; Arp, Hans Peter H; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-08-06

    Biochar addition to soil has been proposed to improve plant growth by increasing soil fertility, minimizing bioaccumulation of toxic metal(liod)s and mitigating climate change. Sewage sludge (SS) is an attractive, though potentially problematic, feedstock of biochar. It is attractive because of its large abundance; however, it contains elevated concentrations of metal(loid)s and other contaminants. The pyrolysis of SS to biochar (SSBC) may be a way to reduce the availability of these contaminants to the soil and plants. Using rice plant pot experiments, we investigated the influence of SSBC upon biomass yield, bioaccumulation of nutrients, and metal(loid)s, and green housegas (GHG) emissions. SSBC amendments increased soil pH, total nitrogen, soil organic carbon and available nutrients and decreased bioavailable As, Cr, Co, Ni, and Pb (but not Cd, Cu, and Zn). Regarding rice plant properties, SSBC amendments significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased shoot biomass (71.3-92.2%), grain yield (148.8-175.1%), and the bioaccumulation of phosphorus and sodium, though decreased the bioaccumulation of nitrogen (except in grain) and potassium. Amendments of SSBC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the bioaccumulation of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb, but increased that of Cd and Zn, though not above limits set by Chinese regulations. Finally regarding GHG emissions, SSBC significantly (P < 0.01) reduced N2O emissions and stimulated the uptake/oxidation of CH4 enough to make both the cultivated and uncultivated paddy soil a CH4 sink. SSBC can be beneficial in rice paddy soil but the actual associated benefits will depend on site-specific conditions and source of SS; long-term effects remain a further unknown.

  18. Legacy effects of simulated short-term climate change on ammonia oxidisers, denitrifiers, and nitrous oxide emissions in an acid soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoya; Liu, Xiaorui; Li, Yong; Ran, Yu; Liu, Yapeng; Zhang, Qichun; Li, Zheng; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming; Di, Hongjie

    2017-03-21

    Although the effect of simulated climate change on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and on associated microbial communities has been reported, it is not well understood if these effects are short-lived or long-lasting. Here, we conducted a field study to determine the interactive effects of simulated warmer and drier conditions on nitrifier and denitrifier communities and N2O emissions in an acidic soil and the longevity of the effects. A warmer (+2.3 °C) and drier climate (-7.4% soil moisture content) was created with greenhouses. The variation of microbial population abundance and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), bacteria (AOB), and denitrifiers (nirK/S, nosZ) were determined using real-time PCR and high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the simulated warmer and drier conditions under the greenhouse following urea application significantly increased N2O emissions. There was also a moderate legacy effect on the N2O emissions when the greenhouses were removed in the urea treatment, although this effect only lasted a short period of time (about 60 days). The simulated climate change conditions changed the composition of AOA with the species affiliated to marine group 1.1a-associated lineage increasing significantly. The abundance of all the functional denitrifier genes decreased significantly under the simulated climate change conditions and the legacy effect, after the removal of greenhouses, significantly increased the abundance of AOB, AOA (mainly the species affiliated to marine group 1.1a-associated lineage), and nirK and nosZ genes in the urea-treated soil. In general, the effect of the simulated climate change was short-lived, with the denitrifier communities being able to return to ambient levels after a period of adaptation to ambient conditions. Therefore, the legacy effect of simulated short-time climate change conditions on the ammonia oxidizer and denitrifier communities and N2O emissions were temporary and once the

  19. Disaggregation is a Mechanism for Emission Turn-On of ortho-Aminomethylphenylboronic Acid-Based Saccharide Sensors.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Brette M; Metola, Pedro; Vankayala, Sai Lakshmana; Woodcock, H Lee; Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Lynch, Vincent M; Larkin, Joseph D; Anslyn, Eric Van

    2017-03-30

    ortho-Aminomethylphenylboronic acid-based receptors with appended fluorophores are commonly used as molecular sensors for saccharides in aqueous media. The mechanism for fluorescence modulation in these sensors has been attributed to some form of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) quenching, which is diminished in the presence of saccharides. Using a well-known boronic acid-based saccharide sensor (3), this work reveals a new mechanism for fluorescence turn-on in these types of sensors. Compound 3 exhibits an excimer, and the associated ground-state aggregation is responsible for fluorescence modulation under certain conditions. When fructose was titrated into a solution of 3 in 2:1 water/methanol with NaCl, the fluorescence intensity increased. Yet, when the same titration was repeated in pure methanol, a solvent in which the sensor does not aggregate, no fluorescence response to fructose was observed. This reveals that the fluorescence increase is not fully associated with fructose binding, but instead disaggregation of the sensor in the presence of fructose. Further, an analogue of the sensor that does not contain a boronic acid (4) responded nearly identically to 3 in the presence of fructose, despite having no functional group with which to bind the saccharide. This further supports the claim that fluorescence modulation is not primarily a result of binding, but of disaggregation. Using an indicator displacement assay and isothermal titration calorimetry, it was confirmed that fructose does indeed bind to the sensor. Thus, our evidence reveals that while binding occurs with fructose in the aqueous solvent system used, it is not related to the majority of the fluorescence modulation. Instead, disaggregation dominates the signal turn-on, and is thus a mechanism that should be investigated in other ortho-aminomethylphenylboronic acid-based sensors.

  20. The fatty acid amide hydrolase C385A variant affects brain binding of the positron emission tomography tracer [11C]CURB.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Isabelle; Tyndale, Rachel F; Williams, Belinda; Mansouri, Esmaeil; Westwood, Duncan J; Le Foll, Bernard; Rusjan, Pablo M; Mizrahi, Romina; De Luca, Vincenzo; Zhou, Qian; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Kish, Stephen J; Tong, Junchao

    2015-08-01

    The common functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs324420, C385A) of the endocannabinoid inactivating enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has been associated with anxiety disorder relevant phenotype and risk for addictions. Here, we tested whether the FAAH polymorphism affects in vivo binding of the FAAH positron emission tomography (PET) probe [(11)C]CURB ([(11)C-carbonyl]-6-hydroxy-[1,10-biphenyl]-3-yl cyclohexylcarbamate (URB694)). Participants (n=24) completed one [(11)C]CURB/PET scan and were genotyped for rs324420. Relative to C/C (58%), A-allele carriers (42%) had 23% lower [(11)C]CURB binding (λk3) in brain. We report evidence that the genetic variant rs324420 in FAAH is associated with measurable differences in brain FAAH binding as per PET [(11)C]CURB measurement.

  1. The fatty acid amide hydrolase C385A variant affects brain binding of the positron emission tomography tracer [11C]CURB

    PubMed Central

    Boileau, Isabelle; Tyndale, Rachel F; Williams, Belinda; Mansouri, Esmaeil; Westwood, Duncan J; Foll, Bernard Le; Rusjan, Pablo M; Mizrahi, Romina; De Luca, Vincenzo; Zhou, Qian; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Kish, Stephen J; Tong, Junchao

    2015-01-01

    The common functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs324420, C385A) of the endocannabinoid inactivating enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has been associated with anxiety disorder relevant phenotype and risk for addictions. Here, we tested whether the FAAH polymorphism affects in vivo binding of the FAAH positron emission tomography (PET) probe [11C]CURB ([11C-carbonyl]-6-hydroxy-[1,10-biphenyl]-3-yl cyclohexylcarbamate (URB694)). Participants (n=24) completed one [11C]CURB/PET scan and were genotyped for rs324420. Relative to C/C (58%), A-allele carriers (42%) had 23% lower [11C]CURB binding (λk3) in brain. We report evidence that the genetic variant rs324420 in FAAH is associated with measurable differences in brain FAAH binding as per PET [11C]CURB measurement. PMID:26036940

  2. Influence of 24-Nor-Ursodeoxycholic Acid on Hepatic Disposition of [(18)F]Ciprofloxacin, a Positron Emission Tomography Study in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wanek, Thomas; Halilbasic, Emina; Visentin, Michele; Mairinger, Severin; Römermann, Kerstin; Stieger, Bruno; Kuntner, Claudia; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver; Trauner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    24-nor-ursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA) is a novel therapeutic approach to cholestatic liver diseases. In mouse models of cholestasis, norUDCA induces basolateral multidrug resistance-associated proteins 4 (Mrp4) and 3 in hepatocytes, which provide alternative escape routes for bile acids accumulating during cholestasis but could also result in altered hepatic disposition of concomitantly administered substrate drugs. We used positron emission tomography imaging to study the influence of norUDCA on hepatic disposition of the model Mrp4 substrate [(18)F]ciprofloxacin in wild-type and Mdr2((-/-)) mice, a model of cholestasis. Animals underwent [(18)F]ciprofloxacin positron emission tomography at baseline and after norUDCA treatment. After norUDCA treatment, liver-to-blood area under the curve ratio of [(18)F]ciprofloxacin was significantly decreased compared to baseline, both in wild-type (-34.0 ± 2.1%) and Mdr2((-/-)) mice (-20.5 ± 6.0%). [(18)F]Ciprofloxacin uptake clearance from blood into liver was reduced by -17.1 ± 9.0% in wild-type and by -20.1 ± 7.3% in Mdr2((-/-)) mice. Real-time PCR analysis showed significant increases in hepatic Mrp4 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 mRNA after norUDCA. Transport experiments in organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1-, OATP1B3-, and OATP2B1-transfected cells revealed weak transport of [(14)C]ciprofloxacin by OATP1B3 and OATP2B1 and no inhibition by norUDCA. In conclusion, our data suggest that changes in hepatic [(18)F]ciprofloxacin disposition in mice after norUDCA treatment were caused by induction of basolateral Mrp4 in hepatocytes.

  3. Combined Flux Chamber and Genomics Approach Links Nitrous Acid Emissions to Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in Urban and Agricultural Soil.

    PubMed

    Scharko, Nicole K; Schütte, Ursel M E; Berke, Andrew E; Banina, Lauren; Peel, Hannah R; Donaldson, Melissa A; Hemmerich, Chris; White, Jeffrey R; Raff, Jonathan D

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a photochemical source of hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide in the atmosphere that stems from abiotic and biogenic processes, including the activity of ammonia-oxidizing soil microbes. HONO fluxes were measured from agricultural and urban soil in mesocosm studies aimed at characterizing biogenic sources and linking them to indigenous microbial consortia. Fluxes of HONO from agricultural and urban soil were suppressed by addition of a nitrification inhibitor and enhanced by amendment with ammonium (NH4(+)), with peaks at 19 and 8 ng m(-2) s(-1), respectively. In addition, both agricultural and urban soils were observed to convert (15)NH4(+) to HO(15)NO. Genomic surveys of soil samples revealed that 1.5-6% of total expressed 16S rRNA sequences detected belonged to known ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Peak fluxes of HONO were directly related to the abundance of ammonia-oxidizer sequences, which in turn depended on soil pH. Peak HONO fluxes under fertilized conditions are comparable in magnitude to fluxes reported during field campaigns. The results suggest that biogenic HONO emissions will be important in soil environments that exhibit high nitrification rates (e.g., agricultural soil) although the widespread occurrence of ammonia oxidizers implies that biogenic HONO emissions are also possible in the urban and remote environment.

  4. Contrasting denitrifier communities relate to contrasting N2O emission patterns from acidic peat soils in arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Katharina; Biasi, Christina; Horn, Marcus A

    2012-05-01

    Cryoturbated peat circles (that is, bare surface soil mixed by frost action; pH 3-4) in the Russian discontinuous permafrost tundra are nitrate-rich 'hotspots' of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions in arctic ecosystems, whereas adjacent unturbated peat areas are not. N(2)O was produced and subsequently consumed at pH 4 in unsupplemented anoxic microcosms with cryoturbated but not in those with unturbated peat soil. Nitrate, nitrite and acetylene stimulated net N(2)O production of both soils in anoxic microcosms, indicating denitrification as the source of N(2)O. Up to 500 and 10 μM nitrate stimulated denitrification in cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils, respectively. Apparent maximal reaction velocities of nitrite-dependent denitrification were 28 and 18 nmol N(2)O g(DW)(-1) h(-1), for cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils, respectively. Barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing of narG, nirK/nirS and nosZ (encoding nitrate, nitrite and N(2)O reductases, respectively) yielded ≈49 000 quality-filtered sequences with an average sequence length of 444 bp. Up to 19 species-level operational taxonomic units were detected per soil and gene, many of which were distantly related to cultured denitrifiers or environmental sequences. Denitrification-associated gene diversity in cryoturbated and in unturbated peat soils differed. Quantitative PCR (inhibition-corrected per DNA extract) revealed higher copy numbers of narG in cryoturbated than in unturbated peat soil. Copy numbers of nirS were up to 1000 × higher than those of nirK in both soils, and nirS nirK(-1) copy number ratios in cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils differed. The collective data indicate that the contrasting N(2)O emission patterns of cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils are associated with contrasting denitrifier communities.

  5. Contrasting denitrifier communities relate to contrasting N2O emission patterns from acidic peat soils in arctic tundra

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Katharina; Biasi, Christina; Horn, Marcus A

    2012-01-01

    Cryoturbated peat circles (that is, bare surface soil mixed by frost action; pH 3–4) in the Russian discontinuous permafrost tundra are nitrate-rich ‘hotspots' of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in arctic ecosystems, whereas adjacent unturbated peat areas are not. N2O was produced and subsequently consumed at pH 4 in unsupplemented anoxic microcosms with cryoturbated but not in those with unturbated peat soil. Nitrate, nitrite and acetylene stimulated net N2O production of both soils in anoxic microcosms, indicating denitrification as the source of N2O. Up to 500 and 10 μ nitrate stimulated denitrification in cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils, respectively. Apparent maximal reaction velocities of nitrite-dependent denitrification were 28 and 18 nmol N2O gDW−1 h−1, for cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils, respectively. Barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing of narG, nirK/nirS and nosZ (encoding nitrate, nitrite and N2O reductases, respectively) yielded ≈49 000 quality-filtered sequences with an average sequence length of 444 bp. Up to 19 species-level operational taxonomic units were detected per soil and gene, many of which were distantly related to cultured denitrifiers or environmental sequences. Denitrification-associated gene diversity in cryoturbated and in unturbated peat soils differed. Quantitative PCR (inhibition-corrected per DNA extract) revealed higher copy numbers of narG in cryoturbated than in unturbated peat soil. Copy numbers of nirS were up to 1000 × higher than those of nirK in both soils, and nirS nirK−1 copy number ratios in cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils differed. The collective data indicate that the contrasting N2O emission patterns of cryoturbated and unturbated peat soils are associated with contrasting denitrifier communities. PMID:22134649

  6. Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation on post mortem glycolysis, AMP-activated protein kinase and meat quality of broilers after transport during summer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nannan; Xing, Tong; Han, Minyi; Deng, Shaolin; Xu, Xinglian

    2016-05-01

    Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation on post mortem glycolysis, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and meat quality of broilers after transport during summer were investigated in the present paper. A total of 105 mixed-sex Arbor Acres broilers were divided into three treatment groups: (i) 45 min transport without rest (T); (ii) 45 min transport with 1 h rest (TR); and (iii) 45 min transport with 15 min water-misting sprays with forced ventilation and 45 min rest (TWFR). Each treatment consisted of five replicates with seven birds each. The results indicated that the water-misting sprays with forced ventilation could mitigate the stress caused by transport under high temperature conditions during summer, which reduced the energy depletion in post mortem Pectoralis major (PM) muscle. This resulted in a higher energy status compared to the T group, which would decrease the expression of phosphorylation of AMPK (p-AMPK). Furthermore, decreased the expression of p-AMPK then slowed down the rate of glycolysis in post mortem PM muscle during the early post mortem period, which in turn lessened the negative effects caused by transport on meat quality. In conclusion, water-misting sprays with forced ventilation may be a better method to control the incidence of the pale, soft and exudative meat in broilers.

  7. Comparison Between Oil-mist and Oil-jet Lubrication of High-speed, Small-bore, Angular-contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  8. Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7% was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  9. Operations FLINTLOCK and LATCHKEY Events RED HOT, PIN STRIPE, DISCUS THROWER, PILE DRIVER, DOUBLE PLAY, NEWPOINT, MIDI MIST, 5 March 1966-26 June 1967

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    DNA 6321F CD 8) 00 < OPERATIONS 9 FLINTLJOCK AND LATCHKEY < EVENTS RED HOT , PIN STRIPE, DISCUS THROWER, PILE DRIVER, DOUBLE PLAY...Include Security Classification) OPERATIONS FLINTLOCK AND LATCHKEY DOUBLE PLAY, NEW POINT, MIDI MIST EVENTS RED HOT , PIN STRIPE...nuclear weapons testing during Operations FLINTLOCK and LATCHKEY, test events RED HOT , PIN STRIPE, DISCUS THROWER, PILE DRIVER, DOUBLE PLAY

  10. 40 CFR 62.3300 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Illinois Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Plants § 62.3300 Identification of plan. (a) Title of Plan: “Illinois Plan for the Control of Sulfuric Acid Mist from Existing Contract...

  11. 40 CFR 62.3300 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Illinois Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Plants § 62.3300 Identification of plan. (a) Title of Plan: “Illinois Plan for the Control of Sulfuric Acid Mist from Existing Contract...

  12. 40 CFR 62.3300 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Illinois Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Plants § 62.3300 Identification of plan. (a) Title of Plan: “Illinois Plan for the Control of Sulfuric Acid Mist from Existing Contract...

  13. 40 CFR 62.3300 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Illinois Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Plants § 62.3300 Identification of plan. (a) Title of Plan: “Illinois Plan for the Control of Sulfuric Acid Mist from Existing Contract...

  14. 40 CFR 62.3300 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Illinois Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Plants § 62.3300 Identification of plan. (a) Title of Plan: “Illinois Plan for the Control of Sulfuric Acid Mist from Existing Contract...

  15. Metalworking fluid mist occupational exposure limits: a discussion of alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard; White, Eugene M

    2006-09-01

    NIOSH published a recommended exposure limit (REL) for metalworking fluids (MWF) in 1998 that was designed to prevent respiratory disorders associated with these industrial lubricants. The REL of 0.4 mg/m(3) (as a time-weighted average for up to 10 hours) was for the fraction of aerosol corresponding to deposition in the thoracic region of the lungs. This nonregulatory occupational exposure limit (OEL) corresponded to approximately 0.5 mg/m(3) for total particulate mass. Although this REL was designed to prevent respiratory disorders from MWF exposures, NIOSH acknowledged that exposures below the REL may still result in occupational asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis--two of the most significant respiratory illnesses associated with MWF. In the 8 years since the publication of the NIOSH MWF REL, neither the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) nor the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has recommended an exposure limit for water-soluble MWF specifically, other than their previous exposure limits for mineral oil. An informal effort to benchmark companies involved in the manufacture of automobiles and automotive parts in North America indicated that most companies are using the NIOSH MWF REL as a guide for the purchase of new equipment. Furthermore, most companies have adopted a goal to limit exposures to below 1.0 mg/m3. We failed to find any company that has strictly enforced an OEL of 1.0 mg/m(3) through the use of either administrative controls or personal protective equipment, when engineering controls failed to bring the exposures to below this limit. We also found that most companies have failed to implement specific medical surveillance programs for those employees exposed to MWF mist above 1.0 mg/m(3). Organization Resources Counselors (ORC) published in 1999 (on their website) a "best practices" manual for maintaining MWF systems and reducing the likelihood of MWF-related illnesses. The emphasis of this

  16. Neutralization of acid mine drainage using the final product from CO2 emissions capture with alkaline paper mill waste.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Castillo, Julio; Quispe, Dino; Nieto, José Miguel

    2010-05-15

    In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of low-cost alkaline paper mill wastes as acidity neutralizing agents for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Paper wastes include a calcium mud by-product from kraft pulping, and a calcite powder from a previous study focused on sequestering CO(2) by carbonation of calcium mud. The neutralization process consisted of increase of pH by alkaline additive dissolution, decrease of metals solubility and precipitation of gypsum and poorly crystallized Fe-Al oxy-hydroxides/oxy-hydroxysulphates, which acted as a sink for trace elements to that extent that solutions reached the pre-potability requirements of water for human consumption. This improvement was supported by geochemical modelling of solutions using PHREEQC software, and observations by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction of reaction products. According to PHREEQC simulations, the annual amount of alkaline additive is able to treat AMD (pH 3.63, sulphate 3800 mg L(-1), iron 348 mg L(-1)) with an average discharge of about 114 and 40 Ls(-1) for calcium mud and calcite powder, respectively. Likewise, given the high potential of calcium mud to sequester CO(2) and of resulting calcite powder to neutralize AMD, paper wastes could be a promising solution for facing this double environmental problem.

  17. 40 CFR 62.2101 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... March 7, 1978 a letter certifying there are no existing sulfuric acid production units in the District... District of Columbia Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants §...

  18. 40 CFR 62.2101 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... March 7, 1978 a letter certifying there are no existing sulfuric acid production units in the District... District of Columbia Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants §...

  19. 40 CFR 62.2101 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... March 7, 1978 a letter certifying there are no existing sulfuric acid production units in the District... District of Columbia Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants §...

  20. 40 CFR 62.2101 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... March 7, 1978 a letter certifying there are no existing sulfuric acid production units in the District... District of Columbia Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants §...

  1. 40 CFR 62.2101 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... March 7, 1978 a letter certifying there are no existing sulfuric acid production units in the District... District of Columbia Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants §...

  2. 40 CFR 62.7375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hampshire Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.7375 Identification of plan... certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to part 60, subpart B of...

  3. 40 CFR 62.13351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Virgin Islands Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.13351 Identification of... November 8, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  4. 40 CFR 62.13351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Virgin Islands Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.13351 Identification of... November 8, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  5. 40 CFR 62.9875 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Rhode Island Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.9875 Identification... 14, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject...

  6. 40 CFR 62.9875 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rhode Island Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.9875 Identification... 14, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject...

  7. 40 CFR 62.855 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.855 Identification of sources. (a) The plan applies to existing facilities at the following existing sulfuric acid plant: (1) El...

  8. 40 CFR 62.11375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Vermont Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.11375 Identification..., 1978, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 62.1625 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Connecticut Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1625 Identification of plan... letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to part...

  10. 40 CFR 62.6875 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Nebraska Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.6875 Identification of plan... Environmental Control submitted on December 9, 1977, certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid...

  11. 40 CFR 62.1102 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1102 Identification of sources. The plan applies to existing facilities at the following sulfuric acid production units:...

  12. 40 CFR 60.32d - Compliance times.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 60.32d Compliance times. Sulfuric acid production units. Planning, awarding of contracts, and... sulfuric acid mist....

  13. 40 CFR 62.13351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Virgin Islands Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.13351 Identification of... November 8, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  14. 40 CFR 62.1102 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1102 Identification of sources. The plan applies to existing facilities at the following sulfuric acid production units:...

  15. 40 CFR 62.9875 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Rhode Island Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.9875 Identification... 14, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject...

  16. 40 CFR 62.7375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hampshire Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.7375 Identification of plan... certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to part 60, subpart B of...

  17. 40 CFR 62.5351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Massachusetts Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.5351 Identification of plan... that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Total...

  18. 40 CFR 62.5351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Massachusetts Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.5351 Identification of plan... that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Total...

  19. 40 CFR 62.1625 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Connecticut Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1625 Identification of plan... letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to part...

  20. 40 CFR 62.11375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Vermont Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.11375 Identification..., 1978, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 62.13351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Virgin Islands Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.13351 Identification of... November 8, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  2. 40 CFR 62.9875 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Rhode Island Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.9875 Identification... 14, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject...

  3. 40 CFR 62.9875 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Rhode Island Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.9875 Identification... 14, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject...

  4. 40 CFR 62.1625 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Connecticut Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1625 Identification of plan... letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to part...

  5. 40 CFR 62.855 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.855 Identification of sources. (a) The plan applies to existing facilities at the following existing sulfuric acid plant: (1) El...

  6. 40 CFR 62.11375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Vermont Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.11375 Identification..., 1978, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to...

  7. 40 CFR 62.6875 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Nebraska Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.6875 Identification of plan... Environmental Control submitted on December 9, 1977, certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid...

  8. 40 CFR 62.7375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hampshire Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.7375 Identification of plan... certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to part 60, subpart B of...

  9. 40 CFR 62.11375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Vermont Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.11375 Identification..., 1978, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 62.1625 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Connecticut Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1625 Identification of plan... letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to part...

  11. 40 CFR 62.855 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.855 Identification of sources. (a) The plan applies to existing facilities at the following existing sulfuric acid plant: (1) El...

  12. 40 CFR 60.32d - Compliance times.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 60.32d Compliance times. Sulfuric acid production units. Planning, awarding of contracts, and... sulfuric acid mist....

  13. 40 CFR 62.11375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Vermont Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.11375 Identification..., 1978, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 60.32d - Compliance times.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 60.32d Compliance times. Sulfuric acid production units. Planning, awarding of contracts, and... sulfuric acid mist....

  15. 40 CFR 62.1625 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Connecticut Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1625 Identification of plan... letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to part...

  16. 40 CFR 62.6875 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Nebraska Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.6875 Identification of plan... Environmental Control submitted on December 9, 1977, certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid...

  17. 40 CFR 62.855 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.855 Identification of sources. (a) The plan applies to existing facilities at the following existing sulfuric acid plant: (1) El...

  18. 40 CFR 62.5351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Massachusetts Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.5351 Identification of plan... that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Total...

  19. 40 CFR 62.7375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hampshire Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.7375 Identification of plan... certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to part 60, subpart B of...

  20. 40 CFR 62.13351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Virgin Islands Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.13351 Identification of... November 8, 1977, a letter certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the...

  1. 40 CFR 62.6875 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nebraska Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.6875 Identification of plan... Environmental Control submitted on December 9, 1977, certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid...

  2. 40 CFR 62.6875 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Nebraska Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.6875 Identification of plan... Environmental Control submitted on December 9, 1977, certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid...

  3. 40 CFR 62.5351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Massachusetts Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.5351 Identification of plan... that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Total...

  4. 40 CFR 62.7375 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hampshire Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.7375 Identification of plan... certifying that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the state subject to part 60, subpart B of...

  5. 40 CFR 62.5351 - Identification of plan-negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Massachusetts Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.5351 Identification of plan... that there are no existing sulfuric acid plants in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Total...

  6. 40 CFR 62.1102 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1102 Identification of sources. The plan applies to existing facilities at the following sulfuric acid production units:...

  7. 40 CFR 62.855 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Plants § 62.855 Identification of sources. (a) The plan applies to existing facilities at the following existing sulfuric acid plant: (1) El...

  8. 40 CFR 60.32d - Compliance times.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 60.32d Compliance times. Sulfuric acid production units. Planning, awarding of contracts, and... sulfuric acid mist....

  9. 40 CFR 62.1102 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1102 Identification of sources. The plan applies to existing facilities at the following sulfuric acid production units:...

  10. 40 CFR 60.32d - Compliance times.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 60.32d Compliance times. Sulfuric acid production units. Planning, awarding of contracts, and... sulfuric acid mist....

  11. 40 CFR 62.1102 - Identification of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sulfuric Acid Mist Emissions from Existing Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 62.1102 Identification of sources. The plan applies to existing facilities at the following sulfuric acid production units:...

  12. Effectiveness of mist-blower applications of malathion and permethrin to foliage as barrier sprays for salt marsh mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A L; Apperson, C S; Knake, R

    1991-03-01

    Permethrin and malathion were applied as salt marsh mosquito barrier sprays by mist-blower to the shrub border of a park. At one and 24 h after treatment, mosquito landing counts in both insecticide treated areas declined by 80-90% relative to counts in an untreated control area. After 48 h, in the malathion-treated area, mosquito activity returned to levels observed in the control area. From 2 to 8 days post-treatment, mosquito landing counts in the permethrin-treated area remained depressed and significantly (P less than 0.01) different from the malathion-treated and control areas. On days 9 and 10 post-treatment, mosquito landing rates returned to high levels in the insecticide-treated and control areas.

  13. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Mounted Cold Mist Spray of Permethrin and Tetramethylfluthrin Targeting Aedes albopictus in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Dong, Yan-De; Zhou, Ming-Hao; Zhang, Heng-Duan; Chen, Hong-Na; Tian, Ye; Yang, Wei-Fang; Wu, Xiao-Qun; Chu, Hong-Liang; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-03-01

    Aedes albopictus is the primary vector of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in China. Although there are previous studies on the application of adulticides to control this species, the application methods have either been back-pack or vehicle-mounted systems. However, many sites are too large to be effectively treated with back-pack sprayers, and the lack of roads restricts the use of vehicle-mounted sprayers. This paper provides the first study of using unmanned aerial vehicles to conduct cold mist sprays on Ae. albopictus habitats. A spray containing 4% permethrin and 1% tetramethylfluthrin was applied at an effective application rate of 9.0 mg/m(2). This method reduced Ae. albopictus populations by more than 90%. The results indicate this novel spray system is a powerful method to achieve a rapid decline of mosquito population in Ae. albopictus habitats in China.

  14. Water Content Effect on Oxides Yield in Gas and Liquid Phase Using DBD Arrays in Mist Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bingyan; Zhu, Changping; Fei, Juntao; He, Xiang; Yin, Cheng; Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Yongfeng; Chen, Longwei; Gao, Yuan; Han, Qingbang

    2016-01-01

    Electric discharge in and in contact with water can accompany ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electron impact, which can generate a large number of active species such as hydroxyl radicals (OH), oxygen radical (O), ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this paper, a nonthermal plasma processing system was established by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) arrays in water mist spray. The relationship between droplet size and water content was examined, and the effects of the concentrations of oxides in both treated water and gas were investigated under different water content and discharge time. The relative intensity of UV spectra from DBD in water mist was a function of water content. The concentrations of both O3 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in DBD room decreased with increasing water content. Moreover, the concentrations of H2O2, O3 and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in treated water decreased with increasing water content, and all the ones enhanced after discharge. The experimental results were further analyzed by chemical reaction equations and commented by physical principles as much as possible. At last, the water containing phenol was tested in this system for the concentration from 100 mg/L to 9.8 mg/L in a period of 35 min. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11274092, 51107033, 11404092, 11274091), the Nantong Science and Technology Project, China (No. BK2014024), the Open Project of Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, China (No. KF2014001), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (No. 2014B11414)

  15. Study of LAT1 Expression in Brain Metastases: Towards a Better Understanding of the Results of Positron Emission Tomography Using Amino Acid Tracers

    PubMed Central

    Papin-Michault, Caroline; Bonnetaud, Christelle; Dufour, Maxime; Almairac, Fabien; Coutts, Mickael; Patouraux, Stéphanie; Virolle, Thierry; Darcourt, Jacques; Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography using radiolabeled amino acid (PET-AA) appears to be promising in distinguishing between recurrent tumour and radionecrosis in the follow-up of brain metastasis (BM). The amino acid transporter LAT1 and its cofactor CD98, which are involved in AA uptake, have never been investigated in BM. The aim of our study was to determine and compare the expression of LAT1 and CD98 in BM and in non-tumoral brain tissue (NT). The expression of LAT1 and CD98 were studied by immunohistochemistry in 67 BM, including 18 BM recurrences after radiotherapy, in 53 NT, and in 13 cases of patients with previously irradiated brain tumor and investigated by [18F] FDOPA-PET. LAT1 and CD98 expression were detected in 98.5% and 59.7% of BM respectively and were significantly associated with BM tissue as compared to NT (p<0.001). LAT1 expression in recurrent BM was significantly increased as compared to newly occurring BM. Ten cases investigated by [18F] FDOPA-PET corresponding to recurrent BM displayed significant [18F] FDOPA uptake and LAT1 overexpression whereas three cases corresponding to radionecrosis showed no or low uptake and LAT1 expression. LAT1 expression level and [18F] FDOPA uptake were significantly correlated. In conclusion, we hypothesized that BM may overexpress the AA transporter LAT1. We have shown that LAT1 overexpression was common in BM and was specific for BM as compared to healthy brain. These results could explain the specific BM uptake on PET-AA. PMID:27276226

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, prepared for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), identifies the most appropriate ammonia (NH3) emission factors available for inclusion in the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory. H3 emission factors developed for several new NAPAP source categories...

  17. Application of excitation-emission fluorescence matrices and UV/Vis absorption to monitoring the photocatalytic degradation of commercial humic acid.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Sergio; Marín, Juan M; Restrepo, Gloria; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the use of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and UV/Vis spectroscopy to monitor the changes in the composition and reactivity of Aldrich humic acids (Aldrich HA) as a model compound for natural organic matter (NOM) during photocatalytic degradation. Degussa P-25 titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and a solar UV-light simulator (a batch reactor) were used. The photocatalysis shifted the fluorescence maxima of EEMs of Aldrich HA toward shorter wavelengths, which implied that the photocatalytic degradation of commercial Aldrich HA caused the breakdown of high molecular weight components and the formation of lower molecular weight fractions. In addition, the fluorescence intensity of fulvic- and humic-like Aldrich HA presented a strong correlation with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific UV absorbance (SUVA) parameters, trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), and organically bound halogens absorbable on activated carbon formation potential (AOXFP). Fluorescence spectroscopy was shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring of the photocatalytic degradation of HA.

  18. Radiolabeling of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) Nanoparticles with Biotinylated F-18 Prosthetic Groups and Imaging of Their Delivery to the Brain with Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The avidin–biotin interaction permits rapid and nearly irreversible noncovalent linkage between biotinylated molecules and avidin-modified substrates. We designed a biotinylated radioligand intended for use in the detection of avidin-modified polymer nanoparticles in tissue with positron emission tomography (PET). Using an F-18 labeled prosthetic group, [18F]4-fluorobenzylamine, and a commercially available biotin derivate, NHS-PEG4-biotin, [18F]-fluorobenzylamide-poly(ethylene glycol)4-biotin ([18F]NPB4) was prepared with high purity and specific activity. The attachment of the [18F]NPB4 radioligand to avidin-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles was tested by using PET imaging to measure the kinetics of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of nanoparticles of varying size to the rat brain. PET imaging enabled the direct observation of nanoparticle delivery by measurement of the spatial volume of distribution of radiolabeled nanoparticles as a function of time, both during and after the infusion. This work thus validates new methods for radiolabeling PEG-biotin derivatives and also provides insight into the fate of nanoparticles that have been infused directly into the brain. PMID:25322194

  19. Blocking of fatty acid amide hydrolase activity with PF-04457845 in human brain: a positron emission tomography study with the novel radioligand [(11)C]CURB.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Isabelle; Rusjan, Pablo M; Williams, Belinda; Mansouri, Esmaeil; Mizrahi, Romina; De Luca, Vincenzo; Johnson, Douglas S; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Kish, Stephen J; Tong, Junchao

    2015-11-01

    Positron emission tomography with [(11)C]CURB was recently developed to quantify fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing the endocannabinoid anandamide. This study investigated the test-retest reliability of [(11)C]CURB as well as its in vivo specificity and the validity of the kinetic model by using the highly specific FAAH inhibitor, PF-04457845. Five healthy volunteers completed test-retest [(11)C]CURB scans 1 to 2 months apart and six subjects completed baseline and blocking scans on the same day after PF-04457845 (p.o.) administration (1, 4, or 20 mg; n=2 each). The composite parameter λk3 (an index of FAAH activity, λ=K1/k2) was estimated using an irreversible two-tissue compartment model with plasma input function. There were no clinically observable responses to oral PF-04457845 or [(11)C]CURB injection. Oral administration of PF-04457845 reduced [(11)C]CURB binding to a homogeneous level at all three doses, with λk3 values decreased by ⩾91%. Excellent reproducibility and good reliability (test-retest variability=9%; intraclass correlation coefficient=0.79) were observed across all regions of interest investigated. Our findings suggest that λk3/[(11)C]CURB is a reliable, highly sensitive, and selective tool to measure FAAH activity in human brain in vivo. Moreover, PF-04457845 is a highly potent FAAH inhibitor (>95% inhibition at 1 mg) in living human brain.

  20. Fast time response measurements of gaseous nitrous acid using a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer: HONO emission source from vehicle exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongquan Q.; Schwab, James J.; Demerjian, Kenneth L.

    2008-02-01

    We present the measurement of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) using a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer. This method utilizes one strong absorption feature at 1713.511cm-1, which is free of interference and suitable for ambient HONO measurements. The detection limit for a 1-second integration time is determined to be better than 200 pptv. The measurement method has been demonstrated by sampling room air over an 11-day period. HONO mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit (<=200 pptv) to 4.8 ppbv, with a mean value of 0.73 ppbv. A number of elevated HONO events lasting from several seconds up to hours were observed and have been associated with roadway traffic adjacent to the building where the measurements were performed. The variation in the ratio of HONO/NOx and its anti-correlation with ambient NOx measurements indicate that the source of HONO in this measurement study is mainly from the direct emission of traffic exhausts and local heterogeneous reactions. The demonstrated application of TDLAS fast response measurement technology is capable of providing new information on the sources and sinks of HONO in the environment.