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Sample records for acid mixing facility

  1. The mixed waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    During FY96, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Project has the following major objectives: (1) Complete Project Preliminary Design Review (PDR). (2) Complete final design (Title II) of MWMF major systems. (3) Coordinate all final interfaces with the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) for facility utilities and facility integration. (4) Begin long-lead procurements. (5) Issue Project Baseline Revision 2-Preliminary Design (PB2), modifying previous baselines per DOE-requested budget profiles and cost reduction. Delete Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) as a treatment process for initial demonstration. (6) Complete submittal of, and ongoing support for, applications for air permit. (7) Begin detailed planning for start-up, activation, and operational interfaces with the Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Division (HWM). In achieving these objectives during FY96, the Project will incorporate and implement recent DOE directives to maximize the cost savings associated with the DWTF/MWMF integration (initiated in PB1.2); to reduce FY96 new Budget Authority to {approximately}$10M (reduced from FY97 Validation of $15.3M); and to keep Project fiscal year funding requirements largely uniform at {approximately}$10M/yr. A revised Project Baseline (i.e., PB2), to be issued during the second quarter of FY96, will address the implementation and impact of this guidance from an overall Project viewpoint. For FY96, the impact of this guidance is that completion of final design has been delayed relative to previous baselines (resulting from the delay in the completion of preliminary design); ramp-up in staffing has been essentially eliminated; and procurements have been balanced through the Project to help balance budget needs to funding availability.

  2. Management of pesticide mixing and loading facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dwinell, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    Many pesticide applicators have decided that a Chemical Mixing Facility (CMF) is the best way to manage problems of soil and water contamination at pesticide mixing and loading sites. These facilities must be managed properly to avoid the accumulation of potentially hazardous wastes, the creation of a point source of pollution, and possible fines for violation of environmental protection laws. Proper management must include pesticide containers, equipment rinsewater, sludge and sediments that accumulate on the pad, and materials used to contain and collect spills.

  3. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1998-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1997, eleven constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  4. 28. Naval Facilities Engineering Command Drawing 6072429 (463M4) (1975), 'Acid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Naval Facilities Engineering Command Drawing 6072429 (463-M-4) (1975), 'Acid Piping Replacement & Pump Transfer System (Tank Area)' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Chemical mixing study for the Hanford TWRS Supporting facilities (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Heal, D.W.; Brantley, W.M.

    1996-09-03

    This Engineering Calculation addresses consequences of mixing any two hazardous chemicals contained in the same section of TWRS supporting facilities, as screened in accordance with `Westinghouse Savannah River Company Engineering and Construction Services Division Guidelines and Methods.`

  6. 8. BUILDING NO. 235, ORDNANCE FACILITY (MERCURY FULMINATE MIXING), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. BUILDING NO. 235, ORDNANCE FACILITY (MERCURY FULMINATE MIXING), LOOKING NORTH TOWARD BUILDING VISIBLE BETWEEN BARRICADES. - Picatinny Arsenal, 200 Area, Shell Component Loading, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  7. 9. BUILDING NO. 235, ORDNANCE FACILITY (MERCURY FULMINATE MIXING), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING NO. 235, ORDNANCE FACILITY (MERCURY FULMINATE MIXING), LOOKING SOUTHEAST BETWEEN BUILDING AND BLAST BARRICADES. - Picatinny Arsenal, 200 Area, Shell Component Loading, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  8. The Mixed Waste Management Facility monthly report August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    The project is concerned with the design of a mixed waste facility to prepare solid and liquid wastes for processing by electrochemical oxidation, molten salt oxidation, wet oxidation, or UV photolysis. The facility will have a receiving and shipping unit, preparation and processing units, off-gas scrubbing, analytical services, water treatment, and transport and storage facilities. This monthly report give task summaries for 25 tasks which are part of the overall design effort.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10685 - Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10685 Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid, mixed esters (PMN P-13-170) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  10. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

  11. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Monthly report, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.

    1994-10-01

    This document is a monthly report for September, 1994 of the significant developments that have taken place at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This report presents a project financial summary, describes the quality assurance programs, project management, and presents a monthly summary of activities for the various treatment operations.

  12. The mixed waste management facility, FY95 plan

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.

    1994-12-01

    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1995 Plan for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Major objectives to be completed during FY 1995 for the MWMF project are listed and described. This report also contains a budget plan, project task summaries, a milestone control log, and a responsibility assignment matrix for the MWMF project.

  13. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE`s Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site`s waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

  14. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

  15. Hydrodynamic growth and mix experiments at National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Caggiano, J.; Casey, D.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Edwards, J.; Grim, G.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A.; Hsing, W.; Hurricane, O.; Kilkenny, J.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Landen, O.; McNaney, J.; Mintz, M.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Park, H.-S.; Pino, J.; Raman, K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Rowley, D.; Tipton, R.; Weber, S.; Yeamans, C.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrodynamic growth and its effects on implosion performance and mix were studied at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Spherical shells with pre-imposed 2D modulations were used to measure Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth in the acceleration phase of implosions using in-flight x-ray radiography. In addition, implosion performance and mix have been studied at peak compression using plastic shells filled with tritium gas and imbedding localized CD diagnostic layer in various locations in the ablator. Neutron yield and ion temperature of the DT fusion reactions were used as a measure of shell-gas mix, while neutron yield of the TT fusion reaction was used as a measure of implosion performance. The results have indicated that the low-mode hydrodynamic instabilities due to surface roughness were the primary culprits to yield degradation, with atomic ablator-gas mix playing a secondary role.

  16. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies.

  17. Characterization of mixed waste for shipment to TSD Facilities Program

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Goyal, K.

    1995-12-31

    In compliance with the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is striving to ship its low-level mixed waste (LLMW) off-site for treatment and disposal. In order to ship LLMW off site to a commercial facility, LANL must request exemption from the DOE Order 5820.2A requirement that LLMW be shipped only to Department of Energy facilities. Because the process of obtaining the required information and approvals for a mixed waste shipment campaign can be very expensive, time consuming, and frustrating, a well-planned program is necessary to ensure that the elements for the exemption request package are completed successfully the first time. LANL has developed such a program, which is cost- effective, quality-driven, and compliance-based. This program encompasses selecting a qualified analytical laboratory, developing a quality project-specific sampling plan, properly sampling liquid and solid wastes, validating analytical data, documenting the waste characterization and decision processes, and maintaining quality records. The products of the program are containers of waste that meet the off-site facility`s waste acceptance criteria, a quality exemption request package, documentation supporting waste characterization, and overall quality assurance for the process. The primary goal of the program is to provide an avenue for documenting decisions, procedures, and data pertinent to characterizing waste and preparing it for off-site treatment or disposal.

  18. Recent Enhancements to the National Transonic Facility (Mixed Mode Operations)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. Allen; Chan, David; Balakrishna, S.; Wahls, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. National Transonic Facility continues to make enhancements to provide quality data in a safe, efficient and cost effective method for aerodynamic ground testing. Recent enhancements discussed in this paper include the development of a Mixed-mode of operations that combine Air-mode operations with Nitrogen-mode operations. This implementation and operational results of this new Mixed-mode expands the ambient temperature transonic region of testing beyond the Air-mode limitations at a significantly reduced cost over Nitrogen Mode operation.

  19. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  20. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental Regulatory Planning Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria.

  1. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: A DOE technology demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.G.; Streit, R.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is a national demonstration test bed that will be used to evaluate, at pilot scale, emerging technologies for the effective treatment of low-level radioactive, organic mixed wastes. The treatment technologies will be selected from candidates of advanced processes that have been sufficiently demonstrated in laboratory and bench-scale tests, and most closely meet suitable criteria for demonstration. The primary and initial goal will be to demonstrate technologies that have the potential to effectively treat a selection of organic-based mixed waste streams, currently in storage within the DOE, that list incineration as the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT). In future operations, the facility may also be used to demonstrate technology that addresses a broader range of government, university, medical, and industry needs. The primary objective of the MWMF is to demonstrate integrated mixed-waste processing technologies. While primary treatment processes are an essential component of integrated treatment trains, they are only a part of a fully integrated demonstration.

  2. Hydrodynamic instability and mix experiments at National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, Vladimir

    2013-10-01

    Hydrodynamic growth and its effects on implosion performance and mix are being studied in hohlraum-driven implosions using gas-filled plastic shells at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments are motivated by observed elevated amounts of plastic mixed into the hot spot, degrading the performance of high-compression cryogenic DT layered implosions on NIF. Spherical shells with pre-imposed 2D modulations are being developed to measure Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth in the acceleration phase of implosions using in-flight x-ray radiography. Ablation-front RT growth measurements will be carried out for mode numbers ranging from 30 to 80 at drive conditions relevant to high-compression cryogenic implosions. In addition, implosion performance and mix are being studied at peak compression using plastic ``Symcap'' shells filled with tritium gas and imbedding localized CD diagnostic layer in various locations in the ablator. Neutron yield and ion temperature of the DT fusion reactions are used as a measure of shell-gas mix, while neutron yield of the TT fusion reaction is used as a measure of implosion performance. Experimental results and comparisons with 1D and 2D simulations, including mix models, will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies.

  4. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  5. Diagnosing and controlling mix in National Ignition Facility implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, B. A.; Scott, H. A.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Edwards, M. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Haan, S. W.; Izumi, N.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Langer, S. H.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Suter, L. J.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Kyrala, G. A.; Wilson, D. C.; Peterson, K.

    2011-05-15

    High mode number instability growth of ''isolated defects'' on the surfaces of National Ignition Facility [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] capsules can be large enough for the perturbation to penetrate the imploding shell, and produce a jet of ablator material that enters the hot-spot. Since internal regions of the CH ablator are doped with Ge, mixing of this material into the hot-spot results in a clear signature of Ge K-shell emission. Evidence of jets entering the hot-spot has been recorded in x-ray images and spectra, consistent with simulation predictions [Hammel et al., High Energy Density Phys. 6, 171 (2010)]. Ignition targets have been designed to minimize instability growth, and capsule fabrication improvements are underway to reduce ''isolated defects.'' An experimental strategy has been developed where the final requirements for ignition targets can be adjusted through direct measurements of mix and experimental tuning.

  6. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, 12 constituents exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents: 57 (48%) and 23 (19%) of the 119 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium and trichloroethylene levels, respectively. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 1] (Barnwell/McBean). Elevated constituents also occurred in five Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, thallium, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), or cadmium.

  7. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, lead, antimony, I,I-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, mercury, nickel, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 57 (49%) of the 116 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 21 (18%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations Sixty-one downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained constituents that exceeded the PDWS during first quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and HSB 85A, BC, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Upgradient well BGO 2D contained elevated tritium.

  8. Hypersonic Mixing and Combustion Studies in the GASL HYPULSE Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, R. J.; Tamagno, J.; Rizkalla, O.; Pulsonetti, M. V.; Chinitz, W.; Erdos, J. I.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogen-air mixing and combustion experiments at air velocities approaching 17,000 ft/s have been conducted in the expansion tube in CASL's HYPULSE facility. The data were obtained in the facility's sub-millisecond steady flow test period. The results proved to be repeatable and indicated increasing extent of reaction as the fuel-air ratio was increased from stoichiometric to three times stoichiometric. Comparisons were made with the results from a one-dimensional, finite-rate chemistry code and from one-dimensional cycle codes which assume equilibrium chemistry. These comparisons indicate that the magnitudes and trends of the measured longitudinal pressure distributions are predicted by the one-dimensional codes provided that the relevant physical phenomena are accounted for in the computations.

  9. The mixed waste management facility: Cost-benefit for the Mixed Waste Management Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, S.D.; Streit, R.D.

    1996-04-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility, or MWMF, has been proposed as a national testbed facility for the demonstration and evaluation of technologies that are alternatives to incineration for the treatment of mixed low-level waste. The facility design will enable evaluation of technologies at pilot scale, including all aspects of the processes, from receiving and feed preparation to the preparation of final forms for disposal. The MWMF will reduce the risk of deploying such technologies by addressing the following: (1) Engineering development and scale-up. (2) Process integration and activation of the treatment systems. (3) Permitting and stakeholder issues. In light of the severe financial constraints imposed on the DOE and federal programs, DOE/HQ requested a study to assess the cost benefit for the MWMF given other potential alternatives to meet waste treatment needs. The MVVMF Project was asked to consider alternatives specifically associated with commercialization and privatization of the DOE site waste treatment operations and the acceptability (or lack of acceptability) of incineration as a waste treatment process. The result of this study will be one of the key elements for a DOE decision on proceeding with the MWMF into Final Design (KD-2) vs. proceeding with other options.

  10. Suppression Pool Mixing and Condensation Tests in PUMA Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ling Cheng; Kyoung Suk Woo; Mamoru Ishii; Jaehyok Lim; Han, James

    2006-07-01

    Condensation of steam with non-condensable in the form of jet flow or bubbly flow inside the suppression pool is an important phenomenon on determining the containment pressure of a passively safe boiling water reactor. 32 cases of pool mixing and condensation test have been performed in Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility under the sponsor of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to investigate thermal stratification and pool mixing inside the suppression pool during the reactor blowdown period. The test boundary conditions, such as the steam flow rate, the noncondensable gas flow rate, the initial water temperature, the pool initial pressure and the vent opening submergence depth, which covers a wide range of prototype (SBWR-600) conditions during Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) were obtained from the RELAP5 calculation. The test results show that steam is quickly condensed at the exit of the vent opening. For pure steam injection or low noncondensable injection cases, only the portion above the vent opening in the suppression pool is heated up by buoyant plumes. The water below the vent opening can be heated up slowly through conduction. The test results also show that the degree of thermal stratification in suppression pool is affected by the vent opening submergence depth, the pool initial pressure and the steam injection rate. And it is slightly affected by the initial water temperature. From these tests it is concluded that the pool mixing is strongly affected by the noncondensable gas flow rate. (authors)

  11. Scramjet mixing establishment times for a pulse facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. Clayton; Weidner, Elizabeth H.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the temporally developing flow through a generic scramjet combustor duct is presented for stagnation conditions typical of flight at Mach 13 as produced by a shock tunnel pulse facility. The particular focus is to examine the start up transients and to determine the time required for certain flow parameters to become established. The calculations were made with a Navier-Stokes solver SPARK with temporally relaxing inflow conditions derived from operation of the T4 shock tunnel at the University of Queensland in Australia. Calculations at nominal steady inflow conditions were made for comparison. The generic combustor geometry includes the injection of hydrogen fuel from the base of a centrally located strut. In both cases, the flow was assumed laminar and fuel combustion was not included. The establishment process is presented for viscous parameters in the boundary layer and for parameters related to the fuel mixing.

  12. Solubility of acid gases in a mixed solvent

    SciTech Connect

    MacGregor, R.J.; Mather, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide and their mixtures has been measured at 40/sup 0/ and 100/sup 0/C in a mixed solvent consisting of 20.9 wt% (2.0 M) MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), 30.5 wt% sulfolane, and 48.6 wt% water. The results have been compared with those for aqueous 2.0 M MDEA and an analogous mixed solvent, containing AMP (2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol), which are available in the literature. At solution loadings less than 1 mol acid gas/mol MDEA, the solubility of the acid gas was lower in the mixed solvent that in the corresponding aqueous MDEA solvent; at solution loadings greater than 1 mol acid gas/mol MDEA, the reverse was true. At all loadings and at both temperatures studied, the mixed MDEA solvent absorbed equal or lesser quantities of acid gas than the comparable mixed AMP solvent. However, the shapes of the solubility curves show that the mixed MDEA solvent would be a better choice for certain industrial applications. These data were used to modify the solubility model of Deshmukh and Mather to account for the mixed solvent effects on the system thermodynamics. Results show that the model is useful as a first approximation in predicting acid gas solubilities; agreement with experiment was generally found to be within +-15%.

  13. Maleic acid solvation in mixed water-ethanol solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usacheva, T. R.; Kuz'mina, I. A.; Sharnin, V. A.; Tukumova, I. R.

    2012-04-01

    Heat effects of maleic acid dissolution in mixed water-ethanol solvents at 298.15 K are determined by means of calorimetry. A rise in exothermicity of maleic acid solvation is observed upon changes in the solvent copmosition in the direction of H2O → EtOH, the minimum being at ˜0.2 mol fraction of EtOH.

  14. Teaching Paleontology with an Acid-Leaching Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talent, John A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described is an acid-leaching facility at Macquarie University in Australia for teaching paleontology. The facility is used for teaching both undergraduate and graduate students and for research by staff and graduate students. Drawings of the facility are included and courses are described. (Author/RH)

  15. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  16. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    Currently, 125 wells monitor groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site. Samples from the wells are analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents during third quarter 1994. Sixty-four (51%) of the 125 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium activities. Trichloroethylene concentrations exceeded the final PDWS in 22 (18%) wells. Chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, elevated in one or more wells during third quarter 1994, also occurred in elevated levels during second quarter 1994. These constituents generally were elevated in the same wells during both quarters. Gross alpha, which was elevated in only one well during second quarter 1994, was elevated again during third quarter. Mercury, which was elevated during first quarter 1994, was elevated again in one well. Dichloromethane was elevated in two wells for the first time in several quarters.

  17. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, 125 wells monitor groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site. Samples from the wells are analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. During second quarter 1994, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, or tritium exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in approximately half of the downgradient wells at the MWMF. Consistent with historical trends, elevated constituent levels were found primarily in Aquifer Zone. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents during second quarter 1994. Sixty-two of the 125 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium activities. Trichloroethylene concentrations exceeded the final PDWS in 23 wells. Chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, and tetrachloroethylene, elevated in one or more wells during second quarter 1994, also occurred in elevated levels during first quarter 1994. These constituents generally were elevated in the same wells during both quarters. Gross alpha, which was not elevated in any well during first quarter 1994, was elevated in one well during second quarter. Copper, mercury, and nonvolatile beta were elevated during first quarter 1994 but not during second quarter.

  18. Thermodynamic prediction of hydrogen production from mixed-acid fermentations.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Andrea K; Wales, Melinda E; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2011-10-01

    The MixAlco™ process biologically converts biomass to carboxylate salts that may be chemically converted to a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. The process utilizes lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock (e.g., municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and agricultural residues), creating an economic basis for sustainable biofuels. This study provides a thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen yield from mixed-acid fermentations from two feedstocks: paper and bagasse. During batch fermentations, hydrogen production, acid production, and sugar digestion were analyzed to determine the energy selectivity of each system. To predict hydrogen production during continuous operation, this energy selectivity was then applied to countercurrent fermentations of the same systems. The analysis successfully predicted hydrogen production from the paper fermentation to within 11% and the bagasse fermentation to within 21% of the actual production. The analysis was able to faithfully represent hydrogen production and represents a step forward in understanding and predicting hydrogen production from mixed-acid fermentations. PMID:21875794

  19. Evaluation of existing United States` facilities for use as a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility for plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Chidester, K.; Eaton, S.L.; Motley, F.E.; Siebe, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    A number of existing US facilities were evaluated for use as a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility for plutonium disposition. These facilities include the Fuels Material Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford, the Washington Power Supply Unit 1 (WNP-1) facility at Hanford, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) at Barnwell, SC, the Fuel Processing Facility (FPF) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the P-reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The study consisted of evaluating each facility in terms of available process space, available building support systems (i.e., HVAC, security systems, existing process equipment, etc.), available regional infrastructure (i.e., emergency response teams, protective force teams, available transportation routes, etc.), and ability to integrate the MOX fabrication process into the facility in an operationally-sound manner that requires a minimum amount of structural modifications.

  20. 76 FR 65544 - Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... issuance of the guide (74 FR 36780). The comment period closed on September 21, 2009. The staff's responses... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities... Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities.'' This...

  1. Facility design consideration for continuous mix production of class 1.3 propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, K. L.; Schirk, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    In November of 1989, NASA awarded the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) contract to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) for production of advanced solid rocket motors using the continuous mix process. Aerojet ASRM division (AAD) was selected as the facility operator and RUST International Corporation provided the engineering, procurement, and construction management services. The continuous mix process mandates that the mix and cast facilities be 'close-coupled' along with the premix facilities, creating unique and challenging requirements for the facility designer. The classical approach to handling energetic materials-division into manageable quantities, segregation, and isolation-was not available due to these process requirements and quantities involved. This paper provides a description of the physical facilities, the continuous mix process, and discusses the monitoring and detection techniques used to mitigate hazards and prevent an incident.

  2. Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included.

  3. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-29

    During fourth quarter 1998, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells.

  4. Benchmark dataset for undirected and Mixed Capacitated Arc Routing Problems under Time restrictions with Intermediate Facilities.

    PubMed

    Willemse, Elias J; Joubert, Johan W

    2016-09-01

    In this article we present benchmark datasets for the Mixed Capacitated Arc Routing Problem under Time restrictions with Intermediate Facilities (MCARPTIF). The problem is a generalisation of the Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (CARP), and closely represents waste collection routing. Four different test sets are presented, each consisting of multiple instance files, and which can be used to benchmark different solution approaches for the MCARPTIF. An in-depth description of the datasets can be found in "Constructive heuristics for the Mixed Capacity Arc Routing Problem under Time Restrictions with Intermediate Facilities" (Willemseand Joubert, 2016) [2] and "Splitting procedures for the Mixed Capacitated Arc Routing Problem under Time restrictions with Intermediate Facilities" (Willemseand Joubert, in press) [4]. The datasets are publicly available from "Library of benchmark test sets for variants of the Capacitated Arc Routing Problem under Time restrictions with Intermediate Facilities" (Willemse and Joubert, 2016) [3]. PMID:27508252

  5. Emissions of volatile fatty acids from feed at dairy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis, Phillip; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Campbell, Sean; Hasson, Alam S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that dairy operations may be a major source of non-methane volatile organic compounds in dairy-intensive regions such as Central California, with short chain carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids or VFAs) as the major components. Emissions of four VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid and hexanoic acid) were measured from two feed sources (silage and total mixed rations (TMR)) at six Central California Dairies over a fifteen-month period. Measurements were made using a combination of flux chambers, solid phase micro-extraction fibers coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) and infra-red photoaccoustic detection (IR-PAD for acetic acid only). The relationship between acetic acid emissions, source surface temperature and four sample composition factors (acetic acid content, ammonia-nitrogen content, water content and pH) was also investigated. As observed previously, acetic acid dominates the VFA emissions. Fluxes measured by IR-PAD were systematically lower than SPME/GC-MS measurements by a factor of two. High signals in field blanks prevented emissions from animal waste sources (flush lane, bedding, open lot) from being quantified. Acetic acid emissions from feed sources are positively correlated with surface temperature and acetic acid content. The measurements were used to derive a relationship between surface temperature, acetic acid content and the acetic acid flux. The equation derived from SPME/GC-MS measurements predicts estimated annual average acetic acid emissions of (0.7 + 1/-0.4) g m -2 h -1 from silage and (0.2 + 0.3/-0.1) g m -2 h -1 from TMR using annually averaged acetic acid content and meteorological data. However, during the summer months, fluxes may be several times higher than these values.

  6. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Monthly report, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    During February the Project activities included completion of the cost-benefit analysis for the MWMF Project, completion of the 95% Title 2 design review for the DWTF Phase 2, further development of an MWMF business plan for working with industry, and finalization of outstanding issues from the Preliminary Design Review. Based on the best available data, the results of the cost-benefit analysis lead to three simple conclusions: (1) it would be cost effective for the DOE to complete pilot-scale demonstrations of alternatives to incineration prior to design and construction of full-scale facilities; (2) given that demonstrations are to be conducted, it is more cost effective to consolidate these in the MWMF, cost-benefit from a centralized demonstration facility will more than pay for the cost of the facility over the first eight demonstrations; (3) as the cost for independent site demonstrations or the cost for deploying full-scale treatment facilities is reduced, the net benefit of demonstrations is reduced. However, under these circumstances, the risk of deploying technologies increases and the ability to promote competition among small companies, unable to compete with independent pilot-scale demonstrations, will be significantly reduced. The 95% design review of the MWMF building, DWTF Phase 2, was completed with a number of minor comments to be incorporated in the final design. Technically, the first phase of testing for the MSO (Molten Salt Oxidation) demonstrations in the engineering development unit (EDU) have been completed. A number of key engineering issues were identified and resolved including the parameters associated with the chloride content for salt recycle, baffle design, side injector, burst disk design, and material evaluations. The EDU unit will be refurbished in March for continued operations to finalize design details for the downcomer injector for solid and liquid feeds, alternate baffle design, and other engineering design issues.

  7. Readiness assessment plan for the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility (Trench 31)

    SciTech Connect

    Irons, L.G.

    1994-11-22

    This document provides the Readiness Assessment Plan (RAP) for the Project W-025 (Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility) Readiness Assessment (RA). The RAP documents prerequisites to be met by the operating organization prior to the RA. The RAP is to be implemented by the RA Team identified in the RAP. The RA Team is to verify the facility`s compliance with criteria identified in the RAP. The criteria are based upon the {open_quotes}Core Requirements{close_quotes} listed in DOE Order 5480.31, {open_quotes}Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes}.

  8. Comparison of mixed-acid fermentations inoculated with six different mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Andrea K; Hollister, Emily B; Gentry, Terry J; Wilkinson, Heather H; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2012-08-01

    The MixAlco™ process biologically converts biomass to carboxylate salts that may be converted to a variety of chemicals and fuels. This study examines the fermentation performance of six different mixed cultures, and how the performance was affected by the bacterial composition of each community. All six countercurrent fermentations had very similar performance, but were dissimilar in microbial community composition. The acid concentrations varied by only 12% between fermentation trains and the conversions varied only by 6%. The microbial communities were profiled using 16S rRNA tag-pyrosequencing, which revealed the presence of dynamic communities that were dominated by bacteria resembling Clostridia, but they shared few taxa in common. Yue-Clayton similarity calculations of the communities revealed that they were extremely different. The presence of different but functionally similar microbial communities in this study suggests that it is the operating parameters that determine the fermentation end-products. PMID:22705541

  9. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  10. Thermal hazard evaluation of lauroyl peroxide mixed with nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Lung-Chang; You, Mei-Li; Ding, Mei-Fang; Shu, Chi-Min

    2012-01-01

    Many thermal runaway incidents have been caused by organic peroxides due to the peroxy group, -O-O-, which is essentially unstable and active. Lauroyl peroxide (LPO) is also sensitive to thermal sources and is incompatible with many materials, such as acids, bases, metals, and ions. From the thermal decomposition reaction of various concentrations of nitric acid (HNO3) (from lower to higher concentrations) with LPO, experimental data were obtained as to its exothermic onset temperature (T0), heat of decomposition (ΔHd), isothermal time to maximum rate (TMRiso), and other safety parameters exclusively for loss prevention of runaway reactions and thermal explosions. As a novel finding, LPO mixed with HNO3 can produce the detonation product of 1-nitrododecane. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal activity monitor III (TAM III), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analyses of the reactivity for LPO and itself mixed with HNO3 to corroborate the decomposition reactions and reaction mechanisms in these investigations. PMID:22763742

  11. Intermolecular interactions of lysobisphosphatidic acid with phosphatidylcholine in mixed bilayers.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Juha M; Söderlund, Tim; Alakoskela, Juha-Matti; Säily, Matti; Eriksson, Ove; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2005-01-01

    Lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) can be regarded to represent a unique derivative of phosphatidylglycerol. This lipid is highly enriched in late endosomes where it can comprise up to 10-15 mol% of all lipids and in these membranes, LBPA appears to be segregated into microdomains. We studied the thermotropic behavior of pure dioleoyl-LBPA mono- and bilayers using Langmuir-lipid monolayers, electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence spectroscopy. LBPA formed metastable, liquid-expanded monolayers at an air/buffer interface, and its compression isotherms lacked any indication for structural phase transitions. Neat LBPA formed multilamellar vesicles with no structural transitions or phase transitions between 10 and 80 degrees C at a pH range of 3.0-7.4. We then proceeded to study mixed LBPA/dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers by DSC and fluorescence spectroscopy. Incorporating increasing amounts of LBPA (up to X(LBPA) (molar fraction)=0.10) decreased the co-operativity of the main transition for DPPC, and a decrease in the main phase transition as well as pretransition temperature of DPPC was observed yet with no effect on the enthalpy of this transition. In keeping with the DSC data for DPPC, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC)/LBPA mixed bilayers were more fluid, and no evidence for lateral phase segregation was observed. These results were confirmed using fluorescence microscopy of Langmuir-lipid films composed of POPC and LBPA up to X(LBPA)=0.50 with no evidence for lateral phase separation. As late endosomes are eminently acidic, we examined the effect of lowering pH on lateral organization of mixed PC/LBPA bilayers by DSC and fluorescence spectroscopy. Even at pH 3.0, we find no evidence of LBPA-induced microdomain formation at LBPA contents found in cellular organelles. PMID:15589226

  12. Automated yield forecasting in a high product mix ASIC facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Duane; Giewont, Mark; Hanson, Jeff; Shen, Jun

    2005-05-01

    Yield forecasting is a key component in running a successful semiconductor fab. It is also a significant challenge for facilities such as ASIC houses, which fabricate a wide range of devices using multiple technologies. Yield forecasting takes on increased significance in these environments, with new products introduced frequently and many products running only in small numbers. An accurate yield prediction system can greatly accelerate the process of identifying design bugs, test program issues and process integration problems. To this end, we have constructed a forecasting model geared for our ASIC manufacturing line. The model will accommodate an arbitrary number of design and/or process elements, each with an associated defectivity term. In addition, we have automated the generation of the yield forecast through passively linking to the already existing EDA design tools and scripts used by LSI Logic. Once the model is constructed, an automated query engine can extract the design and process parameters for any requested device, insert the data into the forecasting model, and deliver the resulting yield prediction. The actual yield for any lot or group of lots may thus be compared to the forecast, greatly assisting yield enhancement activities. This is especially useful for prototype lots and low-volume devices, for which it eliminates a great deal of manual computation and searching of design files. Using the model in conjunction with the query engine, any deviations from expected yield performance are generated automatically, quickly and efficiently highlighting opportunities for improvement.

  13. Mixed Waste Management Facility FSS Well Data Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1994, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults, and the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. No constituent exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  14. Sequential Mixed Cultures: From Syngas to Malic Acid.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Florian; Dörsam, Stefan; Veith, Nicolas; Zwick, Michaela; Neumann, Anke; Ochsenreither, Katrin; Syldatk, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation using acetogenic bacteria is an approach for production of bulk chemicals like acetate, ethanol, butanol, or 2,3-butandiol avoiding the fuel vs. food debate by using carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen from gasification of biomass or industrial waste gases. Suffering from energetic limitations, yields of C4-molecules produced by syngas fermentation are quite low compared with ABE fermentation using sugars as a substrate. On the other hand, fungal production of malic acid has high yields of product per gram metabolized substrate but is currently limited to sugar containing substrates. In this study, it was possible to show that Aspergilus oryzae is able to produce malic acid using acetate as sole carbon source which is a main product of acetogenic syngas fermentation. Bioreactor cultivations were conducted in 2.5 L stirred tank reactors. During the syngas fermentation part of the sequential mixed culture, Clostridium ljungdahlii was grown in modified Tanner medium and sparged with 20 mL/min of artificial syngas mimicking a composition of clean syngas from entrained bed gasification of straw (32.5 vol-% CO, 32.5 vol-% H2, 16 vol-% CO2, and 19 vol-% N2) using a microsparger. Syngas consumption was monitored via automated gas chromatographic measurement of the off-gas. For the fungal fermentation part gas sparging was switched to 0.6 L/min of air and a standard sparger. Ammonia content of medium for syngas fermentation was reduced to 0.33 g/L NH4Cl to meet the requirements for fungal production of dicarboxylic acids. Malic acid production performance of A. oryzae in organic acid production medium and syngas medium with acetate as sole carbon source was verified and gave YP∕S values of 0.28 g/g and 0.37 g/g respectively. Growth and acetate formation of C. ljungdahlii during syngas fermentation were not affected by the reduced ammonia content and 66 % of the consumed syngas was converted to acetate. The overall conversion

  15. Sequential Mixed Cultures: From Syngas to Malic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Florian; Dörsam, Stefan; Veith, Nicolas; Zwick, Michaela; Neumann, Anke; Ochsenreither, Katrin; Syldatk, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation using acetogenic bacteria is an approach for production of bulk chemicals like acetate, ethanol, butanol, or 2,3-butandiol avoiding the fuel vs. food debate by using carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen from gasification of biomass or industrial waste gases. Suffering from energetic limitations, yields of C4-molecules produced by syngas fermentation are quite low compared with ABE fermentation using sugars as a substrate. On the other hand, fungal production of malic acid has high yields of product per gram metabolized substrate but is currently limited to sugar containing substrates. In this study, it was possible to show that Aspergilus oryzae is able to produce malic acid using acetate as sole carbon source which is a main product of acetogenic syngas fermentation. Bioreactor cultivations were conducted in 2.5 L stirred tank reactors. During the syngas fermentation part of the sequential mixed culture, Clostridium ljungdahlii was grown in modified Tanner medium and sparged with 20 mL/min of artificial syngas mimicking a composition of clean syngas from entrained bed gasification of straw (32.5 vol-% CO, 32.5 vol-% H2, 16 vol-% CO2, and 19 vol-% N2) using a microsparger. Syngas consumption was monitored via automated gas chromatographic measurement of the off-gas. For the fungal fermentation part gas sparging was switched to 0.6 L/min of air and a standard sparger. Ammonia content of medium for syngas fermentation was reduced to 0.33 g/L NH4Cl to meet the requirements for fungal production of dicarboxylic acids. Malic acid production performance of A. oryzae in organic acid production medium and syngas medium with acetate as sole carbon source was verified and gave YP∕S values of 0.28 g/g and 0.37 g/g respectively. Growth and acetate formation of C. ljungdahlii during syngas fermentation were not affected by the reduced ammonia content and 66 % of the consumed syngas was converted to acetate. The overall conversion

  16. GAS MIXING ANALYSIS IN A LARGE-SCALED SALTSTONE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2008-05-28

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been used to estimate the flow patterns mainly driven by temperature gradients inside vapor space in a large-scaled Saltstone vault facility at Savannah River site (SRS). The purpose of this work is to examine the gas motions inside the vapor space under the current vault configurations by taking a three-dimensional transient momentum-energy coupled approach for the vapor space domain of the vault. The modeling calculations were based on prototypic vault geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Waste Solidification Engineering. The modeling analysis was focused on the air flow patterns near the ventilated corner zones of the vapor space inside the Saltstone vault. The turbulence behavior and natural convection mechanism used in the present model were benchmarked against the literature information and theoretical results. The verified model was applied to the Saltstone vault geometry for the transient assessment of the air flow patterns inside the vapor space of the vault region using the potential operating conditions. The baseline model considered two cases for the estimations of the flow patterns within the vapor space. One is the reference nominal case. The other is for the negative temperature gradient between the roof inner and top grout surface temperatures intended for the potential bounding condition. The flow patterns of the vapor space calculated by the CFD model demonstrate that the ambient air comes into the vapor space of the vault through the lower-end ventilation hole, and it gets heated up by the Benard-cell type circulation before leaving the vault via the higher-end ventilation hole. The calculated results are consistent with the literature information. Detailed results and the cases considered in the calculations will be discussed here.

  17. The mixed waste management facility. Monthly report, October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-11-01

    A continuing concern over the last few months was resolved with the approval of the Environmental Assessment (EA) and signing of the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This was completed in time to allow approval of the DWTF Phase 1 KD-3 and subsequent award of the construction contract for this phase (site preparation). The Project continues to make progress toward the Project Preliminary Design Review (PDR), scheduled for November 15-16, 1995. We completed the conventional feed preparation and solid feed preparation demonstration technologies (telerobotic sorting) and conducted a prereview of the Analytical Services element. Molten Salt is scheduled for October 3-4, with Water Treatment and Analytical Services completing the reviews by October 12. While a number of design issues have been raised and are being tracked, the general level of engineering progress is consistent with completing the PDR on schedule. No show-stoppers have been identified, and all items requiring resolution before PDR will be completed. We completed the initial iteration of the cost roll-ups for the preliminary design and have developed a plan consistent with the guidance issued for the Project (level funding at {approximately}$10M/yr, reduced scope, integrated with the DWTF). This was accomplished by staging the completion of various elements (e.g., MSO in FY98, Telerobotics in FY99), and reducing to the extent possible project support functions. Two significant modifications will be noted in the Project Baseline Revision 2.0-Preliminary Design (PB2.0) relative to previous estimates: (1) the cost of the MSO system has increased due to a better understanding of the system needs (relative to CDR assessment), and (2) project management has increased owing to a restructuring of how LLNL distributes facility charge costs. However, both these increases have been offset by reduction in other elements and by a general lowering of Project contingency.

  18. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report contains appendices 3 through 6 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab. permeability, in-situ permeability, and compaction characteristics, representative of kaolin clays from the Aiken, South Carolina vicinity. (KJD)

  19. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Design basis integrated operations plan (Title I design)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) will be a fully integrated, pilotscale facility for the demonstration of low-level, organic-matrix mixed waste treatment technologies. It will provide the bridge from bench-scale demonstrated technologies to the deployment and operation of full-scale treatment facilities. The MWMF is a key element in reducing the risk in deployment of effective and environmentally acceptable treatment processes for organic mixed-waste streams. The MWMF will provide the engineering test data, formal evaluation, and operating experience that will be required for these demonstration systems to become accepted by EPA and deployable in waste treatment facilities. The deployment will also demonstrate how to approach the permitting process with the regulatory agencies and how to operate and maintain the processes in a safe manner. This document describes, at a high level, how the facility will be designed and operated to achieve this mission. It frequently refers the reader to additional documentation that provides more detail in specific areas. Effective evaluation of a technology consists of a variety of informal and formal demonstrations involving individual technology systems or subsystems, integrated technology system combinations, or complete integrated treatment trains. Informal demonstrations will typically be used to gather general operating information and to establish a basis for development of formal demonstration plans. Formal demonstrations consist of a specific series of tests that are used to rigorously demonstrate the operation or performance of a specific system configuration.

  20. Calculation of parameters for inspection planning and evaluation: mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, P.T.; Mullen, M.F.

    1982-08-01

    As part of Task C.35 (Calculation of Parameters for Inspection Planning and Evaluation) of the US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has performed some quantitative analyses of IAEA inspection activities for mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facilities. There were four distinct efforts involved in this task. These were as follows: show the effect on a material balance verification of using two variables measurement methods in some strata; perform additional calculations for the reference facility described in STR-89; modify the INSPECT computer programs to be used as an after-inspection analysis tool, as well as a preinspection planning tool; provide written comments and explantations of text and graphs of the first draft of STR-89, Safeguards Considerations for Mixed-Oxide Fuel Element Fabrication Facilities, by W. Bahm, T. Shea, and D. Tolchenkov, System Studies Section, IAEA.

  1. Reaction-in-flight neutrons as a signature for shell mixing in National Ignition Facility capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.; Bradley, P. A.; Grim, G. P.; Jungman, Gerard; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Analytic calculations and results from computational simulations are presented that suggest that reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons can be used to diagnose mixing of the ablator shell material into the fuel in deuterium-tritium (DT) capsules designed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner, J. D. Boyes, S. A. Kumpan, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. S. Sorem, Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)]. Such mixing processes in NIF capsules are of fundamental physical interest and can have important effects on capsule performance, quenching the total thermonuclear yield. The sensitivity of RIF neutrons to hydrodynamical mixing arises through the dependence of RIF production on charged-particle stopping lengths in the mixture of DT fuel and ablator material. Since the stopping power in the plasma is a sensitive function of the electron temperature and density, it is also sensitive to mix. RIF production scales approximately inversely with the degree of mixing taking place, and the ratio of RIF to down-scattered neutrons provides a measure of the mix fraction and/or the mixing length. For sufficiently high-yield capsules, where spatially resolved RIF images may be possible, neutron imaging could be used to map RIF images into detailed mix images.

  2. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring continued at the Savannah River Plant. During second quarter 1993, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride), dichloromethane (methylene chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  3. Practice patterns, case mix, Medicare payment policy, and dialysis facility costs.

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, R A; Held, P J; Orzol, S M; Dor, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of case mix, practice patterns, features of the payment system, and facility characteristics on the cost of dialysis. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The nationally representative sample of dialysis units in the 1991 U.S. Renal Data System's Case Mix Adequacy (CMA) Study. The CMA data were merged with data from Medicare Cost Reports, HCFA facility surveys, and HCFA's end-stage renal disease patient registry. STUDY DESIGN: We estimated a statistical cost function to examine the determinants of costs at the dialysis unit level. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relationship between case mix and costs was generally weak. However, dialysis practices (type of dialysis membrane, membrane reuse policy, and treatment duration) did have a significant effect on costs. Further, facilities whose payment was constrained by HCFA's ceiling on the adjustment for area wage rates incurred higher costs than unconstrained facilities. The costs of hospital-based units were considerably higher than those of freestanding units. Among chain units, only members of one of the largest national chains exhibited significant cost savings relative to independent facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Little evidence showed that adjusting dialysis payment to account for differences in case mix across facilities would be necessary to ensure access to care for high-cost patients or to reimburse facilities equitably for their costs. However, current efforts to increase dose of dialysis may require higher payments. Longer treatments appear to be the most economical method of increasing the dose of dialysis. Switching to more expensive types of dialysis membranes was a more costly means of increasing dose and hence must be justified by benefits beyond those of higher dose. Reusing membranes saved money, but the savings were insufficient to offset the costs associated with using more expensive membranes. Most, but not all, of the higher costs observed in hospital-based units appear to reflect

  4. Quantitative Determination of Citric and Ascorbic Acid in Powdered Drink Mixes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmann, Samuella B.; Wheeler, Dale E.

    2004-01-01

    A procedure by which the reactions are used to quantitatively determine the amount of total acid, the amount of total ascorbic acid and the amount of citric acid in a given sample of powdered drink mix, are described. A safe, reliable and low-cost quantitative method to analyze consumer product for acid content is provided.

  5. Mixed food waste as renewable feedstock in succinic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Mingji; Qi, Qingsheng; Gao, Cuijuan; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-11-01

    Mixed food waste, which was directly collected from restaurants without pretreatments, was used as a valuable feedstock in succinic acid (SA) fermentation in the present study. Commercial enzymes and crude enzymes produced from Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were separately used in hydrolysis of food waste, and their resultant hydrolysates were evaluated. For hydrolysis using the fungal mixture comprising A. awamori and A. oryzae, a nutrient-complete food waste hydrolysate was generated, which contained 31.9 g L(-1) glucose and 280 mg L(-1) free amino nitrogen. Approximately 80-90 % of the solid food waste was also diminished. In a 2.5 L fermentor, 29.9 g L(-1) SA was produced with an overall yield of 0.224 g g(-1) substrate using food waste hydrolysate and recombinant Escherichia coli. This is comparable to many similar studies using various wastes or by-products as substrates. Results of this study demonstrated the enormous potential of food waste as renewable resource in the production of bio-based chemicals and materials via microbial bioconversion. PMID:25149459

  6. Closure of hazardous and mixed radioactive waste management units at DOE facilities. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This is document addresses the Federal regulations governing the closure of hazardous and mixed waste units subject to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. It provides a brief overview of the RCRA permitting program and the extensive RCRA facility design and operating standards. It provides detailed guidance on the procedural requirements for closure and post-closure care of hazardous and mixed waste management units, including guidance on the preparation of closure and post-closure plans that must be submitted with facility permit applications. This document also provides guidance on technical activities that must be conducted both during and after closure of each of the following hazardous waste management units regulated under RCRA.

  7. Enthalpy of mixing of methacrylic acid with organic solvents at 293 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The enthalpies of mixing of binary systems of methacrylic acid with acetonitrile, benzene, hexane, 1,2-dichloroethane, and acetic acid are measured calorimetrically at 293 K and atmospheric pressure. The enthalpy of mixing of all the studied binary systems is positive over the range of concentrations.

  8. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report contains appendix 2 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, Laboratory permeability, and compaction characteristics representative of Kaolin clays from the aiken, South Carolina vicinity. Included in this report are daily field reports Nos. 1 to 54. (KJD)

  9. Carboxylic acid production from brewer's spent grain via mixed culture fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; Wan, Caixia

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating carboxylic acid production from brewer's spent grain (BSG) via mixed culture fermentation. The results showed that the distribution of fermentation products was significantly affected by pH conditions and the addition of electron donors. Lactic acid was the dominant component under acidic and alkaline conditions while volatile fatty acids (VFAs) became dominant under the neutral condition. Furthermore, the neutral condition favored the chain elongation of carboxylic acids, especially with ethanol as the electron donor. Ethanol addition enhanced valeric acid and caproic acid production by 44% and 167%, respectively. Lactic acid addition also had positive effects on VFAs production under the neutral condition but limited to C2-C4 products. As a result, propionic acid and butyric acid production was increased by 109% and 152%, respectively. These findings provide substantial evidence for regulating carboxylic acid production during mixed culture fermentation of BSG by controlling pH and adding electron donors. PMID:25698409

  10. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-01-31

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

  11. International safeguards for a modern MOX (mixed-oxide) fuel fabrication facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

    1987-03-01

    Bulk-handling facilities that process plutonium for commercial fuel cycles offer considerable challenges to nuclear materials safeguards. Modern fuel fabrication facilities that handle mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium (MOX) often have large inventories of special nuclear materials in their process lines and in storage areas for feed and product materials. In addition, the remote automated processing prevalent at new MOX facilities, which is necessary to minimize radiation exposures to personnel, tends to limit access for measurements and inspections. The facility design considered in this study incorporates all these features as well as state-of-the-art measurement technologies for materials accounting. Key elements of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards for such a fuel-cycle facility have been identified in this report, and several issues of primary importance to materials accountancy and IAEA verifications have been examined. We have calculated detection sensitivities for abrupt and protracted diversions of plutonium assuming a single materials balance area for all processing areas. To help achieve optimal use of limited IAEA inspection resources, we have calculated sampling plans for attributes/variables verification. In addition, we have demonstrated the usefulness of calculating sigma/sub (MUF-D)/ and detection probabilities corresponding to specified material-loss scenarios and resource allocations. The data developed and the analyses performed during this study can assist both the facility operator and the IAEA in formulating necessary safeguards approaches and verification procedures to implement international safeguards for special nuclear materials.

  12. Optical detection of concentrations for mixed acid: HF and HNO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Gumin; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2009-02-01

    Mixed acid, which consist of HF and HNO3, is used as a good etchant for silicon dioxide in the wet etching and pickling process of stainless steel. The optical detection of concentration for such mixed acids is crucial to optimize and cut costs in the manufacturing process. Optical detection in the IR regime has been utilized to measure the concentration of the mixed acid for HF and HNO3, because that has several strong absorption peaks, which is contributed by vibrational mode of each acid molecular in this spectrum. In this research, we observed the concentrations of mixed acid to consist of HF and HNO3, as we measured the absorption intensity of OH- stretch and NO3 - stretch band by optical spectroscopy. The concentration range of HF over 1.5-3 wt% and that of HNO3 over 2-10 wt% were studied in room temperature.

  13. Designing cost-effective biopharmaceutical facilities using mixed-integer optimization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songsong; Simaria, Ana S; Farid, Suzanne S; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G

    2013-01-01

    Chromatography operations are identified as critical steps in a monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification process and can represent a significant proportion of the purification material costs. This becomes even more critical with increasing product titers that result in higher mass loads onto chromatography columns, potentially causing capacity bottlenecks. In this work, a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model was created and applied to an industrially relevant case study to optimize the design of a facility by determining the most cost-effective chromatography equipment sizing strategies for the production of mAbs. Furthermore, the model was extended to evaluate the ability of a fixed facility to cope with higher product titers up to 15 g/L. Examination of the characteristics of the optimal chromatography sizing strategies across different titer values enabled the identification of the maximum titer that the facility could handle using a sequence of single column chromatography steps as well as multi-column steps. The critical titer levels for different ratios of upstream to dowstream trains where multiple parallel columns per step resulted in the removal of facility bottlenecks were identified. Different facility configurations in terms of number of upstream trains were considered and the trade-off between their cost and ability to handle higher titers was analyzed. The case study insights demonstrate that the proposed modeling approach, combining MINLP models with visualization tools, is a valuable decision-support tool for the design of cost-effective facility configurations and to aid facility fit decisions. 2013. PMID:23956206

  14. Environmental assessment for the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility: Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0466) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 for the proposed completion of construction and subsequent operation of a central Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility (RMWMF), in the southeastern portion of Technical Area III at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque (SNLA). The RMWMF is designed to receive, store, characterize, conduct limited bench-scale treatment of, repackage, and certify low-level waste (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) (as necessary) for shipment to an offsite disposal or treatment facility. The RMWMF was partially constructed in 1989. Due to changing regulatory requirements, planned facility upgrades would be undertaken as part of the proposed action. These upgrades would include paving of road surfaces and work areas, installation of pumping equipment and lines for surface impoundment, and design and construction of air locks and truck decontamination and water treatment systems. The proposed action also includes an adjacent corrosive and reactive metals storage area, and associated roads and paving. LLW and MW generated at SNLA would be transported from the technical areas to the RMWMF in containers approved by the Department of Transportation. The RMWMF would not handle nonradioactive hazardous waste. Based on the analysis in the EA, the proposed completion of construction and operation of the RMWMF does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed action is not required.

  15. Toxicity of Water and Sediment Samples Collected in the Vicinity of the Mixed Waste Management Facility, 1995 and 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-07-01

    Three rounds of toxicity tests were conducted on water collected from eleven locations in the vicinity of the Mixed Waste Management Facility and four reference locations between January 1995 and April 1996.

  16. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1993 and 1993 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1993, 10 constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chloroethane (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), lead, mercury, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in two Aquifer Unit 2A (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow direction and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  17. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents Chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), lead, mercury, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} (Barnwell/McBean) wells. No elevated constituents were exhibited in Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  18. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  19. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste anagement Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults (HWMWDV). As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contained elevated constituent levels. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to previous quarters.

  20. Raman distributed temperature measurement at CERN high energy accelerator mixed field radiation test facility (CHARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toccafondo, Iacopo; Nannipieri, Tiziano; Signorini, Alessandro; Guillermain, Elisa; Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Brugger, Markus; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present a validation of distributed Raman temperature sensing (RDTS) at the CERN high energy accelerator mixed field radiation test facility (CHARM), newly developed in order to qualify electronics for the challenging radiation environment of accelerators and connected high energy physics experiments. By investigating the effect of wavelength dependent radiation induced absorption (RIA) on the Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes light components in radiation tolerant Ge-doped multi-mode (MM) graded-index optical fibers, we demonstrate that Raman DTS used in loop configuration is robust to harsh environments in which the fiber is exposed to a mixed radiation field. The temperature profiles measured on commercial Ge-doped optical fibers is fully reliable and therefore, can be used to correct the RIA temperature dependence in distributed radiation sensing systems based on P-doped optical fibers.

  1. Experimental observations of turbulent mixing due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the OMEGA Laser Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Hansen, J. F.; Hurricane, O. A.; Langstaff, G.; Martinez, D.; Park, H.-S.; Raman, K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Schilling, O.; Wallace, R.; Elbaz, Y.; Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D.; Di Stefano, C.; Drake, R. P.; Marion, D.; Krauland, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.

    2012-09-01

    Shear-flow, Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) turbulent mixing experiments were performed on the OMEGA Laser Facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] in which laser-driven shock waves propagated through a low-density plastic foam placed on top of a higher-density plastic foil. The plastic foil was comprised a thin iodine-doped plastic tracer layer bonded on each side to an undoped density-matched polyamide-imide plastic. Behind the shock front, lower-density foam plasma flowed over the higher-density plastic plasma, such that the interface between the foam and plastic was KH unstable. The initial perturbations consisted of pre-imposed, sinusoidal 2D perturbations, and broadband 3D perturbations due to surface roughness at the interface between the plastic and foam. KH instability growth was measured using side-on radiography with a point-projection 5-keV vanadium backlighter. Time-integrated images were captured on D-8 x-ray film. Spatial density profiles of iodine-doped plastic mixed with foam were inferred using x-ray radiographs. The mixing layer ensuing from the KH instability with layer width up to ˜100 μm was observed at a location ˜1 mm behind the shock front. The measured mixing layer width was in good agreement with predictions based on a simple self-similar model of KH instability growth using an estimate of the shear velocity obtained from numerical simulations of the experiments.

  2. Experimental observations of turbulent mixing due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the OMEGA Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Hansen, J. F.; Hurricane, O. A.; Langstaff, G.; Martinez, D.; Park, H.-S.; Raman, K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Schilling, O.; Wallace, R.; Elbaz, Y.; Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D.; Di Stefano, C.; Drake, R. P.; Marion, D.; Krauland, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.

    2012-09-15

    Shear-flow, Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) turbulent mixing experiments were performed on the OMEGA Laser Facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] in which laser-driven shock waves propagated through a low-density plastic foam placed on top of a higher-density plastic foil. The plastic foil was comprised a thin iodine-doped plastic tracer layer bonded on each side to an undoped density-matched polyamide-imide plastic. Behind the shock front, lower-density foam plasma flowed over the higher-density plastic plasma, such that the interface between the foam and plastic was KH unstable. The initial perturbations consisted of pre-imposed, sinusoidal 2D perturbations, and broadband 3D perturbations due to surface roughness at the interface between the plastic and foam. KH instability growth was measured using side-on radiography with a point-projection 5-keV vanadium backlighter. Time-integrated images were captured on D-8 x-ray film. Spatial density profiles of iodine-doped plastic mixed with foam were inferred using x-ray radiographs. The mixing layer ensuing from the KH instability with layer width up to {approx}100 {mu}m was observed at a location {approx}1 mm behind the shock front. The measured mixing layer width was in good agreement with predictions based on a simple self-similar model of KH instability growth using an estimate of the shear velocity obtained from numerical simulations of the experiments.

  3. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, 12 constituents exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents: 57 (48%) and 23 (19%) of the 119 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium and trichloroethylene levels, respectively. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} (Barnwell/McBean). Elevated constituents also occurred in five Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, thallium, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), or cadmium.

  4. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, lead, antimony, I,I-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, mercury, nickel, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 57 (49%) of the 116 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 21 (18%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations Sixty-one downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained constituents that exceeded the PDWS during first quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and HSB 85A, BC, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Upgradient well BGO 2D contained elevated tritium.

  5. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: Technology selection and implementation plan, Part 2, Support processes

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.; Couture, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish the foundation for the selection and implementation of technologies to be demonstrated in the Mixed Waste Management Facility, and to select the technologies for initial pilot-scale demonstration. Criteria are defined for judging demonstration technologies, and the framework for future technology selection is established. On the basis of these criteria, an initial suite of technologies was chosen, and the demonstration implementation scheme was developed. Part 1, previously released, addresses the selection of the primary processes. Part II addresses process support systems that are considered ``demonstration technologies.`` Other support technologies, e.g., facility off-gas, receiving and shipping, and water treatment, while part of the integrated demonstration, use best available commercial equipment and are not selected against the demonstration technology criteria.

  6. The Mistreatment of Women during Childbirth in Health Facilities Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bohren, Meghan A.; Vogel, Joshua P.; Hunter, Erin C.; Lutsiv, Olha; Makh, Suprita K.; Souza, João Paulo; Aguiar, Carolina; Saraiva Coneglian, Fernando; Diniz, Alex Luíz Araújo; Tunçalp, Özge; Javadi, Dena; Oladapo, Olufemi T.; Khosla, Rajat; Hindin, Michelle J.; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite growing recognition of neglectful, abusive, and disrespectful treatment of women during childbirth in health facilities, there is no consensus at a global level on how these occurrences are defined and measured. This mixed-methods systematic review aims to synthesize qualitative and quantitative evidence on the mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities to inform the development of an evidence-based typology of the phenomenon. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase databases and grey literature using a predetermined search strategy to identify qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies on the mistreatment of women during childbirth across all geographical and income-level settings. We used a thematic synthesis approach to synthesize the qualitative evidence and assessed the confidence in the qualitative review findings using the CERQual approach. In total, 65 studies were included from 34 countries. Qualitative findings were organized under seven domains: (1) physical abuse, (2) sexual abuse, (3) verbal abuse, (4) stigma and discrimination, (5) failure to meet professional standards of care, (6) poor rapport between women and providers, and (7) health system conditions and constraints. Due to high heterogeneity of the quantitative data, we were unable to conduct a meta-analysis; instead, we present descriptions of study characteristics, outcome measures, and results. Additional themes identified in the quantitative studies are integrated into the typology. Conclusions This systematic review presents a comprehensive, evidence-based typology of the mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities, and demonstrates that mistreatment can occur at the level of interaction between the woman and provider, as well as through systemic failures at the health facility and health system levels. We propose this typology be adopted to describe the phenomenon and be used to develop measurement tools

  7. Surface acidity of silica-titania mixed oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Odenbrand, C.U.I.; Brandin, J.G.M. ); Busca, G. )

    1992-06-01

    A study of the acidity of coprecipitated SiO[sub 2]-TiO[sub 2] oxides is presented. The amount of acidity has been determined by ammonia adsorption at 150 C. The acidity was also characterized by TPD of adsorbed ammonia and by infrared spectroscopy of various adsorbed probes, such as pivalonitrile, pyridine, ammonia, and n-butylamine. From the quantitative measurements of adsorption of ammonia and from TPD it was concluded that the SiO[sub 2]-TiO[sub 2] mixture can be regarded as a mechanical mixture of silica and titania. However, the IR investigation showed that Ti enters in small amounts into the silica framework. This results in formation of very strong Lewis acid sites, caused by incomplete tetrahedral coordination of Ti[sup 4[minus

  8. Hot-Spot Mix in Ignition-Scale Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, S. P.

    2011-10-01

    Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume.The ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode (50 < λ < 200) ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and DT cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The amount of hot-spot mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code, is typically below the 100-ng allowance for hot-spot mix.1 Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results. The measured dependence of hot-spot mix on the implosion velocity and on the high-mode ablator-surface perturbations will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302. In collaboration with the National Ignition Campaign Mix Working Group. S. W. Haan et. al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011>).

  9. Hydrodynamic instability growth and mix experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Barrios, M.; Caggiano, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D. S.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A.; Hsing, W. W.; Hurricane, O.; Kroll, J.; Landen, O. L.; Lindl, J. D.; Ma, T.; McNaney, J. M.; Mintz, M.; Parham, T.; Peterson, J. L.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Hydrodynamic instability growth and its effects on implosion performance were studied at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)]. Implosion performance and mix have been measured at peak compression using plastic shells filled with tritium gas and containing embedded localized carbon-deuterium diagnostic layers in various locations in the ablator. Neutron yield and ion temperature of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions were used as a measure of shell-gas mix, while neutron yield of the tritium-tritium fusion reaction was used as a measure of implosion performance. The results have indicated that the low-mode hydrodynamic instabilities due to surface roughness were the primary culprits for yield degradation, with atomic ablator-gas mix playing a secondary role. In addition, spherical shells with pre-imposed 2D modulations were used to measure instability growth in the acceleration phase of the implosions. The capsules were imploded using ignition-relevant laser pulses, and ablation-front modulation growth was measured using x-ray radiography for a shell convergence ratio of ∼2. The measured growth was in good agreement with that predicted, thus validating simulations for the fastest growing modulations with mode numbers up to 90 in the acceleration phase. Future experiments will be focused on measurements at higher convergence, higher-mode number modulations, and growth occurring during the deceleration phase.

  10. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Groundwater Monitoring Report: Fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1991, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), total radium, mercury, and lead exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread contaminants; 55 (49%) wells exhibited elevated tritium activities, and 24 (21%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Tritium and trichloroethylene levels exceeding the PDWS also occurred in several wells in Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree). Levels of manganese, total organic halogens, nickel, iron, 1,1-dichloroethane, aluminum, nonvolatile beta, and trichlorofluoromethane that exceeded Flag 2 criteria were found in one or more wells beneath the MWMF. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units at the MWMF contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, total radium, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), lead, mercury, manganese, total organic halogens, nickel, iron, 1,1-dichloroethane, aluminum, nonvolatile beta, or trichlorofluoromethane. Groundwater samples from 81 (72%) of the monitoring wells at the MWMF and adjacent facilities contained elevated levels of several contaminants.

  11. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Fifty-seven (48%) of the 120 monitoring wells, contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (19%) contained elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Total alpha-emitting radium, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, cadmium, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels exceeded standards in one or more wells. During 1992, elevated levels of 13 constituents were found in one or more of 80 of the 120 groundwater monitoring wells (67%) at the MWMF and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene exceeded their final PDWS more frequently and more consistently than did other constituents. Tritium activity exceeded its final PDWS m 67 wells and trichloroethylene was. elevated in 28 wells. Lead, tetrachloroethylene, total alpha-emitting radium, gross alpha, cadmium, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene 1,2-dichloroethane, mercury, or nitrate exceeded standards in one or more wells during the year. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its drinking water screening level in 3 wells during the year.

  12. Determination of the Efficiency of Mixed-Acid Digestions of Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta Vazquez, Alejandra I.; Gill, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed-acid digestion is a method often used for the determination of elemental analysis of sediment samples. It is crucial that efficiency details associated with the digestion method be well understood on an element by element basis. Battelle’s Marine Sciences Laboratory Standard Operating Procedure for Sediment Mixed-Acid Digestions was modified to identify conditions which produce optimal recovery of elements. The parameters that were adjusted for testing were mass of sediment, mixed-acid volume, mixed-acid composition and digestion time. Digestion involves treatment of the sediment sample with mixed-acid mixtures at 135º C ± 10º in a Teflon® digestion bomb. Typical analytical methods include Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Initial experiments involved determining the optimal ratio of acid volume to mass of sediment. Experiments were designed to identify the point at which insufficient acid was used to effectively digest a given mass of sediment. When the mass of sediment was varied between 0.2 and 1.0 gram using a 4 mL aqua regia acid mixture (3 mL hydrochloric acid and 1 mL nitric acid), there was no effect on the recovery of the elements Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. The next experiments focused on a time study to resolve the shortest digestive time for optimal elemental recovery. Two masses of sediment were investigated, 0.25 and 0.7 g, again utilizing aqua regia digestion (4 mL). Maximum recovery was reached after 4 hours of digestion; additional digestion time released no or only minimal amounts of elements from the sediments. The final set of experiments was designed to identify optimal conditions for the total digestion of sediment using a mixture of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and boric acid. These experiments were designed to determine the optimal volume of hydrofluoric acid

  13. The mixed waste management facility. Project baseline revision 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.; Throop, A.L.

    1995-04-01

    Revision 1.2 to the Project Baseline (PB) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is in response to DOE directives and verbal guidance to (1) Collocate the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) and MWMF into a single complex, integrate certain and overlapping functions as a cost-saving measure; (2) Meet certain fiscal year (FY) new-BA funding objectives ($15.3M in FY95) with lower and roughly balanced funding for out years; (3) Reduce Total Project Cost (TPC) for the MWMF Project; (4) Include costs for all appropriate permitting activities in the project TPC. This baseline revision also incorporates revisions in the technical baseline design for Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO). Changes in the WBS dictionary that are necessary as a result of this rebaseline, as well as minor title changes, at WBS Level 3 or above (DOE control level) are approved as a separate document. For completeness, the WBS dictionary that reflects these changes is contained in Appendix B. The PB, with revisions as described in this document, were also the basis for the FY97 Validation Process, presented to DOE and their reviewers on March 21-22, 1995. Appendix C lists information related to prior revisions to the PB. Several key changes relate to the integration of functions and sharing of facilities between the portion of the DWTF that will house the MWMF and those portions that are used by the Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) Division at LLNL. This collocation has been directed by DOE as a cost-saving measure and has been implemented in a manner that maintains separate operational elements from a safety and permitting viewpoint. Appendix D provides background information on the decision and implications of collocating the two facilities.

  14. Gill lesions and death of bluegill in an acid mine drainage mixing zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of an acid mine drainage (AMD) mixing zone was investigated by placing bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) at the confluence of a stream contaminated by AMD and a stream having neutral pH. A mixing channel receiving water from both streams was assembled in the field, during July and October 1996, to determine the toxicity of freshly mixed and aged water (2.9-7.5 min). The AMD stream had elevated concentrations of Al and Fe, which precipitated upon mixing, and of Mn, which did not precipitate in the mixing zone. Fish exposed to freshly mixed water had higher mortality than fish exposed to water after aging. Precipitating Al, but not Fe, accumulated on the gills of bluegill, and accumulation was more rapid early during the mixing process than after aging. Fish exposed for 3.5 h to freshly mixed water had hypertrophy and hyperplasia of gill filament and lamellar epithelial cells. Similar lesions were observed after 6.0 h in fish exposed to water aged after mixing. Results demonstrated that Al was the predominant metal accumulating on the gills of fish in this AMD mixing zone, and that mixing zones can be more toxic than AMD streams in equilibrium.

  15. Quantitative analysis of mixed hydrofluoric and nitric acids using Raman spectroscopy with partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gumin; Lee, Kwangchil; Park, Haesung; Lee, Jinho; Jung, Youngjean; Kim, Kyoungsik; Son, Boongho; Park, Hyoungkuk

    2010-06-15

    Mixed hydrofluoric and nitric acids are widely used as a good etchant for the pickling process of stainless steels. The cost reduction and the procedure optimization in the manufacturing process can be facilitated by optically detecting the concentration of the mixed acids. In this work, we developed a novel method which allows us to obtain the concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and nitric acid (HNO(3)) mixture samples with high accuracy. The experiments were carried out for the mixed acids which consist of the HF (0.5-3wt%) and the HNO(3) (2-12wt%) at room temperature. Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy has been utilized to measure the concentration of the mixed acids HF and HNO(3), because the mixture sample has several strong Raman bands caused by the vibrational mode of each acid in this spectrum. The calibration of spectral data has been performed using the partial least squares regression method which is ideal for local range data treatment. Several figures of merit (FOM) were calculated using the concept of net analyte signal (NAS) to evaluate performance of our methodology. PMID:20441916

  16. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report summarizes the information gathered in constructing the clay cap test section. The purpose of the test section was to determine compaction characteristics of four representative kaolin clays and demonstrate in-situ permeability for these clays of 1 {times} 10 {sup {minus}7} cm/sec or less. The final technical specifications with regard to maximum clod size, acceptable ranges of placement water content, lift thickness, and degree of compaction will be based on experience gained from the test section. The data derived from this study will also be used in the development of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) methods to be used during actual cap construction of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Closure project. 7 tabs.

  17. Mixed waste management facility groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1995 and 1995 summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1995, seven constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Chloroethene, gross alpha, lead, mercury, and tetrachloroethylene also exceeded final PDWS in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in three Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  18. Helically agitated mixing in dry dilute acid pretreatment enhances the bioconversion of corn stover into ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dry dilute acid pretreatment at extremely high solids loading of lignocellulose materials demonstrated promising advantages of no waste water generation, less sugar loss, and low steam consumption while maintaining high hydrolysis yield. However, the routine pretreatment reactor without mixing apparatus was found not suitable for dry pretreatment operation because of poor mixing and mass transfer. In this study, helically agitated mixing was introduced into the dry dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover and its effect on pretreatment efficiency, inhibitor generation, sugar production, and bioconversion efficiency through simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) were evaluated. Results The overall cellulose conversion taking account of cellulose loss in pretreatment was used to evaluate the efficiency of pretreatment. The two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model on dry pretreatment was established and applied to analyze the mixing mechanism. The results showed that the pretreatment efficiency was significantly improved and the inhibitor generation was reduced by the helically agitated mixing, compared to the dry pretreatment without mixing: the ethanol titer and yield from cellulose in the SSF reached 56.20 g/L and 69.43% at the 30% solids loading and 15 FPU/DM cellulase dosage, respectively, corresponding to a 26.5% increase in ethanol titer and 17.2% increase in ethanol yield at the same fermentation conditions. Conclusions The advantage of helically agitated mixing may provide a prototype of dry dilute acid pretreatment processing for future commercial-scale production of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:24387051

  19. Anaerobic growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum via mixed-acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Michel, Andrea; Koch-Koerfges, Abigail; Krumbach, Karin; Brocker, Melanie; Bott, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum, a model organism in microbial biotechnology, is known to metabolize glucose under oxygen-deprived conditions to l-lactate, succinate, and acetate without significant growth. This property is exploited for efficient production of lactate and succinate. Our detailed analysis revealed that marginal growth takes place under anaerobic conditions with glucose, fructose, sucrose, or ribose as a carbon and energy source but not with gluconate, pyruvate, lactate, propionate, or acetate. Supplementation of glucose minimal medium with tryptone strongly enhanced growth up to a final optical density at 600 nm (OD600) of 12, whereas tryptone alone did not allow growth. Amino acids with a high ATP demand for biosynthesis and amino acids of the glutamate family were particularly important for growth stimulation, indicating ATP limitation and a restricted carbon flux into the oxidative tricarboxylic acid cycle toward 2-oxoglutarate. Anaerobic cultivation in a bioreactor with constant nitrogen flushing disclosed that CO2 is required to achieve maximal growth and that the pH tolerance is reduced compared to that under aerobic conditions, reflecting a decreased capability for pH homeostasis. Continued growth under anaerobic conditions indicated the absence of an oxygen-requiring reaction that is essential for biomass formation. The results provide an improved understanding of the physiology of C. glutamicum under anaerobic conditions. PMID:26276118

  20. Anaerobic Growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum via Mixed-Acid Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Andrea; Koch-Koerfges, Abigail; Krumbach, Karin; Brocker, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum, a model organism in microbial biotechnology, is known to metabolize glucose under oxygen-deprived conditions to l-lactate, succinate, and acetate without significant growth. This property is exploited for efficient production of lactate and succinate. Our detailed analysis revealed that marginal growth takes place under anaerobic conditions with glucose, fructose, sucrose, or ribose as a carbon and energy source but not with gluconate, pyruvate, lactate, propionate, or acetate. Supplementation of glucose minimal medium with tryptone strongly enhanced growth up to a final optical density at 600 nm (OD600) of 12, whereas tryptone alone did not allow growth. Amino acids with a high ATP demand for biosynthesis and amino acids of the glutamate family were particularly important for growth stimulation, indicating ATP limitation and a restricted carbon flux into the oxidative tricarboxylic acid cycle toward 2-oxoglutarate. Anaerobic cultivation in a bioreactor with constant nitrogen flushing disclosed that CO2 is required to achieve maximal growth and that the pH tolerance is reduced compared to that under aerobic conditions, reflecting a decreased capability for pH homeostasis. Continued growth under anaerobic conditions indicated the absence of an oxygen-requiring reaction that is essential for biomass formation. The results provide an improved understanding of the physiology of C. glutamicum under anaerobic conditions. PMID:26276118

  1. Biomimetic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite by Mixed Acid Treatment of Titanium Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J M; Park, W U; Hwang, K H; Lee, J K; Yoon, S Y

    2015-03-01

    A simple chemical method was established for inducing bioactivity of Ti metal. In the present study, two kinds of mixed acid solutions were used to treat Ti specimens to induce Ca-P formation. Following a strong mixed acid activation process, Ca-P coatings successfully formed on the Ti surfaces in the simulated body fluid. Strong mixed acid etching was used to increase the roughness of the metal surface, because the porous and rough surfaces allow better adhesion between Ca-P coatings and substrate. Nano-scale modification of titanium surfaces can alter cellular and tissue responses, which may benefit osseointegration and dental implant therapy. Some specimens were treated with a 5 M NaOH aqueous solution, and then heat treated at 600 °C in order to form an amorphous sodium titanate layer on their surface. This treated titanium metal is believed to form a dense and uniform bone-like apatite layer on its surface in a simulated body fluid (SBF). This study proved that mixed acid treatment is not only important for surface passivation but is also another bioactive treatment for titanium surfaces, an alternative to alkali treatment. In addition, mixed acid treatment uses a lower temperature and shorter time period than alkali treatment. PMID:26413704

  2. Disposition of Mixed Waste Organics at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, E.M.; Coriz, F.; Schreiber, S.B.; Balkey, S.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1999-02-01

    Twenty-six organic solution items totaling 37 L had been stored in the Plutonium Facility vault at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, some for up to 18 years. They were residues from analytical analyses of radioactive solutions. All items had a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) defined hazardous waste combined with special nuclear materials (SNM) and were stored as a mixed waste in a vault room pending disposition. Seventeen items had plutonium concentrations above established discard limits for organics. Due to their age, the containers were not suitable for long-term storage because a container failure would contaminate the vault area and personnel. Therefore, an aqueous-based flowsheet was developed to remove the plutonium so that the items could be discarded. The procedure was a wash with either sodium fluoride and/or potassium hydroxide solution followed by absorbing the discardable organic residues on vermiculite. When this approach did not work permission was obtained to discard the items as a transuranic (TRU) mixed waste without further treatment. The remaining nine solution items were consolidated into two items, repackaged, and stored for future disposition. The overall effort required approximately four months to disposition all the items. This report details the administrative and regulatory requirements that had to be addressed, the results of processing, and the current status of the items.

  3. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium (radium-226 and radium-228) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 55 (48%) of the 115 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (20%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Sixty-three downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained concentrations of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium that exceeded the PDWS during second quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS.

  4. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium (radium-226 and radium-228) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 55 (48%) of the 115 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (20%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Sixty-three downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained concentrations of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium that exceeded the PDWS during second quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS.

  5. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  6. Preliminary siting criteria for the proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson-Waters, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office. This facility will provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies the siting requirements imposed on facilities that treat and store these waste types by Federal and State regulatory agencies and the US Department of Energy. Site selection criteria based on cost, environmental, health and safety, archeological, geological and service, and support requirements are presented. These criteria will be used to recommend alternative sites for the new facility. The National Environmental Policy Act process will then be invoked to evaluate the alternatives and the alternative sites and make a final site determination.

  7. The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Harrop, G.

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site

  8. Comparison of three screening methods to select mixed-microbial inoculum for mixed-acid fermentations.

    PubMed

    Golub, Kristina W; Forrest, Andrea K; Wales, Melinda E; Hammett, Amy Jo M; Cope, Julia L; Wilkinson, Heather H; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2013-02-01

    Using a mixed culture of microorganisms, the carboxylate platform converts biomass into hydrocarbons and chemicals. To develop a method that identifies the highest performing inoculum for carboxylate fermentations, five bacterial communities were screened and ranked by three fermentation performance tests: (1) 30-day batch screen, (2) 28-day continuum particle distribution model (CPDM), and (3) 5-month continuous countercurrent fermentation trains. To screen numerous inocula sources, these tests were used sequentially in an aseptic environment. For the batch-fermentation screen, Inoculum 1 achieved the highest conversion. For the CPDM evaluation, the operating map for Inoculum 1 had the highest performance. For the continuous countercurrent fermentation, the train resulting from Inoculum 1 was among the best performers. This study suggests that the three screens are a useful and predictive method for choosing optimal inocula sources. The bacterial community with optimal performance in these three screens could be considered for use in commercial-scale fermentations. PMID:23334035

  9. Capture and release of mixed acid gasses with binding organic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Heldebrant, David J.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2010-09-21

    Reversible acid-gas binding organic liquid systems that permit separation and capture of one or more of several acid gases from a mixed gas stream, transport of the liquid, release of the acid gases from the ionic liquid and reuse of the liquid to bind more acid gas with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems. These systems utilize acid gas capture compounds made up of strong bases and weak acids that form salts when reacted with a selected acid gas, and which release these gases when a preselected triggering event occurs. The various new materials that make up this system can also be included in various other applications such as chemical sensors, chemical reactants, scrubbers, and separators that allow for the specific and separate removal of desired materials from a gas stream such as flue gas.

  10. Water uptake of internally mixed ammonium sulfate and dicarboxylic acid particles probed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, Lorena; Méndez, Estíbaliz; Sánchez, María N.; Castaño, Fernando; Basterretxea, Francisco J.

    2013-05-01

    Tropospheric aerosols are usually mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds in variable proportions, and the relative amount of organic fraction can influence the hygroscopic properties of the particles. Infrared spectra of submicrometer internally mixed dry particles of ammonium sulfate (AS) with various dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, malonic, maleic, glutaric and pimelic) have been measured in an aerosol flow tube at several solute mass ratios. The spectra show a notable broadening in the bandwidth of sulfate ion ν3 vibrational band near 1115 cm-1 with respect to pure AS. We attribute these perturbations, that are biggest at AS/organic acid mass ratio near unity, to intermolecular interactions between inorganic ions and organic acid molecules in the internally mixed solids. The water uptake behavior of internally mixed particles has been measured by recording the infrared integrated absorbance of liquid water as a function of relative humidity (RH). The amount of water present in the particles prior to deliquescence correlates partially with the water solubilities of the dicarboxylic acids, and also with the relative magnitudes of intermolecular interactions in the internally mixed dry solids. Phase change of ammonium sulfate in the internally mixed particles with RH has been spectrally monitored, and it is shown that water uptaken before full deliquescence produces structural changes in the particles that are revealed by their vibrational spectra.

  11. Regulatory review of closure, post-closure and perpetual care funds at the energy solutions, LLC mixed waste facility

    SciTech Connect

    Willoughby III, O.H.; Lukes, G.C.

    2007-07-01

    EnergySolutions, LLC operates its Mixed Waste Facility at Clive, Utah under the provisions of its State-issued Part B Permit. The facility accepts waste that contains both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Utah is an EPA Agreement State and therefore the Utah Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW) is authorized to regulate the hazardous waste operations at the facility. The radioactive portion of the waste is regulated by the Utah Division of Radiation Control. 40 CFR 264.142 outlines the facility requirements for Closure Costs. The owner or operator must have a detailed written estimate of the cost of closing the facility in accordance with the rules. For many years the State of Utah had relied on the facility's estimate of closure costs as the amount that needed to be funded. This amount is reviewed annually and adjusted for inflation and for changes at the facility. In 2004 the agency and the facility requested bids from independent contractors to provide their estimate for closure costs. Three engineering firms bid on the project. The facility funded the project and both the agency and the facility chose one of the firms to provide an independent estimate. The engineering firms met with both parties and toured the facility. They were also provided with the current closure cost line items. Each firm provided an estimated cost for closure of the facility at the point in the facility's active life that would make the closure most expensive. Included with the direct costs were indirect line items such as overhead, profit, mobilization, hazardous working conditions and regulatory oversight. The agency and the facility reviewed the independent estimates and negotiated a final Closure and Post-Closure Cost Estimate for the Mixed Waste Facility. There are several mechanisms allowed under the rules to fund the Closure and Post- Closure Care Funds. EnergySolutions has chosen to fund their costs through the use of an insurance policy. Changing mechanisms from

  12. Lactic Acid Production in a Mixed-Culture Biofilm Reactor †

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Ali; Pometto, Anthony L.; Johnson, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    Novel solid supports, consisting of polypropylene blended with various agricultural materials (pp composite), were evaluated as supports for pure- and mixed-culture continuous lactic acid fermentations in biofilm reactors. Streptomyces viridosporus T7A (ATCC 39115) was used to form a biofilm, and Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus (ATCC 11443) was used for lactic acid production. For mixed-culture fermentations, a 15-day continuous fermentation of S. viridosporus was performed initially to establish the biofilm. The culture medium was then inoculated with L. casei subsp. rhamnosus. For pure-culture fermentation, L. casei subsp. rhamnosus was inoculated directly into the reactors containing sterile pp composite chips. The biofilm reactors containing various pp composite chips were compared with a biofilm reactor containing pure polypropylene chips and with a reactor containing a suspension culture. Continuous fermentation was started, and each flow rate (0.06 to 1.92 ml/min) was held constant for 24 h; steady state was achieved after 10 h. Lactic acid production was determined throughout the 24-h period by high-performance liquid chromatography. Production rates that were two to five times faster than those of the suspension culture (control) were observed for the pure- and mixed-culture bioreactors. Both lactic acid production rates and lactic acid concentrations in the culture medium were consistently higher in mixed-culture than in pure-culture fermentations. Biofilm formation on the chips was detected at harvest by chip clumping and Gram staining. PMID:16348843

  13. Comparative analysis of microbial community of novel lactic acid fermentation inoculated with different undefined mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Settles, Matthew L; Forney, Larry J; Coats, Erik R; McDonald, Armando G

    2015-03-01

    Three undefined mixed cultures (activated sludge) from different municipal wastewater treatment plants were used as seeds in a novel lactic acid fermentation process fed with potato peel waste (PPW). Anaerobic sequencing batch fermenters were run under identical conditions to produce predominantly lactic acid. Illumina sequencing was used to examine the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in the three seeds and fermenters. Results showed that the structure of microbial communities of three seeds were different. All three fermentation products had unique community structures that were dominated (>96%) by species of the genus Lactobacillus, while members of this genus constituted <0.1% in seeds. The species of Lactobacillus sp. differed among the three fermentations. Results of this study suggest the structure of microbial communities in lactic acid fermentation of PPW with undefined mixed cultures were robust and resilient, which provided engineering prospects for the microbial utilization of carbohydrate wastes to produce lactic acid. PMID:25545096

  14. Removal and recovery of inhibitory volatile fatty acids from mixed acid fermentations by conventional electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rhys Jon; Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime; Guwy, Alan; Premier, Giuliano C; Dinsdale, Richard M; Reilly, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen production during dark fermentation is inhibited by the co-production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic and n-butyric acid. In this study, the effectiveness of conventional electrodialysis (CED) in reducing VFA concentrations in model solutions and hydrogen fermentation broths is evaluated. This is the first time CED has been reported to remove VFAs from hydrogen fermentation broths. During 60 min of operation CED removed up to 99% of VFAs from model solutions, sucrose-fed and grass-fed hydrogen fermentation broths, containing up to 1200 mg l(-1) each of acetic acid, propionic acid, i-butyric acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, and n-valeric acid. CED's ability to remove VFAs from hydrogen fermentation broths suggests that this technology is capable of improving hydrogen yields from dark fermentation. PMID:25898090

  15. Acute toxicity of an acid mine drainage mixing zone to juvenile bluegill and largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    1999-01-01

    The toxicity of an acid mixing zone produced at the confluence of a stream that was contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD) and a pH-neutral stream was investigated in toxicity tests with juvenile bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Fish mortalities in instream cages located in the mixing zone, below the mixing zone, and upstream in both tributaries were compared to determine relative toxicity at each site. In all tests and for both species, significantly higher mortality was observed in the mixing zone than at any other location, including the acid stream, which had lower pH (2.9-4.3). The mixing zone was defined chemically by rapid precipitation of dissolved aluminum and iron, which arrived from the low-pH stream, and by the presence of white precipitates, which were attached to the substratum and which extended below the confluence. Possible seasonal changes in mixing zone toxicity were investigated by conducting field tests with bluegill in June, July, and August 1996 and in January 1997 and by conducting field tests with largemouth bass in April and May 1997. Toxicity was not significantly different at the extremes of temperature, pH, and metal concentration that occurred in June and July, as compared with January. Toxicity was significantly lower in August; however, elevated stream discharge during the August test may have disturbed mixing zone characteristics. High toxicity in AMD mixing zones may lower the survival of fishes in streams, reduce available habitat, and impede movements of migratory fish.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3 ) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3 ) is subject to reporting...

  1. 77 FR 70193 - Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... COMMISSION Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing... Administrative Judge, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  2. 1999 Annual Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Correction - Action Report (Volumes I, II, and III)

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    2000-06-14

    This Corrective Action Report (CAR) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is being prepared to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit Number SC1 890 008 989, dated October 31, 1999. This CAR compiles and presents all groundwater sampling and monitoring activities that are conducted at the MWMF. As set forth in previous agreements with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), all groundwater associated with the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) (comprised of the MWMF, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, and Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground) will be addressed under this RCRA Permit. This CAR is the first to be written for the MWMF and presents monitoring activities and results as an outcome of Interim Status and limited Permitted Status activities. All 1999 groundwater monitoring activities were conducted while the MWMF was operated during Interim Status. Changes to the groundwater monitoring program were made upon receipt of the RCRA Permit, where feasible. During 1999, 152 single-screened and six multi-screened groundwater monitoring wells at the BGC monitored groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer as required by the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR), settlement agreements 87-52-SW and 91-51-SW, and RCRA Permit SC1 890 008 989. However, overall compliance with the recently issued RCRA Permit could not be implemented until the year 2000 due to the effective date of the RCRA Permit and scheduling of groundwater monitoring activities. Changes have been made to the groundwater monitoring network to meet Permit requirements for all 2000 sampling events.

  3. Mixed waste storage facility CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Solid waste landfill CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This report consists of two papers reviewing the waste storage facility and the landfill projects proposed for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant complex. The first paper is a review of DOE`s conceptual design report for a mixed waste storage facility. This evaluation is to review the necessity of constructing a separate mixed waste storage facility. The structure is to be capable of receiving, weighing, sampling and the interim storage of wastes for a five year period beginning in 1996. The estimated cost is assessed at approximately $18 million. The review is to help comprehend and decide whether a new storage building is a feasible approach to the PGDP mixed waste storage problem or should some alternate approach be considered. The second paper reviews DOE`s conceptual design report for a solid waste landfill. This solid waste landfill evaluation is to compare costs and the necessity to provide a new landfill that would meet State of Kentucky regulations. The assessment considered funding for a ten year storage facility, but includes a review of other facility needs such as a radiation detection building, compactor/baler machinery, material handling equipment, along with other personnel and equipment storage buildings at a cost of approximately $4.1 million. The review is to help discern whether a landfill only or the addition of compaction equipment is prudent.

  4. Potential applications of artificial intelligence in computer-based management systems for mixed waste incinerator facility operation

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, A.L.; Singh, S.P.N.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE/OR) operates a mixed waste incinerator facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, designed for the thermal treatment of incinerable liquid, sludge, and solid waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conversion and Recovery Act (RCRA). Operation of the TSCA Incinerator is highly constrained as a result of the regulatory, institutional, technical, and resource availability requirements. This presents an opportunity for applying computer technology as a technical resource for mixed waste incinerator operation to facilitate promoting and sustaining a continuous performance improvement process while demonstrating compliance. This paper describes mixed waste incinerator facility performance-oriented tasks that could be assisted by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the requirements for AI tools that would implement these algorithms in a computer-based system. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for product containing P-84-529) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR... substance known to cause cancer in laboratory animals. The mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid has... to cause cancer. This product is designed to be used without nitrites. (iii) The first work of...

  6. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for product containing P-84-529) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR... substance known to cause cancer in laboratory animals. The mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid has... to cause cancer. This product is designed to be used without nitrites. (iii) The first work of...

  7. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for product containing P-84-529) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR... substance known to cause cancer in laboratory animals. The mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid has... to cause cancer. This product is designed to be used without nitrites. (iii) The first work of...

  8. Optical properties of internally mixed aerosol particles composed of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Miriam A; Hasenkopf, Christa A; Beaver, Melinda R; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2009-12-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of internally mixed aerosol particles composed of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulfate using cavity ring-down aerosol extinction spectroscopy at a wavelength of 532 nm. The real refractive indices of these nonabsorbing species were retrieved from the extinction and concentration of the particles using Mie scattering theory. We obtain refractive indices for pure ammonium sulfate and pure dicarboxylic acids that are consistent with literature values, where they exist, to within experimental error. For mixed particles, however, our data deviates significantly from a volume-weighted average of the pure components. Surprisingly, the real refractive indices of internal mixtures of succinic acid and ammonium sulfate are higher than either of the pure components at the highest organic weight fractions. For binary internal mixtures of oxalic or adipic acid with ammonium sulfate, the real refractive indices of the mixtures are approximately the same as ammonium sulfate for all organic weight fractions. Various optical mixing rules for homogeneous and slightly heterogeneous systems fail to explain the experimental real refractive indices. It is likely that complex particle morphologies are responsible for the observed behavior of the mixed particles. Implications of our results for atmospheric modeling and aerosol structure are discussed. PMID:19877658

  9. Analysis of the suitability of DOE facilities for treatment of commercial low-level radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report evaluates the capabilities of the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) existing and proposed facilities to treat 52 commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed (LLMW) waste streams that were previously identified as being difficult-to-treat using commercial treatment capabilities. The evaluation was performed by comparing the waste matrix and hazardous waste codes for the commercial LLMW streams with the waste acceptance criteria of the treatment facilities, as identified in the following DOE databases: Mixed Waste Inventory Report, Site Treatment Plan, and Waste Stream and Technology Data System. DOE facility personnel also reviewed the list of 52 commercially generated LLMW streams and provided their opinion on whether the wastes were technically acceptable at their facilities, setting aside possible administrative barriers. The evaluation tentatively concludes that the DOE is likely to have at least one treatment facility (either existing or planned) that is technically compatible for most of these difficult-to-treat commercially generated LLMW streams. This conclusion is tempered, however, by the limited amount of data available on the commercially generated LLMW streams, by the preliminary stage of planning for some of the proposed DOE treatment facilities, and by the need to comply with environmental statutes such as the Clean Air Act.

  10. Fluorimetric determination of total ascorbic acid by a stopped-flow mixing technique.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, T; Martínez-Lozano, C; Tomás, V; Fenoll, J; Fenol, J

    2001-08-01

    A simple, rapid and automatic fluorimetric method for the determination of total ascorbic acid is described. The method makes use of the stopped-flow mixing technique in order to achieve the rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid by dissolved oxygen to dehydroascorbic acid, which then reacts with o-phenylenediamine to form a fluorescent quinoxaline. The initial rate and fluorescence signal of this system are directly proportional to the ascorbic acid concentration. The calibration graph was linear over the range 0.1-30 microg ml(-1) (kinetic method) and 0.25-34 microg ml(-1) (equilibrium method). The precision (% RSD) was close to 0.5%. The method has been used for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations, fruit juices, soft drinks and blood serum. PMID:11534621

  11. Measurements of an ablator-gas atomic mix in indirectly driven implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Smalyuk, V A; Tipton, R E; Pino, J E; Casey, D T; Grim, G P; Remington, B A; Rowley, D P; Weber, S V; Barrios, M; Benedetti, L R; Bleuel, D L; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J A; Callahan, D A; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D S; Edgell, D H; Edwards, M J; Frenje, J A; Gatu-Johnson, M; Glebov, V Y; Glenn, S; Haan, S W; Hamza, A; Hatarik, R; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Khan, S; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J; Knauer, J; Landen, O L; Ma, T; McNaney, J M; Mintz, M; Moore, A; Nikroo, A; Pak, A; Parham, T; Petrasso, R; Sayre, D B; Schneider, M B; Tommasini, R; Town, R P; Widmann, K; Wilson, D C; Yeamans, C B

    2014-01-17

    We present the first results from an experimental campaign to measure the atomic ablator-gas mix in the deceleration phase of gas-filled capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility. Plastic capsules containing CD layers were filled with tritium gas; as the reactants are initially separated, DT fusion yield provides a direct measure of the atomic mix of ablator into the hot spot gas. Capsules were imploded with x rays generated in hohlraums with peak radiation temperatures of ∼294  eV. While the TT fusion reaction probes conditions in the central part (core) of the implosion hot spot, the DT reaction probes a mixed region on the outer part of the hot spot near the ablator-hot-spot interface. Experimental data were used to develop and validate the atomic-mix model used in two-dimensional simulations. PMID:24484021

  12. Velocity profile development for a poultry facility acid scrubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of the air velocity profile for 12 experimental configurations (ECs) of an acid scrubber was carried out using an equal area traverse method with a vane axial anemometer. Four velocity profile plots were created for each configuration to determine the four optimal ECs. ECs were selecte...

  13. Emergency cooling experiments with aqueous boric acid solution in the REWET-II facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kervinen, T.; Tuunanen, J.

    1987-01-01

    Although boron is widely used as soluble neutron poison in nuclear reactors (boric acid in pressurized water reactors, sodium pentaborate in boiling water reactors), there is a lack of experimental data about aqueous boron solution behavior during loss-of-coolant accidents. The main aims of the REWET boric acid experiments were to study the behavior of aqueous boric acid solution during long-term cooling of a nuclear reactor and to find out the circumstances in which boric acid crystallization takes place. In the experiments, carried out in the facility of a 19-fuel-rod simulator bundle, boric acid crystallization caused the uncovering of the bundle, which always occurred on the water surface. However, crossflows and backflows in a reactor presumably make the concentrations uniform and thus retard crystallization. Therefore, experimental investigations of aqueous boric acid solution behavior will be carried out for the next 2 yr in a larger scale experimental facility. The new facility will be a simulator of the Loviisa VVER-440 reactor with a scaling factor of 1:349 for power and volumes and 1:1 for elevations. The facility will contain a full-scale rod bundle.

  14. Ion flotation behaviour of thirty-one metal ions in mixed hydrochloric/nitric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Hualing, D; Zhide, H

    1989-06-01

    The ion flotation of 31 metal ions in hydrochloric/nitric acid solution with the cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride was investigated. A 25-ml portion of 0.27-2.87 x 10(-4)M metal ion and 1.8-6.0 x 10(-4)M cetylpyridinium chloride solution in 0.17-3.4M acid mixture ([HCl]:[HNO(3)] = 2.4:1) was subjected to flotation in a cell, 22.5 cm high and 4.0 cm in diameter, for 5 min, with nitrogen bubbles. Ir(IV), Pt(IV), Ge(IV), Sn(IV), Bi(III), Au(III), Tl(III), Pd(II) and Sn(II) were floated from solution in 95-100% yield; Ru(III), Rh(III), Ir(III), Hg(II), Ag(I) and Tl(I) were partly floated, while Cr(VI), Ti(IV), Zr(IV), Ga(III), In(III), Fe(III), Sb(III), Al(III), Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), CD(II) and Pb(II) were floated with less than 20% yield. The flotation behaviour of these metal ions in the mixed acid system was compared with that in hydrochloric acid. The flotation is more efficient in the mixed acid system. PMID:18964771

  15. Interactions of myelin basic protein with mixed dodecylphosphocholine/palmitoyllysophosphatidic acid micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Mendz, G.L. ); Brown, L.R. ); Martenson, R.E. )

    1990-03-06

    The interactions of myelin basic protein and peptides derived from it with detergent micelles of lysophosphatidylglycerol, lysophosphatidylserine, palmitoyllysophosphatidic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate, and with mixed micelles of the neutral detergent dodecylphosphocholine and the negatively charged detergent palmitoyllysophosphatidic acid, were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and circular dichroic spectropolarimetry. The results with single detergents suggested that there are discrete interaction sites in the protein molecule for neutral and anionic detergent micelles and that at least some of these sites are different for each type of detergent. The data on the binding of the protein and peptides to mixed detergent micelles suggested that intramolecular interactions in the intact protein and in one of the longer peptides limited the formation of helices and also that a balance between hydrophobic and ionic forces is achieved in the interactions of the peptides with the detergents. At high detergent/protein molar ratios, hydrophobic interactions appeared to be favored.

  16. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  17. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Ramsey, W.G.; Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.

    1999-09-28

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140 C to about 210 C for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  18. Enhanced light absorption and scattering by carbon soot aerosol internally mixed with sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Khalizov, Alexei F; Xue, Huaxin; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Renyi

    2009-02-12

    Light absorption by carbon soot increases when the particles are internally mixed with nonabsorbing materials, leading to increased radiative forcing, but the magnitude of this enhancement is a subject of great uncertainty. We have performed laboratory experiments of the optical properties of fresh and internally mixed carbon soot aerosols with a known particle size, morphology, and the mixing state. Flame-generated soot aerosol is size-selected with a double-differential mobility analyzer (DMA) setup to eliminate multiply charged particle modes and then exposed to gaseous sulfuric acid (10(9)-10(10) molecule cm(-3)) and water vapor (5-80% relative humidity, RH). Light extinction and scattering by fresh and internally mixed soot aerosol are measured at 532 nm wavelength using a cavity ring-down spectrometer and an integrating nephelometer, respectively, and the absorption is derived as the difference between extinction and scattering. The optical properties of fresh soot are independent of RH, whereas soot internally mixed with sulfuric acid exhibits significant enhancement in light absorption and scattering, increasing with the mass fraction of sulfuric acid coating and relative humidity. For soot particles with an initial mobility diameter of 320 nm and a 40% H(2)SO(4) mass coating fraction, absorption and scattering are increased by 1.4- and 13-fold at 80% RH, respectively. Also, the single scattering albedo of soot aerosol increases from 0.1 to 0.5 after coating and humidification. Additional measurements with soot particles that are first coated with sulfuric acid and then heated to remove the coating show that both scattering and absorption are enhanced by irreversible restructuring of soot aggregates to more compact globules. Depending on the initial size and density of soot aggregates, restructuring acts to increase or decrease the absorption cross-section, but the combination of restructuring and encapsulation always results in an increased absorption for

  19. Design bases: Bauxite-sulfuric acid feed facilities 100-K Area

    SciTech Connect

    Etheridge, E.L.

    1993-06-10

    This document defines the objective, bases, and functional requirements governing the preparation of detail design of the bauxite-sulfuric acid feed facilities to be installed in the 183-KE and KW buildings. These facilities will produce the chemical coagulant used in the treatment of Columbia River water in the water plants; they will replace existing liquid alum feed systems. The treated water will be used as reactor coolant.

  20. Development of the CD symcap platform to study gas-shell mix in implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Casey, D. T.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Tipton, R. E.; Pino, J. E.; Grim, G. P.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Weber, S. V.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; et al

    2014-09-09

    Surrogate implosions play an important role at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for isolating aspects of the complex physical processes associated with fully integrated ignition experiments. The newly developed CD Symcap platform has been designed to study gas-shell mix in indirectly driven, pure T₂-gas filled CH-shell implosions equipped with 4 μm thick CD layers. This configuration provides a direct nuclear signature of mix as the DT yield (above a characterized D contamination background) is produced by D from the CD layer in the shell, mixing into the T-gas core. The CD layer can be placed at different locations within themore » CH shell to probe the depth and extent of mix. CD layers placed flush with the gas-shell interface and recessed up to 8 μm have shown that most of the mix occurs at the inner-shell surface. In addition, time-gated x-ray images of the hotspot show large brightly-radiating objects traversing through the hotspot around bang-time, which are likely chunks of CH/CD plastic. This platform is a powerful new capability at the NIF for understanding mix, one of the key performance issues for ignition experiments.« less

  1. Development of the CD symcap platform to study gas-shell mix in implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Tipton, R. E.; Pino, J. E.; Grim, G. P.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Weber, S. V.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Chen, K. C.; Edgell, D. H.; Edwards, M. J.; Fittinghoff, D.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Y.; Glenn, S.; Guler, N.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hoover, D.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Kervin, P.; Khan, S.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J. M.; Mintz, M.; Moore, A.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Parham, T.; Petrasso, R.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sayre, D. B.; Schneider, M.; Stoeffl, W.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P.; Widmann, K.; Wilson, D. C.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2014-09-09

    Surrogate implosions play an important role at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for isolating aspects of the complex physical processes associated with fully integrated ignition experiments. The newly developed CD Symcap platform has been designed to study gas-shell mix in indirectly driven, pure T₂-gas filled CH-shell implosions equipped with 4 μm thick CD layers. This configuration provides a direct nuclear signature of mix as the DT yield (above a characterized D contamination background) is produced by D from the CD layer in the shell, mixing into the T-gas core. The CD layer can be placed at different locations within the CH shell to probe the depth and extent of mix. CD layers placed flush with the gas-shell interface and recessed up to 8 μm have shown that most of the mix occurs at the inner-shell surface. In addition, time-gated x-ray images of the hotspot show large brightly-radiating objects traversing through the hotspot around bang-time, which are likely chunks of CH/CD plastic. This platform is a powerful new capability at the NIF for understanding mix, one of the key performance issues for ignition experiments.

  2. Progress toward development of a platform for studying burn in the presence of mix on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, T. J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Cobble, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Obrey, K. A. D.; Hsu, S. C.; Shah, R. C.; Hakel, P.; Kline, J. L.; Grim, G. P.; Baumgaertel, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Kanzleiter, R. J.; Batha, S. H.

    2013-10-01

    Mix of shell material into ICF capsule fuel can degrade implosion performance through a number of mechanisms. One way is by dilution of the fusion fuel, which affects performance by an amount that is dependent on the degree of mix at the atomic level. Experiments are underway to quantify the mix of shell material into fuel using directly driven capsules on the National Ignition Facility. Deuterated plastic shells will be utilized with tritium fill so that the production of DT neutrons is indicative of mix at the atomic level. Neutron imaging will locate the burn region and spectroscopic imaging of the doped layers will reveal the location, temperature, and density of the shell material. Correlation of the two will be used to determine the degree of atomic mixing of the shell into the fuel and will be compared to models. This talk will review progress toward the development of an experimental platform to measure burn in the presence of measured mix. This work is supported by US DOE/NNSA, performed at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  3. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project. Appendix A, Environmental and regulatory planning and documentation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental & Regulatory Planning & Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL`s waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria.

  4. Enthalpies of Mixing for Binary Liquid Mixtures of Monocarbonic Acids and Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, R.; Lorenz, R.

    1985-09-01

    We present the results of calorimetric measurements of the molar enthalpy of mixing (molar excess enthalpy) H¯E as a function of temperature and composition (described by the mole fraction x of the alcohol) for 18 binary liquid systems consisting of an aliphatic monocarbonic acid (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric acids) and an aliphatic alcohol (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol. 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol). The experiments cover temperatures between 298.15 K and 318.15 K and the whole range of compositions (usually nearly 40 compositions at each temperature). There is a great variety of behaviour as far as the function H¯E(x) for T= const is concerned. Many systems show endothermic mixing ( H¯E > 0), other systems exothermic mixing (H¯E < 0), again other systems partly endothermic, partly exothermic behaviour. There is one case (acetic acid + 2-methyl-2-propanol) where H¯E(x) changes its sign twice and the molar excess heat capacity exhibits unusually large negative values.

  5. The amino acid's backup bone - storage solutions for proteomics facilities.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Hagen; Stephan, Christian; Bunse, Christian; Krafzik, Michael; Reher, Christopher; Kohl, Michael; Meyer, Helmut Erich; Eisenacher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics methods, especially high-throughput mass spectrometry analysis have been continually developed and improved over the years. The analysis of complex biological samples produces large volumes of raw data. Data storage and recovery management pose substantial challenges to biomedical or proteomic facilities regarding backup and archiving concepts as well as hardware requirements. In this article we describe differences between the terms backup and archive with regard to manual and automatic approaches. We also introduce different storage concepts and technologies from transportable media to professional solutions such as redundant array of independent disks (RAID) systems, network attached storages (NAS) and storage area network (SAN). Moreover, we present a software solution, which we developed for the purpose of long-term preservation of large mass spectrometry raw data files on an object storage device (OSD) archiving system. Finally, advantages, disadvantages, and experiences from routine operations of the presented concepts and technologies are evaluated and discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan. PMID:23722089

  6. Mixed-ligand complex compounds of rare-earth elements (REE) with acetylacetone and fumaric or maleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Panyushkin, V.T.; Akhrimenko, N.V.

    1994-10-01

    Previously the authors investigated the possibility of synthesis of the f-block element mixed complexes with {beta}-diketones and organic unsaturated acids. The mixed-ligand complexes of lanthanides [Ln = Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), and Yb(III)] with acetylacetone (acac) and fumaric or maleic acid (AcidH{sub 2}) were synthesized. The mixed-ligand complexes were prepared by the interaction of REE tris(acetylacetonates) [Ln(acac){sub 3}{center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O] with half as much excess of the organic acid in a solution of diethyl ether. According to the data of elemental analysis and thermogravimetric and spectroscopic investigations, the mixed complexes studied are of composition Ln(acac){sub 2}(AcidH){center_dot}H{sub 2}O.

  7. Second-harmonic generation in mixed stilbazium salt/arachidic acid Langmuir-Blodgett films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liying; Zheng, Jiabiao; Wang, Wencheng; Zhang, Zhiming; Tao, Fenggang; Xu, Linxiao; Hu, Jiacong

    1992-10-01

    A stilbazium salt was synthesized and its second-order molecular polarizability was deduced to be 1.2×10 -27 esu. Measurements of second-harmonic generation and small-angle X-ray diffraction on Langmuir-Blodgett films of the stilbazium salt/arachide acid mixtures showed that the mixed compounds with molar ratios of 1:2 and 1:5 could form multilayers with large second- order optical nonlinearity. Second harmonic generation study on the alternate multilayers of stilbazium salt/arachide acid and arachidic acid showed that the second-harmonic signals were increasing monotonously up to 80 bilayers, but the increment was lower than the value predicted theoretically by the quadratic law. Possible reasons are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of Quantitative Exposure Assessment Method for Nanomaterials in Mixed Dust Environments: Application in Tire Manufacturing Facilities.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Marisa L; Cyrs, William D; Tosiano, Melissa A; Panko, Julie M

    2015-11-01

    Current recommendations for nanomaterial-specific exposure assessment require adaptation in order to be applied to complicated manufacturing settings, where a variety of particle types may contribute to the potential exposure. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a method that would allow for exposure assessment of nanostructured materials by chemical composition and size in a mixed dust setting, using carbon black (CB) and amorphous silica (AS) from tire manufacturing as an example. This method combined air sampling with a low pressure cascade impactor with analysis of elemental composition by size to quantitatively assess potential exposures in the workplace. This method was first pilot-tested in one tire manufacturing facility; air samples were collected with a Dekati Low Pressure Impactor (DLPI) during mixing where either CB or AS were used as the primary filler. Air samples were analyzed via scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to identify what fraction of particles were CB, AS, or 'other'. From this pilot study, it was determined that ~95% of all nanoscale particles were identified as CB or AS. Subsequent samples were collected with the Dekati Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) at two tire manufacturing facilities and analyzed using the same methodology to quantify exposure to these materials. This analysis confirmed that CB and AS were the predominant nanoscale particle types in the mixing area at both facilities. Air concentrations of CB and AS ranged from ~8900 to 77600 and 400 to 22200 particles cm(-3), respectively. This method offers the potential to provide quantitative estimates of worker exposure to nanoparticles of specific materials in a mixed dust environment. With pending development of occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials, this methodology will allow occupational health and safety practitioners to estimate worker exposures to specific materials, even in scenarios

  9. EFFECTS OF MIXING AND AGING ON WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging of water in distribution system storage facilities can lead to deterioration of the water quality due to loss of disinfectant residual and bacterial regrowth. Facilities should be operated to insure that the age of the water is not excessive taking into account the quality...

  10. Development and evaluation of acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet for mixed vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohd Aftab; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Khan, Zeenat Iqbal; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ali, Mushir

    2007-01-01

    An acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was developed for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. From the bioadhesion experiment and release studies it was found that polycarbophil and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a good combination for an acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Sodium monocitrate was used as a buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4), which is an attribute of a healthy vagina. The effervescent mixture (citric acid and sodium bicarbonate) along with a superdisintegrant (Ac-Di-sol) was used to enhance the swellability of the bioadhesive tablet. The drugs clotrimazole (antifungal) and metronidazole (antiprotozoal as well as an antibacterial) were used in the formulation along with Lactobacillus acidophilus spores to treat mixed vaginal infections. From the ex vivo retention study it was found that the bioadhesive polymers hold the tablet for more than 24 hours inside the vaginal tube. The hardness of the acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was optimized, at 4 to 5 kg hardness the swelling was found to be good and the cumulative release profile of the developed tablet was matched with a marketed conventional tablet (Infa-V). The in vitro spreadability of the swelled tablet was comparable to the marketed gel. In the in vitro antimicrobial study it was found that the acid-buffering bioadhesive tablet produces better antimicrobial action than marketed intravaginal drug delivery systems (Infa-V, Candid-V and Canesten 1). PMID:18181530

  11. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol...

  13. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  14. Evaluation of mono or mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria in type II sourdough system.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Raci; Şimşek, Ömer; Küçükçuban, Ayca; Nas, Sebahattin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mono and mixed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures to determine suitable LAB combinations for a type II sourdough system. In this context, previously isolated sourdough LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, which included Lactobacillus plantarum PFC22, Lactobacillus brevis PFC31, Pediococcus acidilactici PFC38, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis PFC80, were used as mono or mixed culture combinations in a fermentation system to produce type II sourdough, and subsequently in bread dough production. Compared to the monoculture fermentation of dough, the use of mixed cultures shortened the adaptation period by half. In addition, the use of mixed cultures ensured higher microbial viability, and enhanced the fruity flavor during bread dough production. It was determined that the combination of L. plantarum PFC22 + P. acidilactici PFC38 + L. sanfranciscensis PFC80 is a promising culture mixture that can be used in the production of type II sourdough systems, and that may also contribute to an increase in metabolic activity during bread production process. PMID:25807196

  15. Synthesis of sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres solid acid by a facile chemical activation route

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Binbin Guo, Yanzhen; Yin, Hang; Zhang, Shouren; Yang, Baocheng

    2015-01-15

    Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl{sub 2} using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl{sub 2} at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of –SO{sub 3}H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and –SO{sub 3}H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles. - Graphical abstract: Sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres with high surface area and superior catalytic performance were prepared by a facile chemical activation route. - Highlights: • Porous carbon spheres solid acid prepared by a facile chemical activation. • It owns high surface area, superior porosity and uniform spherical morphology. • It possesses

  16. Study of the release of a microencapsulated acid dye in polyamide dyeing using mixed cationic liposomes.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Isabel S C; Castanheira, Elisabete M S; Rocha Gomes, Jaime I N; Real Oliveira, M Elisabete C D

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of this work was to increase the retarding effect of the acid dye Telon(®) Blue RR (C.I. Acid Blue 62; DyStar, Frankfurt, Germany) release on polyamide fibres dyeing by encapsulation of the dye in liposomes as an alternative to synthetic auxiliaries, in order to reduce effluent pollution. The retarding effect achieved with the use of mixed cationic liposomes of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB)/soybean lecithin (containing a 10% molar fraction of DODAB) was better in comparison with either pure soybean lecithin liposomes or synthetic auxiliaries. The retarding effect of liposomes on the dye release was analysed through changes in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the acid dye at different conditions. The effect of temperature (in the range of 25 °C - 70 °C) on the spectroscopic behaviour of the dye in the absence and in presence of polyamide was also studied, in order to simulate the dyeing conditions. Exhaustion curves obtained in dyeing experiments showed that, below 45 °C, the retarding effect of the mixed liposomes (lecithin/DODAB (9:1)) was similar to that of the auxiliaries, but better than the one of pure lecithin liposomes. At higher temperatures (above 45 °C), the system lecithin/DODAB presents a better performance, achieving a higher final exhaustion level when compared with the commercial leveling agent without losing the smoothing effect of lecithin. PMID:20550462

  17. Absorbance detection of amino acids by laser wave mixing in microbore liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Tong, W G

    1998-05-01

    Nonlinear optical phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing is demonstrated as a sensitive "absorbance" detection method for microbore high-performance liquid chromatography. An argon ion laser operating at the 488-nm line is used as the excitation light source to generate the wave-mixing signal for dabsyl-labeled amino acids. Advantages of the nonlinear laser detection method include: virtually 100% optical signal collection efficiency, generation of the signal in the form of a coherent laser beam, signal measurement against a virtually dark background, reliable detection of small absorbance values, excellent detection sensitivity for both fluorescing and non-fluorescing analytes, relatively simple one-color one-laser optical setup, and low power or energy requirements for continuous-wave or pulsed lasers. Using our one-laser one-color nonlinear laser detector for "absorbance" measurements in liquid chromatography, we report a crude preliminary "injected" detection limit of 780 fmol for glycine. PMID:9618915

  18. Thermal and fluid mixing in a 1/2-scale test facility. Volume 1. Facility and test design report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, F.X.; Valenzuela, J.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the test facility and program designed to measure fluid mixing and heat transfer in a 1/2-scale model of the cold leg downcomer and lower plenum of a pressurized water reactor under conditions of interest to the issue of pressurized thermal shock. Several cold leg assemblies are modeled and the downcomer arrangement can be altered to match vendor-specific configurations. The facility can be operated to model flow rates based on Froude number of the injected flow in the cold leg and with steady or transient inlet boundary conditions. Extensive instrumentation is provided to measure flow rates, temperatures and pressure at the facility boundaries and for detailed measurements of temperature, velocity and heat transfer data in the cold leg and downcomer models. The test data are monitored and recorded by a computer data acquisition system that is also used for post-test data reduction and plotting. The planned test matrix includes 75 tests with variations in cold leg and downcomer geometries, loop and HPI flow rates, cold leg Froude number and loop to HPI density difference. Test results will be reported in a series of quick look and final report.

  19. GIS analysis of the siting criteria for the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a study conducted using the Arc/Info{reg_sign} geographic information system (GIS) to analyze the criteria used for site selection for the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility (IWPF). The purpose of the analyses was to determine, based on predefined criteria, the areas on the INEL that best satisfied the criteria. The coverages used in this study were produced by importing the AutoCAD files that produced the maps for a pre site selection draft report into the GIS. The files were then converted to Arc/Info{reg_sign} GIS format. The initial analysis was made by considering all of the criteria as having equal importance in determining the areas of the INEL that would best satisfy the requirements. Another analysis emphasized four of the criteria as ``must`` criteria which had to be satisfied. Additional analyses considered other criteria that were considered for, but not included in the predefined criteria. This GIS analysis of the siting criteria for the IWPF and MLLWTF provides a logical, repeatable, and defensible approach to the determination of candidate locations for the facilities. The results of the analyses support the location of the Candidate Locations.

  20. Nitric Acid Dehydration Using Perfluoro Carboxylate and Mixed Sulfonate/Carboxylate Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Ames

    2004-09-01

    Perfluoro ionomer membranes are tetrafluoro ethylene-based materials with microheterogeneous structures consisting of a hydrophobic polymer backbone and a hydrophilic side-chain cluster region. Due to the ionomer cluster morphology, these films exhibit unique transport properties. Recent investigations with perfluoro sulfonate and perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate composite polymers have demonstrated their value in the dehydration of nitric acid and they show potential as an alternative to conventional, energy intensive unit operations in the concentration of acid feeds. As a result, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pure perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films for the dehydration of nitric acid because of the speculation of improved water selectivity of the carboxylate pendant chain. During the first phase of these investigations the effort was focused on generating a thin, solution cast perfluoro carboxylate ionomer film, to evaluate the general, chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer, and to assess the material's aqueous transport performance (flux and nitrate separation efficiencies) in pervaporation and high-pressure environments. Results demonstrated that generating robust solution-cast films was difficult yet a number of membranes survived high trans-membrane pressures up to 700 psig. General characterization of the solution cast product showed reduced ion exchange capacities when compared with thicker, ''as received'' perfluoro carboxylate and similar sulfonate films. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis results suggested that the solution cast carboxylate films contained a small fraction of sulfonate terminated side-chains. Aqueous transport experimentation showed that permeate fluxes for both pure water and nitric acid were approximately two orders of magnitude smaller for the carboxylate solution cast membranes when compared to their sulfonate counterparts of similar thickness

  1. Development of a polar direct drive platform for mix and burn experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, T. J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Obrey, K. A. D.; Baumgaertel, J. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Shah, R. C.; Hakel, P.; Kline, J. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Kanzleiter, R. J.; Batha, S. H.; Wallace, R. J.; Bhandarkar, S.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Hoppe, M.; Nikroo, A.; McKenty, P.

    2016-03-01

    Capsules driven with polar drive [1, 2] on the National Ignition Facility [3] are being used [4] to study mix in convergent geometry. In preparation for experiments that will utilize deuterated plastic shells with a pure tritium fill, hydrogen-filled capsules with copper- doped deuterated layers have been imploded on NIF to provide spectroscopic and nuclear measurements of capsule performance. Experiments have shown that the mix region, when composed of shell material doped with about 1% copper (by atom), reaches temperatures of about 2 keV, while undoped mixed regions reach about 3 keV. Based on the yield from these implosions, we estimate the thickness of CD that mixed into the gas as between about 0.25 and 0.43 μm of the inner capsule surface, corresponding to about 5 to 9 μg of material. Using 5 atm of tritium as the fill gas should result in over 1013 DT neutrons being produced, which is sufficient for neutron imaging [5].

  2. Demonstration of a steam jet scrubber off-gas system and the burner efficiency of a mixed waste incinerator facility

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, H; Charlesworth, D L

    1988-01-01

    A full-scale incinerator system, the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF), is being designed to process solid and liquid low-level radioactive, mixed, and RCRA hazardous waste. This facility will consist of a rotary kiln, secondary combustion chamber (SCC), and a wet off-gas system. A prototype steam jet scrubber off-gas system has been tested to verify design assumptions for the CIF. The scrubber wastewater will be immobilized in a cement matrix after the blowdown has been concentrated to a maximum solids concentration in a cross-flow filtration system. A sintered metal inertial filter system has been successfully tested. Burner efficiency was tested in a high intensity vortex burner, which destroyed the hazardous waste streams tested.

  3. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: Demonstrating technologies to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-07-01

    Mixed waste is defined as ``waste contaminated with chemically hazardous [governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)] and radioactive species [governed by US Department of energy (DOE) orders].`` The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed-waste treatment technologies tat meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations of fixed-hearth plasma arc and vitrification systems will be used to determine whether these processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. MWIP also provides a forum for stakeholder and customer involvement in the technology development process.

  4. Clay Cap Test Program for the Mixed Waste Management Facility closure at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, J.W. , Inc., Charlotte, NC )

    1989-01-01

    A 58 acre low-level radioactive waste disposal facility at the Savannah River Site, a Department of Energy facility near Aiken, South Carolina, requires closure with a RCRA clay cap. A three-foot thick can requiring 300,000 cubic yards of local Tertiary Kaolin clay with an in-situ permeability of less than or equal to 1 {times} 10{sup -7} centimeters per second is to be constructed. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab permeability, in-situ permeability, compaction characteristics, representative kaolin clays from the Aiken, SC vicinity. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Chamber exposures of children to mixed ozone, sulfur dioxide, and sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Linn, W S; Gong, H; Shamoo, D A; Anderson, K R; Avol, E L

    1997-01-01

    To help assess acute health effects of summer air pollution in the eastern United States, we simulated ambient "acid summer haze" as closely as was practical in a laboratory chamber. We exposed young volunteers who were thought to be sensitive to this pollutant mixture on the basis of previous epidemiologic evidence. Specifically, we exposed 41 subjects aged 9-12 y to mixed ozone (0.10 ppm), sulfur dioxide (0.10 ppm), and 0.6-microm sulfuric acid aerosol (100 +/- 40 microg/m3, mean +/- standard deviation) for 4 h, during which there was intermittent exercise. Fifteen subjects were healthy, and 26 had allergy or mild asthma. The entire group responded nonsignificantly (p > .05) to pollution exposure (relative to clean air), as determined by spirometry, symptoms, and overall discomfort level during exercise. Subjects with allergy/asthma showed a positive association (p = .01) between symptoms and acid dose; in healthy subjects, that association was negative (p = .08). In these chamber-exposure studies, we noted less of an effect than was reported in previous epidemiologic studies of children exposed to ambient "acid summer haze." PMID:9169627

  6. Self-structuring foods based on acid-sensitive low and high acyl mixed gellan systems to impact on satiety.

    PubMed

    Bradbeer, Jennifer F; Hancocks, Robin; Spyropoulos, Fotios; Norton, Ian T

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the in vitro acid-induced gelation of mixed systems of two biopolymers; low acyl and high acyl gellan gum. Rheological and texture analysis showed that these mixed gels displayed textures that lay between the material properties exhibited for the low and high acyl variants. DSC analysis showed that mixtures of the low acyl and high acyl forms exhibit two separate conformational transitions at temperatures coincident with each of the individual biopolymers. Various metabolically relevant pH environments and hydrocolloid concentrations were investigated. These resulted in very different acid gelled structures, which were characterised by texture analysis. The structures of the acid gels were shown to depend upon the pH, hydrocolloid concentration and proportion of each biopolymer used during their production. A selection of these mixed gellan structures were assessed post-production in terms of their response to prolonged exposure to an acidic (pH 1), stomach-like, environment. This resulted in a significant increase in the gel strength, regardless of the biopolymer proportions. The high acyl gellan was less acid-sensitive, and subsequently no evidence of acid gelation was observed with high acyl gellan at a proportion greater than 60% of the total biopolymer. The findings presented here demonstrate that structuring as well as de-structuring of mixed gellan acid gels can be controlled in acidic environments similar to those that are present in the stomach after food consumption. PMID:24882914

  7. Self-structuring foods based on acid-sensitive low and high acyl mixed gellan systems to impact on satiety

    PubMed Central

    Bradbeer, Jennifer F.; Hancocks, Robin; Spyropoulos, Fotios; Norton, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro acid-induced gelation of mixed systems of two biopolymers; low acyl and high acyl gellan gum. Rheological and texture analysis showed that these mixed gels displayed textures that lay between the material properties exhibited for the low and high acyl variants. DSC analysis showed that mixtures of the low acyl and high acyl forms exhibit two separate conformational transitions at temperatures coincident with each of the individual biopolymers. Various metabolically relevant pH environments and hydrocolloid concentrations were investigated. These resulted in very different acid gelled structures, which were characterised by texture analysis. The structures of the acid gels were shown to depend upon the pH, hydrocolloid concentration and proportion of each biopolymer used during their production. A selection of these mixed gellan structures were assessed post-production in terms of their response to prolonged exposure to an acidic (pH 1), stomach-like, environment. This resulted in a significant increase in the gel strength, regardless of the biopolymer proportions. The high acyl gellan was less acid-sensitive, and subsequently no evidence of acid gelation was observed with high acyl gellan at a proportion greater than 60% of the total biopolymer. The findings presented here demonstrate that structuring as well as de-structuring of mixed gellan acid gels can be controlled in acidic environments similar to those that are present in the stomach after food consumption. PMID:24882914

  8. Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-11-01

    The Vanadium (V) cation structures in mixed acid based electrolyte solution were analysed by density functional theory (DFT) based computational modelling and 51V and 35Cl Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Vanadium (V) cation exists as di-nuclear [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound at higher vanadium concentrations (≥1.75M). In particular, at high temperatures (>295K) this di-nuclear compound undergoes ligand exchange process with nearby solvent chlorine molecule and forms chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound. This chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be resistant to the de-protonation reaction which is the initial step in the precipitation reaction in Vanadium based electrolyte solutions. The combined theoretical and experimental approach reveals that formation of chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be central to the observed higher thermal stability of mixed acid based Vanadium (V) electrolyte solutions.

  9. A New Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Using Sulfuric/Chloric Mixed Acid Supporting Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Chen, Feng; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Xia, Guanguang; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-04-01

    A redox flow battery using Fe2+/Fe3+ and V2+/V3+ redox couples in chloric/sulphuric mixed acid supporting electrolyte was investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The Fe/V redox flow cell using mixed reactant solutions operated within a voltage window of 0.5-1.35 V with a nearly 100% utilization ratio and demonstrated stable cycling over 100 cycles with energy efficiency > 80% and no capacity fading at room temperature. A 25% improvement in the discharge energy density of the Fe/V cell was achieved compared with the previous reported Fe/V cell using pure chloride acid supporting electrolyte. Stable performance was also achieved in the temperature range between 0 C and 50 C as well as using microporous separator as the membrane. The improved electrochemical performance at room temperature makes the Fe/V redox flow battery a promising option as a stationary energy storage device to enable renewable integration and stabilization of the electrical grid.

  10. Atmospheric stability effects on potential radiological releases at a nuclear research facility in Romania: Characterising the atmospheric mixing state.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Scott D; Galeriu, Dan; Williams, Alastair G; Melintescu, Anca; Griffiths, Alan D; Crawford, Jagoda; Dyer, Leisa; Duma, Marin; Zorila, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    A radon-based nocturnal stability classification scheme is developed for a flat inland site near Bucharest, Romania, characterised by significant local surface roughness heterogeneity, and compared with traditional meteorologically-based techniques. Eight months of hourly meteorological and atmospheric radon observations from a 60 m tower at the IFIN-HH nuclear research facility are analysed. Heterogeneous surface roughness conditions in the 1 km radius exclusion zone around the site hinder accurate characterisation of nocturnal atmospheric mixing conditions using conventional meteorological techniques, so a radon-based scheme is trialled. When the nocturnal boundary layer is very stable, the Pasquill-Gifford "radiation" scheme overestimates the atmosphere's capacity to dilute pollutants with near-surface sources (such as tritiated water vapour) by 20% compared to the radon-based scheme. Under these conditions, near-surface wind speeds drop well below 1 m s(-1) and nocturnal mixing depths vary from ∼ 25 m to less than 10 m above ground level (a.g.l.). Combining nocturnal radon with daytime ceilometer data, we were able to reconstruct the full diurnal cycle of mixing depths. Average daytime mixing depths at this flat inland site range from 1200 to 1800 m a.g.l. in summer, and 500-900 m a.g.l. in winter. Using tower observations to constrain the nocturnal radon-derived effective mixing depth, we were able to estimate the seasonal range in the Bucharest regional radon flux as: 12 mBq m(-2) s(-1) in winter to 14 mBq m(-2) s(-1) in summer. PMID:26854556

  11. Copper-mediated arylation with arylboronic acids: Facile and modular synthesis of triarylmethanes

    PubMed Central

    Rao, A Veera Bhadra

    2016-01-01

    Summary A facile and modular synthesis of triarylmethanes was achieved in good yield via a two-step sequence in which the final step is the copper(II)-catalyzed arylation of diarylmethanols with arylboronic acids. By using this protocol a variety of symmetrical and unsymmetrical triarylmethanes were synthesized. As an application of the newly developed methodology, we demonstrate a high-yielding synthesis of the triarylmethane intermediate towards an anti-breast-cancer drug candidate. PMID:27340442

  12. Spectroscopic studies of shell mix in directly driven implosion on SGIII prototype laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Yudong; Huang, Tianxuan; Wei, Minxi; Tang, Qi; Song, Zifeng; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen Ding, Yongkun

    2014-12-15

    We study shell mix during implosion using a capsule with a Cl-doped gas-shell interface that is also filled with Ar-doped deuterium gas. The Ar and Cl K-shell emissions are recorded with a flat crystal spectrometer. The He-β complex is analyzed to infer the electron temperature and density in the hotspot. Two regions of different hydrodynamic states are observed: a region of T{sub e} ∼ 1.2 ± 0.2 keV and n{sub e} ∼ (4 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 23 }cm{sup −3} and another of T{sub e} ∼ 0.6 ± 0.2 keV and n{sub e} ∼ (4 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 22 }cm{sup −3} probed by Ar and Cl ions, respectively. The neutron yield was also recorded and found to have reduced by a factor of ten for the Cl-doped capsule. By attributing the degradation of the neutron yield to the enhanced radiation loss due to the presence of mixed Cl ions and using the conservation of hotspot internal energy, the amount of mixed Cl ions is estimated to be ∼1.4 × 10{sup 14}, corresponding to a 0.1 μm thickness of the initial shell material and a mixing width of about 16 μm.

  13. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  14. Final closure cover for a Hanford radioactive mixed waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.D.

    1996-02-06

    This study provides a preliminary design for a RCRA mixed waste landfill final closure cover. The cover design was developed by a senior class design team from Seattle University. The design incorporates a layered design of indigenous soils and geosynthetics in a layered system to meet final closure cover requirements for a landfill as imposed by the Washington Administrative Code WAC-173-303 implementation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  15. Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report.

  16. Analysis of operating costs a Low-Level Mixed Waste Incineration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Loghry, S.L.; Salmon, R.; Hermes, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    By definition, mixed wastes contain both chemically hazardous and radioactive components. These components make the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes expensive and highly complex issues because the different regulations which pertain to the two classes of contaminants frequently conflict. One method to dispose of low-level mixed wastes (LLMWs) is by incineration, which volatizes and destroys the organic (and other) hazardous contaminants and also greatly reduces the waste volume. The US Department of Energy currently incinerates liquid LLMW in its Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator, located at the K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This incinerator has been fully permitted since 1991 and to date has treated approximately 7 {times} 10{sup 6} kg of liquid LLMW. This paper presents an analysis of the budgeted operating costs by category (e.g., maintenance, plant operations, sampling and analysis, and utilities) for fiscal year 1994 based on actual operating experience (i.e., a ``bottoms-up`` budget). These costs provide benchmarking guidelines which could be used in comparing incinerator operating costs with those of other technologies designed to dispose of liquid LLMW. A discussion of the current upgrade status and future activities are included in this paper. Capital costs are not addressed.

  17. Culturing oil sands microbes as mixed species communities enhances ex situ model naphthenic acid degradation

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Marc A.; Lemire, Joseph A.; Yue, Gordon; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Oil sands surface mining for bitumen results in the formation of oil sands process water (OSPW), containing acutely toxic naphthenic acids (NAs). Potential exists for OSPW toxicity to be mitigated by aerobic degradation of the NAs by microorganisms indigenous to the oil sands tailings ponds, the success of which is dependent on the methods used to exploit the metabolisms of the environmental microbial community. Having hypothesized that the xenobiotic tolerant biofilm mode-of-life may represent a feasible way to harness environmental microbes for ex situ treatment of OSPW NAs, we aerobically grew OSPW microbes as single and mixed species biofilm and planktonic cultures under various conditions for the purpose of assaying their ability to tolerate and degrade NAs. The NAs evaluated were a diverse mixture of eight commercially available model compounds. Confocal microscopy confirmed the ability of mixed and single species OSPW cultures to grow as biofilms in the presence of the NAs evaluated. qPCR enumeration demonstrated that the addition of supplemental nutrients at concentrations of 1 g L-1 resulted in a more numerous population than 0.001 g L-1 supplementation by approximately 1 order of magnitude. GC-FID analysis revealed that mixed species cultures (regardless of the mode of growth) are the most effective at degrading the NAs tested. All constituent NAs evaluated were degraded below detectable limits with the exception of 1-adamantane carboxylic acid (ACA); subsequent experimentation with ACA as the sole NA also failed to exhibit degradation of this compound. Single species cultures degraded select few NA compounds. The degradation trends highlighted many structure-persistence relationships among the eight NAs tested, demonstrating the effect of side chain configuration and alkyl branching on compound recalcitrance. Of all the isolates, the Rhodococcus spp. degraded the greatest number of NA compounds, although still less than the mixed species cultures

  18. Facile synthesis of PtAu alloy nanoparticles with high activity for formic acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-02-15

    We report the facile synthesis of carbon supported PtAu alloy nanoparticles with high electrocatalytic activity as the anode catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). PtAu alloy nanopaticles are synthesized by co-reducing HAuCl4 and H2PtCl6 with NaBH4 in the presence of sodium citrate and then the nanoparticles are deposited on Vulcan XC-72R carbon support (PtAu/C). The obtained catalysts are characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which reveal PtAu alloy formation with an average diameter of 4.6 nm. PtAu/C exhibits 8 times higher catalytic activity toward formic acid oxidation than Pt/C. The enhanced activity of PtAu/C catalyst is attributed to noncontinuous Pt sites formed in the presence of the neighbored Au sites, which promotes direct oxidation of formic acid by avoiding poison CO.

  19. Solid-State NMR Characterization of Mixed Phosphonic Acid Ligand Binding and Organization on Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Davidowski, Stephen K; Holland, Gregory P

    2016-04-01

    As ligand functionalization of nanomaterials becomes more complex, methods to characterize the organization of multiple ligands on surfaces is required. In an effort to further the understanding of ligand-surface interactions, a combination of multinuclear ((1)H, (29)Si, (31)P) and multidimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques was utilized to characterize the phosphonic acid functionalization of fumed silica nanoparticles using methylphosphonic acid (MPA) and phenylphosphonic acid (PPA). (1)H → (29)Si cross-polarization (CP)-magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR was used to selectively detect silicon atoms near hydrogen atoms (primarily surface species); these results indicate that geminal silanols are preferentially depleted during the functionalization with phosphonic acids. (1)H → (31)P CP-MAS solid-state NMR measurements on the functionalized silica nanoparticles show three distinct resonances shifted upfield (lower ppm) and broadened compared to the resonances of the crystalline ligands. Quantitative (31)P MAS solid-state NMR measurements indicate that ligands favor a monodentate binding mode. When fumed silica nanoparticles were functionalized with an equal molar ratio of MPA and PPA, the MPA bound the nanoparticle surface preferentially. Cross-peaks apparent in the 2D (1)H exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) NMR measurements of the multiligand sample at short mixing times indicate that the MPA and PPA are spatially close (≤5 Å) on the surface of the nanostructure. Furthermore, (1)H-(1)H double quantum-single quantum (DQ-SQ) back-to-back (BABA) 2D NMR spectra further confirmed that MPA and PPA are strongly dipolar coupled with observation of DQ intermolecular contacts between the ligands. DQ experimental buildup curves and simulations indicate that the average distance between MPA and PPA is no further than 4.2 ± 0.2 Å. PMID:26914738

  20. The delta (delta) gap: an approach to mixed acid-base disorders.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, K

    1990-11-01

    The anion gap (AG) is a helpful, yet underused, clinical tool. Not only does the presence of a high AG suggest a certain differential, but knowledge of the relationship between the rise in AG (delta AG) and the fall in bicarbonate (delta HCO3) is important in understanding mixed acid-based disorders. Simple arithmetic converts this relationship into a numerical value, the delta gap (delta gap). The delta gap = delta AG - delta HCO3. If the delta gap is significantly positive (greater than +6), a metabolic alkalosis is usually present because the rise in AG is more than the fall in HCO3. Conversely, if the delta gap is significantly negative (less than -6), then a hyperchloremic acidosis is usually present because the rise in AG is less than the fall in HCO3. Familarity with the relationship between the changes in AG and HCO3 can be useful in unmasking occult metabolic disorders. PMID:2240729

  1. Reversible Bacterial Adhesion on Mixed Poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)/Poly(acrylamidophenyl boronic acid) Brush Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xinhong; Wu, Zhaoqiang; Yu, Qian; Xue, Lulu; Du, Jun; Chen, Hong

    2015-11-10

    A simple and versatile method for the preparation of surfaces to control bacterial adhesion is described. Substrates were first treated with two catechol-based polymerization initiators, one for thermal initiation and one for visible-light photoinitiation. Graft polymerization in sequence of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and 3-acrylamidebenzene boronic acid (BA) from the surface-bound initiators to form mixed polymer brushes on the substrate was then carried out. The PDMAEMA grafts were thermally initiated and the PBA grafts were visible-light-photoinitiated. Gold, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were used as model substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and ellipsometry analysis confirmed the successful grafting of PDMAEMA/PBA mixed brushes. We demonstrated that the resulting surfaces showed charge-reversal properties in response to change of pH. The transition in surface charge at a specific pH allowed the surface to be reversibly switched from bacteria-adhesive to bacteria-resistant. At pH 4.5, below the isoelectric points (IEP, pH 5.3) of the mixed brushes, the surfaces are positively charged and the negatively charged Gram-positive S. aureus adheres at high density (2.6 × 10(6) cells/cm(2)) due to attractive electrostatic interactions. Subsequently, upon increasing the pH to 9.0 to give negatively charged polymer brush surface, ∼90% of the adherent bacteria are released from the surface, presumably due to repulsive electrostatic interactions. This approach provides a simple method for the preparation of surfaces on which bacterial adhesion can be controlled and is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. PMID:26509287

  2. Size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentrations at phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facilities in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Lundgren, Dale A; Birky, Brian K

    2007-01-01

    Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid were identified as a 'known human carcinogen' in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) report where phosphate fertilizer manufacture was listed as one of many occupational exposures to strong acids. To properly assess the occupational exposure to sulfuric acid mists in modern facilities, approved National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7903 and a cascade impactor were used for measuring the total sulfuric acid mist concentration and size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentration, respectively. Sampling was conducted at eight phosphate fertilizer plants and two background sites in Florida and there were 24 sampling sites in these plants. Samples were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) to quantify the water-soluble ion species. The highest sulfuric acid concentrations by the cascade impactor were obtained at the sulfuric acid pump tank area. When high aerosol mass concentrations (100 micro g m(-3)) were observed at this area, the sulfuric acid mists were in the coarse mode. The geometric mean sulfuric acid concentrations (+/-geometric standard deviation) of PM(23) (aerodynamic cut size smaller than 23 micro m), PM(10) and PM(2.5) from the cascade impactor were 41.7 (+/-5.5), 37.9 (+/-5.8) and 22.1 (+/-4.5) micro g m(-3), respectively. The geometric mean (+/-geometric standard deviation) for total sulfuric acid concentration from the NIOSH method samples was 143 (+/-5.08) micro g m(-3). Sulfuric acid mist concentrations varied significantly among the plants and even at the same location. The measurements by the NIOSH method were 1.5-229 times higher than those by the cascade impactor. Moreover, using the NIOSH method, the sulfuric acid concentrations measured at the lower flow rate (0.30 Lpm) were higher than those at the higher flow rate (0.45 Lpm). One possible reason for the significant differences between the results from the cascade impactor and the NIOSH method is the potential

  3. Computational investigation of fluid and thermal mixing of the EPRI/Creare onefifth-scale facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Y.A.; Kim, J.H.

    1985-03-01

    During an overcooling transient in a pressurized water reactor, the cold water from the high-pressure safety system is injected into the hot primary coolant in the cold leg. This can cause the water temperature in the cold leg and downcomer annulus to decrease; hence, the problem of pressurized thermal shock arises. A multidimensional numerical study for the analysis of the Electric Power Research Institute/ Creare one-fifth-scale mixing test is performed. A new, accurate, stable mass-flow-weighted skew-upwind scheme is employed in the finite difference solution of the energy equation. The temperature predictions using the new scheme are in good agreement with the experimental data. A significant reduction in the numerical diffusion errors was achieved. These errors have plagued the conventional upwind scheme results. A good agreement between the computed velocity patterns and flow visualization is obtained.

  4. Savannah River Site Mixed Waste Management Facility Southwest Plume Tritium Phytoremediation Evaluating Irrigation Management Strategies Over 25 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Riah, Susan; Rebel, Karin

    2004-02-27

    To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritium contaminated seepage water is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies above the pond and over the contaminated groundwater. Twenty five-year potential evapotranspiration and average precipitation are 1443 mm/year and 1127 mm/year, respectively, for the region in which the site is located. Management of the application of tritium contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intraannual and inter-annual variability in precipitation. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies.

  5. Thermal and fluid mixing in a 1/2-scale test facility. Volume 2. Data report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, F.X.; Valenzuela, J.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report presents data from an experimental study of fluid mixing in a 1/2-scale model of the cold leg, downcomer, lower plenum, pump simulator, and loop seal typical of a Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. The tests were transient cooldown tests in that they simulated an extreme condition of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) during which cold High Pressure Injection (HPI) fluid is injected into stagnant, hot primary fluid with complete loss of natural circulation in the loop. Extensive temperature, velocity, and heat transfer coefficient data are presented at two cold leg Froude numbers: 0.052 and 0.076. The 1/2-scale data are compared with earlier data from a 1/5-scale, geometrically similar facility to assess scaling principles.

  6. Characterisation of mixed neutron photon workplace fields at nuclear facilities by spectrometry (energy and direction) within the EVIDOS project.

    PubMed

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Bartlett, D; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T; Boschung, M; Coeck, M; Curzio, G; d'Errico, F; Fiechtner, A; Lacoste, V; Lindborg, L; Reginatto, M; Schuhmacher, H; Tanner, R; Vanhavere, F

    2007-01-01

    Within the EC project EVIDOS, 17 different mixed neutron-photon workplace fields at nuclear facilities (boiling water reactor, pressurised water reactor, research reactor, fuel processing, storage of spent fuel) were characterised using conventional Bonner sphere spectrometry and newly developed direction spectrometers. The results of the analysis, using Bayesian parameter estimation methods and different unfolding codes, some of them especially adapted to simultaneously unfold energy and direction distributions of the neutron fluence, showed that neutron spectra differed strongly at the different places, both in energy and direction distribution. The implication of the results for the determination of reference values for radiation protection quantities (ambient dose equivalent, personal dose equivalent and effective dose) and the related uncertainties are discussed. PMID:17890781

  7. Formation of Short-Chain Fatty Acids from H2 and CO2 by a Mixed Culture of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, I.; Cooney, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The biological utilization of CO2 and H2 for the formation of short-chain fatty acids was studied by using a mixed culture of bacteria. Optimization of a medium was carried out in continuous culture to identify limiting factors which controlled growth and production of organic acids. The optimal pH for growth and acid production was 7.0 at 37°C; the maximal cell concentration obtained was 5.9 g of cells per liter (dry weight), and the maximal amount of volatile acids formed was 4.7 g/liter, with acetic acid as the predominant acid. With the optimized medium, it was found that the rate of transfer of hydrogen or carbon dioxide, or both, from gas to liquid was the limiting factor which controlled growth and production of acids. PMID:16345680

  8. Evaluation of a Virtual Citizen Science Facility: A Comprehensive Mixed-Methods Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracey, G.

    2014-07-01

    The CosmoQuest Virtual Citizen Science Facility allows the public to participate in scientific research, learning opportunities, and community activities. Evaluation efforts include an online survey of users' attitudes about and use of the CosmoQuest website and their motivations for participation. Pre/post-participation assessments examine learning of science content. Along with these quantitative assessments we seek a deeper level of understanding through qualitative methods. Formative and summative evaluations use semi-structured interviews and open-ended survey questions. Participant responses are analyzed using an iterative process of open coding, allowing patterns to emerge inductively from the data. Triangulation of data increases the validity of findings. This approach gives a more rigorous look at the motivations, behaviors, and learning of participants, and a more complete and in-depth understanding of project impact.

  9. A facile nanoaggregation strategy for oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs by utilizing acid base neutralization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huabing; Wan, Jiangling; Wang, Yirui; Mou, Dongsheng; Liu, Hongbin; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2008-09-01

    Nanonization strategies have been used to enhance the oral availability of numerous drugs that are poorly soluble in water. Exploring a facile nanonization strategy with highly practical potential is an attractive focus. Here, we report a novel facile nanoaggregation strategy for constructing drug nanoparticles of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility by utilizing acid-base neutralization in aqueous solution, thus facilitating the exploration of nanonization in oral delivery for general applicability. We demonstrate that hydrophobic itraconazole dissolved in acid solution formed a growing core and aggregated into nanoparticles in the presence of stabilizers. The nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 279.3 nm and polydispersity index of 0.116, showed a higher dissolution rate when compared with the marketed formulation; the average dissolution was about 91.3%. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the nanoparticles had a rapid absorption and enhanced oral availability. The diet state also showed insignificant impact on the absorption of itraconazole from nanoparticles. This nanoaggregation strategy is a promising nanonization method with a facile process and avoidance of toxic organic solvents for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility and reveals a highly practical potential in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  10. Mixing-controlled uncertainty in long-term predictions of acid rock drainage from heterogeneous waste-rock piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedretti, D.; Beckie, R. D.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    The chemistry of drainage from waste-rock piles at mine sites is difficult to predict because of a number of uncertainties including heterogeneous reactive mineral content, distribution of minerals, weathering rates and physical flow properties. In this presentation, we examine the effects of mixing on drainage chemistry over timescales of 100s of years. We use a 1-D streamtube conceptualization of flow in waste rocks and multicomponent reactive transport modeling. We simplify the reactive system to consist of acid-producing sulfide minerals and acid-neutralizing carbonate minerals and secondary sulfate and iron oxide minerals. We create multiple realizations of waste-rock piles with distinct distributions of reactive minerals along each flow path and examine the uncertainty of drainage geochemistry through time. The limited mixing of streamtubes that is characteristic of the vertical unsaturated flow in many waste-rock piles, allows individual flowpaths to sustain acid or neutral conditions to the base of the pile, where the streamtubes mix. Consequently, mixing and the acidity/alkalinity balance of the streamtube waters, and not the overall acid- and base-producing mineral contents, control the instantaneous discharge chemistry. Our results show that the limited mixing implied by preferential flow and the heterogeneous distribution of mineral contents lead to large uncertainty in drainage chemistry over short and medium time scales. However, over longer timescales when one of either the acid-producing or neutralizing primary phases is depleted, the drainage chemistry becomes less controlled by mixing and in turn less uncertain. A correct understanding of the temporal variability of uncertainty is key to make informed long-term decisions in mining settings regarding the management of waste material.

  11. Ecological survey for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, R.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of field ecological surveys conducted by the Center for Integrated Environmental Technologies (CIET) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) at four candidate locations for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility (IWPF). The purpose of these surveys was to comply with all Federal laws and Executive Orders to identify and evaluate any potential environmental impacts because of the project. The boundaries of the candidate location were marked with blaze-orange lath survey marker stakes by the project management. Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of the marker stakes were made, and input to the Arc/Info{reg_sign} geographic information system (GIS). Field surveys were conducted to assess any potential impact to any important species, important habitats, and to any environmental study areas. The GIS location data was overlayed onto the INEL vegetation map and an analysis of vegetation classes on the locations was done. Results of the field surveys indicate use of Candidate Location {number_sign}1 by pygmy rabbits (Sylvilagus idahoensis) and expected use by them of Candidate Locations {number_sign}3 and {number_sign}9. Pygmy rabbits are categorized as a C2 species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Two other C2 species, the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) and the loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) would also be expected to frequent the candidate locations. Candidate Location {number_sign}5 at the north end of the INEL is in the winter range of a large number of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana).

  12. Lactic acid production from potato peel waste by anaerobic sequencing batch fermentation using undefined mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is a necessary industrial feedstock for producing the bioplastic, polylactic acid (PLA), which is currently produced by pure culture fermentation of food carbohydrates. This work presents an alternative to produce LA from potato peel waste (PPW) by anaerobic fermentation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with undefined mixed culture from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A statistical design of experiments approach was employed using set of 0.8L SBRs using gelatinized PPW at a solids content range from 30 to 50 g L(-1), solids retention time of 2-4 days for yield and productivity optimization. The maximum LA production yield of 0.25 g g(-1) PPW and highest productivity of 125 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved. A scale-up SBR trial using neat gelatinized PPW (at 80 g L(-1) solids content) at the 3 L scale was employed and the highest LA yield of 0.14 g g(-1) PPW and a productivity of 138 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved with a 1 d SRT. PMID:25708409

  13. Lactic acid production with undefined mixed culture fermentation of potato peel waste.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2014-11-01

    Potato peel waste (PPW) as zero value byproduct generated from food processing plant contains a large quantity of starch, non-starch polysaccharide, lignin, protein, and lipid. PPW as one promising carbon source can be managed and utilized to value added bioproducts through a simple fermentation process using undefined mixed cultures inoculated from wastewater treatment plant sludge. A series of non-pH controlled batch fermentations under different conditions such as pretreatment process, enzymatic hydrolysis, temperature, and solids loading were studied. Lactic acid (LA) was the major product, followed by acetic acid (AA) and ethanol under fermentation conditions without the presence of added hydrolytic enzymes. The maximum yields of LA, AA, and ethanol were respectively, 0.22 g g(-1), 0.06 g g(-1), and 0.05 g g(-1). The highest LA concentration of 14.7 g L(-1) was obtained from a bioreactor with initial solids loading of 60 g L(-1) at 35°C. PMID:25127412

  14. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaodong; Hao, Wei; Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR) silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages. PMID:25656205

  15. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in National Ignition Facility hohlraums as a source of gold-gas mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenboomgaerde, M.; Bonnefille, M.; Gauthier, P.

    2016-05-01

    Highly resolved radiation-hydrodynamics FCI2 simulations have been performed to model laser experiments on the National Ignition Facility. In these experiments, cylindrical gas-filled hohlraums with gold walls are driven by a 20 ns laser pulse. For the first time, simulations show the appearance of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) vortices at the interface between the expanding wall material and the gas fill. In this paper, we determine the mechanisms which generate this instability: the increase of the gas pressure around the expanding gold plasma leads to the aggregation of an over-dense gold layer simultaneously with shear flows. At the surface of this layer, all the conditions are met for a KH instability to grow. Later on, as the interface decelerates, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability also comes into play. A potential scenario for the generation of a mixing zone at the gold-gas interface due to the KH instability is presented. Our estimates of the Reynolds number and the plasma diffusion width at the interface support the possibility of such a mix. The key role of the first nanosecond of the laser pulse in the instability occurrence is also underlined.

  16. Synthesis of sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres solid acid by a facile chemical activation route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Binbin; Guo, Yanzhen; Yin, Hang; Zhang, Shouren; Yang, Baocheng

    2015-01-01

    Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl2 using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl2 at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of -SO3H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N2 adsorption-desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of -SO3H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of -SO3H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and -SO3H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles.

  17. 27. Naval Facility Engineering Command Drawing 6068752 (463M3) (1975), 'Electrolite ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Naval Facility Engineering Command Drawing 6068752 (463-M-3) (1975), 'Electrolite Aerosol Removal System' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. A pH-Sensitive Supramolecular Switch Based on Mixed Carboxylic Acid Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Jacquelín, Daniela K; Pérez, Manuel A; Euti, Esteban M; Arisnabarreta, Nicolás; Cometto, Fernando P; Paredes-Olivera, Patricia; Patrito, E Martín

    2016-02-01

    We show that homogeneously mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of mercaptoalkanoic acids of different chain lengths can be used to build up a pH-sensitive supramolecular switch. The acids with short and long alkyl chains interact via the strong hydrogen bond between carboxylic acid groups. The pH acts as a trigger by breaking or restoring the hydrogen bond interaction in basic or acidic solutions, respectively. The corresponding changes in the monolayer structure were determined by ellipsometry, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to elucidate the structures of interacting molecules compatible with the surface coverage obtained from electrochemical reductive desorption experiments. The simplicity of the preparation procedure assures a high reproducibility whereas the stability of the homogeneous mixed SAM guarantees the reversibility of the switching process. PMID:26799556

  19. Surface Partitioning and Stability of Mixed Films of Fluorinated Alcohols and Acids at the Air- Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontu, N. A.; Vaida, V.

    2007-05-01

    The production of fluorinated compounds over the past 50 years has had numerous industrial applications. For example, perfluorinated carboxylic acids are used in the synthesis of polymers and fire retardants, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates act as surface protectors, and fluorotelomer alcohols are incorporated into products such as paints, coatings, polymers, and adhesives. Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) are linear polyfluorinated alcohols with the formula CF3(CF2)nCH2CH2OH (n=1,3,5,...). They have been suggested as possible precursors for perfluorinated carboxylic acids and detected in the troposphere over several North American sites. Perfluorocarboxylic acids have even been detected in the arctic food chain, human blood, tissues of animals and environmental waters. We report the surface activity of fluorotelomer alcohols and perfluorinated carboxylic acids at the air-water interface by using a Langmuir trough. Isotherms of the pure compounds along with mixed films with other organic carboxylic acids were collected. The main objective of these experiments was to understand their heterogeneous chemistry by characterizing the pure and mixed films, which serves as a representative model for organic films on atmospheric surfaces such as those found on oceans and aqueous aerosols. Film properties and behavior, notably stabilization, evaporation from the subphase, and miscibility in the single-component mixtures as well as in the mixed films will be discussed. An important consequence of FTOHs and perfluorocarboxylic acids being found to partition to the air-water interface is the possibility of their transport and widespread distribution and deposition using atmospheric aerosols.

  20. Facile synthesis and shape evolution of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Cao, Xiaohai; Zhu, Bingchun; Lou, Baiyang; Ma, Xiaocun; Li, Xiao; Wang, Yuguang

    2015-11-01

    A facile synthetic method of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals has been developed by thermal decomposition of copper formate-octylamine complexes in paraffin using oleic acid as dispersing agent. This new method showed many advantages, which include free-reducing agent, enhancing antioxidant properties of Cu2O and good dispersity in paraffin, etc. The phase structure and morphology were investigated by means of XRD, SEM and TEM. It is found that the reaction time and temperature play the important roles in the crystallite morphology. With the increase of the reaction time, the Cu2O rhombic dodecahedron is gradually transformed into the spherical particle by intraparticle ripening. The shape evolution of Cu2O microcrystals can be accelerated with the increase of temperature.

  1. Performance of a commercial-scale DiCOM demonstration facility treating mixed municipal solid waste in comparison with laboratory-scale data.

    PubMed

    Walker, L; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Sciberras, S

    2012-12-01

    The current paper describes the performance of a commercial-scale (20,000 tpa) demonstration facility of the DiCOM process, a biological treatment for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The 21-d process combines aerobic composting and high-solids (30%DM), thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic digestion (AD), within a single vessel. Mechanically sorted OFMSW, derived from mixed household MSW (324 t), was exposed to sequential aerobic/anaerobic/aerobic treatment. The AD, initiated by adding anaerobic inoculum from a previous trial, was stable (without pH intervention) and the onset of methanogenesis, rapid (<3 h). Volatile fatty acids formed during AD (including propionate) were exhausted prior to reuse of the inoculum. As measured by an electron flux from solids to gaseous end-products, AD accounted for the greatest portion of solids degradation (86%=160 m(3)CH(4)/drytOFMSW). However, unlike laboratory trials, limited degradation occurred during initial aerobic treatment. The discharged solids were classified as a composted soil conditioner. PMID:22244951

  2. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  3. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  4. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  5. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  6. Expanding Access to the Intrauterine Device in Public Health Facilities in Ethiopia: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Tilahun, Yewondwossen; Mehta, Sarah; Zerihun, Habtamu; Lew, Candace; Brooks, Mohamad I; Nigatu, Tariku; Hagos, Kidest Lulu; Asnake, Mengistu; Tasissa, Adeba; Ali, Seid; Desalegn, Ketsela; Adane, Girmay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Ethiopia, modern contraceptive prevalence among currently married women nearly tripled over the last decade, but the method mix remains skewed toward short-acting methods. Since 2011, the Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP+), jointly implemented by Pathfinder International and John Snow Inc., has supported the Federal Ministry of Health to introduce intrauterine devices (IUDs) in more than 800 health centers across 4 regions to improve access to a wider range of methods. Between March and August 2014, Pathfinder conducted a mixed-methods study in 40 purposively selected health centers to assess shifts in the contraceptive method mix following introduction of IUDs using data from family planning registers; determine the characteristics of IUD users through a cross-sectional survey of 2,943 family planning clients who accepted the IUD; explore reasons for method discontinuation among 165 clients seeking IUD removal services; and identify facilitators and barriers to IUD use through focus group discussions (N = 115 clients) and key informant interviews (N = 36 providers, facility heads, and health office heads). Introduction of IUDs into the 40 health centers participating in the study was correlated with a statistically significant increase in the contribution of all long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs)—both IUDs and implants—to the method mix, from 6.9% in 2011 to 20.5% in 2014 (P<.001). Our study found that latent demand for the IUD was more prevalent than anticipated and that the method was acceptable to a broad cross-section of women. Of the 2,943 women who sought IUDs during the 6-month study period, 18.0% were new contraceptive users (i.e., those using a contraceptive method for the first time ever), 44.7% reported no educational attainment, 62.5% were from rural areas, and 59.3% were younger than 30 years old, with almost 3 in 10 (27.7%) under the age of 25. The most commonly cited reason for seeking IUD removal services

  7. Expanding Access to the Intrauterine Device in Public Health Facilities in Ethiopia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Tilahun, Yewondwossen; Mehta, Sarah; Zerihun, Habtamu; Lew, Candace; Brooks, Mohamad I; Nigatu, Tariku; Hagos, Kidest Lulu; Asnake, Mengistu; Tasissa, Adeba; Ali, Seid; Desalegn, Ketsela; Adane, Girmay

    2016-03-01

    In Ethiopia, modern contraceptive prevalence among currently married women nearly tripled over the last decade, but the method mix remains skewed toward short-acting methods. Since 2011, the Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP+), jointly implemented by Pathfinder International and John Snow Inc., has supported the Federal Ministry of Health to introduce intrauterine devices (IUDs) in more than 800 health centers across 4 regions to improve access to a wider range of methods. Between March and August 2014, Pathfinder conducted a mixed-methods study in 40 purposively selected health centers to assess shifts in the contraceptive method mix following introduction of IUDs using data from family planning registers; determine the characteristics of IUD users through a cross-sectional survey of 2,943 family planning clients who accepted the IUD; explore reasons for method discontinuation among 165 clients seeking IUD removal services; and identify facilitators and barriers to IUD use through focus group discussions (N = 115 clients) and key informant interviews (N = 36 providers, facility heads, and health office heads). Introduction of IUDs into the 40 health centers participating in the study was correlated with a statistically significant increase in the contribution of all long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs)-both IUDs and implants-to the method mix, from 6.9% in 2011 to 20.5% in 2014 (P<.001). Our study found that latent demand for the IUD was more prevalent than anticipated and that the method was acceptable to a broad cross-section of women. Of the 2,943 women who sought IUDs during the 6-month study period, 18.0% were new contraceptive users (i.e., those using a contraceptive method for the first time ever), 44.7% reported no educational attainment, 62.5% were from rural areas, and 59.3% were younger than 30 years old, with almost 3 in 10 (27.7%) under the age of 25. The most commonly cited reason for seeking IUD removal services was a desire to

  8. Hygroscopic Properties of Internally Mixed Particles Composed of NaCl and Water-Soluble Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray elemental microanalysis.Hygroscopic properties of inte rnally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of Na-malonate and Na-glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  9. Use of 1 % peroxyacetic acid sanitizer in an air-mixing wash basin to remove bacterial pathogen from seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of pathogen free sprouts is tenuous due to problems with the seed sanitizing mixing protocol using liquid sanitizer on the seed surface. Commercial treatments by irradiation or ozone gas of artificially inoculated seeds resulted in less than 1 log reduction. Use of peroxyacetic acid (1%...

  10. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles. PMID:24437520

  11. Effect of applying lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of oats-common vetch mixed silage on the Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Gang; Chen, Lei; Li, Junfeng; Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, Masataka; Shao, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of oats-common vetch mixed silage by using a small-scale fermentation system on the Tibetan plateau. (i) An inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum) (L) or (ii) propionic acid (P) or (iii) inoculant + propionic acid (PL) were used as additives. After fermenting for 60 days, silos were opened and the aerobic stability was tested for the following 15 days. The results showed that all silages were well preserved with low pH and NH3 -N, and high lactic acid content and V-scores. L and PL silages showed higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid and crude protein content than the control silage. P silage inhibited lactic acid production. Under aerobic conditions, L silage had similar yeast counts as the control silage (> 10(5) cfu/g fresh matter (FM)); however, it numerically reduced aerobic stability for 6 h. P and PL silages showed fewer yeasts (< 10(5) cfu/g FM) (P < 0.05) and markedly improved the aerobic stability (> 360 h). The result suggested that PL is the best additive as it could not only improved fermentation quality, but also aerobic stability of oats-common vetch mixed silage on the Tibetan plateau. PMID:25494579

  12. Succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes from batch fermentation of mixed sugars.

    PubMed

    Almqvist, Henrik; Pateraki, Chrysanthi; Alexandri, Maria; Koutinas, Apostolis; Lidén, Gunnar

    2016-08-01

    Succinic acid production from the monosaccharides xylose, arabinose, glucose, mannose and galactose was studied using the bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes. In Duran bottle cultures, containing 10 g/L of each of sugar, succinic acid was produced from all sugars except for galactose. The highest succinate yield, 0.56 g/g, was obtained with glucose, whereas the succinate yield was 0.42, 0.38 and 0.44 g/g for xylose, mannose and arabinose, respectively. The specific succinate productivity was 0.7 g/g h for glucose, but below 0.2 g/g h for the other sugars. Batch bioreactor fermentations were carried out using a sugar mixture of the five sugars giving a total concentration of 50 g/L, mimicking the distribution of sugars in spent sulfite liquor (SSL) from Eucalyptus which is rich in xylose. In this mixture, an almost complete conversion of all sugars (except galactose) was achieved resulting in a final succinate concentration of 21.8-26.8 g/L and a total yield of 0.59-0.68 g/g. There was evidence of co-consumption of glucose and xylose, whereas mannose was consumed after glucose. The main by-products were acetate 0.14-0.20 g/g and formate 0.08-0.13 g/g. NADH balance calculations suggested that NADH required for succinate production was not met solely from formate and acetate production, but other means of NADH production was necessary. Results from mixed sugar fermentations were verified using SSL as substrate resulting in a succinate yield of 0.60 g/g. In addition, it was found that CO2 sparging could replace carbonate supply in the form of MgCO3 without affecting the succinate yield. PMID:27255975

  13. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.; Cox, M.H.; Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- 'reference' tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentrations measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  14. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Cox, Marisa H.; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2006-08-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- reference tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentratis measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  15. Analysis of microbial community variation during the mixed culture fermentation of agricultural peel wastes to produce lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Gerritsen, Alida T; McDonald, Armando G

    2016-05-01

    Mixed cultures fermentation can be used to convert organic wastes into various chemicals and fuels. This study examined the fermentation performance of four batch reactors fed with different agricultural (orange, banana, and potato (mechanical and steam)) peel wastes using mixed cultures, and monitored the interval variation of reactor microbial communities with 16S rRNA genes using Illumina sequencing. All four reactors produced similar chemical profile with lactic acid (LA) as dominant compound. Acetic acid and ethanol were also observed with small fractions. The Illumina sequencing results revealed the diversity of microbial community decreased during fermentation and a community of largely lactic acid producing bacteria dominated by species of Lactobacillus developed. PMID:26913642

  16. Dynamic metabolic modelling of volatile fatty acids conversion to polyhydroxyalkanoates by a mixed microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Pardelha, Filipa; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Reis, Maria A M; Oliveira, Rui; Dias, João M L

    2014-06-25

    In this work, we present a dynamic metabolic model that describes the uptake of complex mixtures of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and respective conversion into PHA by mixed microbial cultures (MMC). This model builds upon a previously published flux balance analysis model [1] that identified the minimization of TCA cycle activity as the key metabolic objective to predict PHA storage fluxes and respective composition. The model was calibrated either with experimental data of PHA production from fermented sugar cane molasses or from synthetic mixtures of VFA. All PHA production experiments were performed using a MMC selected with fermented sugar cane molasses under feast and famine regimen. The model was able to capture the process dynamics denoted by an excellent fit between experimental and computed time profiles of concentrations with the regression coefficients always above 0.92. The introduced VFA uptake regulatory factor reflects the decrease of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA available to TCA cycle in conformity with the hypothesis that the minimization of TCA cycle is a key metabolic objective for MMC subjected to feast and famine regimen for the maximization of PHA production. PMID:23933561

  17. Stereoselective analysis of D and L dansyl amino acids as the mixed chelate copper(II) complexes by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Lam, S

    1984-09-01

    This paper reviews the mixed chelation approach to resolution of the optical isomers of D and L dansyl amino acids by high performance liquid chromatography. The use of eluants containing Cu(II) complexes of L-proline, L-arginine, L-histidine, and L-histidine methyl ester effected the separation of many D and L amino acids, including those with aliphatic, polar, and aromatic substituents. The mechanism of separation, which is based on the preferential ternary complex formation of the analyte amino acid and the chiral chelate with Cu(II) in the mobile phase, is discussed. The stereoselectivity depends mainly on the different steric interactions between the alkyl side chains of the amino acid analytes and the chiral ligands coordinating around Cu(II), although such parameters as pH, temperature, organic modifier, and concentration of the chiral additive also affect the chromatographic separation. Among the chiral ligands studied, L-histidine methyl ester is unique in that it possesses both achiral selectivity for the dansyl amino acids and chiral selectivity for the respective D and L enantiomers. With a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile in a buffer containing Cu(II) L-histidine methyl ester complex, a stereoselective procedure was devised for the analysis of D and L amino acid enantiomers, achieving the separation that the current amino acid analyzer could not perform. Finally, the use of the mixed chelation approach in two biomedical studies is described. In the first application, the histidine methyl ester gradient was adapted for analyzing amino acids in cerebrospinal fluid; in the second, an L-aspartame Cu(II) complex eluant was developed for measuring the urine concentration of D and L pipecolic acid (piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), a metabolite of lysine. PMID:6490790

  18. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1729...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1729...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1729...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1729...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1729...

  3. Photosynthetic mixed culture polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from individual and mixed volatile fatty acids (VFAs): substrate preferences and co-substrate uptake.

    PubMed

    Fradinho, J C; Oehmen, A; Reis, M A M

    2014-09-20

    This work studied the effect of the substrate feeding composition on the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation capacity of an acetate enriched photosynthetic mixed culture (PMC). From the six tested organic acids - malate, citrate, lactate, acetate, propionate and butyrate - only the three volatile fatty acids (VFAs) enabled PHA production, with acetate and butyrate leading to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) formation and propionate leading to a HB:HV copolymer with a 51% fraction of hydroxyvalerate (HV). Also, results showed an acceleration of butyrate and propionate consumption when fed in the presence of acetate, suggesting that the latter can act as a co-substrate for butyrate and propionate uptake. Furthermore, results suggest that some PMC bacterial groups present a substrate preference for butyrate in relation to acetate and propionate. These findings indicate the possibility of feeding the PMC with cheap VFA rich fermented wastes, leading to a more cost-effective and environmentally sustainable PHA production system. PMID:24915131

  4. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  14. Facile synthesis of graphene from graphite using ascorbic acid as reducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrijanto, Eko; Shoelarta, Shoerya; Subiyanto, Gatot; Rifki, Sadur

    2016-04-01

    Graphene has attracted a tremendous attention in recent years due to its unique properties such as mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties. However, a large scale production of this material is still an issue and subjected to intense research efforts. Here, we show a simple and green approach of the graphene synthesis from graphene oxide using ascorbic acid as reduction agent. A facile synthesis of graphene (rGO) through chemical oxidation of graphite into graphene oxide (GO) was described using modified Hummers method (Improved Tour Method/ITM). The ITM method does not produce toxic gas and the temperature of the oxidation is easily controlled using ice bath. The synthesized of graphene oxide was highly soluble and stable in water. The reduction of graphene oxide into graphene was performed using ascorbic acid (AA) in mild condition. The combined ITM method and green reduction using ascorbic acid open the avenue of replacing hydrazine in the reduction of graphite oxide into graphene and may be very important step for bulk production of graphene.

  15. Inactivation of stable viruses in cell culture facilities by peracetic acid fogging.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter; Roth, Bernhard

    2012-07-01

    Looking for a robust and simple method to replace formaldehyde fumigation for the disinfection of virus-handling laboratories and facilities, we tested peracetic acid fogging as a method to inactivate stable viruses under practical conditions. Peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide (5.8%/27.5%, 2.0 mL/m³) was diluted in sufficient water to achieve ≥ 70% relative humidity and was vaporized as <10 μm droplets in a fully equipped 95 m³ laboratory unit. High titers of reovirus 3, MVM parvovirus and an avian polyomavirus were coated on frosted glass carriers and were exposed to the peracetic acid fog in various positions in the laboratory. After vaporization, a 60 min exposure time, and venting of the laboratory, no residual virus was detected on any of the carriers (detection limit <1 infectious unit/sample volume tested). The log reduction values were 9.0 for reovirus, 6.4 for MVM parvovirus, and 7.65 for the polyomavirus. After more than 10 disinfection runs within 12 months, no damage or functional impairment of electrical and electronic equipment was noted. PMID:22424718

  16. Development of a polar direct-drive platform for studying inertial confinement fusion implosion mix on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Mark J.; Bradley, Paul A.; Cobble, James A.; Fincke, James R.; Hakel, Peter; Hsu, Scott C.; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S.; Kyrala, George A.; Magelssen, Glenn R.; Montgomery, David S.; Murphy, Thomas J.; Obrey, Kimberly A.; Shah, Rahul C.; Tregillis, Ian L.; Baumgaertel, Jessica A.; Wysocki, Frederick J.; Batha, Steven H.; Stephen Craxton, R.; McKenty, Patrick W.; Fitzsimmons, Paul; and others

    2013-05-15

    Experiments were performed to develop a platform for the simultaneous measurement of mix and its effects on fusion burn. Two polar direct drive implosions of all-plastic capsules were conducted for the first time on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To measure implosion trajectory and symmetry, area image backlighting of these capsules was also employed for the first time on NIF, an advance over previous 1-D slit imaging experiments, providing detailed symmetry data of the capsules as they imploded. The implosion trajectory and low-mode asymmetry seen in the resultant radiographs agreed with pre-shot predictions even though the 700 kJ drive energy produced laser beam intensities exceeding laser-plasma instability thresholds. Post-shot simulations indicate that the capsule yield was reduced by a factor of two compared to pre-shot predictions owing to as-shot laser drive asymmetries. The pre-shot predictions of bang time agreed within 200 ps with the experimental results. The second shot incorporated a narrow groove encircling the equator of the capsule. A predicted yield reduction factor of three was not observed.

  17. An exposure assessment of radionuclide emissions associated with potential mixed-low level waste disposal facilities at fifteen DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Socolof, M.L.

    1996-05-01

    A screening method was developed to compare the doses received via the atmospheric pathway at 15 potential DOE MLLW (mixed low-level waste) sites. Permissible waste concentrations were back calculated using the radioactivity NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) in 40 FR 61 (DOE Order 5820.2A performance objective). Site-specific soil and meteorological data were used to determine permissible waste concentrations (PORK). For a particular radionuclide, perks for each site do not vary by more than one order of magnitude. perks of {sup 14}C are about six orders of magnitude more restrictive than perks of {sup 3}H because of differences in liquid/vapor partitioning, decay, and exposure dose. When comparing results from the atmospheric pathway to the water and intruder pathways, {sup 14}C disposal concentrations were limited by the atmospheric pathway for most arid sites; for {sup 3}H, the atmospheric pathway was not limiting at any of the sites. Results of this performance evaluation process are to be used for planning for siting of disposal facilities.

  18. Starting of rocket engine at conditions of simulated altitude using crude monoethylaniline and other fuels with mixed acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladanyi, Dezso J; Sloop, John L; Humphrey, Jack C; Morrell, Gerald

    1950-01-01

    Experiments were conducted at sea level and pressure altitude of about 55,000 feet at various temperatures to determine starting characteristics of a commercial rocket engine using crude monoethylaniline and other fuels with mixed acid. With crude monoethylaniline, ignition difficulties were encountered at temperatures below about 20 degrees F. With mixed butyl mercaptans, water-white turpentine, and x-pinene, no starting difficulties were experienced at temperatures as low as minus 74 degrees F. Turpentine and x-pinene, however, sometimes left deposits on the injector face. With blends containing furfuryl alcohol and with other blends, difficulties were experienced either from appreciable deposits or from starting.

  19. A case study in the treatment of spent pickling acids for fluoride compliance at a metals finishing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, J.T.; Walters, J.; Evans, D.

    1995-12-31

    A metal finishing facility located in the Los Angeles area processes coiled steel sheets (300 and 400 series) and other sheet metal alloys by annealing, pickling and cold rolling operations. The facility acquires steel from large manufacturers or mills and finishes to a prescribed thickness, hardness, and grade depending on customers needs, for sale to metal product manufacturers such as can manufacturers and prefabricated steel building industries. Specialty metal alloys such as nickel-cobalt or titanium are also processed for use in aerospace industry applications. The facility produces about 10,000 tons of metal sheets per year and in the process generates about 40,000 gallons per day (gpd) of wastewater that is pretreated for metals removal and discharged to the sewer. About 30,000 gallons per month of spent acid are generated--much of which is used for pH adjustment in the pretreatment system. Acids of concern are sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. The wastewater treatment system (WWTS) is equipped for chromium reduction and metals precipitation and handles the wastewater, the spent acids and other alkaline wastes generated at the facility. An estimated 50 tons of hazardous waste sludge are generated and disposed of on a monthly basis.

  20. Progress in the development of the MARBLE platform for studying thermonuclear burn in the presence of heterogeneous mix on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, T. J.; Douglas, M. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Olson, R. E.; Cobble, J. A.; Haines, B. M.; Hamilton, C. E.; Lee, M. N.; Oertel, J. A.; Parra-Vasquez, N. A. G.; Randolph, R. B.; Schmidt, D. W.; Shah, R. C.; Smidt, J. M.; Tregillis, I. L.

    2016-05-01

    Mix of ablator material into fuel of an ICF capsule adds non-burning material, diluting the fuel and reducing burn. The amount of the reduction is dependent in part on the morphology of the mix. A probability distribution function (PDF) burn model has been developed [6] that utilizes the average concentration of mixed materials as well as the variance in this quantity across cells provided by the BHR turbulent transport model [3] and its revisions [4] to describe the mix in terms of a PDF of concentrations of fuel and ablator material, and provides the burn rate in mixed material. Work is underway to develop the MARBLE ICF platform for use on the National Ignition Facility in experiments to quantify the influence of heterogeneous mix on fusion burn. This platform consists of a plastic (CH) capsule filled with a deuterated plastic foam (CD) with a density of a few tens of milligrams per cubic centimeter, with tritium gas filling the voids in the foam. This capsule will be driven using x-ray drive on NIF, and the resulting shocks will induce turbulent mix that will result in the mixing of deuterium from the foam with the tritium gas. In order to affect the morphology of the mix, engineered foams with voids of diameter up to 100 microns will be utilized. The degree of mix will be determined from the ratio of DT to DD neutron yield. As the mix increases, the yield from reactions between the deuterium of the CD foam with tritium from the gas will increase. The ratio of DT to DD neutrons will be compared to a variation of the PDF burn model that quantifies reactions from initially separated reactants.

  1. Progress in the development of the MARBLE platform for studying thermonuclear burn in the presence of heterogeneous mix on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Murphy, T. J.; Douglas, M. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Olson, R. E.; Cobble, J. A.; Haines, B. M.; Hamilton, C. E.; Lee, M. N.; Oertel, J. A.; Parra-Vasquez, N. A. G.; et al

    2016-05-01

    Mix of ablator material into fuel of an ICF capsule adds non-burning material, diluting the fuel and reducing burn. The amount of the reduction is dependent in part on the morphology of the mix. A probability distribution function (PDF) burn model has been developed [6] that utilizes the average concentration of mixed materials as well as the variance in this quantity across cells provided by the BHR turbulent transport model [3] and its revisions [4] to describe the mix in terms of a PDF of concentrations of fuel and ablator material, and provides the burn rate in mixed material. Workmore » is underway to develop the MARBLE ICF platform for use on the National Ignition Facility in experiments to quantify the influence of heterogeneous mix on fusion burn. This platform consists of a plastic (CH) capsule filled with a deuterated plastic foam (CD) with a density of a few tens of milligrams per cubic centimeter, with tritium gas filling the voids in the foam. This capsule will be driven using x-ray drive on NIF, and the resulting shocks will induce turbulent mix that will result in the mixing of deuterium from the foam with the tritium gas. In order to affect the morphology of the mix, engineered foams with voids of diameter up to 100 microns will be utilized. The degree of mix will be determined from the ratio of DT to DD neutron yield. As the mix increases, the yield from reactions between the deuterium of the CD foam with tritium from the gas will increase. Lastly, the ratio of DT to DD neutrons will be compared to a variation of the PDF burn model that quantifies reactions from initially separated reactants.« less

  2. Facile method to prepare silk fibroin/hyaluronic acid films for vascular endothelial growth factor release.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Xunwei; Shi, Lijun; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Daixu; Zhong, Jian; Sun, Gang; He, Dannong

    2016-06-01

    A facile approach was proposed to prepare silk fibroin (SF) and hyaluronic acid (HA) composite films from aqueous solution without crosslinking or any post treatment. Only by controlling the HA content and film formation temperature during the film casting, the HA/SF films with different composition were prepared. The films were then characterized by structural characteristics, thermal stability, morphology, water stability, water absorption, mechanical properties. After immersing in water for 24h, all of the films showed good structural integrity. The degradation rate of the HA/SF films in protease XIV can be controlled by changing the film formation temperature and HA content. Decreasing the temperature and adding HA resulted in the rapid release of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) from the HA/SF films. Overall, the 5% HA/SF films formed at 37°C with more rapid VEGF release exhibited great potential in drug delivery, especially when the rapid vascularization was needed. PMID:27083373

  3. Facile Carbon Fixation to Performic Acids by Water-Sealed Dielectric Barrier Discharge.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Mitsuo; Morita, Tatsuo; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2015-01-01

    Carbon fixation refers to the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic materials, as commonly performed in nature through photosynthesis by plants and other autotrophic organisms. The creation of artificial carbon fixation processes is one of the greatest challenges for chemistry to solve the critical environmental issue concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions. We have developed an electricity-driven facile CO2 fixation process that yields performic acid, HCO2OH, from CO2 and water at neutral pH by dielectric barrier discharge with an input electric power conversion efficiency of currently 0.2-0.4%. This method offers a promising future technology for artificial carbon fixation on its own, and may also be scaled up in combination with e.g., the post-combustion CO2 capture and storage technology. PMID:26439402

  4. Facile Carbon Fixation to Performic Acids by Water-Sealed Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Mitsuo; Morita, Tatsuo; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2015-10-01

    Carbon fixation refers to the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic materials, as commonly performed in nature through photosynthesis by plants and other autotrophic organisms. The creation of artificial carbon fixation processes is one of the greatest challenges for chemistry to solve the critical environmental issue concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions. We have developed an electricity-driven facile CO2 fixation process that yields performic acid, HCO2OH, from CO2 and water at neutral pH by dielectric barrier discharge with an input electric power conversion efficiency of currently 0.2-0.4%. This method offers a promising future technology for artificial carbon fixation on its own, and may also be scaled up in combination with e.g., the post-combustion CO2 capture and storage technology.

  5. Facile Carbon Fixation to Performic Acids by Water-Sealed Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Mitsuo; Morita, Tatsuo; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2015-01-01

    Carbon fixation refers to the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic materials, as commonly performed in nature through photosynthesis by plants and other autotrophic organisms. The creation of artificial carbon fixation processes is one of the greatest challenges for chemistry to solve the critical environmental issue concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions. We have developed an electricity-driven facile CO2 fixation process that yields performic acid, HCO2OH, from CO2 and water at neutral pH by dielectric barrier discharge with an input electric power conversion efficiency of currently 0.2−0.4%. This method offers a promising future technology for artificial carbon fixation on its own, and may also be scaled up in combination with e.g., the post-combustion CO2 capture and storage technology. PMID:26439402

  6. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project. Executive summary: Volume 1, Program summary information; Volume 2, Waste stream technical summary: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL`s waste streams and their potential treatment strategies.

  7. Acidity of vapor plume from cooling tower mixed with flue gases emitted from coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Korszun, Katarzyna; Fudala, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Acidity of products resulting from the reaction of flue gas components emitted from a coal-fired power plant with water contained in a vapor plume from a wet cooling tower was analyzed in a close vicinity of a power plant (710 m from the stack and 315 m from the cooling tower). Samples of this mixture were collected using a precipitation funnel where components of the mixed plumes were discharged from the atmosphere with the rainfall. To identify situations when the precipitation occurred at the same time as the wind directed the mixed vapor and flue gas plumes above the precipitation funnel, an ultrasound anemometer designed for 3D measurements of the wind field located near the funnel was used. Precipitation samples of extremely high acidity were identified - about 5% of samples collected during 12 months showed the acidity below pH=3 and the lowest recorded pH was 1.4. During the measurement period the value of pH characterizing the background acidity of the precipitation was about 6. The main outcome of this study was to demonstrate a very high, and so far completely underestimated, potential of occurrence of episodes of extremely acid depositions in the immediate vicinity of a coal-fired power plant. PMID:26950639

  8. Polynuclear and mixed-ligand complexes of copper(II) and nickel(II) with (1-hydroxyethylidene)bisphosphonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Amirov, R.R.; Saprykova, Z.A.

    1987-12-20

    The compositions and stabilities of heteronuclear and mixed-ligand copper(II) and nickel(II) (1-hydroxyethylidene)bisphosphonates were determined. Parameters of the compatibility of the ligands and central ions in the complexes were calculated. It was shown that the monoprotonated anion of (1-hydroxyethylidene)bisphosphonic acid is capable of terdentate coordination with the participation of the alcoholic hydroxy group. The acidities of the solutions were determined on a pH-673 meter. The spin-lattice relaxation time was measured on a pulse NMR spectrometer.

  9. Novel fully protected muramic acid: A facile synthesis and structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačević, Monika; Rapić, Vladimir; Lukač, Iva; Molčanov, Krešimir; Kodrin, Ivan; Barišić, Lidija

    2013-09-01

    Synthesis and structural characterisation of novel fully protected muramic acid 2 (N-Boc-Mur-OMe, Mur = muramic acid) has been reported. N-Ac-Mur-OMe (1) prepared starting from commercially available N-acetylglucosamine, was treated with di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc2O) and N,N-dimethyl-4-aminopyridine (DMAP) in tetrahydrofuran. The intermediate mixed imide N-Ac-N-Boc-Mur-OMe was converted to N-Boc-Mur-OMe (2) upon in situ treatment with hydrazine hydrate in methanol. The structural analysis of 2, performed by IR and NMR spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallography, was augmented by computational calculations including molecular and density functional theory studies (DFT) using M06/6-31G(d) computational model. The spectroscopic and DFT data obtained for novel Boc-protected 2 were compared with corresponding experimental values of its previously described Ac-protected analogue 1 in order to examine if the replacement of the protecting groups influences the conformational properties.

  10. Methyl-branched poly(hydroxyalkanoate) biosynthesis from 13- methyltetradecanoic acid and mixed isostearic acid isomer substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas resinovorans, a known medium-chain-length (mcl-) poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) producer, was grown on 13-methyltetradecanoic acid (13-MTDA) and a mixture of isostearic acid (IA) isomers to produce methyl-branched mcl-PHA polymers. Shake flask experiments revealed polymer productivities (...

  11. Facile synthesis of acid-labile polymers with pendent ortho esters.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing; Ji, Ran; Gao, Shi-Juan; Du, Fu-Sheng; Li, Zi-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a facile approach for preparation of acid-labile and biocompatible polymers with pendent cyclic ortho esters, which is based on the efficient and mild reactions between cyclic ketene acetal (CKA) and hydroxyl groups. Three CKAs, 2-ethylidene-1,3-dioxane (EDO), 2-ethylidene-1,3-dioxolane (EDL), and 2-ethylidene-4- methyl-1,3-dioxolane (EMD) were prepared from the corresponding cyclic vinyl acetals by catalytic isomerization of the double bond. The reaction of CKAs with different alcohols and diols was examined using trace of p-toluenesulfonic acid as a catalyst. For the monohydroxyl alcohols, cyclic ortho esters were formed by simple addition of the hydroxyl group toward CKAs with ethanol showing a much greater reactivity than iso-propanol. When 1,2- or 1,3-diols were used to react with the CKAs, we observed the isomerized cyclic ortho esters besides the simple addition products. Biocompatible polyols, that is, poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were then modified with CKAs, and the degree of substitution of the pendent ortho esters can be easily tuned by changing feed ratio. Both the small molecule ortho esters and the CKA-modified polymers demonstrate the pH-dependent hydrolysis profiles, which depend also on the chemical structure of the ortho esters as well as the polymer hydrophobicity. PMID:22176024

  12. Colloid formation and metal transport through two mixing zones affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Bencala, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    Stream discharges and concentrations of dissolved and colloidal metals (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn), SO4, and dissolved silica were measured to identify chemical transformations and determine mass transports through two mixing zones in the Animas River that receive the inflows from Cement and Mineral Creeks. The creeks were the dominant sources of Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb, whereas the upstream Animas River supplied about half of the Zn. With the exception of Fe, which was present in dissolved and colloidal forms, the metals were dissolved in the acidic, high-SO4 waters of Cement Creek (pH 3.8). Mixing of Cement Creek with the Animas River increased pH to near-neutral values and transformed Al and some additional Fe into colloids which also contained Cu and Pb. Aluminium and Fe colloids had already formed in the mildly acidic conditions in Mineral Creek (pH 6.6) upstream of the confluence with the Animas River. Colloidal Fe continued to form downstream of both mixing zones. The Fe- and Al-rich colloids were important for transport of Cu, Pb, and Zn, which appeared to have sorbed to them. Partitioning of Zn between dissolved and colloidal phases was dependent on pH and colloid concentration. Mass balances showed conservative transports for Ca, Mg, Mn, SO4, and dissolved silica through the two mixing zones and small losses (< 10%) of colloidal Al, Fe and Zn from the water column.

  13. Facile formation of dendrimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles modified with diatrizoic acid for enhanced computed tomography imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chen; Li, Kangan; Cao, Xueyan; Xiao, Tingting; Hou, Wenxiu; Zheng, Linfeng; Guo, Rui; Shen, Mingwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang

    2012-10-01

    We report a facile approach to forming dendrimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au DSNPs) through the use of amine-terminated fifth-generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers modified by diatrizoic acid (G5.NH2-DTA) as stabilizers for enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging applications. In this study, by simply mixing G5.NH2-DTA dendrimers with gold salt in aqueous solution at room temperature, dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) with a mean core size of 2.5 nm were able to be spontaneously formed. Followed by an acetylation reaction to neutralize the dendrimer remaining terminal amines, Au DSNPs with a mean size of 6 nm were formed. The formed DTA-containing [(Au0)50-G5.NHAc-DTA] DSNPs were characterized via different techniques. We show that the Au DSNPs are colloid stable in aqueous solution under different pH and temperature conditions. In vitro hemolytic assay, cytotoxicity assay, flow cytometry analysis, and cell morphology observation reveal that the formed Au DSNPs have good hemocompatibility and are non-cytotoxic at a concentration up to 3.0 μM. X-ray absorption coefficient measurements show that the DTA-containing Au DSNPs have enhanced attenuation intensity, much higher than that of [(Au0)50-G5.NHAc] DENPs without DTA or Omnipaque at the same molar concentration of the active element (Au or iodine). The formed DTA-containing Au DSNPs can be used for CT imaging of cancer cells in vitro as well as for blood pool CT imaging of mice in vivo with significantly improved signal enhancement. With the two radiodense elements of Au and iodine incorporated within one particle, the formed DTA-containing Au DSNPs may be applicable for CT imaging of various biological systems with enhanced X-ray attenuation property and detection sensitivity.We report a facile approach to forming dendrimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au DSNPs) through the use of amine-terminated fifth-generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers modified by diatrizoic acid

  14. Decolourisation of Acid Orange 7 recalcitrant auto-oxidation coloured by-products using an acclimatised mixed bacterial culture.

    PubMed

    Bay, Hui Han; Lim, Chi Kim; Kee, Thuan Chien; Ware, Ismail; Chan, Giek Far; Shahir, Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2014-03-01

    This study focuses on the biodegradation of recalcitrant, coloured compounds resulting from auto-oxidation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in a sequential facultative anaerobic-aerobic treatment system. A novel mixed bacterial culture, BAC-ZS, consisting of Brevibacillus panacihumi strain ZB1, Lysinibacillus fusiformis strain ZB2, and Enterococcus faecalis strain ZL bacteria were isolated from environmental samples. The acclimatisation of the mixed culture was carried out in an AO7 decolourised solution. The acclimatised mixed culture showed 98 % decolourisation within 2 h of facultative anaerobic treatment using yeast extract and glucose as co-substrate. Subsequent aerobic post treatment caused auto-oxidation reaction forming dark coloured compounds that reduced the percentage decolourisation to 73 %. Interestingly, further agitations of the mixed culture in the solution over a period of 48 h significantly decolourise the coloured compounds and increased the decolourisation percentage to 90 %. Analyses of the degradation compounds using UV-visible spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed complete degradation of recalcitrant AO7 by the novel BAC-ZS. Phytotoxicity tests using Cucumis sativus confirmed the dye solution after post aerobic treatment were less toxic compared to the parent dye. The quantitative real-time PCR revealed that E. faecalis strain ZL was the dominant strain in the acclimatised mix culture. PMID:24293297

  15. Synthesis, structural elucidation, biological, antioxidant and nuclease activities of some 5-Fluorouracil-amino acid mixed ligand complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobana, Sutha; Subramaniam, Perumal; Mitu, Liviu; Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Arvind Narayan, Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    Some biologically active mixed ligand complexes (1-9) have been synthesized from 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU; A) and amino acids (B) such as glycine (gly), L-alanine (ala) and L-valine (val) with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions. The synthesized mixed ligand complexes (1-9) were characterized by various physico-chemical, spectral, thermal and morphological studies. 5-Fluorouracil and its mixed ligand complexes have been tested for their in vitro biological activities against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal species by the agar well diffusion method. The in vitro antioxidant activities of 5-Fluorouracil and its complexes have also been investigated by using the DPPH assay method. The results demonstrate that Cu(II) mixed ligand complexes (4-6) exhibit potent biological as well as antioxidant activities compared to 5-Fluorouracil and Ni(II) (1-3) and Zn(II) (7-9) mixed ligand complexes. Further, the cleaving activities of CT DNA under aerobic conditions show moderate activity with the synthesized Cu(II) and Ni(II) mixed ligand complexes (1-6) while no activity is seen with Zn(II) complexes (7-9). Binding studies of CT DNA with these complexes show a decrease in intensity of the charge transfer band to the extent of 5-15% along with a minor red shift. The free energy change values (Δ‡G) calculated from intrinsic binding constants indicate that the interaction between mixed ligand complex and DNA is spontaneous.

  16. A mixed polyunsaturated fatty acid diet normalizes hippocampal neurogenesis and reduces anxiety in serotonin transporter knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Pieter; Kiliaan, Amanda J; Homberg, Judith R

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a mixed dietary intervention on behavioral symptoms in serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT⁻/⁻) rats modeling the human 5-HTT length polymorphic region short-allele. Twenty female 5-HTT⁻/⁻ and 19 wild-type (5-HTT⁺/⁺) rats were fed for 3 months on a mixed polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) diet comprising n-3 PUFAs, B vitamins and phospholipids, or an isocaloric control diet, and a subgroup was subsequently tested in an array of anxiety-related behavioral tests. All brains were harvested and immunostained for doublecortin, a neurogenesis marker. In addition, hippocampal volume was measured. 5-HTT⁻/⁻ rats on the control diet displayed increased anxiety-related behavioral responses, and impaired fear extinction. These effects were completely offset by the mixed PUFA diet, whereas this diet had no behavioral effect in 5-HTT⁺/⁺ rats. In parallel, dentate gyrus doublecortin immunoreactivity was increased in 5-HTT⁻/⁻ rats fed on the control diet, which was reversed by the mixed PUFA diet. Hippocampal volume was unaffected by the mixed PUFA diet in 5-HTT⁻/⁻ subjects, whereas it increased in 5-HTT⁺/⁺ rats. We conclude that a mixed n-3 PUFA diet ameliorates anxiety-related symptoms in a genotype-dependent manner, potentially by normalizing neurogenesis. We suggest that such a mixed diet may serve as an attractive adjuvant to treat anxiety in 5-HTT length polymorphic region short-allele carriers. PMID:21606840

  17. Low-field thermal mixing in [1-(13)C] pyruvic acid for brute-force hyperpolarization.

    PubMed

    Peat, David T; Hirsch, Matthew L; Gadian, David G; Horsewill, Anthony J; Owers-Bradley, John R; Kempf, James G

    2016-07-28

    We detail the process of low-field thermal mixing (LFTM) between (1)H and (13)C nuclei in neat [1-(13)C] pyruvic acid at cryogenic temperatures (4-15 K). Using fast-field-cycling NMR, (1)H nuclei in the molecule were polarized at modest high field (2 T) and then equilibrated with (13)C nuclei by fast cycling (∼300-400 ms) to a low field (0-300 G) that activates thermal mixing. The (13)C NMR spectrum was recorded after fast cycling back to 2 T. The (13)C signal derives from (1)H polarization via LFTM, in which the polarized ('cold') proton bath contacts the unpolarised ('hot') (13)C bath at a field so low that Zeeman and dipolar interactions are similar-sized and fluctuations in the latter drive (1)H-(13)C equilibration. By varying mixing time (tmix) and field (Bmix), we determined field-dependent rates of polarization transfer (1/τ) and decay (1/T1m) during mixing. This defines conditions for effective mixing, as utilized in 'brute-force' hyperpolarization of low-γ nuclei like (13)C using Boltzmann polarization from nearby protons. For neat pyruvic acid, near-optimum mixing occurs for tmix∼ 100-300 ms and Bmix∼ 30-60 G. Three forms of frozen neat pyruvic acid were tested: two glassy samples, (one well-deoxygenated, the other O2-exposed) and one sample pre-treated by annealing (also well-deoxygenated). Both annealing and the presence of O2 are known to dramatically alter high-field longitudinal relaxation (T1) of (1)H and (13)C (up to 10(2)-10(3)-fold effects). Here, we found smaller, but still critical factors of ∼(2-5)× on both τ and T1m. Annealed, well-deoxygenated samples exhibit the longest time constants, e.g., τ∼ 30-70 ms and T1m∼ 1-20 s, each growing vs. Bmix. Mixing 'turns off' for Bmix > ∼100 G. That T1m≫τ is consistent with earlier success with polarization transfer from (1)H to (13)C by LFTM. PMID:27362505

  18. Carbon isotope effects associated with mixed-acid fermentation of saccharides by Clostridium papyrosolvens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penning, Holger; Conrad, Ralf

    2006-05-01

    In anoxic environments, microbial fermentation is the first metabolic process in the path of organic matter degradation. Since little is known about carbon isotope fractionation during microbial fermentation, we studied mixed-acid fermentation of different saccharides (glucose, cellobiose, and cellulose) in Clostridium papyrosolvens. The bacterium was grown anaerobically in batch under different growth conditions, both in pure culture and in co-culture with Methanobacterium bryantii utilizing H 2/CO 2 or Methanospirillum hungatei utilizing both H 2/CO 2 and formate. Fermentation products were acetate, lactate, ethanol, formate, H 2, and CO 2 (and CH 4 in methanogenic co-culture), with acetate becoming dominant at low H 2 partial pressures. After complete conversion of the saccharides, acetate was 13C-enriched ( αsacc/ac = 0.991-0.997), whereas lactate ( αsacc/lac = 1.001-1.006), ethanol ( αsacc/etoh = 1.007-1.013), and formate ( αsacc/form = 1.007-1.011) were 13C-depleted. The total inorganic carbon produced was only slightly enriched in 13C, but was more enriched, when formate was produced in large amounts, as 12CO 2 was preferentially converted with H 2 to formate. During biomass formation, 12C was slightly preferred ( αsacc/biom ≈ 1.002). The observations in batch culture were confirmed in glucose-limited chemostat culture at growth rates of 0.02-0.15 h -1 at both low and high hydrogen partial pressures. Our experiments showed that the carbon flow at metabolic branch points in the fermentation path governed carbon isotope fractionation to the accumulated products. During production of pyruvate, C isotopes were not fractionated when using cellulose, but were fractionated to different extents depending on growth conditions when using cellobiose or glucose. At the first catabolic branch point (pyruvate), the produced lactate was depleted in 13C, whereas the alternative product acetyl-CoA was 13C enriched. At the second branch point (acetyl-CoA), the ethanol

  19. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed. PMID:18639982

  20. A facile one pot strategy for the synthesis of well-defined polyacrylates from acrylic acid via RAFT polymerization.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianbiao; Wang, Taisheng; Dai, Jingwen; Ma, Chao; Jin, Bangkun; Bai, Ruke

    2014-03-28

    A facile one pot strategy for the preparation of linear and hyperbranched polyacrylates has been successfully developed by the combination of in situ esterification of acrylic acid with halogenated compounds promoted by 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and RAFT polymerization. PMID:24534953

  1. ADIPIC ACID-ENHANCED LIME AND LIMESTONE TESTING AT THE EPA ALKALI SCRUBBING TEST FACILITY. VOLUME 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an advanced test program on a prototype lime/limestone wet-scrubbing test facility for removing SO2 and particulates from coal-fired boiler flue gases. Major effort during the tests was concentrated on evaluating adipic acid as an additive for enhancin...

  2. ADIPIC ACID-ENHANCED LIME AND LIMESTONE TESTING AT THE EPA ALKALI SCRUBBING TEST FACILITY. VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an advanced test program on a prototype lime/limestone wet-scrubbing test facility for removing SO2 and particulates from coal-fired boiler flue gases. Major effort during the tests was concentrated on evaluating adipic acid as an additive for enhancin...

  3. Behavior of transplutonium elements on ion-exchange materials in mixed aqueous-organic solutions of mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, L.I.; Tikhomirov, G.S.; Stepushkina, V.V.

    1987-03-01

    Systematic studies are reported on the behavior of transplutonium elements (TPE) on cation-exchange and anion-exchange materials in mixed aqueous-organic solutions of mineral acids (HClO/sub 4/, HCl, HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) as affected by solution composition, nature of acid, and nature of organic solvent. With all these acids, replacing most of the water by alcohol increases the TPE uptake on the ion exchangers, and the effect occurs for the cation exchangers at lower contents of the organic component. Optimum conditions have been identified for concentrating and separating TPE from numerous elements. The most effective system consists of anion exchanger with HNO/sub 3/ and alcohol.

  4. Electrodialysis recovery of boric acid and potassium hydroxide from eluates of SWC facilities at NPP with VVER

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnik, S.N.; Virich, P.M.; Kramskikh, E.Y.; Masanov, O.L.; Turovsky, I.P.

    1993-12-31

    To extract boric acid and potassium hydroxide from regenerates of SWC-2-46 facilities, an electrodialysis-sorption process has been devised consisting of the following operations: separation of boron-alkaline regenerate solution into desorbate and wash water; filling of desalination and concentration chambers, respectively, with desorbate and was water of electrodialysis equipment; production of boric acid and potassium hydroxide from desorbate by electrodialysis; removal of chloride-ion from boric acid solution on ion-exchange filter AB-17-18. The flow-sheet was tested and boron containing alkaline regeneration solutions were recovered from Novovoronezh NPP.

  5. Poloxamer 407/TPGS mixed micelles for delivery of gambogic acid to breast and multidrug-resistant cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vipin; Hussain, M Delwar

    2012-01-01

    Background Delivery of a high concentration of anticancer drugs specifically to cancer cells remains the biggest challenge for the treatment of multidrug-resistant cancer. Poloxamers and D-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) are known inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Mixed micelles prepared from Poloxamer 407 and TPGS may increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug by delivering high concentrations inside the cells and inhibiting P-gp. Gambogic acid (GA) is a naturally derived novel anticancer agent, but poor solubility and toxic side effects limit its use. In this study, we have developed Poloxamer 407 and TPGS mixed micelle-encapsulating GA for the treatment of breast and multidrug-resistant cancer. Methods GA-loaded Poloxamer 407/TPGS mixed micelles were prepared using a thin film hydration method, and their physicochemical properties were characterized. Cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of the GA-loaded Poloxamer 407/TPGS mixed micelles were studied in breast cancer cells, MCF-7 cells, and multidrug-resistant NCI/ADR-RES cells. Results The diameter of GA-loaded Poloxamer 407/TPGS mixed micelles was about 17.4 ± 0.5 nm and the zeta potential −13.57 mV. The entrapment efficiency of GA was 93.1% ± 0.5% and drug loading was about 9.38% ± 0.29%. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction studies confirmed that GA is encapsulated by the polymers. The in vitro release studies showed that mixed micelles sustained the release of GA for more than 4 days. Results from cellular uptake studies indicated that GA-loaded Poloxamer 407/TPGS mixed micelles had increased cellular uptake of GA in NCI/ADR-RES cells. Cytotoxicity of GA-loaded Poloxamer 407/TPGS mixed micelles was found to be 2.9 times higher in multidrug-resistant NCI/ADR-RES cells, and 1.6 times higher in MCF-7 cells, as compared with unencapsulated GA. Conclusion This study suggests that Poloxamer 407/TPGS mixed micelles can be used as a delivery system for

  6. Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

    2005-07-01

    Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at

  7. pH-Responsive Hyaluronic Acid-Based Mixed Micelles for the Hepatoma-Targeting Delivery of Doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-Liang; Tian, Gui-Xiang; Yu, Wen-Jing; Jia, Guang-Tao; Sun, Tong-Yi; Gao, Zhi-Qin

    2016-01-01

    The tumor targetability and stimulus responsivity of drug delivery systems are crucial in cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, hepatoma-targeting mixed micelles composed of a hyaluronic acid–glycyrrhetinic acid conjugate and a hyaluronic acid-l-histidine conjugate (HA–GA/HA–His) were prepared through ultrasonic dispersion. The formation and characterization of the mixed micelles were confirmed via 1H-NMR, particle size, and ζ potential measurements. The in vitro cellular uptake of the micelles was evaluated using human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The antitumor effect of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Results indicated that the DOX-loaded HA–GA/HA–His micelles showed a pH-dependent controlled release and were remarkably absorbed by HepG2 cells. Compared with free DOX, the DOX-loaded HA–GA/HA–His micelles showed a higher cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. Moreover, the micelles effectively inhibited tumor growth in H22 cell-bearing mice. These results suggest that the HA–GA/HA–His mixed micelles are a good candidate for drug delivery in the prevention and treatment of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:27043540

  8. Facile Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by Amino Acid Asparagine: Selective Sensing of Arsenic.

    PubMed

    Ghodake, Gajanan; Vassiliadis, Vassilios S; Choi, Jeong-Hak; Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung

    2015-09-01

    The amino acid asparagine (ASP) was used as a benign reducing and stabilizing agent for the production of monodisperse gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using green chemistry principles. With an increasing concentration of ASP (0.5 to 10 mM), the absorbance intensity at 525 nm increased; however, no effects on the color, size, or shape of the AuNPs were observed. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed that the AuNPs were either hexagonal or spherical in shape and had an average size of approximately 10 ± 5 nm. Facile colorimetric assays of the AuNPs were applied to detect a variety of heavy metal ion species in water. In this study, the selective detection of arsenic ions (As (III) ions) by quenching, aggregation, and/or red-shifting of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was successfully achieved. The AuNPs sensor was sustainable as a visual colorimetric detection system and spectral assay of hazardous As (III) ions in the reaction medium; thus, it will be useful for aqueous assessment without using any sophisticated or expensive instruments. PMID:26716315

  9. Evolutionary Importance of the Intramolecular Pathways of Hydrolysis of Phosphate Ester Mixed Anhydrides with Amino Acids and Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide-phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation.

  10. Evolutionary Importance of the Intramolecular Pathways of Hydrolysis of Phosphate Ester Mixed Anhydrides with Amino Acids and Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide–phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation. PMID:25501391

  11. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-01-01

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d₃-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control) was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise. PMID:27367725

  12. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-01-01

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d3-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control) was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise. PMID:27367725

  13. Stability Constants of Mixed Ligand Complexes of Nickel(II) with Adenine and Some Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Türkel, Naciye

    2015-01-01

    Nickel is one of the essential trace elements found in biological systems. It is mostly found in nickel-based enzymes as an essential cofactor. It forms coordination complexes with amino acids within enzymes. Nickel is also present in nucleic acids, though its function in DNA or RNA is still not clearly understood. In this study, complex formation tendencies of Ni(II) with adenine and certain L-amino acids such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, leucine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan were investigated in an aqueous medium. Potentiometric equilibrium measurements showed that both binary and ternary complexes of Ni(II) form with adenine and the above-mentioned L-amino acids. Ternary complexes of Ni(II)-adenine-L-amino acids are formed by stepwise mechanisms. Relative stabilities of the ternary complexes are compared with those of the corresponding binary complexes in terms of Δlog10⁡K, log10⁡X, and % RS values. It was shown that the most stable ternary complex is Ni(II):Ade:L-Asn while the weakest one is Ni(II):Ade:L-Phe in aqueous solution used in this research. In addition, results of this research clearly show that various binary and ternary type Ni(II) complexes are formed in different concentrations as a function of pH in aqueous solution. PMID:26843852

  14. Separation of calcium-48 isotope by crown ether chromatography using ethanol/hydrochloric acid mixed solvent.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Shin; Umehara, Saori; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Nomura, Masao; Kaneshiki, Toshitaka; Ozawa, Masaki; Kishimoto, Tadafumi

    2015-10-01

    Benzo-18-crown-6 ether resin embedded in porous silica beads was synthesized and used as the packing material for chromatographic separation of (48)Ca isotope. The aim of the present work is to develop efficient isotope enrichment process for double β decay nuclide (48)Ca. To this end, ethanol/HCl mixed solvent was selected as the medium for the chromatographic separation. Adsorption of calcium on the resin was studied at different HCl concentrations and different ethanol mixing ratios in batch-wise experiments. A very interesting phenomenon was observed; Ca adsorption is controlled not by the overall HCl concentration of the mixed solvent, but by the initial concentration of added HCl solution. Calcium break-through chromatography experiments were conducted by using 75v/v% ethanol/25v/v% 8M HCl mixed solvent at different flow rates. The isotope separation coefficient between (48)Ca and (40)Ca was determined as 3.8×10(-3), which is larger than that of pure HCl solution system. Discussion is extended to the chromatographic HETP, height equivalent to a theoretical plate. PMID:26358563

  15. 21. Public Works Department Drawing 461M8 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Public Works Department Drawing 461-M-8 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage System-Storage Tank Details' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. 20. Public Works Department Drawing 461M7 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Public Works Department Drawing 461-M-7 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage System-Building 463 Details' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. 31. Public Works Department Drawing 463M5 (1992), 'Replace Acid Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Public Works Department Drawing 463-M-5 (1992), 'Replace Acid Tank No. 3-Plan, Elevation, Details' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. 29. Public Works Department Drawing 461S18 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Public Works Department Drawing 461-S-18 (1943), 'Sulphuric Acid Storage System-Details Of Tank Platform' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Treatment of Arsenic, Heavy Metals, and Acidity Using a Mixed ZVI-Compost PRB

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 30-month performance evaluation of a pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility was conducted. The PRB is designed to remove ...

  20. Communication: Physical origins of ionization potential shifts in mixed carboxylic acids and water complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Quanli; Tang, Zhen; Su, Peifeng; Wu, Wei; Yang, Zhijun; Trindle, Carl O.; Knee, Joseph L.

    2016-08-01

    The ionization potential (IP) of the aromatic alpha hydroxy carboxylic acid, 9-hydroxy-9-fluorene carboxylic acid (9HFCA), is shifted by complexation with hydrogen bonding ligands such as water and formic acid. Generalized Kohn-Sham energy decomposition analysis decomposes the intermolecular binding energies into a frozen energy term, polarization, correlation, and/or dispersion energy terms, as well as terms of geometric relaxation and zero point energy. We observe that in each dimer the attractive polarization always increases upon ionization, enhancing binding in the cation and shifting the IP toward the red. For 9HFCA—H2O, a substantial decrease of the repulsive frozen energy in cation further shifts the IP toward red. For 9HFCA—HCOOH, the increase of the frozen energy actually occurs in the cation and shifts the IP toward blue. Consistent with the experimental measurements, our analysis provides new, non-intuitive perspectives on multiple hydrogen bonds interactions in carboxylic acids and water complexes.

  1. Improvement of L-lactic acid production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by mixed culture of Aspergillus niger and Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiang-Yang; Qian, He; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2009-03-01

    Aspergillus niger SL-09 and Lactobacillus sp. G-02 were used as a mixed culture in a 7-l fermentor to directly form L-lactic acid from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. The synthesis of inulinase and invertase from A. niger SL-09 was enhanced significantly by the inoculation of Lactobacillus sp. G-02 at 12h of culture, which reached 275.6 and 571.8 U/ml in 60 h, over 5-folds higher than that of the culture using single strain. In the following simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedure, the highest L-lactic acid concentration of 120.5 g/l was obtained in 36 h of the fed-batch fermentation with high conversion efficiency of 94.5%. PMID:18990562

  2. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files: Part 2, Low-level waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies.

  3. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site`s centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million.

  4. Interaction of mixed micelles formed from glycocholic acid and lecithin with the protein binding of various drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Guentert, T W; Oie, S; Paalzow, L; Frey, B M; Brandt, R; Aarons, L J; Rowland, M

    1987-01-01

    Mixed micelles (MM) formed from glycocholic acid and lecithin are suited to solubilize lipophilic drugs for intravenous use. To test for possible drug-drug interactions, the protein binding of a series of agents known to bind to different sites on albumin (diazepam, warfarin, ketoprofen, frusemide, probenecid) and additionally (prazosin, quinidine, propranolol) or exclusively (disopyramide) to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein or to transcortin (prednisolone) was determined in the presence and absence of MM. Concentrations of MM, corresponding to the maximum possible plasma concentration achieved by injecting the highest clinical doses of MM into the systemic circulation, had little or no effect on the unbound fractions of drugs known to bind exclusively to albumin. Only at five times higher MM concentrations were the free fractions substantially increased (by up to 45%). Unbound fractions of drugs bound with high affinity but low capacity to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein were increased between 50-85% even at 'therapeutic' doses of MM. The present study suggests that drugs solubilized by MM should be given by slow injection or infusion to patients already receiving drugs which are highly bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. PMID:3593626

  5. Nucleation of Mixed Nitric Acid-Water Ice Nanoparticles in Molecular Beams that Starts with a HNO3 Molecule.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Jozef; Pysanenko, Andriy; Kočišek, Jaroslav; Poterya, Viktoriya; Pradzynski, Christoph C; Zeuch, Thomas; Slavíček, Petr; Fárník, Michal

    2012-11-01

    Mixed (HNO3)m(H2O)n clusters generated in supersonic expansion of nitric acid vapor are investigated in two different experiments, (1) time-of-flight mass spectrometry after electron ionization and (2) Na doping and photoionization. This combination of complementary methods reveals that only clusters containing at least one acid molecule are generated, that is, the acid molecule serves as the nucleation center in the expansion. The experiments also suggest that at least four water molecules are needed for HNO3 acidic dissociation. The clusters are undoubtedly generated, as proved by electron ionization; however, they are not detected by the Na doping due to a fast charge-transfer reaction between the Na atom and HNO3. This points to limitations of the Na doping recently advocated as a general method for atmospheric aerosol detection. On the other hand, the combination of the two methods introduces a tool for detecting molecules with sizable electron affinity in clusters. PMID:26296012

  6. Graphene decorated with PtAu alloy nanoparticles: facile synthesis and promising application for formic acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Liao, Honggang; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-03-01

    PtAu alloy nanoparticles (~ 3.2 nm in diameter) are synthesized in poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) aqueous solution and uniformly dispersed on graphene nanosheets. PtAu/graphene exhibits high electrocatalytic activity and stability for formic acid oxidation, which is attributed to the high dispersion of PtAu nanoparticles and the specific interaction between PtAu and graphene, indicating a promising catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells. The facile method can be readily extended to the synthesis of other alloy nanoparticles.

  7. Amino acid side chain-like surface modification on magnetic nanoparticles for highly efficient separation of mixed proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Youn; Ahn, Chi Young; Lee, Jiho; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2012-05-15

    This work reports on the realization of specific functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Si-MNPs) for effective protein separation through surface modification with various amino acid side chain-like functional groups such as thiol (-SH), disulfide (-S-S-), carbon chain (-C(n)), carboxyl (-COOH), amine (-NH(2)), and aldehyde (-CHO). This study also suggests an improved and convenient method for the synthesis of functionalized Si-MNPs by hydrolysis condensation with silan-coupling agents. The protein adsorption effects in a coexistent mixed state are explored using various proteins, which have different isoelectric point (pI) values and molecular weights, in order to elucidate the binding performance of different proteins one solution. The adsorption efficiency of bovine serum albumin (BSA; 66 kDa; pI=4.65) and lysozyme (LYZ; 14.3 kDa; pI=11) is 70-100% with various amino acid side chain-like functional groups. However, the adsorption efficiency of a mixed protein solution of BSA and LYZ was different. Although the relatively bulky BSA molecule displayed 50% and 20% adsorption corresponding to pH 4.65, and pH 11, respectively, the smaller LYZ provided almost 100% adsorption at both pH 4.65 and pH 11. PMID:22483893

  8. Monomeric mixed cadmium-2,2'-dipyridylamine complex derived from ferrocenecarboxylic acid: Structural, electrochemical and biological studies.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Kabali; Gopalakrishnan, Mohan; Palanisami, Nallasamy

    2015-09-01

    A mixed Cd(II) complex {[Cd(FcCOO)2(dpyam)(H2O)][Cd(dpyam)2 (H2O)2]·(ClO4)2·CH3OH} (1) (where FcCOO=ferrocenecarboxylic acid and dpyam=2,2'-dipyridylamine), has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, (1)H &(13)C NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The molecular structure of compound 1 has been determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique, which consists of mixed two different cadmium(II) complexes and two uncoordinated perchlorate ions. The crystal packing shows that the compound 1 self-assembled by intermolecular hydrogen bonding via pyridyl N-H⋯O and coordinated water O⋯H-O-H⋯O, to afford the molecule 2D supramolecular network. Compound 1 exhibits high-energy intraligand (π-π(∗)) fluorescence emission. In electrochemical studies of compound 1 shows negative potential compared with ferrocenecarboxylic acid due to formation of coordination complex with Cd ions. The antibacterial study against the distinct bacterial strains show compound 1 has significant activity. PMID:25879985

  9. Monomeric mixed cadmium-2,2‧-dipyridylamine complex derived from ferrocenecarboxylic acid: Structural, electrochemical and biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Kabali; Gopalakrishnan, Mohan; Palanisami, Nallasamy

    2015-09-01

    A mixed Cd(II) complex {[Cd(FcCOO)2(dpyam)(H2O)][Cd(dpyam)2 (H2O)2]·(ClO4)2·CH3OH} (1) (where FcCOO = ferrocenecarboxylic acid and dpyam = 2,2‧-dipyridylamine), has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H & 13C NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The molecular structure of compound 1 has been determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique, which consists of mixed two different cadmium(II) complexes and two uncoordinated perchlorate ions. The crystal packing shows that the compound 1 self-assembled by intermolecular hydrogen bonding via pyridyl N-H⋯O and coordinated water O⋯H-O-H⋯O, to afford the molecule 2D supramolecular network. Compound 1 exhibits high-energy intraligand (π-π∗) fluorescence emission. In electrochemical studies of compound 1 shows negative potential compared with ferrocenecarboxylic acid due to formation of coordination complex with Cd ions. The antibacterial study against the distinct bacterial strains show compound 1 has significant activity.

  10. Hydrogen bond-induced vibronic mode mixing in benzoic acid dimer: a laser-induced fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Chayan K; Chakraborty, Tapas

    2004-05-01

    Laser-induced dispersed fluorescence spectra of benzoic acid dimer in the cold environment of supersonic jet expansion have been reinvestigated with improved spectral resolution of measurements. The spectra are analyzed with the aid of the normal mode vibrations of the dimer calculated by the ab initio quantum chemistry method at the DFT/B3LYP/6-311+G(*) (*) level of theory. The analysis reveals that the low-frequency intermolecular hydrogen bond modes are mixed extensively with the carboxyl as well as aromatic ring vibrations upon electronic excitation. The mode mixing is manifested as the complete loss of mirror symmetry relation between the fluorescence excitation and dispersed fluorescence spectra of the S(1) origin, and appearance of large number of cross-sequence transitions when the DF spectra are measured by exciting the low-energy vibrations near the S(1) origin. The cross-sequence bands are found in all the cases to be the combinations of two nontotally symmetric fundamentals consisting of one of the intermolecular hydrogen bond modes and the other from the aromatic ring and carboxyl group vibrations. The implications of this mode mixing on the excited state dynamics of the dimer are discussed. PMID:15267778

  11. Facile synthesis of nano-sized agarose based amino acid-Its pH-dependent protein-like behavior and interactions with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Chudasama, Nishith A; Siddhanta, A K

    2015-11-19

    In a facile synthesis agarose was amphoterically functionalized to afford nano-sized agarose amino acids, aminoagarose succinate half-esters (AAE) containing one pendant carboxyl group. Nano-sized AAEs (<10 nm; DLS) were characterized and they had three various degrees of substitution [overall DSs 0.88, 0.89 and 0.96], both the amino and half-ester groups were placed on C-6 positions of the 1,3 beta-d-galactopyranose moieties of agarose backbone ((13)C NMR). AAEs performed like large protein molecules exhibiting pH-responsive structural variations (optical rotatory dispersion), presenting a mixed solubility pattern like random coil (soluble) and aggregate (precipitation) formations. Circular dichroism studies showed their pH-dependent associative interactions with bovine serum albumin, which indicated complexation at acidic and basic pHs, and decomplexation at pH 6.8 with AAE (DS 0.96). Thus, these nano-sized AAE based systems may be of potential utility in the domains demanding the merits of preferential protein bindings e.g. pH-responsive cationic/anionic drug carrier, separations or chiral sensing applications. PMID:26413976

  12. EFFECTS OF THREE CONCENTRATIONS OF MIXED FATTY ACIDS ON DECHLORINATION OF TETRACHLOROETHENE IN AQUIFER MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloroethenes are among the most common organic contaminants of ground water. he biotransformation of these compounds by reductive dechlorination is a promising technology for in situ treatment. he effects of three concentrations of a fatty acids mixture on the reductive dehaloge...

  13. EFFECTS OF THREE CONCENTRATIONS OF MIXED FATTY ACIDS ON DECHLORINATION OF TETRACHLOROETHENE IN AQUIFER MICRO- COSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloroethenes are among the most common organic contaminants of ground water. The biotransformation of these compounds by reductive dechlorination is a promising technology for in situ treatment. The effects of three concentrations of a fatty acids mixture on the reductive dehalo...

  14. Communication: Physical origins of ionization potential shifts in mixed carboxylic acids and water complexes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Quanli; Tang, Zhen; Su, Peifeng; Wu, Wei; Yang, Zhijun; Trindle, Carl O; Knee, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    The ionization potential (IP) of the aromatic alpha hydroxy carboxylic acid, 9-hydroxy-9-fluorene carboxylic acid (9HFCA), is shifted by complexation with hydrogen bonding ligands such as water and formic acid. Generalized Kohn-Sham energy decomposition analysis decomposes the intermolecular binding energies into a frozen energy term, polarization, correlation, and/or dispersion energy terms, as well as terms of geometric relaxation and zero point energy. We observe that in each dimer the attractive polarization always increases upon ionization, enhancing binding in the cation and shifting the IP toward the red. For 9HFCA-H2O, a substantial decrease of the repulsive frozen energy in cation further shifts the IP toward red. For 9HFCA-HCOOH, the increase of the frozen energy actually occurs in the cation and shifts the IP toward blue. Consistent with the experimental measurements, our analysis provides new, non-intuitive perspectives on multiple hydrogen bonds interactions in carboxylic acids and water complexes. PMID:27497532

  15. Mixed Effects Modeling Using Stochastic Differential Equations: Illustrated by Pharmacokinetic Data of Nicotinic Acid in Obese Zucker Rats.

    PubMed

    Leander, Jacob; Almquist, Joachim; Ahlström, Christine; Gabrielsson, Johan; Jirstrand, Mats

    2015-05-01

    Inclusion of stochastic differential equations in mixed effects models provides means to quantify and distinguish three sources of variability in data. In addition to the two commonly encountered sources, measurement error and interindividual variability, we also consider uncertainty in the dynamical model itself. To this end, we extend the ordinary differential equation setting used in nonlinear mixed effects models to include stochastic differential equations. The approximate population likelihood is derived using the first-order conditional estimation with interaction method and extended Kalman filtering. To illustrate the application of the stochastic differential mixed effects model, two pharmacokinetic models are considered. First, we use a stochastic one-compartmental model with first-order input and nonlinear elimination to generate synthetic data in a simulated study. We show that by using the proposed method, the three sources of variability can be successfully separated. If the stochastic part is neglected, the parameter estimates become biased, and the measurement error variance is significantly overestimated. Second, we consider an extension to a stochastic pharmacokinetic model in a preclinical study of nicotinic acid kinetics in obese Zucker rats. The parameter estimates are compared between a deterministic and a stochastic NiAc disposition model, respectively. Discrepancies between model predictions and observations, previously described as measurement noise only, are now separated into a comparatively lower level of measurement noise and a significant uncertainty in model dynamics. These examples demonstrate that stochastic differential mixed effects models are useful tools for identifying incomplete or inaccurate model dynamics and for reducing potential bias in parameter estimates due to such model deficiencies. PMID:25693487

  16. Acid Mine Drainage Passive Remediation: Potential Use of Alkaline Clay, Optimal Mixing Ratio and Long Term Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, F.; Liang, X.; Wen, Y.; Perone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mine industry. Surface water and ground water affected by this pollution are characterized by their acidity and the high content of sulfates and heavy metals. In this study, alkaline clay, an industrial waste with a high pH, which is utilized in the alumina refining process, was used as the remediation material to inhibit pyrite oxidation. Through a series of batch and column experiments, complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling, three important issues associated with this passive and auto sustainable acid mine drainage remediation method were investigated: 1) the potential use of alkaline clay as an AMD remediation material, 2) the adequate alkaline clay/coal refuse mixing ratio (AC/CR) to ensure pH values near to neutral conditions, and, 3) the prediction of long term impacts, in terms of the trends of the main parameters involved in this process such as pH, concentrations of sulfate, iron and other dissolved contaminants. Both field measurements and the samples used for the experiments came from a coal waste site located in Mather, Pennsylvania. Alkaline clay proved to be an effective remediation material for AMD. It was found that 10% AC/CR is an adequate mixing ratio (i.e. the upper limit), which has been also indicated by field measurements. The concentrations of some contaminants such as iron, manganese or sulfate are significantly reduced with the remediation approach, compared to those representative concentrations found in mine tailings. Moreover, results suggest a very reliable long-term stability of the remediation (i.e. neutral pH conditions are maintained), thus enhancing the generation of iron precipitates that could produce pyrite grain coating and hardpan (i.e. cemented layer) on the surface. These processes also made the amended layer less porous, thus increasing water retention and hindering oxygen diffusion.

  17. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis–sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g−1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g−1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)–sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste. PMID:23939253

  18. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis-sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m(2) g(-1), which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g(-1) of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)-sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste. PMID:23939253

  19. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-08-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis-sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g-1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g-1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)-sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste.

  20. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Raju, Muralikrishna; Watson, Valerie J.; Stack, Andrew G.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-11-03

    We report that the amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10–5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g–1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g–1) had a negative rise potential (₋31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to ₋6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. In conclusion, these results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  1. A simple and fast method based on mixed hemimicelles coated magnetite nanoparticles for simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira

    2016-01-01

    One of the considerable and disputable areas in analytical chemistry is a single-step simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic pollutants. In this research, a simple and fast coextraction of acidic and basic pollutants (with different polarities) with the aid of magnetic dispersive micro-solid phase extraction based on mixed hemimicelles assembly was introduced for the first time. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an efficient sorbent was successfully applied to adsorb 4-nitrophenol and 4-chlorophenol as two acidic and chlorinated aromatic amines as basic model compounds. Using a central composite design methodology combined with desirability function approach, the optimal experimental conditions were evaluated. The opted conditions were pH = 10; concentration of CTAB = 0.86 mmol L(-1); sorbent amount = 55.5 mg; sorption time = 11.0 min; no salt addition to the sample, type, and volume of the eluent = 120 μL methanol containing 5% acetic acid and 0.01 mol L(-1) HCl; and elution time = 1.0 min. Under the optimum conditions, detection limits and linear dynamic ranges were achieved in the range of 0.05-0.1 and 0.25-500 μg L(-1), respectively. The percent of extraction recoveries and relative standard deviations (n = 5) were in the range of 71.4-98.0 and 4.5-6.5, respectively. The performance of the optimized method was certified by coextraction of other acidic and basic compounds. Ultimately, the applicability of the method was successfully confirmed by the extraction and determination of the target analytes in various water samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:26507332

  2. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Raju, Muralikrishna; Watson, Valerie J.; Stack, Andrew G.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-11-03

    We report that the amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10–5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g–1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in themore » LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g–1) had a negative rise potential (₋31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to ₋6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. In conclusion, these results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.« less

  3. Nitric acid oxide mixing ratio measurements using a rocket launched chemiluminescent instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Jack J.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 18 rocket launched parachute borne nitric oxide instruments were launched from 1977 to 1985. A very precise instrument for the measurement of the nitric oxide mixing ratio was fabricated. No changes were made in the main body of the instruments, i.e., things associated with the reaction volume. Except for the last 4 launches, however, it did not yield the required absolute values that was hoped for. Two major problems were encountered. First, the wrong choice of the background calibration gas, nitrogen, caused the first 10 data sets to be too low in the absolute mixing ratio by nearly the order of 2 to 5 ppbv. The error was realized, and air was substituted for the bias gas measurement. Second, in the desire to extend the measurement to higher altitudes, the problem of contaminating the inlet flow tube with ozone from the reagent gas was encountered. The ozone valve was opened too early in the flight and this caused the pressure in the reaction volume to exceed the pressure at the flow tube entrance, permitting the ozone to migrate backwards. This problem was restricted to an altitude above 45 km.

  4. Evaluation of layered and mixed passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Jeen, Sung-Wook; Mattson, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory column tests for passive treatment systems for mine drainage from a waste rock storage area were conducted to evaluate suitable reactive mixture, system configuration, effects of influent water chemistry, and required residence time. Five columns containing straw, chicken manure, mushroom compost, and limestone (LS), in either layered or mixed configurations, were set up to simulate the treatment system. The results showed that all of the five columns removed metals of concern (i.e. Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn) with a residence time of 15 h and greater. Reaction mechanisms responsible for the removal of metals may include sulfate reduction and subsequent sulfide precipitation, precipitation of secondary carbonates and hydroxides, co-precipitation, and sorption on organic substrates and secondary precipitates. The results suggest that the mixed systems containing organic materials and LS perform better than the layered systems, sequentially treated by organic and LS layers, due to the enhanced pH adjustment, which is beneficial to bacterial activity and precipitation of secondary minerals. The column tests provide a basis for the design of a field-scale passive treatment system, such as a reducing and alkalinity producing system or a permeable reactive barrier. PMID:26998668

  5. Polarographic behavior of vanadium(V) in mixed mineral-acid-organic electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurbatov, D.I.; Egorochkin, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    Reducing vanadium(V) in phosphoric-acid-potassium citrate-EDTA solutions in order to develop its polarographic determination in iron-containing materials was studied. Polarography with triangular potential sweep was used. The reference electrode was a saturated calomel electrode linked to the test via a potassium chloride salt bridge. Working solutions were prepared with phosphoric acid solution. It was established that polarographic characteristics depend on solution pH. Experimental currents of the second cathodic and anodic wave as functions of potential scan rate in order to examine the kinetics and mechanism of vanadium(V) reduction under optimum conditions was also studied and found to be irreversible. Polarographic characteristics are tabulated.

  6. Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Kasirajan; Sivakumar, Pandian; Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

    2011-08-01

    Al(HSO(4))(3) heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl(3). This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method. The maximum conversion of triglyceride was achieved as 81 wt.% with 50 min reaction time at 220°C, 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 0.5 wt.% of catalyst. The high catalytic activity and stability of this catalyst was related to its high acid site density (-OH, Brönsted acid sites), hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH group, hydrophilic functional groups (-SO(3)H) that gave improved accessibility of methanol to the triglyceride. The fuel properties of methyl ester were analyzed. The fuel properties were found to be observed within the limits of ASTM D6751. PMID:21621409

  7. Mutations in NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of Escherichia coli affect growth on mixed amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Prüss, B M; Nelms, J M; Park, C; Wolfe, A J

    1994-01-01

    We isolated and characterized mutants defective in nuo, encoding NADH dehydrogenase I, the multisubunit complex homologous to eucaryotic mitochondrial complex I. By Southern hybridization and/or sequence analysis, we characterized three distinct mutations: a polar insertion designated nuoG::Tn10-1, a nonpolar insertion designated nuoF::Km-1, and a large deletion designated delta(nuoFGHIJKL)-1. Cells carrying any of these three mutations exhibited identical phenotypes. Each mutant exhibited reduced NADH oxidase activity, grew poorly on minimal salts medium containing acetate as the sole carbon source, and failed to produce the inner, L-aspartate chemotactic band on tryptone swarm plates. During exponential growth in tryptone broth, nuo mutants grew as rapidly as wild-type cells and excreted similar amounts of acetate into the medium. As they began the transition to stationary phase, in contrast to wild-type cells, the mutant cells abruptly slowed their growth and continued to excrete acetate. The growth defect was entirely suppressed by L-serine or D-pyruvate, partially suppressed by alpha-ketoglutarate or acetate, and not suppressed by L-aspartate or L-glutamate. We extended these studies, analyzing the sequential consumption of amino acids by both wild-type and nuo mutant cells growing in tryptone broth. During the lag and exponential phases, both wild-type and mutant cells consumed, in order, L-serine and L-aspartate. As they began the transition to stationary phase, both cell types consumed L-tryptophan. Whereas wild-type cells then consumed L-glutamate, glycine, L-threonine, and L-alanine, mutant cells utilized these amino acids poorly. We propose that cells defective for NADH dehydrogenase I exhibit all these phenotypes, because large NADH/NAD+ ratios inhibit certain tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, e.g., citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase. Images PMID:8157582

  8. Metabolic engineering of the mixed-acid fermentation pathway of Escherichia coli for anaerobic production of glutamate and itaconate.

    PubMed

    Vuoristo, Kiira S; Mars, Astrid E; Sangra, Jose Vidal; Springer, Jan; Eggink, Gerrit; Sanders, Johan P M; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2015-12-01

    Itaconic acid, an unsaturated C5-dicarboxylic acid, is a biobased building block for the polymer industry. The purpose of this study was to establish proof of principle for an anaerobic fermentation process for the production of itaconic acid by modification of the mixed acid fermentation pathway of E. coli. E. coli BW25113 (DE3) and the phosphate acetyltransferase (pta) and lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA) deficient strain E. coli BW25113 (DE3) Δpta-ΔldhA were used to study anaerobic itaconate production in E. coli. Heterologous expression of the gene encoding cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cadA) from A. terreus in E. coli BW25113 (DE3) did not result in itaconate production under anaerobic conditions, but 0.08 mM of itaconate was formed when the genes encoding citrate synthase (gltA) and aconitase (acnA) from Corynebacterium glutamicum were also expressed. The same amount was produced when cadA was expressed in E. coli BW25113 (DE3) Δpta-ΔldhA. The titre increased 8 times to 0.66 mM (1.2 % Cmol) when E. coli BW25113 (DE3) Δpta-ΔldhA also expressed gltA and acnA. In addition, this strain produced 8.5 mM (13 % Cmol) of glutamate. The use of a nitrogen-limited growth medium reduced the accumulation of glutamate by nearly 50 % compared to the normal medium, and also resulted in a more than 3-fold increase of the itaconate titre to 2.9 mM. These results demonstrated that E. coli has potential to produce itaconate and glutamate under anaerobic conditions, closing the redox balance by co-production of succinate or ethanol with H2 and CO2. PMID:26384341

  9. The Langmuir-Blodgett technique as a tool for homeotropic alignment of fluorinated liquid crystals mixed with arachidic acid.

    PubMed

    Modlińska, Anna; Bauman, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    Some fluoro-substituted liquid crystals mixed with arachidic acid in monolayers formed at air-liquid (Langmuir films) and air-solid substrate (Langmuir-Blodgett films) interfaces were investigated. Molecular organization in Langmuir films was determined on the basis of the analysis of the shape of the surface pressure-mean molecular area isotherm and observations made by means of a Brewster angle microscope. It was found that in the compression process the liquid crystal molecules are pushed out towards the top of the first monolayer being in direct contact with the subphase. Langmuir films were transferred onto the quartz substrates at various surface pressures and mono- and multilayered Langmuir-Blodgett films were obtained. The films were characterized using electronic absorption measurements. The conditions for obtaining the homeotropic orientation of the liquid crystal molecules were determined. PMID:21954335

  10. The Langmuir-Blodgett Technique as a Tool for Homeotropic Alignment of Fluorinated Liquid Crystals Mixed with Arachidic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Modlińska, Anna; Bauman, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    Some fluoro-substituted liquid crystals mixed with arachidic acid in monolayers formed at air-liquid (Langmuir films) and air-solid substrate (Langmuir-Blodgett films) interfaces were investigated. Molecular organization in Langmuir films was determined on the basis of the analysis of the shape of the surface pressure-mean molecular area isotherm and observations made by means of a Brewster angle microscope. It was found that in the compression process the liquid crystal molecules are pushed out towards the top of the first monolayer being in direct contact with the subphase. Langmuir films were transferred onto the quartz substrates at various surface pressures and mono- and multilayered Langmuir-Blodgett films were obtained. The films were characterized using electronic absorption measurements. The conditions for obtaining the homeotropic orientation of the liquid crystal molecules were determined. PMID:21954335

  11. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/linoleic acid mixed unilamellar vesicles as model membranes for studies on novel free-radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Castelli, F; Trombetta, D; Tomaino, A; Bonina, F; Romeo, G; Uccella, N; Saija, A

    1997-04-01

    Large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) are generally accepted to be a suitable model for peroxidation studies. In the present report, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/linoleic acid-mixed LUVs were employed as model membranes to verify the inhibitory effect of tocopherol (an efficient representative antioxidant) against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)hydrochloride-induced peroxidation (evaluated by monitoring conjugated diene accumulation). In this model, the appropriate experimental conditions (particularly, liposome composition and peroxidation temperature) were selected following characterization of bilayer physical state, and not only by evaluation of peroxidation rate. Thus, the experiments described provide a routine screening procedure that would be appropriate for assessing the activity profile of novel free-radical scavengers. PMID:9253749

  12. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: The Way Forward in Times of Mixed Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Weylandt, Karsten H.; Serini, Simona; Chen, Yong Q.; Su, Hui-Min; Lim, Kyu; Cittadini, Achille; Calviello, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Almost forty years ago, it was first hypothesized that an increased dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish fat could exert protective effects against several pathologies. Decades of intense preclinical investigation have supported this hypothesis in a variety of model systems. Several clinical cardiovascular studies demonstrated the beneficial health effects of omega-3 PUFA, leading medical institutions worldwide to publish recommendations for their increased intake. However, particularly in recent years, contradictory results have been obtained in human studies focusing on cardiovascular disease and the clinical evidence in other diseases, particularly chronic inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, was never established to a degree that led to clear approval of treatment with omega-3 PUFA. Recent data not in line with the previous findings have sparked a debate on the health efficacy of omega-3 PUFA and the usefulness of increasing their intake for the prevention of a number of pathologies. In this review, we aim to examine the controversies on the possible use of these fatty acids as preventive/curative tools against the development of cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases, as well as several kinds of cancer. PMID:26301240

  13. Pattern formation in fatty acid-nanoparticle and lipid-nanoparticle mixed monolayers at water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, M.; Datta, A.; Iyengar, A. N. Sekar; Janaki, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Dodecanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are self-organized in two different amphiphilic monolayers one of which is a single-tailed fatty acid Stearic acid (StA) and the other a double-tailed lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC). In the StA-AuNP film the AuNPs self-organize to form an interconnected network of nanoclusters on compression while in the DMPC-AuNP film the AuNPs aggregate to form random, isolated clusters in the film. The long time evolution of the films at constant surface pressure reveals ring structures in the former and diffusion limited aggregates in the latter that with time evolve into an irregular porous maze of AuNPs in the DMPC film. The difference in structure of the AuNP patterns in the two films can be attributed to a difference in the lipophilic interactions between the NPs and the amphiphilic molecules. The mean square intensity fluctuations f(ln) calculated along a typical line for the 2D structures in both the films at initial and final stages of long time evolution reflect the structural changes in the films over time.

  14. Complex Formation Between Lysozyme and Stabilized Micelles with a Mixed Poly(ethylene oxide)/Poly(acrylic acid) Shell.

    PubMed

    Karayianni, Maria; Gancheva, Valeria; Pispas, Stergios; Petrov, Petar

    2016-03-10

    The electrostatic complexation between lysozyme and stabilized polymeric micelles (SPMs) with a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or a mixed poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(acrylic acid) (PEO/PAA) shell (SPMs with a mixed shell, SPMMS) and a temperature-responsive poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) core was investigated by means of dynamic, static, and electrophoretic light scattering. The SPMs and different types of SPMMS used resulted from the self-assembly of PAA-PPO-PAA triblock copolymer chains, or PAA-PPO-PAA and PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer chain mixtures (with varying chain lengths and molar ratios) in aqueous solutions at pH 10 and the subsequent cross-linking of their PPO cores via loading and photo-cross-linking of pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (PETA). The solution behavior, structure and properties of the formed complexes at pH 7 and 0.01 M ionic strength, were studied as a function of the protein concentration in the solution (the concentration of the stabilized micelles was kept constant) or equivalently the ratio of the two components. The complexation process and properties of the complexes proved to be dependent on the protein concentration, while of particular interest was the effect of the structure of the shell of the SPMs on the stability/solubility of the complexes. Finally, the fluorescence and mid infrared spectroscopic investigation of the structure of the complexed protein showed that, although a small stretching of the protein molecules occurred in some cases, no protein denaturation takes place upon complexation. PMID:26881445

  15. Multi-objective Mixed Integer Programming approach for facility layout design by considering closeness ratings, material handling, and re-layout cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, Muhammad Ridwan Andi; Satrio Wiwoho, Yoga

    2016-01-01

    Facility layout becomes one of production system factor that should be managed well, as it is designated for the location of production. In managing the layout, designing the layout by considering the optimal layout condition that supports the work condition is essential. One of the method for facility layout optimization is Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). In this study, the MIP is solved using Lingo 9.0 software and considering quantitative and qualitative objectives to be achieved simultaneously: minimizing material handling cost, maximizing closeness rating, and minimizing re-layout cost. The research took place in Rekayasa Wangdi as a make to order company, focusing on the making of concrete brick dough stirring machine with 10 departments involved. The result shows an improvement in the new layout for 333,72 points of objective value compared with the initial layout. As the conclusion, the proposed MIP is proven to be used to model facility layout problem under multi objective consideration for a more realistic look.

  16. Treatment of Arsenic, Heavy Metals, and Acidity Using a Mixed ZVI-Compost PRB

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, R.; Smyth, D; Blowes, D; Spink, L; Wilkin, R; Jewett, D; Weisener, C

    2009-01-01

    A 30-month performance evaluation of a pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone, and pea gravel was conducted at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, SC. The PRB is designed to remove heavy metals and arsenic from groundwater by promoting microbially mediated sulfate reduction and sulfide-mineral precipitation and arsenic and heavy metal sorption. Performance monitoring showed effective treatment of As, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni from concentrations as high as 206 mg L{sup -1}, 2.02 mg L{sup -1}, 0.324 mg L{sup -1}, 1060 mg L{sup -1}, and 2.12 mg L{sup -1}, respectively, entering the PRB, to average concentrations of <0.03 mg L{sup -1}, < 0.003 mg L{sup -1}, < 0.001 mg L{sup -1}, < 0.23 mg L{sup -1}, and <0.003 mg L{sup -1}, respectively, within the PRB. Both As(III) and As(V) were effectively removed from solution with X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis of core samples indicating the presence of As(V) in oxygen-bound form and As(III) in both oxygen- and sulfur-bound forms. XANES solid phase sulfur analysis indicated decreases in the peak amplitude of intermediate oxidized sulfur species and sulfate components with increasing distance and depth within the PRB.

  17. Facile preparation of highly-dispersed cobalt-silicon mixed oxide nanosphere and its catalytic application in cyclohexane selective oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Highly dispersed cobalt-silicon mixed oxide [Co-SiO2] nanosphere was successfully prepared with a modified reverse-phase microemulsion method. This material was characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, X-ray absorption spectroscopy near-edge structure, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. High valence state cobalt could be easily obtained without calcination, which is fascinating for the catalytic application for its strong oxidation ability. In the selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Co-SiO2 acted as an efficient catalyst, and good activity could be obtained under mild conditions. PMID:22067075

  18. Flux balance analysis of mixed microbial cultures: application to the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from complex mixtures of volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Pardelha, Filipa; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Reis, Maria A M; Dias, João M L; Oliveira, Rui

    2012-12-31

    Fermented agro-industrial wastes are potential low cost substrates for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production by mixed microbial cultures (MMC). The use of complex substrates has however profound implications in the PHA metabolism. In this paper we investigate PHA accumulation using a lumped metabolic model that describes PHA storage from arbitrary mixtures of volatile fatty acids (VFA). Experiments were conducted using synthetic and complex VFA mixtures obtained from the fermentation of sugar cane molasses. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) and flux balance analysis (FBA) were performed at different stages of culture enrichment in order to investigate the effect of VFA composition and time of enrichment in PHA storage efficiency. Substrate uptake and PHA storage fluxes increased over enrichment time by 70% and 73%, respectively. MFA calculations show that higher PHA storage fluxes are associated to an increase in the uptake of VFA with even number of carbon atoms and a more effective synthesis of hydroxyvalerate (HV) precursors from VFA with odd number of carbons. Furthermore, FBA shows that the key metabolic objective of a MMC subjected to the feast and famine regimen is the minimization of the tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes. The PHA flux and biopolymer composition (hydroxybutyrate (HB): HV) could be accurately predicted in several independent experiments. PMID:23036926

  19. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of mixed ligand dioxouranium complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline and some amino acids.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sunil S; Shaikh, Manzoor M

    2012-01-01

    Mixed ligand complexes of dioxouranium(VI) of the type [UO2(Q)(L)-2H2O] have been synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) as a primary ligand and N- and/or O- donor amino acids (HL) such as L-lysine, L-aspartic acid and L-cysteine as secondary ligands. The metal complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, electrical conductance, room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements, spectral and thermal studies. The electrical conductance studies of the complexes in DMF in 10(-3) M concentration indicate their non-electrolytic nature. Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed diamagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes show intra-ligand and charge transfer transitions, respectively. Bonding of the metal ion through N- and O- donor atoms of the ligands is revealed by IR studies and the chemical environment of the protons is also confirmed by NMR studies. The thermal analysis data of the complexes indicate the presence of coordinated water molecules. The agar cup and tube dilution methods have been used to study the antibacterial activity of the complexes against the pathogenic bacteria S. aureus, C. diphtherinae, S. typhi and E. coli. PMID:22876610

  20. Acidic and catalytic properties of SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} mixed oxides prepared by the sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Guiu, G.; Grange, P.

    1995-09-15

    The acidic and catalytic properties of a series of silicon-tantalum mixed oxides containing between 0 and 30 at% tantalum were characterized by temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia, by FTIR spectra of adsorbed pyridine, and by the test reaction of 1-butanol dehydration at 250-300{degrees}C. Probe molecule adsorption and catalytic testing show an acid site generation in silicon-tantalum mixed oxides compared to pure tantalum oxide. Both Bronsted and Lewis acid sites are present on the mixed oxide surface. Bronsted and Lewis acid sites seem to be weaker in SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} mixed oxide than in analogous SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, since a greater reaction temperature is required to achieve the same conversion in the above test reaction. However, a great advantage of this new solid acid is the production of butenes with 100% selectivity. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Implementation of the partograph in India's JSY cash transfer programme for facility births: a mixed methods study in Madhya Pradesh province

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Sarika; Upadhyay, Sourabh; De Costa, Ayesha; Raven, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study implementation of partograph use to monitor labour in facilities providing the JSY (Janani Suraksha Yojana) cash transfer programme for facility births in India by determining (1) adherence to partograph use, (2) staff abilities at partograph use and (3) staff responsiveness to the policy on partograph use. Design A mixed methods study using Carroll's framework for implementation fidelity. Methods include (1) obstetric case record review, (2) a vignette-based survey among nurse midwives and (3) interviews with staff. Setting Routine use of the partograph is recommended to monitor progress of labour in most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), including India, although currently available evidence in this regard is insufficient. This study was conducted in the context of the highly successful JSY programme in three districts of Madhya Pradesh province. Participants 73 different level JSY programme facilities participated in the record review, 233 nurse midwives at these facilities participated in the vignette survey and a total of 11 doctors and midwives participated in the interviews. Results The partograph was used in 6% of the 1466 records reviewed. The staff obtained a median score of 1.08 (maximum of 10) at competence in plotting a partograph. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: (1) partographs are used rarely and retrospectively; (2) training does not support correct use of the partograph; and (3) partographs can be useful but are not feasible. Conclusions Implementation fidelity of partograph use in the JSY programme is low. Successful implementation of the partograph can result in improved quality of care in the JSY programme only if potential moderators to its adherence, such as training, supervision, staff ‘buy in’ and practice environment are addressed so that staff find a conducive practice environment in which to use the partograph and women find it beneficial to present early in labour. PMID:25922094

  2. Casas Maternas in the Rural Highlands of Guatemala: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of the Introduction and Utilization of Birthing Facilities by an Indigenous Population

    PubMed Central

    Stollak, Ira; Valdez, Mario; Rivas, Karin; Perry, Henry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: An international NGO, with financial and managerial support from “partner” communities, established Casas Maternas (birthing facilities) in 3 municipalities in the isolated northwestern highlands of the department of Huehuetenango in Guatemala—an area with high maternal mortality ratio (338 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births). Traditional birth attendants are encouraged to bring patients for delivery at the Casas Maternas, where trained staff are present and access to referral care is facilitated. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study in San Sebastian Coatán municipality to assess the contribution of 2 Casas Maternas to health facility deliveries among partner and non-partner communities, with particular emphasis on equity in access. We surveyed all women who delivered in the study area between April 2013 and March 2014, the first full year in which both Casas Maternas in the study area were operating. In addition, using purposive sampling, we conducted in-depth interviews with 22 women who delivered and 6 focus group discussions with 42 community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and Casas Maternas staff members. We analyzed the quantitative data using descriptive statstics and the qualitative data with descriptive content analysis. Results: Of the 321 women eligible for inclusion in the study, we surveyed 275 women (14.3% could not be located or refused to participate). Between April 2013 and March 2014, 70% of women living in partner communities delivered in a health facility (54% in a Casa Materna) compared with 30% of women living in non-partner communities (17% in a Casa Materna). There was no statistically significant difference in uptake of the Casa Materna by maternal education and only a weak effect by household wealth. In contrast, distance from the Casa Materna had a pronounced effect. Traditional birth attendants were strong advocates for utilization of the Casa Materna and played an important role in the

  3. Acid mine drainage risks - A modeling approach to siting mine facilities in Northern Minnesota USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Tom

    2016-02-01

    Most watershed-scale planning for mine-caused contamination concerns remediation of past problems while future planning relies heavily on engineering controls. As an alternative, a watershed scale groundwater fate and transport model for the Rainy Headwaters, a northeastern Minnesota watershed, has been developed to examine the risks of leaks or spills to a pristine downstream watershed. The model shows that the risk depends on the location and whether the source of the leak is on the surface or from deeper underground facilities. Underground sources cause loads that last longer but arrive at rivers after a longer travel time and have lower concentrations due to dilution and attenuation. Surface contaminant sources could cause much more short-term damage to the resource. Because groundwater dominates baseflow, mine contaminant seepage would cause the most damage during low flow periods. Groundwater flow and transport modeling is a useful tool for decreasing the risk to downgradient sources by aiding in the placement of mine facilities. Although mines are located based on the minerals, advance planning and analysis could avoid siting mine facilities where failure or leaks would cause too much natural resource damage. Watershed scale transport modeling could help locate the facilities or decide in advance that the mine should not be constructed due to the risk to downstream resources.

  4. Formic acid requirement for the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility melter feed preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) will vitrify the high-level radioactive waste into a borosilicate glass wasteform using a slurry-fed, joule-heated melter. Formic acid is used to treat the sludge slurry for melter feed preparation. Both a minimum formate requirement and a maximum allowable formate level need to be established to adequately prepare the sludge for melter feed. The data from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Scale Glass Melter (SGM), Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), and research mini-melter runs were used for this purpose. The stoichiometry for major reactions during formic acid treatment was revised to reflect the more predominant chemical reactions and their yields. A minimum formic acid requirement was established according to this revised stoichiometry. Methods for determining the minimum level of formic acid were specified. An operating envelope that includes the maximum total formate level and the minimum nitrate levels, was also proposed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Preparative production of colominic acid oligomers via a facile microwave hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Patane, Jonathan; Trapani, Vincent; Villavert, Janice; McReynolds, Katherine Dawn

    2009-01-01

    The hydrolysis of colominic acid via microwave irradiation was studied for the production of short chain oligomers with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 1–6. This method was compared to the traditional acid hydrolytic method for the production of preparative quantities of short colominic acid oligomers. The oligomers were purified by size exclusion chromatography and characterized by 1H NMR. Optimal conditions for producing the dimer were found to be 12 minutes at 10% power in a 1000 Watt domestic microwave. This method is advantageous over the traditional technique in that the hydrolysis can be completed in just a few minutes, rather than hours, it is reproducible, and yields large quantities of the desirable short chain oligomers of colominic acid. PMID:19281967

  6. Facile one-pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles using tannic acid and its application in catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathy Aromal, S.; Philip, Daizy

    2012-04-01

    The paper reports a simple and efficient method for the synthesis of stable, nearly spherical gold nanoparticles using tannic acid as both the reducing and stabilizing agent. The nanoparticles are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The influence of tannic acid on the control of size and shape of gold nanoparticles is reported. Upon an increase in the concentration of tannic acid, there is a shift in the shape of nanoparticles as evidenced by the change in bandwidth and peak position of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band. Also, it is found that tannic acid ceases to act as a reducing agent beyond the limit of 10 mL (6×10-3 M) for 30 mL of HAuCl4 (1.3×10-3 M). On increasing the quantity of tannic acid, nucleation is favored in the initial stages and thereafter growth supersedes nucleation. The stable colloids obtained by this method are found to consist of nanoparticles with average size 8 and 12 nm. The crystallinity of the sample with fcc phase is observed from TEM, SAED and XRD pattern. Involvement of carboxylic acid group in capping of gold nanoparticles is evident from the FTIR spectrum. The application of the synthesized nanoparticles as catalyst in the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol to 4-Aminophenol is also reported.

  7. Facile transition from hydrophilicity to superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity on aluminum alloy surface by simple acid etching and polymer coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenyong; Sun, Linyu; Luo, Yuting; Wu, Ruomei; Jiang, Haiyun; Chen, Yi; Zeng, Guangsheng; Liu, Yuejun

    2013-09-01

    The transition from the hydrophilic surface to the superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy via hydrochloric acid etching and polymer coating was investigated by contact angle (CA) measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effects of etching and polymer coating on the surface were discussed. The results showed that a superhydrophilic surface was facilely obtained after acid etching for 20 min and a superhydrophobic surface was readily fabricated by polypropylene (PP) coating after acid etching. When the etching time was 30 min, the CA was up to 157̊. By contrast, two other polymers of polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene grafting maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) were used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after acid etching. The results showed that the CA was up to 159̊ by coating PP-g-MAH, while the CA was only 141̊ by coating PS. By modifying the surface with the silane coupling agent before PP coating, the durability and solvent resistance performance of the superhydrophobic surface was further improved. The micro-nano concave-convex structures of the superhydrophilic surface and the superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Combined with the natural hydrophilicity of aluminum alloy, the rough micro-nano structures of the surface led to the superhydrophilicity of the aluminum alloy surface, while the rough surface structures led to the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface by combination with the material of PP with the low surface free energy.

  8. Facile fabrication of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables based on the mixed mode of soft/hard templates.

    PubMed

    Wan, Mimi; Zhao, Wenbo; Peng, Fang; Wang, Qi; Xu, Ping; Mao, Chun; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be facilely synthesized by using soft/hard templates method. In order to effectively introduce Ag sources into porous polystyrene (PS) nanotubes which were trapped in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) hard template, Pluronic F127 (F127) was used as guiding agent, soft template and reductant. Meanwhile, ethylene glycol solution was also used as solvent and co-reducing agent to assist in the formation of silver nanowires. The influences of concentration of F127 and reducing reaction time on the formation of Ag/PS coaxial nanocables were discussed. Results indicated that the high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be obtained by the mixed mode of soft/hard templates under optimized conditions. This strategy is expected to be extended to design more metal/polymer coaxial nanocables for the benefit of creation of complex and functional nanoarchitectures and components. PMID:27477888

  9. Facile fabrication of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables based on the mixed mode of soft/hard templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Mimi; Zhao, Wenbo; Peng, Fang; Wang, Qi; Xu, Ping; Mao, Chun; Shen, Jian

    2016-08-01

    A new kind of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be facilely synthesized by using soft/hard templates method. In order to effectively introduce Ag sources into porous polystyrene (PS) nanotubes which were trapped in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) hard template, Pluronic F127 (F127) was used as guiding agent, soft template and reductant. Meanwhile, ethylene glycol solution was also used as solvent and co-reducing agent to assist in the formation of silver nanowires. The influences of concentration of F127 and reducing reaction time on the formation of Ag/PS coaxial nanocables were discussed. Results indicated that the high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be obtained by the mixed mode of soft/hard templates under optimized conditions. This strategy is expected to be extended to design more metal/polymer coaxial nanocables for the benefit of creation of complex and functional nanoarchitectures and components.

  10. Facile fabrication of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables based on the mixed mode of soft/hard templates

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Mimi; Zhao, Wenbo; Peng, Fang; Wang, Qi; Xu, Ping; Mao, Chun; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be facilely synthesized by using soft/hard templates method. In order to effectively introduce Ag sources into porous polystyrene (PS) nanotubes which were trapped in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) hard template, Pluronic F127 (F127) was used as guiding agent, soft template and reductant. Meanwhile, ethylene glycol solution was also used as solvent and co-reducing agent to assist in the formation of silver nanowires. The influences of concentration of F127 and reducing reaction time on the formation of Ag/PS coaxial nanocables were discussed. Results indicated that the high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be obtained by the mixed mode of soft/hard templates under optimized conditions. This strategy is expected to be extended to design more metal/polymer coaxial nanocables for the benefit of creation of complex and functional nanoarchitectures and components. PMID:27477888

  11. Root-zone acidity affects relative uptake of nitrate and ammonium from mixed nitrogen sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.; Chaillou, S.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) were grown for 21 days on 4 sources of N (1.0 mM NO3-, 0.67 mM NO3- plus 0.33 mM NH4+, 0.33 mM NO3- plus 0.67 mM NH4+, and 1.0 mM NH4+) in hydroponic culture with the acidity of the nutrient solution controlled at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Dry matter and total N accumulation of the plants was not significantly affected by N-source at any of the pH levels except for decreases in these parameters in plants supplied solely with NH4+ at pH 4.5. Shoot-to-root ratios increased in plants which had an increased proportion [correction of proporiton] of NH4(+)-N in their nutrient solutions at all levels of root-zone pH. Uptake of NO3- and NH4+ was monitored daily by ion chromatography as depletion of these ions from the replenished hydroponic solutions. At all pH levels the proportion of either ion that was absorbed increased as the ratio of that ion increased in the nutrient solution. In plants which were supplied with sources of NO3- plus NH4+, NH4+ was absorbed at a ratio of 2:1 over NO3- at pH 6.0. As the pH of the root-zone declined, however, NH4+ uptake decreased and NO3- uptake increased. Thus, the NH4+ to NO3- uptake ratio declined with decreases in root-zone pH. The data indicate a negative effect of declining root-zone pH on NH4+ uptake and supports a hypothesis that the inhibition of growth of plants dependent on NH4(+)-N at low pH is due to a decline in NH4+ uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by N stress.

  12. A comparative study of three ternary complexes prepared in different mixing orders of siRNA/redox-responsive hyperbranched poly (amido amine)/hyaluronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Jun; Zhao, Zhi-Xia; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Zhao, En-Yu; Gao, Ling-Yan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Wan-Liang; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a novel redox-responsive hyperbranched poly(amido amine) (named PCD) was synthesized and used as a cationic polymer to form a ternary complex with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and hyaluronic acid (HA) for siRNA delivery. Here, it is hypothesized that different mixing orders result in different assembly structures, which may affect the siRNA delivery efficiency. To investigate the effects of mixing orders on siRNA delivery efficiency in two human breast cancer cell lines, three ternary complexes with different mixing orders of siRNA/PCD/HA were prepared and characterized: mixing order I (initially prepared siRNA/PCD binary complex further coated by negatively charged HA), mixing order II ( initially prepared HA/PCD binary complex further incubated with siRNA), and mixing order III ( initially prepared siRNA/HA mixture further electrostatically compacted by positively charged PCD). With an optimized siRNA/PCD/HA charge ratio of 1/20/16, the particle sizes and zeta potentials of these ternary complexes were 124.8 nm and 27.3 mV (mixing order I), 147.5 nm and 29.9 mV (mixing order II), and 128.8 nm and 19.4 mV (mixing order III). Also, the effects on stability, cellular uptake, and gene silencing efficiency of siRNA formulated in ternary complexes with different mixing orders were investigated. The results showed that mixing orders I and III displayed better siRNA transfection and protection than mixing order II in human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. More interesting, at the siRNA/PCD/HA charge ratio of 1/20/16, the gene silencing effects on vascular endothelial growth factor expression in MDA-MB- 231 cells were as follows: mixing order III > mixing order I > mixing order II. Based on these results, a likely explanation for the difference in functionality dependent on mixing orders is the formation of different assembly structures. These results may help future optimization of siRNA ternary complexes for achieving better delivery

  13. Review of nucleic acid amplification tests and clinical prediction rules for diagnosis of tuberculosis in acute care facilities.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Amit S; Davis, J Lucian; Schecter, Gisela F; Barry, Pennan M; Flood, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of hospitalization and mortality in the United States. Prevention of TB transmission in acute care facilities relies on prompt identification and implementation of airborne isolation, rapid diagnosis, and treatment of presumptive pulmonary TB patients. In areas with low TB burden, this strategy may result in inefficient utilization of airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs). We reviewed TB epidemiology and diagnostic approaches to inform optimal TB detection in low-burden settings. Published clinical prediction rules for individual studies have a sensitivity ranging from 81% to 100% and specificity ranging from 14% to 63% for detection of culture-positive pulmonary TB patients admitted to acute care facilities. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have a specificity of >98%, and the sensitivity of NAATs varies by acid-fast bacilli sputum smear status (positive smear, ≥95%; negative smear, 50%-70%). We propose an infection prevention strategy using a clinical prediction rule to identify patients who warrant diagnostic evaluation for TB in an AIIR with an NAAT. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether use of clinical prediction rules and NAATs results in optimized utilization of AIIRs and improved detection and treatment of presumptive pulmonary TB patients. PMID:26166303

  14. Valorisation of mixed bakery waste in non-sterilized fermentation for L-lactic acid production by an evolved Thermoanaerobacterium sp. strain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Muzi; Huang, Xiongliang; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Wang, Jufang; Li, Shuang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an advanced biorefinery technology that uses mixed bakery waste has been developed to produce l-lactic acid using an adaptively evolved Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense LA1002-G40 in a non-sterilized system. Under these conditions, mixed bakery waste was directly hydrolysed by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae, resulting in a nutrient-rich hydrolysate containing 83.6g/L glucose, 9.5 g/L fructose and 612 mg/L free amino nitrogen. T. aotearoense LA1002-G40 was evaluated and then adaptively evolved to grow in this nutrient-rich hydrolysate. Using a 5-L fermenter, the overall lactic acid production from mixed bakery waste was 0.18 g/g with a titer, productivity and yield of 78.5 g/L, 1.63 g/L/h and 0.85 g/g, respectively. This is an innovative procedure involving a complete bioconversion process for l-lactic acid produced from mixed bakery waste under non-sterilized conditions. The proposed process could be potentially applied to turn food waste into l-lactic acid in an economically feasible way. PMID:26363501

  15. Low-temperature Ignition-delay Characteristics of Several Rocket Fuels with Mixed Acid in Modified Open-cup-type Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Riley O

    1950-01-01

    Summaries of low-temperature self-ignition data of various rocket fuels with mixed acid (nitric plus sulfuric) are presented. Several fuels are shown to have shorter ignition-delay intervals and less variation in delay intervals at moderate and sub-zero temperatures than crude N-ethylaniline (monoethylaniline),a rocket fuel in current use.

  16. Propagated fixed-bed mixed-acid fermentation: effect of volatile solid loading rate and agitation at near-neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Golub, Kristina W; Golub, Stacey R; Meysing, Daniel M; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2012-11-01

    To increase conversion and product concentration, mixed-acid fermentation can use a countercurrent strategy where solids and liquids pass in opposite directions through a series of fermentors. To limit the requirement for moving solids, this study employed a propagated fixed-bed fermentation, where solids were stationary and only liquid was transferred. To evaluate the role of agitation, continuous mixing was compared with periodic mixing. The periodically mixed fermentation had similar conversion, but lower yield and selectivity. Increasing volatile solid loading rate from 1.5 to 5.1g non-acid volatile solids/(L(liq)·d) and increasing liquid retention time decreased yield, conversion, selectivity, but increased product concentrations. Compared to a previous study at high pH (~9), this study achieved higher performance at near neutral pH (~6.5) and optimal C-N ratios. Compared to countercurrent fermentation, propagated fixed-bed fermentations have similar selectivities and produce similar proportions of acetic acid, but have lower yields, conversion, productivities, and acid concentrations. PMID:22995159

  17. Facile synthesis of boronic acid-functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rongna; Hu, Junjie; Cai, Zongwei; Ju, Huangxian

    2014-02-01

    A stepwise strategy was developed to synthesize boronic acid functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides. The MCNTs were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of Fe3+ loaded on the acid-treated CNTs and modified with 1-pyrenebutanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (PASE) to bind aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) via an amide reaction. The introduction of PASE could bridge the MCNT and APBA, suppress the nonspecific adsorption and reduce the steric hindrance among the bound molecules. Due to the excellent structure of the MCNTs, the functionalization of PASE and then APBA on MCNTs was quite simple, specific and effective. The glycopeptides enrichment and separation with a magnetic field could be achieved by their reversible covalent binding with the boronic group of APBA-MCNTs. The exceptionally large specific surface area and the high density of boronic acid groups of APBA-MCNTs resulted in rapid and highly efficient enrichment of glycopeptides, even in the presence of large amounts of interfering nonglycopeptides. The functional MCNTs possessed high selectivity for enrichment of 21 glycopeptides from the digest of horseradish peroxidase demonstrated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis showing more glycopeptides detected than the usual 9 glycopeptides with commercially available APBA-agarose. The proposed system showed better specificity for glycopeptides even in the presence of non-glycopeptides with 50 times higher concentration. The boronic acid functionalized MCNTs provide a promising selective enrichment platform for precise glycoproteomic analysis.A stepwise strategy was developed to synthesize boronic acid functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides. The MCNTs were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of Fe3+ loaded on the acid-treated CNTs and modified with 1-pyrenebutanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (PASE) to bind aminophenylboronic acid

  18. Integration of Succinic Acid Production in a Dry Mill Ethanol Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-01

    This project seeks to address both issues for a dry mill ethanol biorefinery by lowering the cost of sugars with the development of an advanced pretreatment process, improving the economics of succinic acid (SA), and developing a model of an ethanol dry mill to evaluate the impact of adding different products and processes to a dry mill.

  19. Direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene on nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides with balanced acid-base sites.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junming; Zhu, Kake; Gao, Feng; Wang, Chongmin; Liu, Jun; Peden, Charles H F; Wang, Yong

    2011-07-27

    We report the design and synthesis of nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides for direct and high-yield conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene (~83%). ZnO is addded to ZrO(2) to selectively passivate zirconia's strong Lewis acidic sites and weaken Brönsted acidic sites, while simultaneously introducing basicity. As a result, the undesired reactions of bio-ethanol dehydration and acetone polymerization/coking are suppressed. Instead, a surface basic site-catalyzed ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde, acetaldehyde to acetone conversion via a complex pathway including aldol-condensation/dehydrogenation, and a Brönsted acidic site-catalyzed acetone-to-isobutene reaction pathway dominates on the nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxide catalyst, leading to a highly selective process for direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene. PMID:21682296

  20. Production of medium-chain volatile fatty acids by mixed ruminal microorganisms is enhanced by ethanol in co-culture with Clostridium kluyveri.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Paul J; Nerdahl, Michael; Brandl, Dane J

    2015-01-01

    Mixed bacterial communities from the rumen ferment cellulosic biomass primarily to C2-C4 volatile fatty acids, and perform only limited chain extension to produce C5 (valeric) and C6 (caproic) acids. The aim of this study was to increase production of caproate and valerate in short-term in vitro incubations. Co-culture of mixed ruminal microbes with a rumen-derived strain of the bacterium Clostridium kluyveri converted cellulosic biomass (alfalfa stems or switchgrass herbage) plus ethanol to VFA mixtures that include valeric and caproic acids as the major fermentation products over a 48-72h run time. Concentrations of caproate reached 6.1gL(-1), similar to or greater than those reported in most conventional carboxylate fermentations that employ substantially longer run times. PMID:25459809

  1. Effects of Fatty Acids on the Interfacial and Solution Behavior of Mixed Lipidic Aggregates Called Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Gourab; Nahak, Prasant; Guha, Pritam; Roy, Biplab; Chettri, Priyam; Sapkota, Manish; Koirala, Suraj; Misono, Takeshi; Torigoe, Kanjiro; Ghosh, Shilpi; Panda, Amiya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Mutual miscibility of soylecithin, tristearin, fatty acids (FAs), and curcumin was assessed by means of surface pressure-area isotherms at the air-solution interface in order to formulate modified solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Appearance of minima in the excess area (Aex) and changes in free energy of mixing (∆G(0)ex) were recorded for systems with 20 mole% FAs. Modified SLNs, promising as topical drug delivery systems, were formulated using the lipids in combination with curcumin, stabilized by an aqueous Tween 60 solution. Optimal formulations were assessed by judiciously varying the FA chain length and composition. Physicochemical properties of SLNs were studied such as the size, zeta potential (by dynamic light scattering), morphology (by freeze fracture transmission electron microscopy), and thermal behavior (by differential scanning calorimetry). The size and zeta potential of the formulations were in the range 300-500 nm and -10 to -20 mV, respectively. Absorption and emission spectroscopic analyses supported the dynamic light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry data and confirmed localization of curcumin to the palisade layer of SLNs. These nanoparticles showed a sustained release of incorporated curcumin. Curcumin-loaded SLNs were effective against a gram-positive bacterial species, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Our results on the physicochemical properties of curcumin-loaded SLNs, the sustained release, and on antibacterial activity suggest that SLNs are promising delivery agents for topical drugs. PMID:27150334

  2. Site-directed gene mutation at mixed sequence targets by psoralen-conjugated pseudo-complementary peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Nielsen, Peter E; Glazer, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding molecules such as triple helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) provide a means for inducing site-specific mutagenesis and recombination at chromosomal sites in mammalian cells. However, the utility of TFOs is limited by the requirement for homopurine stretches in the target duplex DNA. Here, we report the use of pseudo-complementary peptide nucleic acids (pcPNAs) for intracellular gene targeting at mixed sequence sites. Due to steric hindrance, pcPNAs are unable to form pcPNA-pcPNA duplexes but can bind to complementary DNA sequences by Watson-Crick pairing via double duplex-invasion complex formation. We show that psoralen-conjugated pcPNAs can deliver site-specific photoadducts and mediate targeted gene modification within both episomal and chromosomal DNA in mammalian cells without detectable off-target effects. Most of the induced psoralen-pcPNA mutations were single-base substitutions and deletions at the predicted pcPNA-binding sites. The pcPNA-directed mutagenesis was found to be dependent on PNA concentration and UVA dose and required matched pairs of pcPNAs. Neither of the individual pcPNAs alone had any effect nor did complementary PNA pairs of the same sequence. These results identify pcPNAs as new tools for site-specific gene modification in mammalian cells without purine sequence restriction, thereby providing a general strategy for designing gene targeting molecules. PMID:17977869

  3. Towards Acid-Tolerated Ethanol Dehydration: Chitosan-Based Mixed Matrix Membranes Containing Cyano-Bridged Coordination Polymer Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-W; Kang, Chao-Hsiang; Lin, Yi-Feng; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Deng, Yu-Heng; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-04-01

    Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles, one of many cyano-bridged coordination polymers, are successfully incorporated into chitosan (CS) polymer to prepare PB/CS mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). The PB nanoparticles are uniformly distributed in the MMMs without the collapse of the original PB structure. As-prepared PB/CS MMMs are used for ethanol dehydration at 25 °C in the pervaporation process. The effect of loading PB in CS matrix on pervaporation performance is carefully investigated. The PB/CS membrane with 30 wt% PB loading shows the best performance with a permeate flux of 614 g. m-2 . h-1 and a separation factor of 1472. The pervaporation using our PB/CS membranes exhibits outstanding performance in comparison with the previously reported CS-based membranes and MMMs. Furthermore, the addition of PB allows PB/CS MMMs to be tolerant of acidic environment. The present work demonstrates good pervaporation performance of PB/CS MMMs for the separation of an ethanol/water (90:10 in wt%) solution. Our new system provides an opportunity for dehydration of bioethanol in the future. PMID:27451778

  4. A mixed acid based vanadium-cerium redox flow battery with a zero-gap serpentine architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, P. K.; Mohamed, M. R.; Shah, A. A.; Xu, Q.; Conde-Duran, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of a vanadium-cerium redox flow battery using conventional and zero-gap serpentine architectures. Mixed-acid solutions based on methanesulfonate-sulfate anions (molar ratio 3:1) are used to enhance the solubilities of the vanadium (>2.0 mol dm-3) and cerium species (>0.8 mol dm-3), thus achieving an energy density (c.a. 28 Wh dm-3) comparable to that of conventional all-vanadium redox flow batteries (20-30 Wh dm-3). Electrochemical studies, including cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling, show that both vanadium and cerium active species are suitable for energy storage applications in these electrolytes. To take advantage of the high open-circuit voltage (1.78 V), improved mass transport and reduced internal resistance are facilitated by the use of zero-gap flow field architecture, which yields a power density output of the battery of up to 370 mW cm-2 at a state-of-charge of 50%. In a charge-discharge cycle at 200 mA cm-2, the vanadium-cerium redox flow battery with the zero-gap architecture is observed to discharge at a cell voltage of c.a. 1.35 V with a coulombic efficiency of up to 78%.

  5. Structure of conjugated bile salt-fatty acid-monoglyceride mixed colloids: Studies by small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelm, R.P.; Schteingart, C.D.; Hofmann, A.F.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    2000-01-20

    The structures of particles found in isotropic phases of mixed surfactant systems consisting of conjugated bile salts and fatty lipids were assessed using small-angle neutron scattering. The conjugated bile salts were either cholylglycine or chenodeoxycholylglycine. The fatty lipids were mixtures of oleate and oleic acid either alone or with monoolein. The scattering data suggested that both particle interactions and polydispersity must be modeled in these systems. Particle interactions were modeled using the reduced mean spherical approximation and the decoupling approximation. Maximum entropy was used to characterize the polydispersity. A self-consistent analysis of the scattering was arrived at by making an initial estimate of particle size and shape using derivative-log and Guinier analysis and refining the estimates by analyzing the particle interactions and polydispersity and iterating. There are sufficient similarities in the particle morphologies of these and other conjugated bile salt-fatty lipid systems to suggest a common mode of self-assembly. These solutions are models for bile in the bilary system and intestine content during triglyceride digestion; the common themes of self-assembly have implications for the physiology of lipid solubilization in bile as well as intestinal absorption of dietary lipids.

  6. A facile microwave-assisted protocol for rapid synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid congeners

    PubMed Central

    Saludes, Jonel P.; Sahoo, Dhananjaya; Monreal, I. Abrrey

    2014-01-01

    We developed a simple, rapid and efficient microwave irradiation-assisted protocol that is 1- to 2-orders of magnitude faster than conventional techniques, providing an expedient access to the sialic acid congeners Neu5Ac1Me (1), Neu5Acβ1,2Me2 (2), Neu5Ac1Me O-peracetate (3) and 4,5-oxazoline of Neu5Ac2en1Me O-peracetate (4). PMID:24678239

  7. A facile assay to monitor secretory phospholipase A₂ using 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Hamse K; Swamy, Supritha G; Priya, Babu S; Sethi, Gautam; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2014-09-15

    Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) are present in snake venoms, serum, and biological fluids of patients with various inflammatory, autoimmune and allergic disorders. Lipid mediators in the inflammatory processes have potential value for controlling phospholipid metabolism through sPLA2 inhibition. Thus, it demands the need for screening of potential leads for sPLA2 inhibition. To date, sPLA2 activity has been assayed using expensive radioactive or chromogenic substrates, thereby limiting a large number of assays. In this study, a simple and sensitive NanoDrop assay was developed using non-fluorogenic and non-chromogenic phospholipid substrate 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) as interfacial hydrophobic probe. The modified assay required a 10ng concentration of sPLA2. ANS, as a strong anion, binds predominantly to cationic group of choline head of DMPC through ion pair formation, imparting hydrophobicity and lipophilicity and resulting in an increase in fluorescence. Triton X-100 imparts correct geometrical space during sPLA2 catalyzing DMPC, releasing lysophospholipid and acidic myristoyl acid, which in turn alters the hydrophobic environment prevailing around ANS-DMPC, which leads to weakening of the electrostatic ion pair interaction between DMPC and ANS ensuing decrease in fluorescence. These characteristic fluorescence changes between DMPC and ANS in response to sPLA2 catalysis are well documented and validated in this study. PMID:24915638

  8. Chemical characterization of fatty acids, alkanes, n-diols and alkyl esters produced by a mixed culture of Trichoderma koningii and Penicillium janthinellum grown aerobically on undecanoic acid, potatoe dextrose and their mixture.

    PubMed

    Monreal, Carlos M; Chahal, Amarpreet; Schnitzer, Morris; Rowland, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the mixed fungal synthesis of high-value aliphatics derived from the metabolism of simple and complex carbon substrates. Trichoderma koningii and Penicillium janthinellum were fed with undecanoic acid (UDA), potatoe dextrose broth (PDB), and their mixture. Pyrolysis Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Py-FIMS) together with (1)H and (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) characterized CHCl3 soluble aliphatics in the fungal cell culture. Data from NMR and Py-FIMS analysis were complementary to each other. On average, the mixed fungal species produced mostly fatty acids (28% of total ion intensity, TII) > alkanes (2% of TII) > n-diols (2% of TII) > and alkyl esters (0.8% of TII) when fed with UDA, PDB or UDA+PDB. The cell culture accumulated aliphatics extracellularly, although most of the identified compounds accumulated intracellularly. The mixed fungal culture produced high-value chemicals from the metabolic conversion of simple and complex carbon substrates. PMID:26852878

  9. The nature of peptide interactions with acid end-group PLGAs and facile aqueous-based microencapsulation of therapeutic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sophocleous, Andreas M.; Desai, Kashappa-Goud H.; Mazzara, J. Maxwell; Tong, Ling; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Olsen, Karl F.; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    An important poorly understood phenomenon in controlled-release depots involves the strong interaction between common cationic peptides and low Mw free acid end-group poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids) (PLGAs) used to achieve continuous peptide release kinetics. The kinetics of peptide sorption to PLGA was examined by incubating peptide solutions of 0.2-4 mM octreotide or leuprolide acetate salts in 0.1 M HEPES buffer, pH 7.4, with polymer particles or films at 4-37 °C for 24 h. The extent of absorption/loading of peptides in PLGA particles/films was assayed by two-phase extraction and amino acid analysis. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and laser scanning confocal imaging techniques were used to examine peptide penetration in the polymer phase. The release of sorbed peptide from leuprolide-PLGA particles was evaluated both in vitro (PBST + 0.02% sodium azide, 37 °C) and in vivo (male Sprague-Dawley rats). We found that when the PLGA-COOH chains are sufficiently mobilized, therapeutic peptides not only bind at the surface, a common belief to date, but can also internalized and distributed throughout the polymer phase at physiological temperature forming a salt with low-molecular weight PLGA-COOH. Importantly, absorption of leuprolide into low MW PLGA-COOH particles yielded ~17 wt% leuprolide loading in the polymer (i.e., ~70% of PLGA-COOH acids occupied), and the absorbed peptide was released from the polymer for > 2 weeks in a controlled fashion in vitro and as indicated by sustained testosterone suppression in male Sprague-Dawley rats. This new approach, which bypasses the traditional encapsulation method and associated production cost, opens up the potential for facile production of low-cost controlled-release injectable depots for leuprolide and related peptides. PMID:24021356

  10. Study of the effect of mixing approach on cross-linking efficiency of hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel cross-linked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether.

    PubMed

    Al-Sibani, Mohammed; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2016-08-25

    Regardless of various strategies reported for cross-linking hyaluronic acid (HA) with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE), seeking new strategies that enhance cross-linking efficiency with a low level of cross-linker is essential. In this work, we studied the influence of mixing approach on two cross-linked BDDE-HA hydrogels prepared by two different mixing approaches; the large-batch mixing approach in which the hydrogel quantities were all mixed as a single lump in one container (hydrogel 1), and the small-batches mixing approach in which the hydrogel quantities were divided into smaller batches, mixed separately at various HA/BDDE ratios then combined in one reaction mixture (hydrogel 2). The result showed that the cross-linking reaction was mixing process-dependent. Degradation tests proved that, in relation to hydrogel 1, hydrogel 2 was more stable, and exhibited a higher resistance towards hyaluronidase activity. The swelling ratio of hydrogel 1 was significantly higher than that of hydrogel 2 in distilled water; however, in phosphate buffer saline, both hydrogels showed no significant difference. SEM images demonstrated that hydrogel 2 composite showed a denser network structure and smaller pore-size than hydrogel 1. In comparison to native HA, the occurrence of chemical modification in the cross-linked hydrogels was confirmed by FTIR and NMR distinctive peaks. These peaks also provided evidence that hydrogel 2 exhibited a higher degree of modification than hydrogel 1. In conclusion, the small-batches mixing approach proved to be more effective than large-batch mixing in promoting HA-HA entanglement and increasing the probability of BDDE molecules for binding with HA chains. PMID:27312477

  11. Exploring Jupiter's icy moons with old techniques and big facilities - new insights on sulfuric acid hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Avdeev, M.; Brand, H.; Wallwork, K.

    2013-12-01

    Sulfuric acid hydrates have been proposed to be abundant on the surface of Europa [1], and hence would be important planetary forming materials for this moon and its companions Ganymede and Callisto. Understanding of the surface features and subsurface of these moons could be advanced by firmer knowledge of the icy materials that comprise them [2], insight into which can be drawn from firmer knowledge of physical properties and phase behaviour of the candidate materials. We wish to present results from a study that started with the question ';What form of sulfuric acid hydrate would form on the surface of Europa'. The intrinsic hydrogen-domination of planetary ices, makes studying these materials with laboratory powder diffraction very challenging. Insights into their crystalline phase behavior and the extraction of a number of thermal and mechanical properties is often only accessible with high-flux synchrotron x-ray diffraction and utilization of the large scattering cross section with neutron diffraction. We have used the Powder Diffraction beamline at Australian synchrotron [4] and the Echidna (High-resolution neutron powder diffraction) instrument of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, [5] to obtain an number of new insights into the crystalline phases formed from sulfruic acid and water mixtures. These instruments have enabled the discovery a new water-rich sulfuric acid hydrate form [6], improved structural characterisation of existing forms [7] and a charting the phase diagram of this fundamental binary system [8]. This has revealed exciting potential for understanding more about the surface of Europa from space, perhaps even providing a window into its past. [1] Carlson, R.W., R.E. Johnson, and M.S. Anderson, Science, 1999. 286(5437): p. 97-99. [2] Fortes, A.D. and M. Choukroun. Space Sci Rev, 2010. 153(1-4): p. 185-218. [3] Blake, D., et al., Space Sci Rev,, 2012. 170(1-4): p. 341-399. [4] Wallwork, K.S., Kennedy B. J. and Wang, D

  12. Crystal Structures of the Reduced, Sulfenic Acid, and Mixed Disulfide Forms of SarZ, a Redox Active Global Regulator in Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Poor, Catherine B.; Chen, Peng R.; Duguid, Erica; Rice, Phoebe A.; He, Chuan

    2010-01-20

    SarZ is a global transcriptional regulator that uses a single cysteine residue, Cys{sup 13}, to sense peroxide stress and control metabolic switching and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus. SarZ belongs to the single-cysteine class of OhrR-MgrA proteins that play key roles in oxidative resistance and virulence regulation in various bacteria. We present the crystal structures of the reduced form, sulfenic acid form, and mixed disulfide form of SarZ. Both the sulfenic acid and mixed disulfide forms are structurally characterized for the first time for this class of proteins. The Cys{sup 13} sulfenic acid modification is stabilized through two hydrogen bonds with surrounding residues, and the overall DNA-binding conformation is retained. A further reaction of the Cys{sup 13} sulfenic acid with an external thiol leads to formation of a mixed disulfide bond, which results in an allosteric change in the DNA-binding domains, disrupting DNA binding. Thus, the crystal structures of SarZ in three different states provide molecular level pictures delineating the mechanism by which this class of redox active regulators undergoes activation. These structures help to understand redox-mediated virulence regulation in S. aureus and activation of the MarR family proteins in general.

  13. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-08-30

    The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process. PMID:25036999

  14. Fermentative Conversion of Cellulose to Acetic Acid and Cellulolytic Enzyme Production by a Bacterial Mixed Culture Obtained from Sewage Sludge †

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A. W.; Wall, Duncan; van den Berg, L.

    1981-01-01

    A simple procedure that uses a cellulose-enriched culture started from sewage sludge was developed for producing cellulolytic enzymes and converting cellulose to acetic acid rather than CH4 and CO2. In this procedure, the culture which converts cellulose to CH4 and CO2 was mixed with a synthetic medium and cellulose and heated to 80°C for 15 min before incubation. The end products formed were acetic acid, propionic acid, CO2, and traces of ethanol and H2. Supernatants from 6- to 10-day-old cultures contained 16 to 36 mM acetic acid. Cellulolytic enzymes in the supernatant were stable at 2°C under aerobic conditions for up to 4 weeks and had the ability to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, a microcystalline cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, and filter paper to reducing sugars. PMID:16345772

  15. Mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II)-2-(2-pyridyl)-benzimidazole and aliphatic or aromatic dicarboxylic acids: Synthesis, characterization and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sherif, Ahmed A.; Jeragh, Bakir J. A.

    2007-11-01

    The synthesis and structural characterization of mixed ligand complexes derived from 2-(2-pyridyl)-benzimidazole (PBI) (1ry ligand) and aliphatic or aromatic dicarboxylic acids (2ry ligand) are reported. Cu(II) complexes were characterized on the bases of their elemental analyses, IR, ESR and thermal analyses. The elemental analysis indicated the formation of mixed ligand complexes in a mole ratio 1:1:1 (Cu:L 1:L 2), L 1 = PBI and L 2 = oxalic acid, phthalic acid or malonic acid. IR spectra showed that PBI acts as a neutral bidentate coordinated to the Cu(II) via the pyridyl and imidazolyl nitrogen atoms. The dicarboxylic acids are bidentate with monodentate carboxylate groups. Thermal decomposition study of complexes was monitored by thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis in N 2 atmosphere. The decomposition course and steps were analysed and the activation parameters of the nonisothermal decomposition were calculated from the TG curves and discussed. The isolated metal chelates were screened for their antimicrobial activities and the results are reported, discussed and compared with some known antibiotics.

  16. Influence of anodization parameters on the volume expansion of anodic aluminum oxide formed in mixed solution of phosphoric and oxalic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Tzung-Ta; Chang, Yao-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The growth of anodic alumina oxide was conducted in the mixed solution of phosphoric and oxalic acids. The influence of anodizing voltage, electrolyte temperature, and concentration of phosphoric and oxalic acids on the volume expansion of anodic aluminum oxide has been investigated. Either anodizing parameter is chosen to its full extent of range that allows the anodization process to be conducted without electric breakdown and to explore the highest possible volume expansion factor. The volume expansion factors were found to vary between 1.25 and 1.9 depending on the anodizing parameters. The variation is explained in connection with electric field, ion transport number, temperature effect, concentration, and activity of acids. The formation of anodic porous alumina at anodizing voltage 160 V in 1.1 M phosphoric acid mixed with 0.14 M oxalic acid at 2 °C showed the peak volume expansion factor of 1.9 and the corresponding moderate growth rate of 168 nm/min.

  17. Sampling and analysis of water from Upper Three Runs and its wetlands near Tank 16 and the Mixed Waste Management Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.L.; Cummins, C.L.

    1994-06-01

    In April and September 1993, sampling was conducted to characterize the Upper Three Runs (UTR) wetland waters near the Mixed Waste Management Facility to determine if contaminants migrating from MWMF are outcropping into the floodplain wetlands. For the spring sampling event, 37 wetlands and five stream water samples were collected. Thirty-six wetland and six stream water samples were collected for the fall sampling event. Background seepline and stream water samples were also collected for both sampling events. All samples were analyzed for RCRA Appendix IX volatiles, inorganics appearing on the Target Analyte List, tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides, and gross radiological activity. Most of the analytical data for both the spring and fall sampling events were reported as below method detection limits. The primary exceptions were the routine water quality indicators (e.g., turbidity, alkalinity, total suspended solids, etc.), iron, manganese, and tritium. During the spring, cadmium, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, potassium-40, ruthenium-106, and trichloroethylene were also detected above the MCLs from at least one location. A secondary objective of this project was to identify any UTR wetland water quality impacts resulting from leaks from Tank 16 located at the H-Area Tank Farm.

  18. Performance of a low cost interdigitated flow design on a 1 kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, David; Thomsen, Edwin; Li, Bin; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Koeppel, Brian; Sprenkle, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    Three flow designs were operated in a 3-cell 1 kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery. The influence of electrode surface area and flow rate on the coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiency and the pressure drop in the flow circuit will be discussed and correlated to the flow design. Material cost associated with each flow design will also be discussed.

  19. Effect of DNA interaction involving antioxidative 4-aminoantipyrine incorporating mixed ligand complexes having alpha-amino acid as co-ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Natarajan; Sakthivel, Arunagiri; Selvaganapathy, Muthusamy; Mitu, Liviu

    2014-02-01

    Few new mixed ligand transition metal complexes of the stoichiometry [ML(A)2], where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II), L = FFAP (furfurylidene-4-aminoantipyrine) and A = amino acid (glycine/alanine/valine), have been designed, synthesized and characterized. The molar conductivity of the complexes in DMF at 10-3 M concentration shows that they are non-electrolytes. The interaction of these complexes with CT-DNA indicates that the valine mixed ligand complexes are having higher binding constant than alanine and glycine mixed ligand complexes. This analysis reveals that binding constant depends on the size of the alkyl group present in the amino acid. The binding constants of valine mixed ligand complexes are in the order of 104 to 105 M-1 revealing that the complexes interact with DNA through moderate intercalation mode. The metal complexes exhibit effective cleavage of pUC19 DNA but it is not preceded via radical cleavage and superoxide anion radical. They are good antimicrobial agents than the free ligand. On comparing the IC50 values, [Ni(L)(Gly)2] is considered as a potential drug to eliminate the hydroxyl radical.

  20. Measurements of Molecular Mixing in a High Schmidt Number Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mueschke, N J; Schilling, O; Youngs, D L; Andrews, M

    2007-12-03

    Molecular mixing measurements are performed for a high Schmidt number (Sc {approx} 10{sup 3}), small Atwood number (A {approx} 7.5 x 10{sup -4}) buoyancy-driven turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer in a water channel facility. Salt was added to the top stream to create the desired density difference. The degree of molecular mixing was measured as a function of time by monitoring a diffusion-limited chemical reaction between the two fluid streams. The pH of each stream was modified by the addition of acid or alkali such that a local neutralization reaction occurred as the two fluids molecularly mixed. The progress of this neutralization reaction was tracked by the addition of phenolphthalein - a pH-sensitive chemical indicator - to the acidic stream. Accurately calibrated backlit optical techniques were used to measure the average concentration of the colored chemical indicator. Comparisons of chemical product formation for pre-transitional buoyancy- and shear-driven mixing layers are given. It is also shown that experiments performed at different equivalence ratios (acid/alkali concentration) can be combined to obtain a mathematical relationship between the colored product formed and the density variance. This relationship was used to obtain high-fidelity, quantitative measures of the degree of molecular mixing which are independent of probe resolution constraints. The dependence of such mixing parameters on the Schmidt and Reynolds numbers is examined by comparing the current Sc {approx} 10{sup 3} measurements with Sc = 0.7 gas-phase and Pr = 7 liquid-phase measurements. This comparison indicates that the Schmidt number has a large effect on the bulk quantity of mixed fluid at small Reynolds numbers Re{sub h} < 10{sup 3}. At late times, all mixing parameters indicated a greater degree of molecular mixing and a decreased Schmidt number dependence. Implications for the development and quantitative assessment of turbulent transport and mixing models appropriate for

  1. Facile synthesis and characterization of trimesic acid-Cu based metal organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sel, Kivanc; Ozturk, Omer Faruk; Demirci, Sahin; Terzi, Gozde

    2014-09-01

    Metal-organic frameworks based on trimesic acid (TMA) as organic linker and Cu (II) as metal ions from different metal salts such as CuCl2, Cu(NO3)2, CuSO4 and Cu(CH3COOH)2 were prepared in relatively environmentally friendly media e.g., at room temperature in DI water and at the boiling point of ethanol. The prepared TMA-Cu MOFs showed very interesting porosity and optical coloring based on the source of the used metal salts and preparation medium. The prepared MOFs were characterized in terms of their porosity with BET measurements and it was found that about 850 m2/g for the MOF prepared from Cu(NO3)2 salt in ethanol. The amounts of metal ions connected to TMA were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements (AAS) after dissolution of TMA-Cu MOFs by concentrated HCl treatments. From AAS measurements the mole ratio of Cu(II) to TMA was found to vary between 1.5 and 2, depending on the source of metal ions and the solvent used during preparation. The structural analysis and thermal characterization of the prepared MOFs were done by using FT-IR and TGA analysis, respectively. Additionally, TMA-Cu based MOF disks were prepared and their conductivities were determined by I-V measurements. The conductivity of TMA-Cu MOFs was calculated to be between 8.26E-08 and 5.29E-11 S/cm.

  2. Reactivity of NaCl with Secondary Organic Acids: An Important Mechanism of the Chloride Depletion in Sea Salt Particles Mixed with Organic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Kelly, S.; Gilles, M. K.; Shilling, J. E.; Zelenyuk, A.; Wilson, J. M.; Tivanski, A.

    2012-12-01

    Sea salt particles, one of the major sources of atmospheric aerosols, undergo complex multi-phase reactions and have profound consequences on their physical and chemical properties, thus on climate. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of sea salt chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids. Some studies have also showed that the chloride deficit cannot be fully compensated for this mechanism. We present an important pathway contributing to this chloride depletion: reactions of weak organic acids with sea salt particles. NaCl particles internally mixed with secondary organic materials generated from the reactions of limonene and alpha-pinene with ozone served as surrogates for sea salt particles mixed with organic materials. Chemical imaging analysis of these particles was conducted using complementary techniques including computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS), and micro-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). Substantial chloride depletion and formation of organic salts were observed along with distinctive changes in particle morphology after hydration/dehydration processes. The results indicate that secondary organic acids can effectively react with NaCl particles resulting in displacement of chloride and release of gaseous HCl. This is consistent with a recent field study showing chloride depletion in sea salt particles mixed with organic materials which cannot be fully compensated by inorganic acid displacement. Although the formation of the organic salts is not thermodynamically favored in bulk aqueous solution, these reactions are driven by the high volatility and evaporation of gaseous HCl in particles, especially during hydration/dehydration processes. The

  3. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457...-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol (PMN P-03-154; CAS No....

  4. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457...-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol (PMN P-03-154; CAS No....

  5. Compliance testing of phosphoric acid anodizing line wet scrubber, metal bonding facility, Building 375, Kelly AFB, Texas. Final report, 5 January-10 January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-06-01

    At the request of HQ-SA-ALC/EM, personnel of the AFOEHL Air-Quality Function conducted source-emission testing of the exhaust from the phosphoric acid anodizing tank line, metal-bonding facility, Bldg 375, Kelly AFB TX. The survey was conducted to satisfy special conditions of Texas Air Control Board (TACB) Permit Exemption X-16361 which required determination of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, total chromium, and hexavalent chromium emissions from the wet scrubber control device on the anodizing-line exhaust system. TACB will analyze the emission results and make the final determination as to whether additional control is needed on the anodizing-line exhaust.

  6. Preparation of conversion coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy in mixed solution of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride through chemical modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lanlan; He, Jian; Yang, Xu

    2016-05-01

    Conversion coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy was prepared through chemical modification in phytic acid and ammonium fluoride mixed solution. The influences of pH, time and the composition of solution on the microstructure of alloy surface were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microstructure. The chemical composition of alloy surface before and after modification was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that a conversion coating could be formed on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a mixed solution of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride, the growth and microstructure of the conversion coatings were critically dependent on the pH, time and concentration of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride. In 100 mg/ml phytic acid containing 125 mg/ml ammonium fluoride solution with a pH of 6, a compact conversion coating with the thickness of about 4.7 μm formed after 30 min immersion on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface. The preliminary evaluation of bioactivity of conversion coating was performed by in vitro cell experiments. The results showed that this chemical modification method is a promising surface modification technique for Ti-6Al-4V alloy inplants.

  7. Facile one-pot preparation and functionalization of luminescent chitosan-poly(methacrylic acid) microspheres based on polymer monomer pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jia; Wang, Changchun; Mao, Weiyong; Yang, Wuli; Liu, Changjia; Chen, Jiyao

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we present a facile and robust approach to synthesize multifunctional organic/inorganic composite microspheres with chitosan-poly(methacrylic acid) (CS-PMAA) shells and cadmium tellurium/iron oxide nanoparticle cores. Due to the strong electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged nanoparticles and the protonated CS polymers, the CS/nanoparticle complexes were utilized as templates for the subsequent polymerization of methacrylic acid. The resulting composite microspheres with luminescence and magnetic properties have regular morphologies and narrow size distributions. In contrast to previous reports, this route was based on a one-pot strategy without the aid of surfactants, organic solvent, or polymerizable ligands in aqueous solution. The encapsulated CdTe semiconductor nanocrystals inside the microspheres exhibited strong and stable photoluminescence properties in the pH range 5.0-11.0. When the pH was adjusted below 4, the photoluminescence decreased sharply and even quenched completely. However, the weakened fluorescence emission could be recovered to some degree upon an increase of pH above 5. Additionally, when both Fe3O4 and CdTe nanoparticles were encapsulated within CS-PMAA microspheres, the magnetic content of the microspheres could be efficiently controlled by tuning the feeding molar ratio of MAA monomers and glucosamine units of CS. From the preliminary attempts, it was found that the multifunctional microspheres as imaging agents could improve the rate and extent of cellular uptake under short-term exposure to an applied magnetic field, and so exhibit a great potential as bioactive molecule carriers.

  8. Occurrence and transport of 17 perfluoroalkyl acids in 12 coastal rivers in south Bohai coastal region of China with concentrated fluoropolymer facilities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Fu, Yaning; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Liu, Shijie; Xie, Shuangwei; Xiao, Yang; Giesy, John P

    2014-07-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. While PFAAs manufacturing becomes regulated in developed countries, production has been partly shifted to China. Eight fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities located in the South Bohai coastal region, one of the most populated areas of China, have been used to manufacture PFAA-related substances since 2001. The environmental consequence of the intensive production of PFAAs in this region remains largely unknown. We analyzed 17 PFAAs in twelve coastal rivers of this region, and found staggeringly high concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) ranging from 0.96 to 4534.41 ng/L. The highest concentration was observed in the Xiaoqing River which received effluents from certain fluoropolymer facilities. Principal component analysis indicated similar sources of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in all rivers, which indicated that atmospheric transport, wastewater treatment and surface runoff also acted as important supplements to direct discharge to surface water. PMID:24747105

  9. Definitive design report: Design report project W-025, Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Land Disposal Facility NON-DRAG-OFF. Revision 1, Volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Roscha, V.

    1994-11-29

    The purpose of this report is to describe the definitive design of the Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Non-Drag-Off disposal facility, Project W-025. This report presents a n of the major landfill design features and a discussion of how each of the criteria is addressed in the design. The appendices include laboratory test results, design drawings, and individual analyses that were conducted in support of the design. Revision 1 of this document incorporates design changes resulting from an increase in the required operating life of the W-025 landfill from 2 to 20 years. The rationale for these design changes is described in Golder Associates Inc. 1991a. These changes include (1) adding a 1.5-foot-thick layer of compacted admix directory-under the primary FML on the floor of the landfill to mitigate the effects of possible stress cracking in the primary flexible membrane liner (FML), and (2) increasing the operations layer thickness from two to three feet over the entire landfill area, to provide additional protection for the secondary admix layer against mechanical damage and the effects of freezing and desiccation. The design of the W-025 Landfill has also been modified in response to the results of the EPA Method 9090 chemical compatibility testing program (Golder Associates Inc. 1991b and 1991c), which was completed after the original design was prepared. This program consisted of testing geosynthetic materials and soil/bentonite admix with synthetic leachate having the composition expected during the life of the W-025 Landfill., The results of this program indicated that the polyester geotextile originally specified for the landfill might be susceptible to deterioration. On this basis, polypropylene geotextiles were substituted as a more chemically-resistant alternative. In addition, the percentage of bentonite in the admix was increased to provide sufficiently low permeability to the expected leachate.

  10. FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BOROSILICATE GLASSES CONTAINING ALPHA-RADIONUCLIDES AND SILVER FROM CONVERSION AND MIXED-OXIDE FACILITIES PROPOSED FOR RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    Aloy, A; Trofimenko, V; Uspensky, A; Jardine, L

    2005-10-25

    Liquid and solid radioactive wastes are formed during conversion of plutonium metal to oxide and during fabrication of weapons-grade plutonium into mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel. In Russia, these wastes are to be processed for disposition by immobilization in either borosilicate glass or cement matrices depending upon the waste stream-specific radionuclide contents. Vitrification is planned for the liquid high-level waste raffinate stream containing the bulk of the Am-241 produced from Pu-241 decay. Previous work on the Russian MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (R-MFFF) by the Public Joint Stock Corporation (TVEL) [1] showed that this waste stream may contain significant amounts of silver derived from the electrochemical dissolution of PuO2 using a Ag(II) catalyst. The work reported here further investigated silver solubility limits, which, if exceeded in a production glass melter, allow discrete silver grains to form in the glass and also deposit over time on the bottom of a joule-heated ceramic melter. In melters with immersed electrodes, such as the Russian EP-100 for phosphate glasses or the US Duratek DP-100 type melters for borosilicate glasses that are being considered for use at the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) Tomsk site, the undissolved silver could cause a short circuit and an unacceptable production melter failure. The silver solubility limit of 3.85 wt% Ag{sub 2}O in liquid, alpha-bearing wastes determined in this work will guide the production scale use of borosilicate glass compositions, and effectively increase the capacity of the ceramic melters and reduce the total volume of solidified vitrified wastes at SCC Tomsk that require storage prior to geologic disposal.

  11. Environmental fate and transport modeling for perfluorooctanoic acid emitted from the Washington Works Facility in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Vieira, Verónica M; Ryan, P Barry; Detwiler, Russell; Sanders, Brett; Steenland, Kyle; Bartell, Scott M

    2011-02-15

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been detected in environmental samples in Ohio and West Virginia near the Washington Works Plant in Parkersburg, West Virginia. This paper describes retrospective fate and transport modeling of PFOA concentrations in local air, surface water, groundwater, and six municipal water systems based on estimates of historic emission rates from the facility, physicochemical properties of PFOA, and local geologic and meteorological data beginning in 1951. We linked several environmental fate and transport modeling systems to model PFOA air dispersion, transit through the vadose zone, surface water transport, and groundwater flow and transport. These include AERMOD, PRZM-3, BreZo, MODFLOW, and MT3DMS. Several thousand PFOA measurements in municipal well water have been collected in this region since 1998. Our linked modeling system performs better than expected, predicting water concentrations within a factor of 2.1 of the average observed water concentration for each of the six municipal water districts after adjusting the organic carbon partition coefficient to fit the observed data. After model calibration, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient for predicted versus observed water concentrations is 0.87. These models may be useful for estimating past and future public well water PFOA concentrations in this region. PMID:21226527

  12. Characterizing mixed phosphonic acid ligand capping on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots using ligand exchange and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Davidowski, Stephen K; Lisowski, Carmen E; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2016-03-01

    The ligand capping of phosphonic acid functionalized CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) was investigated with a combination of solution and solid-state (31) P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Two phosphonic acid ligands were used in the synthesis of the QDs, tetradecylphosphonic acid and ethylphosphonic acid. Both alkyl phosphonic acids showed broad liquid and solid-state (31) P NMR resonances for the bound ligands, indicative of heterogeneous binding to the QD surface. In order to quantify the two ligand populations on the surface, ligand exchange facilitated by phenylphosphonic acid resulted in the displacement of the ethylphosphonic acid and tetradecylphosphonic acid and allowed for quantification of the free ligands using (31) P liquid-state NMR. After washing away the free ligand, two broad resonances were observed in the liquids' (31) P NMR corresponding to the alkyl and aromatic phosphonic acids. The washed samples were analyzed via solid-state (31) P NMR, which confirmed the ligand populations on the surface following the ligand exchange process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26639792

  13. Nonideal mixing and phase separation in phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidic acid mixtures as a function of acyl chain length and pH.

    PubMed Central

    Garidel, P; Johann, C; Blume, A

    1997-01-01

    The miscibilities of phosphatidic acids (PAs) and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with different chain lengths (n = 14, 16) at pH 4, pH 7, and pH 12 were examined by differential scanning calorimetry. Simulation of heat capacity curves was performed using a new approach that incorporates changes of cooperativity of the transition in addition to nonideal mixing in the gel and the liquid-crystalline phase as a function of composition. From the simulations of the heat capacity curves, first estimates for the nonideality parameters for nonideal mixing as a function of composition were obtained, and phase diagrams were constructed using temperatures for onset and end of melting, which were corrected for the broadening effect caused by a decrease in cooperativity. In all cases the composition dependence of the nonideality parameters indicated nonsymmetrical mixing behavior. The phase diagrams were therefore further refined by simulations of the coexistence curves using a four-parameter approximation to account for nonideal and nonsymmetrical mixing in the gel and the liquid-crystalline phase. The mixing behavior was studied at three different pH values to investigate how changes in headgroup charge of the PA influences the miscibility. The experiments showed that at pH 7, where the PA component is negatively charged, the nonideality parameters are in most cases negative, indicating that electrostatic effects favor a mixing of the two components. Partial protonation of the PA component at pH 4 leads to strong changes in miscibility; the nonideality parameters for the liquid-crystalline phase are now in most cases positive, indicating clustering of like molecules. The phase diagram for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidic acid:1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine mixtures at pH 4 indicates that a fluid-fluid immiscibility is likely. The results show that a decrease in ionization of PAs can induce large changes in mixing behavior. This occurs because of a

  14. An Optimized High Throughput Clean-Up Method Using Mixed-Mode SPE Plate for the Analysis of Free Arachidonic Acid in Plasma by LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wan; Qin, Suzi; Li, Linsen; Chen, Xiaohua; Wang, Qunjie; Wei, Junfu

    2015-01-01

    A high throughput sample preparation method was developed utilizing mixed-mode solid phase extraction (SPE) in 96-well plate format for the determination of free arachidonic acid in plasma by LC-MS/MS. Plasma was mixed with 3% aqueous ammonia and loaded into each well of 96-well plate. After washing with water and methanol sequentially, 3% of formic acid in acetonitrile was used to elute arachidonic acid. The collected fraction was injected onto a reversed phase column at 30°C with mobile phase of acetonitrile/water (70 : 30, v/v) and detected by LC-MS/MS coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curve ranged from 10 to 2500 ng/mL with sufficient linearity (r2 = 0.9999). The recoveries were in the range of 99.38% to 103.21% with RSD less than 6%. The limit of detection is 3 ng/mL. PMID:25873969

  15. Use of mixed-mode ion exchange sorbent for the passive sampling of organic acids by polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS).

    PubMed

    Fauvelle, Vincent; Mazzella, Nicolas; Delmas, François; Madarassou, Karine; Eon, Mélissa; Budzinski, Hélène

    2012-12-18

    Acidic herbicides are increasingly monitored in freshwater, since their high solubility favors their rapid transfer to the water phase. Therefore, contaminant levels in the water can vary rapidly and passive sampling would be preferred over spot sampling to integrate all pollution events over a given exposure time. In this work, we propose to compare the conventional pharmaceutical polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) with modified POCISs containing two different receiving phases: a standard polystyrene divinylbenzene polymer with a higher specific surface area (Chromabond HR-X) and a mixed-mode anion exchange sorbent providing additional strong anion exchange interaction sites (Oasis MAX). Due to its hydrophobic character, Chromabond HR-X had little interaction with water (no sampling of acidic herbicides); whereas Oasis MAX provided acceptable sampling parameters (longer kinetic regime together with higher sampling rates). Additional experiments with POCIS-MAX showed no influence of nitrates on analyte uptakes, and linear isotherms reaching 10 μg L⁻¹, supporting the applicability of this device for the sampling of organic acids in continental water. The performance and reference compound (PRC) approach would be then applicable for POCIS-MAX if no competition is observed with other anions, especially organic acids (e.g., humic acids). PMID:23176704

  16. Extraction of manganese by alkyl monocarboxylic acid in a mixed extractant from a leaching solution of spent lithium-ion battery ternary cathodic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Sung-Ho; Shin, Dongju; Oh, ChangHyun; Wang, Jei-Pil; Shin, Shun Myung

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the separation of manganese by an antagonistic effect from a leaching solution of ternary cathodic material of spent lithium-ion batteries that contain 11,400 mg L-1 Co, 11,700 mg L-1 Mn, 12,200 mg L-1 Ni, and 5300 mg L-1 Li using a mixture of alkyl monocarboxylic acid and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractants. pH isotherm, distribution coefficient, separation factor, McCabe-Thiele diagram, selective scrubbing, and countercurrent extraction tests are carried out to prove an antagonistic effect and to recover manganese using alkyl monocarboxylic in the mixed extractant. Slope analysis is used to determine the extraction mechanism between a mixture of extractants and valuable metals. An increasing concentration of alkyl monocarboxylic acid in the mixture of extractants results in a decrease in distribution coefficient of cobalt and manganese, however, the separation factor value (β(Mn/Co)) increases at pH 4.5. This is caused by slope analysis where alkyl monocarboxylic acid disrupts the extraction mechanism between di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and cobalt. Finally, continuous countercurrent extraction in a mini-plant test demonstrate the feasibility of manganese recovery from cobalt, nickel, and lithium.

  17. A Mixed-Method Study to Determine the Benefits of Periconceptional Folic Acid Supplementation and Effects of Folic Acid Deficiency in Mothers on Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata S; Kolli, Sunanda Reddy; Neogi, Sutapa B; Singh, Samiksha; John, Neena; N., Srinivas; Ramani, Sudha; Shamanna, BR; Doyle, Pat; Kinra, Sanjay; Ness, Andy; Pallepogula, Dinesh Raj; Pant, Hira B; Babbar, Smiksha; Reddy, Raghunath; Singh, Rachna

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence from high income countries shows mothers who are supplemented with folic acid in their periconceptional period and early pregnancy have significantly reduced adverse outcomes like birth defects. However, in India there is a paucity of data on association of birth defects and folic acid supplementation. We identified a few important questions to be answered using separate scientific methods and then planned to triangulate the information. Objective In this paper, we describe the protocol of our study that aims to determine the association of folic acid and pregnancy outcomes like neural tube defects (NTDs) and orofacial clefts (OFCs). We decided to fill the gaps in knowledge from India to determine public health consequences of folic acid deficiency and factors influencing dietary and periconceptional consumption of folic acid. Methods The proposed study will be carried out in five stages and will examine the questions related to folic acid deficiency across selected locations in South and North India. The study will be carried out over a period of 4 years through the hierarchical evidence-based approach. At first a systematic review was conducted to pool the current birth prevalence of NTDs and orofacial clefts OFCs in India. To investigate the population prevalence, we plan to use the key informant method to determine prevalence of NTDs and OFCs. To determine the normal serum estimates of folic acid, iron, and vitamin B12 among Indian women (15-35 years), we will conduct a population-based, cross-sectional study. We will further strengthen the evidence of association between OFCs and folic acid by conducting a hospital-based, case-control study across three locations of India. Lastly, using qualitative methods we will understand community and health workers perspective on factors that decide the intake of folic acid supplements. Results This study will provide evidence on the community prevalence of birth defects and prevalence folic acid and

  18. Mixed Phenolic Acids Mediated Proliferation of Pathogens Talaromyces helicus and Kosakonia sacchari in Continuously Monocultured Radix pseudostellariae Rhizosphere Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Zhu, Quan; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Jiahui; Zheng, Cailiang; Chen, Jun; Qin, Xianjin; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing; Azeem, Saadia; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Radix pseudostellariae L. is a common and popular Chinese medication. However, continuous monoculture has increased its susceptibility to severe diseases. We identified two pathogenic microorganisms, Talaromyces helicus M. (KU355274) and Kosakonia sacchari W. (KU324465), and their antagonistic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus Z. in rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae. Nine types of phenolic acids were identified both in the rhizosphere soil and in culture medium under sterile conditions. A syringic acid and phenolic acid mixture significantly promoted the growth of T. helicus and K. sacchari. T. helicus could utilize eight types of phenolic acids, whereas K. sacchari could only use four phenolic acids. K. sacchari produced protocatechuic acid when consuming vanillin. Protocatechuic acid negatively affected the growth of B. pumilus. The 3A-DON toxin produced by T. helicus promoted the growth of K. sacchari and inhibited growth of B. pumilus at low concentrations. These data help explain why phenolic exudates mediate a microflora shift and structure disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae and lead to increased replanting disease incidence. PMID:27014250

  19. Mixed Phenolic Acids Mediated Proliferation of Pathogens Talaromyces helicus and Kosakonia sacchari in Continuously Monocultured Radix pseudostellariae Rhizosphere Soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongmiao; Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Zhu, Quan; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Jiahui; Zheng, Cailiang; Chen, Jun; Qin, Xianjin; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing; Azeem, Saadia; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Radix pseudostellariae L. is a common and popular Chinese medication. However, continuous monoculture has increased its susceptibility to severe diseases. We identified two pathogenic microorganisms, Talaromyces helicus M. (KU355274) and Kosakonia sacchari W. (KU324465), and their antagonistic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus Z. in rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae. Nine types of phenolic acids were identified both in the rhizosphere soil and in culture medium under sterile conditions. A syringic acid and phenolic acid mixture significantly promoted the growth of T. helicus and K. sacchari. T. helicus could utilize eight types of phenolic acids, whereas K. sacchari could only use four phenolic acids. K. sacchari produced protocatechuic acid when consuming vanillin. Protocatechuic acid negatively affected the growth of B. pumilus. The 3A-DON toxin produced by T. helicus promoted the growth of K. sacchari and inhibited growth of B. pumilus at low concentrations. These data help explain why phenolic exudates mediate a microflora shift and structure disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae and lead to increased replanting disease incidence. PMID:27014250

  20. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p<0.05) LA content and higher dry matter (DM) recovery than the control and P silages. P silage had lower (p<0.05) LA content than the control silage. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid contents decreased gradually in the control and M silages, while that of P and PM silages increased, and the peak values were observed after 9 d. M silage had similar yeast counts with the control silage (>105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

  1. Private Drinking Water Wells as a Source of Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Communities Surrounding a Fluoropolymer Production Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Webster, Thomas F.; Bartell, Scott M.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Fletcher, Tony; Vieira, Verónica M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The C8 Health Project was established in 2005 to collect data on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8) and human health in Ohio and West Virginia communities contaminated by a fluoropolymer production facility. Objective We assessed PFOA exposure via contaminated drinking water in a subset of C8 Health Project participants who drank water from private wells. Methods Participants provided demographic information and residential, occupational, and medical histories. Laboratory analyses were conducted to determine serum-PFOA concentrations. PFOA data were collected from 2001 through 2005 from 62 private drinking water wells. We examined the relationship between drinking water and PFOA levels in serum using robust regression methods. As a comparison with regression models, we used a first-order, single-compartment pharmacokinetic model to estimate the serum:drinking-water concentration ratio at steady state. Results The median serum PFOA concentration in 108 study participants who used private wells was 75.7 μg/L, approximately 20 times greater than the levels in the U.S. general population but similar to those of local residents who drank public water. Each 1 μg/L increase in PFOA levels in drinking water was associated with an increase in serum concentrations of 141.5 μg/L (95% confidence interval, 134.9–148.1). The serum:drinking-water concentration ratio for the steady-state pharmacokinetic model was 114. Conclusions PFOA-contaminated drinking water is a significant contributor to PFOA levels in serum in the study population. Regression methods and pharmacokinetic modeling produced similar estimates of the relationship. PMID:20920951

  2. Large mixing ratios of atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) at Concordia (East Antarctic plateau) in summer: a strong source from surface snow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Frey, M.; Bartels-Rausch, T.; Kukui, A.; King, M. D.; Savarino, J.; Kerbrat, M.; Jourdain, B.

    2014-05-01

    During the austral summer 2011/2012 atmospheric nitrous acid was investigated for the second time at the Concordia site (75°06' S, 123°33' E) located on the East Antarctic plateau by deploying a long path absorption photometer (LOPAP). Hourly mixing ratios of HONO measured in December 2011/January 2012 (35 ± 5.0 pptv) were similar to those measured in December 2010/January 2011 (30.4 ± 3.5 pptv). The large value of the HONO mixing ratio at the remote Concordia site suggests a local source of HONO in addition to weak production from oxidation of NO by the OH radical. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that surface snow removed from Concordia can produce gas phase HONO at mixing ratios half that of NOx mixing ratio produced in the same experiment at typical temperatures encountered at Concordia in summer. Using these lab data and the emission flux of NOx from snow estimated from the vertical gradient of atmospheric concentrations measured during the campaign, a mean diurnal HONO snow emission ranging between 0.5 and 0.8 × 109 molecules cm-2 s-1 is calculated. Model calculations indicate that, in addition to around 1.2 pptv of HONO produced by the NO oxidation, these HONO snow emissions can only explain 6.5 to 10.5 pptv of HONO in the atmosphere at Concordia. To explain the difference between observed and simulated HONO mixing ratios, tests were done both in the field and at lab to explore the possibility that the presence of HNO4 had biased the measurements of HONO.

  3. Large mixing ratios of atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) at Concordia (East Antarctic Plateau) in summer: a strong source from surface snow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Frey, M.; Bartels-Rausch, Th.; Kukui, A.; King, M. D.; Savarino, J.; Kerbrat, M.; Jourdain, B.

    2014-09-01

    During the austral summer 2011/2012 atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) was investigated for the second time at the Concordia site (75°06' S, 123°33' E), located on the East Antarctic Plateau, by deploying a long-path absorption photometer (LOPAP). Hourly mixing ratios of HONO measured in December 2011/January 2012 (35 ± 5.0 pptv) were similar to those measured in December 2010/January 2011 (30.4 ± 3.5 pptv). The large value of the HONO mixing ratio at the remote Concordia site suggests a local source of HONO in addition to weak production from oxidation of NO by the OH radical. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that surface snow removed from Concordia can produce gas-phase HONO at mixing ratios half that of the NOx mixing ratio produced in the same experiment at typical temperatures encountered at Concordia in summer. Using these lab data and the emission flux of NOx from snow estimated from the vertical gradient of atmospheric concentrations measured during the campaign, a mean diurnal HONO snow emission ranging between 0.5 and 0.8 × 109 molecules cm-2 s-1 is calculated. Model calculations indicate that, in addition to around 1.2 pptv of HONO produced by the NO oxidation, these HONO snow emissions can only explain 6.5 to 10.5 pptv of HONO in the atmosphere at Concordia. To explain the difference between observed and simulated HONO mixing ratios, tests were done both in the field and at lab to explore the possibility that the presence of HNO4 had biased the measurements of HONO.

  4. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-12-08

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MW) groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE proposes to install a small metal sheet pile dam to impound water around and over the BGC groundwater seepline. In addition, a drip irrigation system would be installed. Interim measures will also address the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from ''hot-spot'' regions associated with the Southwest Plume Area (SWPA). This action is taken as an interim measure for the MWMF in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to reduce the amount of tritium seeping from the BGC southwest groundwater plume. The proposed action of this EA is being planned and would be implemented concurrent with a groundwater corrective action program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). On September 30, 1999, SCDHEC issued a modification to the SRS RCRA Part B permit that adds corrective action requirements for four plumes that are currently emanating from the BGC. One of those plumes is the southwest plume. The RCRA permit requires SRS to submit a corrective action plan (CAP) for the southwest plume by March 2000. The permit requires that the initial phase of the CAP prescribe a remedy that achieves a 70-percent reduction in the annual amount of tritium being released from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch, a nearby stream. Approval and actual implementation of the corrective measure in that CAP may take several years. As an interim measure, the actions described in this EA would manage the release of tritium from the southwest plume area until the final actions under the CAP can be implemented. This proposed action is expected to reduce the release of tritium from

  5. Aromatization of hydrocarbons by oxidative dehydrogenation catalyzed by the mixed addenda heteropoly acid H sub 5 PMo sub 10 V sub 2 O sub 40

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, R. ); Lissle, M. )

    1989-09-15

    The mixed addenda heteropoly acid H{sub 5}PMo{sub 10}V{sub 2}O{sub 40} dissolved in 1,2-dichloroethane with tetraglyme, forming the (tetraglyme){sub 3}-H{sub 5}PMo{sub 10}V{sub 2}O{sub 40} complex, catalyzes the aromatization of cyclic dienes at moderate temperatures in the presence of molecular oxygen. Dehydrogenations of exocyclic dienes such as limonene show that dehydrogenation is preceded by isomerization to their endocyclic isomers. Aromatization takes place by successive one-electron transfers and proton abstractions from the organic substrate to the heteropoly acid the latter being reoxidized by dioxygen coupled with the formation of water.

  6. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.

    PubMed

    Syamsuddin, Y; Murat, M N; Hameed, B H

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170°C reaction temperature, 15:1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 10wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150°C reaction temperature, 9:1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 5wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil. PMID:27136612

  7. The optimization of l-lactic acid production from sweet sorghum juice by mixed fermentation of Bacillus coagulans and Lactobacillus rhamnosus under unsterile conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Cai, Di; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-10-01

    The cost reduction of raw material and sterilization could increase the economic feasibility of l-lactic acid fermentation, and the development of an cost-effective and efficient process is highly desired. To improve the efficiency of open fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus based on sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) and to overcome sucrose utilization deficiency of Bacillus coagulans, a mixed fermentation was developed. Besides, the optimization of pH, sugar concentration and fermentation medium were also studied. Under the condition of mixed fermentation and controlled pH, a higher yield of 96.3% was achieved, compared to that (68.8%) in sole Lactobacillus rhamnosus fermentation. With an optimized sugar concentration and a stepwise-controlled pH, the l-lactic acid titer, yield and productivity reached 121gL(-1), 94.6% and 2.18gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. Furthermore, corn steep powder (CSP) as a cheap source of nitrogen and salts was proved to be an efficient supplement to SSJ in this process. PMID:27469090

  8. Assessing the concentration, speciation, and toxicity of dissolved metals during mixing of acid-mine drainage and ambient river water downstream of the Elizabeth Copper Mine, Vermont, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Seal, R.R., II; Piatak, N.M.; Paul, B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors determine the composition of a river that is impacted by acid-mine drainage, evaluate dominant physical and geochemical processes controlling the composition, and assess dissolved metal speciation and toxicity using a combination of laboratory, field and modeling studies. Values of pH increase from 3.3 to 7.6 and the sum of dissolved base metal (Cd + Co + Cu + Ni + Pb + Zn) concentrations decreases from 6270 to 100 ??g/L in the dynamic mixing and reaction zone that is downstream of the river's confluence with acid-mine drainage. Mixing diagrams and PHREEQC calculations indicate that mixing and dilution affect the concentrations of all dissolved elements in the reach, and are the dominant processes controlling dissolved Ca, K, Li, Mn and SO4 concentrations. Additionally, dissolved Al and Fe concentrations decrease due to mineral precipitation (gibbsite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite), whereas dissolved concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn decrease due to adsorption onto newly formed Fe precipitates. The uptake of dissolved metals by aquatic organisms is dependent on the aqueous speciation of the metals and kinetics of complexation reactions between metals, ligands and solid surfaces. Dissolved speciation of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the mixing and reaction zone is assessed using the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and results of speciation calculations using the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Data from open and restricted pore DGT units indicate that almost all dissolved metal species are inorganic and that aqueous labile or DGT available metal concentrations are generally equal to total dissolved concentrations in the mixing zone. Exceptions occur when labile metal concentrations are underestimated due to competition between H+ and metal ions for Chelex-100 binding sites in the DGT units at low pH values. Calculations using the BLM indicate that dissolved Cd and Zn species in the mixing and reaction zone are predominantly inorganic

  9. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets

    PubMed Central

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Polyunsaturated fatty acids in human foods have been shown to have health benefits. We investigated the potential to incorporate them into rabbit meat by adding them to the diet. Good relationships between dietary fatty acids (FAs) and their content in longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of rabbits was established, especially the latter. The results should make it possible to enhance the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of rabbit meat, with benefits to the health of human consumers. Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94) and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96). PMID:26486776

  10. Enzymes of 2-oxo acid degradation and biosynthesis in cell-free extracts of mixed rumen micro-organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, R S; Sauer, F D

    1976-01-01

    The enzymes of 2-oxo acid decarboxylation and 2-oxo acid synthesis (EC 1.2.7.1 and EC 1.2.7.2) were isolated and partially purified from cell-free extracts of rumen micro-organisms. The lyase was active with pyruvate, 3-hydroxypyruvate and 2-oxobutyrate. The synthase was active with acetate, 2-oxoglutarate or succinate. Pyruvate synthase was separated from pyruvate lyase by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. With Sephadex filtration, approximate mol.wts. of 310000 and 210000 were determined for pyruvate lyase and pyruvate synthase respectively. Images PLATE 1 PMID:962871

  11. PL and FT-IR characterization of novel polymer thin films: PVCz mixed with perylene and fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusano, Hiroyuki; Kuruma, Ichiro; Kitagawa, Masahiko; Ichino, Kunio; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    1997-04-01

    We have investigated the effect of addition of stearic acid in poly( N-vinylcarbazole) (PVCz) films doped with perylene. Samples were prepared by spin coating technique and characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) absorption. It was elucidated that PL emission due to perylene at 450 nm and 480 nm was enhanced and the concentration quenching of the perylene emission was reduced by the addition of stearic acid. Orientation ordering of carbazole base plane and/or perylene ring plane was suggested from IR measurement.

  12. Facile one-pot surfactant-free synthesis of uniform Pd6Co nanocrystals on 3D graphene as an efficient electrocatalyst toward formic acid oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lian Ying; Zhao, Zhi Liang; Yuan, Weiyong; Li, Chang Ming

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasmall and uniform Pd6Co nanocrystals were deposited on 3D graphene by a facile one-pot surfactant-free route for a catalyst toward formic acid oxidation, showing a much higher electrocatalytic activity, larger peak current density and better stability than Pd/3DG, Pd/C as well as commercial Pd-C, and thus offering great potential for an efficient anode catalyst toward high performance direct formic acid fuel cells.Ultrasmall and uniform Pd6Co nanocrystals were deposited on 3D graphene by a facile one-pot surfactant-free route for a catalyst toward formic acid oxidation, showing a much higher electrocatalytic activity, larger peak current density and better stability than Pd/3DG, Pd/C as well as commercial Pd-C, and thus offering great potential for an efficient anode catalyst toward high performance direct formic acid fuel cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08512h

  13. Efficient Synthesis of 3,3'-Mixed Bisindoles via Lewis Acid Catalyzed Reaction of Spiro-epoxyoxindoles and Indoles.

    PubMed

    Hajra, Saumen; Maity, Subrata; Maity, Ramkrishna

    2015-07-17

    An efficient strategy for the synthesis of 3-(3-indolyl)-oxindole-3-methanol has been developed to achieve a Lewis acid catalyzed, highly regioselective ring opening of spiro-epoxyoxindoles with indoles. The method is used for the gram-scale formal total synthesis of (±)-gliocladin C. PMID:26158390

  14. Evaluation of feeding glycerol on free-fatty acid production and fermentation kinetics of mixed ruminal microbes in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strategies to enrich ruminant-derived foods with unsaturated fatty acids are desired as these are considered beneficial for good human health. Ruminant-derived foods contain high proportions of saturated fats, a result of ruminal biohydrogenation, which rapidly saturates and thus limits the availab...

  15. A novel fermentation strategy for removing the key inhibitor acetic acid and efficiently utilizing the mixed sugars from lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Eiteman PHD; Elliot Altman Phd

    2009-02-11

    As part of preliminary research efforts, we have completed several experiments which demonstrate 'proof of concept.' These experiments addressed the following three questions: (1) Can a synthetic mixed sugar solution of glucose and xylose be efficiently consumed using the multi-organism approach? (2) Can this approach be used to accumulate a model product? (3) Can this approach be applied to the removal of an inhibitor, acetate, selectively from mixtures of xylose and glucose? To answer the question of whether this multi-organism approach can effectively consume synthetic mixed sugar solutions, we first tested substrate-selective uptake using two strains, one unable to consume glucose and one unable to consume xylose. The xylose-selective strain ALS998 has mutations in the three genes involved in glucose uptake, rendering it unable to consume glucose: ptsG codes for the Enzyme IICB{sup Glc} of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for carbohydrate transport (Postma et al., 1993), manZ codes for the IID{sup Man} domain of the mannose PTS permease (Huber, 1996), glk codes for glucokinase (Curtis and Epstein 1975) We also constructed strain ALS1008 which has a knockout in the xylA gene encoding for xylose isomerase, rendering ALS1008 unable to consume xylose. Two batch experiments and one continuous bioprocess were completed. In the first experiment, each strain was grown separately in a defined medium of 8 g/L xylose and 15 g/L glucose which represented xylose and glucose concentrations that can be generated by actual biomass. In the second experiment, the two strains were grown together in batch in the same defined, mixed-sugar medium. In a third experiment, we grew the strains continuously in a 'chemostat', except that we shifted the concentrations of glucose and xylose periodically to observe how the system would respond. (For example, we shifted the glucose concentration suddenly from 15 g/L to 30 g/L in the feed).

  16. Two new Zn(II) coordination polymers based on mixed pipemidic acid and flexible aromatic dicarboxylic acid ligands: Syntheses, crystal structures and luminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yanxia; Zhou, Pingping

    2016-09-01

    Two new Zn(II) coordination polymers, namely [Zn(4,4‧-sdb) (HPPA)]n (1) and [Zn(2,2‧-bpdc)0.5(PPA)]n (2) (4,4‧-H2sdb = 4,4‧-sulfonyldibenzoate, 2,2‧-H2bpdc = 2,2‧-biphenyldicarboxylic acid, HPPA = pipemidic acid) were successfully obtained under hydrothermal conditions. These two compounds were further characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analyses and IR spectra. Compound 1 features a 1D chain structure, which further extended into a 3D supramolecular framework via intermolecular hydrogen bonds and weak van der Waals interactions, and compound 2 features a 3D framework with 6-connected α-Po-type topology. The structural regulation for these two compounds was successfully achieved by changing the flexible aromatic dicarboxylic acid ligand. Moreover, the thermal stabilities and luminescent properties for these two compounds were also investigated.

  17. Tuning Lewis acidity using the reactivity of "frustrated Lewis pairs": facile formation of phosphine-boranes and cationic phosphonium-boranes.

    PubMed

    Welch, Gregory C; Cabrera, Lourdes; Chase, Preston A; Hollink, Emily; Masuda, Jason D; Wei, Pingrong; Stephan, Douglas W

    2007-08-21

    The concept of "frustrated Lewis pairs" involves donor and acceptor sites in which steric congestion precludes Lewis acid-base adduct formation. In the case of sterically demanding phosphines and boranes, this lack of self-quenching prompts nucleophilic attack at a carbon para to B followed by fluoride transfer affording zwitterionic phosphonium borates [R(3)P(C(6)F(4))BF(C(6)F(5))(2)] and [R(2)PH(C(6)F(4))BF(C(6)F(5))(2)]. These can be easily transformed into the cationic phosphonium-boranes [R(3)P(C(6)F(4))B(C(6)F(5))(2)](+) and [R(2)PH(C(6)F(4))B(C(6)F(5))(2)](+) or into the neutral phosphino-boranes R(2)P(C(6)F(4))B(C(6)F(5))(2). This new reactivity provides a modular route to a family of boranes in which the steric features about the Lewis acidic center remains constant and yet the variation in substitution provides a facile avenue for the tuning of the Lewis acidity. Employing the Gutmann-Beckett and Childs methods for determining Lewis acid strength, it is demonstrated that the cationic boranes are much more Lewis acidic than B(C(6)F(5))(3), while the acidity of the phosphine-boranes is diminished. PMID:17664977

  18. Nitric acid oxide mixing ratio measurements using a rocket launched chemiluminescent instrument. Final technical report, September 1986-October 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 18 rocket launched parachute borne nitric oxide instruments were launched from 1977 to 1985. A very precise instrument for the measurement of the nitric oxide mixing ratio was fabricated. No changes were made in the main body of the instruments, i.e., things associated with the reaction volume. Except for the last 4 launches, however, it did not yield the required absolute values that was hoped for. Two major problems were encountered. First, the wrong choice of the background calibration gas, nitrogen, caused the first 10 data sets to be too low in the absolute mixing ratio by nearly the order of 2 to 5 ppbv. The error was realized, and air was substituted for the bias gas measurement. Second, in the desire to extend the measurement to higher altitudes, the problem of contaminating the inlet flow tube with ozone from the reagent gas was encountered. The ozone valve was opened too early in the flight and this caused the pressure in the reaction volume to exceed the pressure at the flow tube entrance, permitting the ozone to migrate backwards. This problem was restricted to an altitude above 45 km.

  19. Revision of the nonequilibrium thermal dissociation and stringent washing approaches for identification of mixed nucleic acid targets by microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Pozhitkov, Alex E.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Noble, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Microarray experiments typically involve washing steps that remove hybridized nonspecific targets with the purpose of improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The quality of washing ultimately affects downstream analysis of the microarray and interpretation. The paucity of fundamental studies directed towards understanding the dissociation of mixed targets from microarrays makes the development of meaningful washing/dissociation protocols difficult. To fill the void, we examined activation energies and preexponential coefficients of 47 perfect match (PM) and double-mismatch (MM) duplex pairs to discover that there was no statistical difference between the kinetics of the PM and MM duplexes. Based on these findings, we evaluated the nonequilibrium thermal dissociation (NTD) approach, which has been used to identify specific microbial targets in mixed target samples. We found that the major premises for various washing protocols and the NTD approach might be seriously compromised because: (i) nonspecific duplexes do not always dissociate before specific ones, and (ii) the relationship between dissociation rates of the PM and MM duplexes depends on temperature and duplex sequence. Specifically for the NTD, we show that previously suggested use of reference curves, indices of curves and temperature ramps lead to erroneous conclusions. PMID:17430966

  20. Production of Cellulose-Hydrogen from Corn Stalk based on Acid-enzyme Two-Stage Pretreatment by Mixed Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Y.; Fan, Y. T.; Hou, H. W.

    2010-03-01

    Production of cellulose-hydrogen from corn stalk based on acid-enzyme two-stage pretreatment by lesser panda manure was carried out in batch tests. The acid-enzyme two-stage pretreatment of corn stalk was found most effective, in which the yields of soluble saccharides (SS) were 470 mg/g-TS. The maximum cumulative H2 yield (165.8 ml H2/g-TS) and H2 production rate (12.8 ml H2/g-TS h-1) were obtained at pH 5.5, 36 °C by treating a substrate of 15 g/L. The hydrogen content in biogas was 57.0% and there was no significant methane gas observed.

  1. Solid phase extraction of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by adsorption of its diphenylcarbazide complex on a mixed bed adsorbent (acid activated montmorillonite-silica gel) column.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, N; Mishra, Braja Gopal; Pareek, Pawan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    A novel approach has been developed for the solid phase extraction of chromium(VI) based on the adsorption of its diphenylcarbazide complex on a mixture of acid activated montmorillonite (AAM)-silica gel column. The effect of various parameters such as acidity, stability of the column, sample volume, interfering ions, etc., were studied in detail. The adsorbed complex could be easily eluted using polyethylene glycol-sulfuric acid mixture and the concentration of chromium has been determined using visible spectrophotometry. The calibration graph was linear in the range 0-1microgmL(-1) chromium(VI) with a detection limit of 6microgL(-1). A highest preconcentration factor of 25 could be obtained for 250mL sample volume using glass wool as support for the mixed bed adsorbent. Chromium(VI) could be effectively separated from other ions such as nickel, copper, zinc, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, etc., and the method has been successfully applied to study the recovery of chromium in electroplating waste water and spiked water samples. PMID:17604681

  2. Solid phase extraction of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by adsorption of its diphenylcarbazide complex on a mixed bed adsorbent (acid activated montmorillonite-silica gel) column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, N.; Mishra, Braja Gopal; Pareek, Pawan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    A novel approach has been developed for the solid phase extraction of chromium(VI) based on the adsorption of its diphenylcarbazide complex on a mixture of acid activated montmorillonite (AAM)-silica gel column. The effect of various parameters such as acidity, stability of the column, sample volume, interfering ions, etc., were studied in detail. The adsorbed complex could be easily eluted using polyethylene glycol-sulfuric acid mixture and the concentration of chromium has been determined using visible spectrophotometry. The calibration graph was linear in the range 0-1 μg mL -1 chromium(VI) with a detection limit of 6 μg L -1. A highest preconcentration factor of 25 could be obtained for 250 mL sample volume using glass wool as support for the mixed bed adsorbent. Chromium(VI) could be effectively separated from other ions such as nickel, copper, zinc, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, etc., and the method has been successfully applied to study the recovery of chromium in electroplating waste water and spiked water samples.

  3. Discovery and Characterization of Bicereucin, an Unusual d-Amino Acid-Containing Mixed Two-Component Lantibiotic.

    PubMed

    Huo, Liujie; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2016-04-27

    Lantibiotics are a group of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) exhibiting antimicrobial activity. They are characterized by the presence of the thioether-containing bisamino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine. Here, we report a two-component lantibiotic from Bacillus cereus SJ1 with unusual structural features that we named bicereucin. Unlike all previous two-component lantibiotics, only one of the two peptides of bicereucin contains a lanthionine. The second peptide lacks any cysteines but contains several d-amino acids. These are installed by the dehydrogenase BsjJB, the activity of which was successfully reconstituted in vitro. The proteolytic removal of the leader peptide was also performed in vitro. Bicereucin displayed synergistic antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive strains including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci as well as hemolytic activity. To illustrate the utility of the enzymes, an analog of the d-amino acid containing opioid dermorphin was successfully produced in E. coli by employing the dehydratase BsjM and the dehydrogenase NpnJA. PMID:27074593

  4. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R² = 0.94) and perirenal fat (R² = 0.96). PMID:26486776

  5. Finding of no significant impact shipment of stabilized mixed waste from the K-25 Site to an off-site commercial disposal facility, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the shipment of stabilized mixed waste, removed from K-1407-B and -C ponds, to an off-site commercial disposal facility (Envirocare) for permanent land disposal. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  6. Novel mixed ligand di-n-butyltin(IV) complexes derived from acylpyrazolones and fluorinated benzoic acids: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and the induction of apoptosis in Hela cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Shang, Xianmei; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Wendian; Xiang, Guangya

    2014-04-01

    Twenty one novel mixed ligand di-n-butyltin(IV) complexes [(n)Bu2SnAL] (A = substituted 4-acyl-5-pyrazolone, and L = fluorinated benzoic acid) were prepared by condensation of di-n-butyltin(IV) oxide with HL and HA in 1:1:1 molar ratio in refluxing methanol. All of the complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C, (119)Sn) and in four cases by X-ray diffraction. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was studied against two human cancer cell lines (KB and Hela) by means of the MTT assay compared to cisplatin, featuring IC₅₀ values in the low micromolar range. Hela cancer cell apoptosis-induced by 2 was examined by flow cytometry analysis, and preliminary results showed that 2 at concentrations of more than 1.0 μM can induce apoptosis. PMID:24583378

  7. Mixed-Metal-Organic Framework with Effective Lewis Acidic Sites for Sulfur Confinement in High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziqi; Wang, Buxue; Yang, Yu; Cui, Yuanjing; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong

    2015-09-23

    The mixed-metal-organic framework approach and a representative zirconium-metalloporphyrin framework (MOF-525) have been developed to create novel sulfur hosts and Li-S batteries. The different local environments at the centers of the porphyrin moieties in a series of MMOFs-MOF-525(2H), MOF-525(FeCl), and MOF-525(Cu)-have led to their different behaviors for the confinement of sulfur and thus Li-S batteries. The unique structure of MOF-525(Cu) has enabled each Cu(2+) site to offer two Lewis acidic sites, featuring it as a very powerful MOF host for the inclusion of sulfur and polysulfides. The S@MOF-525(Cu) cathode has demonstrated the best performance among all reported sulfur/MOFs composite cathode materials, with a reversible capacity of about 700 mAh/g at 0.5 C after 200 cycles. PMID:26323942

  8. Mix/Cast Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallentine, M.

    2005-01-01

    Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

  9. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process.

  10. Acid and redox properties of mixed oxides prepared by calcination of chromate-containing layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Arco, M. del; Carriazo, D.; Martin, C.; Perez-Grueso, A.M.; Rives, V. . E-mail: vrives@usal.es

    2005-11-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with Mg and Al in the layers and carbonate, nitrate or chloride in the interlayer, or with Zn and Al in the layers and chloride in the interlayer, have been prepared by coprecipitation, and have been used as precursors to prepare chromate-containing LDHs. All these systems, as well as those obtained upon their calcination up to 800 deg. C, have been characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and vis-UV spectroscopies, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), nitrogen adsorption at -196 deg. C for surface texture and porosity assessment, and FT-IR monitoring of pyridine adsorption for surface acidity determination. The results obtained show that the crystallinity of the chromate-containing LDH depends on the precursor used. The layered structure of the Mg, Al systems is stabilised up to 400 deg. C upon incorporation of chromate; however, the Zn,Al-chromate samples collapse between 200 and 300 deg. C, with simultaneous formation of ZnO. Calcination of the samples above 400 deg. C gives rise to a reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), as concluded from vis-UV spectroscopic studies. The TPR profiles show that chromate in ZnAl hydrotalcite is more easily reduced than that incorporated in the magnesium ones. Moderately strong surface Lewis acid sites exist in all samples calcined below 500 deg. C.

  11. Mixed-Dye-Based Label-Free and Sensitive Dual Fluorescence for the Product Detection of Nucleic Acid Isothermal Multiple-Self-Matching-Initiated Amplification.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiong; Wu, Wenshuai; Zhu, Qiangyuan; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Wei; Mu, Ying

    2015-10-20

    Visual detections based on fluorescence and the color changes under natural light are two promising product detections for isothermal nucleic acid amplifications (INAAs) such as the isothermal multiple-self-matching-initiated amplification (IMSA) as point-of-care testing techniques. However, the currently used approaches have shortcomings in application. For the former, fluorescence changes recognized by naked eye may be indistinguishable because of single fluorescence emitted and strong background noise, which requires empirical preset of cutoff intensity values. For the latter, visual detection sensitivity under natural light is not comparable to that based on fluorescence. Herein, hydroxyl naphthol blue (HNB) and SYBR Green I (SG) were coupled to acquire a label-free dual fluorescence for the visual product detection of IMSA. The mixed-dye-loaded off-chip (tube-based) and on-chip (microfluidic chip-based) IMSAs for the detection of hepatitis B virus were conducted. The results demonstrated that this dual fluorescence could realize distinguishable fluorescent color changes to improve visual detection sensitivity and avoid the preset of cutoff values. Moreover, the mixed dye is stable when kept at room temperature and compatible with the IMSA's reagents without a contamination-prone step of opening tubes after amplification. Also, this coupled dye inherits the advantages of achieving color changes under natural light from HNB and real-time detection from SG. In conclusion, the mixed-dye-based dual fluorescence has a potential in the point-of-care testing application for realizing off-chip and on-chip product detection of IMSA, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), or other INAAs. PMID:26383158

  12. Results from and Plans for the Development of the MARBLE Platform for Studying Thermonuclear Burn in the Presence of Heterogeneous Mix on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, T. J.; Douglas, M. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Cobble, J. A.; Haines, B. M.; Hamilton, C. E.; Lee, M. N.; Oertel, J. A.; Olson, R. E.; Randolph, R. B.; Schmidt, D. W.; Shah, R. C.; Smidt, J. M.; Tregillis, I. L.

    2015-11-01

    Work is underway to develop the MARBLE ICF platform for use on OMEGA and NIF in experiments to quantify the influence of heterogeneous mix on fusion burn. This platform consists of a plastic (CH) capsule filled with a deuterated plastic foam (CD) with a density of a few tens of milligrams per cubic centimeter, with tritium gas filling the voids in the foam. In order to affect the morphology of the mix, engineered foams with voids of diameter up to 100 microns will be utilized. The degree of mix will be determined from the ratio of DT to DD neutron yield. Experiments have been performed on OMEGA and are planned for NIF to develop techniques and verify that with uniform fine-pore foam, these implosions behave like atomically mixed plastic and gas. Results will be reviewed and future experiments discussed. This work is supported by US DOE/NNSA, performed at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  13. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of N and Zr co-doped TiO2 nanostructures from nanotubular titanic acid precursors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Zr/N co-doped TiO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized using nanotubular titanic acid (NTA) as precursors by a facile wet chemical route and subsequent calcination. These Zr/N-doped TiO2 nanostructures made by NTA precursors show significantly enhanced visible light absorption and much higher photocatalytic performance than the Zr/N-doped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Impacts of Zr/N co-doping on the morphologies, optical properties, and photocatalytic activities of the NTA precursor-based TiO2 were thoroughly investigated. The origin of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail. PMID:24369051

  14. Comparing atrazine and cyanuric acid electro-oxidation on mixed oxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Malpass, Geoffroy R P; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Miwa, Douglas W; Machado, Sérgio A S; Motheo, Artur J

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of pesticides has been promoted by many methods for clean up of contaminated soil and wastewaters. The main goal is to decrease the toxicity of the parent compound to achieve non-toxic compounds or even, when complete mineralization occurs, carbon dioxide and water. Therefore, electrochemical degradation (potentiostatic and galvanostatic) of both the pesticide atrazine and cyanuric acid (CA) at boron-doped diamond (BDD) and Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes, in different supporting electrolytes (NaCl and Na2SO4), is presented with the aim of establishing the influence of the operational parameters on the process efficiency. The results demonstrate that both the electrode material and the supporting electrolyte have a strong influence on the rate of atrazine removal. In the chloride medium, the rate of atrazine removal is always greater than in sulfate under all conditions employed. Furthermore, in the sulfate medium, atrazine degradation was significant only at the BDD electrode. The total organic carbon (TOC) load decreased by 79% and 56% at the BDD and DSA electrodes, respectively, in the chloride medium. This trend was maintained in the sulfate medium but the TOC removal was lower (i.e. 33% and 13% at BDD and DSA electrodes, respectively). CA, a stable atrazine degradation intermediate, was also studied and it is efficiently removed using the BDD electrode in both media, mainly when high current densities are employed. The use of the BDD electrode in the chloride medium not only degrades atrazine but also mineralized cyanuric acid leading to the higher TOC removal. PMID:23837356

  15. Syntheses, structures, and properties of a series of novel high-nuclear 3d-4f clusters with mixed amino acids as ligands: {Ln6Cu24}(Ln = Gd, Tb, Pr and Sm).

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao-Jun; Hu, Sheng-Min; Sheng, Tian-Lu; Xue, Zhen-Zhen; Wu, Xin-Tao

    2015-04-14

    The first examples of high-nuclear 3d-4f heterometallic clusters with mixed amino acid ligands are reported. Four 30-nuclear clusters {Ln6Cu24}(Ln = Gd, Tb, Pr and Sm) were obtained through the self-assembly of Ln(III), Cu(II) and mixed amino acid ligands of glycine (HGly) and β-alanine (HAla). The metal skeleton of clusters may be described as a huge {Ln6Cu12} octahedron connected with 12 additional Cu(II) ions. The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibilities of compounds were also studied. PMID:25756855

  16. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Soybean Curd Residue: Their Isolation, Identification and Ability to Inhibit Aerobic Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y.; Wang, F.; Nishino, N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing soybean curd residue (SC-TMR silage). The SC-TMR materials were ensiled in laboratory silos for 14 or 56 days. LAB predominant in SC-TMR silage were identified (Exp. 1). Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) and Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) were found in the untreated materials, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (L. pseudomesenteroides) in 14-day silage and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) in all silages. Pediococcus acidilactici (P. acidilactici), Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei), and Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) formed more than 90% of the isolates in 56-day silage. Italian ryegrass and whole crop maize were inoculated with P. acidilactici and L. brevis isolates and the fermentation and aerobic stability determined (Exp. 2). Inoculation with P. acidilactici and L. brevis alone or combined improved the fermentation products in ryegrass silage and markedly enhanced its aerobic stability. In maize silage, P. acidilactici and L. brevis inoculation caused no changes and suppressed deterioration when combined with increases in acetic acid content. The results indicate that P. acidilactici and L. brevis may produce a synergistic effect to inhibit SC-TMR silage deterioration. Further studies are needed to identify the inhibitory substances, which may be useful for developing potential antifungal agents. PMID:26949952

  17. Comparative Study of Soybean Oil and the Mixed Fatty Acids as Acyl Donors for Enzymatic Preparation of Feruloylated Acylglycerols in Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shangde; Hu, Bingxue; Qin, Fei; Bi, Yanlan

    2015-08-19

    Feruloylated acylglycerols (FAGs) are the lipophilic derivatives of ferulic acid. In this work, soybean oil (SBO) and the mixed fatty acids (MFA) were selected as fatty acyl donors, and reacted with glyceryl monoferulate (GMF) to prepare FAGs in ionic liquids (ILs). Effect of various reaction parameters (time, temperature, enzyme concentration, and substrate ratio) and ILs on the GMF conversion and the reaction selectivity for FAGs formation were investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a 3-level-4-factor Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to evaluate the inactive effect of reaction parameters. For the esterification of GMF with MFA, the maximum GMF conversion (98.9 ± 0.9%) and FAG yield (88.9 ± 0.6%) were achieved in [C10mim]PF6. However, for the transesterification of GMF with SBO, the maximum GMF conversion (94.3 ± 0.7%) and FAG yield (83.8 ± 1.0%) were obtained in [C12mim]PF6. High FAG selectivities (∼0.90) were also obtained using SBO or MFA as acyl donors. PMID:26194470

  18. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Soybean Curd Residue: Their Isolation, Identification and Ability to Inhibit Aerobic Deterioration.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Wang, F; Nishino, N

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effects of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing soybean curd residue (SC-TMR silage). The SC-TMR materials were ensiled in laboratory silos for 14 or 56 days. LAB predominant in SC-TMR silage were identified (Exp. 1). Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) and Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) were found in the untreated materials, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (L. pseudomesenteroides) in 14-day silage and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) in all silages. Pediococcus acidilactici (P. acidilactici), Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei), and Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) formed more than 90% of the isolates in 56-day silage. Italian ryegrass and whole crop maize were inoculated with P. acidilactici and L. brevis isolates and the fermentation and aerobic stability determined (Exp. 2). Inoculation with P. acidilactici and L. brevis alone or combined improved the fermentation products in ryegrass silage and markedly enhanced its aerobic stability. In maize silage, P. acidilactici and L. brevis inoculation caused no changes and suppressed deterioration when combined with increases in acetic acid content. The results indicate that P. acidilactici and L. brevis may produce a synergistic effect to inhibit SC-TMR silage deterioration. Further studies are needed to identify the inhibitory substances, which may be useful for developing potential antifungal agents. PMID:26949952

  19. Transport of short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids from concentrated fluoropolymer facilities to the Daling River estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Yueqing; Fu, Yaning; Xiao, Yang; Giesy, John P

    2015-07-01

    After global commercialization of short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) as substitutes to conventional long-chain PFAAs by the major manufacturers, two fluorine industry parks for production of short-chain PFAAs located in the Daling River Basin of northern China have developed rapidly in the last few years. This study provides a systematic assessment of sources, emissions, transportation, and potential risks of the PFAAs in this area. The C4 perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) were the predominant short-chain PFAAs in river water, with maximum concentrations of 2.90 and 1.35 μg/L, respectively. Park 1 equipped with a telomerization process was identified to be the source of linear and branched mixtures of PFBS, PFBA, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), while park 2 with an electrochemical fluorination process (ECF) was identified to be the source of linear and branched mixtures of PFBS and PFOA. Partition coefficients between water and sediment were consistent for C4-C8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) but directly proportional to C9-C11 PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs). Analysis on the health risk of PFBS and PFBA suggested that they were not without risk since short chain PFAAs are known to be recalcitrant during water treatment. PMID:25616381

  20. Short communication: Intake, milk production, and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets combining fresh forage with a total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2016-03-01

    To establish the effects of access time to high-quality temperate fresh forage (FF) on intake and performance of cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR), 9 Holstein cows were assigned to three 3 × 3 Latin squares with 20-d periods with sampling in the last 10 d. The following treatments were evaluated: 0 (T0), 4 (T4), and 8 (T8) h of daily access to FF. Forage (Lolium multiflorum) was cut daily and offered ad libitum beginning at 0800 h in individual stalls, and a TMR was offered ad libitum during the period when cows had no access to FF. Fresh forage dry matter intake (DMI) increased and TMR DMI decreased with the access time to FF, whereas total DMI was 3.0 kg higher for T4 than for T8; no differences were detected with T0. Compared with T0, 8h/d of access to FF decreased milk, protein, and casein yields, and tended to decrease fat and lactose yields, but treatment had no effect on milk composition or feed efficiency. The milk fatty acid profile in T8 had a higher content of rumenic, vaccenic, and linolenic acids compared with T0. We concluded that cows with 4h of access to high-quality FF had similar DMI and milk yields as cows fed only the TMR, but more than 4h of access reduced DMI and performance without changes in feed efficiency, although milk fat had enhanced levels of beneficial fatty acids. PMID:26778319

  1. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil respiration and its components in a subtropical mixed conifer and broadleaf forest in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Wu, Xiaoying; Wu, Jianping; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-01

    Soil respiration is a major pathway in the global carbon cycle and its response to environmental changes is an increasing concern. Here we explored how total soil respiration (RT) and its components respond to elevated acid rain in a mixed conifer and broadleaf forest, one of the major forest types in southern China. RT was measured twice a month in the first year under four treatment levels of simulated acid rain (SAR: CK, the local lake water, pH 4.7; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.25; and T3, water pH 2.5), and in the second year, RT, litter-free soil respiration (RS), and litter respiration (RL) were measured simultaneously. The results indicated that the mean rate of RT was 2.84 ± 0.20 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in the CK plots, and RS and RL contributed 60.7% and 39.3% to RT, respectively. SAR marginally reduced (P = 0.08) RT in the first year, but significantly reduced RT and its two components in the second year (P < 0.05). The negative effects were correlated with the decrease in soil microbial biomass and fine root biomass due to soil acidification under the SAR. The temperature coefficients (Q10) of RT and its two components generally decreased with increasing levels of the SAR, but only the decrease of RT and RL was significant (P < 0.05). In addition, the contribution of RL to RT decreased significantly under the SAR, indicating that RL was more sensitive to the SAR than RS. In the context of elevated acid rain, the decline trend of RT in the forests in southern China appears to be attributable to the decline of soil respiration in the litter layer. PMID:26755128

  2. X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Investigation of Copper(II) Mixed Ligand Complexes with Pyridinedicarboxylic Acid as Primary Ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, D. Ah.; Gaur, A.; Soni, B.; Shrivastava, B. D.; Prasad, J.; Srivastava, K.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2015-05-01

    The X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra at the K-edge of the copper complexes Cu(PDC)(Mim)3 H2O ( 1) and Cu(PDC)2(EA)2H2O ( 2) (where PDC - Pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, Mim - 2-methylimidazole, and EA - ethyl acetate) have been investigated. The experimental extended X-ray absorption fine structure data of complex 1 have been analyzed by fitting the theoretical model generated from its own crystallographic data. The crystallographic data for complex 2 are not available. It has been found by comparing the intensity of the pre-edge peaks and X-ray absorption near edge structure features of complexes 1 and 2 that both complexes possess square pyramidal geometry around the copper centers and thus complex 2 is analogous to complex 1. Hence, the theoretical model generated for complex 1 has been fitted to the experimental EXAFS data of complex 2 to determine the structural parameters of complex 2. The coordination geometry of both complexes has been depicted. Further, the chemical shifts have been used to determine the oxidation state as well as to estimate the effective nuclear charge on the copper atom.

  3. Vibrational dephasing in molecular mixed crystals: A picosecond time domain CARS study of pentacene in naphthalene and benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duppen, Koos; Weitekamp, D. P.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1983-12-01

    Multiresonant time-domain coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) experiments have been employed in a study of the decay of vibrational coherences of pentacene doped into naphthalene and benzoic acid. In all cases, the CARS decay is found to be exponential, which indicates that the electronic and vibronic inhomogeneities in this system are strongly correlated. The temperature dependence of vibrational dephasing shows no effect of coupling to the lowest-frequency librational mode of pentacene that is known to dominate electronic dephasing. This surprising result can be understood on basis of a dephasing model where rapid coherence exchange exists between a cold vibrational transition and a corresponding near-resonant librationally hot one. For the 767 cm-1 vibrational transition, oscillations of the CARS signal as a function of delay are shown to arise from interference at the detector with a nearby naphthalene host signal. An inconsistency with a previously reported spontaneous Raman study is resolved by showing that the signal observed there is actually site-selected fluorescence.

  4. Information related to low-level mixed waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, B.D.; Dolak, D.A.; Wang, Y.Y.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1996-12-01

    This report was prepared to support the analysis of risks and costs associated with the proposed treatment of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) under management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The various waste management alternatives for treatment of LLMW have been defined in the DOE`s Office of Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. This technical memorandum estimates the waste material throughput expected at each proposed LLMW treatment facility and analyzes potential radiological and chemical releases at each DOE site resulting from treatment of these wastes. Models have been developed to generate site-dependent radiological profiles and waste-stream-dependent chemical profiles for these wastes. Current site-dependent inventories and estimates for future generation of LLMW have been obtained from DOE`s 1994 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2). Using treatment procedures developed by the Mixed Waste Treatment Project, the MWIR-2 database was analyzed to provide waste throughput and emission estimates for each of the different waste types assessed in this report. Uncertainties in the estimates at each site are discussed for waste material throughputs and radiological and chemical releases.

  5. Atomically mixed Fe-group nanoalloys: catalyst design for the selective electrooxidation of ethylene glycol to oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sadakiyo, Masaaki; Ooi, Mei Lee; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Kato, Kenichi; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Nobuki; Kubo, Momoji; Yamauchi, Miho

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate electric power generation via the electrooxidation of ethylene glycol (EG) on a series of Fe-group nanoalloy (NA) catalysts in alkaline media. A series of Fe-group binary NA catalysts supported on carbon (FeCo/C, FeNi/C, and CoNi/C) and monometallic analogues (Fe/C, Co/C, and Ni/C) were synthesized. Catalytic activities and product distributions on the prepared Fe-group NA catalysts in the EG electrooxidation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, and compared with those of the previously reported FeCoNi/C, which clarified the contributory factors of the metal components for the EG electrooxidation activity, C2 product selectivity, and catalyst durability. The Co-containing catalysts, such as Co/C, FeCo/C, and FeCoNi/C, exhibit relatively high catalytic activities for EG electrooxidation, whereas the catalytic performances of Ni-containing catalysts are relatively low. However, we found that the inclusion of Ni is a requisite for the prevention of rapid degradation due to surface modification of the catalyst. Notably, FeCoNi/C shows the highest selectivity for oxalic acid production without CO2 generation at 0.4 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), resulting from the synergetic contribution of all of the component elements. Finally, we performed power generation using the direct EG alkaline fuel cell in the presence of the Fe-group catalysts. The power density obtained on each catalyst directly reflected the catalytic performances elucidated in the electrochemical experiments for the corresponding catalyst. The catalytic roles and alloying effects disclosed herein provide information on the design of highly efficient electrocatalysts containing Fe-group metals. PMID:25848911

  6. A Facile Method for Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids and Its Application in Glycosaminoglycan Syntheses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lijun; Teumelsan, Nardos; Huang, Xuefei

    2006-01-01

    A convenient two-step, one-pot procedure was developed for the conversion of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids. The alcohol was first treated with NaOCl and TEMPO under phase-transfer conditions, followed by NaClO2 oxidation in one pot. This reaction is applicable to a wide range of alcohols and the mild reaction conditions are compatible with many sensitive functional groups, including electron-rich aromatic rings, acid-labile isopropylidene ketal and glycosidic linkages, and oxidation-prone thioacetal, p-methoxybenzyl, and allyl moieties. Several glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, chondroitin, and hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides have been synthesized in high yields by using this new oxidation protocol. PMID:16637084

  7. Facile, room-temperature pre-treatment of rice husks with tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide: Enhanced enzymatic and acid hydrolysis yields.

    PubMed

    Lau, B B Y; Luis, E T; Hossain, M M; Hart, W E S; Cencia-Lay, B; Black, J J; To, T Q; Aldous, L

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide have been evaluated as pretreatment media for rice husks, prior to sulphuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase enzymatic hydrolysis. Varying the water:tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide ratio varied the rate of delignification, as well as silica, lignin and cellulose solubility. Pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide dissolved the rice husk and the regenerated material was thus heavily disrupted. Sulphuric acid hydrolysis of 60wt%-treated samples yielded the highest amount of glucose per gram of rice husk. Solutions with good lignin and silica solubility but only moderate to negligible cellulose solubility (10-40wt% hydroxide) were equally effective as pre-treatment media for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide solutions was incompatible with downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. This was due to significant incorporation of phosphonium species in the regenerated biomass, which significantly inhibited the activity of the cellulase enzymes. PMID:26342336

  8. Study on HCl Driving Force for the Reaction of NaCl-Maleic Acid Mixing Single Droplet Using Micro-FTIR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiang; Zhang, Yunhong

    2016-04-01

    Chemical aging is the one of the most important physicochemical process in atmospheric aerosols. Mixing of sea salt and water-soluble organic components has profound effects on the volatile characteristic and evolving chemical composition of the anthropogenic origin aerosols, which are poorly understood. In this study, the chemical reaction behavior of the mixture of NaCl and maleic acid (H2MA) micron-level single droplet was investigated using a gas-flow system combined with microscopic Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectrometer over the range of relative humidity (63˜95% RH) for the first time. The results showed that the mixture of NaCl and H2MA single droplet could react to form monosodium maleate salt (NaHMA) at the constant RH from the characterization of the FTIR. The reaction is a result of an acid displacement reaction R1, which is driven by high volatility of the HCl product. NaCl(aq)+H2MA(aq)=NaHMA(aq)+HCl(aq,g) (R1) According to the change tendency of the absorbance values of 1579 cm‑1 COO‑ stretching band of the NaHMA dependent upon reaction times at different RHs, the growth range of the trend which could lead to the faster reaction rate was obvious at lower RH. The water content of the droplet was also more likely to reduce rapidly with the loss of the RH from the absorbance changes of 3400 cm‑1H2O stretching band dependent upon reaction times. These may be due to irreversible evaporation of HCl gas which is the main driving force for this type of reaction and the NaHMA is a less hygroscopic component compared to H2MA. And the HCl gas is more likely to evaporate faster from the single droplet and promote the reaction rate and the consumption of water content at lower RH. These results could help in understanding the chemical conversion processes of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids to dicarboxylate salts, as well as the consumption of Cl in sea salt aerosols by organic acids in the atmosphere.

  9. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the interactions of molasses or corn meal [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources] with flaxseed meal or a soybean-sunflower meal protein mix [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) sources] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in organic Jersey cows fed...

  10. Synthesis, structure, and properties of a mixed-valent triiron complex of tetramethyl reductic acid, an ascorbic acid analogue, and its relationship to a functional non-heme iron oxidation catalyst system.

    PubMed

    Kim, YooJin; Feng, Xudong; Lippard, Stephen J

    2007-07-23

    The purple triiron(II,III,III) complex, [Fe(3)Cl(2)(TMRASQ)(4)(HTMRA)(2)] x C(5)H(12) (1 x C(5)H(12)), where H(2)TMRA is a tetramethyl reductic acid, 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2,3-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one, and HTMRASQ is the semiquinone form of this ligand, was prepared from (Et(4)N)(2)[Fe(2)OCl(6)] and H(2)TMRA and characterized by X-ray crystallography, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and redox titrations. The physical properties of the complex in solution are consistent with its mixed-valent character, as delineated by a solid-state structure analysis. Assignments of the iron and ligand oxidation states in the crystal were made on the basis of a valence bond sum analysis and the internal ligand geometry. As the first well-characterized iron complex of an ascorbic acid H(2)AA analogue, 1 provides insight into the possible coordination geometry of the family of complexes containing H(2)AA and its analogues. In the presence of air and H(2)TMRA, 1 is able to catalyze the oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol with remarkable selectivity, but the nature of the true catalyst remains unknown. PMID:17579400

  11. Synthesis, Structure, and Properties of a Mixed-Valent Triiron Complex of Tetramethyl Reductic Acid, an Ascorbic Acid Analog, and its Relationship to a Functional Non-Heme Iron Oxidation Catalyst System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, YooJin; Feng, Xudong; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The purple triiron(II,III,III) complex, [Fe3Cl2(TMRASQ)4(HTMRA)2]·C5H12 (1·C5H12), where H2(TMRA) is tetramethyl reductic acid, 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2,3-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one, and H(TMRASQ) is the semiquinone form of this ligand, was prepared from (Et4N)2[Fe2OCl6] and H2(TMRA) and characterized by X-ray crystallography, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and redox titrations. The physical properties of the complex in solution are consistent with its mixed-valent character, as delineated by a solid-state structure analysis. Assignments of the iron and ligand oxidation states in the crystal were made on the basis of a valence bond sum analysis and the internal ligand geometry. As the first well-characterized iron complex of an ascorbic acid H2(AA) analog, 1 provides insight into the possible coordination geometry of the family of complexes containing H2AA and its analogues. In the presence of air and H2TMRA, 1 is able to catalyze the oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol with remarkable selectivity, but the nature of the true catalyst remains unknown. PMID:17579400

  12. Accurate Analysis and Evaluation of Acidic Plant Growth Regulators in Transgenic and Nontransgenic Edible Oils with Facile Microwave-Assisted Extraction-Derivatization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengge; Chen, Guang; Guo, Hailong; Fan, Baolei; Liu, Jianjun; Fu, Qiang; Li, Xiu; Lu, Xiaomin; Zhao, Xianen; Li, Guoliang; Sun, Zhiwei; Xia, Lian; Zhu, Shuyun; Yang, Daoshan; Cao, Ziping; Wang, Hua; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2015-09-16

    Determination of plant growth regulators (PGRs) in a signal transduction system (STS) is significant for transgenic food safety, but may be challenged by poor accuracy and analyte instability. In this work, a microwave-assisted extraction-derivatization (MAED) method is developed for six acidic PGRs in oil samples, allowing an efficient (<1.5 h) and facile (one step) pretreatment. Accuracies are greatly improved, particularly for gibberellin A3 (-2.72 to -0.65%) as compared with those reported (-22 to -2%). Excellent selectivity and quite low detection limits (0.37-1.36 ng mL(-1)) are enabled by fluorescence detection-mass spectrum monitoring. Results show the significant differences in acidic PGRs between transgenic and nontransgenic oils, particularly 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (1-NAA), implying the PGRs induced variations of components and genes. This study provides, for the first time, an accurate and efficient determination for labile PGRs involved in STS and a promising concept for objectively evaluating the safety of transgenic foods. PMID:26309068

  13. Asymmetric Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Unexpectedly Stable Spiroepoxy-β-Lactones Including Facile Conversion to Tetronic Acids: Application to (+)-Maculalactone A

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Richard J.; Morris, Kay A.; Vallakati, Ravikrishna; Zhang, Wei; Romo, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A novel class of small spirocyclic heterocycles, spiroepoxy-β-lactones (1,4-dioxaspiro[2.3]-hexan-5-ones), is described that exhibit a number of interesting reactivity patterns. These spiroheterocycles, including an optically active series, are readily synthesized by epoxidation of ketene dimers (4-alkylidene-2-oxetanones) available from homo- or heteroketene dimerization. An analysis of bond lengths in these systems by X-ray crystallography and comparison to data for known spirocycles and those determined computationally, suggest that anomeric effects in these systems may be more pronounced due to their rigidity and may contribute to their surprising stability. The synthetic utility of spiroepoxy-β-lactones was explored and one facile rearrangement identified under several conditions provides a 3-step route from acid chlorides to optically active tetronic acids, ubiquitous heterocycles in bioactive natural products. The addition of various nucleophiles to these spirocycles leads primarily to addition at C5 and C2. The utility of an optically active spiroepoxy-β-lactone was demonstrated in the concise, enantioselective synthesis of the anti-fouling agent, (+)-maculalactone A, which proceeds in 5 steps from hydrocinnamoyl chloride by way of a tetronic acid intermediate. PMID:19453152

  14. Asymmetric synthesis, structure, and reactivity of unexpectedly stable spiroepoxy-beta-lactones including facile conversion to tetronic acids: application to (+)-maculalactone A.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Richard J; Morris, Kay A; Vallakati, Ravikrishna; Zhang, Wei; Romo, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    A novel class of small spirocyclic heterocycles, spiroepoxy-beta-lactones (1,4-dioxaspiro[2.3]-hexan-5-ones), is described that exhibit a number of interesting reactivity patterns. These spiroheterocycles, including an optically active series, are readily synthesized by epoxidation of ketene dimers (4-alkylidene-2-oxetanones) available from homo- or heteroketene dimerization. An analysis of bond lengths in these systems by X-ray crystallography and comparison to data for known spirocycles and those determined computationally suggest that anomeric effects in these systems may be more pronounced due to their rigidity and may contribute to their surprising stability. The synthetic utility of spiroepoxy-beta-lactones was explored, and one facile rearrangement identified under several conditions provides a three-step route from acid chlorides to optically active tetronic acids, ubiquitous heterocycles in bioactive natural products. The addition of various nucleophiles to these spirocycles leads primarily to addition at C5 and C2. The utility of an optically active spiroepoxy-beta-lactone was demonstrated in the concise, enantioselective synthesis of the antifouling agent, (+)-maculalactone A, which proceeds in five steps from hydrocinnamoyl chloride by way of a tetronic acid intermediate. PMID:19453152

  15. Identification and characterization of 2nd generation Invader Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs) for mixed-sequence recognition of double-stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sau, Sujay P.; Madsen, Andreas S.; Podbevsek, Peter; Andersen, Nicolai K.; Kumar, T. Santhosh; Andersen, Sanne; Rathje, Rie L.; Anderson, Brooke A.; Guenther, Dale C.; Karmakar, Saswata; Kumar, Pawan; Plavec, Janez; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Development of synthetic agents that recognize double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is a long-standing goal that is inspired by the promise for tools that detect, regulate and modify genes. Progress has been made with triplex-forming oligonucleotides, PNAs, and polyamides, but substantial efforts are currently devoted to the development of alternative strategies that overcome limitations observed with the classic approaches. In 2005, we introduced Invader Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs), i.e., double-stranded probes that are activated for mixed-sequence recognition of dsDNA through modification with ‘+1 interstrand zippers’ of 2’-N-(pyren-1-yl)methyl-2’-amino-α-L-LNA monomers. Despite promising preliminary results, progress has been slow due to the synthetic complexity of the building blocks. Here, we describe a study that led to the identification of two simpler classes of Invader monomers. We compare thermal denaturation characteristics of double-stranded probes featuring different interstrand zippers of pyrene-functionalized monomers based on 2’-amino-α-L-LNA, 2’-N-methyl-2’-amino-DNA, and RNA scaffolds. Insights from fluorescence spectroscopy, molecular modeling and NMR spectroscopy are used to elucidate the structural factors that govern probe activation. We demonstrate that probes with +1 zippers of 2’-O-(pyren-1-yl)methyl-RNA or 2’-N-methyl-2’-N-(pyren-1-yl)methyl-2’-amino-DNA monomers recognize DNA hairpins with similar efficiency as original Invader LNAs. Access to synthetically simple monomers will accelerate the use of Invader-mediated dsDNA-recognition for applications in molecular biology and nucleic acid diagnostics. PMID:24032477

  16. A rapid method combining immunofluorescence and flow cytometry for improved understanding of competitive interactions between lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, John; Smoragiewicz, Wanda; Karska-Wysocki, Barbara

    2006-04-01

    The increasing frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in hospital and community settings highlights the need for effective anti-MRSA agents that will not contribute to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to exclude various pathogens through multiple mechanisms. In vitro models studying interactions of pathogens and LAB in mixed cultures use selective agar plates to quantify changes in target populations. We applied commercially available S. aureus-specific polyclonal antibodies conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for this purpose, producing a bright green signal that clearly differentiates S. aureus from LAB species when mixed cultures are analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Flow cytometry of mixed cultures revealed a much larger population of MRSA cells than was detectable using selective agar plates. To our knowledge, this is the first time immunofluorescent flow cytometry has been applied to the study of competitive exclusion in mixed bacterial populations over time. PMID:16154216

  17. The facile surface chemical modification of a single glass nanopore and its use in the nonenzymatic detection of uric acid.

    PubMed

    He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Wang, Ping; Chen, Lizhen; Jin, Yongdong

    2015-02-01

    A conical glass nanopore was first modified with ultrathin gold nanofilm via a simple and innovative chemical reduction of HAuCl4 on a surface-attached poly(L-histidine) monolayer in the presence of a mild reductant, NH2OH·HCl, followed by surface functionalization with 2-thiouracil, and exploited for the selective nonenzymatic detection of uric acid and especially for serum sample detection. PMID:25531580

  18. J-aggregation of a water-soluble tetracationic porphyrin in mixed LB films with a calix[8]arene carboxylic acid derivative.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Gustavo de; Pérez-Morales, Marta; Martín-Romero, María T; Muñoz, Eulogia; Richardson, Tim H; Camacho, Luis

    2007-03-27

    The molecular organization of a mixed film, containing a water-soluble tetracationic porphyrin (TMPyP) and a p-tert-butyl calix[8]arene octacarboxylic acid derivative (C8A), at the air-water interface and on a solid support (LB film), has been investigated. Although the TMPyP aggregation was not detected at the air-water interface, TMPyP J-aggregates have been found in the LB films (Y-type). Unlike tetraanionic porphyrins, for example TSPP, the TMPyP J-aggregates are not induced by a zwitterion formation. The TMPyP J-aggregation is a result of a "double comb" configuration, where porphyrins from opposite layers are interwoven in a linear infinite J-aggregate. Our results confirm that TMPyP molecules tend to self-aggregate strongly, provided the electrostatic repulsions of their peripheral groups are cancelled by the anionic groups of the C8A matrix. PMID:17315895

  19. Development of CdS Nanostructures by Thermal Decomposition of Aminocaproic Acid-Mixed Cd-Thiourea Complex Precursor: Structural, Optical and Photocatalytic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayesh D; Mighri, Frej; Ajji, Abdellah; Chaudhuri, Tapas K

    2015-04-01

    The present work deals with two different CdS nanostructures produced via hydrothermal and solvothermal decompositions of aminocaproic acid (ACA)-mixed Cd-thiourea complex precursor at 175 °C. Both nanostructures were extensively characterized for their structural, morphological and optical properties. The powder X-ray diffraction characterization showed that the two CdS nanostructures present a wurtzite morphology. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray characterizations revealed that the hydrothermal decomposition produced well-shaped CdS flowers composed of six dendritic petals, and the solvothermal decomposition produced CdS microspheres with close stoichiometric chemical composition. The UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra of CdS dendritic flowers and microsphere nanostructures showed that both nanostructures present a broad absorption between 200 and 700 nm and exhibit strong green emissions at 576 and 520 nm upon excitations at 290 nm and 260 nm, respectively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) characterizations confirmed that CdS microspheres were mesoporous and were composed of small nanocrystals. A possible growth mechanism in the formation of the CdS nanostructures was proposed based on morphology evolution as a function of the reaction time. Furthermore, the as-synthesized CdS nanostructures were found to exhibit highly efficient photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methyl orange (MeO) and rhodamine B (RhB) dyes. PMID:26353487

  20. Novel pH control strategy for efficient production of optically active l-lactic acid from kitchen refuse using a mixed culture system.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yukihiro; Inokuchi, Shota; Poudel, Pramod; Okugawa, Yuki; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Miayamoto, Hisashi; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Uninvestigated control factors of meta-fermentation, the fermentative production of pure chemicals and fuels in a mixed culture system, were examined for production of optically pure l-lactic acid (LA) from food waste. In meta-fermentations by pH swing control, l-LA production with 100% optical purity (OPl-LA) was achieved even using unsterilized model kitchen refuse medium with preferential proliferation of l-LA-producing Bacillus coagulans, a minor member in the seed, whereas agitation decreased OPl-LA drastically. pH constant control shortened the fermentation time but decreased OPl-LA and LA selectivity (SLA) by stimulating growth of heterofermentative Bacillus thermoamylovorans. Deliberately switching from pH swing control to constant control exhibited the best performance for l-LA production: maximum accumulation, 39.2gL(-1); OPl-LA, 100%; SLA, 96.6%; productivity, 1.09gL(-1)h(-1). These results present a novel pH control strategy for efficient l-LA production in meta-fermentation based on a concept different from that of pure culture systems. PMID:27233097

  1. Film fabrication of Fe or Fe3O4 nanoparticles mixed with palmitic acid for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth using Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kentaro; Kuriyama, Naoki; Takagiwa, Shota; Sato, Taiga; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) were studied as a new catalyst support for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Controlling the number density and the diameter of VA-CNTs may be necessary to optimize PEFC performance. As the catalyst for CNT growth, we fabricated Fe or Fe3O4 nanoparticle (NP) films by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The catalyst Fe or Fe3O4 NPs were widely separated by mixing with filler molecules [palmitic acid (C16)]. The number density of VA-CNTs was controlled by varying the ratio of catalyst NPs to C16 filler molecules. The VA-CNTs were synthesized from the catalyst NP-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using acetylene gas as the carbon source. The developing solvents used in the LB technique and the hydrogen reduction conditions of CVD were optimized to improve the VA-CNT growth rate. We demonstrate that the proposed method can independently control both the density and the diameter of VA-CNTs.

  2. Electrochemical detection of nanomolar dopamine in the presence of neurophysiological concentration of ascorbic acid and uric acid using charge-coated carbon nanotubes via facile and green preparation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeong-Wook; Yoon, Yeo Woon; Heo, Jihye; Yu, Joonhee; Kim, Hasuck; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-01-15

    Negatively charged multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared using simple sonication technique with non-toxic citric acid (CA) for the electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA). CA/MWCNTs were placed on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes by drop-casting method and then electrochemical determinations of DA were performed in the presence of highly concentrated ascorbic acid (AA). For the comparison of the charge effect on MWCNTs surface, positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI)/MWCNT/GC electrode and pristine MWCNT/GC electrode were also prepared. Contrary to conventional GC electrode, all three types of MWCNT modified electrodes (CA/MWCNT/GC, PEI/MWCNT/GC, and pristine MWCNT/GC) can discriminate ~μM of DA from 1mM AA using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) due to the inherent electrocatalytic effect of MWCNTs. Compared to positively charged PEI/MWCNT/GC and pristine MWCNT/GC electrodes, negatively charged CA/MWCNT/GC electrode remarkably enhanced the electrochemical sensitivity and selectivity of DA, showing the linear relationship between DPV signal and DA concentration in the range of 10-1000nM even in the presence of ~10(5) times concentrated AA, which is attributed to the synergistic effect of the electrostatic interaction between cationic DA molecules and negatively charged MWCNTs and the inherent electrocatalytic property of MWCNT. As a result, the limit of detection (LOD) of DA for CA/MWCNT/GC electrode was 4.2nM, which is 5.2 and 16.5 times better than those for MWCNT/GC electrode and PEI/MWCNT/GC electrode even in the presence of 1mM AA. This LOD value for DA at CA/MWCNT/GC electrode is one of the lowest values compared to the previous reports and is low enough for the early diagnosis of neurological disorder in the presence of physiological AA concentration (~0.5mM). In addition, the high selectivity and sensitivity of DA at CA/MWCNT/GC electrode were well kept even in the presence of both 1mM AA and 10μM uric acid

  3. Reclamation of acid pickling waste: A facile route for preparation of single-phase Fe3O4 nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Lu, Bin; Tang, Huihui; Zhao, Jingxiang; Cai, Qinghai

    2015-05-01

    Using an alternative method of dropwise addition of iron salt in NaOH aqueous solution, nanocrystalline Fe3O4 materials were prepared from acid pickling waste as a starting material with ultrasonic enhancement and polyethylene glycol as a dispersant, as proved by XRD, TEM, TG-DSC and ICP-MS. The results showed that the Fe3O4 material was a well-crystallized magnetite with an average size of about 25 nm and purity 99.15%. Magnetic measurement revealed the nanocrystals were stronger superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 82.1 emu/g.

  4. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

    2014-06-01

    A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. PMID:24632327

  5. A facile and effective immobilization of glucose oxidase on tannic acid modified CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Altun, Seher; Çakıroğlu, Bekir; Özacar, Münteha; Özacar, Mahmut

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a study of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization by employing tannic acid (TA) modified-CoFe2O4 (CFO) magnetic nanoparticles which demonstrates novel aspect for enzyme immobilization. By using the strong protein and tannic acid binding, GOx immobilization was carried out via physical adsorption in a simpler way compared with the other immobilization methods which require various chemicals and complicated procedures which is difficult, expensive, time-consuming, and destructive to the enzyme structure. CFO was synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis and modified with TA to immobilize GOx. The immobilized GOx demonstrated maximum catalytic activity at pH 6.5 and 45 °C. The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), zeta potential, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), all of which confirm the surface modification of CFO and GOx immobilization. Also, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to demonstrate the surface morphology and chemical structure of samples. According to the Lineweaver-Burk plot, GOx possessed lower affinity to glucose after immobilization, and the Michelis-Menten constant (KM) of immobilized and free GOx were found to be 50.05 mM and 28.00 mM, respectively. The immobilized GOx showed excellent reusability, and even after 8 consecutive activity assay runs, the immobilized GOx maintained ca. 60% of its initial activity. PMID:26562188

  6. Facile Probe Design: Fluorescent Amphiphilic Nucleic Acid Probes without Quencher Providing Telomerase Activity Imaging Inside Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yongmei; Gao, Pengcheng; Zhuang, Yuan; Miao, Mao; Lou, Xiaoding; Xia, Fan

    2016-06-21

    Nowadays, the probe with fluorophore but no quencher is promising for its simple preparation, environmental friendliness, and wide application scope. This study designs a new amphiphilic nucleic acid probe (ANAP) based on aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect without any quencher. Upon binding with targets, the dispersion of hydrophobic part (conjugated fluorene, CF) in ANAP is enhanced as a signal-on model for proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules detection or the aggregation of CF is enhanced as a signal-off model for ion detection. Meanwhile, because of the high specificity of ANAP, a one-step method is developed powerfully for monitoring the telomerase activity not only from the cell extracts but also from 50 clinic urine samples (positive results from 45 patients with bladder cancer and negative results from 5 healthy people). ANAPs can also readily enter into cells and exhibit a good performance for distinguishing natural tumor cells from the tumor cells pretreated by telomerase-related drugs or normal cells. In contrast to our previous results ( Anal. Chem. 2015 , 87 , 3890 - 3894 ), the present CF is a monomer which is just the structure unit of the previous fluorescent polymer. Since the accurate molecular structure and high DNA/CF ratio of the present CF, these advanced experiments obtain an easier preparation of probes, an improved sensitivity and specificity, and broader detectable targets. PMID:27223599

  7. Mixed waste solidification testing on polymer and cement-based waste forms in support of Hanford`s WRAP 2A facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A. Jr.; Weingardt, K.M.

    1993-10-01

    A testing program has been conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to confirm the baseline waste form selection for use in Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A. WRAP Module 2A will provide treatment required to properly dispose of containerized contact-handled, mixed low-level waste at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Solidification/stabilization has been chosen as the appropriate treatment for this waste. This work is intended to test cement-based, thermosetting polymer, and thermoplastic polymer solidification media to substantiate the technology approach for WRAP Module 2A. Screening tests were performed using the major chemical constituent of each waste type to measure the gross compatibility with the immobilization media and to determine formulations for more detailed testing. Surrogate materials representing each of the eight waste types were prepared in the laboratory. These surrogates were then solidified with the selected immobilization media and subjected to a battery of standard performance tests. Detailed discussion of the laboratory work and results are contained in this report.

  8. Mixed waste solidification testing on thermosetting polymer and cement based waste forms in support of Hanford`s WRAP Module 2A Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.; Weingardt, K.M.

    1993-03-01

    A testing program has been conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to confirm the baseline waste form selection for use in Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A. WRAP Module 2A will provide treatment required to properly dispose of containerized contact-handled, mixed low-level waste at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Solidification/stabilization has been chosen as the appropriate treatment for this waste. This work is intended to test cement-based and thermosetting polymer solidification media to confirm the baseline technologies selected for WRAP Module 2A. Screening tests were performed using the major chemical constituent of each waste type to measure the gross compatibility with the immobilization media and to determine formulations for more detailed testing. Surrogate wastes representing each of the eight waste types were prepared for testing. Surrogates for polymer testing were sent to a vendor commissioned for that portion of the test work. Surrogates for the grout testing were used in the Westinghouse Hanford Company laboratory responsible for the grout performance testing. Detailed discussion of the laboratory work and results are contained in this report.

  9. Getting a taste for food waste: a mixed methods ethnographic study into hospital food waste before patient consumption conducted at three New Zealand foodservice facilities.

    PubMed

    Goonan, Sarah; Mirosa, Miranda; Spence, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Foodservice organizations, particularly those in hospitals, are large producers of food waste. To date, research on waste in hospitals has focused primarily on plate waste and the affect of food waste on patient nutrition outcomes. Less focus has been placed on waste generation at the kitchen end of the hospital food system. We used a novel approach to understand reasons for hospital food waste before consumption and offer recommendations on waste minimization within foodservices. A mixed methods ethnographic research approach was adopted. Three New Zealand hospital foodservices were selected as research sites, all of which were contracted to an external foodservice provider. Data collection techniques included document analyses, observations, focus groups with kitchen staff, and one-on-one interviews with managers. Thematic analysis was conducted to generate common themes. Most food waste occurred during service and as a result of overproduction. Attitudes and habits of foodservice personnel were considered influential factors of waste generation. Implications of food waste were perceived differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, kitchen staff drew upon social implications. Organizational plans, controls, and use of pre-prepared ingredients assisted in waste minimization. An array of factors influenced waste generation in hospital foodservices. Exploring attitudes and practices of foodservice personnel allowed an understanding of reasons behind hospital food waste and ways in which it could be minimized. This study provides a foundation for further research on sustainable behavior within the wider foodservice sector and dietetics practice. PMID:24231365

  10. A facile reproducible radioimmunoassay of the mixed metabolites of prostaglandins E, suitable for measurement of relative differences of phospholipase/prostaglandin synthetase activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fretland, D J; Cammarata, P S

    1984-04-01

    A relatively simple, reproducible, radioimmunoassay for the mixed metabolites of prostaglandins E (U-PGE-M) in rat and human urine is described. Results of the assay of treated versus control urine extracts correlate well with differences expected from treatments known to alter in vivo phospholipase/prostaglandin synthetase activity. Cross-reactivity of heterogeneous metabolite antiserum with 5 available endogenous prostaglandins and a single metabolite was determined and showed little or no cross reaction. Sensitivity, within-assay precision, interassay reproducibility, and parallelism were also determined and found acceptable. Excretion rates of U-PGE-M by rats and humans were determined, and statistically significant differences could be shown, although absolute values were smaller than estimated absolute values obtained from mass-spectrometric measurements of single, purified metabolites. Normal human male excretion rates differed significantly from those of females. Injection of prostaglandin E1 caused a significant rise in U-PGE-M excretion in rats whereas aspirin and indomethacin caused it to fall. U-PGE-M excretion rates of spontaneous hypertensive rats were significantly less than rates of normotensive controls. Adrenalectomy resulted in excretion of significantly larger amounts of U-PGE-M than in normal or sham-operated controls. A screen of clinically active pharmacological agents and hormones gave results consistent with previously published reports. PMID:6427792

  11. Facile "one-pot" synthesis of poly(methacrylic acid)-based hybrid monolith via thiol-ene click reaction for hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xumei; Tan, Wangming; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yingzhuang; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-07-01

    A novel sol-gel "one-pot" approach in tandem with a radical-mediated thiol-ene reaction for the synthesis of a methacrylic acid-based hybrid monolith was developed. The polymerization monomers, tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTS), were hydrolyzed in high-concentration methacrylic acid solution that also served as a hydrophilic functional monomer. The resulting solution was then mixed with initiator (2, 2'-azobis (2-methylpropionamide) dihydrochloride) and porogen (urea, polyethylene glycol 20,000) in a capillary column and polymerized in water bath. The column had a uniform porous structure and a good permeability. The evaluation of the monolith was performed by separation of small molecules including nucleosides, phenols, amides, bases and Triton X-100. The calibration curves for uridine, inosine, adenosine and cytidine were determined. All the calibration curves exhibited good linear regressions (R(2)≥0.995) within the test ranges of 0.5-40μg/mL for four nucleosides. Additionaliy, atypical hydrophilic mechanism was proved by elution order from low to high according to polarity retention time increased with increases in the content of the organic solvent in the mobile phase. Further studies indicated that hydrogen bond and electrostatic interactions existed between the polar analytes and the stationary phase. This was the mechanism of retention. The excellent separation of the BSA digest showed good hydrophility of the column and indicated the potential in separation of complex biological samples. PMID:27264742

  12. Development Of Ion Chromatography Methods To Support Testing Of The Glycolic Acid Reductant Flowsheet In The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenman, B. J.; White, T. L.; Mahannah, R. N.; Best, D. R.; Stone, M. E.; Click, D. R.; Lambert, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    Ion Chromatography (IC) is the principal analytical method used to support studies of Sludge Reciept and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) chemistry at DWPF. A series of prior analytical ''Round Robin'' (RR) studies included both supernate and sludge samples from SRAT simulant, previously reported as memos, are tabulated in this report.2,3 From these studies it was determined to standardize IC column size to 4 mm diameter, eliminating the capillary column from use. As a follow on test, the DWPF laboratory, the PSAL laboratory, and the AD laboratory participated in the current analytical RR to determine a suite of anions in SRAT simulant by IC, results also are tabulated in this report. The particular goal was to confirm the laboratories ability to measure and quantitate glycolate ion. The target was + or - 20% inter-lab agreement of the analyte averages for the RR. Each of the three laboratories analyzed a batch of 12 samples. For each laboratory, the percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the averages on nitrate, glycolate, and oxalate, was 10% or less. The three laboratories all met the goal of 20% relative agreement for nitrate and glycolate. For oxalate, the PSAL laboratory reported an average value that was 20% higher than the average values reported by the DWPF laboratory and the AD laboratory. Because of this wider window of agreement, it was concluded to continue the practice of an additional acid digestion for total oxalate measurement. It should also be noted that large amounts of glycolate in the SRAT samples will have an impact on detection limits of near eluting peaks, namely Fluoride and Formate. A suite of scoping experiments are presented in the report to identify and isolate other potential interlaboratory disceprancies. Specific ion chromatography inter-laboratory method conditions and differences are tabulated. Most differences were minor but there are some temperature control equipment differences that are significant leading to a recommendation of

  13. FY95 limited energy study area B nitric acid production facilities, Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Kingsport, Tennessee. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-02

    The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of process or equipment modifications pursuant to conservation of energy and reduction of water consumption at the Ammonia Oxidation Process Facilities in Building 302, Area B. An adjunct requirement is to avoid proposed modifications which would impose additional maintenance and operation requirements. The following ECO`s specifically identified by scope documents, were investigated: 1. Convert air compressor drive turbine from tailgas to steam or to steam augmentation. 2. Recover heat from product gas leaving the air preheater to produce steam. 3. Water conservation. Additional ECOs selected by the A/E to be studied include the following: 1. Insulate heat exchangers and tailgas piping. 2. Install preformed plate heat exchangers inside insulation on air preheater and tailgas heater vessels for heat recovery to a 30 psig steam system. 3. Inject air compressor intercooler and aftercooler condensate and steam condensate from the ammonia vaporizer into tailgas entering compressor drive turbine for increased power.

  14. Fabrication of Uniform DNA-Conjugated Hydrogel Microparticles via Replica Molding for Facile Nucleic Acid Hybridization Assays

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Christina L.; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Lin, Yan; Lee, Chang-Soo; Yi, Hyunmin

    2010-01-01

    We identify and investigate several critical parameters in the fabrication of single-stranded DNA conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microparticles based on replica molding (RM) for highly uniform and robust nucleic acid hybridization assays. The effects of PEG-diacrylate, probe DNA, and photoinitiator concentrations on the overall fluorescence and target DNA penetration depth upon hybridization are examined. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy results illustrate high conjugation capacity of probe and target DNA, femtomole sensitivity, and sequence specificity. Combined these findings demonstrate a significant step toward simple, robust, and scalable procedures to manufacture highly uniform and high capacity hybridization assay particles in a well-controlled manner by exploiting many advantages that the batch processing-based RM technique offers. We envision that the results presented here may be readily applied to rapid and high throughput hybridization assays for a wide variety of applications in bioprocess monitoring, food safety, and biological threat detection. PMID:20527819

  15. Fabrication of uniform DNA-conjugated hydrogel microparticles via replica molding for facile nucleic acid hybridization assays.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Christina L; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Lin, Yan; Lee, Chang-Soo; Yi, Hyunmin

    2010-07-01

    We identify and investigate several critical parameters in the fabrication of single-stranded DNA conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microparticles based on replica molding (RM) for highly uniform and robust nucleic acid hybridization assays. The effects of PEG-diacrylate, probe DNA, and photoinitiator concentrations on the overall fluorescence and target DNA penetration depth upon hybridization are examined. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy results illustrate high conjugation capacity of the probe and target DNA, femtomole sensitivity, and sequence specificity. Combined, these findings demonstrate a significant step toward simple, robust, and scalable procedures to manufacture highly uniform and high-capacity hybridization assay particles in a well-controlled manner by exploiting many advantages that the batch processing-based RM technique offers. We envision that the results presented here may be readily applied to rapid and high-throughput hybridization assays for a wide variety of applications in bioprocess monitoring, food safety, and biological threat detection. PMID:20527819

  16. Dendrimer-functionalized mesoporous silica as a reversed-phase/anion-exchange mixed-mode sorbent for solid phase extraction of acid drugs in human urine.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Yang, Jiajia; Huang, Chaonan; Wang, Longxing; Wang, Jincheng; Chen, Jiping

    2015-05-01

    A new dendrimer-functionalized mesoporous silica material based on large-pore 3D cubic Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology-6 (KIT-6) was synthesized by the growing of dendritic branches inside the mesopores of aminopropyl functionalized KIT-6. Detailed physical characterizations using transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis reveal that the multifunctional dendrimers have been grown successfully within the confined spaces of mesopores. Although the 3D ordered mesoporous architecture of KIT-6 was well preserved, there was a significant and continuous decrease in pore size, specific surface area (SBET) and pore volume when increasing dendrimer generation up to six. In order to get a compromise between the SBET, pore size and density of functionalities, the dendrimer-functionalized KIT-6 (DF-KIT-6) for generation 2 (SBET, 314.2 m(2) g(-1); pore size, 7.9 nm; carbon and nitrogen contents, 19.80% and 1.92%) was selected for solid phase extraction (SPE) applications. The DF-KIT-6 was then evaluated as a reversed-phase/anion-exchange mixed-mode sorbent for extraction of the selected acidic drugs (ketoprofen, KEP; naproxen, NAP; and ibuprofen, IBU), since the dendrimers contained both hydrocarbonaceous and amine functionalities. The effective parameters on extraction efficiency such as sample pH and volume, type and volume of eluent and wash solvents were optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the DF-KIT-6 based SPE coupled with HPLC-UV method demonstrated good sensitivity (0.4-4.6 ng mL(-1) detection of limits) and linearity (R(2)>0.990 for 10-2000 ng mL(-1) of KEP and IBU, and 1-200 ng mL(-1) of NAP). The potential use of DF-KIT-6 sorbent for preconcentration and cleanup of acid drugs in human urine samples was also demonstrated. Satisfactory recoveries at two spiking levels (30 and 300 ng mL(-1) for KEP and IBU, 3 and 30 ng mL(-1

  17. Aerosol synthesis and electrochemical analysis of niobium mixed-metal oxides for the ethanol oxidation reaction in acid and alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Daniel A.

    Direct ethanol fuel cells are especially important among emerging electrochemical power systems with the potential to offset a great deal of the energy demand currently met through the use of fossil fuels. Ethanol can be refined from petroleum sources or attained from renewable biomass, and is more easily and safely stored and transported than hydrogen, methanol or gasoline. The full energy potential of ethanol in fuel cells can only be realized if the reaction follows a total oxidation pathway to produce CO2. This must be achieved by the development of advanced catalysts that are electrically conductive, stable in corrosive environments, contain a high surface area on which the reaction can occur, and exhibit a bi-functional effect for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The latter criterion is achievable in mixed-metal systems. Platinum is an effective metal for catalyzing surface reactions of many adsorbates and is usually implemented in the form of Pt nanoparticles supported on inexpensive carbon. This carbon is believed to be neutral in the catalysis of Pt. Instead, carbon can be replaced with carefully designed metals and metal oxides as co-catalysis or support structures that favorably alter the electronic structure of Pt slightly through a strong metal support interaction, while also acting as an oxygen source near adsorbates to facilitate the total oxidation pathway. Niobium mixed-metal-oxides were explored in this study as bi-functional catalyst supports to Pt nanoparticles. We developed a thermal aerosol synthesis process by which mesoporous powders of mixed-metal-oxides decorated with Pt nanoparticles could be obtained from liquid precursors within ˜5 seconds or less, followed by carefully refined chemical and thermal post-treatments. Exceptionally high surface areas of 170--180m2/g were achieved via a surfactant-templated 3D wormhole-type porosity, comparable on a per volume basis to commercial carbon blacks and high surface area silica supports

  18. Heterogeneously catalysed partial oxidation of acrolein to acrylic acid--structure, function and dynamics of the V-Mo-W mixed oxides.

    PubMed

    Kampe, Philip; Giebeler, Lars; Samuelis, Dominik; Kunert, Jan; Drochner, Alfons; Haass, Frank; Adams, Andreas H; Ott, Joerg; Endres, Silvia; Schimanke, Guido; Buhrmester, Thorsten; Martin, Manfred; Fuess, Hartmut; Vogel, Herbert

    2007-07-21

    The major objective of this research project was to reach a microscopic understanding of the structure, function and dynamics of V-Mo-(W) mixed oxides for the partial oxidation of acrolein to acrylic acid. Different model catalysts (from binary and ternary vanadium molybdenum oxides up to quaternary oxides with additional tungsten) were prepared via a solid state preparation route and hydrochemical preparation of precursors by spray-drying or crystallisation with subsequent calcination. The phase composition was investigated ex situ by XRD and HR-TEM. Solid state prepared samples are characterised by crystalline phases associated to suitable phase diagrams. Samples prepared from crystallised and spray-dried precursors show crystalline phases which are not part of the phase diagram. Amorphous or nanocrystalline structures are only found in tungsten doped samples. The kinetics of the partial oxidation as well as the catalysts' structure have been studied in situ by XAS, XRD, temperature programmed reaction and reduction as well as by a transient isotopic tracing technique (SSITKA). The reduction and re-oxidation kinetics of the bulk phase have been evaluated by XAS. A direct influence not only of the catalysts' composition but also of the preparation route is shown. Altogether correlations are drawn between structure, oxygen dynamics and the catalytic performance in terms of activity, selectivity and long-term stability. A model for the solid state behaviour under reaction conditions has been developed. Furthermore, isotope exchange experiments provided a closer image of the mechanism of the selective acrolein oxidation. Based on the in situ characterisation in combination with micro kinetic modelling a detailed reaction model which describes the oxygen exchange and the processes at the catalyst more precisely is discussed. PMID:17612723

  19. Milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid profile of dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied cows fed separate concentrate-forage versus total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Renna, Manuela; Cornale, Paolo; Lussiana, Carola; Battaglini, Luca Maria; Turille, Germano; Mimosi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of two feeding methods on milk yield, composition and fatty acid (FA) profile obtained from dual-purpose cattle. Twenty-four Aosta Red Pied cows beyond peak of lactation were assigned to two groups and fed hay and concentrates in the proportions 0.69 and 0.31 on a dry matter basis for 10 weeks. Concentrates were offered separately from forages 6 times a day (separate ration, SR) or as a total mixed ration (TMR). The feeding method did not significantly influence dry matter intake (16.8 vs. 16.9 kg/head/day for SR- and TMR-fed cows, respectively), milk yield (17.4 vs. 17.5 kg/head/day), milk fat, protein and lactose contents (36.4 vs. 35.2, 33.5 vs. 32.8, and 47.3 vs. 47.4 g/kg) and yields (607.9 vs. 613.4, 567.4 vs. 572.7 and 805.5 vs. 829.7 g/head/day). The overall milk FA profile was very similar between groups. Milk concentrations of FA used as indirect markers of rumen function (C18:2 t10c12, odd- and branched-chain FA) and the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation were comparable (P > 0.05) between SR- and TMR-fed cows, suggesting that ruminal pH did not vary considerably as a consequence of the feeding strategy applied. PMID:23841857

  20. LITERATURE REVIEW OF BORIC ACID SOLUBILITY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Crapse, K.; Kyser, E.

    2011-09-22

    A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system replaces the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with 0.01 M boric acid. This literature study is performed to determine if there is a potential for boric acid to crystallize in the lines with emphasis on the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. This report focuses on the aqueous phase chemistry of boric acid under conditions relevant to MCU and SWPF. Operating and transfer conditions examined for the purpose of this review include temperatures between 13 C (McLeskey, 2008) and 45 C (Fondeur, 2007) and concentrations from 0 to 3M in nitric acid as well as exposure of small amounts of entrained boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium hydroxide caustic wash stream. Experiments were also conducted to observe any chemical reactions and off-gas generation that could occur when 0.01 M boric acid solution mixes with 3 M nitric acid solution and vice versa. Based on the low concentration (0.01M) of boric acid in the MCU/SWPF strip acid and the moderate operating temperatures (13 C to 45 C), it is unlikely that crystallization of boric acid will occur in the acid strip solution under process or transfer conditions. Mixing experiments of boric and nitric acid show no measurable gas generation (< 1 cc of gas per liter of solution) under similar process conditions.

  1. Facile fabrication of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes doped with D-tartaric acid for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Jingjing; Ma, Guofu; Peng, Hui; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Kanjun; Lei, Ziqiang

    2013-11-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes with outstanding electrochemical properties have been successfully synthesized via a simple chemical template-free method in the presence of D-tartaric acid (D-TA) as the dopant, and ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8) as the oxidant. The morphologies and structures of PANI-(D-TA) with different [D-TA]/[aniline] molar ratios are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). To assess the electrochemical properties of PANI-(D-TA) materials, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charging-discharging measurements are performed. The PANI-(D-TA) nanotubes electrode, with [D-TA]/[aniline] molar ratio of 1:1, exhibits larger specific capacitance (as high as 625 F g-1 at 1 A g-1) and higher capacitance retention (77% of its initial capacitance after 500 cycles) in 1 M H2SO4 aqueous solution. The remarkable electrochemical characteristics of PANI-(D-TA) are mainly attributed to their unique nanotubular structures, which provide a high electrode/electrolyte contact area and short ions diffusion path. These novel PANI-(D-TA) nanotubes will be promising electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors.

  2. Fe(3+)-functionalized carbon quantum dots: A facile preparation strategy and detection for ascorbic acid in rat brain microdialysates.

    PubMed

    Li, Linbo; Wang, Chao; Luo, Jingxuan; Guo, Quanwei; Liu, Kangyu; Liu, Kun; Zhao, Wenji; Lin, Yuqing

    2015-11-01

    This study reports an Fe(3+)-functionalized carbon quantum dots (Fe(3+)-functionalized CQDs) for the highly sensitive and selective detection of ascorbic acid (AA) in rat brain microdialysates based on the specific redox reaction between iron(III) ions and AA. The carbon quantum dots (CQDs) were synthesized by one-step pyrolysis of a small organic molecules i.e. tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris). Fe(3+) can tightly chelate to the surface of CQDs by the hydroxyl group to form Fe(3+)-functionalized CQDs while the fluorescence of CQDs can be effectively quenched by Fe(3+) via Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The fluorescence of the Fe(3+)-functionalized CQDs can be sensitively turned on by AA to give an "on-off-on" fluorescence response through the oxidation-reduction between Fe(3+) and AA since the produced Fe(2+) has much lower chelating ability to CQDs and the fluorescence of CQDs can be restored. This Fe(3+)-functionalized CQDs based nanoprobe shows high selective and sensitive response in the concentration of AA ranging from 0.1 μM to 50 μM with the detection limit as lower as 9.1 nM, which is lower than other assays. Finally, the proposed fluorescent probe was successfully applied to direct analysis of AA in biological fluids, i.e. rat brain microdialysates, and may pave a new route to the design of effective carbon quantum dots-based fluorescence probes for other bioassay. PMID:26452962

  3. A Facile Synthesis of MPd (M=Co, Cu) Nanoparticles and Their Catalysis for Formic Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Vismadeb; Chi, Miaofang; Mankin, Max; Liu, Yi; Metin, Onder; Sun, Daohua; More, Karren Leslie; Sun, Shouheng

    2012-01-01

    Monodisperse CoPd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and studied for catalytic formic acid (HCOOH) oxidation (FAO). The NPs were prepared by coreduction of Co(acac)2 (acac = acetylacetonate) and PdBr2 at 260 C in oleylamine and trioctylphosphine, and their sizes (5-12 nm) and compositions (Co10Pd90 to Co60Pd40) were controlled by heating ramp rate, metal salt concentration, or metal molar ratios. The 8 nm CoPd NPs were activated for HCOOH oxidation by a simple ethanol wash. In 0.1 M HClO4 and 2 M HCOOH solution, their catalytic activities followed the trend of Co50Pd50 > Co60Pd40 > Co10Pd90 > Pd. The Co50Pd50 NPs had an oxidation peak at 0.4 V with a peak current density of 774 A/gPd. As a comparison, commercial Pd catalysts showed an oxidation peak at 0.75 V with peak current density of only 254 A/gPd. The synthesis procedure could also be extended to prepare CuPd NPs when Co(acac)2 was replaced by Cu(ac)2 (ac = acetate) in an otherwise identical condition. The CuPd NPs were less active catalysts than CoPd or even Pd for FAO in HClO4 solution. The synthesis provides a general approach to Pd-based bimetallic NPs and will enable further investigation of Pd-based alloy NPs for electro-oxidation and other catalytic reactions.

  4. Performance of Nafion® N115, Nafion® NR-212, and Nafion® NR-211 in a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, David M.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Koeppel, Brian J.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-07-01

    Three Nafion membranes of similar composition but different thicknesses were operated in a 3-cell 1kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery. The influence of current density on the charge/discharge characteristics, coulombic and energy efficiency, capacity fade, operating temperature and pressure drop in the flow circuit will be discussed and correlated to the Nafion membrane thickness. Material costs associated with the Nafion membranes, ease of handling the membranes, and performance impacts will also be discussed.

  5. A facile one-pot synthesis of carbon nitride dots-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for simultaneous enhanced detecting of dopamine and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziyin; Zheng, Xiaohui; Li, Zhi; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we described the facile synthesis of carbon nitride dots-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (CNDs-rGO) and their application for the enhanced electrochemical determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). CNDs-rGO were synthesized for the first time through a green and facile one-step approach, carried out by hydrothermal heat-treatment of an aqueous solution containing GO and chitosan without introduction of other reducing agents or surface modifier. Then, the morphology and composition of CNDs-rGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM observations revealed that CNDs with a size of about 5.0 nm were homogeneously and densely distributed on the surface of rGO. Electrochemical investigations indicated that CNDs-rGO nanocomposites exhibited an excellent performance toward DA and UA. The linear range for DA was estimated to be from 80 nM to 227 μM with a sensitivity of 154.3 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 0.03 μM. Meanwhile, the linear range for UA was estimated to be from 80 nM to 328 μM with a high sensitivity of 178.1 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 0.05 μM. Therefore, CNDs-rGO nanocomposites showed great application potential for constructing electrochemical sensors for the detection of DA and UA. PMID:27284588

  6. 40 CFR 60.90 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.90 Applicability and designation of affected facility. (a) The affected facility to which the provisions of this subpart apply is each hot mix asphalt facility. For the purpose of this subpart, a hot mix asphalt facility is comprised only of any combination of the...

  7. 40 CFR 60.90 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.90 Applicability and designation of affected facility. (a) The affected facility to which the provisions of this subpart apply is each hot mix asphalt facility. For the purpose of this subpart, a hot mix asphalt facility is comprised only of any combination of the...

  8. 40 CFR 60.90 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.90 Applicability and designation of affected facility. (a) The affected facility to which the provisions of this subpart apply is each hot mix asphalt facility. For the purpose of this subpart, a hot mix asphalt facility is comprised only of any combination of the...

  9. 40 CFR 60.90 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.90 Applicability and designation of affected facility. (a) The affected facility to which the provisions of this subpart apply is each hot mix asphalt facility. For the purpose of this subpart, a hot mix asphalt facility is comprised only of any combination of the...

  10. 40 CFR 60.90 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.90 Applicability and designation of affected facility. (a) The affected facility to which the provisions of this subpart apply is each hot mix asphalt facility. For the purpose of this subpart, a hot mix asphalt facility is comprised only of any combination of the...

  11. Effects of the dicarboxylic acids malate and fumarate on E. coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium populations in pure culture and in mixed ruminal microorganism fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dicarboxylic organic acids malate and fumarate increase ruminal pH, reduce methane production, increase propionate and total VFA production, and reduce lactic acid accumulation in a manner similar to ionophores. These acids stimulate the ruminal bacterium Selenomonas ruminantium to ferment lact...

  12. Facile fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate/hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds based on Pickering emulsion templates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Ma, Shanshan; Yang, Zhuohong; Zhou, Wuyi; Du, Zhengshan; Huang, Jian; Yi, Huan; Wang, Chaoyang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop a facile one-pot approach to the fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate (ALG-Ca)/hydroxyapatite (HAp) porous scaffolds based on HAp nanoparticle-stabilized oil-in-water Pickering emulsion templates, which contain alginate in the aqueous phase and PLLA in the oil phase. The emulsion aqueous phase is solidified by in situ gelation of alginate with Ca(2+) released from HAp by decreasing pH with slow hydrolysis of d-gluconic acid δ-lactone (GDL) to produce emulsion droplet-incorporated gels, followed by freeze-drying to form porous scaffolds containing microspheres. The pore structure of porous scaffolds can be adjusted by varying the HAp or GDL concentration. The compressive tests show that the increase of HAp or GDL concentration is beneficial to improve the compressive property of porous scaffolds, while the excessive HAp can lead to the decrease in compressive property. Moreover, the swelling behavior studies display that the swelling ratios of porous scaffolds reduce with increasing HAp or GDL concentration. Furthermore, hydrophobic drug ibuprofen (IBU) and hydrophilic drug bovine serum albumin (BSA) are loaded into the microspheres and scaffold matrix, respectively. In vitro drug release results indicate that BSA has a rapid release while IBU has a sustained release in the dual drug-loaded scaffolds. In vitro cell culture experiments verify that mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells can proliferate on the porous scaffolds well, indicating the good biocompatibility of porous scaffolds. All these results demonstrate that the PLLA microsphere-incorporated ALG-Ca/HAp porous scaffolds have a promising potential for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. PMID:26774574

  13. Mixed effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on the host transcriptome and proteome and their implications for HIV reactivation from latency.

    PubMed

    White, Cory H; Johnston, Harvey E; Moesker, Bastiaan; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Margolis, David M; Richman, Douglas D; Spina, Celsa A; Garbis, Spiros D; Woelk, Christopher H; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda

    2015-11-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been assessed in clinical trials as part of a "shock and kill" strategy to cure HIV-infected patients. While it was effective at inducing expression of HIV RNA ("shock"), treatment with SAHA did not result in a reduction of reservoir size ("kill"). We therefore utilized a combined analysis of effects of SAHA on the host transcriptome and proteome to dissect its mechanisms of action that may explain its limited success in "shock and kill" strategies. CD4+ T cells from HIV seronegative donors were treated with 1μM SAHA or its solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 24h. Protein expression and post-translational modifications were measured with iTRAQ proteomics using ultra high-precision two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Gene expression was assessed by Illumina microarrays. Using limma package in the R computing environment, we identified 185 proteins, 18 phosphorylated forms, 4 acetylated forms and 2982 genes, whose expression was modulated by SAHA. A protein interaction network integrating these 4 data types identified the HIV transcriptional repressor HMGA1 to be upregulated by SAHA at the transcript, protein and acetylated protein levels. Further functional category assessment of proteins and genes modulated by SAHA identified gene ontology terms related to NFκB signaling, protein folding and autophagy, which are all relevant to HIV reactivation. In summary, SAHA modulated numerous host cell transcripts, proteins and post-translational modifications of proteins, which would be expected to have very mixed effects on the induction of HIV-specific transcription and protein function. Proteome profiling highlighted a number of potential counter-regulatory effects of SAHA with respect to viral induction, which transcriptome profiling alone would not have identified. These observations could lead to a more informed selection and design of other HDACi with a more refined targeting profile, and

  14. Extending the cross-linking/mass spectrometry strategy: Facile incorporation of photo-activatable amino acids into the model protein calmodulin in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Christine; Ihling, Christian H; Sinz, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Photo-induced cross-linking is a highly promising technique to investigate protein conformations and protein-protein interactions in their natural cellular environment. One strategy relies on the non-directed incorporation of diazirine-containing photo-activatable amino acids into proteins and a subsequent cross-link formation induced by UV-A irradiation. The advantage of this photo-cross-linking strategy is that it is not restricted to lysine residues and that hydrophobic regions in proteins can also be targeted, which is advantageous for investigating membrane proteins. Here, we present a simplified protocol that relies on the use of mineral salts medium without any special requirements for the incorporation of photo-methionines into proteins in Escherichia coli cells. The possibility to perform these experiments in E. coli is especially valuable as it is the major system for recombinant protein production. The method is exemplified for the Ca(2+) regulating protein calmodulin containing nine methionines, which were found to be replaced by their photo-activatable analogues. Our protocol allows the facile and stochastic incorporation of photo-methionines as the basis for conducting photo-cross-linking experiments in E. coli in an efficient manner. PMID:25726908

  15. Mixed waste management facility FY94 plan

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a progress report detailing the different aspects of the project plan. Included are the topics of quality assurance, safety and cost as they relate to the processing and storage of hazardous materials and radioactive waste.

  16. The mixed waste management facility. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-11-01

    On November 15-16,1995, the Project held its formal Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The review was the culmination of the system element preliminary design reviews conducted throughout the summer and early fall. The Project level PDR brought together all of the elements of the Project for review by the Scientific Advisory Board. The committee was chaired by Booth Myers, LLNL, and included representatives from Bechtel, IT Corp., and SAIC. In addition, DOE/OAK and DOE/HQ were represented. The FY96 Plan was completed and issued (UCRL-ID-119105-95, L-20681-1). This plan focuses on completing the majority of Final Design activities by the end of FY96, with some elements carried into FY97, and on initiating a number of the long-lead procurement items. The planned expenditures for FY96 are $10.7M including expected liens and carryover into FY97. Of this budget, $9.4M is new BA and $1.4M is carryover from FY95 (including liens and approved work scope). The Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) engineering development unit tests continued to resolve engineering issues for final design. The top injector system, developed on contract by ETEC, was delivered and will be installed after the current test series are completed on the side injector concepts. The telerobotic feed preparation (TRS) engineering development also continues to make significant progress. The demonstration system was set up to mock the system configuration options in the MWMF. The system has been brought on line and the robotic system is operational. A number of tours were conducted at both of these systems as part of the PDR, and subsequently as part of the DOE/HQ visit associated with the DOE/OAK end-of-year review.

  17. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-08-01

    Significant progress continued as preliminary design, technical reviews, engineering development, and procurements/contracts moved forward. Key accomplishments were installation and initial operation of the MSO Engineering Development Unit, Peer Review of Analytical Services, development of Preliminary design Baseline guidance, and formal acceptance of the environmental assessment. Budget information on WBS elements are given.

  18. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schären, M; Seyfang, G M; Steingass, H; Dieho, K; Dijkstra, J; Hüther, L; Frahm, J; Beineke, A; von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182±24 d in milk, 23.5±3.5kg of milk/d; mean ± standard deviation). The cows were divided in either a pasture group (PG, n=5) or a confinement group (CG, n=5). The CG stayed on a TMR-based ration (35% corn silage, 35% grass silage, 30% concentrate; dry matter basis), whereas the PG was gradually transitioned from a TMR to a pasture-based ration (wk 1: TMR only; wk 2: 3 h/d on pasture wk 3 and 4: 12 h/d on pasture wk 5-10: pasture only). Ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), NH3-N, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations were measured in rumen fluid samples collected medially and ventrally on a weekly basis. Ruminal pH was continuously recorded during 1 to 4 consecutive days each week using ruminal pH measuring devices. In wk 1, 5, and 10, rumen contents were evacuated and weighed, papillae were collected from 3 locations in the rumen, and subsequently a VFA absorption test was performed. In the PG, mean rumen pH and molar acetate proportions decreased, and molar butyrate proportions increased continuously over the course of the trial, which can most likely be ascribed to an increased intake of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates. During the first weeks on a full grazing ration (wk 5-7), variation of rumen pH decreased, and in wk 5 a lower rumen content, papillae surface area, and potential for VFA absorption were observed. In wk 8 to 10, variation of rumen pH and total VFA concentrations increased again, and acetate/propionate ratio decreased. In wk-10 rumen content, papillae area and VFA absorption characteristics similar to initial levels were observed. Although continuous rumen pH assessments and LPS concentrations did not reveal an increased risk for subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) during the adaption period

  19. DEGRADATION OF THE CHLORINATED PHENOXYACETATE HERBICIDES 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID AND 2,4,5- TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC BY PURE AND MIXED BACTERIAL CULTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined cell suspensions of the 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)-metabolizing organism Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100, and the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-metabolizing organism Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 were shown to effectively degrade either of these compo...

  20. Production of medium-chain volatile fatty acids by mixed ruminal microorganisms is enhanced by ethanol in co-culture with Clostridium kluyveri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentative production of medium-chain (C5-C8) volatile fatty acids by the carboxylate platform has several potential advantages as a route to biofuel precursors. However, its practicality is limited by the relatively slow synthesis of these acids from shorter precursors (C2-C4) that accumulate dur...

  1. Performance of Nafion® N115, Nafion® NR-212, and Nafion® NR-211 in a 1 kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, David; Thomsen, Edwin; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Koeppel, Brian; Sprenkle, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    Three Nafion® membranes of similar composition but different thicknesses were operated in a 3-cell 1 kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery. The influence of current density on the charge/discharge characteristics, coulombic and energy efficiency, capacity fade, operating temperature and pressure drop in the flow circuit will be discussed and correlated to the Nafion® membrane thickness. Material costs associated with the Nafion® membranes, ease of handling the membranes, and performance impacts will also be discussed.

  2. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Petit, H V; Pereira, A B D; Soder, K J; Ross, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the interactions of corn meal or molasses [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) supplements] with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) supplements] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay diets. Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 135±49d in milk and 386±61kg of body weight in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to 4 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period lasted 19d with 14d for diet adaptation and 5d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed diets composed of mixed-mostly grass hay plus 1 of the following 4 concentrate blends: (1) corn meal plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; (2) corn meal plus flaxseed meal; (3) liquid molasses plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; or (4) liquid molasses plus flaxseed meal. Data were analyzed for main effects of NSC and RDP supplements, and the NSC × RDP supplement interactions. Significant NSC × RDP supplement interactions were observed for milk urea N, milk N efficiency, and the sums of milk saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No effect of NSC supplements was observed for nutrient intake and milk yield. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (-0.70kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (-0.60kg/d) were significantly reduced in cows fed liquid molasses due to a trend to decreased concentration of milk fat (-0.17%). Diets with liquid molasses resulted in increased (+35%) concentration and yield of milk enterolactone, indicating that this mammalian lignan can be modulated by supplements with different NSC profiles. Overall, NSC and RDP supplements profoundly changed the milk fatty acid profile, likely because of differences in fatty acids intake, Δ(9)-desaturase indices, and ruminal biohydrogenation pathways. Feeding liquid molasses significantly reduced plasma

  3. Mixed Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... bodies , What Is Alzheimer's? NIA-Funded Memory & Aging Project Reveals Mixed Dementia Common Data from the first ... disease. For example, in the Memory and Aging Project study involving long-term cognitive assessments followed by ...

  4. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of individual amino acids in mixed diets with different crude protein levels measured by the modified in vitro three-step and mobile nylon bag technique.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Lv, Bo; Liu, Chenli; Chen, Daofu

    2016-04-01

    The ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in three total mixed rations with different CP levels were estimated using the modified in vitro three-step procedure (TSP) and mobile nylon bag (MNB) technique on growing lambs. The ruminal effective degradability of DM and CP did not respond with increasing dietary CP level. However, the intestinal digestibility of DM was significantly increased with increasing dietary CP level estimated by TSP (P < 0.05) or MNB method (P < 0.01). Intestinal digestibility coefficients of CP determined by TSP were lower than those of the MNB method. Histidine was extensively degraded by rumen micro-organisms, while tyrosine was the most anti-degradable AA among the samples. The ruminal AA degradability exhibited no significant differences except for threonine, tryptophan, alanine, aspartic acid and proline for the three diets. Similarly, only a few AAs (i.e. histidine, methionine, tryptophan, aspartic acid and cysteine in TSP; histidine, tryptophan, aspartic acid and serine in MNB) had significant differences in their intestinal digestibility; in addition, values of MNB were lower than that of the TSP method, indicating that intestinal digestibility of DM seems to be overestimated in TSP, while that of CP might be overestimated in the MNB method. PMID:26559908

  5. Effect of acidity on the equilibria of formation of mixed Co2+ complexes with heparin and arginine in aqueous solutions at 37°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofanova, M. A.; Frantseva, Yu. V.; Semenov, A. N.; Baranova, N. V.; Zhuravlev, E. V.

    2014-02-01

    Results from studying interactions in the heparin-Co2+ ion-arginine system are presented. The constants of formation of mixed Co2+ complexes with heparin and arginine in aqueous solutions in a broad pH range at 37°C are determined potentiometrically. The chemical equilibria in the system are simulated and the stoichiometry of formation of the complex forms is determined.

  6. Exploring the potential of self-assembled mixed micelles in enhancing the stability and oral bioavailability of an acid-labile drug.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingwang; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Tianpeng; Zhou, Xiaotong; Wu, Baojian

    2014-10-01

    Oral delivery of many drugs is plagued with limited solubility and/or poor stability. This paper aimed to explore the performance of polymeric mixed micelles on solubilization, stabilization and bioavailability enhancement with stiripentol as model drug. Stiripentol-loaded mixed micelles were prepared by solvent-diffusion method: rapid dispersion of an ethanol solution containing stiripentol, monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) and sodium oleate into water. Stiripentol micelles were characterized by the particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, TEM, DSC and FTIR. The pharmacokinetic profile of stiripentol was determined in rats after oral administration of stiripentol micelles. The obtained stiripentol micelles were 44.2 nm in size with an entrapment efficiency over 90%. It was shown that micelles substantially improved the solubility and gastric stability of stiripentol. The oral absorption of stiripentol was also enhanced to a great extent with a relative bioavailability of 157% and 444% to the commercial formulation (Diacomit®) and in-house suspensions. Mixed micelles assembled by di-block copolymer/sodium oleate exhibited a good potential in the improvement of drug stability and bioavailability. It should be a promising carrier for oral delivery of therapeuticals with solubility and stability issues. PMID:24956461

  7. Airborne Observations of Ammonia Emissions from North Carolina Swine Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J. A.; Liao, J.; Welti, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the dominant gas-phase base in the troposphere. As a consequence, NH3 abundance influences particle formation and composition. Anthropogenic emissions of NH3 can react with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and nitric acid (HNO3), photochemical oxidation products of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx (NO + NO2)), to form ammoniated particles that typically account for half or more of measured PM2.5 mass in the Eastern US. NH3 emissions are predominantly from agricultural sources, primarily livestock animal waste and crop fertilization. Accurate NH3 emissions estimates from these sources are necessary for developing effective particle control strategies. Swine facilities in North Carolina are one of the largest source of NH3 emissions in the Southeastern US. Airborne measurements of NH3 and particulate ammonium (NH4+) made aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft as part of the recent 2013 SENEX field campaign are used to quantify NH3 emissions from North Carolina swine facilities. The observed NH3 emissions are compared to swine facility emissions estimates from current emissions inventories. In addition, the NH3 emissions from swine facilities are placed in the broader context of NH3 sources through comparison to recent emissions observations from dairy facilities in California. The July 10 SENEX WP-3D flight track colored and sized by observed NH3 mixing ratios.

  8. Mixed ligand complex formation of 2-aminobenzamide with Cu(II) in the presence of some amino acids: synthesis, structural, biological, pH-metric, spectrophotometric and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Esakkidurai, Thirugnanasamy; Subbaraj, Paramasivam; Shobana, Sutha

    2013-10-01

    Mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes of 2-aminobenzamide (2AB) and amino acids viz., glycine (gly), L-alanine (ala), L-valine (val) and L-phenylalanine (phe) have been synthesised and characterized by various physico-chemical and spectral techniques. The calculated g-tensor values for Cu(II) complexes at 77 K and 300 K, show the distorted octahedral geometry which has been confirmed from the absorption studies. Consequently, the thermal studies illustrate that the loss of water and acetate molecules in the initial stage which are followed by the decomposition of organic residues. The powder X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis reflect that all the complexes have well-defined crystallinity nature with homogeneous morphology. The binding activities of CT DNA with CuAB complexes have been examined by absorption studies. Further, the oxidative cleavage interactions of 2-aminobenzamide and CuAB complexes with DNA were studied by gel electrophoresis method in H2O2 medium. Also, the complex formation of Cu(II) involving 2-aminobenzamide and amino acids were carried out by a combined pH-metric and spectrophotometric techniques in 50% (v/v) water-ethanol mixture at 300, 310, 320 and 330±0.1 K with I=0.15 mol dm(-3) (NaClO4). In solution, CuAB and CuAB2 species has been detected and the binding modes of 2-aminobenzamide and amino acids in both binary and mixed ligand complexes are same. The calculated stabilization value of ΔlogK, log X and log X' indicates higher stabilities for the mixed ligand complexes rather than their binary species. The thermodynamic parameters like ΔG, ΔH and ΔS have been determined from temperature dependence of the stability constant. In vitro biological activities of 2-aminobenzamide, CuA and CuAB complexes show remarkable activities against some bacterial and fungal strains. The percentage distribution of various binary and mixed ligand species in solution at dissimilar pH intervals were also evaluated. PMID:23811147

  9. Mixed ligand complex formation of 2-aminobenzamide with Cu(II) in the presence of some amino acids: Synthesis, structural, biological, pH-metric, spectrophotometric and thermodynamic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Esakkidurai, Thirugnanasamy; Subbaraj, Paramasivam; Shobana, Sutha

    2013-10-01

    Mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes of 2-aminobenzamide (2AB) and amino acids viz., glycine (gly), L-alanine (ala), L-valine (val) and L-phenylalanine (phe) have been synthesised and characterized by various physico-chemical and spectral techniques. The calculated g-tensor values for Cu(II) complexes at 77 K and 300 K, show the distorted octahedral geometry which has been confirmed from the absorption studies. Consequently, the thermal studies illustrate that the loss of water and acetate molecules in the initial stage which are followed by the decomposition of organic residues. The powder X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis reflect that all the complexes have well-defined crystallinity nature with homogeneous morphology. The binding activities of CT DNA with CuAB complexes have been examined by absorption studies. Further, the oxidative cleavage interactions of 2-aminobenzamide and CuAB complexes with DNA were studied by gel electrophoresis method in H2O2 medium. Also, the complex formation of Cu(II) involving 2-aminobenzamide and amino acids were carried out by a combined pH-metric and spectrophotometric techniques in 50% (v/v) water-ethanol mixture at 300, 310, 320 and 330 ± 0.1 K with I = 0.15 mol dm-3 (NaClO4). In solution, CuAB and CuAB2 species has been detected and the binding modes of 2-aminobenzamide and amino acids in both binary and mixed ligand complexes are same. The calculated stabilization value of Δ log K, log X and log X' indicates higher stabilities for the mixed ligand complexes rather than their binary species. The thermodynamic parameters like ΔG, ΔH and ΔS have been determined from temperature dependence of the stability constant. In vitro biological activities of 2-aminobenzamide, CuA and CuAB complexes show remarkable activities against some bacterial and fungal strains. The percentage distribution of various binary and mixed ligand species in solution at dissimilar pH intervals were also evaluated.

  10. Minimizing Aryloxy Elimination in Rh(I) -Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of β-Aryloxyacrylic Acids using a Mixed-Ligand Strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Zheng; Ding, Kuiling

    2015-11-01

    The first example of efficient asymmetric hydrogenation of challenging β-aryloxyacrylic acids was realized using a Rh(I) -complex based on the heterocombination of a readily available chiral monodentate secondary phosphine oxide (SPO) and an achiral monodentate phosphine ligand as the catalyst. Excellent enantioselectivities (92->99 % ee) were achieved for a wide variety of chiral β-aryloxypropionic acids with minor aryloxy elimination in most cases. The resultant products were readily transformed into biologically active compounds through simple synthetic manipulations. PMID:26424205

  11. Spectroscopic studies of oxo-centered, carboxylate-bridged, trinuclear mixed-valence iron (ІІІ, ІІІ, ІІ) complexes with aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Atresh Kumar; Singh, Alok Kumar

    2013-08-01

    New type of oxo-centered, carboxylate-bridged, trinuclear, mixed-valence iron complexes of the general formula [Fe3O(OOCR)3(OOCR*)3L3] (where R = C13H27 or C15H31 and R* = C6H4(OH), (R'); C6H5CH(OH), (R″) or (C6H5)2C(OH), (R) and L = Methanol) were synthesized by the reaction of [Fe3O(OOCCH3)6(H2O)3] with straight chain carboxylic acids and aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids. These were characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (electronic, infrared, Mössbauer, FAB mass and powder XRD) studies, conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Infrared spectra suggested bidentate and bridging mode of coordination of both the carboxylate and hydroxycarboxylate anions along with Fe3O vibrations in the complexes. Mössbauer parameters indicated the presence of high-spin Fe(ІІ) (S = 2) and high-spin Fe(ІІІ) (S = 5/2) centers in the complexes, confirming the valence-localized type of species. An intervalence-transfer band observed at 13,690-13,850 cm-1 range in the room-temperature electronic spectra of the complexes also suggested the complexes containing iron in mixed-valence state. Trinuclear nature of the complexes was confirmed by their FAB mass spectra. Magnetic moment values displayed octahedral geometry around each iron in the complexes and a net anti-ferromagnetic exchange coupling via μ-oxo atom related to mixed-valence pairs. A plausible structure for these complexes has been established on the basis of spectra and magnetic moment data.

  12. Organic acid blend with pure botanical product treatment reduces Escherichia coli and Salmonella populations in pure culture and in in vitro mixed ruminal microorganism fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogenic bacteria can live in the intestinal tract of food animals and can be transmitted to humans via food or indirectly through animal or fecal contact. Organic acid blend products have been used as non-antibiotic modifiers of the gastrointestinal fermentation of food animals to impr...

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic, mutagenic, and cytotoxicity studies of some mixed-ligand platinum(II) complexes of 2,2'-bipyridine and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Jain, N; Mital, R; Ray, K S; Srivastava, T S; Bhattacharya, R K

    1987-09-01

    Seven platinum(II) complexes of the type [Pt(bipy)(AA)]n+ (where n = 1 or 0 and AA is anion of L-valine, L-isoleucine, L-aspartic acid (dianion), L-glutamic acid (dianion), L-glutamine, L-proline, or S-methyl-L-cysteine) have been prepared and characterized. The modes of binding of amino acids in these complexes have been ascertained particularly by infrared and 1H NMR spectral studies. The L-glutamine complex shows a ID50 value (50% inhibitory dose) in the range of greater than 20 micrograms/ml to 100 micrograms/ml of the complex. However, the complexes of L-valine, L-isoleucine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-proline, and S-methyl-L-cysteine show ID50 values greater than 100 micrograms/ml of the complex. The above complexes also show inferior growth inhibition of P-388 cells than platinum(II) complexes of 2,2'-bipyridine with L-alanine, L-leucine, L-methionine, and L-aspargine as reported earlier. The platinum(II) complexes of 2,2'-bipyridine with glycine (Gly), L-alanine (Ala), L-leucine (leu), L-valine (Val), L-methionine (Met), L-phenylalanine (Phe), L-serine (Ser), L-tyrosine (Tyr) and L-tryptophan (Trp) have been tested for mutagenesis using TA 100 and TA 98 strains. They show nonmutagenicity. This is in contrast to the cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2] showing a base pair substitution mutagenesis. PMID:3320273

  14. Improvement of the healing of a rat tibia defect by means of a Calcium Carbonate based biopolymer mixed with Epidermal Growth Factor and Ascorbic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Barrera, C.; Meléndez-Lira, M.; Hernández-Flores, C.; Lecona-Butrón, H.; García-López, E. S.

    2000-10-01

    At the present bone reparation is commonly solved by means of different graft types. Biomaterials such as hidroxyapatite, coraline, octacalcium phosphate and tricalcium phosphate are used. By other side there are factors like Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Fibroblast Growth Factor (TGF), Laminine, Ascorbic Acid (AA), etc. that stimulate the osteogenesis in fracture or bony defect. The goal of this work is to evaluate the effect of the addition of EGF and ascorbic acid to a Ca2CO3 based biopolymer in the healing of a rat tibia model to improve the consolidation with adequate bony quality. No implant rejection or inflammatory reaction was observed during a 5 weeks period in our in vivo studies. The evolution of the osteointegration has been followed employing scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), and biochemistry activity for calcium, phosphor and alkaline phosphatase. We conclude that the combined use of the based Ca2CO3 biopolymer with Ascorbic Acid and Epidermal Growth Factor (group B&AA&EGF) in vivo accelerates the process of bony repair, as compared with the other groups. The mixture B&AA&EGF provide a bridge in the lesion, helping in the cellular migration and increasing the collagen synthesis.

  15. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  16. Health Facilities

    MedlinePlus

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, ... psychiatric care centers. When you choose a health facility, you might want to consider How close it ...

  17. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  18. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  19. Mixed ligand coordination polymer based on 5-nitroisophthalic acid and 1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,2,4-triazole: Synthesis, characterization, magnetic and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Le; Ju, Wen-Wen; Tao, Jian-Qing; Xin, Rong; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiao-Juan

    2015-09-01

    A new Cu(II) coordination polymer, namely, [Cu(NPT)2(NO2-BDC)]n (1) (NO2-H2BDC = 5-nitro-1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, NPT = 4-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,2,4-triazole) has been synthesized under hydrothermal condition and characterized by elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that complex 1 features one-dimensional chain structure. The magnetic studies reveal that the antiferromagnetic interactions exist between the adjacent CuII ions. Moreover, complex 1 displays highly photocatalytic degradation activity for the degradation of rhodamine B, methylene blue and methyl orange.

  20. [Mixed marriages].

    PubMed

    Harmsen, C N

    1998-08-01

    The author examines the extent and characteristics of mixed marriages in the Netherlands. "Nine out of ten married persons born in Turkey or Morocco have a partner who was born in the same country. The majority of married Surinamese also have a partner originating from the same country. Those who spend (a part of) their youth in Indonesia (the former Dutch East Indies), on the other hand, are mostly married to someone born in the Netherlands." (EXCERPT) PMID:12294179