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Sample records for acid moiety attached

  1. Iptycene synthesis: A new method for attaching a 2,3-anthracene moiety to the 9,10-positions of another anthracene moiety - Exceptional conditions for a Lewis acid catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yong-Shing; Hart, Harold

    1989-01-01

    An efficient three-step method for appending a 2,3-anthracene moiety to the 9,10-positions of an existing anthracene moiety is described. The first step uses excess 1,4-anthraquinone (3 equiv) and aluminum chloride (6 equiv) to obtain the anthracene-quinone cycloadduct (omission of the AlCl3 resulted in no adduct). The resulting diketone was reduced to the corresponding diol (excess LiAlH4), which was dehydrated to the arene with phosphorus oxychloride and pyridine. Specific examples include the preparation of heptipycene 8 from pentiptycene 6 (66 percent overall yield) and a similar conversion of 8 to the noniptycene 13 (75 percent overall yield). The methodology led to a markedly improved synthesis of tritriptycene 9 and the first synthesis of undecaiptycene 14.

  2. Attachment of second harmonic-active moiety to molecules for detection of molecules at interfaces

    DOEpatents

    Salafsky, Joshua S.; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    2005-10-11

    This invention provides methods of detecting molecules at an interface, which comprise labeling the molecules with a second harmonic-active moiety and detecting the labeled molecules at the interface using a surface selective technique. The invention also provides methods for detecting a molecule in a medium and for determining the orientation of a molecular species within a planar surface using a second harmonic-active moiety and a surface selective technique.

  3. Design, Synthesis, and Antimycobacterial Activity of Novel Theophylline-7-Acetic Acid Derivatives With Amino Acid Moieties.

    PubMed

    Stavrakov, Georgi; Valcheva, Violeta; Voynikov, Yulian; Philipova, Irena; Atanasova, Mariyana; Konstantinov, Spiro; Peikov, Plamen; Doytchinova, Irini

    2016-03-01

    The theophylline-7-acetic acid (7-TAA) scaffold is a promising novel lead compound for antimycobacterial activity. Here, we derive a model for antitubercular activity prediction based on 14 7-TAA derivatives with amino acid moieties and their methyl esters. The model is applied to a combinatorial library, consisting of 40 amino acid and methyl ester derivatives of 7-TAA. The best three predicted compounds are synthesized and tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. All of them are stable, non-toxic against human cells and show antimycobacterial activity in the nanomolar range being 60 times more active than ethambutol. PMID:26502828

  4. Biotin and Lipoic Acid: Synthesis, Attachment, and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Cronan, John E

    2014-05-01

    Two vitamins, biotin and lipoic acid, are essential in all three domains of life. Both coenzymes function only when covalently attached to key metabolic enzymes. There they act as "swinging arms" that shuttle intermediates between two active sites (= covalent substrate channeling) of key metabolic enzymes. Although biotin was discovered over 100 years ago and lipoic acid 60 years ago, it was not known how either coenzyme is made until recently. In Escherichia coli the synthetic pathways for both coenzymes have now been worked out for the first time. The late steps of biotin synthesis, those involved in assembling the fused rings, were well described biochemically years ago, although recent progress has been made on the BioB reaction, the last step of the pathway in which the biotin sulfur moiety is inserted. In contrast, the early steps of biotin synthesis, assembly of the fatty acid-like "arm" of biotin were unknown. It has now been demonstrated that the arm is made by using disguised substrates to gain entry into the fatty acid synthesis pathway followed by removal of the disguise when the proper chain length is attained. The BioC methyltransferase is responsible for introducing the disguise, and the BioH esterase is responsible for its removal. In contrast to biotin, which is attached to its cognate proteins as a finished molecule, lipoic acid is assembled on its cognate proteins. An octanoyl moiety is transferred from the octanoyl acyl carrier protein of fatty acid synthesis to a specific lysine residue of a cognate protein by the LipB octanoyltransferase followed by sulfur insertion at carbons C-6 and C-8 by the LipA lipoyl synthetase. Assembly on the cognate proteins regulates the amount of lipoic acid synthesized, and, thus, there is no transcriptional control of the synthetic genes. In contrast, transcriptional control of the biotin synthetic genes is wielded by a remarkably sophisticated, yet simple, system, exerted through BirA, a dual-function protein

  5. Biotin and Lipoic Acid: Synthesis, Attachment, and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Cronan, John E

    2008-09-01

    Two vitamins, biotin and lipoic acid, are essential in all three domains of life. Both coenzymes function only when covalently attached to key metabolic enzymes. There they act as "swinging arms" that shuttle intermediates between two active sites (= covalent substrate channeling) of key metabolic enzymes. Although biotin was discovered over 100 years ago and lipoic acid was discovered 60 years ago, it was not known how either coenzyme is made until recently. In Escherichia coli the synthetic pathways for both coenzymes have now been worked out for the first time. The late steps of biotin synthesis, those involved in assembling the fused rings, were well described biochemically years ago, although recent progress has been made on the BioB reaction, the last step of the pathway, in which the biotin sulfur moiety is inserted. In contrast, the early steps of biotin synthesis, assembly of the fatty acid-like "arm" of biotin, were unknown. It has now been demonstrated that the arm is made by using disguised substrates to gain entry into the fatty acid synthesis pathway followed by removal of the disguise when the proper chain length is attained. The BioC methyltransferase is responsible for introducing the disguise and the BioH esterase for its removal. In contrast to biotin, which is attached to its cognate proteins as a finished molecule, lipoic acid is assembled on its cognate proteins. An octanoyl moiety is transferred from the octanoyl-ACP of fatty acid synthesis to a specific lysine residue of a cognate protein by the LipB octanoyl transferase, followed by sulfur insertion at carbons C6 and C8 by the LipA lipoyl synthetase. Assembly on the cognate proteins regulates the amount of lipoic acid synthesized, and thus there is no transcriptional control of the synthetic genes. In contrast, transcriptional control of the biotin synthetic genes is wielded by a remarkably sophisticated, yet simple, system exerted through BirA, a dual-function protein that both represses

  6. Biotin and Lipoic Acid: Synthesis, Attachment and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cronan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Two vitamins, biotin and lipoic acid, are essential in all three domains of life. Both coenzymes function only when covalently attached to key metabolic enzymes. There they act as “swinging arms” that shuttle intermediates between two active sites (= covalent substrate channeling) of key metabolic enzymes. Although biotin was discovered over 100 years ago and lipoic acid 60 years ago, it was not known how either coenzyme is made until recently. In Escherichia coli the synthetic pathways for both coenzymes have now been worked out for the first time. The late steps of biotin synthesis, those involved in assembling the fused rings, were well-described biochemically years ago, although recent progress has been made on the BioB reaction, the last step of the pathway in which the biotin sulfur moiety is inserted. In contrast, the early steps of biotin synthesis, assembly of the fatty acid-like “arm” of biotin were unknown. It has now been demonstrated that the arm is made by using disguised substrates to gain entry into the fatty acid synthesis pathway followed by removal of the disguise when the proper chain length is attained. The BioC methyltransferase is responsible for introducing the disguise and the BioH esterase for its removal. In contrast to biotin, which is attached to its cognate proteins as a finished molecule, lipoic acid is assembled on its cognate proteins. An octanoyl moiety is transferred from the octanoyl-ACP of fatty acid synthesis to a specific lysine residue of a cognate protein by the LipB octanoyl transferase followed by sulfur insertion at carbons C6 and C8 by the LipA lipoyl synthetase. Assembly on the cognate proteins regulates the amount of lipoic acid synthesized and thus there is no transcriptional control of the synthetic genes. In contrast transcriptional control of the biotin synthetic genes is wielded by a remarkably sophisticated, yet simple, system, exerted through BirA a dual function protein that both represses

  7. Formation and Attachment of the Deoxysugar Moiety and Assembly of the Gene Cluster for Caprazamycin Biosynthesis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kaysser, Leonard; Wemakor, Emmanuel; Siebenberg, Stefanie; Salas, Jose A.; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Kammerer, Bernd; Gust, Bertolt

    2010-01-01

    Caprazamycins are antimycobacterials produced by Streptomyces sp. MK730-62F2. Previously, cosmid cpzLK09 was shown to direct the biosynthesis of caprazamycin aglycones, but not of intact caprazamycins. Sequence analysis of cpzLK09 identified 23 genes involved in the formation of the caprazamycin aglycones and the transfer and methylation of the sugar moiety, together with genes for resistance, transport, and regulation. In this study, coexpression of cpzLK09 in Streptomyces coelicolor M512 with pRHAM, containing all the required genes for dTDP-l-rhamnose biosynthesis, led to the production of intact caprazamycins. In vitro studies showed that Cpz31 is responsible for the attachment of the l-rhamnose to the caprazamycin aglycones, generating a rare acylated deoxyhexose. An l-rhamnose gene cluster was identified elsewhere on the Streptomyces sp. MK730-62F2 genome, and its involvement in caprazamycin formation was demonstrated by insertional inactivation of cpzDIII. The l-rhamnose subcluster was assembled with cpzLK09 using Red/ET-mediated recombination. Heterologous expression of the resulting cosmid, cpzEW07, led to the production of caprazamycins, demonstrating that both sets of genes are required for caprazamycin biosynthesis. Knockouts of cpzDI and cpzDV in the l-rhamnose subcluster confirmed that four genes, cpzDII, cpzDIII, cpzDIV, and cpzDVI, are sufficient for the biosynthesis of the deoxysugar moiety. The presented recombineering strategy may provide a useful tool for the assembly of biosynthetic building blocks for heterologous production of microbial compounds. PMID:20418426

  8. Synthesis and biological properties of amino acids and peptides containing a tetrazolyl moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. A.; Trifonov, R. E.

    2015-09-01

    Literature data published mainly in the last 15 years on the synthesis and biological properties of amino acid analogues and derivatives containing tetrazolyl moieties are analyzed. Tetrazolyl analogues and derivatives of amino acids and peptides are shown to be promising for medicinal chemistry. Being polynitrogen heterocyclic systems comprising four endocyclic nitrogen atoms, tetrazoles can behave as acids and bases and form strong hydrogen bonds with proton donors (more rarely, with acceptors). They have high metabolic stability and are able to penetrate biological membranes. The review also considers the synthesis and properties of linear and cyclic peptides based on modified amino acids incorporating a tetrazolyl moiety. A special issue is the discussion of the biological properties of tetrazole-containing amino acids and peptides, which exhibit high biological activity and can be used to design new drugs. The bibliography includes 200 references.

  9. Thiourea derivatives incorporating a hippuric acid moiety: synthesis and evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Samir Y; El-Sharief, Marwa A M Sh; Basyouni, Wahid M; Fakhr, Issa M I; El-Gammal, Eman W

    2013-06-01

    New series of thiourea derivatives incorporating a hippuric acid moiety have been synthesized through the reaction of 4-hippuric acid isothiocyanate with various nitrogen nucleophiles such as aliphatic amines, aromatic amines, sulfa drugs, aminopyrazoles, phenylhydrazine and hydrazides. The synthesized compounds were tested against bacterial and fungal strains. Most of compounds, such as 2-(4-(3-(3-bromophenyl)thioureido)benzamido)acetic acid and 2-(4-(3-(4-(N-pyrimidin-2-ylsulfamoyl)phenyl)thioureido)benzamido)acetic acid, showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities. These compounds comprise a new class of promising broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agents. PMID:23644194

  10. Electrochemical analysis of proton and electron transfer equilibria of the reducible moieties in humic acids.

    PubMed

    Aeschbacher, Michael; Vergari, Daniele; Schwarzenbach, René P; Sander, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Humic substances play a key role in biogeochemical and pollutant redox reactions. The objective of this work was to characterize the proton and electron transfer equilibria of the reducible moieties in different humic acids (HA). Cyclic voltammetry experiments demonstrated that diquat and ethylviologen mediated electron transfer between carbon working electrodes and HA. These compounds were used also to facilitate attainment of redox equilibria between redox electrodes and HA in potentiometric E(h) measurements. Bulk electrolysis of HA combined with pH-stat acid titration demonstrated that electron transfer to the reducible moieties in HA also resulted in proton uptake, suggesting decreasing reduction potentials E(h) of HA with increasing pH. This was confirmed by potentiometric E(h)-pH titrations of HA at different redox states. E(h) measurements of HA samples prereduced to different redox states by bulk electrolysis revealed reducible moieties in HA that cover a wide range of apparent standard reduction potentials at pH 7 from E(h)(0)* = +0.15 to -0.3 V. Modeling revealed an overall increase in the relative abundance of reducible moieties with decreasing E(h). The wide range of HA is consistent with its involvement in numerous environmental electron transfer reactions under various redox conditions. PMID:21823669

  11. Biosynthetic studies on ansatrienin A. Formation of the cyclohexanecarboxylic acid moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, B.S.; Kennedy, E.; Reynolds, K.A. ); Cho, H.; Mocek, U.; Beale, J.M.; Floss, H.G. Ohio State Univ., Columbus ); Casati, R. )

    1993-06-16

    The formation of the cyclohexanecarboxylic acid moiety in the biosynthesis of ansatrienin (mycotrienin) has been studied. [sup 13]C- and [sup 2]H-labeled samples of shikimic acid were used to probe the stereochemistry of processing the cyclohexane ring of shikimic acid and to establish the fate of all the precursor hydrogens in this transformation. A sample of [2-[sup 13]C]shikimic acid was fed to Streptomyces collinus Tu 1982, and [sup 13]C in the resulting ansatrienin was found to reside exclusively at C-36. The l-cyclohexenecarboxylic acid accompanying the cyclohexanecarboxylic acid in the hydrolysis of the biosynthetic sample of ansatrienin carried the [sup 13]C label not at C-2 but at C-6. Samples of [2-[sup 2]H]-, [3-[sup 2]H]-, [4-[sup 2]H], [2,5-[sup 2]H[sub 2

  12. Structure and characterization of the glycan moiety of L-amino-acid oxidase from the Malayan pit viper Calloselasma rhodostoma.

    PubMed

    Geyer, A; Fitzpatrick, T B; Pawelek, P D; Kitzing, K; Vrielink, A; Ghisla, S; Macheroux, P

    2001-07-01

    Ophidian L-amino-acid oxidase (L-amino-acid oxygen:oxidoreductase, deaminating, EC 1.4.3.2) is found in the venom of many poisonous snakes (crotalids, elapids and viperids). This FAD-dependent glycoprotein has been studied from several snake species (e.g. Crotalus adamanteus, Crotalus atrox and Calloselasma rhodostoma) in detail with regard to the biochemical and enzymatic properties. The nature of glycosylation, however, as well as the chemical structure(s) of the attached oligosaccharide(s) are unknown. In view of the putative involvement of the glycan moiety in the biological effects of ophidian L-amino-acid oxidase, notably the apoptotic activity of the enzyme, structural knowledge is needed to evaluate its exact function. In this study we report on the glycosylation of L-amino-acid oxidase from the venom of the Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma). Its glycosylation is remarkably homogeneous with the major oligosaccharide accounting for approximately 90% of the total sugar content. Based on detailed analysis of the isolated oligosaccharide by 2D NMR spectroscopies and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry the glycan is identified as a bis-sialylated, biantennary, core-fucosylated dodecasaccharide. The biological significance of this finding is discussed in light of the biological activities of the enzyme. PMID:11453999

  13. Investigation of Antifouling Properties of Surfaces Featuring Zwitterionic α-Aminophosphonic Acid Moieties.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Natalie; Zimmermann, Phyllis; Heisig, Peter; Klitsche, Franziska; Maison, Wolfgang; Theato, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Zwitterionic thin films containing α-amino phosphonic acid moieties were successfully introduced on silicon surfaces and their antifouling properties were investigated. Initially, the substrates were modified with a hybrid polymer, composed of poly(methylsilsesquioxane) (PMSSQ) and poly(4-vinyl benzaldehyde) (PStCHO). Next, a Kabachnik-Fields post-polymerization modification (sur-KF-PMR) of the functionalized aldehyde surfaces was conducted with different amines and dialkyl phosphonates. After subsequent deprotection reaction of dialkyl phosphonates, the obtained zwitterionic surfaces were characterized by various techniques and we found excellent antifouling properties of the resulting films. PMID:26332285

  14. Gold(I) thiolates containing amino acid moieties. Cytotoxicity and structure-activity relationship studies.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Gracia-Fleta, Lucia; Marzo, Isabel; Cativiela, Carlos; Laguna, Antonio; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2014-12-01

    Several gold(I) complexes containing a thiolate ligand functionalised with several amino acid or peptide moieties of the type [Au(SPyCOR)(PPh2R')] (where R = OH, amino acid or dipeptide and R' = Ph or Py) were prepared. These thiolate gold complexes bearing biological molecules possess potential use as antitumor agents. Cytotoxicity assays in different tumour cell lines such as A549 (lung carcinoma), Jurkat (T-cell leukaemia) and MiaPaca2 (pancreatic carcinoma) revealed that the complexes exhibit good antiproliferative activity, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Several structural modifications such as in the type of phosphine, number of metal atoms and amino acid (type, stereochemistry and functionalisation) were carried out in order to establish the structure-activity relationship in this family of complexes, which has led to the design of new and more potent cytotoxic complexes. Observations of different cellular events after addition of the complexes indicated the possible mechanism of action or the biological targets of this type of new gold(I) drug. PMID:25302929

  15. Studies on the carbohydrate moiety of α1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) by using alkaline hydrolysis and deamination by nitrous acid

    PubMed Central

    Isemura, M.; Schmid, K.

    1971-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis followed by deamination with nitrous acid was applied for the first time to a glycoprotein, human plasma α1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid). This procedure, which specifically cleaves the glycosaminidic bonds, yielded well-defined oligosaccharides. The trisaccharides, which were obtained from the native protein, consisted of a sialic acid derivative, galactose and 2,5-anhydromannose. The linkage between galactose and 2,5-anhydromannose is most probably a (1→4)-glycosidic bond. A hitherto unknown linkage between N-acetylneuraminic acid and galactose was also established, namely a (2→2)-linkage. The three linkages between sialic acid and galactose described in this paper appear to be about equally resistant to mild acid hydrolysis. The disaccharide that was derived from the desialized glycoprotein consisted of galactose and 2,5-anhydromannose. Evidence was obtained for the presence of a new terminal sialyl→N-acetylglucosamine disaccharide accounting for approximately 1mol/mol of protein. The presence of this disaccharide may explain the relatively severe requirements for the complete acid hydrolysis of the sialyl residues. The present study indicates that alkaline hydrolysis followed by nitrous acid deamination in conjunction with gas–liquid chromatography will afford relatively rapid determination of the partial structure of the complex carbohydrate moiety of glycoproteins. PMID:5135244

  16. In vitro labeling of the sialic acid moiety of glycoconjugates with carbon-14

    SciTech Connect

    Carubelli, R.; Wen, G.; McCaffree, D.R.

    1984-03-01

    Labeling of sialoglycoproteins with carbon-14 in vitro was performed by reacting the aldehyde groups, generated by mild periodate oxidation of the terminal sialyl groups, with /sup 14/C-labeled sodium cyanide to produce the labeled cyanohydrin derivatives (Kiliani reaction). Labeling with tritium was carried out by reduction by the aldehyde groups generated on the sialyl residues with /sup 3/H-labeled sodium borohydride following standard procedures. The behavior of both types of labeled specimens of fetuin and ovine submaxillary mucin, individually and in mixtures, was investigated by gel-filtration chromatography, gel electrophoresis, and cesium bromide gradient ultracentrifugation. The labeled sialyl residues were subjected to partial characterization; color yield with the resorcinol and thiobarbituric acid reagents, behavior on ion-exchange chromatography, and susceptibility to mild acid and enzymatic hydrolyses. In addition to these model glycoproteins, this procedure was also utilized to label the sialoglycoproteins present in human tracheobronchial secretions collected from normal subjects and patients with chronic bronchitis. The potential uses of this approach for comparative studies of normal and pathological sialoglycoconjugates available in minute amounts is described. The extension of this approach to the labeling of the galactosyl and N-acetylgalactosaminyl moieties of glycoconjugates following treatment with galactose oxidase is outlined. 21 references.

  17. Plasmin inhibitors with hydrophobic amino acid-based linker between hydantoin moiety and benzimidazole scaffold enhance inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Teno, Naoki; Gohda, Keigo; Yamashita, Yukiko; Otsubo, Tadamune; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Wanaka, Keiko; Tsuda, Yuko

    2016-05-01

    In this letter we report the design and synthesis of a series of plasmin inhibitors, which share the amino acid-based linker with limited free rotation between the hydantoin moiety and the benzimidazole scaffold. Our studies led to potent plasmin inhibitors and yielded important new insights into their structure-activity relationship for binding to the active site of plasmin. PMID:27009905

  18. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety

    PubMed Central

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i–6m and 8f–8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  19. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety.

    PubMed

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i-6m and 8f-8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  20. Dissociative attachment reactions of electrons with strong acid molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Nigel G.; Smith, David; Viggiano, A. A.; Paulson, John F.; Henchman, Michael J.

    1986-06-01

    Using the flowing afterglow/Langmuir probe (FALP) technique, we have determined (at variously 300 and 570 K) the dissociative attachment coefficients β for the reactions of electrons with the common acids HNO3 (producing NO-2) and H2SO4 (HSO-4), the superacids FSO3H (FSO-3), CF3SO3H (CF3SO-3), ClSO3H (ClSO-3,Cl-), the acid anhydride (CF3SO2)2O (CF3SO-3), and the halogen halides HBr (Br-) and HI (I-). The anions formed in the reactions are those given in the parentheses. The reactions with HF and HCl were investigated, but did not occur at a measurable rate since they are very endothermic. Dissociative attachment is rapid for the common acids, the superacids, and the anhydride, the measured β being appreciable fractions of the theoretical maximum β for such reactions, βmax. The HI reaction is very fast ( β˜βmax) but the HBr reaction occurs much more slowly because it is significantly endothermic. The data indicate that the extreme acidity of the (Bronsted-type) superacids has its equivalence in the very efficient gas-phase dissociative attachment which these species undergo when reacting with free electrons. The anions of the superacids generated in these reactions, notably FSO-3 and CF3SO-3, are very stable (unreactive) implying exceptionally large electron affinities for the FSO3 and CF3SO3 radicals.

  1. Synthesis of new chalcone derivatives bearing 2,4-thiazolidinedione and benzoic acid moieties as potential anti-bacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Fang; Zheng, Chang-Ji; Sun, Liang-Peng; Liu, Xue-Kun; Piao, Hu-Ri

    2011-08-01

    A series of chalcone derivatives bearing the 2,4-thiazolidinedione and benzoic acid moieties (8a-s) were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for their anti-bacterial activity. Among the tested compounds, the most effective were 8a, 8h, 8k, 8n and 8q with MIC value in the range of 0.5-4 μg/mL against six Gram-positive bacteria (including multidrug-resistant clinical isolates). None of the compounds exhibited any activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli 1356 and E. coli 1682 at 64 μg/mL. PMID:21624712

  2. Synthesis of new chalcone derivatives containing a rhodanine-3-acetic acid moiety with potential anti-bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zheng, Chang-Ji; Sun, Liang-Peng; Piao, Hu-Ri

    2010-12-01

    With an intention to synergize the anti-bacterial activity of chalcones and rhodanine-3-acetic acid, several hybrid compounds possessing chalcone and rhodanine-3-acetic acid moieties were synthesized and tested for their anti-bacterial activity. Some compounds presented great anti-microbial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (including the multidrug-resistant clinical isolates). This class of compounds presented high potency against Staphylococcus aureus, among which the derivatives 5k with a MIC of 2 μg/mL was as active as the standard drug (norfloxacin) and less active than oxacillin. Compounds 5a-s did not inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli CCARM 1924 or E. coli CCARM 1356 at 64 μg/mL. PMID:20889240

  3. [The influence of docosahexaenoic acid moiety on cytotoxic activity of 1,2,4-thiadiazole derivatives].

    PubMed

    Akimov, M G; Gretskaia, N M; Karnoukhova, V A; Serkov, I V; Proshin, A N; Shtratnikova, V Iu; Bezuglov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Among 3-(2-aminopropyl)-1,2,4-thiadiazole derivatives contatining substitution-ready secondary amino group and exhibiting cytotoxic towards rat C 6 glioma cells three compounds with LD 50 values ranged from 6 to 48 мM were chosen. For these compounds amides with docosahexaenoic acid were synthetised and their cytotoxic activity was studied. It was shown that, although docosahexaenoic acid itself was not toxic for C 6 glioma cells, its addition to the amino derivatives of 1,2,4-thiadiazole increased or decreased resultant cytotoxicity. The effect depended on the structure of 1,2,4-thiadiazole substituents. The obtained data show that the acylation of cytotoxic compounds with docosahexaenoic acid does not necessarily lead to the increase of their activity, but sometimes can inactivate a compound. This fact should be taken into account, especially in the case of anti-cancer drug development. PMID:25249531

  4. In vivo characterization of NcsB3 to establish the complete biosynthesis of the naphthoic acid moiety of the neocarzinostatin chromophore.

    PubMed

    Hang, Vu Thi Thu; Oh, Tae Jin; Yamaguchi, Tokutaro; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2010-10-01

    Neocarzinostatin (NCS) is an enediyne antibiotic produced by Streptomyces carzinostaticus. The NCS chromophore consists of an enediyne core, a sugar moiety, and a naphthoic acid (NA) moiety. The latter plays a key role in binding the NCS chromophore to its apoprotein to protect and stabilize the bioactive NCS chromophore. In this study, we expressed three genes: ncsB (naphthoic acid synthase), ncsB3 (P450 hydroxylase), and ncsB1 (O-methyltransferase), in Streptomyces lividans TK24. The three genes were sufficient to produce 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-5-methyl-1-naphthoic acid. Production was analyzed and confirmed by LC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we report the functional characterization of ncsB3 and thereby elucidate the complete biosynthetic pathway of NA moiety of the NCS chromophore. PMID:20735485

  5. Turnover of the methyl moiety of 5-methyltetrahydropteroylglutamic acid in the cobalamin-inactivated rat.

    PubMed

    Lumb, M; Chanarin, I; Perry, J; Deacon, R

    1985-11-01

    The metabolism of the methyl group of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate was studied in rats in which cobalamin had been inactivated by exposure to nitrous oxide and in air-breathing control animals. Methylfolate labeled with [14C] in the methyl group and with [3H] in the pteridine-PABA portion was injected and the disappearance of [14C]H3- relative to [3H]folate was measured in liver. The half-time of the methyl group in the livers of control rats was two hours. There was no turnover of the methyl group for the first 72 hours after cobalamin inactivation. After 72 hours, there was a slow turnover of the methyl group, with a half-time of 43 hours. In control rats, it is assumed that the methyl group was metabolized by transfer to homocysteine to form methionine. In cobalamin-inactivated rats, it was shown that methylfolate was used as the substrate for forming folate polyglutamate, and analogues with 3, 4, and 5 glutamic acid residues were present. It is likely that oxidation of the methyl group by methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase occurs from folate polyglutamate containing six and seven glutamic acid residues, (Brody et al, Biochemistry 21: 276, 1982), since we were unable to demonstrate labeled methyl in longer chain analogues. PMID:4052631

  6. Fluorescence sensors for monosaccharides based on the 6-methylquinolinium nucleus and boronic acid moiety: potential application to ophthalmic diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Geddes, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of glucose levels in human physiology is important for the long-term management of diabetes. New signaling methods/probes may provide an improved technology to monitor glucose and other physiologically important analytes. The glucose sensing probes, BMQBAs, fabricated using the 6-methylquinolinium moiety as a fluorescent indicator, and boronic acid as a chelating group, may have versatile applications in glucose sensing because of their unique properties. In this paper we discuss the design logic, synthesis, characterization and spectral properties of three new isomeric glucose sensors (BMQBAs), and a control compound (BMQ) in the presence and absence of sugars. The sensing ability of the new probes is based on a charge neutralization and stabilization mechanism upon sugar binding. The new probes have attractive fluorescence quantum yields, are highly water-soluble, and have spectral characteristics compatible with cheap and portable LEDs and LDs. One of the probes, o-BMQBA, has a sugar bound pKa of 6.1, and a dissociation constant KD of 100 mM glucose. These probes have been designed specifically to respond to tear glucose in a contact lens polymer for ophthalmic glucose monitoring, where the reduced sugar bound pKa affords for sensing, in a lens environment that we have previously shown to be mildly acidic. PMID:18969865

  7. The Effect of Hydroxyl Moieties and Their Oxosubstitution on Bile Acid Association Studied in Floating Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Szekeres, Márta; Viskolcz, Béla; Poša, Mihalj; Csanádi, János; Škorić, Dušan; Illés, Erzsébet; Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Tombácz, Etelka

    2014-01-01

    Bile salt aggregates are promising candidates for drug delivery vehicles due to their unique fat-solubilizing ability. However, the toxicity of bile salts increases with improving fat-solubilizing capability and so an optimal combination of efficient solubilization and low toxicity is necessary. To improve hydrophilicity (and decrease toxicity), we substituted hydroxyl groups of several natural bile acid (BA) molecules for oxogroups and studied their intrinsic molecular association behavior. Here we present the comparative Langmuir trough study of the two-dimensional (2D) association behavior of eight natural BAs and four oxoderivatives (traditionally called keto-derivatives) floated on an aqueous subphase. The series of BAs and derivatives showed systematic changes in the shape of the compression isotherms. Two types of association could be distinguished: the first transition was assigned to the formation of dimers through H-bonding and the second to the hydrophobic aggregation of BA dimers. Hydrophobic association of BA molecules in the films is linked to the ability of forming H-bonded dimers. Both H-bond formation and hydrophobic association weakened with increasing number of hydroxyl groups, decreasing distance between hydroxyl groups, and increasing oxosubstitution. The results also show that the Langmuir trough method is extremely useful in selecting appropriate BA molecules to design drug delivery systems. PMID:25685831

  8. Evidence for adhesin activity in the acid-stable moiety of the phosphomannoprotein cell wall complex of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Kanbe, T; Cutler, J E

    1994-01-01

    Previously, we showed that Candida albicans hydrophilic yeast cells adhere specifically to mouse splenic marginal-zone macrophages. The adhesins are part of the yeast cell wall phosphomannoprotein complex, and one adhesin site, which reacts with the monoclonal antibody 10G, was identified as a beta-1,2-linked tetramannose in the acid-labile portion of the complex. We report here that the acid-stable part of the complex, which has not been reported previously to have adhesin activity, is in large part responsible for yeast cell binding to the splenic marginal zone. The phosphomannoprotein complex, termed Fr.II, was isolated from C. albicans serotype B yeast cells by beta-mercaptoethanol extraction and concanavalin A-agarose affinity chromatography. Fr.II is devoid of the serotype A-specific antigen factor 6, which functions in yeast cell attachment to epithelial cells. The acid-stable part of Fr.II (i.e., Fr.IIS) was obtained by mild acid hydrolysis and size exclusion fractionation. Fr.IIS was further fractionated into four fractions, Fr.IIS1, Fr.IIS2, Fr.IIS3, and Fr.IIS4, by concanavalin A-agarose column chromatography and elution with a linear gradient of alpha-methyl-D-mannopyranoside. Adhesin activity of these fractions was determined by their ability to block yeast cell binding to the splenic marginal zone. Fr.IIS1 and Fr.IIS2 yielded more material and stronger adhesin activity than either Fr.IIS3 or Fr.IIS4. Only Fr.IIS1 did not react with antibodies (anti-factor 5 and monoclonal antibody 10G) specific for the acid-labile beta-1,2-linked oligosaccharides. Fr.IIS1-coated latex beads attached specifically to the marginal zone in a pattern identical to that of yeast cell binding. Furthermore, Fr.IIS1-latex bead attachment was inhibited by soluble Fr.II or Fr.IIS. Initial chemical analyses indicate that the adhesin site on Fr.IIS1 is a carbohydrate because adhesin activity was destroyed by periodate oxidation but not by proteinase K digestion. Images PMID:8168927

  9. The effect of albumin on podocytes: The role of the fatty acid moiety and the potential role of CD36 scavenger receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Pawluczyk, I.Z.A.; Pervez, A.; Ghaderi Najafabadi, M.; Saleem, M.A.; Topham, P.S.

    2014-08-15

    Evidence is emerging that podocytes are able to endocytose proteins such as albumin using kinetics consistent with a receptor-mediated process. To date the role of the fatty acid moiety on albumin uptake kinetics has not been delineated and the receptor responsible for uptake is yet to be identified. Albumin uptake studies were carried out on cultured human podocytes exposed to FITC-labelled human serum albumin either carrying fatty acids (HSA{sub +FA}) or depleted of them (HSA{sub −FA}). Receptor-mediated endocytosis of FITC-HSA{sub +FA} over 60 min was 5 times greater than that of FITC-HSA{sub −FA}. 24 h exposure of podocytes to albumin up-regulated nephrin expression and induced the activation of caspase-3. These effects were more pronounced in response to HSA{sub −FA.} Individually, anti-CD36 antibodies had no effect upon endocytosis of FITC-HSA. However, a cocktail of 2 antibodies reduced uptake by nearly 50%. Albumin endocytosis was enhanced in the presence of the CD36 specific inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO) while knock-down of CD36 using CD36siRNA had no effect on uptake. These data suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by podocytes is regulated by the fatty acid moiety, although, some of the detrimental effects are induced independently of it. CD36 does not play a direct role in the uptake of albumin. - Highlights: • The fatty acid moiety is essential for receptor mediated endocytosis of albumin. • Fatty acid depleted albumin is more pathogenic to podocytes. • CD36 is not directly involved in albumin uptake by podocytes.

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Selectivity Enhancement Obtained by Using Smart Hydrogels That Are Zwitterionic When Detecting Glucose With Boronic Acid Moieties

    PubMed Central

    Horkay, F.; Cho, S. H.; Tathireddy, P.; Rieth, L.; Solzbacher, F.; Magda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Because the boronic acid moiety reversibly binds to sugar molecules and has low cytotoxicity, boronic acid-containing hydrogels are being used in a variety of implantable glucose sensors under development, including sensors based on optical, fluorescence, and swelling pressure measurements. However, some method of glucose selectivity enhancement is often necessary, because isolated boronic acid molecules have a binding constant with glucose that is some forty times smaller than their binding constant with fructose, the second most abundant sugar in the human body. In many cases, glucose selectivity enhancement is obtained by incorporating pendant tertiary amines into the hydrogel network, thereby giving rise to a hydrogel that is zwitterionic at physiological pH. However, the mechanism by which incorporation of tertiary amines confers selectivity enhancement is poorly understood. In order to clarify this mechanism, we use the osmotic deswelling technique to compare the thermodynamic interactions of glucose and fructose with a zwitterionic smart hydrogel containing boronic acid moieties. We also investigate the change in the structure of the hydrogel that occurs when it binds to glucose or to fructose using the technique of small angle neutron scattering. PMID:22190765

  11. The role of the catecholic and the electrophilic moieties of caffeic acid in Nrf2/Keap1 pathway activation in ovarian carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sirota, R.; Gibson, D.; Kohen, R.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated the health benefits of polyphenols. A major portion of polyphenols in western diet are derived from coffee, which is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. It has been shown that many polyphenols gain their beneficial properties (e.g. cancer prevention) through the activation of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway as well as their direct antioxidant activity. However, activation of Nrf2 in cancer cells might lead to resistance towards therapy through induction of phase II enzymes. In the present work we hypothesize that caffeic acid (CA), a coffee polyphenol, might act as an electrophile in addition to its nucleophilic properties and is capable of inducing the Nrf2/EpRE pathway in cancer cells. The results indicate that CA induces Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus and consequently its transcription. It has been demonstrated that generated hydrogen peroxide is involved in the induction process. It has also been found that this process is induced predominantly via the double bond in CA (Michael acceptor). However, surprisingly the presence of both nucleophilic and electrophilic moieties in CA resulted in a synergetic activation of Nrf2 and phase II enzymes. We also found that CA possesses a dual activity, although inducing GSTP1 and GSR, it inhibiting their enzymatic activity. In conclusion, the mechanism of induction of Nrf2 pathway and phase II enzymes by CA has been elucidated. The electrophilic moiety in CA is essential for the oxidation of the Keap1 protein. It should be noted that while the nucleophilic moiety (the catechol/quinone moiety) can provide scavenging ability, it cannot contribute directly to Nrf2 induction. It was found that this process may be induced by H2O2 produced by the catechol group. On the whole, it appears that CA might play a major role in the cancer cells by enhancing their resistance to treatment. PMID:25498967

  12. Naquihexcin A, a S-Bridged Pyranonaphthoquinone Dimer Bearing an Unsaturated Hexuronic Acid Moiety from a Sponge-Derived Streptomyces sp. HDN-10-293.

    PubMed

    Che, Qian; Tan, Hongsheng; Han, Xiaoning; Zhang, Xiaomin; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Tianjiao; Li, Dehai

    2016-07-15

    S-Bridged pyranonaphthoquinone dimers, naquihexcins A and B (1 and 2), together with a related analogue (-)-BE-52440A (3) were obtained from the culture of a sponge-derived Streptomyces sp. HDN-10-293. Naquihexcin A (1) bears a rare unsaturated hexuronic acid moiety, and (-)-BE-52440A (3) has been discovered from natural resources. Compound 3 showed cytotoxicity against NB4 and HL-60 cells, while 1 could inhibit the proliferation of the adriamycin resistant human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 ADM. PMID:27341525

  13. Four new phenolic acid with unusual bicycle [2.2.2] octane moiety from Clerodendranthus spicatus and their anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guo-Xu; Zhang, Xiao-Po; Li, Peng-Fei; Sun, Zhong-Hao; Zhu, Nai-Liang; Zhu, Yin-Di; Yang, Jun-Shan; Chen, De-Li; Wu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Xu-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Four new phenolic acids, clerodens A-D (1-4) possessing an unusual bicycle [2.2.2] octane moiety were isolated from the whole plants of Clerodendranthus spicatus. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including NMR, MS, and ECD data. All isolates were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7, and compound 4 showed significant inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 6.8 μM. PMID:26073946

  14. Synthesis of chiral five-membered carbocyclic ring amino acids with an acetal moiety and helical conformations of its homo-chiral homopeptides.

    PubMed

    Koba, Yurie; Hirata, Yoko; Ueda, Atsushi; Oba, Makoto; Doi, Mitsunobu; Demizu, Yosuke; Kurihara, Masaaki; Tanaka, Masakazu

    2016-11-01

    Chiral five-membered carbocyclic ring amino acids bearing various diol acetal moieties were synthesized starting from l-malic acid, and homo-chiral homopeptides composed of cyclic amino acid (S)-Ac5 c(3EG) bearing an ethylene glycol acetal, up to an octapeptide, were prepared. A conformational analysis revealed that (S)-Ac5 c(3EG) homopeptides formed helical structures. (S)-Ac5 c(3EG) homopeptides, up to hexapeptides, formed helical structures without controlling the helical screw direction, while (S)-Ac5 c(3EG) hepta- and octapeptides formed helical structures with a preference for the left-handed (M) helical-screw direction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 555-562, 2016. PMID:26566886

  15. Structural requirements of the human sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT): Role of 3- and 7-OH moieties on binding and translocation of bile acids

    PubMed Central

    González, Pablo M.; Lagos, Carlos F.; Ward, Weslyn C.; Polli, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are the end products of cholesterol metabolism. One of the critical steps in their biosynthesis involves the isomerization of the 3β-hydroxyl (-OH) group on the cholestane ring to the common 3α-configuration on BAs. BAs are actively recaptured from the small intestine by the human Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter (hASBT) with high affinity and capacity. Previous studies have suggested that no particular hydroxyl group on BAs is critical for binding or transport by hASBT, even though 3β-hydroxylated BAs were not examined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the 3α-OH group on BAs binding and translocation by hASBT. Ten 3β-hydroxylated BAs (Iso-bile acids, iBAs) were synthesized, characterized, and subjected to hASBT inhibition and uptake studies. hASBT inhibition and uptake kinetics of iBAs were compared to that of native 3α-OH BAs. Glycine conjugates of native and isomeric BAs were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations in order to identify topological descriptors related to binding and translocation by hASBT. Iso-BAs bound to hASBT with lower affinity and exhibited reduced translocation than their respective 3α-epimers. Kinetic data suggests that, in contrast to native BAs where hASBT binding is the rate-limiting step, iBAs transport was rate-limited by translocation and not binding. Remarkably, 7-dehydroxylated iBAs were not hASBT substrates, highlighting the critical role of 7-OH group on BA translocation by hASBT, especially for iBAs. Conformational analysis of gly-iBAs and native BAs identified topological features for optimal binding as: concave steroidal nucleus, 3-OH “on-” or below-steroidal plane, 7-OH below-plane, and 12-OH moiety towards-plane. Our results emphasize the relevance of the 3α-OH group on BAs for proper hASBT binding and transport and revealed the critical role of 7-OH group on BA translocation, particularly in the absence of a 3α-OH group. Results have implications for BA

  16. Design and synthesis of novel derivatives of all-trans retinoic acid demonstrate the combined importance of acid moiety and conjugated double bonds in its binding to PML–RAR-α oncogene in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Carolina; Goel, Swati; Bhagat, Tushar D.; Zhou, Li; Mo, Yongkai; Gallagher, Robert; Kabalka, George W.; Platanias, Leonidas C.; Verma, Amit; Das, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    The binding of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to retinoid receptor-α (RAR-α) relieves transcriptional repression induced by the promyelocytic leukemia–retinoic acid receptor (PML–RAR) oncoprotein. The ATRA molecule contains a cyclohexenyl ring, a polyene chain containing conjugated double alkene bonds, and a terminal carboxyl group. To determine the contributions of these structural components of ATRA to its clinical efficacy, we synthesized three novel retinoids. These consisted of either a modified conjugated alkene backbone with an intact acid moiety (13a) or a modified conjugated alkene backbone and conversion of the acid group to either an ester (13b) or an aromatic amide (13c). Reporter assays demonstrated that compound 13a successfully relieved transcriptional repression by RAR-α, while 13b and 13c could not, demonstrating the critical role of the acid moiety in this binding. However, only ATRA was able to significantly inhibit the proliferation of APL cells while 13a, 13b, or 13c was not. Furthermore, only 13a led to partial non-significant differentiation of NB4 cells, demonstrating the importance of C9–C10 double bonds in differentiation induced CD11 expression. Our results demonstrate that both the acid moiety and conjugated double bonds present in the ATRA molecule are important for its biological activity in APL and have important implications for the design of future novel retinoids. PMID:20536349

  17. Optically active poly(amide-imide)/TiO2 nanocomposites containing amino acid moieties: synthesis and properties.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Zahra; Zare, Elham

    2015-11-01

    The novel optically active poly(amide-imide) (PAI)/TiO2 nanocomposites containing fluorene moieties have been successfully synthesized through ultrasonic irradiation. The surface of nanoparticles was chemically modified with γ-aminopropyltriethoxyl silane to enhance the compatibility with polymeric matrix and to avoid the aggregation of nanoparticles. The dispersion of surface-modified TiO2 in PAI film was confirmed by the transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis showing the well-dispersed nanosized TiO2 nanoparticles. The thermal stabilities and optical properties of PAI/surface-modified TiO2 nanocomposite films were also investigated. The thermogravimetric analysis data showed an improvement of thermal stability of novel nanocomposite films as compared to the pure polymer. PMID:26002811

  18. Effect of monolaurin and lactic acid on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets.

    PubMed

    Verhaegh, E G; Marshall, D L; Oh, D H

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of monolaurin and lactic acid, singly or combined, on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets. Skinless catfish fillets were inoculated with L. monocytogenes and dip treated in monolaurin and/or lactic acid solution for various time periods. Results showed that monolaurin up to 400 micrograms/ml had no influence on counts. Conversely, lactic acid-treated fillets had reduced counts compared to controls. Dipping in 0.85, 1.70, or 2.55% lactic acid for 30 min reduced counts by 0.9, 1.4, or 1.3 logs, respectively. Extending the dipping time to 60 min resulted in little additional decrease in counts. Combining monolaurin with lactic acid yielded results similar to lactic acid alone. Hence, population reduction ability resides with lactic acid and not monolaurin. PMID:8796441

  19. Evaluation of the natural product antifoulant, zosteric acid, for preventing the attachment of quagga mussels--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ram, Jeffrey L; Purohit, Sonal; Newby, Bi-Min Zhang; Cutright, Teresa J

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of zosteric acid, a natural antifoulant from the marine seagrass Zostera marina, in preventing the attachment of quagga mussels, a biofouling bivalve, was investigated. Animals were exposed to water containing zosteric acid ranging from 0 to 1000 ppm, and their attachment to the container glass walls was tracked with time. 500 ppm zosteric acid was not effective at detaching animals that had already attached, but was able to prevent the attachment of most unattached animals for two days. The anti-fouling effect increased with higher concentration. Low concentrations (250 ppm and below) were not effective at preventing attachment; however, 1000 ppm zosteric acid prevented attachment of mussels for the first three days of zosteric acid exposure, and only 20% of the mussels were attached by day 4. In contrast, animals in control (no zosteric acid) solutions began to attach within one day. In conclusion, zosteric acid is an effective natural product deterrent of attachment of a biofouling bivalve. PMID:21861646

  20. Attached and Unattached Bacterial Communities in a 120-Meter Corehole in an Acidic, Crystalline Rock Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, R. Michael; Roberto, Francisco F.; Earley, Drummond; Bruhn, Debby F.; Brink, Susan E.; O'Connell, Sean P.; Delwiche, Mark E.; Colwell, Frederick S.

    2001-01-01

    The bacteria colonizing geologic core sections (attached) were contrasted with those found suspended in the groundwater (unattached) by examining the microbiology of 16 depth-paired core and groundwater samples using a suite of culture-independent and culture-dependent analyses. One hundred twenty-two meters was continuously cored from a buried chalcopyrite ore hosted in a biotite-quartz-monzonite porphyry at the Mineral Park Mine near Kingman, Ariz. Every fourth 1.5-m core was acquired using microbiologically defensible methods, and these core sections were aseptically processed for characterization of the attached bacteria. Groundwater samples containing unattached bacteria were collected from the uncased corehole at depth intervals corresponding to the individual cores using an inflatable straddle packer sampler. The groundwater was acidic (pH 2.8 to 5.0), with low levels of dissolved oxygen and high concentrations of sulfate and metals, including ferrous iron. Total numbers of attached cells were less than 105 cells g of core material−1 while unattached cells numbered about 105 cells ml of groundwater−1. Attached and unattached acidophilic heterotrophs were observed throughout the depth profile. In contrast, acidophilic chemolithotrophs were not found attached to the rock but were commonly observed in the groundwater. Attached communities were composed of low numbers (<40 CFU g−1) of neutrophilic heterotrophs that exhibited a high degree of morphologic diversity, while unattached communities contained higher numbers (ca. 103 CFU ml−1) of neutrophilic heterotrophs of limited diversity. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were restricted to the deepest samples of both core and groundwater. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of attached, acidophilic isolates indicated that organisms closely related to heterotrophic, acidophilic mesophiles such as Acidiphilium organovorum and, surprisingly, to the moderately thermophilic Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius were present

  1. A Small Molecule Inhibits Virion Attachment to Heparan Sulfate- or Sialic Acid-Containing Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Colpitts, Che C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Primary attachment to cellular glycans is a critical entry step for most human viruses. Some viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), bind to heparan sulfate, whereas others, such as influenza A virus (IAV), bind to sialic acid. Receptor mimetics that interfere with these interactions are active against viruses that bind to either heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. However, no molecule that inhibits the attachment of viruses in both groups has yet been identified. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, is active against many unrelated viruses, including several that bind to heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. We sought to identify the basis for the broad-spectrum activity of EGCG. Here, we show that EGCG inhibits the infectivity of a diverse group of enveloped and nonenveloped human viruses. EGCG acts directly on the virions, without affecting the fluidity or integrity of the virion envelopes. Instead, EGCG interacts with virion surface proteins to inhibit the attachment of HSV-1, HCV, IAV, vaccinia virus, adenovirus, reovirus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) virions. We further show that EGCG competes with heparan sulfate for binding of HSV-1 and HCV virions and with sialic acid for binding of IAV virions. Therefore, EGCG inhibits unrelated viruses by a common mechanism. Most importantly, we have identified EGCG as the first broad-spectrum attachment inhibitor. Our results open the possibility for the development of small molecule broad-spectrum antivirals targeting virion attachment. IMPORTANCE This study shows that it is possible to develop a small molecule antiviral or microbicide active against the two largest groups of human viruses: those that bind to glycosaminoglycans and those that bind to sialoglycans. This group includes the vast majority of human viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, poxvirus, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and many others. PMID

  2. Insertion of an aspartic acid moiety into cyclic pseudopeptides: synthesis and biological characterization of potent antagonists for the human Tachykinin NK-2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Fedi, Valentina; Altamura, Maria; Balacco, Giuseppe; Canfarini, Franca; Criscuoli, Marco; Giannotti, Danilo; Giolitti, Alessandro; Giuliani, Sandro; Guidi, Antonio; Harmat, Nicholas J S; Nannicini, Rossano; Pasqui, Franco; Patacchini, Riccardo; Perrotta, Enzo; Tramontana, Manuela; Triolo, Antonio; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2004-12-30

    A new series of monocyclic pseudopeptide tachykinin NK-2 receptor antagonists has been derived from the lead compound MEN11558. A synthesis for these molecules sharing the same intermediate was designed and performed. The replacement of the succinic moiety with an aspartic acid and the functionalization of its amino group with a wide variety of substituents led to very potent and selective NK-2 antagonists. Best results were obtained through the insertion in position 12 of an amino group with R configuration, linked by a short spacer to a saturated nitrogen heterocycle (morpholine, piperidine, or piperazine). The study led to compounds 54 and 57, endowed with high in vivo potency at very low doses and long duration of action in animal models of bronchoconstriction. In particular 54 and 57 completely inhibited NK-2 agonist induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pig after intratracheal administration at subnanomolar doses (ED(50) = 0.27 nmol/kg and 0.15 nmol/kg, respectively). PMID:15615542

  3. The macroscopic rate of nucleic acid translocation by hepatitis C virus helicase NS3h is dependent on both sugar and base moieties.

    PubMed

    Khaki, Ali R; Field, Cassandra; Malik, Shuja; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Leavitt, Stephanie A; Wang, Ruth; Hung, Magdeleine; Sakowicz, Roman; Brendza, Katherine M; Fischer, Christopher J

    2010-07-16

    The nonstructural protein 3 helicase (NS3h) of hepatitis C virus is a 3'-to-5' superfamily 2 RNA and DNA helicase that is essential for the replication of hepatitis C virus. We have examined the kinetic mechanism of the translocation of NS3h along single-stranded nucleic acid with bases uridylate (rU), deoxyuridylate (dU), and deoxythymidylate (dT), and have found that the macroscopic rate of translocation is dependent on both the base moiety and the sugar moiety of the nucleic acid, with approximate macroscopic translocation rates of 3 nt s(-1) (oligo(dT)), 35 nt s(-1) (oligo(dU)), and 42 nt s(-1) (oligo(rU)), respectively. We found a strong correlation between the macroscopic translocation rates and the binding affinity of the translocating NS3h protein for the respective substrates such that weaker affinity corresponded to faster translocation. The values of K(0.5) for NS3h translocation at a saturating ATP concentration are as follows: 3.3+/-0.4 microM nucleotide (poly(dT)), 27+/-2 microM nucleotide (poly(dU)), and 36+/-2 microM nucleotide (poly(rU)). Furthermore, results of the isothermal titration of NS3h with these oligonucleotides suggest that differences in TDeltaS(0) are the principal source of differences in the affinity of NS3h binding to these substrates. Interestingly, despite the differences in macroscopic translocation rates and binding affinities, the ATP coupling stoichiometries for NS3h translocation were identical for all three substrates (approximately 0.5 ATP molecule consumed per nucleotide translocated). This similar periodicity of ATP consumption implies a similar mechanism for NS3h translocation along RNA and DNA substrates. PMID:20451531

  4. Electronic absorption study on acid-base equilibria for some pyrimidine derivatives containing semi- and thiosemicarbazone moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, H.

    2010-02-01

    The UV-vis spectra of recently synthesized 5-benzoyl-1-(methylphenylmethyleneamino)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrimidine-2-one, ( I), and 5-benzoyl-1-(methylphenylmethyleneamino)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrimidine-2-thione, ( II) were studied in aqueous methanol (5%, v/v methanol). The nature of the electronic transitions and the roles of carbonyl oxygen of I and thiocarbonyl sulfur of II on the behavior of UV-vis spectra were discussed. Acid-base equilibria of the compounds against varying pH and p Ka values related equilibria were determined at an ionic strength of 0.10 M by using the Henderson-Haselbalch equation. The mean acidity constants for the protonated forms of the compounds were determined as p Ka1 = 5.121, p Ka2 = 7.929 and p Ka3 = 11.130 for I and p Ka1 = 4.684, p Ka2 = 7.245 and p Ka3 = 10.630 for II. The preferred dissociation mechanisms were discussed based on UV-vis data and a mechanism was proposed for each compound.

  5. Neuron attachment properties of carbon negative-ion implanted bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2002-05-01

    Modification of a bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid (PLA) by negative carbon ion implantation was investigated with resect to radiation effects on surface physical properties and nerve-cell attachment properties. Carbon negative ions were implanted to PLA at energy of 5-30 keV with a dose of 10 14-10 16 ions/cm 2. Most C-implanted PLA samples showed contact angles near 80° and almost same as that of unimplanted PLA, although a few samples at 5 keV and less 3×10 14 ions/cm 2 had contact angles larger than 90°. The attachment properties of nerve cells of PC-12h (rat adrenal phechromocytoma) in vitro were studied. PC-12h cells attached on the unimplanted region in C-implanted PLA samples at 5 and 10 keV. On the contrary, the nerve cells attached on only implanted region for the C-implanted PLA sample at 30 keV and 1×10 15 ions/cm 2.

  6. Dendronylation: Residue-specific chemoselective attachment of oligoglycerol dendrimers on proteins with noncanonical amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Thota, Bala N S; Haag, Rainer; Budisa, Nediljko

    2015-11-15

    Polyglycerol dendrimers as an important class of polymeric materials especially attractive for covalent attachment to therapeutic proteins as a useful alternative to traditional PEGylation procedures. Herein, we combine in vivo noncanonical amino acid (ncAA) incorporation and chemoselective conjugation in vitro to produce novel hybrid protein-dendrimer conjugates with the defined architectures. We incorporated Azidohomoalanine (Aha) as methionine substitute in vivo into various protein scaffolds to allow non-invasive dendrimer conjugations (dendronylation). Our approach makes recombinant proteins accessible for the design of multivalent dendrimer conjugates since it enables the preparation of many sequences with various positions for regioselective dendronylation. PMID:26483199

  7. Toxicity of synthetic herbicides containing 2,4-D and MCPA moieties towards Pseudomonas putida mt-2 and its response at the level of membrane fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Syguda, Anna; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2016-02-01

    One of the attempts to create more effective herbicidal compounds includes the use of ionic liquids. Herbicidal ionic liquids have more effective biological activity, they are less volatile, more thermally stable, and exhibit superior efficiency in comparison to typically employed herbicides, allowing the reduction of the herbicide dose applied per hectare. However, studies on the environmental toxicity of this group of compounds are very rarely available. Environmental toxicity is an important factor, showing the concentration of compounds that has negative effects on soil bacteria including those responsible for biodegradation processes. Therefore, potential toxicity of four herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) precursors containing 2,4-D and MCPA moieties was tested with the well investigated model organism for toxicity and adaptation, Pseudomonas putida mt-2. Results were compared to those obtained for commercial 2,4-D and MCPA herbicides. Next to growth inhibition, given as EC50, changes in the isomerisation of cis to trans unsaturated fatty acids were applied as proxy for cellular stress adaptation to toxic substances. The results revealed that all investigated precursors of HILs showed lower toxicity compared to commercialized synthetic herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA. The collected data on toxicity of HILs together with their physico-chemical properties might be useful for assessing the potential risk of the environmental pollution as well as guidelines for setting the legislation for their future use. PMID:26347932

  8. Hydroxy-1,2,5-oxadiazolyl moiety as bioisoster of the carboxy function. A computational study on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) related compounds.

    PubMed

    Tosco, Paolo; Lolli, Marco L

    2008-04-01

    Recently, our research group has proposed the hydroxyfurazanyl (4-hydroxy-1,2,5-oxadiazole-3-yl) moiety as a new non-classical isoster of the carboxy function in the design of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues. Some compounds showed significant activity at the GABA(A) receptor, representing the only examples of pentatomic heterocycles bearing an omega-aminoalkyl flexible side chain in the position vicinal to the hydroxy group displaying agonist activity at this receptor subtype. In this work, an ab initio analysis of the structural and electronic features of furazan-3-ol is presented, in order to provide a theoretical basis to the claimed bioisosterism with the carboxy function. An ab initio conformational study with the C-PCM implicit solvent model was carried out to elucidate the reasons of the peculiar behaviour of the furazan models. Alongside, another conformational search through molecular dynamics in explicit solvent was accomplished, in order to validate the first method. The electronic features of the 4-hydroxy-1,2,5-oxadiazole-3-yl substructure seem to account for a marked stabilising effect of the putative bioactive conformation at the GABA(A) receptor subtype. The 1,2,5-thiadiazole analogue, which shares the same conformational preference of its oxygenated counterpart, was identified as a potential candidate for synthesis and pharmacological testing. Figure 4-(omega-aminoalkyl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole-3-ol analogues of GABA. PMID:18247067

  9. The Macroscopic Rate of Nucleic Acid Translocation by Hepatitis C virus Helicase NS3h is Dependent on Both the Sugar and Base Moieties

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Ali R.; Field, Cassandra; Malik, Shuja; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Leavitt, Stephanie A.; Wang, Ruth; Hung, Magdeleine; Sakowicz, Roman; Brendza, Katherine M.; Fischer, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The NS3 helicase (NS3h) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a 3′ to 5′ SF2 RNA and DNA helicase that is essential for the replication of HCV. We have examined the kinetic mechanism of translocation of NS3h along single-stranded nucleic acid with bases rU, dU and dT and have found that the macroscopic rate of translocation is dependent upon both the base and sugar moieties of the nucleic acid, with approximate macroscopic translocation rates of 3 nt/s (oligo-dT), 35 nt/s (oligo-dU), and 42 nt/s (oligo-rU), respectively. We found a strong correlation between the macroscopic translocation rates and the binding affinity of the translocating NS3h protein to the respective substrates such that weaker affinity corresponded to faster translocation. The values of K0.5 for NS3h translocation at a saturating ATP concentration are: (3.3 ± 0.4) μM nucleotide (poly-dT), (27 ± 2) μM nucleotide (poly-dU), and (36 ± 2) μM nucleotide (poly-rU). Furthermore, the results of isothermal titration of NS3h with these oligonucleotides suggest that differences in TΔS° are the principal source of the differences in the affinity of NS3h binding to these substrates. Interestingly, despite the differences in macroscopic translocation rates and binding affinities, the ATP coupling stoichiometry for NS3h translocation was identical for all three substrates, ~0.5 ATP molecules consumed per nucleotide translocated. This similar periodicity of ATP consumption implies a similar mechanism for NS3h translocation along RNA and DNA substrates. PMID:20451531

  10. Acid extrusion is induced by osteoclast attachment to bone. Inhibition by alendronate and calcitonin.

    PubMed Central

    Zimolo, Z; Wesolowski, G; Rodan, G A

    1995-01-01

    Acid extrusion is essential for osteoclast (OC) activity. We examined Na+ and HCO3(-)-independent H+ extrusion in rat- and mouse OCs by measuring intracellular pH (pHi) changes, with the pHi indicator BCECF (biscarboxyethyl-5-(6) carboxyfluorescein) after H+ loading with an ammonium pulse. 90% of OCs attached to glass do not possess HCO3- and Na(+)-independent H(+)-extrusion (rate of pHi recovery = 0.043 +/- 0.007 (SEM) pH U/min, n = 26). In contrast, in OCs attached to bone, the pHi recovery rate is 0.228 +/- 0.011 pHi U/min, n = 25. OCs on bone also possess a NH(4+)-permeable pathway not seen on glass. The bone-induced H+ extrusion was inhibited by salmon calcitonin (10(-8) M, for 2 h), and was not present after pretreating the bone slices with the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN). At ALN levels of 0.22 nmol/mm2 bone, H+ extrusion was virtually absent 12 h after cell seeding (0.004 +/- 0.002 pH U/min) and approximately 50% inhibition was observed at 0.022 pmol ALN/mm2 bone. The Na(+)-independent H+ extrusion was not inhibited by bafilomycin A1 (up to 10(-7) M), although a bafilomycin A1 (10(-8) M)-sensitive H+ pump was present in membrane vesicles isolated from these osteoclasts. These findings indicate that Na(+)-independent acid extrusion is stimulated by osteoclast attachment to bone and is virtually absent when bone is preincubated with ALN, or when osteoclasts are treated with salmon calcitonin. Images PMID:7593614

  11. An acidic peptide sequence of nucleolin-related protein can mediate the attachment of calcium oxalate to renal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Elena A; Wesson, Jeffrey A; Kleinman, Jack G

    2004-08-01

    Crystals that form in tubular fluid must be retained in the kidney to become stones. Nucleolin-related protein (NRP) is found on the surface of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells in culture (cIMCD) and selectively adsorbs to calcium oxalate (CaOx). We proposed that NRP mediates attachment to the renal tubular epithelium of Ca stone crystals through an electrostatic interaction with a highly acidic region (acidic fragment [AF]) similar to those of other proteins that have been reported to affect urinary crystal formation. The current studies demonstrate that nucleolin is expressed on both apical and basolateral cell surfaces of cIMCD, reaching a peak in the late stages of mitosis and gradually declining to undetectable levels with maturation of the polarized epithelium. Scraping areas of mature monolayers stimulated the cells surrounding the defects to migrate and proliferate so as to repair them, and these areas demonstrate surface NRP expression and enhanced attachment of CaOx monohydrate crystals. Surface expression of the NRP AF was produced by cloning the NRP AF into a display vector. Transfected cIMCD demonstrating copious surface expression of AF enhanced CaOx attachment 6.7-fold compared with control cIMCD, whereas cells transfected with a vector without the AF did not differ from control. AF was also cloned into a replication-deficient adenovirus and expressed in 293 cells, resulting in AF secretion into the nutrient medium. This medium inhibited CaOx attachment to cIMCD, compared with conditioned medium from cells infected with wild-type virus. These results demonstrate that surface-bound AF can mediate CaOx attachment and that secreted AF can inhibit attachment. These results support the notion that surface-associated NRP could mediate attachment of CaOx to the renal tubule epithelium, thereby causing retention of crystals that might eventually become kidney stones. PMID:15284292

  12. Plane wave density functional theory studies of the structural and the electronic properties of amino acids attached to graphene oxide via peptide bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byeong June; Jeong, Hae Kyung; Lee, ChangWoo

    2015-08-01

    We studied via plane wave pseudopotential total-energy calculations within the local spin density approximation (LSDA) the electronic and the structural properties of amino acids (alanine, glycine, and histidine) attached to graphene oxide (GO) by peptide bonding. The HOMO-LUMO gap, the Hirshfeld charges, and the equilibrium geometrical structures exhibit distinctive variations that depend on the species of the attached amino acid. The GO-amino acid system appears to be a good candidate for a biosensor.

  13. Influence of different amino substituents in position 1 and 4 on spectroscopic and acid base properties of 9,10-anthraquinone moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wcisło, Anna; Niedziałkowski, Paweł; Wnuk, Elżbieta; Zarzeczańska, Dorota; Ossowski, Tadeusz

    2013-05-01

    A series of novel 1-amino and 1,4-diamino-9,10-anthraquinones, substituted with different alkyl groups, were synthesized as the result of alkylation with amino substituents. All the obtained aminoanthraquinone derivatives were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds were determined by using UV-Vis spectroscopy in acetonitrile, and in the mixture of acetonitrile and methanol at different pH ranges. The effects of various substituents present in the newly developed anthraquinone derivatives and their ability to form hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen atom of anthraquinone moiety and nitrogen atom of N-H group in 1-aminoanthraquinone (1-AAQ) and 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone (1,4-DAAQ) were studied. Additionally, the effects of hydrogen bond formation between O-H group in hydroxyethylamino substituent and the carbonyl oxygen atom of anthraquinone were investigated. The spectroscopic behavior of the studied derivatives strongly depended on the solvent-solute interactions and the nature of solvent. The values of pKa for the new anthraquinones were determined by the combined potentiometric and spectrophotometric titration methods.

  14. Design and synthesis of a novel pre-column derivatization reagent with a 6-methoxy-4-quinolone moiety for fluorescence and tandem mass spectrometric detection and its application to chiral amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Tsubasa; Negishi, Eiichi; Onigahara, Hirohisa; Kusano, Nao; Miyoshi, Yurika; Mita, Masashi; Nakazono, Manabu; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Ojida, Akio; Lindner, Wolfgang; Hamase, Kenji

    2015-12-10

    A new pre-column derivatization reagent with a 6-methoxy-4-quinolone (6-MOQ) moiety for amino acid analysis, 2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl(2-(6-methoxy-4-oxoquinolin-1(4H)-yl)ethyl) carbonate (6-MOQ-EtOCOOSu), was designed and synthesized. 6-MOQ is a thermo/photostable fluorophore with a high proton-affinity site and sensitive determination could be carried out by a fluorescence detector and also by an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. Derivatization of amino acids with 6-MOQ-EtOCOOSu was completed within 1 min under mild basic conditions at room temperature. The 6-MOQ derivatives of all chiral proteinogenic amino acids were separated using the combination of three enantioselective columns, Chiralpak QN-AX, Chiralpak ZXIX(+), and KSAACSP-001S, with separation factors of higher than 1.07. The present reagent enables the sensitive determination of amino acid enantiomers, and the values of LLOD using a chiral-HPLC-MS/MS system were 0.05-50 fmol/injection. PMID:26166005

  15. Solid-Phase Synthesis with Attachment of Peptide to Resin through an Amino Acid Side Chain: [8-Lysine]-Vasopressin

    PubMed Central

    Meienhofer, Johannes; Trzeciak, Arnold

    1971-01-01

    It is proposed that the scope of solid-phase peptide synthesis could be considerably broadened by attaching peptides to the solid-phase through functional side-chain groups rather than through the commonly used α-carboxyl groups. Side-chain attachment offers the use of a large variety of chemical linkages to solid supports. Attachment through the ε-amino group of the lysine residue to a polystyrene resin has been applied to a solid-phase synthesis of lysine-vasopressin. Nα-tert-butyl-oxycarbonyl-L-lysyl-glycinamide was condensed with chloroformoxymethyl polystyrene-2% divinylbenzene resin. After removal of the Nα-protecting tert-butyloxycarbonyl group, the peptide chain was elongated by standard Merrifield procedures to give Tos-Cys(Bzl)-Tyr-Phe-Glu-(NH2) - Asp(NH2) - Cys(Bzl) - Pro - Lys(Z - resin) - Gly-NH2. Cleavage from the resin with HBr in dioxane or trifluoroacetic acid gave a partially protected nonapeptide hydrobromide. For purification, it was converted into a fully protected peptide by treatment with benzyl p-nitro-phenyl carbonate and crystallized. Deprotection by sodium in liquid ammonia, oxidative cyclization, IRC-50 desalting, and ion-exchange chromatography gave lysinevasopressin with high potency in a rat-pressor assay. PMID:5280519

  16. Rational design and synthesis of topoisomerase I and II inhibitors based on oleanolic acid moiety for new anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Ahmed; El-Sharkawy, Saleh; Amer, Mohamed; Abdel Bar, Fatma; Katakura, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Toyota, Nozomi; Bang, Tran Hai; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Semisynthetic reactions were conducted on oleanolic acid, a common plant-derived oleanane-type triterpene. Ten rationally designed derivatives of oleanolic acid were synthesized based on docking studies and tested for their topoisomerase I and IIα inhibitory activity. Semisynthetic reactions targeted C-3, C-12, C-13, and C-17. Nine of the synthesized compounds were identified as new compounds. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic methods (1D, 2D NMR and MS). Five oleanolic acid analogues (S2, S3, S5, S7 and S9) showed higher activity than camptothecin (CPT) in the topoisomerase I DNA relaxation assay. Four oleanolic acid analogues (S2, S3, S5 and S6) showed higher activity than etoposide in a topoisomerase II assay. The results indicated that the C12-C13 double bond of the oleanolic acid skeleton is important for the inhibitory activity against both types of topoisomerases, while insertion of a longer chain at either position 3 or 17 increases the activity against topoisomerases by various degrees. Some of the synthesized compounds act as dual inhibitors for both topoisomerase I and IIα. PMID:24326278

  17. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of thioglycolic amino acid derivatives and dipeptides containing the 2-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-one moiety.

    PubMed

    Atta, F M

    1994-11-01

    3-(2'-Chloroethyl)-2-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-one (I) was reacted with sodio (sodium thioglycolate) in dry dioxane and yielded compound II. By using thionyl chloride, this compound was converted to the corresponding acid chloride (III). The prepared acyl chloride (III) was allowed to interact with different alpha-amino acids such as Gly, L-Ala, L-B-Phe, DL-Asp, L-Glu, L-Thr and L-Val to give new amino acid derivatives (IVa-g). A selected C-terminal derivative of glycine (IVa) was converted into acid chloride (V). The acid chloride formed was reacted with L-Ala, L-B-Phe, DL-Asp, L-Glu, L-Thr and L-Val and yielded the new dipeptides VIa-f. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analysis and IR spectra. The prepared peptides were tested for their antimicrobial activities by comparison with tetra-cycline as a reference compound. PMID:7765582

  18. Discovery of a novel acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor: the synthesis, biological evaluation, and reduced adrenal toxicity of (4-phenylcoumarin)acetanilide derivatives with a carboxylic acid moiety.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Masaki; Nakada, Yoshihisa; Negoro, Nobuyuki; Itokawa, Shigekazu; Nishimura, Satoshi; Sanada, Tsukasa; Satomi, Tomoko; Kita, Shunbun; Kubo, Kazuki; Marui, Shogo

    2011-01-01

    As a part of our research for novel potent and orally available acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors that can be used as anti-atherosclerotic agents, we recently reported the discovery of the (4-phenylcoumarine)acetanilide derivative 1. However, compound 1 showed adrenal toxicity in animal models. In order to search for safer ACAT inhibitors that do not have adrenal toxicity, we examined the inhibitory activity of ACAT in human macrophage and adrenal cells. The introduction of a carboxylic acid moiety on the pendant phenyl ring and the adjustment of the lipophilicity led to the discovery of (2E)-3-[7-chloro-3-[2-[[4-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino]-2-oxoethyl]-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl]phenyl]acrylic acid (21e), which showed potent ACAT inhibitory activity in macrophages and a selectivity of around 30-fold over adrenal cells. In addition, compound 21e showed high adrenal safety in guinea pigs. PMID:22041073

  19. Application of amino acid amides as chiral auxiliaries in difluoro dinitro benzene and cyanuric chloride moieties for high-performance liquid-chromatographic enantioseparation of selenomethionine and its mixture with methionine and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Ravi; Dubey, Rituraj

    2012-04-01

    L-Ala-NH(2), L-Val-NH(2), L-Leu-NH(2), and D-Phg-NH(2) were used as chiral auxiliaries to synthesize four chiral derivatizing reagents (CDRs) of each of the three categories, viz., difluoro dinitro benzene (DFDNB) based chiral variants, and cyanuric chloride (CC) based monochloro-s-triazine reagents (MCTs) and dichloro-s-triazine reagents (DCTs). DFDNB based chiral variants were synthesized by substituting one of the fluorine atoms of DFDNB with respective amino acid amides. The MCTs and DCTs were synthesized by substituting chlorine atom with aforesaid amino acid amide moieties in 6-methoxy dichloro-s-triazine and in CC, respectively. In total, 12 CDRs were characterized and used for microwave-assisted synthesis (45 s at 80% of 800 W using DFDNB-based chiral variants, 80 s at 90% of 800 W power using MCTs, and 50 s at 80% of 800 W power using DCTs) of diastereomers of (A) SeMet, and (B) mixture of (1) SeMet and Met, and (2) SeMet, Met, and Cys. The diastereomers were enantioseparated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using gradient elution with mobile phases containing aq. TFA (0.1%)--MeCN in different compositions. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, and limit of detection. PMID:21293889

  20. Preparation of Sticky Escherichia coli through Surface Display of an Adhesive Catecholamine Moiety

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joseph P.; Choi, Min-Jung; Kim, Se Hun

    2014-01-01

    Mussels attach to virtually all types of inorganic and organic surfaces in aqueous environments, and catecholamines composed of 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (DOPA), lysine, and histidine in mussel adhesive proteins play a key role in the robust adhesion. DOPA is an unusual catecholic amino acid, and its side chain is called catechol. In this study, we displayed the adhesive moiety of DOPA-histidine on Escherichia coli surfaces using outer membrane protein W as an anchoring motif for the first time. Localization of catecholamines on the cell surface was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, cell-to-cell cohesion (i.e., cellular aggregation) induced by the displayed catecholamine and synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the cell surface support functional display of adhesive catecholamines. The engineered E. coli exhibited significant adhesion onto various material surfaces, including silica and glass microparticles, gold, titanium, silicon, poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(urethane), and poly(dimethylsiloxane). The uniqueness of this approach utilizing the engineered sticky E. coli is that no chemistry for cell attachment are necessary, and the ability of spontaneous E. coli attachment allows one to immobilize the cells on challenging material surfaces such as synthetic polymers. Therefore, we envision that mussel-inspired catecholamine yielded sticky E. coli that can be used as a new type of engineered microbe for various emerging fields, such as whole living cell attachment on versatile material surfaces, cell-to-cell communication systems, and many others. PMID:24123747

  1. Preparation of sticky Escherichia coli through surface display of an adhesive catecholamine moiety.

    PubMed

    Park, Joseph P; Choi, Min-Jung; Kim, Se Hun; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Haeshin

    2014-01-01

    Mussels attach to virtually all types of inorganic and organic surfaces in aqueous environments, and catecholamines composed of 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (DOPA), lysine, and histidine in mussel adhesive proteins play a key role in the robust adhesion. DOPA is an unusual catecholic amino acid, and its side chain is called catechol. In this study, we displayed the adhesive moiety of DOPA-histidine on Escherichia coli surfaces using outer membrane protein W as an anchoring motif for the first time. Localization of catecholamines on the cell surface was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, cell-to-cell cohesion (i.e., cellular aggregation) induced by the displayed catecholamine and synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the cell surface support functional display of adhesive catecholamines. The engineered E. coli exhibited significant adhesion onto various material surfaces, including silica and glass microparticles, gold, titanium, silicon, poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(urethane), and poly(dimethylsiloxane). The uniqueness of this approach utilizing the engineered sticky E. coli is that no chemistry for cell attachment are necessary, and the ability of spontaneous E. coli attachment allows one to immobilize the cells on challenging material surfaces such as synthetic polymers. Therefore, we envision that mussel-inspired catecholamine yielded sticky E. coli that can be used as a new type of engineered microbe for various emerging fields, such as whole living cell attachment on versatile material surfaces, cell-to-cell communication systems, and many others. PMID:24123747

  2. The influence of nanotexturing of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) films upon human ovarian cancer cell attachment.

    PubMed

    Yaşayan, Gökçen; Xue, Xuan; Collier, Pamela; Clarke, Philip; Alexander, Morgan R; Marlow, Maria

    2016-06-24

    In this study, we have produced nanotextured poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films by using polystyrene (PS) particles as a template to make a polydimethylsiloxane mould against which PLGA is solvent cast. Biocompatible, biodegradable and nanotextured PLGA films were prepared with PS particles of diameter of 57, 99, 210, and 280 nm that produced domes of the same dimension in the PLGA surface. The effect of the particulate monolayer templating method was investigated to enable preparation of the films with uniformly ordered surface nanodomes. Cell attachment of a human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR3) alone and co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated on flat and topographically nano-patterned surfaces. Cell numbers were observed to increase on the nanotextured surfaces compared to non-textured surfaces both with OVCAR3 cultures and OVCAR3-MSC co-cultures at 24 and 48 h time points. PMID:27184195

  3. The influence of nanotexturing of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) films upon human ovarian cancer cell attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaşayan, Gökçen; Xue, Xuan; Collier, Pamela; Clarke, Philip; Alexander, Morgan R.; Marlow, Maria

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we have produced nanotextured poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films by using polystyrene (PS) particles as a template to make a polydimethylsiloxane mould against which PLGA is solvent cast. Biocompatible, biodegradable and nanotextured PLGA films were prepared with PS particles of diameter of 57, 99, 210, and 280 nm that produced domes of the same dimension in the PLGA surface. The effect of the particulate monolayer templating method was investigated to enable preparation of the films with uniformly ordered surface nanodomes. Cell attachment of a human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR3) alone and co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated on flat and topographically nano-patterned surfaces. Cell numbers were observed to increase on the nanotextured surfaces compared to non-textured surfaces both with OVCAR3 cultures and OVCAR3-MSC co-cultures at 24 and 48 h time points.

  4. Evolution of subgroup A respiratory syncytial virus: evidence for progressive accumulation of amino acid changes in the attachment protein.

    PubMed Central

    Cane, P A; Pringle, C R

    1995-01-01

    The variability of the attachment (G) proteins of 48 subgroup A isolates of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) isolated over 38 years has been examined. Nucleotide sequences of two variable regions of the G protein genes were determined following amplification by PCR. The isolates showed temporal rather than geographical clustering, and there was evidence for progressive accumulation of amino acid changes at an average rate of approximately 0.25% per year estimated over the entire protein. The cocirculation of lineages of RSV at present appears to be the result of a process of evolution and survival of particular genotypes and the extinction of others. Analysis of reactivity of the isolates with monoclonal antibodies showed that their antigenic profiles closely paralleled their relatedness by nucleotide sequence, suggesting that antigenic drift due to immune selection may be occurring. PMID:7707517

  5. Fluorometric assay for quantitation of biotin covalently attached to proteins and nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Robert H; Sarkez, Adam; Cox, W Gregory; Johnson, Iain

    2007-10-01

    As a component of the (strept)avidin affinity system, biotin is often covalently linked to proteins or nucleic acids. We describe here a microplate-based high-throughput fluorometric assay for biotin linked to either proteins or nucleic acids based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This assay utilizes a complex of Alexa Fluoro 488 dye-labeled avidin with a quencher dye, 2-(4'-hydroxyazobenzene) benzoic acid (HABA), occupying the biotin binding sites of the avidin. In the absence of biotin, HABA quenches the fluorescence emission of the Alexa Fluor 488 dyes via FRET HABA is displaced when biotin binds to the Alexa Fluor 488 dye-labeled avidin, resulting in decreased FRET efficiency. This mechanism results in an increase in fluorescence intensity directly related to the amount of biotin present in the sample. The assay is able to detect as little as 4 pmol biotin in a 0.1 mL volume within 15 min of adding sample to the reagent, with a Z-factor > 0.9. PMID:18019342

  6. Folic-Acid-Modified Conducting Polymer: Electrochemical Detection of the Cell Attachment.

    PubMed

    Azak, Hacer; Barlas, Firat Baris; Yildiz, Huseyin Bekir; Gulec, Kadri; Demir, Bilal; Demirkol, Dilek Odaci; Timur, Suna

    2016-04-01

    Here, postfunctionalization and bioapplication of a π-conjugated polymer named 4-[4H-dithieno(3,2-b:2',3'-d)pyrrol-4-yl]aniline (DTP-aryl-NH2 ) are reported, which is successfully synthesized via electropolymerization onto the glassy carbon electrode. Folic acid (FA) is used to modify the amino functional polymer via N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry for the further steps. The selective adhesion of folate receptor positive cells on the surface is followed by the electrochemical methods. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to characterize stepwise modification of the electroactive surface. After optimization studies such as scan rate during the polymer deposition, FA amount for the efficient surface targeting, incubation time with the cells etc., analytical characterization is carried out. The surface morphologies at each step are imaged by using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:26671168

  7. Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

    Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

  8. Structure and Mutagenesis of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Domains Evidence for Flexibility in the Placement of Polysialic Acid Attachment Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Deirdre A.; Swartzentruber, Kristin G.; Lavie, Arnon; Colley, Karen J.

    2010-11-09

    The addition of {alpha}2,8-polysialic acid to the N-glycans of the neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is critical for brain development and plays roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, neuronal regeneration, and the growth and invasiveness of cancer cells. Our previous work indicates that the polysialylation of two N-glycans located on the fifth immunoglobulin domain (Ig5) of NCAM requires the presence of specific sequences in the adjacent fibronectin type III repeat (FN1). To understand the relationship of these two domains, we have solved the crystal structure of the NCAM Ig5-FN1 tandem. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals that the sites of Ig5 polysialylation are on the opposite face from the FN1 residues previously found to be critical for N-glycan polysialylation, suggesting that the Ig5-FN1 domain relationship may be flexible and/or that there is flexibility in the placement of Ig5 glycosylation sites for polysialylation. To test the latter possibility, new Ig5 glycosylation sites were engineered and their polysialylation tested. We observed some flexibility in glycosylation site location for polysialylation and demonstrate that the lack of polysialylation of a glycan attached to Asn-423 may be in part related to a lack of terminal processing. The data also suggest that, although the polysialyltransferases do not require the Ig5 domain for NCAM recognition, their ability to engage with this domain is necessary for polysialylation to occur on Ig5 N-glycans.

  9. Role of lactic acid bacteria as a biosanitizer to prevent attachment of Listeria monocytogenes F6900 on deli slicer contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ndahetuye, Jean Baptiste; Koo, Ok Kyung; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2012-08-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the attachment of three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains and their combination in a cocktail, to stainless steel coupons from a deli slicer, and their ability to inhibit the attachment of Listeria monocytogenes. In a previous study, three LAB strains, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus amylovorus, and Lactobacillus animalis, were isolated from ready-to-eat meat and exhibited antilisterial effect. In the study reported here, hydrophobicity tests were determined according to the method of microbial adhesion to solvent. The attachment of the cells was evaluated on stainless steel coupons from deli slicers. Extracellular carbohydrates were determined with a colorimetric method. Based on these tests, L. animalis exhibited the greatest hydrophobicity (26.3%), and its adherence increased sharply from 24 to 72 h, whereas L. amylovorus yielded the lowest hydrophobicity (3.86%) and was weakly adherent. Although P. acidilactici had moderate hydrophobicity (10.1%), it adhered strongly. The attached LAB strains produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher total carbohydrates than their planktonic counterparts did, which is an important characteristic for attachment. Three conditions were simulated to evaluate the ability of the LAB cocktail (10(8) CFU/ml) to competitively exclude L. monocytogenes (10(3) CFU/ml) on the surface of the coupons. The coupons were pretreated with the LAB cocktail for 24 h prior to the addition of L. monocytogenes, simultaneously treated with the LAB cocktail and L. monocytogenes, or pretreated with L. monocytogenes 24 h prior to the addition of the LAB cocktail. The LAB cocktail was able to reduce the attachment L. monocytogenes significantly (P < 0.05). The LAB cocktail indicated potential attachment on stainless steel and bacteriostatic activity toward L. monocytogenes attached on stainless steel, which indicates a possible role for LAB as a biosanitizer in the food industry. PMID:22856566

  10. Plasma copolymer surfaces of acrylic acid/1,7 octadiene: surface characterisation and the attachment of ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Daw, R; Candan, S; Beck, A J; Devlin, A J; Brook, I M; MacNeil, S; Dawson, R A; Short, R D

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was: (a) to examine the effect of plasma-gas composition on plasma polymer oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio, functional group composition and stability in water, and then (b) to examine cell attachment to surfaces containing different concentrations of O/C and functional groups. Oxygen-functionalised surfaces were deposited by means of the plasma copolymerisation of acrylic acid/1,7-octadiene. The use of a diluent hydrocarbon allowed the deposition of surfaces with a range of O/C concentrations. Plasma copolymer surfaces were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Changes in functional group composition with % acrylic acid monomer and the non-dispersive and dispersive parts of the surface energy of these plasma copolymers were measured. The solubility of the plasma copolymers was assessed by means of XPS. The degree of attachment of ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells to plasma copolymer surfaces deemed to be 'stable' in aqueous medium was measured. Tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) was included as a control. Attachment was found to be greatest to the plasma copolymer surface with an O/C of 0.11. This surface had a carboxylic acid concentration of ca. 3%. Attachment did not correlate with increased surface wettability (i.e. the non-dispersive component of the surface energy). PMID:9856582

  11. Synthesis of neosaponins and neoglycolipids containing a chacotriosyl moiety.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2007-11-01

    Alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranose (chacotriose) is the oligosaccharide moiety of dioscin. Chacotriosyl trichloroacetimidate was synthesized from d-glucose and l-rhamnose, and glycosylated to mevalonate (diosgenin, cholesterol, and glycyrrhetic acid) to yield dioscin and neosaponins. In order to simplify the structure of the aglycone part, the mevalonate moiety was replaced with double-chain neoglycolipids that mimicked glycosyl ceramides. A cytotoxicity test revealed the importance of the glycosidic linkage of the naturally occurring beta-form and that dioscin and the neoglycolipid with the longest chain showed a moderate activity. PMID:17655835

  12. Synthesis and characterization of nonconventional surfactants of aromatic amino acid-glycerol ethers: effect of the amino acid moiety on the orientation and surface properties of these soap-type amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Varka, Evdoxia-Maria A; Heli, Maria G; Coutouli-Argyropoulou, Evdoxia; Pegiadou, Sofia A

    2006-11-01

    The synthesis, characterization, and surface properties of soap-type amphiphiles comprising alkyl chains of 10-16 carbon atoms linked through an ether group to a glycerol-amino acid hydrophilic head group is described. The surface properties of members of this series derived from histidine and tyrosine were compared with those of phenylalanine and tryptophan derivatives described previously and with those of conventional soaps. In all cases, the amino acid derivatives showed superior surface properties, and an interesting differentiation was discovered regarding the orientation of tryptophan derivatives. PMID:16847987

  13. A New Class of Natural Glycopeptides with Sugar Moiety-dependent Antioxidant Activities derived from Ganoderma lucidum Fruiting Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yalin; Wang, Denong

    2009-01-01

    A water-soluble glycopeptide (PGY), fractionated and purified from the aqueous extract of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum via two-step dialysis, anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography, was constituted of two moieties of carbohydrate and peptide. Carbohydrate characterization with component analysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, enzymic hydrolysis, and IR and NMR experiments demonstrated that the carbohydrate moiety possessed a backbone of approximately thirty-three (1 → 3)-linked β-D-glucopyranosyl residues, and side chains, at positions 6, of single α-L-arabinofuranosyl residues for every three Glcp residues in the main chain. On the basis of the results of amino acid composition and trypsin digestion, the peptide moiety shown to consist of Arg, Ser, Ala, and Gly in a ratio of 1:1:2:2, exhibited the sequence of Ser-Arg-[(Ala)2(Gly)2], and was O-attached to the carbohydrate moiety via Ser. To contribute toward our understanding of structure-activity relationship, a series of expected derivatives generated from PGY by trypsin digestion, debranching, and NaIO4-oxidation following reduction experiments, including PTC, DB-PGY, and PPP, were obtained. All of them, as well as PGY and reference compound (BHT), were evaluated with two conventional antioxidant testing systems of DPPH and superoxide radicals scavenging, and found to have their respective antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Comparable radical scavenging activities observed between PTC and PGY demonstrated that the removal of Ala and Gly in peptide moiety did not result in the variation of biological functions of PGY. However, it was very interesting to note that the scavenging activity of PPP was higher for DPPH radicals with an SC50 value of 116.4 ± 5.1 μg/mL, and lower for superoxide radicals with an SC50 value of 205.2 ± 14.4 μg/mL than that of PGY with corresponding SC50 values of 133.5 ± 5.5 and 140.5 ± 7.7 μg/mL, and

  14. Attachment Disorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Judith, Ed.; George, Carol, Ed.

    Disorganized attachment relationships were first formally identified on the basis of the anomalous behavior of some infants during laboratory separations and reunions with the parent. This book presents new research and theory on the topic of attachment disorganization, an area of investigation that is of increasing importance in the study of…

  15. Stability of nTiO2 particles and their attachment to sand: Effects of humic acid at different pH.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Cheng, Tao

    2016-01-15

    The fate and transport of nano-scale or micro-scale titanium dioxide particles (nTiO2) in subsurface environments are strongly influenced by the stability of nTiO2 and their attachment to sediment grains. nTiO2 may carry either positive or negative charges in natural water, therefore, environmental factors such as pH, humic substances, and Fe oxyhydroxide coatings on sediment grains, which are known to control the stability and transport of negatively-charged colloids, may influence nTiO2 in different manners. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pH and humic acid (HA) on the stability and attachment of nTiO2 to sand at HA concentrations that are relevant to typical groundwater conditions, so that mechanisms that control nTiO2 immobilization and transport in natural systems can be elucidated. Stability and attachment of nTiO2 to quartz sand and Fe oxyhydroxide coated quartz sand are experimentally measured under a range of HA concentrations at pH5 and 9. Results show that at pH5, negatively-charged HA strongly adsorbs to positively-charged nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide, which, at low HA concentrations, partially neutralizes the positive charges on nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide, and therefore decreases the repulsive electrostatic forces between the surfaces, resulting in nTiO2 aggregation and attachment. At high HA concentrations, adsorbed HA reverses the surface charges of nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide, and makes nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide strongly negatively charged, resulting in stable nTiO2 suspension and low nTiO2 attachment. At pH9, HA, nTiO2, and Fe oxyhydroxide are all negatively charged, and HA adsorption is low and does not have a strong impact on the stability and attachment of nTiO2. Overall, this study shows that changes in surface charges of nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide coating caused by HA adsorption is a key factor that influences the stability and attachment of nTiO2. PMID:26439650

  16. Retroperitoneoscopic left upper moiety heminephroureterectomy for dribbling incontinence.

    PubMed

    Chan, E; Steinbrecher, H; Madden, N; Farrugia, M-K

    2014-02-01

    A 7-year-old girl underwent a prone, retroperitoneoscopic left upper moiety heminephroureterectomy for a non-functioning upper moiety associated with a dilated, ectopic ureter. The dilated ureter was noted prenatally, but postnatal investigations failed to demonstrate the duplex system. The child remained asymptomatic until she represented at 6 years of age, with dribbling of urine. She went on to have an ultrasound scan, dimercaptosuccinic acid and magnetic resonance urogram, which identified a grossly-dilated fluid-filled structure in proximity of the left kidney, but failed to demonstrate the small non-functioning left upper moiety. A computed tomography urogram was more helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Retroperitoneoscopy via three 5-mm ports allowed clear visualisation of both the left duplex ureters, as well as the small non-functioning upper moiety, which had been challenging on the pre-operative imaging. The procedure is described in the accompanying video. The child was discharged home the following day and has been completely well and dry at 6 months' follow-up. PMID:24321778

  17. The Disaccharide Moiety of Bleomycin Facilitates Uptake by Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The disaccharide moiety is responsible for the tumor cell targeting properties of bleomycin (BLM). While the aglycon (deglycobleomycin) mediates DNA cleavage in much the same fashion as bleomycin, it exhibits diminished cytotoxicity in comparison to BLM. These findings suggested that BLM might be modular in nature, composed of tumor-seeking and tumoricidal domains. To explore this possibility, BLM analogues were prepared in which the disaccharide moiety was attached to deglycobleomycin at novel positions, namely, via the threonine moiety or C-terminal substituent. The analogues were compared with BLM and deglycoBLM for DNA cleavage, cancer cell uptake, and cytotoxic activity. BLM is more potent than deglycoBLM in supercoiled plasmid DNA relaxation, while the analogue having the disaccharide on threonine was less active than deglycoBLM and the analogue containing the C-terminal disaccharide was slightly more potent. While having unexceptional DNA cleavage potencies, both glycosylated analogues were more cytotoxic to cultured DU145 prostate cancer cells than deglycoBLM. Dye-labeled conjugates of the cytotoxic BLM aglycons were used in imaging experiments to determine the extent of cell uptake. The rank order of internalization efficiencies was the same as their order of cytotoxicities toward DU145 cells. These findings establish a role for the BLM disaccharide in tumor targeting/uptake and suggest that the disaccharide moiety may be capable of delivering other cytotoxins to cancer cells. While the mechanism responsible for uptake of the BLM disaccharide selectively by tumor cells has not yet been established, data are presented which suggest that the metabolic shift to glycolysis in cancer cells may provide the vehicle for selective internalization. PMID:25184545

  18. The disaccharide moiety of bleomycin facilitates uptake by cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Benjamin R; Ghare, M Imran; Bhattacharya, Chandrabali; Paul, Rakesh; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zaleski, Paul A; Bozeman, Trevor C; Rishel, Michael J; Hecht, Sidney M

    2014-10-01

    The disaccharide moiety is responsible for the tumor cell targeting properties of bleomycin (BLM). While the aglycon (deglycobleomycin) mediates DNA cleavage in much the same fashion as bleomycin, it exhibits diminished cytotoxicity in comparison to BLM. These findings suggested that BLM might be modular in nature, composed of tumor-seeking and tumoricidal domains. To explore this possibility, BLM analogues were prepared in which the disaccharide moiety was attached to deglycobleomycin at novel positions, namely, via the threonine moiety or C-terminal substituent. The analogues were compared with BLM and deglycoBLM for DNA cleavage, cancer cell uptake, and cytotoxic activity. BLM is more potent than deglycoBLM in supercoiled plasmid DNA relaxation, while the analogue having the disaccharide on threonine was less active than deglycoBLM and the analogue containing the C-terminal disaccharide was slightly more potent. While having unexceptional DNA cleavage potencies, both glycosylated analogues were more cytotoxic to cultured DU145 prostate cancer cells than deglycoBLM. Dye-labeled conjugates of the cytotoxic BLM aglycons were used in imaging experiments to determine the extent of cell uptake. The rank order of internalization efficiencies was the same as their order of cytotoxicities toward DU145 cells. These findings establish a role for the BLM disaccharide in tumor targeting/uptake and suggest that the disaccharide moiety may be capable of delivering other cytotoxins to cancer cells. While the mechanism responsible for uptake of the BLM disaccharide selectively by tumor cells has not yet been established, data are presented which suggest that the metabolic shift to glycolysis in cancer cells may provide the vehicle for selective internalization. PMID:25184545

  19. Spindly attachments

    PubMed Central

    Çivril, Filiz; Musacchio, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules during mitosis is a delicate and intricate process on which eukaryotic cells critically depend to maintain their ploidy. In this issue of Genes & Development, Gassmann and colleagues (pp. 2385–2399 present an analysis of the recently discovered Spindly/SPDL-1 protein that casts new lights onto the attachment process and the way it relates to the control of cell cycle progression. PMID:18765786

  20. Chemical analysis of surface oxygenated moieties of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jie; Deming, Christopher P.; Song, Yang; Kang, Xiongwu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Shaowei

    2012-01-01

    Water-soluble carbon nanoparticles were prepared by refluxing natural gas soot in concentrated nitric acid. The surface of the resulting nanoparticles was found to be decorated with a variety of oxygenated species, as suggested by spectroscopic measurements. Back potentiometric titration of the nanoparticles was employed to quantify the coverage of carboxylic, lactonic, and phenolic moieties on the particle surface by taking advantage of their vast difference of acidity (pKa). The results were largely consistent with those reported in previous studies with other carbonaceous (nano)materials. Additionally, the presence of ortho- and para-quinone moieties on the nanoparticle surface was confirmed by selective labelling with o-phenylenediamine, as manifested in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and electrochemical measurements. The results further supported the arguments that the surface functional moieties that were analogous to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone were responsible for the unique photoluminescence of the nanoparticles and the emission might be regulated by surface charge state, as facilitated by the conjugated graphitic core matrix.

  1. Mesoporous hybrid organosilica containing urethane moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, You-Kyong; Park, Sung-Bae; Ho Park, Dong . E-mail: chempdh@inje.ac.kr

    2006-04-15

    Mesoporous hybrid material containing urethane moieties in functionalized long chain organic group have been synthesized by using bis[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl urethane]ethane (BTESPUE) and tetraethoxysilane as structural ingredients. The incorporation of BTESPUE within the framework of mesoporous material was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, solid-state NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. This material had a thick wall and uniform pore, which may be attributed to the hydrogen bonding inside framework due to urethane moieties.

  2. Modular Attachment of Appended Boron Lewis Acids to a Ruthenium Pincer Catalyst: Metal-Ligand Cooperativity Enables Selective Alkyne Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuei-Nin T; Kampf, Jeff W; Szymczak, Nathaniel K

    2016-08-24

    A new series of bifunctional Ru complexes with pendent Lewis acidic boranes were prepared by late-stage modification of an active hydrogen-transfer catalyst. The appended boranes modulate the reactivity of a metal hydride as well as catalytic hydrogenations. After installing acidic auxiliary groups, the complexes become multifunctional and catalyze the cis-selective hydrogenation of alkynes with higher rates, conversions, and selectivities compared with the unmodified catalyst. PMID:27472301

  3. Synthesis and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory effects of new N-glycosylsulfonamides incorporating the phenol moiety.

    PubMed

    Riafrecha, Leonardo E; Bua, Silvia; Supuran, Claudiu T; Colinas, Pedro A

    2016-08-15

    A small series of N-glycosylsulfonamides incorporating the phenol moiety has been prepared by Ferrier sulfonamidoglycosylation of d-glycals. N-Glycosides were tested for the inhibition of four isoforms of carbonic anhydrase. In this study, all compounds showed good inhibitory activity against hCA I and II, with selectivity against the cytosolic hCA II versus the tumor associated isozymes. These results confirm that attaching carbohydrate moieties to CA phenol pharmacophore improves and enhances its inhibitory activity. PMID:27423482

  4. Excess Electron Attachment Induces Barrier-Free Proton Transfer in Anionic Complexes of Thymine and Uracil with Formic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Dabkowska, Iwona; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Nilles, J.M.; Stokes, Sarah; Radisic, Dunja; Bowen, Kit H.

    2004-06-03

    The anionic complexes of formic acid with uracil and thymine reveal broad features in photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments with maxima at 1.7 and 1.1 eV, respectively. The results of quantum chemical calculations suggest that electron vertical detachment energies (VDE) of 1.6-1.9 eV correspond to anionic structures in which a proton has been transferred from the carboxylic group of the formic acid to the O8 atom of uracil or thymine. Smaller values of VDE (0.8 to 1.3 eV) correspond to chemically untransformed complexes, in which anionic uracil or thymine interacts through two hydrogen bonds with the carboxylic group of the intact formic acid. The recorded spectra and the results of quantum chemical calculations suggest that both nucleic acid bases undergo barrier-free proton transfer in anionic complexes with formic acid. The difference in experimental spectra of UF- and TF- provides an indication that the methyl group of thymine could make a difference in the intermolecular proton transfer.

  5. Polysialic acid enters the cell nucleus attached to a fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM to regulate the circadian rhythm in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Nina; Kleene, Ralf; Lutz, David; Theis, Thomas; Schachner, Melitta

    2016-07-01

    In the mammalian nervous system, the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM is the major carrier of the glycan polymer polysialic acid (PSA) which confers important functions to NCAM's protein backbone. PSA attached to NCAM contributes not only to cell migration, neuritogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and behavior, but also to regulation of the circadian rhythm by yet unknown molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that a PSA-carrying transmembrane NCAM fragment enters the nucleus after stimulation of cultured neurons with surrogate NCAM ligands, a phenomenon that depends on the circadian rhythm. Enhanced nuclear import of the PSA-carrying NCAM fragment is associated with altered expression of clock-related genes, as shown by analysis of cultured neuronal cells deprived of PSA by specific enzymatic removal. In vivo, levels of nuclear PSA in different mouse brain regions depend on the circadian rhythm and clock-related gene expression in suprachiasmatic nucleus and cerebellum is affected by the presence of PSA-carrying NCAM in the cell nucleus. Our conceptually novel observations reveal that PSA attached to a transmembrane proteolytic NCAM fragment containing part of the extracellular domain enters the cell nucleus, where PSA-carrying NCAM contributes to the regulation of clock-related gene expression and of the circadian rhythm. PMID:27236020

  6. Enzymatic amplification-free nucleic acid hybridisation sensing on nanostructured thick-film electrodes by using covalently attached methylene blue.

    PubMed

    García-González, Raquel; Costa-García, Agustín; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Amplification-free (referring to enzymatic amplification step) detection methodologies are increasing in biosensor development due to the need of faster and simpler protocols. However, for maintaining sensitivity without this step, highly detectable molecules or very sensitive detection techniques are required. The nanostructuration of transducer surfaces with carbon nanotubes (CNTs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) or both in nanohybrid configurations has been employed in this work for DNA hybridisation sensing purposes. Methylene blue (MB), covalently attached to single stranded DNA, (ssDNA) was incubated with a complementary sequence immobilized on nanostructured screen-printed electrodes (AuSPEs). Although CNTs can increase notoriously the signal of the marker, adsorptive properties should also be considered when bioassays are performed because non-specific adsorption (NSA) phenomena are magnified. In this work, strategies for decreasing NSA were thoroughly evaluated for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) on CNTs-nanostructured screen-printed electrodes. Among them, the employ of UV-radiation or long incubation times (72h) allowed obtaining higher signals for the complementary strand with respect to the non-complementary one. The use of CNTs/AuNPs nanohybrids, together with the use of streptavidin-biotin (ST-B) interaction allows the higher differentiation (with a 3.5 ratio) in the genosensing of M. pneumoniae. PMID:26003686

  7. A pH-responsive drug nanovehicle constructed by reversible attachment of cholesterol to PEGylated poly(l-lysine) via catechol-boronic acid ester formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Lv, Yin; Zhu, Jing-Yi; Han, Yun-Tao; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Chen, Wei-Hai; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

    2014-08-01

    The present work reports the construction of a drug delivery nanovehicle via a pH-sensitive assembly strategy for improved cellular internalization and intracellular drug liberation. Through spontaneous formation of boronate linkage in physiological conditions, phenylboronic acid-modified cholesterol was able to attach onto catechol-pending methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lysine). This comb-type polymer can self-organize into a micellar nanoconstruction that is able to effectively encapsulate poorly water-soluble agents. The blank micelles exhibited negligible in vitro cytotoxicity, yet doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles could effectively induce cell death at a level comparable to free DOX. Owing to the acid-labile feature of the boronate linkage, a reduction in environmental pH from pH 7.4 to 5.0 could trigger the dissociation of the nanoconstruction, which in turn could accelerate the liberation of entrapped drugs. Importantly, the blockage of endosomal acidification in HeLa cells by NH4Cl treatment significantly decreased the nuclear uptake efficiency and cell-killing effect mediated by the DOX-loaded nanoassembly, suggesting that acid-triggered destruction of the nanoconstruction is of significant importance in enhanced drug efficacy. Moreover, confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assay revealed the effective internalization of the nanoassemblies, and their cellular uptake exhibited a cholesterol dose-dependent profile, indicating the contribution of introduced cholesterol functionality to the transmembrane process of the nanoassembly. PMID:24879311

  8. Micro- to nanostructured poly(pyrrole-nitrilotriacetic acid) films via nanosphere templates: applications to 3D enzyme attachment by affinity interactions.

    PubMed

    Cernat, Andreea; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael; Sandulescu, Robert; Cosnier, Serge

    2014-02-01

    We report the combination of latex nanosphere lithography with electropolymerization of N-substituted pyrrole monomer bearing a nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) moiety for the template-assisted nanostructuration of poly(pyrrole-NTA) films and their application for biomolecule immobilization. The electrodes were modified by casting latex beads (100 or 900 nm in diameter) on their surface followed by electropolymerization of the pyrrole-NTA monomer and the subsequent chelation of Cu(2+) ions. The dissolution of the nanobeads leads then to a nanostructured polymer film with increased surface. Thanks to the versatile affinity interactions between the (NTA)Cu(2+) complex and histidine- or biotin-tagged proteins, both tyrosinase and glucose oxidase were immobilized on the modified electrode. Nanostructuration of the polypyrrole via nanosphere lithography (NSL) using 900- and 100-nm latex beads allows an increase in surface concentration of enzymes anchored on the functionalized polypyrrole electrode. The nanostructured enzyme electrodes were characterized by fluorescence microscopy, 3D laser scanning confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical studies demonstrate the increase in the amount of immobilized biomolecules and associated biosensor performances when achieving NSL compared to conventional polymer formation without bead template. In addition, the decrease in nanobead diameter from 900 to 100 nm provides an enhancement in biosensor performance. Between biosensors based on films polymerized without nanobeads and with 100-nm nanobeads, maximum current density values increase from 4 to 56 μA cm(-2) and from 7 to 45 μA cm(-2) for biosensors based on tyrosinase and glucose oxidase, respectively. PMID:23793398

  9. Removal and biodegradation of naphthenic acids by biochar and attached environmental biofilms in the presence of co-contaminating metals.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Mathew L; Bhuiyan, Tazul I; Veksha, Andrei; Demeter, Marc A; Layzell, David B; Helleur, Robert J; Hill, Josephine M; Turner, Raymond J

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of using a combined biofilm-biochar approach to remove organic (naphthenic acids (NAs)) and inorganic (metals) contaminants from process water (OSPW) generated by Canada's oil sands mining operations. A microbial community sourced from an OSPW sample was cultured as biofilms on several carbonaceous materials. Two biochar samples, from softwood bark (SB) and Aspen wood (N3), facilitated the most microbial growth (measured by protein assays) and were used for NA removal studies performed with and without biofilms, and in the presence and absence of contaminating metals. Similar NA removal was seen in 6-day sterile N3 and SB assays (>30%), while biodegradation by SB-associated biofilms increased NA removal to 87% in the presence of metals. Metal sorption was also observed, with up to four times more immobilization of Fe, Al, and As on biofilm-associated biochar. These results suggest this combined approach may be a promising treatment for OSPW. PMID:27259191

  10. Molecular mimicry between IL-33 and KSHV for attachment to chromatin through the H2A–H2B acidic pocket

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Lucie; Erard, Monique; Cayrol, Corinne; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an IL-1-like ligand for the ST2 receptor that stimulates the production of Th2-associated cytokines. Recently, we showed that IL-33 is a chromatin-associated factor in the nucleus of endothelial cells in vivo. Here, we report the identification of a short IL-33 chromatin-binding peptide that shares striking similarities with a motif found in Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus LANA (latency-associated nuclear antigen), which is responsible for the attachment of viral genomes to mitotic chromosomes. Similar to LANA, the IL-33 peptide docks into the acidic pocket formed by the H2A–H2B dimer at the nucleosomal surface and regulates chromatin compaction by promoting nucleosome–nucleosome interactions. Taken together, our data provide important new insights into the nuclear roles of IL-33, and show a unique example of molecular mimicry of a chromatin-associated cytokine by a DNA tumour virus. In addition, the data provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of the existence of non-histone cellular factors that bind to the acidic pocket of the nucleosome. PMID:18688256

  11. Serine incorporation into the selenocysteine moiety of glutathione peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Sunde, R.A.; Evenson, J.K.

    1987-01-15

    The selenium in mammalian glutathione peroxidase is present as a selenocysteine ((Se)Cys) moiety incorporated into the peptide backbone 41-47 residues from the N-terminal end. To study the origin of the skeleton of the (Se)Cys moiety, we perfused isolated rat liver with /sup 14/C- or /sup 3/H-labeled amino acids for 4 h, purified the GSH peroxidase, derivatized the (Se)Cys in GSH peroxidase to carboxymethylselenocysteine ((Se)Cys(Cm)), and determined the amino acid specific activity. Perfusion with (/sup 14/C)cystine resulted in (/sup 14/C)cystine incorporation into GSH peroxidase without labeling (Se)Cys(Cm), indicating that cysteine is not a direct precursor for (Se)Cys. (/sup 14/C)Serine perfusion labeled serine, glycine (the serine hydroxymethyltransferase product), and (Se)Cys(Cm) in purified GSH peroxidase, whereas (3-3H)serine perfusion only labeled serine and (Se)Cys(Cm), thus demonstrating that the (Se)Cys in GSH peroxidase is derived from serine. The similar specific activities of serine and (Se)Cys(Cm) strongly suggest that the precursor pool of serine used for (Se) Cys synthesis is the same or similar to the serine pool used for acylation of seryl-tRNAs.

  12. Synthesis and properties of optically active nanostructured polymers bearing amino acid moieties by direct polycondensation of 4,4'-thiobis(2-tert-butyl-5-methylphenol) with chiral diacids.

    PubMed

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Soltanian, Samaneh

    2012-06-01

    Four derivatives of N-trimellitylimido-L-amino acid (4a-4d) were prepared by the reaction of trimellitic anhydride (1) with the L-amino acids (2a-2d) in acetic acid as diacid monomers and were used with the aim to obtain a new family of amino acid based poly(ester-imide)s (PEI)s. The polymerization was performed by direct polycondensation of chiral diacids (4a-4d) with 4,4'-thiobis(2-tert-butyl-5-methylphenol) (5) in the presence of tosyl chloride (TsCl), pyridine and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF). Step-growth polymerization was carried out by varying the time of heating and the molar ratio of TsCl/diacid and the optimum conditions were achieved. The synthesized polymers were characterized by means of specific rotation experiments, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, X-ray diffraction techniques and elemental analysis. The surface morphology of the obtained polymers was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The result showed nanostructure morphology of the resulting polymers. The obtained PEIs were soluble in polar aprotic solvents such as DMF, N,N-dimethyl acetamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and protic solvents such as sulfuric acid. Thermal stability and the weight-loss behavior of the PEIs were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. TGA showed that the 10% weight loss temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere was more than 402°C, therefore they had useful levels of thermal stability associated with excellent solubility. PMID:21691754

  13. Cell surface-associated lipoteichoic acid acts as an adhesion factor for attachment of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Granato, D; Perotti, F; Masserey, I; Rouvet, M; Golliard, M; Servin, A; Brassart, D

    1999-03-01

    The influence of pH on the adhesion of two Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 human intestinal cells was investigated. One strain, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, was adherent at any pH between 4 and 7. The other one, L. acidophilus La10, did not attach to this cell line under the same experimental conditions. On the basis of these results, we used the monoclonal antibody technique as a tool to determine differences on the surface of these bacteria and to identify a factor for adhesion. Mice were immunized with live La1, and the hybridomas produced by fusion of spleen cells with ONS1 cells were screened for the production of antibodies specific for L. johnsonii La1. A set of these monoclonal antibodies was directed against a nonproteinaceous component of the L. johnsonii La1 surface. It was identified as lipoteichoic acid (LTA). This molecule was isolated, chemically characterized, and tested in adhesion experiments in the same system. The adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to Caco-2 cells was inhibited in a concentration-dependent way by purified LTA as well as by L. johnsonii La1 culture supernatant that contained LTA. These results showed that the mechanism of adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to human Caco-2 cells involves LTA. PMID:10049865

  14. Cell Surface-Associated Lipoteichoic Acid Acts as an Adhesion Factor for Attachment of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 to Human Enterocyte-Like Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Granato, Dominique; Perotti, Fabienne; Masserey, Isabelle; Rouvet, Martine; Golliard, Mireille; Servin, Alain; Brassart, Dominique

    1999-01-01

    The influence of pH on the adhesion of two Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 human intestinal cells was investigated. One strain, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, was adherent at any pH between 4 and 7. The other one, L. acidophilus La10, did not attach to this cell line under the same experimental conditions. On the basis of these results, we used the monoclonal antibody technique as a tool to determine differences on the surface of these bacteria and to identify a factor for adhesion. Mice were immunized with live La1, and the hybridomas produced by fusion of spleen cells with ONS1 cells were screened for the production of antibodies specific for L. johnsonii La1. A set of these monoclonal antibodies was directed against a nonproteinaceous component of the L. johnsonii La1 surface. It was identified as lipoteichoic acid (LTA). This molecule was isolated, chemically characterized, and tested in adhesion experiments in the same system. The adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to Caco-2 cells was inhibited in a concentration-dependent way by purified LTA as well as by L. johnsonii La1 culture supernatant that contained LTA. These results showed that the mechanism of adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to human Caco-2 cells involves LTA. PMID:10049865

  15. Prosthetic iodination methods for radiolabeling of carbonyl moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Barakat, B.M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The demonstrable need for an indirect, prosthetic-group, radioiodination of carbonyl-containing biomolecules such as ketosteroids, carbohydrates, gangliosides, glycoproteins and aldehydo- and keto-drugs. This need has been addressed by developing a route to iodinated (radioiodination) aryl hydrazides which are subsequently condensed with carbonyl-containing moieties. This dissertation is directed at improving the utility of this reaction and at comparing the hydrolytic stability of the resulting hydrazones to that of similar tyramine imines, a type presently employed in indirect radioiodinations. The aryl carboxylic acid hydrazones were virtually inert to hydrolysis under simulated physiological conditions which caused imine bond rupture. Further improvements to this new prosthetic labeling method were sought in simplifying its two-step, acid-catalyzed cleavage of triazenooxadiazoles (the protected, pre-labeling form of the aryl carboxylic acid hydrazides) to the iodinated hydrazide. Synthetic procedures were explored which might yield non-conjugated aryl oxadiazoles--bearing methylenes inserted between the phenyl and the heterocyclic ring--in the expectation that these substances would be less stable and would hydrolyze in a single-acid-catalyzed step. Four synthetic pathways to amino (or nitro) aryl-methyl oxadiazoles could not be advanced beyond the open-chain precursors of the heterocyclics. Pyrolysis, thermolysis, and catalyzed cyclization reagents could not effect ring closure. A method was developed, however, to an oxadiazolone which can serve as a protective functionality for the iodinated aryl acid hydrazides.

  16. Moieties in Ancient Mesoamerica: Inferences on Teotihuacan Social Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Marshall Joseph

    1975-01-01

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate the existence of political moieties at Teotihuacan by gathering evidence for dual organization in Mesoamerica, providing information regarding the operation and functions of political moieties, and indicating how the evidence now available conforms to a general model of moieties. (Author)

  17. Low-molecular-weight solutes released during mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Identification of ethanolamine triphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Drewry, David T.; Gray, George W.; Wilkinson, Stephen G.

    1972-01-01

    A careful examination of the low-molecular-weight solutes released during mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (N.C.T.C. 1999) revealed the presence of ethanolamine triphosphate. During storage, the compound decomposed to give ethanolamine pyrophosphate, identified in a previous study (Drewry et al., 1971); PPi may be a further decomposition product. Evidence for the attachment of ethanolamine triphosphate to a polysaccharide fraction was obtained, but the possibility that some was attached to the lipid A moiety was not excluded. Basic compounds released during the hydrolysis of lipopolysaccharide included amino acids, polyamines and oligopeptides. PMID:4632171

  18. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  19. Novel immobilization of a quaternary ammonium moiety on keratin fibers for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan; Cai, Jackie Y; Liu, Xin; Church, Jeffrey S; Wang, Lijing

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for immobilizing a quaternary ammonium moiety on a keratinous substrate for enhanced medical applications. The method involves the generation of thiols by controlled reduction of cystine disulfide bonds in the keratin, followed by reaction with [2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride through thiol-ene click chemistry. The modified substrate was characterized with Raman and infrared spectroscopy, and assessed for its antibacterial efficacy and other performance changes. The results have demonstrated that the quaternary ammonium moiety has been effectively attached onto the keratin structure, and the resultant keratin substrate exhibits a multifunctional effect including antibacterial and antistatic properties, improved liquid moisture management property, improved dyeability and a non-leaching characteristic of the treated substrate. PMID:24971553

  20. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry - Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sund, James B.; Causey, Corey P.; Wolter, Scott D.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Toone, Eric J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2014-05-01

    The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen-oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  1. Understanding and promoting attachment.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Samantha L

    2009-08-01

    Interest in early relationships has led to increased use of terms such as attachment disorder, attachment problems, and attachment therapy when describing behavioral/emotional regulation in young children. Unfortunately, such terms are vague and lead to clinical confusion and diagnostic inaccuracies. This article will introduce attachment theory, with a discussion of reactive attachment disorder and implications for treatment of children who have problems with social-emotional development. PMID:19681518

  2. TTFs nonsymmetrically fused with alkylthiophenic moieties

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rafaela A L; Vieira, Bruno J C; Andrade, Marta M; Santos, Isabel C; Rabaça, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Summary Two new dithiolene ligand precursors, containing fused TTF and alkyl thiophenic moieties 3,3'-{[2-(5-(tert-butyl)thieno[2,3-d][1,3]dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3-dithiole-4,5-diyl]bis[sulfanediyl]}dipropanenitrile (α-tbtdt, 1), and 3,3'-{[2-(5-methylthieno[2,3-d][1,3]dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3-dithiole-4,5-diyl]bis[sulfanediyl]}dipropanenitrile (α-mtdt, 2), were synthesized and characterized. The electrochemical properties of these electronic donors were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in dichloromethane. Both compounds show two quasi-reversible oxidation processes, versus Ag/AgCl, typical of TTF donors at E 1 1/2 = 279 V and E 2 1/2 = 680 V for 1 and E 1 1/2 = 304 V and E 2 1/2 = 716 V in the case of 2. The single-crystal X-ray structure of 1 and of a charge transfer salt of 2, (α-mtdt)[Au(mnt)2] (3), are reported. PMID:26124865

  3. Aglycones and sugar moieties alter anthocyanin absorption and metabolism after berry consumption in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianli; Pittman, Hoy E; McKay, Steve; Prior, Ronald L

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the absorption and metabolism of anthocyanins (ACNs) with different aglycones and sugar moieties, weanling pigs (11.4 +/- 3.8 kg) were fed, in a single meal, a freeze-dried powder of chokeberry, black currant, or elderberry at a single dose of 229, 140, or 228 mumol total ACN/kg body weight (BW), respectively. These berries provided ACNs with differences in aglycone as well as some unique differences in the sugar moieties. The relative proportions of the different metabolites depended upon concentrations, quantities consumed, and types of glycoside of ACNs in the berry. Delphinidin ACNs were not metabolized to any measurable extent. Cyanidin ACNs were metabolized via methylation and glucuronidation as well as by formation of both derivatives on the same ACN molecule. ACNs with either a di- or trisaccharide attached to them were excreted in the urine primarily as the intact form. Over 80% of the ACN compounds containing rutinose or sambubiose, which were excreted in the urine from black currant, elderberry, or Marion blackberry, were excreted as the intact molecule. The limited metabolism of these ACNs that did occur was via methylation. ACN monoglycosides other than the glucoside were metabolized via methylation and/or glucuronide formation. The monoglucuronide that formed represented a small proportion of the metabolites relative to the methylated or the mixed methylated and glucuronide forms of ACNs. The data clearly demonstrate that the aglycone and the sugar moieties can alter the apparent absorption and metabolism of ACNs. PMID:16177206

  4. Combinatorial discovery of polymers resistant to bacterial attachment

    PubMed Central

    Luckett, Jeni; Cockayne, Alan; Atkinson, Steve; Mei, Ying; Bayston, Roger; Irvine, Derek J; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Williams, Paul; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation pose key challenges to the optimal performance of medical devices. In this study, we determined the attachment of selected bacterial species to hundreds of polymeric materials in a high-throughput microarray format. Using this method, we identified a group of structurally related materials comprising ester and cyclic hydrocarbon moieties that substantially reduced the attachment of pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). Coating silicone with these ‘hit’ materials achieved up to a 30-fold (96.7%) reduction in the surface area covered by bacteria compared with a commercial silver hydrogel coating in vitro, and the same material coatings were effective at reducing bacterial attachment in vivo in a mouse implant infection model. These polymers represent a class of materials that reduce the attachment of bacteria that could not have been predicted to have this property from the current understanding of bacteria-surface interactions. PMID:22885723

  5. Alanylated lipoteichoic acid primer in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid is a major lipid-anchored polymer in Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis. This polymer typically consists of repeating phosphate-containing units and therefore has a predominant negative charge. The repeating units are attached to a glycolipid anchor which has a diacylglycerol (DAG) moiety attached to a dihexopyranose head group. D-alanylation is known as the major modification of type I and type IV lipoteichoic acids, which partially neutralizes the polymer and plays important roles in bacterial survival and resistance to the host immune system. The biosynthesis pathways of the glycolipid anchor and lipoteichoic acid have been fully characterized. However, the exact mechanism of D-alanyl transfer from the cytosol to cell surface lipoteichoic acid remains unclear. Here I report the use of mass spectrometry in the identification of possible intermediate species in the biosynthesis and D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acid: the glycolipid anchor, nascent lipoteichoic acid primer with one phosphoglycerol unit, as well as mono- and di-alanylated forms of the lipoteichoic acid primer. Monitoring these species as well as the recently reported D-alanyl-phosphatidyl glycerol should aid in shedding light on the mechanism of the D-alanylation pathway of lipoteichoic acid. PMID:27134729

  6. Belt attachment and system

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  7. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  8. Adolescent Attachment and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    In relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality, traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Attachment was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Results support a model of…

  9. Neurobiology of infant attachment.

    PubMed

    Moriceau, Stephanie; Sullivan, Regina M

    2005-11-01

    A strong attachment to the caregiver is critical for survival in altricial species, including humans. While some behavioral aspects of attachment have been characterized, its neurobiology has only recently received attention. Using a mammalian imprinting model, we are assessing the neural circuitry that enables infant rats to attach quickly to a caregiver, thus enhancing survival in the nest. Specifically, the hyper-functioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) enables pups to learn rapid, robust preference for the caregiver. Conversely, a hypo-functional amygdala appears to prevent the infant from learning aversions to the caregiver. Adult LC and amygdala functional emergence correlates with sensitive period termination. This study suggests the neonatal brain is not an immature version of the adult brain but is uniquely designed to optimize attachment to the caregiver. Although human attachment may not rely on identical circuitry, the work reviewed here suggests a new conceptual framework in which to explore human attachments, particularly attachments to abusive caregivers. PMID:16252291

  10. Synthesis and antibacterial activity against ralstonia solanacearum for novel hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ralstonia solanacearum, one of the most important bacterial diseases on plants, is a devastating, soil-borne plant pathogen with a global distribution and an unusually wide host range. In order to discover new bioactive molecules and pesticides acting on tobacco bacterial wilt, we sought to combine the active structure of hydrazone and pyridine together to design and synthesize a series of novel hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety. Results A series of hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety were synthesized. Their structures were characterized by 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. The preliminary biological activity tests showed that compound 3e and 3g exhibited more than 80% activity against Ralstonia solanacearum at 500 mg/L, especially compound 3g displayed relatively good activity to reach 57.0% at 200 mg/L. Conclusion A practical synthetic route to hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety by the reaction of intermediates 2 with different aldehydes in ethanol at room temperature using 2-chloronicotinic acid and 2-amino-5-chloro-3-methylbenzoic acid as start materials is presented. This study suggests that the hydrazone derivatives containing a substituted pyridine ring could inhibit the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum. PMID:22483270

  11. Synthesis and biological activity of substituted urea and thiourea derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole moiety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of novel thiourea and urea derivatives carrying 1,2,4-triazole moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal and larvicidal activity. Thiourea (1a-e) and urea derivatives (2a-e) were prepared by reacting 4-(aminophenyl)acetic acid with corresponding isothiocyanates and isocyana...

  12. Spithioneines A and B, Two New Bohemamine Derivatives Possessing Ergothioneine Moiety from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces spinoverrucosus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Spithioneines A and B (1 and 2), two new bohemamine-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids possessing an unusual ergothioneine moiety, were isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces spinoverrucosus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, CD spectra, and chemical degradation and synthesis. Compounds 1 and 2 are rare natural products that incorporate the amino acid ergothioneine. PMID:26024315

  13. New insights into the effects of the protein moiety of oxidized LDL (oxLDL).

    PubMed

    Vicca, Stéphanie; Massy, Ziad A; Hennequin, Carole; Rihane, Djamel; Nguyen-Khoa, Thao; Drüeke, Tilman B; Lacour, Bernard

    2003-05-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the cardiovascular complications in chronic renal failure patients. Lipoprotein oxidation is involved in the genesis of atherosclerosis. Both the lipid and the protein moieties of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are subject to oxidation. We have shown that oxidation of LDL by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in vitro, reflecting increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in vivo, leads mainly to modifications of apolipoproteins, such that the latter in turn induce high rates of apoptosis in a human monocytic cell line via a caspase-dependent pathway. These in vitro oxidative changes of LDL protein moiety, if shown to occur to a significant extent in uremic patients in vivo, may represent an important pathway in the pathogenesis of atherogenesis. PMID:12694326

  14. Blade attachment assembly

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  15. DNA attachment to nanocrystalline diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenmackers, S.; Christiaens, P.; Daenen, M.; Haenen, K.; Nesládek, M.; van Deven, M.; Vermeeren, V.; Michiels, L.; Ameloot, M.; Wagner, P.

    2005-09-01

    A biochemical method to immobilize DNA on synthetic diamond for biosensor applications is developed. Nanocrystalline diamond is grown using microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. On the hydrogen-terminated surface 10-undecenoic acid is tethered photochemically under 254 nm illumination, followed by 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide crosslinker-mediated attachment of amino modified DNA. The attachment is functionally confirmed by comparison of supernatant fluorescence and gel electrophoresis. The linking procedure allowed for 35 denaturation and rehybridisation steps.

  16. Polysialic acid on neuropilin-2 is exclusively synthesized by the polysialyltransferase ST8SiaIV and attached to mucin-type o-glycans located between the b2 and c domain.

    PubMed

    Rollenhagen, Manuela; Buettner, Falk F R; Reismann, Marc; Jirmo, Adan Chari; Grove, Melanie; Behrens, Georg M N; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Hanisch, Franz-Georg; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2013-08-01

    Neuropilin-2 (NRP2) is well known as a co-receptor for class 3 semaphorins and vascular endothelial growth factors, involved in axon guidance and angiogenesis. Moreover, NRP2 was shown to promote chemotactic migration of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) toward the chemokine CCL21, a function that relies on the presence of polysialic acid (polySia). In vertebrates, this posttranslational modification is predominantly found on the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), where it is synthesized on N-glycans by either of the two polysialyltransferases, ST8SiaII or ST8SiaIV. In contrast to NCAM, little is known on the biosynthesis of polySia on NRP2. Here we identified the polySia attachment sites and demonstrate that NRP2 is recognized only by ST8SiaIV. Although polySia-NRP2 was found on bone marrow-derived DCs from wild-type and St8sia2(-/-) mice, polySia was completely lost in DCs from St8sia4(-/-) mice despite normal NRP2 expression. In COS-7 cells, co-expression of NRP2 with ST8SiaIV but not ST8SiaII resulted in the formation of polySia-NRP2, highlighting distinct acceptor specificities of the two polysialyltransferases. Notably, ST8SiaIV synthesized polySia selectively on a NRP2 glycoform that was characterized by the presence of sialylated core 1 and core 2 O-glycans. Based on a comprehensive site-directed mutagenesis study, we localized the polySia attachment sites to an O-glycan cluster located in the linker region between b2 and c domain. Combined alanine exchange of Thr-607, -613, -614, -615, -619, and -624 efficiently blocked polysialylation. Restoration of single sites only partially rescued polysialylation, suggesting that within this cluster, polySia is attached to more than one site. PMID:23801331

  17. Platinum Attachments on Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palchoudhury, Soubantika; Xu, Yaolin; An, Wei; Turner, C. H.; Bao, Yuping

    2010-04-30

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on metal oxide surfaces have shown great potential as heterogeneous catalysts to accelerate electrochemical processes, such as the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Recently, the use of magnetic supports has become a promising research topic for easy separation and recovery of catalysts using magnets, such as Pt nanoparticles supported on iron oxide nanoparticles. The attachment of Pt on iron oxide nanoparticles is limited by the wetting ability of the Pt (metal) on ceramic surfaces. A study of Pt nanoparticle attachment on iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces in an organic solvent is reported, which addresses the factors that promote or inhibit such attachment. It was discovered that the Pt attachment strongly depends on the capping molecules of the iron oxide seeds and the reaction temperature. For example, the attachment of Pt nanoparticles on oleic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles was very challenging, because of the strong binding between the carboxylic groups and iron oxide surfaces. In contrast, when nanoparticles are coated with oleic acid/tri-n-octylphosphine oxide or oleic acid/oleylamine, a significant increase in Pt attachment was observed. Electronic structure calculations were then applied to estimate the binding energies between the capping molecules and iron ions, and the modeling results strongly support the experimental observations.

  18. In vitro and in vivo comparison of human Escherichia coli heat-stable peptide analogues incorporating the 111In-DOTA group and distinct linker moieties.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Michael F; Gali, Hariprasad; Sieckman, Gary L; Owen, Nellie K; Hoffman, Timothy J; Forte, Leonard R; Volkert, Wynn A

    2004-01-01

    Three human Escherichia coli heat-stable peptide (STh) analogues, each containing a DOTA chelating group, were synthesized by SPPS and oxidative refolding and compared in in vitro and in vivo systems. One analogue, DOTA-F19-STh(1-19), contains an N-terminal DOTA group attached via an amide bond linkage to an STh moiety which is essentially wild-type except for a Tyr to Phe alteration at position 19 of the molecule. A second analogue, DOTA-R1,4,F19-STh(1-19), differs from the first in that asparagine residues in positions 1 and 4 have been altered to arginine residues in order to examine the effect of positively charged groups in the linker domain. A third analogue, DOTA-11AUN-F19-STh(1-19), differs from the first in that it incorporates an 11-aminoundecanoic acid spacer group between the DOTA group and the first asparagine residue. In vitro competitive binding assays utilizing T-84 human colon cancer cells demonstrated that significant alterations to the N-terminal region of the STh molecule were well tolerated and did not significantly affect binding affinity of STh for the guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) receptor. Internalization and efflux studies of the indium-labeled species demonstrated that inclusion of positive charge in the linker moiety inhibits internalization of the compound within tumor cells. The characteristics of the three analogues were compared in an in vivo model utilizing T-84 human colon cancer cell xenografts in SCID mice. Clearance of all analogues was rapid, primarily via renal excretion into the urine, with >89% ID excreted into the urine at 1 h pi for all analogues. The 111In-DOTA-R1,4,F19-STh(1-19) and 111In-DOTA-11AUN-F19-STh(1-19) analogues both had longer residence times in the blood than did the 111In-DOTA-F19-STh(1-19) analogue, probably accounting for increased %ID/g values for tumors and nontarget tissues at 1 h pi. At 4 h pi, significant differences between analogues were only seen with respect to metabolic routes of excretion

  19. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  20. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  1. Attachment and Early Maltreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L. Alan

    1981-01-01

    Attachment outcomes of 31 maltreatment cases (involving extreme neglect or abuse), selected from a total poverty sample of 267 high-risk mothers and their children, were compared to those of a subsample of 33 cases with a history of excellent care. Attachment was assessed when infants were 12 and 18 months old. (Author/MP)

  2. Separation and Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    Developing secure attachments with babies gives them a very special gift--the foundation for good infant mental health! In this article, the author discusses how to develop secure attachments with babies. Babies who are in the care of others during the day often suffer from separations from their special adults. Thirteen "tips" to ensure that…

  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG SpaC pilin subunit binds to the carbohydrate moieties of intestinal glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Keita; Ueno, Shintaro; Sugiyama, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2016-06-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is a well-established probiotic strain. The beneficial properties of this strain are partially dependent on its prolonged residence in the gastrointestinal tract, and are likely influenced by its adhesion to the intestinal mucosa. The pilin SpaC subunit, located within the Spa pili structure, is the most well studied LGG adhesion factor. However, the binding epitopes of SpaC remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the binding properties of SpaC to the carbohydrate moieties of intestinal glycoconjugates using a recombinant SpaC protein. In a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, SpaC binding was markedly reduced by addition of purified mucin and the mucin oligosaccharide fraction. Histochemical staining revealed that the binding of SpaC was drastically reduced by periodic acid treatment. Moreover, in the surface plasmon resonance-based Biacore assay, SpaC bound strongly to the carbohydrate moieties containing β-galactoside at the non-reducing terminus of glycolipids. We here provide the first demonstration that SpaC binds to the oligosaccharide chains of mucins, and that the carbohydrate moieties containing β-galactoside at the non-reducing termini of glycoconjugates play a crucial role in this binding. Our results demonstrate the importance of carbohydrates of SpaC for mucus interactions. PMID:26434750

  4. Enrichment of humic material with hydroxybenzene moieties intensifies its physiological effects on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Ralph; Menzel, Stefanie; Tiedt, Sophie; Kubsch, Georg; Stösser, Reinhardt; Bährs, Hanno; Putschew, Anke; Saul, Nadine; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2011-10-15

    Dissolved humic substances are taken up by organisms and interact on various molecular and biochemical levels. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, such material can promote longevity and increase its reproductive capacity; moreover, the worms tend to stay for longer in humic-enriched environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the chemical enrichment of humic substances with hydroxybenzene moieties intensifies these physiological effects. Based on the leonardite humic acid HuminFeed (HF), we followed a polycondensation reaction in which this natural humic substance and a dihydroxybenzene (hydroquinone or benzoquinone) served as reaction partners. Several analytical methods showed the formation of the corresponding copolymers. The chemical modification boosted the antioxidant properties of HF both in vitro and in vivo. Humic substances enriched with hydroxybenzene moieties caused a significantly increased tolerance to thermal stress in C. elegans and extended its lifespan. Exposed nematodes showed delayed linear growth and onset of reproduction and a stronger pumping activity of the pharynx. Thus, treated nematodes act younger than they really are. In this feature the modified HF replicated the biological impact of hydroquinone-homopolymers and various plant polyphenol monomers, thereby supporting the hydroxybenzene moieties of humic substances as major effective structures for the physiological effects observed in C. elegans. PMID:21902274

  5. Synthetic transformations of a pendant nitrile moiety in group 4 metallocene complexes.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Jiří; Císařová, Ivana; Kubišta, Jiří; Horáček, Michal; Lamač, Martin

    2013-05-21

    Functional group transformations at the group 4 metallocene framework have been demonstrated, which have provided relatively straightforward access to otherwise synthetically challenging derivatives. The pendant nitrile group in Ti and Zr metallocene complexes of the type [(η(5)-C5Me5)(η(5)-C5H4CMe2CH2CN)MCl2] was converted into an intramolecularly bound ketimido moiety by alkylation, which took place not only at the nitrile, but also at the metal centre. The choice of an alkylating reagent (alkyl/aryl lithium, Grignard reagent) was crucial: e.g., 2 equiv. of MeMgBr effected the alkylation only at the metal, yielding selectively complexes [(η(5)-C5Me5)(η(5)-C5H4CMe2CH2CN)MMe2], while the use of PhMgBr, PhLi, or MeLi instead gave selectively the ketimido complexes. Organyl lithium reagents were, however, not compatible with the titanocene derivatives. The metal-bound ketimides were subsequently cleaved off by the reaction with HCl, which afforded metallocene dichlorides with a pendant imino group. These compounds were easily protonated again at the nitrogen atom to produce a cationic iminium moiety. Aqueous hydrolysis of the imine or its respective hydrochloride proved to be viable in the case of Zr and it finally afforded a pendant ketone group attached to the zirconocene framework. PMID:23536005

  6. Electron attachment to the N-substituted amino acids N-methylglycine and N-methylalanine: Effective cleavage of the N-Cα bond at sub-excitation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopyra, Janina

    2012-04-01

    Dissociative electron attachment to gas phase N-methylglycine and N-methylalanine is studied by means of a crossed beams apparatus. Effective cleavage of the N-Cα bond is observed within a low energy resonance peaking at 1.8 eV in both compounds and observable via the appearance of the fragment CH2COOH- from N-methylglycine and CH(CH3)COOH- from N-methylalanine. In glycine and alanine cleavage of the N-Cα bond was only observed as a weak reaction in combination with hydrogen transfer. As for previously studied amino acids, the most dominant anionic fragment is due to the loss of hydrogen atom from the respective target molecule resulting in the formation of the closed shell dehydrogenated parent anion (M-H)-.

  7. Structural insights into the specific anti-HIV property of actinohivin: structure of its complex with the α(1–2)mannobiose moiety of gp120

    SciTech Connect

    Hoque, M. Mominul; Suzuki, Kaoru; Tsunoda, Masaru; Jiang, Jiandong; Zhang, Fang; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ohbayashi, Naomi; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Tanaka, Haruo; Ōmura, Satoshi; Takénaka, Akio

    2012-12-01

    X-ray analysis of anti-HIV actinohivin in complex with the target α(1-2)mannobiose moiety of high-mannose type glycans attached to HIV-1 gp120 reveals that the three rotamers generated with 120 rotations around the molecular pseudo-rotation axis are packed randomly in the unit cell according to the P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} symmetry to exhibit an apparent space group P2{sub 1}3 as the statistical structure. However, the high-resolution X-ray structure shows the detailed interaction geometry for specific binding. Actinohivin (AH) is an actinomycete lectin with a potent specific anti-HIV activity. In order to clarify the structural evidence for its specific binding to the α(1–2)mannobiose (MB) moiety of the D1 chains of high-mannose-type glycans (HMTGs) attached to HIV-1 gp120, the crystal structure of AH in complex with MB has been determined. The AH molecule is composed of three identical structural modules, each of which has a pocket in which an MB molecule is bound adopting a bracket-shaped conformation. This conformation is stabilized through two weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds facilitated by the α(1–2) linkage. The binding features in the three pockets are quite similar to each other, in accordance with the molecular pseudo-threefold symmetry generated from the three tandem repeats in the amino-acid sequence. The shape of the pocket can accept two neighbouring hydroxyl groups of the O{sup 3} and O{sup 4} atoms of the equatorial configuration of the second mannose residue. To recognize these atoms through hydrogen bonds, an Asp residue is located at the bottom of each pocket. Tyr and Leu residues seem to block the movement of the MB molecules. Furthermore, the O{sup 1} atom of the axial configuration of the second mannose residue protrudes from each pocket into an open space surrounded by the conserved hydrophobic residues, suggesting an additional binding site for the third mannose residue of the branched D1 chain of HMTGs. These structural features

  8. Polyimides containing the cyclobutene-3,4-dione moiety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    In the present invention, linear aromatic polyimides containing the cyclobutene-3,4-dione moiety were produced from the reaction of a substituted or unsubstituted 1,2-bis(4-aminoanilino) cyclobutene-3,4-dione (SQDA) with various aromatic dianhydrides. These polymers had high molecular weights and their glass transition temperatures (Tgs) were greater than 500 C. Despite the very high Tg, these polymers exhibited excellent adhesion to glass. In addition, the films of these polyimides increased in flexibility with increasing cure temperatures. The novelty of this invention lies in the linear aromatic polyimide containing the cyclobutene-3,4-dione moiety. The presence of this moiety causes such changes in properties as Tgs greater than 500 C, excellent adhesion to glass, and increased flexibility with increasing cure temperatures.

  9. DNA attachment to support structures

    DOEpatents

    Balhorn, Rodney L.; Barry, Christopher H.

    2002-01-01

    Microscopic beads or other structures are attached to nucleic acids (DNA) using a terminal transferase. The transferase adds labeled dideoxy nucleotide bases to the ends of linear strands of DNA. The labels, such as the antigens digoxigenin and biotin, bind to the antibody compounds or other appropriate complementary ligands, which are bound to the microscopic beads or other support structures. The method does not require the synthesis of a synthetic oligonucleotide probe. The method can be used to tag or label DNA even when the DNA has an unknown sequence, has blunt ends, or is a very large fragment (e.g., >500 kilobase pairs).

  10. Design, synthesis, and biological activity of oxime ether strobilurin derivatives containing indole moiety as novel fungicide.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ya-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Long; Yan, Hui-Dong; Li, Jun; Ye, Li-Yi; Che, Li-Ming; Tu, Song

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-one novel oxime ether strobilurins containing indole moiety, which employed an indole group to stabilize the E-styryl group in Enoxastrobin, were designed and synthesized. The biological assay indicated that most compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activities. The structure-activity relationship study demonstrated that the synthesized methyl 3-methoxypropenoate oxime ethers 7b-e exhibited remarkably high activities among all the synthesized oxime ether compounds 7. Moreover, the fungicidal activities of methyl α-(methoxyimino)benzeneacetate oxime ethers compounds 7f-i and N-methoxy-carbamic acid methyl esters compounds 7j-m showed significant differences compared to the corresponding products of ammonolysis. PMID:25346294

  11. Antifouling behaviour of silicon surfaces modified with self-assembled monolayers containing both ethylene glycol and charged moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Cheuk Chi Albert; Ciampi, Simone; Harper, Jason B.; Gooding, J. Justin

    2010-08-01

    Herein reported is the synthesis of functionalised oligoethylene glycol molecules, with an azido group at one end and an ionisable group at the other end, and their attachment onto alkyne-terminated silicon(100) surfaces using 'click' chemistry. The modified surfaces were characterised using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle goniometry. The antifouling behaviour of these surfaces was assessed and it was shown that while surfaces presenting both charged and ethylene glycol moieties are antifouling, the antifouling effectiveness is influenced by the surface charge as modulated via the pH of the solution.

  12. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  13. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.

  14. Polyimides containing meta-biphenylenedioxy moieties and articles prepared therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Pratt, Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Two monomers containing meta-biphenylenedioxy moieties were prepared. One monomer, a diamine, is used to prepare polyimide, polyamide, and epoxy polymers. The other monomer, a dianhydride, was used to prepared polyimide polymers. These polymers are used to make films, coatings, and selective membranes.

  15. Attachment and early maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Egeland, B; Sroufe, L A

    1981-03-01

    Attachment outcomes of 31 maltreatment cases (extreme neglect or abuse) selected from a total poverty sample of 267 high-risk mothers were compared at 12 and 18 months to a subsample of 33 cases with a history of excellent care. In accordance with the Bowlby-Ainsworth hypothesis, the maltreatment group was characterized by a low proportion of secure attachment (Ainsworth's group B) at 12 months (38% compared to 75% in the excellent care group and 55% in the remaining total sample); however, differences at 18 months were not significant. Specifically, 50% of the cases with a history of neglect were in Ainsworth's group C (anxious/resistant attachment) at 12 months, compared to usual reports of approximately 10% and compared to 21% in the total poverty sample. Patterns of attachment between 12 and 18 months remained stable for the mother-infant pairs in the excellent care group, however, 52% of the mistreated infants changed classifications. For the neglect subgroup there was considerable movement toward Ainsworth's group A (anxious/avoidant attachment) at 18 months and some movement toward group B. An examination of the case histories of mother-infant pairs indicated that changes in attachment between 12 and 18 months were related to changing life events, support from family, and out-of-home care. These findings are highly tentative as were the findings which suggested that secure attachment within the maltreatment group was associated with the presence of a supportive family member, less chaotic life-style, and, in some instances, a more robust infant. PMID:7238152

  16. Fatty acids attached to all-trans-astaxanthin alter its cis-trans equilibrium, and consequently its stability, upon light-accelerated autoxidation.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Wouter J C; Weesepoel, Yannick; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Fatty acid esterification, common in naturally occurring astaxanthin, has been suggested to influence both colour stability and degradation of all-trans-astaxanthin. Therefore, astaxanthin stability was studied as influenced by monoesterification and diesterification with palmitate. Increased esterification decelerated degradation of all-trans-astaxanthin (RP-UHPLC-PDA), whereas, it had no influence on colour loss over time (spectrophotometry). This difference might be explained by the observation that palmitate esterification influenced the cis-trans equilibrium. Free astaxanthin produced larger amounts of 9-cis isomer whereas monopalmitate esterification resulted in increased 13-cis isomerization. The molar ratios of 9-cis:13-cis after 60min were 1:1.7 (free), 1:4.8 (monopalmitate) and 1:2.6 (dipalmitate). The formation of 9-cis astaxanthin, with its higher molar extinction coefficient than that of all-trans-astaxanthin, might compensate for colour loss induced by conjugated double bond cleavage. As such, it was concluded that spectrophotometry is not an accurate measure of the degradation of the all-trans-astaxanthin molecule. PMID:26471660

  17. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shoup, Timothy

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  18. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shoup, Timothy

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  19. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  20. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  1. Autism and Attachment: The Attachment Q-Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Anna H.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism are able to show secure attachment behaviours to their parents/caregivers. Most studies on attachment in children with autism used a (modified) Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to examine attachment security. An advantage of the Attachment Q-Sort (AQS) over the SSP is that it can be attuned to the secure-base behaviour of…

  2. Superego: an attachment perspective.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    With the help of attachment theory and research, the paper attempts to broaden and build on classical and current views on the superego. Attachment theory's epigenetic approach and the concept of the subliminal superego are described. The superego, it is argued, is as much concerned with safety as sex. The superego is 'heir', not just to the Oedipus complex or Klein's pre-oedipal constellation, but also to the attachment relationship. Under favourable developmental conditions a 'mature superego' emerges, facilitating, in the presence of an internal secure base, maturational boundary crossings towards adult sexuality. In the light of the above, the paper reviews Lear's updating of Strachey's model of psychic change and explores the concept of transgression in relation to the 'professional superego', its development and maturation. Theoretical arguments are illustrated with clinical examples. PMID:22014367

  3. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine wheel having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine blade has a root portion having a pair of recessed portions thereon. The turbine wheel includes a plurality of openings in which the turbine blade is positioned. Each of the openings have a pair of grooves therein in which are positioned a pair of pins having a generally rectangular cross-section and a reaction surface thereon. A pair of cylindrical rollers interposed respective ones of the pair of reaction surfaces and the pair of recessed portions. The attachment system or turbine assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective attachment of a component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion to a component having a greater preestablished rate of thermal expansion.

  4. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.L.

    1994-12-13

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine wheel having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine blade has a root portion having a pair of recessed portions thereon. The turbine wheel includes a plurality of openings in which the turbine blade is positioned. Each of the openings have a pair of grooves therein in which are positioned a pair of pins having a generally rectangular cross-section and a reaction surface thereon. A pair of cylindrical rollers interposed respective ones of the pair of reaction surfaces and the pair of recessed portions. The attachment system or turbine assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective attachment of a component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion to a component having a greater preestablished rate of thermal expansion. 3 figures.

  5. Magnetically attached sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1994-02-15

    An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material is described. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly. 11 figures.

  6. Magnetically attached sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; McKernan, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly.

  7. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bast, Richard M.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Henning, Carl D.; Lennon, Joseph P.; Pastrnak, John W.; Smith, Joseph A.

    1994-01-01

    An attachment mechanism for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection.

  8. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bast, R.M.; Chesnut, D.A.; Henning, C.D.; Lennon, J.P.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Smith, J.A.

    1994-12-13

    An attachment mechanism is described for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection. 6 figures.

  9. Ladder attachment platform

    DOEpatents

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  10. Reactions of nitroxides 15. Cinnamates bearing a nitroxyl moiety synthesized using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction

    PubMed Central

    Huras, Bogumiła

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cinnamic acid derivatives bearing a nitroxyl moiety (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-piperidyl 3-E-aryl acrylates) were synthesized in 30–100% yield using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction between 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and iodobenzene derivatives in the presence of palladium(II) acetate coordinated with a tri(o-tolyl)phosphine ligand immobilized in a polyurea matrix. PMID:26199672

  11. Reactions of nitroxides 15. Cinnamates bearing a nitroxyl moiety synthesized using a Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Jerzy; Huras, Bogumiła

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamic acid derivatives bearing a nitroxyl moiety (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-piperidyl 3-E-aryl acrylates) were synthesized in 30-100% yield using a Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reaction between 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and iodobenzene derivatives in the presence of palladium(II) acetate coordinated with a tri(o-tolyl)phosphine ligand immobilized in a polyurea matrix. PMID:26199672

  12. Controlled radical polymerization of an acrylamide containing L-alanine moiety via ATRP.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Homopolymerization of an optically active acrylamide having an amino acid moiety in the side chain, N-acryloyl-L-alanine (AAla) was carried out via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) at room temperature using 2-hydroxyethyl-2'-methyl-2'-bromopropionate (HMB) or sodium-4-(bromomethyl)benzoate (SBB) as initiator in pure water, methanol/water mixture and pure methanol solvents. The polymerization reaction resulted in the optically active biocompatible amino acid-based homopolymer in good yield with narrow molecular weight distribution. The number average molecular weight increased with conversion and polydispersity was low. The structure and molecular weight of synthesized polymer were characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopic techniques and size-exclusion chromatography. PMID:26385362

  13. Cyclopentenone: a special moiety for anticancer drug design.

    PubMed

    Conti, Matteo

    2006-10-01

    The conjugate cyclopent-en-one chemical group is a special moiety for anticancer drugs. Studies on cyclopentenone prostaglandins, clavulones and other compounds have revealed its mechanism of action and a wide spectrum of intracellular targets, ranging from nuclear factors to mitochondria. The introduction of the cyclopentenone moiety into molecules, such as jasmonates and chalcones, has been shown to boost their anticancer potential. In this work, reviewing pertinent up-to-date literature, we have pointed out potentially effective cyclopentenone-bearing compounds for anticancer clinical research and inspiring relationships for future drug design. In particular, it appears that the addition of cyclopentenone groups to target-orienting molecules, in order to inactivate specific proteins in cells, could be a helpful general strategy for the development of novel therapeutic molecules. PMID:17001173

  14. Bacterial Attachment to Polymeric Materials Correlates with Molecular Flexibility and Hydrophilicity

    PubMed Central

    Sanni, Olutoba; Chang, Chien-Yi; Anderson, Daniel G; Langer, Robert; Davies, Martyn C; Williams, Philip M; Williams, Paul; Alexander, Morgan R; Hook*, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    A new class of material resistant to bacterial attachment has been discovered that is formed from polyacrylates with hydrocarbon pendant groups. In this study, the relationship between the nature of the hydrocarbon moiety and resistance to bacteria is explored, comparing cyclic, aromatic, and linear chemical groups. A correlation is shown between bacterial attachment and a parameter derived from the partition coefficient and the number of rotatable bonds of the materials' pendant groups. This correlation is applicable to 86% of the hydrocarbon pendant moieties surveyed, quantitatively supporting the previous qualitative observation that bacteria are repelled from poly(meth)acrylates containing a hydrophilic ester group when the pendant group is both rigid and hydrophobic. This insight will help inform and predict the further development of polymers resistant to bacterial attachment. PMID:25491266

  15. Bacterial attachment to polymeric materials correlates with molecular flexibility and hydrophilicity.

    PubMed

    Sanni, Olutoba; Chang, Chien-Yi; Anderson, Daniel G; Langer, Robert; Davies, Martyn C; Williams, Philip M; Williams, Paul; Alexander, Morgan R; Hook, Andrew L

    2015-04-01

    A new class of material resistant to bacterial attachment has been discovered that is formed from polyacrylates with hydrocarbon pendant groups. In this study, the relationship between the nature of the hydrocarbon moiety and resistance to bacteria is explored, comparing cyclic, aromatic, and linear chemical groups. A correlation is shown between bacterial attachment and a parameter derived from the partition coefficient and the number of rotatable bonds of the materials' pendant groups. This correlation is applicable to 86% of the hydrocarbon pendant moieties surveyed, quantitatively supporting the previous qualitative observation that bacteria are repelled from poly(meth)acrylates containing a hydrophilic ester group when the pendant group is both rigid and hydrophobic. This insight will help inform and predict the further development of polymers resistant to bacterial attachment. PMID:25491266

  16. The monounsaturated acyl- and alkyl- moieties of wax esters and their distribution in commercial orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) oil.

    PubMed

    Body, D R; Johnson, C B; Shaw, G J

    1985-10-01

    Wax esters were isolated from commercial orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) oil by column chromatography and fractionated by argentation thin layer chromatography. Following transesterification, the resultant fatty acid methyl esters and fatty alcohols were analyzed by gas chromatography. Both acyl- and alkyl-moieties were mainly of the monoene structure within the 16:1-22:1 range. After derivatization, the positions of the double bonds of even numbered fatty acid and fatty alcohol isomers were located by chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared. Results of these positional analyses indicate that the primary desaturation reactions takes place in the delta 9 position of pre-existing (C14 to C24) acyl chains. It is proposed that acyl components from 18:1 are subjected to chain elongation to form a mixture of 24:1 isomers as the final product. Apart from the 24:1 acyl moiety of the wax esters, in which the double bond was almost exclusively in the delta 15 position, de novo biosynthetic reactions on acids and alcohols appear to yield related acyl- and alkyl-moieties of resynthesized wax esters. PMID:4058265

  17. Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols containing very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties in developing seeds. [Lunaria annua L. ; Sinapis alba L

    SciTech Connect

    Fehling, E.; Murphy, D.J.; Mukherjee, K.D. )

    1990-10-01

    Particulate (15,000g) fractions from developing seeds of honesty (Lunaria annua L.) and mustard (Sinapis alba L.) synthesize radioactive very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids (gadoleic, erucic, and nervonic) from (1-{sup 14}C)oleoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA or from oleoyl-CoA and (2-{sup 14}C)malonyl-CoA. The very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are rapidly channeled to triacylglycerols and other acyl lipids without intermediate accumulation of their CoA thioesters. When (1-{sup 14}C)oleoyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids are most extensively radiolabeled by oleoyl moieties rather than by very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties. When (2-{sup 14}C)malonyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, no radioactive oleic acid is formed and the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are extensively incorporated into phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids as well as triacylglycerols. The pattern of labeling of the key intermediates of the Kennedy pathway, e.g. lysophosphatidic acids, phosphatidic acids, and diacylglycerols by the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids is consistent with the operation of this pathway in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols.

  18. Glycan Moieties as Bait to Fish Plasma Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fei; Zhao, Qun; Sui, Zhigang; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Hao; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-05-17

    Plasma membrane proteome analysis is of significance for screening candidate biomarkers and drug targets. However, due to their low abundance and lack of specific groups that can enable their capture, the plasma membrane proteins (PMPs) are under-represented. On the basis of the fact that PMPs are embedded in or anchored to the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and the glycan moieties of proteins and lipids located on the plasma membrane are exposed outside of the cell surface, we proposed a strategy to capture PMPs, termed as glycan moieties-directed PMPs enrichment (GMDPE). With the glycan moieties exposed outside of the cells as bait to ensure the selectivity and the phospholipid bilayer as raft to provide the sensitivity, we applied this strategy into the plasma membrane proteome analysis of HeLa cells, and in total, 772 PMPs were identified, increased by 4.5 times compared to those identified by the reported cell surface biotinylation method. Notably, among them, 86 CD antigens and 16 ion channel proteins were confidently identified. All these results demonstrated that our proposed approach has great potential in the large scale plasma membrane proteome profiling. PMID:27088673

  19. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  20. Binding of amphiphilic and triphilic block copolymers to lipid model membranes: the role of perfluorinated moieties.

    PubMed

    Schwieger, Christian; Achilles, Anja; Scholz, Sven; Rüger, Jan; Bacia, Kirsten; Saalwaechter, Kay; Kressler, Jörg; Blume, Alfred

    2014-09-01

    A novel class of symmetric amphi- and triphilic (hydrophilic, lipophilic, fluorophilic) block copolymers has been investigated with respect to their interactions with lipid membranes. The amphiphilic triblock copolymer has the structure PGMA(20)-PPO(34)-PGMA(20) (GP) and it becomes triphilic after attaching perfluoroalkyl moieties (F9) to either end which leads to F(9)-PGMA(20)-PPO(34)-PGMA(20)-F(9) (F-GP). The hydrophobic poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) block is sufficiently long to span a lipid bilayer. The poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) blocks have a high propensity for hydrogen bonding. The hydrophobic and lipophobic perfluoroalkyl moieties have the tendency to phase segregate in aqueous as well as in hydrocarbon environments. We performed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements on polymer bound lipid vesicles under systematic variation of the bilayer thickness, the nature of the lipid headgroup, and the polymer concentration. The vesicles were composed of phosphatidylcholines (DMPC, DPPC, DAPC, DSPC) or phosphatidylethanolamines (DMPE, DPPE, POPE). We showed that GP as well as F-GP binding have membrane stabilizing and destabilizing components. PPO and F9 blocks insert into the hydrophobic part of the membrane concomitantly with PGMA block adsorption to the lipid headgroup layer. The F9 chains act as additional membrane anchors. The insertion of the PPO blocks of both GP and F-GP could be proven by 2D-NOESY NMR spectroscopy. By fluorescence microscopy we show that F-GP binding increases the porosity of POPC giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), allowing the influx of water soluble dyes as well as the translocation of the complete triphilic polymer and its accumulation at the GUV surface. These results open a new route for the rational design of membrane systems with specific properties. PMID:24942348

  1. Immobilization of imidazole moieties in polymer electrolyte composite membrane for elevated temperature fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Zhou, Bei; Ye, Gongbo; Pan, Mu; Zhang, Haining

    2015-12-01

    Development of membrane electrolyte with reasonable proton conductivity at elevated temperature without external humidification is essential for practical applications of elevated temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Herein, a novel polymer electrolyte composite membrane using imidazole as anhydrous proton carriers for elevated temperature fuel cells is investigated. The imidazole moieties are immobilized inside the Nafion/poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) composite membrane through in situ formation of imidazole functionalized silica nanoparticles in Nafion dispersion. The thus-formed membrane exhibits strong Coulombic interaction between negatively charged sulfonic acid groups of Nafion and protonated imidazole moieties, leading to an anhydrous proton conductivity of 0.018 S cm-1 at 180 °C. With the introduction of PTFE matrix, the mechanical strength of the membrane is greatly improved. The peak power density of a single cell assembled from the hybrid membrane is observed to be 130 mW cm-2 under 350 mA cm-2 at 110 °C without external humidification and it remains stable for 20 h continuous operation. The obtained results demonstrate that the developed composite membranes could be utilized as promising membrane electrolytes for elevated temperature fuel cells.

  2. Revealing the role of catechol moieties in the interactions between peptides and inorganic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Das, Priyadip; Reches, Meital

    2016-08-18

    Catechol (1,2-dihydroxy benzene) moieties are being widely used today in new adhesive technologies. Understanding their mechanism of action is therefore of high importance for developing their applications in materials science. This paper describes a single-molecule study of the interactions between catechol-related amino acid residues and a well-defined titanium dioxide (TiO2) surface. It is the first quantified measurement of the adhesion of these residues with a well-defined TiO2 surface. Single-molecule force spectroscopy measurements with AFM determined the role of different substitutions of the catechol moiety on the aromatic ring in the adhesion to the surface. These results shed light on the nature of interactions between these residues and inorganic metal oxide surfaces. This information is important for the design and fabrication of catechol-based materials such as hydrogels, coatings, and composites. Specifically, the interaction with TiO2 is important for the development of solar cells. PMID:27503417

  3. Terminal modification of polymeric micelles with π-conjugated moieties for efficient anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Deng, Xin; Zhang, Longgui; Peng, Xinyu; Gao, Wenxia; Cao, Jun; Gu, Zhongwei; He, Bin

    2015-12-01

    High drug loading content is the critical factor to polymeric micelles for efficient chemotherapy. Small molecules of cinnamic acid, 7-carboxymethoxy coumarin and chrysin with different π-conjugated moieties were immobilized on the terminal hydroxyl groups of PCL segments in mPEG-PCL micelles to improve drug loading content via the evocation of π-π stacking interaction between doxorubicin (DOX) and polymeric micelles. The modification of π-conjugated moieties enhanced the capability of crystallization of mPEG-PCL block copolymers. The drug loading content increased dramatically from 12.9% to 25.5% after modification. All the three modified mPEG-PCL micelles were nontoxic to cells. Chrysin modified polymeric micelles exhibited the most efficient anticancer activity. The in vivo anticancer activity of 10 mg/kg DOX dose of chrysin modified micelle formulation for twice injections was comparable to that of 5 mg/kg dose of free DOX·HCl for four injections under the circumstance of same total DOX amount. The systemic toxicity of DOX loaded chrysin modified micelles was significantly reduced. This research provided a facile strategy to achieve polymeric micelles with high drug loading content and efficient anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26310358

  4. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine.

  5. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-10-24

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and is attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine. 3 figs.

  6. WP-2 attached payload accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheib, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The presentation provides an overview of the current SSFP attached payload accommodations on the U.S. truss. The overview includes discussions on the four attach sites, the power architecture, thermal control, DMS provisions, and the mechanical attach mechanism. The presentation concludes with a description of a McDonnell Douglas concept for an attached payload pallet designed to take advantage of the four sites and existing SSF hardware. This presentation should provide the payload community with a basic understanding of the SSF attached payload utility ports and aid in attached payload concept development.

  7. Leadership and attachment theory.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Christopher G; Mitroff, Ian I

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the six articles contained in the special issue of the American Psychologist (January 2007) devoted to leadership, written by W. Bennis; S. J. Zaccaro; V. H. Vroom and A. G. Yago; B. J. Avolio; R. J. Sternberg; and R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman. The current authors opine that the inclusion of attachment theory in the study of leadership could strengthen leadership theories as a whole. PMID:17874909

  8. Replacing the acetyl linkage in aspirin with choline and magnesium moieties reduces the occurrence of gastric mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Danesh, B J; Nelson, L M; Russell, R I; Docherty, C

    1987-02-01

    The acetyl moiety in aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid: ASA) is considered to play a major part in the pathogenesis of ASA-induced mucosal injury. At equivalent salicylate doses and pH values, the induction of acute gastric mucosal haemorrhagic erosions in rats by ASA and choline magnesium trisalicylate (CMT), a new non-acetylated salicylate, with and without the potentiating damaging effect of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) were compared. Test solutions were administered by per oral intubation to five groups of fasting Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24). Gastric mucosa were examined after 4 hours and mucosal injury assessed by a lesion-scoring system. The incidence and severity (median lesion scores with quartiles) of the lesions were 83% and 13 (7:20) respectively for ASA (128 mg kg-1) compared with 17% and 0 (0:0) for CMT (128 mg kg-1) (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.001). TDCA increased mucosal damage to 100% and 29 (20:34) for ASA compared with 30% and 0 (0:4) for CMT (P less than 0.001) and P less than 0.001). Serum salicylate levels (median values of 1.4 for ASA and 1.5 mmol litre-1 for CMT) were not significantly different. It is concluded that replacing the acetyl moiety in ASA with choline and magnesium moieties reduces the ASA-induced mucosal injury, without affecting blood salicylate concentrations. PMID:2979212

  9. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, M.V.; Vierck, J.L.; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L.L.; Fernyhough, M.E.; Poulos, S.P.; Mir, P.S.; Jiang, Z.

    2010-04-02

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  10. Molecular rectifiers: a new design based on asymmetric anchoring moieties.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Colin; Ratner, Mark A

    2015-03-11

    The quest for a molecular rectifier is among the major challenges of molecular electronics. We introduce three simple rules to design an efficient rectifying molecule and demonstrate its functioning at the theoretical level, relying on the NEGF-DFT technique. The design rules notably require both the introduction of asymmetric anchoring moieties and a decoupling bridge. They lead to a new rectification mechanism based on the compression and control of the HOMO/LUMO gap by the electrode Fermi levels, arising from a pinning effect. Significant rectification ratios up to 2 orders of magnitude are theoretically predicted as the mechanism opposes resonant to nonresonant tunneling. PMID:25706442

  11. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H. E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan W.; Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P.; Kandalam, Anil K. E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu; Kiran, Boggavarapu E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu

    2014-02-07

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium–aluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup −}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

  12. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan W.; Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P.; Kandalam, Anil K.; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Bowen, Kit H.

    2014-02-01

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium-aluminum cluster anions, NamAln-, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

  13. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan W; Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P; Kandalam, Anil K; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Bowen, Kit H

    2014-02-01

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium-aluminum cluster anions, Na(m)Al(n)(-), were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams. PMID:24511934

  14. Arginine 485 of human serum albumin interacts with the benzophenone moiety of ketoprofen in the binding pocket of subdomain III A and III B.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, K; Chuang, V T G; Ito, T; Suenaga, A; Watanabe, H; Maruyama, T; Otagiri, M

    2012-05-01

    Arylpropionic acid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drusg (NSAIDs) primarily bind to subdomain III A (site II) of human serum albumin (HSA). Ketoprofen (KP), an arylpropionic acid that contains a photoreactive benzophenone moiety, was used to photolabel the binding region of site II. LC/Q-TOF mass spectrometry determination revealed that R485 was the amino acid residue that formed covalent adduct with the benzophenone moiety of KP. Point mutation of arginine 485 to alanine showed a slight decrease in the overall binding percentage of KP when compared to that of native HSA. The induced circular dichroism spectral data of KP with both R485A and native albumin confirmed the photolabeling findings. Interestingly, an increase in the extent of [14C]KP covalent adduct formation with the 11.6 kDa peptide derived from subdomain IIB-IIIA was observed for R485A. In contrast, mutation of arginine 410 caused a significant reduction of binding percentage, confirming the importance of this residue in high affinity binding of arylpropionic acid derivatives. This may indicate that while KP's carboxylate interacts electrostatically with arginine 410, the benzophenone moiety may have swung away from helix 6 in the absence of arginine 485. In this study, photolabeling of native and mutants albumins, R485A and R410C with [14C]KP confirmed that R485 involved in the non-electrostatic interaction with the benzophenone moiety of KP, but not vital to hold KP in the binding pocket of subdomain IIIA. PMID:22764574

  15. Attachment as an Organizational Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Waters, Everett

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the conflict between situational influences and stable individual differences in attachment behavior and attempts to resolve this conflict by examining the functions, outcomes, and context sensitivity of attachment behavior and the underlying behavioral control systems that organize it. (JMB)

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Thermally Stable Photocurable Polymer with Cyclohexane Moiety.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Mm; Yu, Seong Hun; Lee, Jun Young

    2016-03-01

    Photocurable polymers with high transparency and thermal stability were synthesized by reaction between a commercial epoxy resin (NC9110) containing cyclohexane moiety and various kinds of cinnamic acids such as trans-cinnamic acid (CA), 3-hydroxy-trans-cinnamic acid (HCA) and 4-methoxy-trans-cinnamic acid (MCA). The photocurable polymers were synthesized with equal equivalent weight ratio of epoxy and cinnamate group. The chemical structures of the synthesized polymers were confirmed by 1H-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. Optical transmittance and thermal stability of the photocured polymers were investigated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. It was confirmed that the polymers could form thin films with very smooth surface and could be efficiently cured by UV irradiation. It was also found that the polymer after curing showed a good thermal stability and optical transmittance. There was no significant transmittance change after heat treatment at 250 degrees C for 1 h and showed no noticeable weight loss up to 360 degrees C. PMID:27455682

  17. Requirements for Carnitine Shuttle-Mediated Translocation of Mitochondrial Acetyl Moieties to the Yeast Cytosol

    PubMed Central

    van Rossum, Harmen M.; Kozak, Barbara U.; Niemeijer, Matthijs S.; Dykstra, James C.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In many eukaryotes, the carnitine shuttle plays a key role in intracellular transport of acyl moieties. Fatty acid-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells employ this shuttle to translocate acetyl units into their mitochondria. Mechanistically, the carnitine shuttle should be reversible, but previous studies indicate that carnitine shuttle-mediated export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the yeast cytosol does not occur in vivo. This apparent unidirectionality was investigated by constitutively expressing genes encoding carnitine shuttle-related proteins in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain, in which cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthesis could be switched off by omitting lipoic acid from growth media. Laboratory evolution of this strain yielded mutants whose growth on glucose, in the absence of lipoic acid, was l-carnitine dependent, indicating that in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the cytosol occurred via the carnitine shuttle. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was identified as the predominant source of acetyl-CoA in the evolved strains. Whole-genome sequencing revealed mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (MCT1), nuclear-mitochondrial communication (RTG2), and encoding a carnitine acetyltransferase (YAT2). Introduction of these mutations into the nonevolved parental strain enabled l-carnitine-dependent growth on glucose. This study indicates intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA concentration and constitutive expression of carnitine shuttle genes as key factors in enabling in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units via the carnitine shuttle. PMID:27143389

  18. Attachment Behaviors in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Marian; Ungerer, Judy A.

    1984-01-01

    Observation of 14 autistic and 14 nonautistic children of equivalent mental age revealed that autistic Ss showed evidence of attachment to their mothers. Among autistic Ss, those showing increased attachment behaviors in response to separation and reunion demonstrated more advanced symbolic play skills than those showing no attachment change.…

  19. Oxygen permeability of hydrogel contact lenses with organosilicon moieties.

    PubMed

    Compañ, V; Andrio, A; López-Alemany, A; Riande, E; Refojo, M F

    2002-07-01

    Oxygen transport through two extended wear (day and night) hydrogel contact lenses that contain organosilicon moieties (balafilcon A and lotrafilcon A) was studied in the hydrate (hydrogel) and dry (xerogel) states. The water uptake increased the oxygen permeability [(Dk)app] and transmissibility [Dk/L(av)] coefficients of the dry materials by about 70%. The (Dk)app for the hydrated lenses was determined following the so-called stack procedure. The values obtained were 107 +/- 4 barrer for balafilcon A and 141 +/- 5 barrer for lotrafilcon A, about 5-10 times larger than those previously reported for conventional (without organosilicon moieties) extended wear hydrogels contact lenses. The Dk/L(av) for -3.00 diopter lenses (harmonic average thickness, L(av) = 75 +/- 2 microm for lotrafilcon, and 85 +/- 2 microm for balafilcon) was 123 +/- 6 barrer/cm for balafilcon A and 183 +/- 8 barrer/cm for lotralicon A. The minimum oxygen transmissibility 87 barrer/cm stipulated by Holden and Mertz to avoid corneal edema with extended wear contact can be easily achieved with lotrafilcon and balafilcon lenses of diverse dioptric powers if the central and peripheral thickness of the lenses are kept below the critical level of oxygen transmissibility. PMID:12059027

  20. Magnetic attachment mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwell, William D. (Inventor); Wu, Mitchell B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic attachment mechanism adapted for interfacing with the manipulator arm (11) of a remote manipulator system and comprising a pair of permanent magnets (31,32) of rare earth material which are arranged in a stator-rotor relationship. The rotor magnet (32), is journalled for rotation about its longitudinal axis between pole plates (35,36) of the stator magnet (31), each of which includes an adhering surface (35a,36a). In a first rotary position corresponding to the ON condition, each of the poles of the rotor magnet (32) is closely adjacent a stator magnet pole plate of like polarity whereby the respective magnet fields are additive for producing a strong magnetic field emanating from the adhering surfaces (35a,36a) for attracting a ferrous magnetic plate 20, or the like, affixed to the payload (20 or 50). When the rotor magnet (32) is rotated to a second position corresponding to the OFF condition, each of the poles of the rotor magnet (31) is disposed closely adjacent a pole plate of unlike polarity whereby the magnetic fields of the magnets are in cancelling relationship at the adhering surfaces (35a,36a) which permits the release of a payload. An actuator (51 or 70) for selectively rotating the rotor magnet (32) between the ON and OFF positions is provided for interfacing and connecting the magnetic attachment mechanism with a manipulator arm. For effecting an optimal rigidized attachment the payload is provided with guides (91,92) cooperable with guides (96,16,17) on the housing of the mechanism for directing adhering surfaces (35a,36a) of the polar plates to the ferrous plate (20).

  1. Flared tube attachment fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkire, I. D.; King, J. P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tubes can be flared first, then attached to valves and other flow line components, with new fitting that can be disassembled and reused. Installed fitting can be disassembled so parts can be inspected. It can be salvaged and reused without damaging flared tube; tube can be coated, tempered, or otherwise treated after it has been flared, rather than before, as was previously required. Fitting consists of threaded male portion with conical seating surface, hexagonal nut with hole larger than other diameter of flared end of tube, and split ferrule.

  2. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Frey, G.A.; Jimenez, O.D.

    1996-12-03

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine flange having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine flange includes a first upstanding flange and a second upstanding flange having a groove formed between them. The turbine flange further includes a recess. Each of the first and second upstanding flanges have a plurality of bores therein. A turbine blade has a first member and a second member positioned in one of the groove and the recess. Each of the first member and the second member have a plurality of bores therein. A pin is positioned in respective ones of the plurality of bores in the first and second upstanding members and the first and second members and attach the blade to the turbine flange. The pin has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being substantially equal to the rate of thermal expansion of the blade. 4 figs.

  3. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Frey, deceased, Gary A.; Jimenez, Oscar D.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine flange having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine flange includes a first upstanding flange and a second upstanding flange having a groove formed therebetween. The turbine flange further includes a recess. Each of the first and second upstanding flanges have a plurality of bores therein. A turbine blade has a first member and a second member positioned in one of the groove and the recess. Each of the first member and the second member have a plurality of bores therein. And, a pin is positioned in respective ones of the plurality of bores in the first and second upstanding members and the first and second members and attach the blade to the turbine flange. The pin has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being substantially equal to the rate of thermal expansion of the blade.

  4. Flexible enantioselectivity of tryptophanase attributable to benzene ring in heterocyclic moiety of d-tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Akihiko; Ozaki, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    The invariance principle of enzyme enantioselectivity must be absolute because it is absolutely essential to the homochiral biological world. Most enzymes are strictly enantioselective, and tryptophanase is one of the enzymes with extreme absolute enantioselectivity for L-tryptophan. Contrary to conventional knowledge about the principle, tryptophanase becomes flexible to catalyze D-tryptophan in the presence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Since D-amino acids are ordinarily inert or function as inhibitors even though they are bound to the active site, the inhibition behavior of D-tryptophan and several inhibitors involved in this process was examined in terms of kinetics to explain the reason for this flexible enantioselectivity in the presence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Diammonium hydrogenphosphate gave tryptophanase a small conformational change so that D-tryptophan could work as a substrate. As opposed to other D-amino acids, D-tryptophan is a very bulky amino acid with a benzene ring in its heterocyclic moiety, and so we suggest that this structural feature makes the catalysis of D-tryptophan degradation possible, consequently leading to the flexible enantioselectivity. The present results not only help to understand the mechanism of enzyme enantioselectivity, but also shed light on the origin of homochirality. PMID:25382167

  5. Quantification of Phenolic Antioxidant Moieties in Dissolved Organic Matter by Flow-Injection Analysis with Electrochemical Detection.

    PubMed

    Walpen, Nicolas; Schroth, Martin H; Sander, Michael

    2016-06-21

    Phenolic moieties in dissolved organic matter (DOM) play important roles as antioxidants in oxidation processes in natural and engineered systems. This work presents an automated and highly sensitive flow injection analysis (FIA) system coupled to both spectrophotometric and electrochemical detection to quantify electron-donating phenolic moieties in DOM by determining the number of electrons that these moieties transfer to an added chemical oxidant, the radical cation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(•+)). The FIA system was successfully validated using Trolox as a redox standard. Highest method sensitivity was attained when combining the FIA with chronoamperometric detection, resulting in limits of quantification of picomolar amounts of Trolox and nanogram amounts of DOM (corresponding to solutions with <1 mg carbon per liter). The analysis of DOM isolates showed a strong linear correlation between the number of electrons donated and their titrated phenol contents, supporting oxidation of phenols by ABTS(•+). The broad application spectrum of the FIA system to dilute natural DOM samples was illustrated by analyzing water samples collected from northern peatlands and by monitoring the oxidation of phenols in one peat sample upon incubation with a phenol oxidase. The superior analytical capability of the FIA system allows quantifying phenols and monitoring phenol dynamics in dilute DOM samples. PMID:27227422

  6. Metabolic activation of furan moiety makes Diosbulbin B hepatotoxic.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Lin, Dongju; Gao, Huiyuan; Xu, Youjun; Meng, Dongya; Smith, Charles Vincent; Peng, Ying; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Diosbulbin B (DIOB), a furanoid, is a major constituent of herbal medicine Dioscorea bulbifera L. Exposure to DIOB caused liver injury in humans and experimental animals. The mechanisms of DIOB-induced hepatotoxicities remain unknown. The present study demonstrated that DIOB induced hepatotoxicities in a time- and dose-dependent manner in mice. H&E stained histopathologic image showed the occurrence of necrosis in the liver obtained from the mice treated with DIOB at dose of 200 mg/kg. Pretreatment with KTC protected the animals from hepatotoxicities and hepatic GSH depletion induced by DIOB, increased area under the concentration-time curve of blood DIOB, decreased urinary excretion of GSH conjugates derived from DIOB, and increased urinary excretion of parent drug. Pretreatment with BSO exacerbated DIOB-induced hepatotoxicities. In order to define the role of furan moiety in DIOB-induced liver toxicities, we replaced the furan of DIOB with a tetrahydrofuran group by chemical hydrogenation of the furan ring of DIOB. No liver injury was observed in the animals given the same doses of tetrahydro-DIOB. The furan moiety was essential for DIOB-induced hepatotoxicities. The results implicate the cis-enedial reactive metabolite of DIOB was responsible for the observed toxicities. The observed modest depletion of hepatic GSH in DIOB-treated animals suggests the actions of one or more reactive metabolites, and the hepatic injury observed could be due at least in part to reactions of these metabolites with crucial biomolecules. Cytochrome P450 3A enzymes are implicated in DIOB-induced hepatotoxicities by catalyzing the formation of the reactive metabolite of DIOB. PMID:25851819

  7. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine wheel having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine blade has a root portion having a first groove and a second groove therein. The turbine wheel includes a plurality of openings in which the turbine blade is positioned. Each of the openings has a first groove and a second groove therein. The space or void formed between the first grooves and the second grooves has a plurality of spherical balls positioned therein. The plurality of spherical balls has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being equal to the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade.

  8. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine disc having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade and forms a turbine assembly. The turbine blade has a root portion defining a pair of sides having a pair of grooves therein. The turbine assembly includes a pair of flanges between which the turbine blades are positioned. Each of the pair of flanges has a plurality of grooves defined therein. The grooves within the pair of flanges are aligned with the grooves in the blades and have a space formed therebetween. A plurality of spherical balls are positioned within the space. The plurality of spherical balls has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being equal to the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade.

  9. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-07-11

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine disc having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade and forms a turbine assembly. The turbine blade has a root portion defining a pair of sides having a pair of grooves therein. The turbine assembly includes a pair of flanges between which the turbine blades are positioned. Each of the pair of flanges has a plurality of grooves defined therein. The grooves within the pair of flanges are aligned with the grooves in the blades and have a space formed therebetween. A plurality of spherical balls are positioned within the space. The plurality of spherical balls has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being equal to the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. 4 figs.

  10. Ceramic blade attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-01-10

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine wheel having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine blade has a root portion having a first groove and a second groove therein. The turbine wheel includes a plurality of openings in which the turbine blade is positioned. Each of the openings has a first groove and a second groove therein. The space or void formed between the first grooves and the second grooves has a plurality of spherical balls positioned therein. The plurality of spherical balls has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being equal to the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. 4 figures.

  11. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  12. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  13. Perfluorinated Moieties Increase the Interaction of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers with Lipid Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Schwieger, Christian; Blaffert, Jacob; Li, Zheng; Kressler, Jörg; Blume, Alfred

    2016-08-16

    The interaction of amphiphilic and triphilic block copolymers with lipid monolayers has been studied. Amphiphilic triblock copolymer PGMA20-PPO34-PGMA20 (GP) is composed of a hydrophobic poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) middle block that is flanked by two hydrophilic poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) side blocks. The attachment of a perfluoro-n-nonyl residue (F9) to either end of GP yields a triphilic polymer with the sequence F9-PGMA20-PPO34-PGMA20-F9 (F-GP). The F9 chains are fluorophilic, i.e., they have a tendency to demix in hydrophilic as well as in lipophilic environments. We investigated (i) the adsorption of both polymers to differently composed lipid monolayers and (ii) the compression behavior of mixed polymer/lipid monolayers. The lipid monolayers are composed of phospholipids with PC or PE headgroups and acyl chains of different length and saturation. Both polymers interact with lipid monolayers by inserting their hydrophobic moieties (PPO, F9). The interaction is markedly enhanced in the presence of F9 chains, which act as membrane anchors. GP inserts into lipid monolayers up to a surface pressure of 30 mN/m, whereas F-GP inserts into monolayers at up to 45 mN/m, suggesting that F-GP also inserts into lipid bilayer membranes. The adsorption of both polymers to lipid monolayers with short acyl chains is favored. Upon compression, a two-step squeeze-out of F-GP occurs, with PPO blocks being released into the aqueous subphase at 28 mN/m and the F9 chains being squeezed out at 48 mN/m. GP is squeezed out in one step at 28 mN/m because of the lack of F9 anchor groups. The liquid expanded (LE) to liquid condensed (LC) phase transition of DPPC and DMPE is maintained in the presence of the polymers, indicating that the polymers can be accommodated in LE- and LC-phase monolayers. These results show how fluorinated moieties can be included in the rational design of membrane-binding polymers. PMID:27442444

  14. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  15. Lactose metabolism in Streptococcus lactis: phosphorylation of galactose and glucose moieties in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J

    1979-01-01

    Starved cells of Streptococcus lactis ML3 grown previously on lactose, galactose, or maltose were devoid of adenosine 5'-triphosphate contained only three glycolytic intermediates: 3-phosphoglycerate, 2-phosphoglycerate, and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The three metabolites (total concentration, ca 40 mM) served as the intracellular PEP potential for sugar transport via PEP-dependent phosphotransferase systems. When accumulation of [14C]lactose by iodoacetate-inhibited starved cells was abolished within 1 s of commencement of transport, a phosphorylated disaccharide was identified by autoradiography. The compound was isolated by ion-exchange (borate) chromatography, and enzymatic analysis showed that the derivative was 6-phosphoryl-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 leads to 4')-alpha-D-glucopyranose (lactose 6-phosphate). After maximum lactose uptake (ca. 15 mM in 15 s) the cells were collected by membrane filtration and extracted with trichloroacetic acid. Neither free nor phosphorylated lactose was detected in cell extracts, but enzymatic analysis revealed high levels of galactose 6-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate. The starved organisms rapidly accumulated glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, methyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside, and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside in phosphorylated form to intracellular concentrations of 32, 32, 42, and 38.5 mM, respectively. In contrast, maximum accumulation of lactose (ca. 15 mM) was only 40 to 50% that of the monosaccharides. From the stoichiometry of PEP-dependent lactose transport and the results of enzymatic analysis, it was concluded that (i) ca. 60% of the PEP potential was utilized via the lactose phosphotransferase system for phosphorylation of the galactosyl moiety of the disaccharide, and (ii) the residual potential (ca. 40%) was consumed during phosphorylation of the glucose moiety. Images PMID:118155

  16. Functionalization of Cyclodextrins with N-Hydroxyphthalimide Moiety: A New Class of Supramolecular Pro-Oxidant Organocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Melone, Lucio; Petroselli, Manuel; Pastori, Nadia; Punta, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) is an organocatalyst for free-radical processes able to promote the aerobic oxidation of a wide range of organic substrates. In particular, NHPI can catalyze the hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This property could be of interest for biological applications. This work reports the synthesis of two β-cyclodextrin derivatives (CD5 and CD6) having a different degree of methylation and bearing a NHPI moiety. These compounds, having different solubility in water, have been successfully tested for the hydroperoxidation of methyl linoleate, chosen as the PUFA model molecule. PMID:26334267

  17. Phosphonic Acid-Functionalized Polyurethane Dispersions with Improved Adhesion Properties.

    PubMed

    Breucker, Laura; Landfester, Katharina; Taden, Andreas

    2015-11-11

    A facile route to phosphorus-functionalized polyurethane dispersions (P-PUDs) with improved adhesion properties is presented. (Bis)phosphonic acid moieties serve as adhesion promoting sites that are covalently attached via an end-capping reaction to isocyanate-reactive polyurethane particles under aqueous conditions. The synthetic approach circumvents solubility issues, offers great flexibility in terms of polyurethane composition, and allows for the synthesis of semicrystalline systems with thermomechanical response due to reversible physical cross-linking. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to investigate the effect of functionalization on the semicrystallinity. The end-capping conversion was determined via inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and was surprisingly found to be almost independent of the stoichiometry of reaction, suggesting an adsorption-dominated process. Particle charge detection (PCD) experiments reveal that a dense surface coverage of phosphonic acid groups can be attained and that, at high functionalization degrees, the phosphonic adhesion moieties are partially dragged inside the colloidal P-PUD particle. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCMD) investigations conducted with hydroxyapatite (HAP) and stainless steel sensors as model surfaces show a greatly enhanced affinity of the aqueous P-PUDs and furthermore indicate polymer chain rearrangements and autonomous film formation under wet conditions. Due to their facile synthesis, significantly improved adhesion, and variable film properties, P-PUD systems such as the one described here are believed to be of great interest for multiple applications, e.g., adhesives, paints, anticorrosion, or dentistry. PMID:26491881

  18. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agostini, Reinaldo J.

    2014-01-01

    Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors (HFMB) are ideal systems for biological pretreatment of wastewater, however, optimization is still underway. The Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME) allows the simultaneous testing of potential materials, treatments on these and varying inoculums. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the material chosen for its ideal oxygen permeation properties, was treated with 1 sodium hydroxide 0.1 M ether for 18 seconds and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation oxygen plasma (OP) exposure for 1 hour. Preliminary chemistry and visual data indicate promising treatments when using OP and sodium hydroxide as treatments for PDMS fibers; however, due to the biological nature of the experiment, time is a constraint. Sodium hydroxide treatment chemistry data shows nitrification is occurring as urea and ammonia are decreasing and nitrite is increasing. A higher amount of biofilm can also be observed for this particular case. During the final two weeks of the internship x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and acridine orange (AO) cell counts will be employed for treatment effectiveness on the first batch of treatments (ether and sodium hydroxide). These same strategies will be used for the second batch of experiments due in four weeks (2nd week of August).

  19. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery. PMID:25815400

  20. Electromagnetic attachment mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An electromagnetic attachment mechanism is disclosed for use as an end effector of a remote manipulator system. A pair of electromagnets, each with a U-shaped magnetic core with a pull-in coil and two holding coils, are mounted by a spring suspension system on a base plate of the mechanism housing with end pole pieces adapted to move through openings in the base plate when the attractive force of the electromagnets is exerted on a strike plate of a grapple fixture affixed to a target object. The pole pieces are spaced by an air gap from the strike plate when the mechanism first contacts the grapple fixture. An individual control circuit and power source is provided for the pull-in coil and one holding coil of each electromagnet. A back-up control circuit connected to the two power sources and a third power source is provided for the remaining holding coils. When energized, the pull-in coils overcome the suspension system and air gap and are automatically de-energized when the pole pieces move to grapple and impose a preload force across the grapple interface. A battery backup is a redundant power source for each electromagnet in each individual control circuit and is automatically connected upon failure of the primary source. A centerline mounted camera and video monitor are used in cooperation with a target pattern on the reflective surface of the strike plate to effect targeting and alignment.

  1. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  2. Signal Transduction by BvgS Sensor Kinase: BINDING OF MODULATOR NICOTINATE AFFECTS THE CONFORMATION AND DYNAMICS OF THE ENTIRE PERIPLASMIC MOIETY.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Elian; Lesne, Elodie; Guérin, Jérémy; Lensink, Marc F; Verger, Alexis; de Ruyck, Jérôme; Brysbaert, Guillaume; Vezin, Hervé; Locht, Camille; Antoine, Rudy; Jacob-Dubuisson, Françoise

    2015-09-18

    The two-component sensory transduction system BvgAS controls the virulence regulon of the whooping-cough agent Bordetella pertussis. The periplasmic moiety of the homodimeric sensor kinase BvgS is composed of four bilobed Venus flytrap (VFT) perception domains followed by α helices that extend into the cytoplasmic membrane. In the virulent phase, the default state of B. pertussis, the cytoplasmic enzymatic moiety of BvgS acts as kinase by autophosphorylating and transferring the phosphoryl group to the response regulator BvgA. Under laboratory conditions, BvgS shifts to phosphatase activity in response to modulators, notably nicotinate ions. Here we characterized the effects of nicotinate and related modulators on the BvgS periplasmic moiety by using site-directed mutagenesis and in silico and biophysical approaches. Modulators bind with low affinity to BvgS in the VFT2 cavity. Electron paramagnetic resonance shows that their binding globally affects the conformation and dynamics of the periplasmic moiety. Specific amino acid substitutions designed to slacken interactions within and between the VFT lobes prevent BvgS from responding to nicotinate, showing that BvgS shifts from kinase to phosphatase activity in response to this modulator via a tense transition state that involves a large periplasmic structural block. We propose that this transition enables the transmembrane helices to adopt a distinct conformation that sets the cytoplasmic enzymatic moiety in the phosphatase mode. The bona fide, in vivo VFT ligands that remain to be identified are likely to trigger similar effects on the transmembrane and cytoplasmic moieties. This mechanism may be relevant to the other VFT-containing sensor kinases homologous to BvgS. PMID:26203186

  3. The role of attached phase soil and sediment organic matter physicochemical properties on fullerene (nC60) attachment.

    PubMed

    McNew, Coy P; LeBoeuf, Eugene J

    2015-11-01

    Attached phase soil and sediment organic matter is ubiquitous in the subsurface environment, with a tendency to strongly sorb contaminants, and therefore it may play an important role in contaminant transport. In this study, the deposition of C60 nanoparticles onto attached phase Harpeth Humic Acid and Harpeth Fulvic Acid (HHA and HFA) is explored by using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and systematically varying thermal energy. By comparing the C60 attachment onto HHA and HFA surfaces to that of bare silica and DLVO predictions, we find that the HHA and HFA layers hinder attachment at low temperatures, while HHA enhances attachment at higher temperatures. Based on thermal characterization of the HHA and HFA layers compared to the corresponding attachment trends, the attachment efficiency is strongly correlated with hydration of the layer. Possible mechanisms explaining this phenomenon include water-assisted disruption of polar SOM contacts and hydration-induced swelling of the AP-SOM matrix. Since humic substances typically dominate subsurface organic matter, these results may prove crucial to understanding the complex interactions of engineered nanomaterials in both the natural and engineered environment. PMID:25600319

  4. Attachment in Preschool Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Mark T.

    A study was designed to examine the attachment behavior of 28 preschool deaf children and their hearing mothers and compare their patterns of behavior to previous reports of normal hearing dyads, and within this sample examine the relationship between communicative ability and phase of attachment. The sample was subdivided by communication…

  5. Substratum interfacial energetic effects on the attachment of marine bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ista, Linnea Kathryn

    Biofilms represent an ancient, ubiquitous and influential form of life on earth. Biofilm formation is initiated by attachment of bacterial cells from an aqueous suspension onto a suitable attachment substratum. While in certain, well studied cases initial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation is mediated by specific ligand-receptor pairs on the bacteria and attachment substratum, in the open environment, including the ocean, it is assumed to be non-specific and mediated by processes similar to those that drive adsorption of colloids at the water-solid interface. Colloidal principles are studied to determine the molecular and physicochemical interactions involved in the attachment of the model marine bacterium, Cobetia marina to model self-assembled monolayer surfaces. In the simplest application of colloidal principles the wettability of attachment substrata, as measured by the advancing contact angle of water (theta AW) on the surface, is frequently used as an approximation for the surface tension. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach for attachment of C. marina and algal zoospores and extend it to the development of a means to control attachment and release of microorganisms by altering and tuning surface thetaAW. In many cases, however, thetaAW does not capture all the information necessary to model attachment of bacteria to attachment substrata; SAMs with similar thetaAW attach different number of bacteria. More advanced colloidal models of initial bacterial attachment have evolved over the last several decades, with the emergence of the model proposed by van Oss, Chaudhury and Good (VCG) as preeminent. The VCG model enables calculation of interfacial tensions by dividing these into two major interactions thought to be important at biointerfaces: apolar, Lifshitz-van der Waals and polar, Lewis acid-base (including hydrogen bonding) interactions. These interfacial tensions are combined to yield DeltaGadh, the free energy associated with

  6. Photochemistry and photophysics of ketyl radicals containing the anthrone moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Netto-Ferreira, J.C.; Murphy, W.F.; Redmond, R.W.; Scaiano, J.C. )

    1990-05-23

    The photochemistry of several ketones containing an anthrone moiety has been employed to produce the corresponding ketyl radicals 1-4 by photoreduction in the presence of suitable hydrogen donors. The excited-state behavior of these radicals has been examined with use of two-laser, two-color techniques. The lifetimes for the excited ketyl radicals, ranging from 7.9 ns for 3 to 33 ns for 2, are longer than that observed for benzophenone ketyl, thus suggesting that conformational restrictions play a key role in controlling excited radical lifetimes. In the case of 3 the dominant mode of decay involves loss of a benzyl radical from the 10-position, while for 1 and 2 the process involves the loss of a hydrogen atom from the hydroxylic position; in the case of 2 this has been confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The quantum yields of radical photobleaching are 0.20, 0.46, and 0.75 for 1, 2, and 3, respectively, while 4 is essentially photostable.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a polyacetylene derivative with phenylazobenzene moieties.

    PubMed

    Gal, Yeong-Soon; Jin, Sung-Ho; Lyoo, Won Seok; Park, Jong-Wook; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2011-08-01

    A new polyacetylene derivative was prepared by the activated polymerization of 2-ethynylpyridine by using 4-(phenylazo)benzoyl chloride without any additional initiator or catalyst in high yield. The chemical structure of poly[2-ethynyl-N-(4-(phenylazo)benzoyl) pyridinium chloride [PEPABPC] was characterized by such instrumental methods as NMR, IR, and UV-visible spectroscopies to have a conjugated polymer backbone system with the designed azobenzene moieties. The electrooptical and electrochemical properties of PEPABPC were studied. The photoluminescence spectrum showed that the PL peak is at 597 nm corresponding to the photon energy of 2.07 eV. The cyclovoltammograms of PEPABPC exhibited the irreversible electrochemical behaviors between the oxidation and reduction peaks. The oxidation current density of PEPABPC versus the scan rates is approximately linear relationship in the range of 30 mV/sec-150 mV/sec. It was found that the the kinetics of the redox process of this polymer is controlled by the reactant diffusion process from the oxidation current density of PEPABPC versus the scan rates. PMID:22103202

  8. Model dendrons and dendrimers incorporating diphenylamino-substituted diphenylpolyene and PPV-oligomer moieties for NLO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, Kimba; Spangler, Charles W.; Reeves, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    Bis-(diphenylamino)diphenylpolyenes have been shown to form exceptionally stable, highly absorbing bipolaronic dications in solution and thin film. Replacement of one diphenylamino substituent with a N-(hydroxyethyl), N-ethylaminophenyl moiety yields a polyene series that also form stable bipolarons, and are intensely fluorescent. These new chromophores are also easily attached to either a PMMA backbone or to 3,5-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol to yield functionalized dendrons capable of attachment to various core molecules to yield functionalized dendrimers. Diphenylamino-substituted PPV oligomers can also be obtained with similar functionality. These new materials all possess large two-photon cross-sections and display optical limiting for nanosecond pulses with peak activity extending into the visible portion of the spectrum. In this presentation we will discuss the synthesis of these new materials and preliminary characterization as two-photon absorbers, photoluminescent materials suitable for organic light- emitting diodes, and as dendrimers capable of 3D charge delocalization and exceptionally large third order hyperpolarizabilities.

  9. Tyrosine B10 triggers a heme propionate hydrogen bonding network loop with glutamine E7 moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Santana, Brenda J.; Lopez-Garriga, Juan

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-bonding network loop by PheB10Tyr mutation is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The propionate group H-bonding network restricted the flexibility of the heme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrogen bonding interaction modulates the electron density of the iron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propionate H-bonding network loop explains the heme-ligand stabilization. -- Abstract: Propionates, as peripheral groups of the heme active center in hemeproteins have been described to contribute in the modulation of heme reactivity and ligand selection. These electronic characteristics prompted the question of whether the presence of hydrogen bonding networks between propionates and distal amino acids present in the heme ligand moiety can modulate physiological relevant events, like ligand binding association and dissociation activities. Here, the role of these networks was evaluated by NMR spectroscopy using the hemoglobin I PheB10Tyr mutant from Lucina pectinata as model for TyrB10 and GlnE7 hemeproteins. {sup 1}H-NMR results for the rHbICN PheB10Tyr derivative showed chemical shifts of TyrB10 OH{eta} at 31.00 ppm, GlnE7 N{sub {epsilon}1}H/N{sub {epsilon}2}H at 10.66 ppm/-3.27 ppm, and PheE11 C{sub {delta}}H at 11.75 ppm, indicating the presence of a crowded, collapsed, and constrained distal pocket. Strong dipolar contacts and inter-residues crosspeaks between GlnE7/6-propionate group, GlnE7/TyrB10 and TyrB10/CN suggest that this hydrogen bonding network loop between GlnE7, TyrB10, 6-propionate group, and the heme ligand contribute significantly to the modulation of the heme iron electron density as well as the ligand stabilization mechanism. Therefore, the network loop presented here support the fact that the electron withdrawing character of the hydrogen bonding is controlled by the interaction of the propionates and the nearby electronic environments contributing to the modulation of the heme electron density state. Thus

  10. Rational Design and Synthesis of New, High Efficiency, Multipotent Schiff Base-1,2,4-triazole Antioxidants Bearing Butylated Hydroxytoluene Moieties.

    PubMed

    Yehye, Wageeh A; Abdul Rahman, Noorsaadah; Saad, Omar; Ariffin, Azhar; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Alhadi, Abeer A; Kadir, Farkaad A; Yaeghoobi, Marzieh; Matlob, Abdulsalam A

    2016-01-01

    A new series of multipotent antioxidants (MPAOs), namely Schiff base-1,2,4-triazoles attached to the oxygen-derived free radical scavenging moiety butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were designed and subsequently synthesized. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the designed antioxidants was established alongside the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS). The antioxidant activities of the synthesized compounds 4-10 were tested by the DPPH bioassay. The synthesized compounds 4-10 inhibited stable DPPH free radicals at a level that is 10(-4) M more than the well-known standard antioxidant BHT. Compounds 8-10 with para-substituents were less active than compounds 4 and 5 with trimethoxy substituents compared to those with a second BHT moiety (compounds 6 and 7). With an IC50 of 46.13 ± 0.31 µM, compound 6 exhibited the most promising in vitro inhibition at 89%. Therefore, novel MPAOs containing active triazole rings, thioethers, Schiff bases, and BHT moieties are suggested as potential antioxidants for inhibiting oxidative stress processes and scavenging free radicals, hence, this combination of functions is anticipated to play a vital role in repairing cellular damage, preventing various human diseases and in medical therapeutic applications. PMID:27367658

  11. Mycobacterial Lipid II Is Composed of a Complex Mixture of Modified Muramyl and Peptide Moieties Linked to Decaprenyl Phosphate†

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Yagi, Tetsuya; Belisle, John T.; Espinosa, Benjamin J.; Hill, Preston J.; McNeil, Michael R.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Crick, Dean C.

    2005-01-01

    Structural analysis of compounds identified as lipid I and II from Mycobacterium smegmatis demonstrated that the lipid moiety is decaprenyl phosphate; thus, M. smegmatis is the first bacterium reported to utilize a prenyl phosphate other than undecaprenyl phosphate as the lipid carrier involved in peptidoglycan synthesis. In addition, mass spectrometry showed that the muropeptides from lipid I are predominantly N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine-d-glutamate-meso-diaminopimelic acid-d-alanyl-d-alanine, whereas those isolated from lipid II form an unexpectedly complex mixture in which the muramyl residue and the pentapeptide are modified singly and in combination. The muramyl residue is present as N-acetylmuramic acid, N-glycolylmuramic acid, and muramic acid. The carboxylic functions of the peptide side-chains of lipid II showed three types of modification, with the dominant one being amidation. The preferred site for amidation is the free carboxyl group of the meso-diaminopimelic acid residue. Diamidated species were also observed. The carboxylic function of the terminal d-alanine of some molecules is methylated, as are all three carboxylic acid functions of other molecules. This study represents the first structural analysis of mycobacterial lipid I and II and the first report of extensive modifications of these molecules. The observation that lipid I was unmodified strongly suggests that the lipid II intermediates of M. smegmatis are substrates for a variety of enzymes that introduce modifications to the sugar and amino acid residues prior to the synthesis of peptidoglycan. PMID:15805521

  12. Polypeptide nanogels with hydrophobic moieties in the cross-linked ionic cores: Synthesis, characterization and implications for anticancer drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Oh; Oberoi, Hardeep S.; Desale, Swapnil; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanogels have gained considerable attention as a potential platform for drug delivery applications. Here we describe the design and synthesis of novel polypeptide-based nanogels with hydrophobic moieties in the cross-linked ionic cores. Diblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-glutamic acid), hydrophobically modified with L-phenylalanine methyl ester moieties was used for controlled template synthesis of nanogels with small size (ca. 70 nm in diameter) and narrow particle size distribution. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence studies using coumarin C153 indicated the existence of hydrophobic domains in the ionic cores of the nanogels. Stable doxorubicin-loaded nanogels were prepared at high drug capacity (30 w/w%). We show that nanogels are enzymatically-degradable leading to accelerated drug release under simulated lysosomal acidic pH. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the nanogel-based formulation of doxorubicin is well tolerated and exhibit an improved antitumor activity compared to a free doxorubicin in an ovarian tumor xenograft mouse model. Our results signify the point to a potential of these biodegradable nanogels as attractive carriers for delivery of chemotherapeutics. PMID:23998716

  13. Polysiloxanes with a Phenol Moiety for Bilayer Photoresist Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Yasunobu; Ushirogouchi, Touru; Horiguchi, Rumiko; Hayase, Shuzi

    1989-08-01

    Novel Polysiloxanes with a phenol pendant group were synthesized and applied to bilayer photoresists for g-line and deep-UV (248 nm) lithography. These polymers had adequate aqueous-base solubility and oxygen-RIE resistance to serve as the base resin component for top imaging resists in bilayer resist systems. One of these polysiloxanes was synthesized from chlorodiethoxyphenylsilane and m-trimethylsiloxychlobenzene. Others were synthesized from dichlorophenylsilane and phenol and phenols with a double bond moiety (eugenol, isoeugenol and m-isopropenylphenol). These polysiloxanes had from 9.8 wt.% to 13.1 wt.X Si content and displayed an oxygen-RIE resistance 10 times greater than novolak resin. The m.p. values for these polymers ranged from 30°C to 90°C. The UV transmittance value (at 248 nm, 1 micron thickness) were from 7 % to 76 X. Resists were prepared from these polysiloxanes and sensitizers. In g-line lithography, the sensitizer was naphthoquinonediazide. In deep-UV (248 nm) lithography, the sensitizer was selected from naphtoquinonediazide, diazide and diazo compounds. 0.5 micron line and space patterns were obtained, when the resist was exposed using a g-line stepper, and using a tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution (ca. 1.3 %). 0.4 micron line and space patterns were resolved, when the resist was exposed using a KrF excimer laser stepper, and developed using the same solution. The top layer pattern could be transferred to the bottom layer (hard baked positive resist OFPR-5000) using oxygen-RIE. The etching rate for the silicon containing resist was 35 nm/min, while that for OFPR-5000 was 555 nm/min. These polysiloxanes make it possible to obtain the fine pattern resolution required in VLSI processing.

  14. Analysis of the Binding Moiety Mediating the Interaction between Monocarboxylate Transporters and Carbonic Anhydrase II*

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Sina Ibne; Dietz, Steffen; Heidtmann, Hella; Boone, Christopher D.; McKenna, Robert; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Becker, Holger M.

    2015-01-01

    Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate the exchange of high energy metabolites like lactate between different cells and tissues. We have reported previously that carbonic anhydrase II augments transport activity of MCT1 and MCT4 by a noncatalytic mechanism, while leaving transport activity of MCT2 unaltered. In the present study, we combined electrophysiological measurements in Xenopus oocytes and pulldown experiments to analyze the direct interaction between carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4, respectively. Transport activity of MCT2-WT, which lacks a putative CAII-binding site, is not augmented by CAII. However, introduction of a CAII-binding site into the C terminus of MCT2 resulted in CAII-mediated facilitation of MCT2 transport activity. Interestingly, introduction of three glutamic acid residues alone was not sufficient to establish a direct interaction between MCT2 and CAII, but the cluster had to be arranged in a fashion that allowed access to the binding moiety in CAII. We further demonstrate that functional interaction between MCT4 and CAII requires direct binding of the enzyme to the acidic cluster 431EEE in the C terminus of MCT4 in a similar fashion as previously shown for binding of CAII to the cluster 489EEE in the C terminus of MCT1. In CAII, binding to MCT1 and MCT4 is mediated by a histidine residue at position 64. Taken together, our results suggest that facilitation of MCT transport activity by CAII requires direct binding between histidine 64 in CAII and a cluster of glutamic acid residues in the C terminus of the transporter that has to be positioned in surroundings that allow access to CAII. PMID:25561737

  15. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  16. The Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clubb, Richard D.; And Others

    This study examines the relationship between parent-child attachment and parental attachment styles. It is hypothesized that: (1) parental attachment styles are transmitted to the infant through parent-child and parent-parent interaction; and (2) parental attachment styles are reflected in parent-child attachment. Some research supports the idea…

  17. Everything You Want To Know about Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses infant attachment, which it defines as a long-lasting emotional bond revealed when a child under stress seeks out and tries to stay close to a specific figure. The paper addresses: (1) What is attachment? Who are the pioneers in attachment theory?; (2) How do we notice attachment in action?; (3) Is attachment the only…

  18. Simultaneous interaction with base and phosphate moieties modulates the phosphodiester cleavage of dinucleoside 3',5'-monophosphates by dinuclear Zn2+ complexes of di(azacrown) ligands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Lönnberg, Harri

    2006-08-23

    Five dinucleating ligands (1-5) and one trinucleating ligand (6) incorporating 1,5,9-triazacyclododecan-3-yloxy groups attached to an aromatic scaffold have been synthesized. The ability of the Zn(2+) complexes of these ligands to promote the transesterification of dinucleoside 3',5'-monophosphates to a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate derived from the 3'-linked nucleoside by release of the 5'-linked nucleoside has been studied over a narrow pH range, from pH 5.8 to 7.2, at 90 degrees C. The dinuclear complexes show marked base moiety selectivity. Among the four dinucleotide 3',5'-phosphates studied, viz. adenylyl-3',5'-adenosine (ApA), adenylyl-3',5'-uridine (ApU), uridylyl-3',5'-adenosine (UpA), and uridylyl-3',5'-uridine (UpU), the dimers containing one uracil base (ApU and UpA) are cleaved up to 2 orders of magnitude more readily than those containing either two uracil bases (UpU) or two adenine bases (ApA). The trinuclear complex (6), however, cleaves UpU as readily as ApU and UpA, while the cleavage of ApA remains slow. UV spectrophotometric and (1)H NMR spectroscopic studies with one of the dinucleating ligands (3) verify binding to the bases of UpU and ApU at less than millimolar concentrations, while no interaction with the base moieties of ApA is observed. With ApU and UpA, one of the Zn(2+)-azacrown moieties in all likelihood anchors the cleaving agent to the uracil base of the substrate, while the other azacrown moiety serves as a catalyst for the phosphodiester transesterification. With UpU, two azacrown moieties are engaged in the base moiety binding. The catalytic activity is, hence, lost, but it can be restored by addition of a third azacrown group on the cleaving agent. PMID:16910666

  19. Attachment at work and performance.

    PubMed

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction. PMID:21838647

  20. Social attachments and traumatic stress

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which we engage with our social world has been central to our survival as a species and, accordingly, is relevant to how we cope with trauma and adversity. This review summarises current knowledge about the importance of social connections from an evolutionary perspective, as well as integrating this with a discussion of prevailing attachment theories. Experimental research supporting the potential benefit of attachments for managing adversity are presented, along with a review of how these benefits are moderated by individual differences in attachment style. The potential impact of trauma on attachment systems, and the manner in which this can compound trauma stress is discussed. Finally, a broader overview of social network analysis is introduced and it is proposed that a more sociocentric framework of trauma response would promote a fuller understanding of how social processes moderate trauma response. PMID:26996531

  1. Adult attachment and declining birthrates.

    PubMed

    Draper, Thomas W; Holman, Thomas B; White, Whitney; Grandy, Shannon

    2007-02-01

    Attachment scores for 658 young adults living in the U.S.A. were obtained using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale. The participants came from a subsample of the RELATE data set, who had also filled out the adult attachment measure. Those young adults living in Utah County, Utah, an area of the country with a higher than normal birthrate (88% members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), also had higher than average adult attachment scores. While the methodology was not sufficient to assess causal direction nor eliminate the possibility of unidentified influences, an undiscussed psychological factor, adult attachment, may play a role in the numerical declines observed among nonimmigrant communities in the USA and Europe. PMID:17450996

  2. Electron attachment to fluorocarbon radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuman, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    Most plasma environments contain populations of short-lived species such as radicals, the chemistry of which can have significant effects on the overall chemistry of the system. However, few experimental measurements of the kinetics of electron attachment to radicals exist due to the inherent difficulties of working with transient species. Calculations from first principles have been attempted, but are arduous and, because electron attachment is so sensitive to the specifics of the potential surface, their accuracy has not been established. Electron attachment to small fluorocarbon radicals is particularly important, as the data are needed for predictive modeling of plasma etching of semiconductor materials, a key process in the industrial fabrication of microelectronics. We have recently developed a novel flowing afterglow technique to measure several types of otherwise difficult to study plasma processes, including thermal electron attachment to radicals. Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry (VENDAMS) exploits dissociative electron attachment in a weakly ionized plasma as a radical source. Here, we apply VENDAMS to a series of halofluorocarbon precursors in order to measure the kinetics of thermal electron attachment to fluorocarbon radicals. Results are presented for CF2, CF3, C2F5,C2F3,1-C3F7, 2-C3F7, and C3F5 from 300 K to 900 K. Both the magnitude and the temperature dependences of rate coefficients as well as product branching between associative and dissociative attachment are highly system specific; however, thermal attachment to all species is inefficient, never exceeding 5% of the collision rate. The data are analyzed using a recently developed kinetic modeling approach, which uses extended Vogt-Wannier theory as a starting point, accounts for dynamic effects such as coupling between the electron and nuclear motions through empirically validated functional forms, and finally uses statistical theory to determine the fate of

  3. Studies on the supramolecular shape memory polyurethane containing pyridine moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaojun, Chen

    Fabricating smart materials with supramolecular switch is an attractive research topic. In this study, supramolecular polyurethane networks containing pyridine moieties (PUPys) were synthesized from N,N-bis(2-hydroxylethyl)isonicotinamide (BINA), hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), 4, 4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BDO). A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supramolecular structure, morphology and shape memory properties including of thermal-induced shape memory effect and moisture-sensitive shape memory effect. Results show that hydrogen-bonded supramolecular structure and phase separation morphology are formed in the PUPys. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of soft phase is controlled by the hydrogen bonding while the hard phase grows up from amorphous phase to crystalline phase as the BINA content increases. The addition of MDI-BDO promotes the formation of amorphous hard phase. PUPys have high shape fixity and high shape recovery with the recovery temperature of 45 °C-55 °C. To achieve satisfying shape recovery, 30wt% BINA contents are required. The addition of MDI-BDO improves the shape recovery force. In addition, PUPys have high moisture absorption which increases with the increase of temperature, relative humidity, BINA content as well as the decrease of MDI-BDO content. The final shape recovery decreases with the decrease of BINA content significantly and the strain recovery start time, strain recovery time, strain recovery end time and the time length are also short in the higher BINA content PUPys. Moreover, it is found that the low critical value of BINA unit for PUPys having moisture-sensitive SME is still 30wt%. The addition of MDI-BDO improves the moisture-sensitive shape recovery. Finally, it is proposed that the hydrogen bonding present in the pyridine ring serves as "switch" whereas the formed hard phase via hydrogen bonding present in the urethane groups acts as the physical netpoints for the both

  4. Inhibitory effects of the guanine moiety on Suzuki couplings of unprotected halonucleosides in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Western, Elizabeth C; Shaughnessy, Kevin H

    2005-08-01

    In the Suzuki arylations of unprotected halonucleosides in aqueous media, 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8BrdG) couplings were slower to reach completion than the corresponding 8-bromo-2'-deoxyadenosine (8BrdA) couplings. The guanine moiety has an acidic proton, which under our Suzuki conditions (pH congruent with 10) may be deprotonated to give an anion that can coordinate to palladium. The possibility that guanine coordination was responsible for the observed slower rates was explored using additive experiments in which nonhalogenated nucleosides were added to the Suzuki coupling reaction of 8BrdA or 4-bromotoluene and PhB(OH)2 and the reaction progress monitored by HPLC or GC. Adding dG slowed these reactions, and an induction period was observed. The addition of dA or 1-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (1MedG) to these couplings did not affect the rate of conversion to product. Guanine coordination was further explored using 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopy, which implies that guanine is coordinating to palladium through N-1 or O-6, or both. Furthermore, the presence of dG inhibited the formation of the active palladium(0) catalytic species, which may account for both the observed induction period and the sluggishness of reactions where guanine is involved. PMID:16050700

  5. Synthesis of N-hydroxycinnamides capped with a naturally occurring moiety as inhibitors of histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Jan; Chen, Ching-Chow; Chao, Shi-Wei; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Hsu, Fen-Lin; Lu, Yeh-Lin; Hung, Ming-Fang; Chang, Chung-I

    2010-04-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are regarded as promising therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. All reported HDAC inhibitors contain three pharmacophoric features: a zinc-chelating group, a hydrophobic linker, and a hydrophobic cap for surface recognition. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of osthole, a hydrophobic Chinese herbal compound, as the surface recognition cap in hydroxamate-based compounds as inhibitors of HDAC. Nine novel osthole-based N-hydroxycinnamides were synthesized and screened for enzyme inhibition activity. Compounds 9 d, 9 e, 9 g exhibited inhibitory activities (IC(50)=24.5, 20.0, 19.6 nM) against nuclear HDACs in HeLa cells comparable to that of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; IC(50)=24.5 nM), a potent inhibitor clinically used for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). While compounds 9 d and 9 e showed SAHA-like activity towards HDAC1 and HDAC6, compound 9 g was more selective for HDAC1. Compound 9 d exhibited the best cellular effect, which was comparable to that of SAHA, of enhancing acetylation of either alpha-tubulin or histone H3. Molecular docking analysis showed that the osthole moiety of compound 9 d may interact with the same hydrophobic surface pocket exploited by SAHA and it may be modified to provide class-specific selectivity. These results suggest that osthole is an effective hydrophobic cap when incorporated into N-hydroxycinnamide-derived HDAC inhibitors. PMID:20209563

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Cancer Activity of Hydrazide Derivatives Incorporating a Quinoline Moiety.

    PubMed

    Bingul, Murat; Tan, Owen; Gardner, Christopher R; Sutton, Selina K; Arndt, Greg M; Marshall, Glenn M; Cheung, Belamy B; Kumar, Naresh; Black, David StC

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the novel (E)-N'-((2-chloro-7-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)methylene)-3-(phenylthio)propanehydrazide scaffold 18 has led to the development of a new series of biologically active hydrazide compounds. The parent compound 18 and new quinoline derivatives 19-26 were prepared from the corresponding quinoline hydrazones and substituted carboxylic acids using EDC-mediated peptide coupling reactions. Further modification of the parent compound 18 was achieved by replacement of the quinoline moiety with other aromatic systems. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against the SH-SY5Y and Kelly neuroblastoma cell lines, as well as the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Analogues 19 and 22 significantly reduced the cell viability of neuroblastoma cancer cells with micromolar potency and significant selectivity over normal cells. The quinoline hydrazide 22 also induced G₁ cell cycle arrest, as well as upregulation of the p27(kip1) cell cycle regulating protein. PMID:27428941

  7. Activation of protein kinase C by the lipid moieties of lipopolysaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, P.D.; Raetz, C.R.H.

    1986-03-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) was partially purified from the RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell and characterized by its activation by phosphatidylserine (PS) in the presence of calcium and its insensitivity to cyclic nucleotides or calmodulin. This PKC can also be activated by the acidic lipid moieties of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS lipids activate PKC in the absence of PS and, like PS, synergize with diacylglycerol (DAG). Intact RAW264.7 cells were prelabelled with /sup 32/Pi and treated with the well characterized PKC ligands, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or DAG. The phosphoproteins thereby induced were separated in 2-D gels and visualized by autoradiography. These phosphoproteins were used as standards to identify the PKC-associated phosphoproteins induced in these cells using other stimulators. The authors demonstrate that the LPS lipids as well as LPS itself induce the formation of phosphoproteins common to those induced by PMA or DAG. PMA, DAG, the LPS lipids, and LPS itself activate the RAW264.7 cell and stimulate the release of prostaglandin D/sub 2/ at the same concentration that stimulate new protein phosphorylation. These results suggest that the activation of PKC is an early event in the activation of the RAW264.7 macrophage by LPS.

  8. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M

    2006-02-23

    Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids. PMID:16274702

  9. 10 CFR 75.15 - Facility attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Accounting and Control for Facilities § 75.15 Facility attachments. (a) The Facility Attachment or... under Article 39(b) of the main text of the Safeguards Agreement, do not have Facility Attachments...

  10. Development of an attached microalgal growth system for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael B; Wen, Zhiyou

    2010-01-01

    Algal biofuel production has gained a renewed interest in recent years but is still not economically feasible due to several limitations related to algal culture. The objective of this study is to explore a novel attached culture system for growing the alga Chlorella sp. as biodiesel feedstock, with dairy manure wastewater being used as growth medium. Among supporting materials tested for algal attachment, polystyrene foam led to a firm attachment, high biomass yield (25.65 g/m(2), dry basis), and high fatty acid yield (2.31 g/m(2)). The biomass attached on the supporting material surface was harvested by scraping; the residual colonies left on the surface served as inoculum for regrowth. The algae regrowth on the colony-established surface resulted in a higher biomass yield than that from the initial growth on fresh surface due to the downtime saved for initial algal attachment. The 10-day regrowth culture resulted in a high biodiesel production potential with a fatty acid methyl esters yield of 2.59 g/m(2) and a productivity of 0.26 g/m(-2) day(-1). The attached algal culture also removed 61-79% total nitrogen and 62-93% total phosphorus from dairy manure wastewater, depending on different culture conditions. The biomass harvested from the attached growth system (through scraping) had a water content of 93.75%, similar to that harvested from suspended culture system (through centrifugation). Collectively, the attached algal culture system with polystyrene foam as a supporting material demonstrated a good performance in terms of biomass yield, biodiesel production potential, ease to harvest biomass, and physical robustness for reuse. PMID:19636552

  11. Natural variability in acyl moieties of sugar esters produced by certain tobacco and other Solanaceae species.

    PubMed

    Kroumova, Antoaneta B M; Zaitlin, Dave; Wagner, George J

    2016-10-01

    A unique feature of glandular trichomes of plants in the botanical family Solanaceae is that they produce sugar esters (SE), chemicals that have been shown to possess insecticidal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Sugar esters of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) provide pest resistance, and are important flavor precursors in oriental tobacco cultivars. Acyl moieties of SEs in Nicotiana spp., petunia, and tomato are shown to vary with respect to carbon length and isomer structure (2-12 carbon chain length; anteiso-, iso-, and straight-chain). Sugar esters and their acyl groups could serve as a model to explore the basis of phenotypic diversity and adaptation to natural and agricultural environments. However, information on the diversity of acyl composition among species, cultivars, and accessions is lacking. Herein, described is the analysis of SE acyl groups found in 21 accessions of Nicotiana obtusifolia (desert tobacco), six of Nicotiana occidentalis subsp. hesperis, three of Nicotiana alata, two of N. occidentalis, four modern tobacco cultivars, five petunia hybrids, and one accession each of a primitive potato (Solanum berthaultii) and tomato (Solanum pennellii). A total of 20 different acyl groups was observed that were represented differently among cultivars, species, and accessions. In Nicotiana species, acetate and iso- and anteiso-branched acids prevailed. Straight-chain groups (2-8 carbons) were prominent in petunias, while octanoic acid was prominent in N. alata and N. × sanderae. Two unexpected acyl groups, 8-methyl nonanoate and decanoate were found in N. occidentalis subsp. hesperis. Longer chain groups were found in the petunia, tomato, and potato species studied. PMID:27262877

  12. Identification of Novel Phenyl Butenonyl C-Glycosides with Ureidyl and Sulfonamidyl Moieties as Antimalarial Agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A new series of C-linked phenyl butenonyl glycosides bearing ureidyl(thioureidyl) and sulfonamidyl moieties in the phenyl rings were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial activities against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 (CQ sensitive) and K1 (CQ resistant) strains. Among all the compounds screened the C-linked phenyl butenonyl glycosides bearing sulfonamidyl moiety (5a) and ureidyl moiety in the phenyl ring (7d and 8c) showed promising antimalarial activities against both 3D7 and K1 strains with IC50 values in micromolar range and low cytotoxicity offering new HITS for further exploration. PMID:25147607

  13. Polyoxypregnane steroids with an open-chain sugar moiety from Marsdenia tenacissima and their chemoresistance reversal activity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Sheng; To, Kenneth Kin-Wah; Ma, Liang; Yin, Chun; Tang, Chunping; Chai, Stella; Ke, Chang-Qiang; Lin, Ge; Ye, Yang

    2016-06-01

    A polyoxypregnane aglycone, 12β-O-acetyl-11α-O-isobutyryltenacigenin B, and four polyoxypregnane glycosides with a pachybionic acid ester moiety, 12β-O-acetyl-3-O-(6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-oleandronyl)-11α-O-isobutyryltenacigenin B, 12β-O-acetyl-3-O-(6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-oleandronyl)-11α-O-tigloyltenacigenin B, 12β-O-acetyl-3-O-(6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-oleandronyl)-11α-O-2-methylbutyryltenacigenin B, and 12β-O-acetyl-3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-oleandronyl)-11α-O-tigloyltenacigenin B, were isolated from the canes of Marsdenia tenacissima, together with a disaccharide derivative. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configurations were further determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. With the exception of the disaccharide derivative, all five compounds are unusual naturally occurring polyoxypregnane glycosides bearing an open-chain sugar moiety. Two of these exhibit a wide spectrum of chemoresistance reversal activity, and potential mechanisms were studied accordingly. PMID:26988729

  14. Fmoc solid-phase synthesis of C-terminal modified peptides by formation of a backbone cyclic urethane moiety.

    PubMed

    Elashal, Hader E; Cohen, Ryan D; Raj, Monika

    2016-08-11

    C-terminally modified peptides are of high significance due to the therapeutic properties that accompany various C-terminal functional groups and the ability to manipulate them for further applications. Thus, there is a great necessity for an effective solid phase technique for the synthesis of C-terminally modified peptides. Here, we report a universal solid phase strategy for the synthesis of various C-terminal modified peptides which is independent of the type of resins, linkers, and unnatural moieties typically needed for C-terminal modifications. The technique proceeds by the modification of C-terminal serine to a cyclic urethane moiety which results in the activation of the backbone amide chain for nucleophilic displacement by various nucleophiles to generate C-terminally modified acids, esters, N-aryl amides, and alcohols. This cyclic urethane technique (CUT) also provides a general strategy for synthesis of C-terminal protected peptides that can be used for convergent synthesis of large peptides. The C-terminal protecting groups are cleaved by facile hydrolysis to release the free peptide. PMID:27407005

  15. Anacardic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Oleic Acid Differentially Alter Cellular Bioenergetic Function in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Radde, Brandie N; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Price, Stephanie M; Schultz, David J; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2016-11-01

    Anacardic acid is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical that inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Since mitochondrial-targeted anticancer therapy (mitocans) may be useful in breast cancer, we examined the effect of anacardic acid on cellular bioenergetics and OXPHOS pathway proteins in breast cancer cells modeling progression to endocrine-independence: MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ endocrine-sensitive; LCC9 and LY2 ERα+, endocrine-resistant, and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. At concentrations similar to cell proliferation IC50 s, anacardic acid reduced ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate (OCR), mitochondrial reserve capacity, and coupling efficiency while increasing proton leak, reflecting mitochondrial toxicity which was greater in MCF-7 compared to endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells. These results suggest tolerance in endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells to mitochondrial stress induced by anacardic acid. Since anacardic acid is an alkylated 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, the effects of salicylic acid (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety) and oleic acid (OA, monounsaturated alkyl moiety) were tested. SA inhibited whereas OA stimulated cell viability. In contrast to stimulation of basal OCR by anacardic acid (uncoupling effect), neither SA nor OA altered basal OCR- except OA inhibited basal and ATP-linked OCR, and increased ECAR, in MDA-MB-231 cells. Changes in OXPHOS proteins correlated with changes in OCR. Overall, neither the 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety nor the monounsaturated alky moiety of anacardic acid is solely responsible for the observed mitochondria-targeted anticancer activity in breast cancer cells and hence both moieties are required in the same molecule for the observed effects. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2521-2532, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990649

  16. Partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kilmann, Peter R; Finch, Holmes; Parnell, Michele M; Downer, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 nonclinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater anxiety over abandonment or discomfort with closeness endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the anxiety over abandonment dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, whereas wives with higher scores were rated more dependent, more self-critical, and less competitive. Husbands higher on discomfort with closeness were rated less cooperative and responsible and were rated more aggressive and rebellious. Matched secure couples reported lower marital dissatisfaction than matched insecure or mismatched couples. Future research should contrast samples of nonclinical and clinical couples by marital duration to identify specific partner behaviors that are likely to foster marital dissatisfaction within particular attachment pairings. The authors' findings suggest the importance of marital therapists being attuned to the attachment-related beliefs and interpersonal styles uniquely operating within each couple. PMID:23252639

  17. Attached-growth biological reactor

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, D.J.; Heiland, W.K.

    1991-12-16

    An attached growth biological reactor for the growth and harvesting of filamentous fungi has been developed. The reactor contains a rigid cylinder which is partially submerged and rotated in a biological medium containing nutrients for fungal growth and which has been inoculated with a filamentous fungal medium. The filamentous fungi attaches itself to and grows upon the cylinder wherein it is removed by use of a doctoring blade. The reactor can be operated in a continuous mode by continuously supplying oxygen and nutrients to the reactor.

  18. Role of Teichoic Acid Choline Moieties in the Virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae▿

    PubMed Central

    Gehre, Florian; Spisek, Radek; Kharat, Arun S.; Matthews, Phillip; Kukreja, Anjli; Anthony, Robert M.; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Tomasz, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In recent reports it was shown that genetically modified choline-free strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (D39Cho−licA64 and D39ChiplicB31) expressing the type II capsular polysaccharide were virtually avirulent in the murine sepsis model, in sharp contrast to the isogenic and highly virulent strains D39Cho− and D39Chip, which have retained the choline residues at their surface. We now demonstrate that this choline-associated virulence is independent of Toll-like receptor 2 recognition. Also, despite the lack of virulence, choline-free strains of S. pneumoniae were able to activate splenic dendritic cells, induce secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and produce specific protective immunity against subsequent challenge. However, after this transient engagement of the immune system the choline-free bacteria were rapidly cleared from the blood, while the isogenic virulent strain D39Cho− continued to grow, accompanied by prolonged expression of cytokines, eventually killing the experimental animals. The critical contribution of choline residues to the virulence potential of pneumococci appears to be the role that these amino alcohol residues play in a pneumococcal immune evasion strategy, the mechanism of which is unknown at the present time. PMID:19433549

  19. The Isothiocyanato Moiety. An Ideal Protecting Group for Stereoselective Sialic Acid Glycoside Synthesis and Subsequent Diversification**

    PubMed Central

    Mandhapati, Appi Reddy; Rajender, Salla; Shaw, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of a crystalline, peracetyl adamantanyl thiosialoside donor protected by an isothiocyanate group is described. On activation at -78 C in the presence of typical carbohydrate acceptors this donor gives high yields of the corresponding sialosides with exquisite α-selectivity. The high selectivity extends to the 4-O-benzyl-protected 3-OH acceptors that are typically less reactive and selective than galactose 3,4-diols. Treatment of the α-sialosides with tris(trimethylsilyl)silane or allyltris(trimethylsilyl)silane sialosides replaces the C5-N5 bond by a C-H or a C-C bond. Reaction of the isothiocyanate-protected sialosides with thioacids achieves conversion into amides. Reaction of the isothiocyanate with an amine gives a thiourea, which can be converted to a guanidine. The very high α-selectivities observed with the new donor and the rich chemistry of the isothiocyante function considerably extend the scope for optimization at the sialoside 5-position. PMID:25446629

  20. Characterization and Rooting Ability of Indole-3-Butyric Acid Conjugates Formed during Rooting of Mung Bean Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Wiesman, Z; Riov, J; Epstein, E

    1989-11-01

    Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is rapidly metabolized by mung bean cuttings during rooting. Twenty-four hours after application, less than 20% of the applied IBA remained in the free form and its level decreased continuously in the later stages of rooting. Indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid (IBAsp) and at least two high molecular weight conjugates were the major metabolites in IBA-treated cuttings. In the latter conjugates, at least part of the IBA moiety is attached to a high molecular weight constituent in an amide linkage. IBAsp level peaked 24 hours after application of IBA to the cuttings and then declined. The level of the high molecular weight conjugates increased continuously throughout the rooting process. The conjugates were active in inducing rooting of cuttings, with IBAsp being superior to free IBA. It is suggested that IBA conjugates, and particularly IBAsp, serve as the source of auxin during the later stages of rooting. PMID:16667115

  1. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Series of Oleanolic Acid Saponins as α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tiantian; Wu, Shaoping; Guo, Sen; Bai, Lu; Liu, Qingchao; Bai, Naisheng

    2015-09-01

    Sixteen naturally occurring oleanolic acid saponins and their derivatives were synthesized in an efficient and practical strategy, and their inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase and α-amylase were evaluated in vitro. Among all the compounds, 28-O-monoglucoside 8 exhibited remarkably potent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 87.3 µM, which was fivefold stronger than that of the antidiabetic acarbose. Based on the preliminary structure-activity relationships, for 28-O-monoglucosides, the presence of a terminal α-l-rhamnopyranosyl residue enhanced the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. Furthermore, for 3,28-O-bidesmosides, sugar-substituted moieties attached to the C-3 and C-28 positions of the oleanolic acid scaffold are helpful to increase the inhibitory activities against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. PMID:26207761

  2. Attachment Processes in Eating Disorder and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole-Detke, Holland; Kobak, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between attachment strategies and symptom reporting among college women (N=61). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered and interview transcripts were rated with the Attachment Interview Q-Sort. Findings support the hypothesis that secondary or defensive attachment strategies predispose individuals toward…

  3. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of some 1-aryl/aralkyl piperazine derivatives with xanthine moiety at N4

    PubMed Central

    Andonova, Lily; Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina; Georgieva, Maya; Zlatkov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Piperazine nucleus is one of the most important heterocyclic systems exhibiting remarkable pharmacological activities. Thus, in the current study six new aryl/aralkyl substituted piperazine derivatives, containing methylxanthine moiety were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by IR and 1H NMR analysis. All compounds were in vitro screened for their activity as antioxidants using DPPH (2,2′-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzo thiazine-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant power) methods. The antioxidant activity of the studied compounds against lipid peroxidation was also measured. The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by compound 3c. It is obvious that the presence of a hydroxyl group in the structure is essential for the antioxidant properties and should be taken into consideration in further design of structures with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:26019603

  4. Systemic delivery of messenger RNA for the treatment of pancreatic cancer using polyplex nanomicelles with a cholesterol moiety.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Satoshi; Kinoh, Hiroaki; Ishii, Takehiko; Matsui, Akitsugu; Tockary, Theofilus Agrios; Takeda, Kaori Machitani; Uchida, Hirokuni; Osada, Kensuke; Itaka, Keiji; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    Systemic delivery of messenger RNA (mRNA) is technically challenging because mRNA is highly susceptible to enzymatic degradation in the blood circulation. In this study, we used a nanomicelle-based platform, prepared from mRNA and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-polycation block copolymers. A cholesterol (Chol) moiety was attached to the ω-terminus of the block copolymer to increase the stability of the nanomicelle by hydrophobic interaction. After in vitro screening, polyaspartamide with four aminoethylene repeats in its side chain (PAsp(TEP)) was selected as the cationic segment of the block copolymer, because it contributes to enhance nuclease resistance and high protein expression from the mRNA. After intravenous injection, PEG-PAsp(TEP)-Chol nanomicelles showed significantly enhanced blood retention of mRNA in comparison to nanomicelles without Chol. We used the nanomicelles for treating intractable pancreatic cancer in a subcutaneous inoculation mouse model through the delivery of mRNA encoding an anti-angiogenic protein (sFlt-1). PEG-PAsp(TEP)-Chol nanomicelles generated efficient protein expression from the delivered mRNA in tumor tissue, resulting in remarkable inhibition of the tumor growth, whereas nanomicelles without Chol failed to show a detectable therapeutic effect. In conclusion, the stabilized nanomicelle system led to the successful systemic delivery of mRNA in therapeutic application, holding great promise for the treatment of various diseases. PMID:26763736

  5. Synthesis and herbicidal activity evaluation of novel α-amino phosphonate derivatives containing a uracil moiety.

    PubMed

    Che, Jian-yi; Xu, Xiao-yun; Tang, Zi-long; Gu, Yu-cheng; Shi, De-qing

    2016-02-15

    A series of novel α-amino phosphonate derivatives containing a uracil moiety 3a-3l were designed and synthesized by a Lewis acid (magnesium perchlorate) catalyzed the Kabachnik-Fields reaction. The bioassays {in vitro, in vivo [Glass House 1 (GH1) and Glass House 2 (GH2)]} showed that most of compounds 3 exhibited excellent and selective herbicidal activities; for example, in GH1 test, compounds 3b, 3d, 3f, 3h and 3j showed excellent and wide spectrum herbicidal activities at the dose of 1000 g/ha, and compounds 3b and 3j exhibited 100% inhibition activities against the four plants in both post- and pre-emergence treatments. Moreover, most of compounds 3 showed higher inhibition against Amaranthus retroflexus and Digitaria sanguinalis than Glyphosate did in pre-emergence treatment. In GH2 test, the four compounds (3b, 3d, 3h and 3j) exhibited 100% inhibition against Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus and Ipomoea hederacea in post-emergence treatment and displayed 100% inhibition against Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus in pre-emergence treatment at the rate of 250 g/ha, and compound 3b showed the best and broad spectrum herbicidal activities against the six test plants. However, the four compounds displayed weaker herbicidal activities against Lolium perenne and Echinochloa crus-galli than the other four plants at the rate of 250 g/ha in both pre- and post-emergence treatments. So, compounds 3 can be used as a lead compound for further structure optimization for developing potential selective herbicidal agent. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships were also investigated. PMID:26786699

  6. Ligand-modified polyelectrolyte-enhanced ultrafiltration with electrostatic attachment of ligands. 2. Use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid/cationic polyelectrolyte mixtures to remove both cations and anions from aqueous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncay, M. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK ); Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Taylor, R.W.; Scamehorn, J.F. )

    1994-12-01

    A mixture of a cationic polyelectrolyte, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) or PDADMAC, and the anionic ligand diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) can be added to aqueous streams as a water-soluble colloid to bind simultaneously divalent cations, such as Cu[sup 2+] and Pb[sup 2+], and anions, such as CrO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  7. Thinking of attachments reduces noradrenergic stress response.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Chan, Lilian

    2015-10-01

    Although there is much evidence that activating mental representations of attachments figure is beneficial for psychological health and can reduce stress response, no research has directly investigated whether attachment activation can ameliorate hormonal stress response. This study investigated whether activating an attachment figure or a non-attachment figure following administration of a socially evaluated cold pressor test to elicit stress impacted on glucocorticoid and noradrenergic response. Participants (N = 61) provided baseline salivary samples, underwent a cold pressor test, then imagined an attachment or non-attachment figure, and finally provided subsequent saliva samples. Participants who imagined a non-attachment figure had greater noradrenergic response following the stressor than those who imagined an attachment figure. These findings highlight that activating attachment representations can ameliorate the immediate noradrenergic stress response. PMID:26115145

  8. Dissociative Electron Attachment to Thymine: Bond and Site Selectivity in Different Molecular Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denifl, Stephan; Ptasińska, Sylwia; Zappa, Fabio; Mähr, Ingo; Grill, Verena; Probst, Michael; Illenberger, Eugen; Märk, Tilmann D.; Scheier, Paul

    2007-04-01

    Low energy electrons effectively decompose thymine via dissociative electron attachment inducing H loss below 3 eV and H- loss above 5 eV. Experiments with partially deuterated or methylated thymine show that the site of dehydrogenation can be precisely controlled by the incident electron energy. Such bond and site selectivity also remains in more complex environments when thymine is a moiety of thymidine (base+sugar unit) and of a thymine cluster embedded in a superfluid helium droplet. Implications for the interpretation of strand breaks in plasmid DNA induced by low energy electrons are discussed.

  9. Dissociative attachment reactions of electrons with gas phase superacids

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.

    1992-01-01

    Using the flowing afterglow Langmuir probe (FALP) technique, dissociative attachment coefficients [beta] for reactions of electrons with gas phase superacids HCo(PF[sub 3])[sub 4], HRh(PF[sub 3])[sub 4] and carbonyl hydride complexes HMn(CO)[sub 5], HRe(CO)[sub 5] have been determined under thermal conditions over the approximate temperature range 300[approximately]550 K. The superacids react relatively slowly (<1/20 of [beta][sub max]) with free electrons in a thermal plasma, and the values of [beta] obtained this far do not show a correlation between acidity and [beta]. The pioneer researchers in this field had speculated that any superacid would be a rapid attacher of electrons; it was found that this speculation is not true in general. The product distribution of electron attachment reaction to HCo(PF[sub 3])[sub 4] was found to be independent of temperature even though the [beta][HCo(PF[sub 3])[sub 4

  10. Organic functionalization of the germanium(100)- 2 x 1 semiconductor interface: Reaction chemistry, selective attachment strategies, and molecular layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filler, Michael Aaron

    The explosive advancement in microelectronics technology and overall trend toward molecular devices, coupled with the tailorability inherent in organic molecules, have sparked interest in combined inorganic/organic systems. As a result, the attachment of organic molecules to the (100)-2x1 reconstructed, group IV semiconductor surfaces of silicon and germanium has received considerable attention in recent years. The well characterized surface structure and range of attachment configurations possible for the direct, covalent organic functionalization of semiconductor surfaces may uniquely enable the construction of the organic/semiconductor interface with molecular level precision and control. To develop a fundamental understanding of the chemical principles that govern reactions of carbonyl-containing compounds on these surfaces, carboxylic acids, acyl halides, tertiary amides, and formaldehyde were experimentally and theoretically investigated on Ge(100)-2x1 under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We found that initial dative bond formation is a common motif observed for these compounds and subsequent surface reaction often leads to products which are analogous to those reported on clean transition metal surfaces. The observation of charge transfer, bidentate surface structures, as well as a catalytic coupling reaction suggests that the semi-metallic character of, and moderate strength bonds formed with, germanium substantially influence the reactivity of this surface. The controlled deposition of nanoscale organic films with precisely tailored properties and useful functionalities will likely be required for molecular devices, and layer-by-layer reaction of multifunctional molecules appears to be a promising synthetic strategy with which to achieve these layers. An essential prerequisite to this type of deposition is the selective attachment of multifunctional compounds at the semiconductor interface, with retention of at least one reactive moiety. Our studies of

  11. Domino syntheses of bioactive tetronic and tetramic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schobert, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Natural products containing tetronic acid or tetramic acid moieties continue to attract the interest of chemists, biologists, and physicians due to their challenging structures and to the wide range of biological activities they display. This review portrays the structural varieties of tetronic and tetramic acids and the spectrum of possible therapeutically relevant effects in man for exemplary derivatives. Their biosynthetic origin from α-amino and α-hydroxy acids is briefly discussed as is the relationship between their structures and their modes of interaction with biochemical effectors such as metal cations or enzymes. A short overview of laboratory syntheses of the heterocyclic core structures of tetramic and tetronic acids is provided with an emphasis on those emulating the biosynthesis. A synthesis from the α-amino or α-hydroxy esters and the cumulated phosphorus ylide Ph3PCCO based upon a domino addition-intra-Wittig alkenation sequence is presented with applications to the preparation of the antibiotics reutericyclin and tenuazonic acid, the cytotoxic melophlin B, and the enzyme inhibitor RK-682. Procedural advantages of immobilizing either starting component by attaching it to a resin and its exploitation in the parallel synthesis of libraries of potential drug candidates are described. The basic domino reaction can even be extended by further C-C bond forming steps when starting from suitable α-hydroxy or α-amino allyl esters. Depending on the chosen reaction conditions, bioactive intermediates of formally three to seven step long cascades can be obtained. Among them, herbicidal 3-alkyltetronic acids and lactone endoperoxides with antiplasmodial activity exceeding that of the natural antimalarial lead artemisinin. Hence, this domino reaction gives access to diversely functionalized derivatives of tetronic and tetramic acids. As it can also be ported to solid phase, it is ideally suited for parallel and combinatorial processing. Future developments

  12. Attachment role of gonococcal pili. Optimum conditions and quantitation of adherence of isolated pili to human cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, W A; Buchanan, T M

    1978-01-01

    Gonoccocal pili facilitate attachment of virulent Neisseria gonorrhoeae to human cells. To characterize this attachment function, purified gonococcal pili isolated from four strains possessing antigenically distinct pili were radiolabeled with 125I and used to measure the attachment of pili to various human cells in vitro. Human buccal and cervical-vaginal mucosal epithealial cells, fallopian tube mucosa, and sperm bound pili in greater numbers per micrometer2 of surface area (1--10) than fetal tonsil fibroblasts, HeLa M cells, erythrocytes, or polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This cell specificity of attachment suggests a greater density of membrane pili binding sites on cells similar or identical to cells from natural sites of infection. The pili binding sites were quantitated as 1 X 10(4) per cervical-vaginal squamous cell. Pili of all antigenic types attached equally to a given cell type, implying that the attachment moiety of each pilus was similar. Attachement of gonoccocal pili to human cells occurred quickly with saturation of presumed receptor sites within 20--60 min. Attachment was temperature dependent (37 degrees greater than 20 degrees greater than 4 degrees C), and pH dependent (3.5 less than 4.5 less than 5.5 less than 7.5). Attachment was inhibited by antibody to pili (homologous pili Ab greater than heterologous Ab). The extent of possible protection against gonococcal infection due to inhibition of pili-mediated attachment might prove limited as a result of the considerable antigenic heterogeneity among pili and the observation that blockage of pili attachment is maximal only with antibody to pili of the infecting strain. Images PMID:96134

  13. Domain Walls with Strings Attached

    SciTech Connect

    Shmakova, Marina

    2001-08-20

    We have constructed a bulk and brane action of IIA theory which describes a pair of BPS domain walls on S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2}, with strings attached. The walls are given by two orientifold O8-planes with coincident D8-branes and F1-D0-strings are stretched between the walls. This static configuration satisfies all matching conditions for the string and domain wall sources and has 1/4 of unbroken supersymmetry.

  14. Characterisation of the Native Lipid Moiety of Echinococcus granulosus Antigen B

    PubMed Central

    Obal, Gonzalo; Ramos, Ana Lía; Silva, Valeria; Lima, Analía; Batthyany, Carlos; Bessio, María Inés; Ferreira, Fernando; Salinas, Gustavo; Ferreira, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    Antigen B (EgAgB) is the most abundant and immunogenic antigen produced by the larval stage (metacestode) of Echinococcus granulosus. It is a lipoprotein, the structure and function of which have not been completely elucidated. EgAgB apolipoprotein components have been well characterised; they share homology with a group of hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) present exclusively in cestode organisms, and consist of different isoforms of 8-kDa proteins encoded by a polymorphic multigene family comprising five subfamilies (EgAgB1 to EgAgB5). In vitro studies have shown that EgAgB apolipoproteins are capable of binding fatty acids. However, the identity of the native lipid components of EgAgB remains unknown. The present work was aimed at characterising the lipid ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo. EgAgB was purified to homogeneity from hydatid cyst fluid and its lipid fraction was extracted using chloroform∶methanol mixtures. This fraction constituted approximately 40–50% of EgAgB total mass. High-performance thin layer chromatography revealed that the native lipid moiety of EgAgB consists of a variety of neutral (mainly triacylglycerides, sterols and sterol esters) and polar (mainly phosphatidylcholine) lipids. Gas-liquid chromatography analysis showed that 16∶0, 18∶0 and 18∶1(n-9) are the most abundant fatty acids in EgAgB. Furthermore, size exclusion chromatography coupled to light scattering demonstrated that EgAgB comprises a population of particles heterogeneous in size, with an average molecular mass of 229 kDa. Our results provide the first direct evidence of the nature of the hydrophobic ligands bound to EgAgB in vivo and indicate that the structure and composition of EgAgB lipoprotein particles are more complex than previously thought, resembling high density plasma lipoproteins. Results are discussed considering what is known on lipid metabolism in cestodes, and taken into account the Echinococcus spp. genomic information regarding both lipid

  15. Synthesis of 4-substituted nipecotic acid derivatives and their evaluation as potential GABA uptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hellenbrand, Tim; Höfner, Georg; Wein, Thomas; Wanner, Klaus T

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we disclose the design and synthesis of novel 4-susbtituted nipecotic acid derivatives as inhibitors of the GABA transporter mGAT1. Based on molecular modeling studies the compounds are assumed to adopt a binding pose similar to that of the potent mGAT1 inhibitor nipecotic acid. As substitution in 4-position should not cause an energetically unfavorable orientation of nipecotic acid as it is the case for N-substituted derivatives this is expected to lead to highly potent binders. For the synthesis of novel 4-substituted nipecotic acid derivatives a linear synthetic strategy was employed. As a key step, palladium catalyzed cross coupling reactions were used to attach the required biaryl moieties to the ω-position of the alkenyl- or alkynyl spacers of varying length in the 4-position of the nipecotic acid scaffold. The resulting amino acids were characterized with respect to their binding affinities and inhibitory potencies at mGAT1. Though the biological activities found were generally insignificant to poor, two compounds, one of which possesses a reasonable binding affinity for mGAT1, rac-57, the other a notable inhibitory potency at mGAT4, rac-84, both displaying a slight subtype selectivity for the individual transporters, could be identified. PMID:27039250

  16. Attachment in integrative neuroscientific perspective.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Radovan; Hasto, Jozef; Minarik, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory is a very influential general concept of human social and emotional development, which emphasizes the role of early mother-infant interactions for infant's adaptive behavioural and stress copying strategies, personality organization and mental health. Individuals with disrupted development of secure attachment to mother/primary caregiver are at higher risk of developing mental disorders. This theory consists of the complex developmental psycho-neurobiological model of attachment and emerges from principles of psychoanalysis, evolutionary biology, cognitive-developmental psychology, ethology, physiology and control systems theory. The progress of modern neuroscience enables interpretation of neurobiological aspects of the theory as multi-level neural interactions and functional development of important neural structures, effects of neuromediattors, hormones and essential neurobiological processes including emotional, cognitive, social interactions and the special key role of mentalizing. It has multiple neurobiological, neuroendocrine, neurophysiological, ethological, genetic, developmental, psychological, psychotherapeutic and neuropsychiatric consequences and is a prototype of complex neuroscientific concept as interpretation of modern integrated neuroscience. PMID:21552202

  17. Preparation of Azafullerene C59NR5 and Fullerene Derivative C60NAr5 with a Pyridine Moiety on the Cage Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Lou, Ning; Li, Yanbang; Cui, Chengxing; Liu, Yajun; Gan, Liangbing

    2016-05-01

    [60]Fullerene hexaadducts C60R5Cl (R = OMe or Ar) reacted with hydroxylamine to form C60R5(NHOH) with the hydroxylamino group attached on the central pentagon as in the starting material. Further reactions including treatment with PCl5 and basic alumina led to the insertion of the nitrogen atom into the fullerene cage skeleton and decarbonylation to form azafullerenes C59N(H)(OMe)4 and C59N(OMe)5. The fullerene derivatives C59N(CO)R5 and C60NAr5 with a pyridinone and a pyridine moiety on the cage skeleton, respectively, were also synthesized starting from the hydroxylamine adducts. PMID:27091504

  18. Substituent effects on the properties of photochromic hybrid diarylethenes with a naphthalene moiety.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renjie; Dong, Xiaorong; Pu, Shouzhi; Liu, Gang

    2015-02-25

    Four new unsymmetrical photochromic diarylethenes bearing both naphthalene and thiophene moieties were synthesized, and the structures of two diarylethenes were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The naphthalene ring was connected directly to the central perfluorocyclopentene ring as an aryl moiety and available to participate in photoisomerization reaction. All the diarylethenes exhibited favorable photochromism and functioned as fluorescence switches in both solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) films. The electron-withdrawing substituent significantly shifted the absorption maxima to a longer wavelength and evidently suppressed the cycloreversion quantum yield, whereas the electron-donating substituents enhanced the fluorescence quantum yield of diarylethenes with a naphthalene moiety. Furthermore, cyclic voltammograms suggested that the oxidation onsets and band-gaps of the open-ring isomers were much bigger than those of the closed-ring isomers. The results indicated that the substituents at the 5-position of thiophene ring could availably modulate their optical and electrochemical behaviors. PMID:25305614

  19. Substituent effects on the properties of photochromic hybrid diarylethenes with a naphthalene moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Renjie; Dong, Xiaorong; Pu, Shouzhi; Liu, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Four new unsymmetrical photochromic diarylethenes bearing both naphthalene and thiophene moieties were synthesized, and the structures of two diarylethenes were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The naphthalene ring was connected directly to the central perfluorocyclopentene ring as an aryl moiety and available to participate in photoisomerization reaction. All the diarylethenes exhibited favorable photochromism and functioned as fluorescence switches in both solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) films. The electron-withdrawing substituent significantly shifted the absorption maxima to a longer wavelength and evidently suppressed the cycloreversion quantum yield, whereas the electron-donating substituents enhanced the fluorescence quantum yield of diarylethenes with a naphthalene moiety. Furthermore, cyclic voltammograms suggested that the oxidation onsets and band-gaps of the open-ring isomers were much bigger than those of the closed-ring isomers. The results indicated that the substituents at the 5-position of thiophene ring could availably modulate their optical and electrochemical behaviors.

  20. Assessment of the monoterpene, glycidic and triterpene-moieties' contributions to the adjuvant function of the CP05 saponin of Calliandra pulcherrima Benth during vaccination against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Nico, D; Santos, F N; Borja-Cabrera, G P; Palatnik, M; Palatnik de Sousa, C B

    2007-01-01

    The CP05 saponin from Calliandra pulcherrima Benth, shows remarkable similarities to the QS21 saponin of Quillaja saponaria Molina. Both shared a monoterpene hydrophobic moiety, a glycidic chain attached to the triterpene C28, and three sugars attached to C3. Different from QS21, the CP05 does not show the aldehyde group in triterpene C4 involved in TH1 response. Balb/c mice were immunized either intact saponin (CP05), the monoterpene-deprived (BS), the C28 carbohydrate-deprived (HS) or the sapogenin fraction, in formulation with the FML antigen of Leishmania donovani and challenged with 2 x 10(8) amastigotes of L. chagasi. While the CP05 induced 90% survival and 92.1% parasite reduction, a 100% survival and 94.1% protection were detected after the BS-vaccine treatment, indicating that the monoterpene acylated moiety, absent in the BS vaccine, is not necessary for the induction of a protective global TH1 response. Only the DTH response of BS vaccines was mildly lower than that of CP05 vaccinees. Maximal anti-FML antibody, CD4(+) and CD8(+) Leishmania specific lymphocytes, IFN-gamma splenocyte secretion, reduction in parasite load and survival was also detected for the BS vaccine. The HSFML vaccine showed diminished responses in all tested variables, except for IFN-gamma secretion, indicating that the integrity of the carbohydrate moiety attached to C28 is mandatory for the these functions. No protection was induced by the sapogenin-FML indicating that the CP05 triterpene which lacks the C4 aldehyde group, is not a immunostimulating compound. No contribution to protection was detected in the CP05 saponin treated control group supporting the specificity of the FML antigenic preparation. PMID:17014936

  1. Fluorescent Sensing of Guanine and Guanosine Monophosphate with Conjugated Receptors Incorporating Aniline and Naphthyridine Moieties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-Hung; Phang, Riping; Fang, Jim-Min

    2016-04-15

    Ethyne-linked naphthyridine-aniline conjugated molecules are selective sensors of decylguanine in dichloromethane and guanosine monophosphate in water (Kass = 16 000 M(-1)). The 2-acetamido-1,8-naphthyridine moiety binds with guanine in a DAA-ADD triply hydrogen-bonded motif. The aniline moiety enhances an electron-donating effect, and the substituent is tuned to attain extra hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking, and electrostatic interactions. The proposed binding modes are supported by a Job plot, ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectral analyses. PMID:27018895

  2. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Valinomycin Analog Bearing a Pentafluorophenyl Active Ester Moiety.

    PubMed

    D'Accolti, Lucia; Denora, Nunzio; La Piana, Gianluigi; Marzulli, Domenico; Siwy, Zuzanna S; Fusco, Caterina; Annese, Cosimo

    2015-12-18

    A valuable analog of the K(+)-ionophore valinomycin (1), bearing a pentafluorophenyl ester moiety, has been obtained by selective reaction between the tertiary hydroxyl moiety of analog 2 (available from valinomycin hydroxylation) and the isocyanate group of pentafluorophenyl N-carbonyl glycinate (3) catalyzed by bis(N,N-dimethylformamide)dichlorodioxomolybdenum(VI). LC-HRMS studies show that analog 4 undergoes easy derivatization under mild conditions by reaction with OH- and NH2-containing compounds. Mitochondrial depolarization assays suggest that 4 acts as a K(+)-ionophore, provided that the glycine carboxyl group is appropriately masked. PMID:26566090

  3. After Love: Attachment Styles and Grief Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1996-01-01

    Examines the association of attachment organization and recalled grief responses following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Data based on college students' (N=118) responses resulted in four interpretable grief themes. Preoccupied attachment predicted self-reproach, fearful attachment predicted partner blame, whereas both fearful and…

  4. Oxytocin enhances the experience of attachment security.

    PubMed

    Buchheim, Anna; Heinrichs, Markus; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Koops, Eva; Henningsen, Peter; O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Gündel, Harald

    2009-10-01

    Repeated interactions between infant and caregiver result in either secure or insecure relationship attachment patterns, and insecure attachment may affect individual emotion-regulation and health. Given that oxytocin enhances social approach behavior in animals and humans, we hypothesized that oxytocin might also promote the subjective experience of attachment security in humans. Within a 3-week interval, 26 healthy male students classified with an insecure attachment pattern were invited twice to an experimental session. At the beginning of each experiment, a single dose of oxytocin or placebo was administered intranasally, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design. In both conditions, subjects completed an attachment task based on the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Thirty-two AAP picture system presentations depicted attachment-related events (e.g. illness, solitude, separation, and loss), and were each accompanied by four prototypical phrases representing one secure and three insecure attachment categories. In the oxytocin condition, a significant proportion of these insecure subjects (N=18; 69%) increased in their rankings of the AAP prototypical "secure attachment" phrases and decreased in overall ranking of the "insecure attachment" phrases. In particular, there was a significant decrease in the number of subjects ranking the pictures with "insecure-preoccupied" phrases from the placebo to the oxytocin condition. We find that a single dose of intranasally administered oxytocin is sufficient to induce a significant increase in the experience of attachment security in insecurely attached adults. PMID:19457618

  5. Attachment in Deaf Mothers and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Irene W.; Brice, Patrick J.; Meadow-Orlans, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    In attachment research, there has been a growing interest in how adults conceptualize their relationships with their own parents as well as in the transmission of attachment status from parent to child and the variables that influence that transmission. The primary goal of the present study was to examine the transmission of attachment from deaf…

  6. Genetic and Environmental Influence on Attachment Disorganization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Gottfried; Johann, Monika; Ronai, Zsolt; Zimmermann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background: Empirical studies demonstrate that maternal sensitivity is associated with attachment security in infancy, while maternal frightening/frightened behavior is related to attachment disorganization. However, attachment disorganization is also predicted by individual dispositions in infancy. Indeed, recent studies indicate a link between…

  7. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  8. Attachment Representation of Institutionalized Children in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsurada, Emiko

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study represents one of the first attachment investigations of Japanese children who have been institutionalized. Mental representation of attachment was assessed using George and Solomon's (1990, 1996, 2000) Attachment Doll Play Classification System of the Bretherton et al. (1990) doll play story stems. Participants were 32…

  9. Adolescents' Attachment and Coping with Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Michelle S.; Medway, Frederic J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how high school students cope with stress as a function of their attachment style. Data were gathered from 75 adolescent-parent pairs in Texas and included measures of attachment, coping style, life stress, and whom the respondent would turn to in times of stress. Adolescents' attachment security was positively related to…

  10. Attachment: Building Secure Relationships in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Attachment describes the unique human ability to form lasting relationships with others, and to maintain these relationships over time and distance. Research into attachment has shown that children have the potential to form many attachment relationships, and that each relationship can contribute to the child's growing sense of self. This booklet…

  11. Conjugation of Methotrexate-Amino Derivatives to Macromolecules through Carboxylate Moieties Is Superior Over Conventional Linkage to Amino Residues: Chemical, Cell-Free and In Vitro Characterizations

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Itzik; Fridkin, Mati; Shechter, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the possibility of introducing methotrexate (MTX) to the carboxylate rather than to the ε-amino side chains of proteins. We found that MTX—amino compounds covalently linked to the carboxylate moieties of macromolecules, undergo unusual peptide-bond cleavage, with the release of the MTX amino derivatives from the conjugates. This event takes place at an accelerated rate under acidic conditions, and at a slower rate at physiological pH values. The glutamate portion of MTX is responsible for this behavior, with little or no contribution of the p-aminobenzoate-pteridine ring that is linked to the α-amino side chain of the glutamate. Carboxylate-linked Fmoc-Glu-γ-CONH-(CH2)6-NH2 undergoes hydrolysis in a nearly indistinguishable fashion. A free α carboxylate moiety is essential for this effect. Carboxylate linked Fmoc-glutamic-amide-γ-CONH-(CH2)6-NH2 undergoes no hydrolysis under acidic conditions. Based on these findings, we engineered a cysteine specific MTX containing reagent. Its linkage to bovine serum albumin (BSA) yielded a conjugate with profound antiproliferative efficacy in a MTX-sensitive glioma cell line. In conclusion, carboxylate linked MTX-amino derivatives in particular, and carboxylate linked R-α-GLU-γ amino compounds in general are equipped with‘built-in chemical machinery’ that releases them under mild acidic conditions. PMID:27403959

  12. Split ring containment attachment device

    DOEpatents

    Sammel, Alfred G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device 10 for operatively connecting a glovebag 200 to plastic sheeting 100 covering hazardous material. The device 10 includes an inner split ring member 20 connected on one end 22 to a middle ring member 30 wherein the free end 21 of the split ring member 20 is inserted through a slit 101 in the plastic sheeting 100 to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting 100. A collar potion 41 having an outer ring portion 42 is provided with fastening means 51 for securing the device 10 together wherein the glovebag 200 is operatively connected to the collar portion 41.

  13. Preferred Attachment in Affiliation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloznelis, Mindaugas; Götze, Friedrich

    2014-08-01

    Vertices of an affiliation network are linked to attributes and two vertices are declared adjacent whenever they share a common attribute. For example, two customers of an internet shop (or video-sharing website) are called adjacent if they have purchased (or downloaded) the same or similar items. Assuming that each newly arrived customer is linked preferentially to already popular items we obtain a preferred attachment affiliation network that evolves in time. We show that the fraction of customers having neighbours scales as for large . Here is the ratio between the two intensities: intensity of the flow of customers and that of the newly arriving items.

  14. Inactivation of Vibrio anguillarum by Attached and Planktonic Roseobacter Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    D'Alvise, Paul W.; Melchiorsen, Jette; Porsby, Cisse H.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Gram, Lone

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibition of Vibrio by Roseobacter in a combined liquid-surface system. Exposure of Vibrio anguillarum to surface-attached roseobacters (107 CFU/cm2) resulted in significant reduction or complete killing of the pathogen inoculated at 102 to 104 CFU/ml. The effect was likely associated with the production of tropodithietic acid (TDA), as a TDA-negative mutant did not affect survival or growth of V. anguillarum. PMID:20118354

  15. Covalent attachment of Anderson-type polyoxometalates to single-walled carbon nanotubes gives enhanced performance electrodes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuanchun; Hu, Jun; Huang, Lujiang; Chen, Wei; Streb, Carsten; Song, Yu-Fei

    2015-04-20

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) covalently functionalized with redox-active organo-modified polyoxometalate (POM) clusters have been synthesized and employed as electrode materials in lithium ion batteries. The Anderson cluster [MnMo6 O24 ](9-) is functionalized with Tris (NH2 C(CH2 OH)3 ) moieties, giving the new organic-inorganic hybrid [N(nC4 H9 )4 ]3 [MnMo6 O18 {(OCH2 )3 CNH2 }2 ]. The compound is then covalently attached to carboxylic acid-functionalized SWNTs by amide bond formation and the stability of this nanocomposite is confirmed by various spectroscopic methods. Electrochemical analyses show that the nanocomposite displays improved performance as an anode material in lithium ion batteries compared with the individual components, that is, SWNTs and/or Anderson clusters. High discharge capacities of up to 932 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 mA cm(-2) can be observed, together with high long-term cycling stability and decreased electrochemical impedance. Chemisorption of the POM cluster on the SWNTs is shown to give better electrode performance than the purely physisorbed analogues. PMID:25765945

  16. Utilizing copper(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition for the surface modification of colloidal particles with electroactive and emissive moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rungta, Parul

    " chemistry; Aqueous-phase 83 nm poly(propargyl acrylate) (PA) nanoparticles were surface-functionalized with sparingly water soluble fluorescent moieties through a copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) (i.e., "click" transformation) to produce fluoroprobes with a large Stokes shift. For moieties which could not achieve extensive surface coverage on the particles utilizing a standard click transformation procedure, the presence of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) during the transformation enhanced the grafting density onto the particles. For an oxadiazole containing molecule (AO), an azide-modified coumarin 6 (AD1) and a polyethylene glycol modified naphthalimide-based emitter (AD2), respectively, an 84%, 17% and 5% increase in the grafting densities were observed, when the transformation was performed in the presence of beta-CD. In contrast, a carbazolyl-containing moiety (AC) exhibited a slight retardation in the final grafting density when beta-CD was employed. Photoluminescence studies indicated that AC & AO when attached to the particles form an exciplex. An efficient energy transfer from the exciplex to the surface attached AD2 resulted in a total Stokes shift of 180 nm for the modified particles. (3) The synthesis and characterization of near-infrared (NIR) emitting particles for potential applications in cancer therapy. PA particles were surface modified through the "click" transformation of an azide-terminated indocyanine green (azICG), an NIR emitter, and poly(ethylene glycol) (azPEG) chains of various molecular weights. The placement of azICG onto the surface of the particles allowed for the chromophores to complex with bovine serum albumin (BSA) when dispersed in PBS that resulted in an enhancement of the dye emission. In addition, the inclusion of azPEG with the chromophores onto the particle surface resulted in a synergistic nine-fold enhancement of the fluorescence intensity, with azPEGs of increasing molecular weight amplifying the response

  17. A molecular hybrid polyoxometalate-organometallic moieties and its relevance to supercapacitors in physiological electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnathambi, Selvaraj; Ammam, Malika

    2015-06-01

    Supercapacitors operating in physiological electrolytes are of great relevance for both their environmentally friendly aspect as well as the possibility to be employed for powering implantable microelectronic devices using directly biological fluids as electrolytes. Polyoxometalate (POMs) have been proven to be useful for supercapacitors in acidic media. However, in neutral pH, POMs are usually not stable. One relevant alternative is to stabilize POMs by pairing them with organic moieties to form hybrids. In this study, we combined K6P2Mo18O62·12H2O (P2Mo18) with Ru(bpy)3Cl2.6H2O (Ru(bpy)). The synthesis was carried out with and without the mild reducing agent KI. The hybrids were characterized by CHN analysis, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and cyclic voltammetry. CHN elemental analysis revealed that one mole [P2Mo18O62]6- is paired with 3 mol [Ru(bpy)3]2+ to form [Ru(bpy)3]3PMo18O62·nH2O. With KI present, [P2Mo18O62]6- is linked to 3.33 mol to yield [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O. Excess of Ru(bpy) in [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O was further confirmed by TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and cyclic voltammetry. In turn, hybrid composition is found to strongly influence the supercapacitor behavior. The hybrid rich in Ru(bpy) is found to perform better for supercapacitors in physiological electrolytes. 125 F g-1 and 68 F g-1 are the capacitance values obtained with [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O and [Ru(bpy)3]3PMo18O62·nH2O, respectively. In terms of specific energy densities, 3.5 Wh kg-1 and 2 Wh kg-1 were obtained for both hybrid simultaneously. The difference in supercapacitor performance between both hybrids is also noticed in impedance spectroscopy which showed that [Ru(bpy)3]3.33PMo18O62·mH2O has lower electron transfer resistance if compared to [Ru(bpy)3]3PMo18O62·nH2O. Finally, if compared of parent K6P2Mo18O62·12H2O, the stability of both hybrids is found to be highly improved.

  18. Methane production by attached film

    DOEpatents

    Jewell, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A method for purifying wastewater of biodegradable organics by converting the organics to methane and carbon dioxide gases is disclosed, characterized by the use of an anaerobic attached film expanded bed reactor for the reaction process. Dilute organic waste material is initially seeded with a heterogeneous anaerobic bacteria population including a methane-producing bacteria. The seeded organic waste material is introduced into the bottom of the expanded bed reactor which includes a particulate support media coated with a polysaccharide film. A low-velocity upward flow of the organic waste material is established through the bed during which the attached bacterial film reacts with the organic material to produce methane and carbon dioxide gases, purified water, and a small amount of residual effluent material. The residual effluent material is filtered by the film as it flows upwardly through the reactor bed. In a preferred embodiment, partially treated effluent material is recycled from the top of the bed to the bottom of the bed for further treatment. The methane and carbon dioxide gases are then separated from the residual effluent material and purified water.

  19. Preparation, spectral and biological investigation of formaldehyde-based ligand containing piperazine moiety and its various polymer metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shamim Ahmad; Nishat, Nahid; Parveen, Shadma; Rasool, Raza

    2011-10-01

    A novel tetradentate salicylic acid-formaldehyde ligand containing piperazine moiety (SFP) was synthesized by condensation of salicylic acid, formaldehyde and piperazine in presence of base catalyst, which was subjected for the preparation of coordination polymers with metal ions like manganese(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II). All the synthesized polymeric compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and electronic spectral studies. The thermal stability was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and thermal data revealed that all the polymer metal complexes show good thermal stability than their parent ligand. Electronic spectral data and magnetic moment values revealed that polymer metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) show an octahedral geometry while Cu(II) and Zn(II) show distorted octahedral and tetrahedral geometry respectively. The antimicrobial screening of the ligand and coordination polymers was done by using Agar well diffusion method against various bacteria and fungi. It was evident from the data that antibacterial and antifungal activity increased on chelation and all the polymer metal complexes show excellent antimicrobial activity than their parent ligand.

  20. Preparation, spectral and biological investigation of formaldehyde-based ligand containing piperazine moiety and its various polymer metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shamim Ahmad; Nishat, Nahid; Parveen, Shadma; Rasool, Raza

    2011-10-15

    A novel tetradentate salicylic acid-formaldehyde ligand containing piperazine moiety (SFP) was synthesized by condensation of salicylic acid, formaldehyde and piperazine in presence of base catalyst, which was subjected for the preparation of coordination polymers with metal ions like manganese(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II). All the synthesized polymeric compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR and electronic spectral studies. The thermal stability was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and thermal data revealed that all the polymer metal complexes show good thermal stability than their parent ligand. Electronic spectral data and magnetic moment values revealed that polymer metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) show an octahedral geometry while Cu(II) and Zn(II) show distorted octahedral and tetrahedral geometry respectively. The antimicrobial screening of the ligand and coordination polymers was done by using Agar well diffusion method against various bacteria and fungi. It was evident from the data that antibacterial and antifungal activity increased on chelation and all the polymer metal complexes show excellent antimicrobial activity than their parent ligand. PMID:21757398

  1. Fluoride-induced modulation of ionic transport in asymmetric nanopores functionalized with ``caged'' fluorescein moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mubarak; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Ramirez, Patricio; Nasir, Saima; Cervera, Javier; Niemeyer, Christof M.; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a nanofluidic fluoride sensing device based on a single conical pore functionalized with ``caged'' fluorescein moieties. The nanopore functionalization is based on an amine-terminated fluorescein whose phenolic hydroxyl groups are protected with tert-butyldiphenylsilyl (TBDPS) moieties. The protected fluorescein (Fcn-TBDPS-NH2) molecules are then immobilized on the nanopore surface via carbodiimide coupling chemistry. Exposure to fluoride ions removes the uncharged TBDPS moieties due to the fluoride-promoted cleavage of the silicon-oxygen bond, leading to the generation of negatively charged groups on the fluorescein moieties immobilized onto the pore surface. The asymmetrical distribution of these groups along the conical nanopore leads to the electrical rectification observed in the current-voltage (I-V) curve. On the contrary, other halides and anions are not able to induce any significant ionic rectification in the asymmetric pore. In each case, the success of the chemical functionalization and deprotection reactions is monitored through the changes observed in the I-V curves before and after the specified reaction step. The theoretical results based on the Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations further demonstrate the validity of an experimental approach to fluoride-induced modulation of nanopore current rectification behaviour.

  2. The viability of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haopeng; Jae Ko, Yeon; Zhang, Xinxing; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H. E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu; Schnoeckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan W.; Jena, Puru; Kiran, Boggavarapu E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu; Kandalam, Anil K. E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu

    2014-03-28

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have investigated the extent to which the aluminum moieties within selected magnesium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Magnesium-aluminum cluster anions were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, photoelectron spectra of Mg{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup −} (m, n = 1,6; 2,5; 2,12; and 3,11) were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on these four stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for the cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra). Calculations revealed that, unlike the cases of recently reported sodium-aluminum clusters, the formation of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters was limited in most cases by weak charge transfer between the magnesium atoms and their aluminum cluster moieties. Only in cases of high magnesium content, e.g., in Mg{sub 3}Al{sub 11} and Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 12}{sup −}, did the aluminum moieties exhibit Zintl anion-like characteristics.

  3. Arsenic moiety in gallium arsenide is responsible for neuronal apoptosis and behavioral alterations in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Flora, Swaran J.S. Bhatt, Kapil; Mehta, Ashish

    2009-10-15

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), an intermetallic semiconductor finds widespread applications in high frequency microwave and millimeter wave, and ultra fast supercomputers. Extensive use of GaAs has led to increased exposure to humans working in semiconductor industry. GaAs has the ability to dissociate into its constitutive moieties at physiological pH and might be responsible for the oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at evaluating, the principle moiety (Ga or As) in GaAs to cause neurological dysfunction based on its ability to cause apoptosis, in vivo and in vitro and if this neuronal dysfunction translated to neurobehavioral changes in chronically exposed rats. Result indicated that arsenic moiety in GaAs was mainly responsible for causing oxidative stress via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, both in vitro and in vivo. Increased ROS further caused apoptosis via mitochondrial driven pathway. Effects of oxidative stress were also confirmed based on alterations in antioxidant enzymes, GPx, GST and SOD in rat brain. We noted that ROS induced oxidative stress caused changes in the brain neurotransmitter levels, Acetylcholinesterase and nitric oxide synthase, leading to loss of memory and learning in rats. The study demonstrates for the first time that the slow release of arsenic moiety from GaAs is mainly responsible for oxidative stress induced apoptosis in neuronal cells causing behavioral changes.

  4. The viability of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haopeng; Ko, Yeon Jae; Zhang, Xinxing; Gantefoer, Gerd; Schnoeckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan W; Jena, Puru; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Kandalam, Anil K; Bowen, Kit H

    2014-03-28

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have investigated the extent to which the aluminum moieties within selected magnesium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Magnesium-aluminum cluster anions were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, photoelectron spectra of MgmAln (-) (m, n = 1,6; 2,5; 2,12; and 3,11) were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on these four stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for the cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra). Calculations revealed that, unlike the cases of recently reported sodium-aluminum clusters, the formation of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters was limited in most cases by weak charge transfer between the magnesium atoms and their aluminum cluster moieties. Only in cases of high magnesium content, e.g., in Mg3Al11 and Mg2Al12 (-), did the aluminum moieties exhibit Zintl anion-like characteristics. PMID:24697443

  5. The viability of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haopeng; Jae Ko, Yeon; Zhang, Xinxing; Gantefoer, Gerd; Schnoeckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan W.; Jena, Puru; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Kandalam, Anil K.; Bowen, Kit H.

    2014-03-01

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have investigated the extent to which the aluminum moieties within selected magnesium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Magnesium-aluminum cluster anions were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, photoelectron spectra of MgmAln- (m, n = 1,6; 2,5; 2,12; and 3,11) were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on these four stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for the cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra). Calculations revealed that, unlike the cases of recently reported sodium-aluminum clusters, the formation of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters was limited in most cases by weak charge transfer between the magnesium atoms and their aluminum cluster moieties. Only in cases of high magnesium content, e.g., in Mg3Al11 and Mg2Al12-, did the aluminum moieties exhibit Zintl anion-like characteristics.

  6. Fluoride-induced modulation of ionic transport in asymmetric nanopores functionalized with "caged" fluorescein moieties.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mubarak; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Ramirez, Patricio; Nasir, Saima; Cervera, Javier; Niemeyer, Christof M; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2016-04-28

    We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a nanofluidic fluoride sensing device based on a single conical pore functionalized with "caged" fluorescein moieties. The nanopore functionalization is based on an amine-terminated fluorescein whose phenolic hydroxyl groups are protected with tert-butyldiphenylsilyl (TBDPS) moieties. The protected fluorescein (Fcn-TBDPS-NH2) molecules are then immobilized on the nanopore surface via carbodiimide coupling chemistry. Exposure to fluoride ions removes the uncharged TBDPS moieties due to the fluoride-promoted cleavage of the silicon-oxygen bond, leading to the generation of negatively charged groups on the fluorescein moieties immobilized onto the pore surface. The asymmetrical distribution of these groups along the conical nanopore leads to the electrical rectification observed in the current-voltage (I-V) curve. On the contrary, other halides and anions are not able to induce any significant ionic rectification in the asymmetric pore. In each case, the success of the chemical functionalization and deprotection reactions is monitored through the changes observed in the I-V curves before and after the specified reaction step. The theoretical results based on the Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations further demonstrate the validity of an experimental approach to fluoride-induced modulation of nanopore current rectification behaviour. PMID:27050623

  7. Isolated hydatid cyst in a single moiety of an incomplete duplex kidney.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshi, Vinod; Mishra, Shwetank; Bera, Malay Kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Isolated hydatid cyst of kidney is very rare. Hydatid cyst of a duplex renal system is even more rare. We report a 13-year old girl with duplex system of right kidney with isolated hydatid cyst in upper moiety. Right nephrectomy was done to cure the condition. PMID:25628991

  8. Can a Non-Chiral Object Be Made of Two Identical Chiral Moieties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMarechal, Jean Francois

    2008-01-01

    Several pedagogical objects can be used to discuss chirality. Here, we use the cut of an apple to show that the association of identical chiral moieties can form a non-chiral object. Octahedral chirality is used to find situations equivalent to the cut of the apple. (Contains 5 figures.)

  9. Attachment in romantic relationships and somatization.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eva; Sattel, Heribert; Gündel, Harald; Henningsen, Peter; Kruse, Johannes

    2015-02-01

    Adult attachment representations have been considered to play a role in the development and treatment of somatizing behavior. In this study, the associations between the two attachment dimensions avoidance and anxiety and dimensions of psychopathology (somatization, depression, and general anxiety) were explored. The sample consists of 202 outpatients diagnosed with a somatoform disorder. Data were collected via self-report measures. A path analysis shows that the two attachment dimensions are not directly associated with somatization. There are, however, significant indirect associations between attachment and somatization mediated by depression and general anxiety, which are more pronounced for attachment anxiety than for attachment avoidance. The findings reveal that a low level of attachment security in romantic relationships, especially an anxious stance toward the partner, comes along with poor mental health, which in turn is related to a preoccupation with somatic complaints. Implications for the treatment of somatizing patients are discussed. PMID:25594785

  10. Transfer of fatty acids from the 1-position of phosphatidyl-ethanolamine to the major outer membrane lipoprotein of E coli

    SciTech Connect

    Jackowski, S.; Rock, C.O.

    1986-05-01

    The fatty acids esterified to Braun's lipoprotein are derived from the phospholipid pool in E. coli. Mutants lacking acyl-CoA synthetase activity (fadD) incorporated extracellular fatty acids specifically into the 1-position of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). This pathway was blocked by chloramphenicol and was depressed by preventing the acylation of the amino terminus of the lipoprotein with globomycin. Transfer of fatty acids to lipoprotein was investigated in fadD mutants harboring hybrid plasmids containing either the lipoprotein gene or a lipoprotein-..beta..-lactamase gene fusion under control of the lactose promoter. Labeling of the 1-position of the PtdEtn pool prior to induction of lipoprotein biosynthesis resulted in the transfer of fatty acids from PtdEtn to the lipoproteins. Induction of lipoprotein synthesis in the presence of exogenous (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate increased the amount of radioactivity entering the PtdEtn pool and efficiently labeled lipoprotein acyl moieties. Lipoprotein fatty acids derived from the 1-position of PtdEtn were resistant to hydroxylamine hydrolysis, and globomycin reduced the incorporation of exogenous (1-/sup 14/C)palmitic acid into lipoproteins by 80% suggesting that the fatty acid is attached to the amino terminus. These data illustrate the metabolic relationship between turnover of fatty acids in the 1-position of PtdEtn and the maturation of the major outer membrane lipoprotein.

  11. Conformers of Kojic Acid and Their Near-IR-Induced Conversions: Long-Range Intramolecular Vibrational Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Anna; Reva, Igor; Lapinski, Leszek; Rostkowska, Hanna; Fausto, Rui; Nowak, Maciej J

    2016-05-01

    Conformational transformations were investigated for molecules of kojic acid trapped in low-temperature argon and nitrogen matrixes. Two conformers, differing from each other by 120° rotation of the hydroxymethyl (-CH2OH) moiety, were found to be populated in freshly deposited matrixes, prior to any irradiation. Matrixes containing isolated monomers of kojic acid were irradiated with narrowband, tunable near-infrared (near-IR) laser light. Excitations at wavenumbers corresponding to the overtone of the stretching vibration of the OH bond of the hydroxymethyl group led to conversion of one of the observed conformers into another. The direction of this conformational transformation depended on the wavenumber (within the 7126-7115 cm(-1) range) used for irradiation. The same conformational photoconversion was also observed to occur upon narrowband irradiation at much lower wavenumbers (from the 6468-6447 cm(-1) range). Near-IR light from this range selectively excites overtone vibrations of the OH group directly attached to the heterocyclic ring. Such an observation provides a convincing evidence of a long-range vibrational energy transfer from the initially excited OH group (directly attached to the ring) to the remote hydroxymethyl fragment which changes its orientation. Structural changes, occurring in matrix-isolated molecules of kojic acid upon near-IR excitation, were monitored by FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:27070389

  12. Dissociative Attachment Reactions of Electrons with Gas Phase Superacids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xifan

    Using the flowing afterglow Langmuir probe (FALP) technique, dissociative attachment coefficients beta for reactions of electrons with gas phase superacids HCo(PF_3)_4, HRh(PF _3)_4 and carbonyl hydride complexes HMn(CO)_5, HRe(CO) _5 have been determined under thermal conditions over the approximate temperature range 300~ 550 K. The superacids react relatively slowly (< 1/20 of beta_{rm max}) with free electrons in a thermal plasma, and the values of beta obtained this far do not show a correlation between acidity and beta. The pioneer researchers in this field had speculated that any superacid would be a rapid attacher of electrons; we found that this speculation is not true in general. The product distribution of electron attachment reaction to HCo(PF_3)_4 was found to be independent of temperature even though the beta (HCo(PF_3)_4 ) increases with temperature. This leads us to propose that the electron attachment process occurs well before the excited complex dissociates. In addition, the activation energy of HCo(PF_3)_4 for electron attachment has been derived from the Arrhenius plots. The carbonyl hydride complexes, HMn(CO) _5 and HRe(CO)_5, react relatively rapidly (>1/4 of beta_{rm max}) with free electrons in thermal plasma. This indicates that these reactions cannot be significantly endothermic. Observation of rapid attachment for these non-superacids shows that the Mn-CO and Re-CO bonds are weaker than the Mn-H and Re-H bonds, respectively. Comparisons between the carbonyl and trifluorophosphine cases implies that fast electron capture is related more to the CO ligand than to the transition -metal species.

  13. Use of locked nucleic acid oligonucleotides to add functionality to plasmid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hertoghs, Kirsten M. L.; Ellis, Jonathan H.; Catchpole, Ian R.

    2003-01-01

    The available reagents for the attachment of functional moieties to plasmid DNA are limiting. Most reagents bind plasmid DNA in a non-sequence- specific manner, with undefined stoichiometry, and affect DNA charge and delivery properties or involve chemical modifications that abolish gene expression. The design and ability of oligonucleotides (ODNs) containing locked nucleic acids (LNAs) to bind supercoiled, double-stranded plasmid DNA in a sequence-specific manner are described for the first time. The main mechanism for LNA ODNs binding plasmid DNA is demonstrated to be by strand displacement. LNA ODNs are more stably bound to plasmid DNA than similar peptide nucleic acid (PNA) ‘clamps’ for procedures such as particle-mediated DNA delivery (gene gun). It is shown that LNA ODNs remain associated with plasmid DNA after cationic lipid-mediated transfection into mammalian cells. LNA ODNs can bind to DNA in a sequence-specific manner so that binding does not interfere with plasmid conformation or gene expression. Attachment of CpG-based immune adjuvants to plasmid by ‘hybrid’ phosphorothioate–LNA ODNs induces tumour necrosis factor-α production in the macrophage cell line RAW264.7. This observation exemplifies an important new, controllable methodology for adding functionality to plasmids for gene delivery and DNA vaccination. PMID:14530430

  14. Unique N-Glycan Moieties of the 66-kDa Cell Wall Glycoprotein from the Red Microalga Porphyridium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Arad, Shoshana (Malis); Harvey, David J.; Parsons, Thomas B.; Fairbanks, Antony; Tekoah, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    We report here the structural determination of the N-linked glycans in the 66-kDa glycoprotein, part of the unique sulfated complex cell wall polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. Structures were elucidated by a combination of normal phase/reverse phase HPLC, positive ion MALDI-TOF MS, negative ion electrospray ionization, and MS/MS. The sugar moieties of the glycoprotein consisted of at least four fractions of N-linked glycans, each composed of the same four monosaccharides, GlcNAc, Man, 6-O-MeMan, and Xyl, with compositions Man8–9Xyl1–2Me3GlcNAc2. The present study is the first report of N-glycans with the terminal Xyl attached to the 6-mannose branch of the 6-antenna and to the 3-oxygen of the penultimate (core) GlcNAc. Another novel finding was that all four glycans contain three O-methylmannose residues in positions that have never been reported before. Although it is known that some lower organisms are able to methylate terminal monosaccharides in glycans, the present study on Porphyridium sp. is the first describing an organism that is able to methylate non-terminal mannose residues. This study will thus contribute to understanding of N-glycosylation in algae and might shed light on the evolutionary development from prokaryotes to multicellular organisms. It also may contribute to our understanding of the red algae polysaccharide formation. The additional importance of this research lies in its potential for biotechnological applications, especially in evaluating the use of microalgae as cell factories for the production of therapeutic proteins. PMID:21515680

  15. Strand-specific attachment of avidin-spheres to double-stranded poliovirus RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, O C; Ehrenfeld, E; Manning, J

    1979-01-01

    Poliovirus-specific double-stranded RNA molecules containing covalently attached protein were coupled with a biotin ester through the protein moiety. Subsequent interaction of the RNA-biotin with avidin attached to electronopaque plastic spheres led to the formation of complexes that were easily visualized in the electron microscope. Avidinspheres were associated only with one end of the RNA-biotin molecules, as seen in the electron microscope. Avidin-sphere attachment to poliovirus double-stranded RNA is strand specific, as shown by molecular hybridization of strand-specific probes to the separated strands of denatured complexes. [3H]DNA complementary to polio virion RNA hybridized exclusively to the strands bearing associated spheres [(+) strands] whereas 125I-labeled virion RNA hybridized predominantly with strands without spheres [(-)strands]. This biotin-avidin labeling technique provides a means for the isolation of full-length poliovirus (-) strands and may provide a general means for isolation of double-stranded polynucleotides containing tightly attached protein. Images PMID:218216

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acid with a Lysine Side Chain at the β-Position: Synthesis and Application for DNA Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Toru; Kuwata, Keiko; Imamura, Yasutada; Demizu, Yosuke; Kurihara, Masaaki; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of new β-Lys peptide nucleic acid (PNA) monomers and their incorporation into a 10-residue PNA sequence. PNA containing β-Lys PNA units formed a stable hybrid duplex with DNA. However, incorporation of β-Lys PNA units caused destabilization of PNA-DNA duplexes to some extent. Electrostatic attractions between β-PNA and DNA could reduce this destabilization effect. Subsequently, bipyridine-conjugated β-Lys PNA was prepared and exhibited sequence selective cleavage of DNA. Based on the structures of the cleavage products and molecular modeling, we reasoned that bipyridine moiety locates within the minor groove of the PNA-DNA duplexes. The lysine side chain of β-PNA is a versatile handle for attaching various functional molecules. PMID:27373637

  17. Prediction of Substrate Removal Rates of Attached Microorganisms and of Relative Contributions of Attached and Suspended Communities at Field Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, David L.; Gattie, David K.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model composed of a direct proportionality relationship between bulk water velocities and field-determined second-order microbial transformation rate coefficients, and the relative rate coefficient of a benchmark chemical, was developed for estimating the substrate removal rates of rapidly degraded chemicals by attached organisms in shallow (<1 m deep) aquatic ecosystems. Data from 31 field experiments involving the addition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid methyl ester (2,4-DME) in nine field areas were used to determine a field-derived second-order rate coefficient for microbial transformation of the ester. By using 2,4-DME as a benchmark chemical, the model was used to predict microbial transformation rates of the butoxyethyl ester of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-DBE) at five other field sites. The predicted half-lives of 2,4-DBE varied 1,500-fold and were within about a threefold range or less of the measured half-lives. Under conditions of mass transport limitation, the contributions of attached microorganisms relative to total microbial activities at various field sites were related to the ratio of water velocity, U, and depth, D, showing that historical definitions of ecosystems according to flow and depth characteristics are also valid for describing the process-related structure of ecosystems. An equation was developed for predicting the relative contributions of attached and suspended communities with values of U and D for lotic and lentic ecosystems. On the basis of this equation, attached microorganisms were expected to be insignificant in deep lentic ecosystems and suspended microorganisms were expected to be insignificant in shallow lotic systems for the same process carried out by both populations. Neglecting epiphytic microorganisms, both suspended and attached organisms were expected to be significant in wetlands. PMID:16347556

  18. Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Analogs Substituted on the Nicotinic Acid and Adenine Ribosides. Effects on Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Trabbic, Christopher J.; Zhang, Fan; Walseth, Timothy F.; Slama, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a Ca2+ releasing intracellular second messenger in both mammals and echinoderms. We report that large functionalized substituents introduced at the nicotinic acid 5-position are recognized by the sea urchin receptor, albeit with a 20–500 fold loss in agonist potency. 5-(3-Azidopropyl)-NAADP was shown to release Ca2+ with an EC50 of 31 µM and to compete with NAADP for receptor binding with an IC50 of 56 nM. Attachment of charged groups to the nicotinic acid of NAADP is associated with loss of activity, suggesting that the nicotinate riboside moiety is recognized as a neutral zwitterion. Substituents (Br- and N3-) can be introduced at the 8-adenosyl position of NAADP while preserving high potency and agonist efficacy and an NAADP derivative substituted at both the 5-position of the nicotinic acid and at the 8-adenosyl position was also recognized although the agonist potency was significantly reduced. PMID:25826221

  19. A human anti-polysialic acid antibody as a potential treatment to improve function in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Watzlawik, Jens O.; Painter, Meghan M.; Wootla, Bharath; Rodriguez, Moses

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified a human monoclonal antibody, termed HIgM12 that stimulates spontaneous locomotor activity in a chronically demyelinating mouse model of multiple sclerosis. When tested as a molecular substrate, HIgM12 stimulated neurite outgrowth in vitro. We recently reported that polysialic acid (PSA) attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is one of the cellular antigens for HIgM12. Fluorescent double-labeling of astrocytes using HIgM12 and commercially available anti-PSA antibody showed dramatic co-localization. Neural tissue homogenates and primary CNS cultures from mice lacking the three major NCAM splice variants NCAM180, NCAM140 and NCAM120 (NCAM KO) were no longer able to bind HIgM12. Furthermore, enzymatic digestion of PSA on wild type (WT) glia abolished HIgM12-binding. Moreover, neurons and glia from NCAM KO animals did not attach to HIgM12-coated nitrocellulose in neurite outgrowth assays. We conclude that HIgM12 targets PSA attached to NCAM, and that the PSA moiety mediates neuronal and glial adhesion and subsequent neurite outgrowth in our in vitro assay. Therefore, this anti-PSA antibody may serve as a future therapeutic to stimulate functional improvement in multiple sclerosis patients and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    PubMed

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  1. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  2. Attachment fixation of the overdenture: part II.

    PubMed

    Mensor, M C

    1978-01-01

    Many attachment systems of the bar or stud type increase the stability of an overdenture. When selecting an attachment it is essential to consider the skill of the dentist-laboratory team as well as the dexterity of the patient and to use the easiest system that will still improve stabilization. Generally simplicity in design, ease of maintenance, and minimum leverage should be paramount considerations in selection. Use of a guide such as the EM Gauge and of the EM Attachment Selector significantly reduces the confusion in selecting attachments and increases the working armamentarium for stabilizing an overdenture. PMID:340660

  3. Oxytocin enhances the experience of attachment security

    PubMed Central

    Buchheim, Anna; Heinrichs, Markus; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Koops, Eva; Henningsen, Peter; O’Connor, Mary-Frances; Gundel, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Summary Repeated interactions between infant and caregiver result in either secure or insecure relationship attachment patterns, and insecure attachment may affect individual emotion-regulation and health. Given that oxytocin enhances social approach behavior in animals and humans, we hypothesized that oxytocin might also promote the experience of attachment security in humans. Within a 3-week interval 26 healthy male students classified with an insecure attachment pattern were invited twice to an experimental session. Within each session, a single dose of oxytocin or placebo was administered, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design. In both conditions, subjects completed an attachment task based on the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Thirty-two AAP picture system presentations depicted attachment-related events (e.g. illness, solitude, separation, loss), and were each accompanied by four prototypical phrases representing one secure and three insecure attachment categories. In the oxytocin condition, a significant proportion of these insecure subjects (N = 18; 69%) changed their rankings of “secure attachment” phrases towards the more appropriate for the AAP picture presentation, and the same subjects decreased in overall rating of the “insecure attachment” phrases. In particular, there was a significant decrease in the number of subjects ranking the pictures with “insecure-preoccupied” phrases from the placebo to the oxytocin condition. We find that a single dose of intranasally administered oxytocin is sufficient to induce a significant increase in the experience of attachment security in adults classified previously as insecure. PMID:19457618

  4. Synthesis and anticholinesterase activity of coumarin-3-carboxamides bearing tryptamine moiety.

    PubMed

    Ghanei-Nasab, Samaneh; Khoobi, Mehdi; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Marjani, Azam; Moradi, Alireza; Nadri, Hamid; Emami, Saeed; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    A number of N-(2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamides were synthesized and tested against AChE and BuChE. The in vitro assessment of the synthesized compounds 4a-o revealed that most of them had significant activity toward AChE. The SAR study demonstrated that the introduction of benzyloxy moiety on the 7-position of coumarin scaffold can improve the anti-AChE activity. The best result was obtained with 7-(4-fluorobenzyl)oxy moiety in the case of compound 4o, displaying IC50 value of 0.16 μM. Based on the docking study of AChE, the prototype compound 4o was laid across the active site and occupied both peripheral anionic site (PAS) and catalytic anionic site (CAS). PMID:27214510

  5. Decisive Interactions between the Heterocyclic Moiety and the Cluster Observed in Polyoxometalate-Surfactant Hybrid Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Otobe, Saki; Fujioka, Natsumi; Hirano, Takuro; Ishikawa, Eri; Naruke, Haruo; Fujio, Katsuhiko; Ito, Takeru

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid crystals were successfully obtained as single crystals by using polyoxotungstate anion and cationic dodecylpyridazinium (C12pda) and dodecylpyridinium (C12py) surfactants. The decatungstate (W10) anion was used as the inorganic component, and the crystal structures were compared. In the crystal comprising C12pda (C12pda-W10), the heterocyclic moiety directly interacted with W10, which contributed to a build-up of the crystal structure. On the other hand, the crystal consisting of C12py (C12py-W10) had similar crystal packing and molecular arrangement to those in the W10 crystal hybridized with other pyridinium surfactants. These results indicate the significance of the heterocyclic moiety of the surfactant to construct hybrid crystals with polyoxometalate anions. PMID:25894221

  6. Bilateral obstruction of bilaterally duplicated collecting systems requiring upper and lower moiety drainage.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J O; Cox, A; Rawal, B; Shelmerdine, S; Vasdev, N; Patel, A

    2016-04-01

    A 60-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer presented with bilateral obstruction of bilaterally duplicated renal collecting systems secondary to extrinsic compression from metastatic pelvic lymphadenopathy. Bilateral JJ ureteric stents were inserted, resulting in some improvement of renal function but a failure to normalise completely. Repeat computed tomography demonstrated bilateral duplex collecting systems with persisting obstruction of the undrained moieties. Selective puncture was performed to decompress the obstructed renal moieties for bilateral nephrostomy catheter insertion. This allowed renal function to improve sufficiently for the patient to be discharged and commence chemotherapy. This is the first reported case of bilaterally obstructed partially duplicated collecting systems and it illustrates the importance of recognising anatomical variants to tailor treatment appropriately. It also highlights the important relationship between urology and interventional radiology in the management of such complex patients. PMID:26985816

  7. Synthesis and properties of dicationic ionic liquids containing a siloxane structural moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhov, L. M.; Krasovskiy, V. G.; Chernikova, E. A.; Kapustin, G. I.; Kustov, L. M.; Koroteev, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Five new ionic liquids formed by doubly charged cations containing a siloxane moiety and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide anion are synthesized and characterized. Their thermal stability is studied by means of TGA; melting points (glass transition temperatures) and densities are measured. The temperature dependences of kinematic viscosity of the obtained ionic liquids are presented along with their approximations by the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation.

  8. The unprecedented J-aggregate formation of rhodamine moieties induced by 9-phenylanthracenyl substitution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sooyeon; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Tohnai, Norimitsu; Tachikawa, Takashi; Hisaki, Ichiro; Miyata, Mikiji; Majima, Tetsuro

    2015-07-25

    We report a substitution of 9-phenylanthracenyl group into rhodamine derivatives that can induce the J-aggregate formation of rhodamine moieties in the aqueous solution upon the addition of a halide ion. From X-ray crystallographic analysis, the dramatic red-shift in the absorption band (i.e. app. 100 nm) originates from the cooperative slipped-stacking of rhodamine and anthracene molecules. PMID:26095853

  9. Effects of organic moieties on the photoluminescence spectra of perovskite-type tin bromide based compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papavassiliou, George C.; Vidali, Maria-Sofia; Pagona, Georgia; Mousdis, George A.; Karousis, Nikolaos; Koutselas, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) and optical absorption (OA) spectra of some compounds of the type (SC)SnBr3, (BC)2SnBr4, and (SC)(BC)2Sn2Br7 (where SC is CH3NH3 + or Cs+; BC is C4H9NH3 + ,CH3C6H4CH2NH3 + ,C12H25NH3 + ,C18H37NH3 + and 1-naphthylmethyl ammonium group), in the forms of thin deposits on several substrates, are investigated. Generally, using the 350 nm as excitation line, the obtained PL spectra of compounds of the type (BC)2SnBr4 with short alkyl chain-length in the alkyl ammonium moiety, show broad and strong bands. For example, the PL spectra of compound (C4H9NH3)2SnBr4 exhibit a weak band at ca 475 nm, attributed to free-excitons and a broad and strong band at ca 570 nm, attributed to radiative decay of self-trapped excitons in the inorganic moiety. This is a bright yellow-orange emission, which can be seen by naked eye, even at room temperature. In the case of the compounds with long alkyl chain-length in the alkyl ammonium moiety, the PL spectra are dominated by an excitonic band, which occurs close to the corresponding fundamental OA edge. The PL spectrum of (1-naphthylmethyl ammonium)2SnBr4 shows the strong red band with main maxima at ca 603 and 642 nm, arising from tetramers of naphthyl moieties. Also, the PL spectra of the compounds of the type (SC)SnBr3 and (SC)(BC)2Sn2Br7, after grinding, show strong bands at 600-620 nm.

  10. A Phage Display Screening Derived Peptide with Affinity for the Adeninyl Moiety

    PubMed Central

    Elmlund, Louise; Söderberg, Pernilla; Suriyanarayanan, Subramanian; Nicholls, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Phage display screening of a surface-immobilized adenine derivative led to the identification of a heptameric peptide with selectivity for adenine as demonstrated through quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies. The peptide demonstrated a concentration dependent affinity for an adeninyl moiety decorated surface (KD of 968 ± 53.3 μM), which highlights the power of piezoelectric sensing in the study of weak interactions. PMID:25587414

  11. Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel triazole compounds containing piperazine moiety.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwei; Xu, Kehan; Bai, Guojing; Huang, Lei; Wu, Qiuye; Pan, Weihua; Yu, Shichong

    2014-01-01

    Design and synthesis of triazole library antifungal agents having piperazine side chains, analogues to fluconazole were documented. The synthesis highlighted utilization of the click chemistry on the basis of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase (CYP51). Their structures were characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS and IR. The influences of piperazine moiety on in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. PMID:25090121

  12. Activation of microcarrier-attached lymphocytes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechler, B.; Cogoli, A.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Muller, O.; Hunzinger, E.; Criswell, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    A technology has been developed to achieve optimal attachment of adhesion-independent lymphocytes to microcarrier beads. The activation of T-lymphocytes by concanavalin A was tested under microgravity conditions in an experiment carried out in space during the first Spacelab Life Science Mission. Activation, measured as the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the production of interferon-gamma, more than doubled in attached lymphocytes in microgravity. The depression of the activation discovered in previous space experiments is due to an impairment not of the lymphocyte but of the macrophage function. The system described here may be useful for radiobiological investigations on the effect of high-energy particles and for testing the efficiency of the immune system in humans during the long-duration space flight planned in the future. The biotechnological significance of the increased lymphokine production in space remains to be assessed.

  13. Biliprotein maturation: the chromophore attachment

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, H; Zhao, K-H

    2008-01-01

    Biliproteins are a widespread group of brilliantly coloured photoreceptors characterized by linear tetrapyrrolic chromophores, bilins, which are covalently bound to the apoproteins via relatively stable thioether bonds. Covalent binding stabilizes the chromoproteins and is mandatory for phycobilisome assembly; and, it is also important in biliprotein applications such as fluorescence labelling. Covalent binding has, on the other hand, also considerably hindered biliprotein research because autocatalytic chromophore additions are rare, and information on enzymatic addition by lyases was limited to a single example, an EF-type lyase attaching phycocyanobilin to cysteine-α84 of C-phycocyanin. The discovery of new activities for the latter lyases, and of new types of lyases, have reinvigorated research activities in the subject. So far, work has mainly concentrated on cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins. Methodological advances in the process, however, as well as the finding of often large numbers of homologues, opens new possibilities for research on the subsequent assembly/disassembly of the phycobilisome in cyanobacteria and red algae, on the assembly and organization of the cryptophyte light-harvesting system, on applications in basic research such as protein folding, and on the use of phycobiliproteins for labelling. PMID:18284595

  14. Smartphone attachment for stethoscope recording.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    With the ubiquity of smartphones and the rising technology of 3D printing, novel devices can be developed that leverage the "computer in your pocket" and rapid prototyping technologies toward scientific, medical, engineering, and creative purposes. This paper describes such a device: a simple 3D-printed extension for Apple's iPhone that allows the sound from an off-the-shelf acoustic stethoscope to be recorded using the phone's built-in microphone. The attachment's digital 3D files can be easily shared, modified for similar phones and devices capable of recording audio, and in combination with 3D printing technology allow for fabrication of a durable device without need for an entire factory of expensive and specialized machining tools. It is hoped that by releasing this device as an open source set of printable files that can be downloaded and reproduced cheaply, others can make use of these developments where access to cost-prohibitive, specialized medical instruments are not available. Coupled with specialized smartphone software ("apps"), more sophisticated and automated diagnostics may also be possible on-site. PMID:25626549

  15. Identifying all moiety conservation laws in genome-scale metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Andrea; De Martino, Daniele; Mulet, Roberto; Pagnani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The stoichiometry of a metabolic network gives rise to a set of conservation laws for the aggregate level of specific pools of metabolites, which, on one hand, pose dynamical constraints that cross-link the variations of metabolite concentrations and, on the other, provide key insight into a cell's metabolic production capabilities. When the conserved quantity identifies with a chemical moiety, extracting all such conservation laws from the stoichiometry amounts to finding all non-negative integer solutions of a linear system, a programming problem known to be NP-hard. We present an efficient strategy to compute the complete set of integer conservation laws of a genome-scale stoichiometric matrix, also providing a certificate for correctness and maximality of the solution. Our method is deployed for the analysis of moiety conservation relationships in two large-scale reconstructions of the metabolism of the bacterium E. coli, in six tissue-specific human metabolic networks, and, finally, in the human reactome as a whole, revealing that bacterial metabolism could be evolutionarily designed to cover broader production spectra than human metabolism. Convergence to the full set of moiety conservation laws in each case is achieved in extremely reduced computing times. In addition, we uncover a scaling relation that links the size of the independent pool basis to the number of metabolites, for which we present an analytical explanation. PMID:24988199

  16. Identifying All Moiety Conservation Laws in Genome-Scale Metabolic Networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The stoichiometry of a metabolic network gives rise to a set of conservation laws for the aggregate level of specific pools of metabolites, which, on one hand, pose dynamical constraints that cross-link the variations of metabolite concentrations and, on the other, provide key insight into a cell's metabolic production capabilities. When the conserved quantity identifies with a chemical moiety, extracting all such conservation laws from the stoichiometry amounts to finding all non-negative integer solutions of a linear system, a programming problem known to be NP-hard. We present an efficient strategy to compute the complete set of integer conservation laws of a genome-scale stoichiometric matrix, also providing a certificate for correctness and maximality of the solution. Our method is deployed for the analysis of moiety conservation relationships in two large-scale reconstructions of the metabolism of the bacterium E. coli, in six tissue-specific human metabolic networks, and, finally, in the human reactome as a whole, revealing that bacterial metabolism could be evolutionarily designed to cover broader production spectra than human metabolism. Convergence to the full set of moiety conservation laws in each case is achieved in extremely reduced computing times. In addition, we uncover a scaling relation that links the size of the independent pool basis to the number of metabolites, for which we present an analytical explanation. PMID:24988199

  17. Threading moieties play a significant role in determining the DNA binding properties of binuclear ruthenium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramanathan, Thayaparan; Clark, Andrew; Westerlund, Fredrik; Lincoln, Per; McCauley, Micah J.; Rouzina, Ioulia; Williams, Mark C.

    2015-03-01

    Binuclear ruthenium complexes are of interest due to their selective DNA binding properties, which make them potential candidates for chemotherapy. These dumbbell shaped molecules have to thread through the DNA base pairs to reach their final threaded intercalation state. Here we study the binuclear ruthenium complex, ΔΔ -[ μ-bidppz(bpy)4Ru2]4+ and compare it with the previously studied ΔΔ -[ μ-bidppz(phen)4Ru2]4+. Both have the same intercalating bridge unit, but different threading moieties. In this study, we stretch a single DNA molecule held with optical tweezers in the presence of the ligand at various concentrations and hold the DNA at constant force until an equilibrium DNA elongation is reached. The extension of the DNA obtained as a function of time during binding yields the kinetics and equilibrium binding properties of the ligand. The preliminary data suggests that the binuclear complex with bpy in the threading moiety shows stronger affinity and an order of magnitude faster on rate, compared to its counterpart with phen in the threading moiety. This confirms the hypothesis that the extra aromatic ring of phen interferes with the threading intercalation process.

  18. Polymeric media comprising polybenzimidazoles N-substituted with organic-inorganic hybrid moiety

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Michael G [Pocatello, ID

    2009-12-15

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be included in a separator medium. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2-- where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The separatory medium may exhibit an H.sub.2, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.3, or CO.sub.2 gas permeability greater than the gas permeability of a comparable separatory medium comprising the PBI compound without substitution. The separatory medium may further include an electronically conductive medium and/or ionically conductive medium. The separatory medium may be used as a membrane (semi-permeable, permeable, and non-permeable), a barrier, an ion exhcange media, a filter, a gas chromatography coating (such as stationary phase coating in affinity chromatography), etc.

  19. Peptide nanofibers modified with a protein by using designed anchor molecules bearing hydrophobic and functional moieties.

    PubMed

    Miyachi, Ayaka; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Matsumura, Sachiko; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2010-06-11

    Self-assembly of peptides and proteins is a key feature of biological functions. Short amphiphilic peptides designed with a beta-sheet structure can form sophisticated nanofiber structures, and the fibers are available as nanomaterials for arranging biomolecules. Peptide FI (H-PKFKIIEFEP-OH) self-assembles into nanofibers with a coiled fine structure, as reported in our previous work. We have constructed anchor molecules that have both a binding moiety for the fiber structure and a functional unit capable of capturing target molecules, with the purpose of arranging proteins on the designed peptide nanofibers. Designed anchors containing an alkyl chain as a binding unit and biotin as a functional moiety were found to bind to peptide fibers FI and F2i (H-ALEAKFAAFEAKLA-NH(2)). The surface-exposed biotin moiety on the fibers could capture an anti-biotin antibody. Moreover, hydrophobic dipeptide anchor units composed of iminodiacetate connected to Phe-Phe or Ile-Ile and a peptide composed of six histidine residues connected to biotin could also connect FI peptide fibers to the anti-biotin antibody through the chelation of Ni(2+) ions. This strategy of using designed anchors opens a novel approach to constructing nanoscale protein arrays on peptide nanomaterials. PMID:20419712

  20. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Ganglioside Hp-s1 Analogues Varying at Glucosyl Moiety.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jung-Tung; Yeh, Chun-Hong; Yang, Shih-An; Lin, Chiu-Ya; Tai, Hung-Ju; Shelke, Ganesh B; Reddy, Daggula Mallikarjuna; Yu, Alice L; Luo, Shun-Yuan

    2016-08-17

    Ganglioside Hp-s1 is isolated from the ovary of sea urchin Diadema setosum. It exhibited better neuritogenic activity than GM1 in pheochromocytoma 12 cells. To explore the roles of glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 in contributing to the neurogenic activity, we developed feasible procedures for synthesis of Hp-s1 analogues (2a-2f). The glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 was replaced with α-glucose, α-galactose, β-galactose, α-mannose, and β-mannose, and their biological activities on SH-SY5Y cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells were evaluated. We found that the orientation of C-2 hydroxyl group at glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 plays an important role to induce neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. Surprisingly, compound 2d could activate NKT cells to produce interleukin 2, although it did not show great activity on neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. In general, the Hp-s1 might be considered as a lead compound for the development of novel drugs aimed at modulating the activity of neuronal cells. PMID:27276519

  1. Structural characterization of the N-glycan moiety and site of glycosylation in vitellogenin from the decapod crustacean Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Khalaila, Isam; Peter-Katalinic, Jasna; Tsang, Clarence; Radcliffe, Catherine M; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Harvey, David J; Dwek, Raymond A; Rudd, Pauline M; Sagi, Amir

    2004-09-01

    Glycosylation is of importance for the structure and function of proteins. In the case of vitellin (Vt), a ubiquitous protein accumulated into granules as the main yolk protein constituent of oocytes during oogenesis, glycosylation could be of importantance for the folding, processing and transport of the protein to the yolk and also provides a source of carbohydrate during embryogenesis. Vt from the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus is synthesized as a precursor protein, vitellogenin (Vg), in the hepatopancreas, transferred to the hemolymph, and mobilized into the growing oocyte via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The gene sequence of C. quadricarinatus shows a 2584-amino-acid protein with 10 putative glycosylation sites. In this study a combined approach of lectin immunoblotting, in-gel deglycosylation, and mass spectrometry was used to identify the glycosylation sites and probe the structure of the glycan moieties using C. quadricarinatus Vg as a model system. Three of the consensus sites for N-glycosylation-namely, Asn(152), Asn(160) and Asn(2493)-were glycosylated with the high-mannose glycans, Man(5-9)GlcNAc(2), and the glucose-capped oligosaccharide Glc(1)Man(9)GlcNAc(2). PMID:15175255

  2. Synthesis and Biological Activity Evaluation of Novel α-Amino Phosphonate Derivatives Containing a Pyrimidinyl Moiety as Potential Herbicidal Agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Long; Tang, Wu; Che, Jian-Yi; Chen, Kai; Yan, Gang; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Shi, De-Qing

    2015-08-19

    To find novel high-activity and low-toxicity herbicide lead compounds with novel herbicidal mode of action, series of novel α-amino phosphonate derivatives containing a pyrimidinyl moiety, I, II, III, and IV, were designed and synthesized by Lewis acid (magnesium perchlorate) catalyzed Mannich-type reaction of aldehydes, amines, and phosphites. Their structures were clearly identified by spectroscopy data (IR, (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR, EI-MS) and elemental analyses. The bioassay [in vitro, in vivo (GH1 and GH2)] showed that most compounds I exhibited good herbicidal activities; for example, the activities of compounds Ib, Ic, Ig, Ii, Ik, and Im were as good as the positive control herbicides (acetochlor, atrazine, mesotrione, and glyphosate). However, their structural isomers II and III and analogues IV did not display any herbicidal activities in vivo, although some of them possessed selective inhibitory activity against Arabidopsis thaliana in vitro. Interestingly, it was found that compounds IVs, IVt, and IVl showed selective insecticidal activities against Aphis species or Plutella xylostella, respectively. Their preliminary herbicidal mode of action and structure-activity relationships were also studied. PMID:26222653

  3. Attachment and the Child in School. Part I: Attachment Theory and the 'Dependent' Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Heather

    2003-01-01

    This article uses the framework of attachment theory to describe a behavior pattern, the anxious resistant/ambivalent attachment pattern. Examples from educational practice illustrate the condition. Possible intervention approaches are suggested. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  4. S. cerevisiae Mre11 recruits conjugated SUMO moieties to facilitate the assembly and function of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Jie; Chuang, Yu-Chien; Chuang, Chi-Ning; Cheng, Yun-Hsin; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Wang, Ting-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) in chromosomes are the most challenging type of DNA damage. The yeast and mammalian Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N)-Sae2/Ctp1 complex catalyzes the resection of DSBs induced by secondary structures, chemical adducts or covalently-attached proteins. MRX/N also initiates two parallel DNA damage responses—checkpoint phosphorylation and global SUMOylation—to boost a cell's ability to repair DSBs. However, the molecular mechanism of this SUMO-mediated response is not completely known. In this study, we report that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mre11 can non-covalently recruit the conjugated SUMO moieties, particularly the poly-SUMO chain. Mre11 has two evolutionarily-conserved SUMO-interacting motifs, Mre11SIM1 and Mre11SIM2, which reside on the outermost surface of Mre11. Mre11SIM1 is indispensable for MRX assembly. Mre11SIM2 non-covalently links MRX with the SUMO enzymes (E2/Ubc9 and E3/Siz2) to promote global SUMOylation of DNA repair proteins. Mre11SIM2 acts independently of checkpoint phosphorylation. During meiosis, the mre11SIM2 mutant, as for mre11S, rad50S and sae2Δ, allows initiation but not processing of Spo11-induced DSBs. Using MRX and DSB repair as a model, our work reveals a general principle in which the conjugated SUMO moieties non-covalently facilitate the assembly and functions of multi-subunit protein complexes. PMID:26743002

  5. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescent Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearon, Pasco; Shmueli-Goetz, Yael; Viding, Essi; Fonagy, Peter; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Twin studies consistently point to limited genetic influence on attachment security in the infancy period, but no study has examined whether this remains the case in later development. This study presents the findings from a twin study examining the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on attachment in…

  6. Attachment in Chronically Underweight Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Marta

    1990-01-01

    Assessed mother-infant attachment in a low-income population in Chile. Underweight children and children with adequate weight were classified as secure or anxious by means of the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Underweight children showed more anxious attachment, and anxious children showed the most serious weight deficits. (BC)

  7. Relation of attachment style with marital conflict.

    PubMed

    Besharat, Mohammad Ali

    2003-06-01

    During the last decade attachment theory has been used as a framework for understanding how adult relationships function. Attachment theory should focus exploration of whether attachment history might be related to later marital conflicts. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationship of attachment styles with marital conflicts. Subjects were 20 couples who entered couples therapy for their marital conflict and a sample of 20 university student couples. All answered the Adult Attachment Inventory and the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Marital State. The university couples described themselves as more securely attached to their partners than the married couples. The Anxious and Avoidant styles were associated with greater problems in the marital relationship. Secure, Anxious, and Avoidant attachment styles seemed to be associated with the quality of marital relationships. Couples who exhibited a Secure attachment style tended to be involved in relationships characterized by greater interdependence, trust, commitment, and satisfaction whereas those with insecure styles tended to be characterized by more problems. PMID:12931932

  8. Attachment Parenting: A Style That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, William

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of attachment parenting, which emphasizes parental commitment, a low-stress pregnancy, childbirth preparation, breast-feeding with child-led weaning, prompt response to the baby's crying, flexible sleeping arrangements, close-knit father-mother-baby functioning, and the avoidance of detachment parenting. Attachment parenting…

  9. Separation-individuation theory and attachment theory.

    PubMed

    Blum, Harold P

    2004-01-01

    Separation-individuation and attachment theories are compared and assessed in the context of psychoanalytic developmental theory and their application to clinical work. As introduced by Margaret Mahler and John Bowlby, respectively, both theories were initially regarded as diverging from traditional views. Separation-individuation theory, though it has had to be corrected in important respects, and attachment theory, despite certain limitations, have nonetheless enriched psychoanalytic thought. Without attachment an infant would die, and with severely insecure attachment is at greater risk for serious disorders. Development depends on continued attachment to a responsive and responsible caregiver. Continued attachment to the primary object was regarded by Mahler as as intrinsic to the process of separation-individuation. Attachment theory does not account for the essential development of separateness, and separation-individuation is important for the promotion of autonomy, independence, and identity. Salient historical and theoretical issues are addressed, including the renewed interest in attachment theory and the related decline of interest in separation-individuation theory. PMID:15222460

  10. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  11. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Precision attachment. 872.3165 Section 872.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3165 Precision attachment. (a) Identification....

  12. Attachment and Dependency in Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Distinguishes between attachment (the relationship between infant and caregiver) and dependency (the reliance of the child on adults for nurturance, attention, or assistance). Assesses preschool children with varying attachment histories and suggests that the roots of overdependency lie in the quality of the early infant-caregiver relationship.…

  13. Attachment Theory Applied to Juvenile Sex Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrow, Kenneth K.; Lim, Mee-Gaik

    1998-01-01

    Attachment theory is applied to identify systemic patterns encouraging juveniles to commit sexual offenses. The role of the helping system in perpetuating offenses is reviewed. The priority of family integrity and the role of professionals in breaking cycles of abuse and repairing earlier destructive emotional attachments are discussed. (EMK)

  14. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  15. Parent-Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumariu, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the centrality of both parent-child attachment and emotion regulation in children's development and adjustment, it is important to evaluate the relations between these constructs. This article discusses conceptual and empirical links between attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood, highlights progress and challenges in the…

  16. Attachment, Temperament, and Preschool Children's Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szewczyk-Sokolowski, Margaret; Bost, Kelly K.; Wainwright, Ada B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations between preschool children's attachment security, temperament, and peer acceptance. Ninety-eight preschool children and their mothers were recruited through childcare centers in the southeast. Mothers and their children participated in two two-hour home observations. Attachment security was assessed using the…

  17. Breast cancer screening: the role of attachment.

    PubMed

    Tuck, Natalie L; Consedine, Nathan S

    2015-01-01

    Attachment style is the dispositional way in which a person relates to others, and differences in attachment characteristics may offer insight into why many women do not adhere to breast screening guidelines. While mammograms involve contact with medical professionals, breast self-examination (BSE) does not, and may be preferable for women who dislike interpersonal vulnerability. As such, differences in the attachment characteristics that predict mammography versus BSE utilisation may indicate whether attachment related motivations are relevant to both interpersonal examinations and independent self-care behaviours. The current report examined how attachment dimensions predicted the frequency of mammography and BSE in a sample of 1204 ethnically diverse women from Brooklyn, New York. Participants completed measures of mammography and BSE frequency, and attachment, together with demographic, health care context and emotional predictors of screening. Multiple regressions showed that attachment dimensions predicted both mammography and BSE screening even when controlling for established predictors and emotion relevant variables. As hypothesised, fearful avoidance predicted fewer mammograms and BSEs, while preoccupation predicted more frequent BSEs. Consistent with some prior work in male cancer screening, greater attachment security also predicted fewer mammograms while degree of dismissiveness was not associated with screening frequencies. Understanding the psychosocial predictors of screening may help identify low screeners, and guide the development of targeted interventions that are better suited to the interpersonal preferences of older women. PMID:25192017

  18. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted…

  19. Attachment, Psychotherapy, and Assessment: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Morris N.

    2006-01-01

    This article, a commentary, discusses questions and issues generated by 7 articles (see records EJ750759, EJ750761, EJ750764, EJ750765, EJ750767, EJ750768, and EJ750769) on the relationship between attachment theory and research, and psychotherapy and clinical assessment. The issues include the following: attachment-based therapeutic…

  20. Community Attachment in a Rural Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goudy, Willis J.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two models of community-attachment, linear-development and systematic models, using data on social ties and local sentiments from survey respondents in Iowa communities. Linear-development variables (population size and density) relate weakly to community attachment. Systematic variables (residence length, income, and age) relate more…

  1. Attachment Representations and Time Perspective in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment to parents and peers, time perspective and psychological adjustment in adolescence. 2,665 adolescents (M age = 17.03 years, SD = 1.48) completed self-report measures about parent and peer attachment, time perspective, sympathy and self-determination. Subjects were divided into four groups…

  2. Investigation of the incidence of "undesirable" molecular moieties for high-throughput screening compound libraries in marketed drug compounds.

    PubMed

    Axerio-Cilies, Peter; Castañeda, Ivan P; Mirza, Amin; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2009-03-01

    A database of 1070 marketed drug compounds was compiled and analyzed in order to assess the occurrence of moieties described in the literature as "undesirable" for high-throughput screening compound libraries due to their ability to perturb assay formats. The study revealed a total of 277 compounds, 26% of the database, contained at least one of the moieties. As some of the drug compounds contained more than one "undesirable" moiety, the total number was 352. Electrophilic reactive groups, particularly aliphatic esters, were the most abundant type with 55% of the total. Half of the drug compounds incorporating the "undesirable" moieties were synthetic organic molecules. These findings suggest that "undesirable" moieties do not pose a major hindrance during clinical trials, the most expensive phase of drug development. In addition, their early elimination in the preclinical stage excludes large regions of known drug space due to the reliance on biochemical and cell-based assays. In general, it can be concluded that compounds with "undesirable" moieties should not simply be eliminated from compound screening libraries but rather be flagged as potentially problematic. A possible solution is to segregate the compounds containing suspect moieties and screen them when deemed appropriate. PMID:18692938

  3. Childhood Attachment and Adult Attachment in Incarcerated Adult Male Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallbone, Stephen W.; Dadds, Mark R.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-eight incarcerated sex offenders were compared with 16 property offenders and 16 nonoffenders on self-report measures of childhood maternal and paternal attachment and adult attachment. Results suggest that insecure childhood attachments may be related to offending behavior generally and that certain combinations of childhood attachment…

  4. Attachment and Autism: Parental Attachment Representations and Relational Behaviors in the Parent-Child Dyad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seskin, Lynn; Feliciano, Eileen; Tippy, Gil; Yedloutschnig, Ruby; Sossin, K. Mark; Yasik, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    While attachment research has demonstrated that parents' internal working models of attachment relationships tend to be transmitted to their children, affecting children's developmental trajectories, this study specifically examines associations between adult attachment status and observable parent, child, and dyadic behaviors among children with…

  5. Adult Attachment, Culturally Adjusted Attachment, and Interpersonal Difficulties of Taiwanese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…

  6. Adult Attachment as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner Violence : The "Mispairing" of Partners' Attachment Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…

  7. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    PubMed

    Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy; Mueller, Sven C; De Raedt, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years) completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information. PMID:25061662

  8. Attachment to spextrophotometers for measuring scattering patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Fsel'son, M.P.; Krikum, A.Z.; Sivyakov, Y.A.; Spivak, R.Y.

    1986-02-01

    The authors have developed a simple attachment to the Shimadsu MPS 50L spectrophotometer for measuring scattering patterns. The attachment is mounted directly at the cuvette section of the spectrophotometer. The radiation detector of the attachment is formed by an FR1-4 photoresistor disposed on the vertical section of a gamma-shaped bar adapted to be inclined by plus or minus 90 degrees with respect to the direction of the radiation beam. When the attachment is used, its radiation detector is connected into the measuring circuit of the spectrophotometer in place of the spectrophotometer's detector. When the spectrophotometer alone is used the detector of the attachment is moved out of the beam and the detector of the spectrophotometer proper is inserted into the measuring circuit.

  9. Attachment of Agrobacterium to plant surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Matthysse, Ann G.

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens binds to the surfaces of inanimate objects, plants, and fungi. These bacteria are excellent colonizers of root surfaces. In addition, they also bind to soil particles and to the surface of artificial or man-made substances, such as polyesters and plastics. The mechanisms of attachment to these different surfaces have not been completely elucidated. At least two types of binding have been described unipolarpolysaccharide-dependent polar attachment and unipolar polysaccharide-independent attachment (both polar and lateral). The genes encoding the enzymes for the production of the former are located on the circular chromosome, while the genes involved in the latter have not been identified. The expression of both of these types of attachment is regulated in response to environmental signals. However, the signals to which they respond differ so that the two types of attachment are not necessarily expressed coordinately. PMID:24926300

  10. The Antimicrobial Activity of Porphyrin Attached Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Lesley

    2008-03-01

    We are interested in testing the antimicrobial activity of a porphyrin that is attached to a polymer. The porphyrin (5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-pryridyl)) was synthesized from methyl 4-formyl benzoate, 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and pyrrole and attached to a copolymer of polystyrene/poly(vinyl benzyl chloride), which was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The antimicrobial activity of the polymer-attached porphyrin was then determined for gram-negative E. Coli grown to 0.80 OD. In this procedure, glass slides were coated with polymer-attached porphyrin via dip-coating, and the E. Coli bacteria were plated in Luria Broth media. The plates were subsequently exposed to light overnight before they were incubated as porphyrins act as photo-sensitizers when irradiated with light. The polymer-attached porphyrin did exhibit antimicrobial activity and parameters that affect its efficiency will be discussed.

  11. Attachment to groups: theory and measurement.

    PubMed

    Smith, E R; Murphy, J; Coats, S

    1999-07-01

    Aspects of people's identification with groups may be understood by borrowing theoretical ideas and measurement strategies from research on attachment in close relationships. People have mental models of the self as a group member and of groups as sources of identity and esteem. These models affect thoughts, emotions, and behaviors related to group membership. Three studies show that two dimensions of attachment to groups, attachment anxiety and avoidance, can be assessed with good reliability, validity, and over-time stability. These factors are distinct from relationship attachment and from other measures of group identification. Group attachment predicts several important outcomes, including emotions concerning the group, time and activities shared with a group, social support, collective self-esteem, and ways of resolving conflict. This conceptualization provides new insights into the nature of people's psychological ties to groups. PMID:10434410

  12. Continuous monitoring of bacterial attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeing, D. W.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A major concern with the Space Station Freedom (SSF) water supply system is the control of longterm microbial contamination and biofilm development in the water storage and distribution systems. These biofilms have the potential for harboring pathogens as well as microbial strains containing resistance factors that could negatively influence crew health. The proposed means for disinfecting the water system on SSF (iodine) may encourage the selection of resistant strains. In fact, biofilm bacteria were observed in water lines from the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102); therefore, an alternative remediation method is required to disinfect spacecraft water lines. A thorough understanding of colonization events and the physiological parameters that will influence bacteria adhesion is required. The limiting factor for development of this technology is the ability to continuously monitor adhesion events and the effects of biocides on sessile bacteria. Methods were developed to allow bacterial adhesion and subsequent biocidal treatment to be monitored continuously. This technique couples automated image analysis with a continuous flow of a bacterial suspension through an optical flow cell. A strain of Pseudomonas cepacia isolated from the water supply of the Space Shuttle Discovery (OV-103) during STS-39 was grown in a nitrogen-limited continuous culture. This culture was challenged continuously with iodine during growth, and the adhesion characteristics of this strain was measure with regard to flow rate. Various biocides (ozone, hypochlorite, and iodine) were added to the flow stream to evaluate how well each chemical removed the bacteria. After biocide treatment, a fresh bacterial suspension was introduced into the flow cell, and the attachment rate was evaluated on the previously treated surface. This secondary fouling was again treated with biocide to determine the efficacy of multiple batch chemical treatments in removing biofilm.

  13. Chemical modification and structure-activity relationships of pyripyropenes. 3. Synthetic conversion of pyridine-pyrone moiety.

    PubMed

    Obata, R; Sunazuka, T; Tian, Z; Tomoda, H; Harigaya, Y; Omura, S

    1997-03-01

    Structure-activity relationships of the pyridine-pyrone moiety in pyripyropene A (1), a potent acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor of fungal origin, were studied. Several kinds of aromatic or hetero ring substituents for the pyridine moiety were synthesized using unique degradation reaction, following by gamma-acylation. All the six synthesized analogs decreased the inhibitory activity with 20 to 200 times larger IC50 values than that of 1. Furthermore, the pyridine-pyrone substituent also dramatically decrease the inhibitory activity. Thus, the pyridine-pyrone moiety is important for eliciting potent ACAT inhibition. PMID:9127194

  14. Chemical modification and structure-activity relationships of pyripyropenes. 3. Synthetic conversion of pyridine-pyrone moiety

    PubMed

    Obata; Sunazuka; Tian; Tomoda; Harigaya; Omura

    1997-03-01

    Structure-activity relationships of the pyridine-pyrone moiety in pyripyropene A (1), a potent acyl-CoA : cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor of fungal origin, were studied. Several kinds of aromatic or hetero ring substituents for the pyridine moiety were synthesized using unique degradation reaction, following by gamma-acylation. All the six synthesized analogs decreased the inhibitory activity with 20 to 200 times larger IC50 values than that of 1. Furthermore, the pyridine-pyrone substituent also dramatically decrease the inhibitory activity. Thus, the pyridine-pyrone moiety is important for eliciting potent ACAT inhibition. PMID:9439694

  15. Relationship between chromatographic resolution and amide structure of chiral 2-hydroxy acids as O-(-)-menthoxycarbonylated diastereomeric derivatives for enantiomeric separation on achiral gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ho Jun; Kim, Ki Hun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Park, Ki Duk; Lee, Jaeick

    2016-02-15

    The relationship between chromatographic resolution and amide structure of chiral 2-hydroxy acids as O-(-)-menthoxycarbonylated diastereomeric derivatives on achiral gas chromatography was investigated to elucidate the best diastereomeric conformation for enantiomeric separation of chiral 2-hydroxy acids. Thirteen chiral 2-hydroxy acids were converted into nine different diastereomeric O-(-)-menthoxycarbonylated amide derivatives using the primary, secondary and cyclic amines to achieve complete enantiomeric separation through an achiral column. Each enantiomeric pair of 2-hydroxy acids as O-(-)-menthoxycarbonylated tert-butylamide derivatives was resolved on both the DB-5 and DB-17 columns with resolution factors ranging from 1.7 to 4.8 and 1.7 to 3.4, respectively. The results revealed that the structure of the amide moiety is shown to significantly affect chromatographic resolution. In addition, O-(-)-menthoxycarbonylated tert-butylamide derivatives were shown to be the best diastereomeric conformations for enantiomeric separation of 2-hydroxy acids. When comparing with our previous O-trifluoroacetylated(-)-menthyl ester derivatization method, the present results suggested that size differences between groups attached to the chiral center and conformational rigidity can have stronger effects on resolution than the distance between chiral centers. The elution of R- and S-stereoisomers was affected by the class of amine; i.e., primary, secondary, or cyclic, regardless of the substituents on the amine group, the structure of the 2-hydroxy acid, and the polarity of the column. PMID:26800225

  16. [Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of the derivatives of glycoside steviolbioside from the plant Stevia rebaudiana and diterpenoid isosteviol containing hydrazone, hydrazide and pyridinoyl moieties].

    PubMed

    Kataev, V E; Strobykina, I Iu; Andreeva, O V; Garifullin, B F; Sharipova, R R; Mironov, V F; Chestnova, R V

    2011-01-01

    Conjugates of antitubercular drug Isoniazid (hydrazide of isonicotinic acid), nicotinic and alpha-picolinic acid hydrazides and glycoside steviolbioside from the plant Stevia rebaudiana as well as the product of its acid hydrolysis, diterpenoid isosteviol, were synthesized. Besides, isosteviol hydrazide and hydrazone derivatives as well as conjugates containing two isosteviol moieties connected by dihydrazide linker were also obtained. Both initial compounds and their synthetic derivatives inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv in vitro). The minimum concentration at which the growth of M. tuberculosis was inhibited by 100% (MIC) for stevioside and steviolbioside equals 7.5 and 3.8 microg/mL, respectively. MIC values for conjugates of the hydrazides of pyridine carbonic acids and steviolbioside as well as isosteviol are in the ranges 5-10 and 10-20 microg/mL, respectively. Maximum inhibitory effect against M. tuberculosis showed the conjugates of isosteviol and adipic acid dihydrazide (MIC values ranged from 1.7 to 3.1 microg/mL). Antitubercular activity of the compounds studied is higher than the activity of antitubercular drug Pyrizanamide (MIC = 12.5-20 microg/mL) but lower than the activity of antitubercular drug Isoniazid (MIC = 0.02-0.04 microg/mL). PMID:22096997

  17. Electron attachment to the cytosine-centered DNA single strands: does base stacking matter?

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Wang, Jing; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2012-02-01

    Electron attachment to the trimer of nucleotide, dGpdCpdG, has been investigated by a quantum mechanical approach at a reliable level of theory. The study of the electron attached dGpdCpdG species demonstrates that cytosine contained DNA single strands have a strong tendency to capture low-energy electrons and to form electronically stable cytosine-centered radical anions. The comparative study of the model molecules pdCpdG and dGpdCp reveals that base stacking has little contribution to the adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of cytosine in DNA single strands. Additionally, the base-base stacking does not affect the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the cytosine-centered radicals. Intrastrand H-bonding is found to be critical in increasing the values of the AEA and VDE. However, base-base stacking is revealed to be important in enlarging the vertical electron affinity (VEA) of cytosine. The electron attachment to the cytosine moiety intensifies the intrastrand H-bonding between the neighboring G and C bases. This process disrupts the base-base stacking interaction in the radical anion of dGpdCpdG. PMID:22225006

  18. Site-selective chemical modification of chymotrypsin using peptidyl derivatives bearing optically active diphenyl 1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonate: Stereochemical effect of the diphenyl phosphonate moiety.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shin; Nakai, Takahiko; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Miyatake, Ryuta; Horino, Yoshikazu; Abe, Hitoshi; Umezaki, Masahito; Oyama, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Diphenyl (α-aminoalkyl)phosphonates act as mechanism-based inhibitors against serine proteases by forming a covalent bond with the hydroxy group of the active center Ser residue. Because the covalent bond was found to be broken and replaced by 2-pyridinaldoxime methiodide (2PAM), we employed a peptidyl derivative bearing diphenyl 1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonate moiety (Phe(p) (OPh)2 ) to target the active site of chymotrypsin and to selectively anchor to Lys175 in the vicinity of the active site. Previously, it was reported that the configuration of the α-carbon of phosphorus in diphenyl (α-aminoalkyl)phosphonates affects the inactivation reaction of serine proteases, i.e., the (R)-enantiomeric diphenyl phosphonate is comparable to l-amino acids and it effectively reacts with serine proteases, whereas the (S)-enantiomeric form does not. In this study, we evaluated the stereochemical effect of the phosphonate moiety on the selective chemical modification. Epimeric dipeptidyl derivatives, Ala-(R or S)-Phe(p) (OPh)2 , were prepared by separation with RP-HPLC. A tripeptidyl (R)-epimer (Ala-Ala-(R)-Phe(p) (OPh)2 ) exhibited a more potent inactivation ability against chymotrypsin than the (S)-epimer. The enzyme inactivated by the (R)-epimer was more effectively reactivated with 2PAM than the enzyme inactivated by the (S)-epimer. Finally, N-succinimidyl (NHS) active ester derivatives, NHS-Suc-Ala-Ala- (R or S)-Phe(p) (OPh)2 , were prepared, and we evaluated their action when modifying Lys175 in chymotrypsin. We demonstrated that the epimeric NHS derivative that possessed the diphenyl phosphonate moiety with the (R)-configuration effectively modified Lys175 in chymotrypsin, whereas that with the (S)-configuration did not. These results demonstrate the utility of peptidyl derivatives that bear an optically active diphenyl phosphonate moiety as affinity labeling probes in protein bioconjugation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 521-530, 2016

  19. Environmental and genetic influences on early attachment

    PubMed Central

    Gervai, Judit

    2009-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts and subsequent empirical research has amply demonstrated that individual variations in patterns of early attachment behaviour are primarily influenced by differences in sensitive responsiveness of caregivers. However, meta-analyses have shown that parenting behaviour accounts for about one third of the variance in attachment security or disorganisation. The exclusively environmental explanation has been challenged by results demonstrating some, albeit inconclusive, evidence of the effect of infant temperament. In this paper, after reviewing briefly the well-demonstrated familial and wider environmental influences, the evidence is reviewed for genetic and gene-environment interaction effects on developing early attachment relationships. Studies investigating the interaction of genes of monoamine neurotransmission with parenting environment in the course of early relationship development suggest that children's differential susceptibility to the rearing environment depends partly on genetic differences. In addition to the overview of environmental and genetic contributions to infant attachment, and especially to disorganised attachment relevant to mental health issues, the few existing studies of gene-attachment interaction effects on development of childhood behavioural problems are also reviewed. A short account of the most important methodological problems to be overcome in molecular genetic studies of psychological and psychiatric phenotypes is also given. Finally, animal research focusing on brain-structural aspects related to early care and the new, conceptually important direction of studying environmental programming of early development through epigenetic modification of gene functioning is examined in brief. PMID:19732441

  20. [Mechanical studies on dental magnetic attachments].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, S

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the force distribution when using magnetic attachments in removable partial denture. The experimental magnetic attachments used in this study consisted of Nd-Fe-B magnets covered with permendur yokes and permendur keepers. The magnetic parts were attached to the experimental plate which was made of a titanium plate and an acrylic resin base, while the keepers were attached to the abutment teeth. The retentive force was measured by pulling the experimental plate vertically and diagonally with a tensile testing machine. In addition, the three-dimensional stress distribution of the abutment was analyzed by the finite element method when the magnetic attachment was removed. The results were as follows: 1. The maximum retentive force of the plate was influenced by the total of the attractive force, while the minimum force was by the number and arrangement of the attachments. 2. In almost all cases, the magnetic attachments worked most effectively when their attractive force was the same for each other. 3. When the pulling force was vertically applied to the abutment, the maximum stress arose in the alveolar bone around the root tip, and, when the force was laterally applied, the maximum stress arose on the axis of the 1/3 upper portion of the root. PMID:8482913

  1. Preschool teacher attachment and attention skills.

    PubMed

    Commodari, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Attention underlies and energizes all cognitive and behavioral activities. Many studies showed that the quality of child attachment (both to parental and non parental figures) influences cognitive functions and attention. This study aimed to investigate the relationships among attachment to preschool teachers and attention in a sample of preschoolers. In particular, the study analyzed whether child attachment security to preschool teachers influences the different aspects of their attention skills. In addition, gender- and age-related differences in attention and teacher attachment were explored. Research was conducted using two standardized instruments: the Attention and Concentration Battery, and the Attachment Q Sort. Participants were 279 children (147 male, 132 female) who attended two preschools in a town in Southern Italy. Descriptive analyses, t-tests analyses, and correlation and regression analyses were carried out. Findings highlighted several interesting points concerning the relationships that occur among attachment to preschool teachers and attention. Children with secure attachments presented higher reaction time and better auditory, visual, and visual spatial selectivity and maintenance. PMID:24386619

  2. Synthesis and inhibitory effect on fat accumulation of (-)-ternatin derivatives modified in the beta-OH-D-Leu(7) moiety.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Kenichiro; Iwase, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Kaoru; Uemura, Daisuke

    2008-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of (-)-ternatin derivatives directed toward their SAR at the beta-OH-D-Leu(7) moiety and their biological activities against 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes are described. PMID:18075648

  3. Attachment of Agrobacteria to Grape Cells †

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xin-An; Goodman, R. N.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of the Ti plasmid favorably influences the attachment of agrobacteria to grape callus cells, especially during the early stages of a 2-h incubation. Agrobacterium strains attached to a similar extent to both the crown gall-resistant cultivar (Catawba), Vitis labruscana, and the crown gall-susceptible cultivar (Chancellor), Vitis sp. Attachment of the virulent strain to grape callus cells is blocked by the avirulent strain HLB-2 in both the tissue culture cell suspension and the seedling root systems. PMID:16349016

  4. Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-09-17

    A reusable system is described for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member. The locking cap has two opposing fingers shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed.

  5. Praziquantel inhibits Schistosoma mansoni attachment in vitro.

    PubMed

    da-Silva, S P; Noel, F

    1990-01-01

    Male adult Schistosoma mansoni worms were placed in a glass dish containing Tyrode solution and observed for 15 min after addition of praziquantel (0.01 to 1 microM). Praziquantel promoted a concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of sucker-mediated attachment of the worm. Attachment inhibition was correlated with shortening of the parasite. We propose that the rapid and total inhibition of worm attachment observed in vitro with 1 microM praziquantel indicates that therapeutic concentrations of this drug should promote a rapid hepatic shift, in vivo, which may facilitate host tissue reaction. PMID:2101049

  6. Single-wall carbon nanotube chemical attachment at platinum electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario-Castro, Belinda I.; Contés-de-Jesús, Enid J.; Lebrón-Colón, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.; Scibioh, M. Aulice; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2010-11-01

    Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) techniques were used to adsorb 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) on platinum electrodes in order to obtain an amino-terminated SAM as the base for the chemical attachment of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A physico-chemical, morphological and electrochemical characterizations of SWCNTs attached onto the modified Pt electrodes was done by using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The SWNTs/4-ATP/Pt surface had regions of small, medium, and large thickness of carbon nanotubes with heights of 100-200 nm, 700 nm to 1.5 μm, and 1.0-3.0 μm, respectively. Cyclic voltammetries (CVs) in sulfuric acid demonstrated that attachment of SWNTs on 4-ATP/Pt is markedly stable, even after 30 potential cycles. CV in ruthenium hexamine was similar to bare Pt electrodes, suggesting that SWNTs assembly is similar to a closely packed microelectrode array.

  7. Multiple roles of genome-attached bacteriophage terminal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Salas, Margarita

    2014-11-15

    Protein-primed replication constitutes a generalized mechanism to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes, including viruses, gram-positive bacteria, linear plasmids and mobile elements. By this mechanism a specific amino acid primes replication and becomes covalently linked to the genome ends. Despite the fact that TPs lack sequence homology, they share a similar structural arrangement, with the priming residue in the C-terminal half of the protein and an accumulation of positively charged residues at the N-terminal end. In addition, various bacteriophage TPs have been shown to have DNA-binding capacity that targets TPs and their attached genomes to the host nucleoid. Furthermore, a number of bacteriophage TPs from different viral families and with diverse hosts also contain putative nuclear localization signals and localize in the eukaryotic nucleus, which could lead to the transport of the attached DNA. This suggests a possible role of bacteriophage TPs in prokaryote-to-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. - Highlights: • Protein-primed genome replication constitutes a strategy to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes. • Bacteriophage terminal proteins (TPs) are covalently attached to viral genomes by their primary function priming DNA replication. • TPs are also DNA-binding proteins and target phage genomes to the host nucleoid. • TPs can also localize in the eukaryotic nucleus and may have a role in phage-mediated interkingdom gene transfer.

  8. Adult Attachment and the Effects on Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Barbara J.

    This paper reviews the current research on the nature of relationships from an attachment theory perspective. It begins with a review of attachment theory and states that an understanding of adult attachment is crucial for an understanding of the effects of attachment styles on relationships. It addresses the effect that each attachment style has…

  9. Give Them Roots, Then Let Them Fly: Understanding Attachment Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Carole A., Ed.

    This book describes attachment theory, presents the attachment therapy program in place at the Evergreen Attachment Center at Evergreen, Colorado, and examines the implications of attachment therapy. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview" (Carole A. McKelvey, John Alston); (2) "Attachment Theory and Assessment" (Michael Orlans, Terry Levy); (3)…

  10. Bilaterally obstructed ureteropelvic junction of the upper moieties in a complete duplex collecting system.

    PubMed

    Latayan, Michael Jonathan R; Dator, Jose Dante P; Torres, Carlos Ramon N

    2008-02-01

    Maternal ultrasound is a routine examination in prenatal evaluation. The number of fetal abnormalities detected has been increasing, and includes fetal hydronephrosis which is secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 80% of cases. We report a case of a 1-year-old female infant with hydronephrosis prenatally detected by ultrasound. After close postnatal follow-up and diagnosis, she eventually underwent a definitive reconstructive procedure. This is the first reported case of a bilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction of the upper moieties of a duplex collecting system. PMID:18631901

  11. Chemical Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Pleuromutilin Derivatives with Substituted Amino Moiety

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ruofeng; Wang, Shengyu; Xu, Ximing; Yi, Yunpeng; Guo, Wenzhu; YuLiu; Liang, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Novel pleuromutilin derivatives designed based on the structure of valnemulin were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities. These pleuromutilin derivatives with substituted amino moiety exhibited excellent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae. Compound 5b showed the highest antibacterial activities and even exceeded tiamulin. Moreover, the docking experiments provided information about the binding model between the synthesized compounds and peptidyl transferase center (PTC) of 23S rRNA. PMID:24376551

  12. New metathesis catalyst bearing chromanyl moieties at the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand

    PubMed Central

    Suchodolski, Szymon; Wojtkielewicz, Agnieszka; Morzycki, Jacek W

    2015-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of a new type of Hoveyda–Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst bearing a modified N-heterocyclic carbene ligands is reported. The new catalyst contains an NHC ligand symmetrically substituted with chromanyl moieties. The complex was tested in model CM and RCM reactions. It showed very high activity in CM reactions with electron-deficient α,β-unsaturated compounds even at 0 °C. It was also examined in more demanding systems such as conjugated dienes and polyenes. The catalyst is stable, storable and easy to purify. PMID:26877801

  13. High-Speed AFM Images of Thermal Motion Provide Stiffness Map of Interfacial Membrane Protein Moieties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The flexibilities of extracellular loops determine ligand binding and activation of membrane receptors. Arising from fluctuations in inter- and intraproteinaceous interactions, flexibility manifests in thermal motion. Here we demonstrate that quantitative flexibility values can be extracted from directly imaging the thermal motion of membrane protein moieties using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM). Stiffness maps of the main periplasmic loops of single reconstituted water channels (AqpZ, GlpF) revealed the spatial and temporal organization of loop-stabilizing intraproteinaceous H-bonds and salt bridges. PMID:25516527

  14. Hydrogen abstraction reactions of the [FeO]2+ moiety: The role of the electronic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykhin, Sergei

    2015-02-01

    Hydrogen abstraction reactions of the ferryl [FeO]2+ moiety are investigated theoretically using a simple molecular model (OH)2FeO by DFT methods. Obtained thermochemical and structural data are compared with high-level electron-correlated methods: CCSD(T), BD and MCQDPT2. Two bonding patterns are observed: triple oxo-iron bond Fe+≡O+ and single Fesbnd Orad bond with radical oxygen. Predicted thermochemistry and reactivity with H2 and CH4 molecules for the later one fits well with available experimental data on the N2O + FeZSM5 catalytic system.

  15. Magnetically Attached Multifunction Maintenance Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Joffe, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    A versatile mobile telerobot, denoted the magnetically attached multifunction maintenance rover (MAGMER), has been proposed for use in the inspection and maintenance of the surfaces of ships, tanks containing petrochemicals, and other large ferromagnetic structures. As its name suggests, this robot would utilize magnetic attraction to adhere to a structure. As it moved along the surface of the structure, the MAGMER would perform tasks that could include close-up visual inspection by use of video cameras, various sensors, and/or removal of paint by water-jet blasting, laser heating, or induction heating. The water-jet nozzles would be mounted coaxially within compressed-air-powered venturi nozzles that would collect the paint debris dislodged by the jets. The MAGMER would be deployed, powered, and controlled from a truck, to which it would be connected by hoses for water, compressed air, and collection of debris and by cables for electric power and communication (see Figure 1). The operation of the MAGMER on a typical large structure would necessitate the use of long cables and hoses, which can be heavy. To reduce the load of the hoses and cables on the MAGMER and thereby ensure its ability to adhere to vertical and overhanging surfaces, the hoses and cables would be paid out through telescopic booms that would be parts of a MAGMER support system. The MAGMER would move by use of four motorized, steerable wheels, each of which would be mounted in an assembly that would include permanent magnets and four pole pieces (see Figure 2). The wheels would protrude from between the pole pieces by only about 3 mm, so that the gap between the pole pieces and the ferromagnetic surface would be just large enough to permit motion along the surface but not so large as to reduce the magnetic attraction excessively. In addition to the wheel assemblies, the MAGMER would include magnetic adherence enhancement fixtures, which would comprise arrays of permanent magnets and pole pieces

  16. Cationic liposome-nucleic acid nanoparticle assemblies with applications in gene delivery and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Majzoub, Ramsey N; Ewert, Kai K; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2016-07-28

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) are synthetic carriers of nucleic acids in gene delivery and gene silencing therapeutics. The introduction will describe the structures of distinct liquid crystalline phases of CL-nucleic acid complexes, which were revealed in earlier synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. When mixed with plasmid DNA, CLs containing lipids with distinct shapes spontaneously undergo topological transitions into self-assembled lamellar, inverse hexagonal, and hexagonal CL-DNA phases. CLs containing cubic phase lipids are observed to readily mix with short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules creating double gyroid CL-siRNA phases for gene silencing. Custom synthesis of multivalent lipids and a range of novel polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipids with attached targeting ligands and hydrolysable moieties have led to functionalized equilibrium nanoparticles (NPs) optimized for cell targeting, uptake or endosomal escape. Very recent experiments are described with surface-functionalized PEGylated CL-DNA NPs, including fluorescence microscopy colocalization with members of the Rab family of GTPases, which directly reveal interactions with cell membranes and NP pathways. In vitro optimization of CL-DNA and CL-siRNA NPs with relevant primary cancer cells is expected to impact nucleic acid therapeutics in vivo. This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'. PMID:27298431

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of salicylic acid and N-acetyl-2-carboxybenzenesulfonamide regioisomers possessing a N-difluoromethyl-1,2-dihydropyrid-2-one pharmacophore: dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and 5-lipoxygenase with anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Morshed A; Abdellatif, Khaled R A; Dong, Ying; Das, Dipankar; Yu, Gang; Velázquez, Carlos A; Suresh, Mavanur R; Knaus, Edward E

    2009-12-15

    A novel class of salicylic acid and N-acetyl-2-carboxybenzenesulfonamide regioisomers possessing a N-difluoromethyl-1,2-dihydropyrid-2-one pharmacophore attached to its C-4 or C-5 position was designed for evaluation as anti-inflammatory (AI) agents. Replacement of the 2,4-difluorophenyl ring in diflunisal by the N-difluoromethyl-1,2-dihydropyrid-2-one moiety provided compounds showing dual selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory activities. AI structure-activity studies showed that the C-4 (14a) and C-5 (14b) salicylate regioisomers were 1.4- and 1.6-fold more potent than aspirin, and the C-5 N-acetyl-2-carboxybenzenesulfonamide regioisomer (22b) was 1.3- and 2.8-fold more potent than ibuprofen and aspirin, respectively. In vivo ulcer index (UI) studies showed that the 4- and 5-(N-difluoromethyl-1,2-dihydropyrid-2-one-4-yl)salicylic acids (14a and 14b) were completely non-ulcerogenic since no gastric lesions were present (UI=0) relative to aspirin (UI=57) at an equivalent mumol/kg oral dose. The N-difluoromethyl-1,2-dihydropyridin-2-one moiety provides a novel 5-LOX pharmacophore for the design of cyclic hydroxamic mimetics for exploitation in the development of dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitory AI drugs. PMID:19884005

  18. Clinical evaluation of mandibular implant overdentures via Locator implant attachment and Locator bar attachment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yong-Ho; Bae, Eun-Bin; Kim, Jung-Woo; Lee, So-Hyoun; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Jeon, Young-Chan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings and patient satisfaction on implant overdenture designed with Locator implant attachment or Locator bar attachment in mandibular edentulous patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Implant survival rate, marginal bone loss, probing depth, peri-implant inflammation, bleeding, plaque, calculus, complications, and satisfaction were evaluated on sixteen patients who were treated with mandibular overdenture and have used it for at least 1 year (Locator implant attachment: n=8, Locator bar attachment: n=8). RESULTS Marginal bone loss, probing depth, plaque index of the Locator bar attachment group were significantly lower than the Locator implant attachment group (P<.05). There was no significant difference on bleeding, peri-implant inflammation, and patient satisfaction between the two denture types (P>.05). The replacement of the attachment components was the most common complication in both groups. Although there was no correlation between marginal bone loss and plaque index, a significant correlation was found between marginal bone loss and probing depth. CONCLUSION The Locator bar attachment group indicates lesser marginal bone loss and need for maintenance, as compared with the Locator implant attachment group. This may be due to the splinting effect among implants rather than the types of Locator attachment. PMID:27555901

  19. 49 CFR 179.100-16 - Attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shear strength of the bracket-to-reinforcing pad weld must not exceed 85 percent of the ultimate shear strength of the reinforcing pad-to-tank weld. (b) Attachments not otherwise specified shall be applied...

  20. 49 CFR 179.100-16 - Attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shear strength of the bracket-to-reinforcing pad weld must not exceed 85 percent of the ultimate shear strength of the reinforcing pad-to-tank weld. (b) Attachments not otherwise specified shall be applied...

  1. 49 CFR 179.100-16 - Attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ultimate shear strength of the bracket-to-reinforcing pad weld must not exceed 85 percent of the ultimate shear strength of the reinforcing pad-to-tank weld. (b) Attachments not otherwise specified shall be applied by approved means....

  2. 49 CFR 179.100-16 - Attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shear strength of the bracket-to-reinforcing pad weld must not exceed 85 percent of the ultimate shear strength of the reinforcing pad-to-tank weld. (b) Attachments not otherwise specified shall be applied...

  3. 49 CFR 179.100-16 - Attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shear strength of the bracket-to-reinforcing pad weld must not exceed 85 percent of the ultimate shear strength of the reinforcing pad-to-tank weld. (b) Attachments not otherwise specified shall be applied...

  4. Attachment and the Roots of Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    1981-01-01

    Describes research with 12- to 18-month-old infants (N=108) determining whether the quality of an infant's attachment to his/her primary caregiver could predict the nature of his/her emerging personality. (CS)

  5. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3165 Precision attachment. (a) Identification. A... or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended for use in prosthetic dentistry...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3165 Precision attachment. (a) Identification. A... or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended for use in prosthetic dentistry...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3165 Precision attachment. (a) Identification. A... or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended for use in prosthetic dentistry...

  8. Emotion regulation: influences of attachment relationships.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, J

    1994-01-01

    Emotion regulation and quality of attachment are closely linked. It has been proposed here that one influence on individual differences in emotion regulation may be a child's attachment history. Individuals characterized by the flexible ability to accept and integrate both positive and negative emotions are generally securely attached; on the other hand, individuals characterized by either limited or heightened negative affect are more likely to be insecurely attached. While acknowledging the role of infant temperament, I have focused on the role of social factors in examining the link between emotion regulation and attachment. The approach to emotion regulation taken here--that emotion regulation is adaptive in helping a child attain her goals--is esentially a functionalist approach (Bretherton et al., 1986; Campos et al., 1983), consistent with earlier views of emotions as important regulators of interpersonal relationships (Charlesworth, 1982; Izard, 1977). It has been proposed that patterns of emotion regulation serve an important function for the infant: the function of maintaining the relationship with the attachment figure. Emotion regulation has been described as serving this function in two ways. First, the function of maintaining the relationship is thought to be served when infant emotion regulation contributes to the infant's more generalized regulation of the attachment system in response to experiences with the caregiver. Infants who have experienced rejection (insecure/avoidant infants) are thought to minimize negative affect in order to avoid the risk of further rejection. Infants whose mothers have been relatively unavailable or inconsistently available (insecure/ambivalent infants) are thought to maximize negative affect in order to increase the likelihood of gaining the attention of a frequently unavailable caregiver. Both these patterns of emotion regulation help ensure that the child will remain close to the parent and thereby be protected

  9. Attachment device for an inflatable protective cushion

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Luna, Daniel A.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    An inflatable cushion assembly for use with an inflator comprises an inflatable cushion having an inner surface, outer surface, and at least one protrusion extending from one of the inner or outer surfaces. The inflatable cushion defines an opening between the inner surface and the outer surface for receiving the inflator. An attachment member contacts the one of the inner or outer surfaces adjacent the opening and includes a groove for receiving the protrusion, the attachment member securing the inflator within the opening.

  10. Miniature Reversal Electron-Attachment Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara

    1994-01-01

    Miniature reversal electron-attachment detector (miniREAD) enables direct injection of air or vapor at atmospheric pressure from monitored area into mass-spectrometric instrument to detect explosives, narcotics, or other substances, vapors of which suspected of being present in low concentrations. In comparison with older reversal electron-attachment detector, miniREAD simpler in design; more rugged; and easier to build, repair, and maintain. In addition, probably more sensitive.

  11. Introduction of perfluoroalkyl chain into the esterifying moiety of bacteriochlorophyll c in the green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum by pigment biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Saga, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hayato; Hirota, Keiya

    2016-09-15

    The green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobaculum (Cba.) tepidum was grown in liquid cultures containing perfluoro-1-decanol, 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluoro-1-decanol [CF3(CF2)7(CH2)2OH] or 1H,1H-nonadecafluoro-1-decanol [CF3(CF2)8CH2OH], to introduce rigid and fluorophilic chains into the esterifying moiety of light-harvesting bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c. Exogenous 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluoro-1-decanol was successfully attached to the 17(2)-carboxy group of bacteriochlorophyllide (BChlide) c in vivo: the relative ratio of the unnatural BChl c esterified with this perfluoroalcohol over the total BChl c was 10.3%. Heat treatment of the liquid medium containing 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluoro-1-decanol with β-cyclodextrin before inoculation increased the relative ratio of the BChl c derivative esterified with this alcohol in the total BChl c in Cba. tepidum. In a while, 1H,1H-nonadecafluoro-1-decanol was not attached to BChlide c in Cba. tepidum, which was grown by its supplementation. These results suggest that the rigidity close to the hydroxy group of the esterifying alcohol is not suitable for the recognition by the BChl c synthase called BchK in Cba. tepidum. The unnatural BChl c esterified with 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluoro-1-decanol participated in BChl c self-aggregates in chlorosomes. PMID:27427396

  12. Composite materials with metal oxide attached to lead chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots with linkers

    DOEpatents

    Fuke, Nobuhiro; Koposov, Alexey Y; Sykora, Milan; Hoch, Laura

    2014-12-16

    Composite materials useful for devices such as photoelectrochemical solar cells include a substrate, a metal oxide film on the substrate, nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) of lead sulfide, lead selenide, and lead telluride, and linkers that attach the NQDs to the metal oxide film. Suitable linkers preserve the 1s absorption peak of the NQDs. A suitable linker has a general structure A-B-C where A is a chemical group adapted for binding to a MO.sub.x and C is a chemical group adapted for binding to a NQD and B is a divalent, rigid, or semi-rigid organic spacer moiety. Other linkers that preserve the 1s absorption peak may also be used.

  13. Attachment styles and violence within couples.

    PubMed

    Bond, Sharon B; Bond, Michael

    2004-12-01

    This study examined whether an individual's attachment style and/or a couple's combination of attachment styles predicted violence within the marriage and explored whether other variables moderated the risk of violence. Measures of attachment style were administered to 41 discordant couples who presented to four different clinics. The couples' presenting complaints were not violence, and those who did report violence on questioning did not manifest severe violence, i.e., requiring shelters or legal intervention. Self-report measures of violence and marital satisfaction, including problem-solving communication, were also given. Using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, the relative contributions to strength of predicting being a victim of conjugal violence were calculated. An anxious attachment style was a significant predictor of females being victims of violence and of men not being victims. A dismissive style in men was predictive of men being victims when entered into the model with problem solving communication. The combination of anxiously attached females and dismissive males was a potent predictor of violence, and longer duration of marriage and poor problem-solving communication added power to the prediction. Marital interaction, which is influenced by couples' attachment styles and problem-solving communication, is a significant factor in marital partners experiencing physical violence. For couples with milder levels of violence, a more nuanced approach (compared with the legally based approach used for severe violence) seems indicated. PMID:15583508

  14. Removable partial overdentures with mechanical (precision) attachments.

    PubMed

    Mensor, M C

    1990-10-01

    Mechanical attachments for overdentures have been available in various forms for over a century. The explosive interest in osseointegration and the effort on the part of the profession to avoid the complete denture as a treatment modality has stirred the interest in positive retentive elements for overdentures represented by the mechanical stud and bar attachments. The cited references provide a resource as a trouble-free guide in the selection and use of the various stud and bar attachment systems. The clinical examples show a pattern of application not generally discussed by the manufacturers, illustrating the simplicity of use with the options for all attachments including magnets. The discussion on magnets comes from 9 years of clinical experience. Rare earth magnets provide excellent adjunct retention, and their assembly follows the same protocol and complexity as stud attachment systems. All magnets, at the present state of the art, have a corrosion potential with the exception of the Laser Sealed Units (Golden Dental, Golden, CO). Finally, the mechanics of the attachment overdenture serves as an excellent training field for the osseointegrated prosthesis, be it the classic Brånemark (Nobelpharma USA, Chicago, IL) restorative or the implant overdenture concept. PMID:2227040

  15. Attachment and cancer: a conceptual integration.

    PubMed

    Tacón, Anna M

    2002-12-01

    Cancer traditionally has been explained by the biomedical model; however, it is limited in comprehensively accounting for all factors in this disease. Recently, it has been suggested that a broader theoretical framework that includes psychosocial components in cancer is needed to complement the traditional approach. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to explore the utility of attachment theory as a biopsychosocial model of both development and health. Attachment, a developmental theory, explains how repeated interactions between caregiver and child in the early years establish lifelong psychosocial, physiological, affective, and cognitive patterns as well as enduring patterns of stress response to threat or illness. Despite attachment theory's biopsychosocial foundation, the application of attachment security as a factor in physical health and psychosomatic medicine is relatively recent. The current work reviews attachment theory and psychosocial literature with regard to cancer and follows with a novel attempt to conceptually integrate both bodies of literature. A concluding integrative model of attachment theory and the type C behavior pattern is provided to illustrate potential links and integrative processes that may lead to disease resilience or vulnerability. PMID:14664730

  16. Effect of carbazole as a donor moiety on the second-order nonlinearity of organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshulam, Guilia; Berkovic, Garry; Kotler, Zvi; Ben-Asuly, Amos; Mazor, Royi; Shapiro, Lev; Khodorkovsky, Vladimir

    1999-10-01

    The second order nonlinearity of conjugated organic molecules involving, 1,3 indandione derivatives as an acceptor moiety has been studied. Varying the donor from dialkylamino to the chemically similar substituent, N- carbazolyl resulted in a drastic reduction of electric field induced second harmonic (beta) values. For some molecules, even a small negative value of (beta) was received. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that the decrease occurs as a result of two overlapping transitions, which contribute to (beta) with opposite signs. The charge transfer band gives a positive (beta) zzz along the molecular long axis, while a transition essentially within the carbazole moiety provides a negative (beta zzz contribution to (beta EFISH. Thus, these molecules must be described with a 2D model as opposed to the 'classical' model of 1D nonlinear optical chromophores. The prediction of the 2D model was verified experimentally by using a combination of two methods, EFISH and Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering, which probe different combination of the (beta) tensor elements.

  17. Dynamic scaffold of chiral binaphthol derivatives with the alkynylplatinum(II) terpyridine moiety

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Sammual Yu-Lut; Lam, Wai Han; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2013-01-01

    Platinum(II)-containing complexes with inherently chiral binaphthol derivatives display a versatile scaffold between random coils and single-turn helical strands, in which the conformational transition is controlled by the Pt···Pt and π−π interactions of alkynylplatinum(II) terpyridine moiety upon solvent and temperature modulation. The bisignate Cotton effect in the circular dichroism spectra is indicative of the cooperative transformation from random coil state to a compact single-turn M- or P- helix. More importantly, as revealed by the appearance of new UV-vis absorption and emission bands during conformational change, the self-assembly of the platinum(II)-containing complex into a helical structure is assisted by the metal···metal and π−π interactions of the alkynylplatinum(II) terpyridine moieties. The folded structure with stabilization via metal···metal and π−π interactions has been supported by density functional theory calculations, which provide insights into the folded geometry of these kind of metallo-foldamers. PMID:23542379

  18. Elucidation of the hepatoprotective moiety of 5β-scymnol that suppresses paracetamol toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Lynn D; Carter, Fiona; Kalafatis, Nicolette; Wright, Paul F A; Macrides, Theodore A

    2016-06-01

    The shark bile alcohol, 5β-scymnol, protects mice from the hepatotoxic effects of paracetamol (APAP) overdose. To elucidate the hepatoprotective structural moiety of scymnol, we compared its effect with that of its analogue and natural bile salt, sodium scymnol sulfate, in a clinically relevant model of APAP-induced toxicity. Exposure of healthy male Swiss mice to a toxic overdose of APAP (350 mg/kg, ip) significantly increased serum hepatocellular enzyme activities, decreased hepatocellular glutathione (GSH) levels, and induced severe centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis. Repeated low-dose scymnol (5 mg/kg/day for 7 days, ip) significantly reduced the extent of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity without preventing GSH depletion. Sodium scymnol sulfate, which lacks the tri-hydroxyl-substituted aliphatic side chain of scymnol, failed to reduce the APAP hepatotoxicity or prevent GSH depletion when tested under the same experimental conditions. We conclude that the tri-hydroxyl-substituted aliphatic side chain is the hepatoprotective structural moiety of 5β-scymnol that suppresses APAP-induced cytotoxicity in mice. PMID:27234873

  19. Electron attachment induced proton transfer in a DNA nucleoside pair: 2'-deoxyguanosine-2'-deoxycytidine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2007-10-21

    To elucidate electron attachment induced damage in the DNA double helix, electron attachment to the 2'-deoxyribonucleoside pair dG:dC has been studied with the reliably calibrated B3LYP/DZP++ theoretical approach. The exploration of the potential energy surface of the neutral and anionic dG:dC pairs predicts a positive electron affinity for dG:dC [0.83 eV for adiabatic electron affinity (EAad) and 0.16 eV for vertical electron affinity (VEA)]. The substantial increases in the electron affinity of dG:dC (by 0.50 eV for EAad and 0.23 eV for VEA) compared to those of the dC nucleoside suggest that electron attachment to DNA double helices should be energetically favored with respect to the single strands. Most importantly, electron attachment to the dC moiety in the dG:dC pair is found to be able to trigger the proton transfer in the dG:dC- pair, surprisingly resulting in the lower energy distonic anionic complex d(G-H)-:d(C+H).. The negative charge for the latter system is located on the base of dC in the dG:dC- pair, while it is transferred to d(G-H) in d(G-H)-:d(C+H)., accompanied by the proton transfer from N1(dG) to N3(dC). The low energy barrier (2.4 kcal/mol) for proton transfer from dG to dC- suggests that the distonic d(G-H)-:d(C+H). pair should be one of the important intermediates in the process of electron attachment to DNA double helices. The formation of the neutral nucleoside radical d(C+H). is predicted to be the direct result of electron attachment to the DNA double helices. Since the neutral radical d(C+H). nucleotide is the key element in the formation of this DNA lesion, electron attachment might be one of the important factors that trigger the formation of abasic sites in DNA double helices. PMID:17949223

  20. [Attachment and attachment-based intervention: the Circle of Security intervention project in Hamburg].

    PubMed

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Gehrke, Julia; Lotzin, Annett; Powell, Bert; Romer, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Since the early sixties empirical research into early childhood and the parent-infant relationship has increased, commonly informed by attachment theory. The mutually regulated interaction within the attachment and care giving relationship of mother and infant gives this relationship its exceptional emotional quality. Early attachment experiences organize socio-emotional and cognitive development beyond childhood. Attachment theory and research define observable behaviors and the level of internal representations as an intervening variable of the transmission of attachment patterns between mother and child. Basic attachment derived concepts are the starting points of the Circle of Security approach. The Circle of Security Intervention Project in Hamburg for mothers with postpartum mental illness and their infants is described in more detail. Specific aspects are discussed with reference to a diagnostic case study. PMID:21877568

  1. Characterization of Biosynthetic Genes of Ascamycin/Dealanylascamycin Featuring a 5′-O-Sulfonamide Moiety in Streptomyces sp. JCM9888

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunhua; Qi, Jianzhao; Tao, Weixing; He, Lei; Xu, Wei; Chan, Jason; Deng, Zixin

    2014-01-01

    Ascamycin (ACM) and dealanylascamycin (DACM) are nucleoside antibiotics elaborated by Streptomyces sp. JCM9888. The later shows broad spectrum inhibition activity to various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, eukaryotic Trypanosoma and is also toxic to mice, while ascamycin is active against very limited microorganisms, such as Xanthomonas. Both compounds share an unusual 5′-O-sulfonamide moiety which is attached to an adenosine nucleoside. In this paper, we first report on the 30 kb gene cluster (23 genes, acmA to acmW) involved in the biosynthesis of these two antibiotics and a biosynthetic assembly line was proposed. Of them, six genes (AcmABGKIW) are hypothetical genes involved in 5′-O-sulfonamide formation. Two flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent chlorinase genes acmX and acmY were characterized which are significantly remote from acmA-W and postulated to be required for adenine C2-halogenation. Notably gene disruption of acmE resulted in a mutant which could only produce dealanylascamycin but was blocked in its ability to biosynthesize ascamycin, revealing its key role of conversion of dealanylascamycin to ascamycin. PMID:25479601

  2. Biosynthesis of the carbohydrate moieties of arabinogalactan proteins by membrane-bound β-glucuronosyltransferases from radish primary roots.

    PubMed

    Endo, Maya; Kotake, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Yoko; Kimura, Kazumasa; Tsumuraya, Yoichi

    2013-12-01

    A membrane fraction from etiolated 6-day-old primary radish roots (Raphanus sativus L. var hortensis) contained β-glucuronosyltransferases (GlcATs) involved in the synthesis of the carbohydrate moieties of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). The GlcATs transferred [(14)C]GlcA from UDP-[(14)C]GlcA on to β-(1 → 3)-galactan as an exogenous acceptor substrate, giving a specific activity of 50-150 pmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). The enzyme specimen also catalyzed the transfer of [(14)C]GlcA on to an enzymatically modified AGP from mature radish root. Analysis of the transfer products revealed that the transfer of [(14)C]GlcA occurred preferentially on to consecutive (1 → 3)-linked β-Gal chains as well as single branched β-(1 → 6)-Gal residues through β-(1 → 6) linkages, producing branched acidic side chains. The enzymes also transferred [(14)C]GlcA residues on to several oligosaccharides, such as β-(1 → 6)- and β-(1 → 3)-galactotrioses. A trisaccharide, α-L-Araf-(1 → 3)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal, was a good acceptor, yielding a branched tetrasaccharide, α-L-Araf-(1 → 3)[β-GlcA-(1 → 6)]-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal. We report the first in vitro assay system for β-GlcATs involved in the AG synthesis as a step toward full characterization and cloning. PMID:24057431

  3. SDZ PRI 053, an orally bioavailable human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteinase inhibitor containing the 2-aminobenzylstatine moiety.

    PubMed Central

    Billich, A; Fricker, G; Müller, I; Donatsch, P; Ettmayer, P; Gstach, H; Lehr, P; Peichl, P; Scholz, D; Rosenwirth, B

    1995-01-01

    A series of inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteinase containing the 2-aralkyl-amino-substituted statine moiety as a novel transition-state analog was synthesized, with the aim to obtain compounds which combine anti-HIV potency with oral bioavailability. The reduced-size 2-aminobenzylstatine derivative SDZ PRI 053, which contains 2-(S)-amino-3-(R)-hydroxyindane in place of an amino acid amide, is a potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. The antiviral activity of SDZ PRI 053 was demonstrated in various cell lines, in primary lymphocytes, and in primary monocytes, against laboratory strains as well as clinical HIV-1 isolates (50% effective dose = 0.028 to 0.15 microM). Cell proliferation was impaired only at 100- to 300-fold-higher concentrations. The mechanism of antiviral action of the proteinase inhibitor SDZ PRI 0.53 was demonstrated to be inhibition of gag precursor protein processing. The finding that the inhibitory potency of SDZ PRI 053 in chronic virus infection, determined by p24 release, was considerably lower than that in de novo infection may be explained by the fact that the virus particles produced in the presence of SDZ PRI 053 are about 50-fold less infectious than those from untreated cultures. Upon intravenous administration, half-lives in blood of 100 and 32 min in mice and rats, respectively, were measured. Oral bioavailability of SDZ PRI 053 in rodents was 20 to 60%, depending on the dose. In mice, rats, and dogs, the inhibitor levels after oral administration remained far above the concentrations needed to efficiently block HIV replication in vitro for a prolonged period. This compound is thus a promising candidate for clinical use in HIV disease. PMID:7492076

  4. Minimalism in fabrication of self-organized nanogels holding both anti-cancer drug and targeting moiety.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungwon; Park, Kyong Mi; Ko, Jin Young; Kwon, Ick Chan; Cho, Hyeon Geun; Kang, Dongmin; Yu, In Tag; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Na, Kun

    2008-05-01

    Recent researches to develop nano-carrier systems in anti-cancer drug delivery have focused on more complicated design to improve therapeutic efficacy and to reduce side effects. Although such efforts have great impact to biomedical science and engineering, the complexity has been a huddle because of clinical and economic problems. In order to overcome the problems, a simplest strategy to fabricate nano-carriers to deliver doxorubicin (DOX) was proposed in the present study. Two significant subjects (i) formation of nanoparticles loading and releasing DOX and (ii) binding specificity of them to cells, were examined. Folic acid (FA) was directly coupled with pullulan (Pul) backbone by ester linkage (FA/Pul conjugate) and the degree of substitution (DS) was varied, which were confirmed by 1H NMR and UV spectrophotometry. Light scattering results revealed that the nanogels possessed two major size distributions around 70 and 270 nm in an aqueous solution. Their critical aggregation concentrations (CACs) were less than 10 microg/mL, which are lower than general critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of low-molecular-weight surfactants. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed well-dispersed nanogel morphology in a dried state. Depending on the DS, the nanogels showed different DOX-loading and releasing profiles. The DOX release rate from FA8/Pul (with the highest DS) for 24h was slower than that from FA4/or FA6/Pul, indicating that the FA worked as a hydrophobic moiety for drug holding. Cellular uptake of the nanogels (KB cells) was also monitored by confocal microscopy. All nanogels were internalized regardless of the DS of FA. Based on the results, the objectives of this study, to suggest a new method overcoming the complications in the drug carrier design, were successfully verified. PMID:18164602

  5. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration. PMID:19560175

  6. Perfluoroalkyl acids : Recent activities and research progress

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of man-made fluorinated organic chemicals consisting of a carbon backbone typically of four to fourteen in length and a charged functional moiety (primarily carboxylate, sulfonate or phosphonate). The two most widely known PFAAs are ...

  7. Rapid nutritional remodeling of the host cell upon attachment of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, William M; Price, Christopher T; Abu Kwaik, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Upon entry of Legionella pneumophila into amoebas and macrophages, host-mediated farnesylation of the AnkB effector enables its anchoring to the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) membrane. On the LCV, AnkB triggers docking of K(48)-linked polyubiquitinated proteins that are degraded by the host proteasomes to elevate cellular levels of amino acids needed for intracellular proliferation. Interference with AnkB function triggers L. pneumophila to exhibit a starvation response and differentiate into the nonreplicative phase in response to the basal levels of cellular amino acids that are not sufficient to power intracellular proliferation of L. pneumophila. Therefore, we have determined whether the biological function of AnkB is temporally and spatially triggered upon bacterial attachment to the host cell to circumvent a counterproductive bacterial differentiation into the nonreplicative phase upon bacterial entry. Here, we show that upon attachment of L. pneumophila to human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs), the host farnesylation and ubiquitination machineries are recruited by the Dot/Icm system to the plasma membrane exclusively beneath sites of bacterial attachment. Transcription and injection of ankB is triggered by attached extracellular bacteria followed by rapid farnesylation and anchoring of AnkB to the cytosolic side of the plasma membrane beneath bacterial attachment, where K(48)-linked polyubiquitinated proteins are assembled and degraded by the proteasomes, leading to a rapid rise in the cellular levels of amino acids. Our data represent a novel strategy by an intracellular pathogen that triggers rapid nutritional remodeling of the host cell upon attachment to the plasma membrane, and as a result, a gratuitous surplus of cellular amino acids is generated to support proliferation of the incoming pathogen. PMID:24126522

  8. Characterization of progesterone-binding moieties in the little skate Raja erinacea.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, M; Callard, I P

    1998-01-01

    In this study we report evidence of a [3H]progesterone-binding moiety in the liver and oviduct of the little skate Raja erinacea. It is characterized by high affinity, low capacity and DNA-cellulose-binding activity. Furthermore Western blot analysis revealed that monoclonal antibodies against the chicken progesterone receptor (PR) subunits A and B cross-reacted with a 110-kDa band in the liver and a 80-kDa band in the oviduct. When analyzed by DEAE-Sepharose ion-exchange column chromatography, [3H]progesterone-binding molecules resolved into two peaks, one nonadherent and one adherent to the column. The liver adherent peak eluted in a linear gradient at a NaCl concentration of about 0.07 M and resolved on Western blot as a single band of a 110 kDa. The oviduct adherent peak eluted at about 0.14 M NaCl and resolved on Western blot as a single band of 80 kDa. Competition studies showed that the progesterone-binding moiety in the cytosol was specific for progesterone. On the contrary, the nuclear component is not specific for progesterone; it also binds testosterone and estradiol 17 beta in the oviduct, and progesterone, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol 17 beta, mibolerone, and R5020 in the liver. The [3H]progesterone-binding activity was monitored in both liver and oviduct of females in different reproductive stages. Females were separated into three groups; laying, nonlaying, and immature. [3H]Progesterone-binding activity levels were higher in the liver of immature than of nonlaying skates, and it was undetectable in laying skates. [3H]Progesterone binding was higher in the oviduct of laying and nonlaying skates than of immature skates. This PR-binding moiety has many characteristics of a true receptor: high affinity, low capacity, binds to DNA, and cross-reacts with antibodies against chicken PR. However, while the cytosolic form of this progesterone-binding component was quite specific for P, nuclear extracted material was nonspecific. If these

  9. Ultrasonic device for measuring periodontal attachment levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, J. E.; Hinders, M. K.

    2002-07-01

    Periodontal disease is manifested clinically by a degradation of the ligament that attaches the tooth to the bone. The most widely used diagnostic tool for assessment of periodontal diseases, measurement of periodontal attachment loss with a manual probe, may overestimate attachment loss by as much as 2 mm in untreated sites, while underestimating attachment loss by an even greater margin following treatment. Manual probing is also invasive, which causes patient discomfort. This work describes the development and testing of an ultrasonographic periodontal probe designed to replace manual probing. It uses a thin stream of water to project an ultrasonic beam into the periodontal pocket, and then measures echoes off features within the pocket. To do so, the ultrasonic beam must be narrowed from 2 (the diameter of the transducer) to 0.5 mm (the approximate width of the periodontal pocket at the gingival margin). The proper choice of transducer frequency, the proper method for controlling water flow from the probe, and a model for interpreting these echoes are also addressed. Initial results indicate that the device measures echoes from the hard tissue of the tooth surface, and that the periodontal attachment level can be inferred from these echoes.

  10. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  11. Highs and Lows in English Attachment.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Nino; Costa, João; Fernandes, Bruno; Santi, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Grillo and Costa (2014) claim that Relative-Clause attachment ambiguity resolution is largely dependent on whether or not a Pseudo-Relative interpretation is available. Data from Italian, and other languages allowing Pseudo-Relatives, support this hypothesis. Pseudo-Relative availability, however, covaries with the semantics of the main predicate (e.g., perceptual vs. stative). Experiment 1 assesses whether this predicate distinction alone can account for prior attachment results by testing it with a language that disallows Pseudo-Relatives (i.e. English). Low Attachment was found independent of Predicate-Type. Predicate-Type did however have a minor modulatory role. Experiment 2 shows that English, traditionally classified as a Low Attachment language, can demonstrate High Attachment with sentences globally ambiguous between a Small-Clause and a reduced Relative-Clause interpretation. These results support a grammatical account of previous effects and provide novel evidence for the parser's preference of a Small-Clause over a Restrictive interpretation, crosslinguistically. PMID:26266518

  12. Preferential attachment in randomly grown networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Iain S.

    2015-12-01

    We reintroduce the model of Callaway et al. (2001) as a special case of a more general model for random network growth. Vertices are added to the graph at a rate of 1, while edges are introduced at rate δ. Rather than edges being introduced at random, we allow for a degree of preferential attachment with a linear attachment kernel, parametrised by m. The original model is recovered in the limit of no preferential attachment, m → ∞. As expected, even weak preferential attachment introduces a power-law tail to the degree distribution. Additionally, this generalisation retains a great deal of the tractability of the original along with a surprising range of behaviour, although key mathematical features are modified for finite m. In particular, the critical edge density, δc which marks the onset of a giant network component is reduced with increasing tendency for preferential attachment. The positive degree-degree correlation introduced by the unbiased growth process is offset by the skewed degree distribution, reducing the network assortativity.

  13. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  14. Biosynthesis of d-Alanyl-Lipoteichoic Acid: Characterization of Ester-Linked d-Alanine in the In Vitro-Synthesized Product

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Warren C.; Neuhaus, Francis C.

    1980-01-01

    d-Alanyl-lipoteichoic acid (d-alanyl-LTA) contains d-alanine ester residues which control the ability of this polyer to chelate Mg2+. In Lactobacillus casei a two-step in vitro reaction sequence catalyzed by the d-alanine-activating enzyme and d-alanine:membrane acceptor ligase incorporates d-alanine into membrane acceptor. In this paper we provide additional evidence that the in vitro system catalyzes the covalent incorporation of d-[14C]alanine into membrane acceptor which is the poly([3H]glycerol phosphate) moiety of d-alanyl-LTA. This conclusion was supported by the observation that the d-[14C]alanine and [3H]glycerol labels of the partially purified product were co-precipitated by antiserum containing globulins specific for poly(glycerol phosphate). The isolation of d-[14C]alanyl-[3H]glycerol from d-[14C]alanine·[3H]glycerol-labeled d-alanyl-LTA synthesized in the in vitro system indicated that the d-alanine was linked to the poly(glycerol phosphate) chain of the LTA. A comparison of the reactivities of the d-alanine residues of d-alanyl-glycerol and d-alanyl-LTA supported the conclusion that the incorporated residue of d-alanine was attached by an ester linkage. Thus, the data indicated that the in vitro system catalyzes the incorporation of d-alanine covalently linked by ester linkages to the glycerol moieties of the poly(glycerol phosphate) chains of d-alanyl-LTA. New procedures are presented for the partial purification of d-alanyl-LTA with a high yield of ester-linked d-alanine and for the sequential degradation of the poly(glycerol phosphate) moiety substituted with d-alanine of d-alanyl-LTA with phosphodiesterase II/phosphatase from Aspergillus niger. PMID:6772629

  15. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION OF ESTERS OF CHLORINATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two groups of compounds were selected for microbial transformation studies. In the first group were carboxylic acid esters having a fixed aromatic moiety and an increasing length of the alkyl component. Ethyl esters of chlorine-substituted carboxylic acids were in the second grou...

  16. Transformation of ranitidine during water chlorination and ozonation: Moiety-specific reaction kinetics and elimination efficiency of NDMA formation potential.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Dahee; Kim, Jisoo; Shin, Jaedon; Hidayat, Zahra Ramadhany; Na, Soyoung; Lee, Yunho

    2016-11-15

    Ranitidine can produce high yields of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) upon chloramination and its presence in water resources is a concern for water utilities using chloramine disinfection. This study assessed the efficiency of water chlorination and ozonation in transforming ranitidine and eliminating its NDMA formation potential (NDMA-FP) by determining moiety-specific reaction kinetics, stoichiometric factors, and elimination levels in real water matrices. Despite the fact that chlorine reacts rapidly with the acetamidine and thioether moieties of ranitidine (k>10(8)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7), the NDMA-FP decreases significantly only when chlorine reacts with the less reactive tertiary amine (k=3×10(3)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7) or furan moiety (k=81M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7). Ozone reacts rapidly with all four moieties of ranitidine (k=1.5×10(5)-1.6×10(6)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7) and its reaction with the tertiary amine or furan moiety leads to complete elimination of the NDMA-FP. Treatments of ranitidine-spiked real water samples have shown that ozonation can efficiently deactivate ranitidine in water and wastewater treatment, while chlorination can be efficient for water containing low concentration of ammonia. This result can be applied to the other structurally similar, potent NDMA precursors. PMID:27381234

  17. Synthesis and properties of 1,3,5-benzene periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO): novel aromatic PMO with three point attachments and unique thermal transformations.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Masakatsu; Asefa, Tewodros; Whitnal, Wesley; Kruk, Michal; Yoshina-Ishii, Chiaki; Jaroniec, Mietek; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2002-11-20

    A new aromatic periodic mesoporous organosilica material containing benzene functional groups that are symmetrically integrated with three silicon atoms in an organosilica mesoporous framework is reported. The material has a high surface area, well-ordered mesoporous structure and thermally stable framework aromatic groups. The functional aromatic moieties were observed to undergo sequential thermal transformation from a three to two and then to a one point attachment within the framework upon continuous thermolysis under air before eventually being converted to periodic mesoporous silica devoid of aromatic groups at high temperatures and longer pyrolysis times. The mesoporosity of the material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen porosimetry, whereas the presence and transformation of the aromatic groups in the walls of the materials were characterized by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The attachment of a benzene ring symmetrically onto three siloxanes of the framework was used advantageously as a cross-linker to enhance the thermal stability of the organic group. Some of these properties are investigated in comparison with other aromatic PMOs that have only two point attachments and an amorphous phenylsilica gel that has only one point attachment. The successful synthesis of the first aromatic PMO with its organic group attached within the framework through more than two points is an important step toward the synthesis of PMOs having organic groups with more complex and multiple attachments within the framework. PMID:12431120

  18. Thermostable lipoxygenase, a key enzyme in bioconversion of linoleic acid to trihycroxy-octadecenoic acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipoxygenases, enzymes that contain non-heme iron, catalyze the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids with a (1Z,4Z)-pentadiene moiety leading to conjugated (Z,E)-hydroperoxydienoic acids. These enzymes are widely distributed in plants and animals, and a few microorganisms are reported as well. It ...

  19. Enzymatic phosphorylation of hair keratin enhances fast adsorption of cationic moieties.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Vadim; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-04-01

    The current study describes the in vitro phosphorylation of a human hair keratin, using protein kinase for the first time. Phosphorylation of keratin was demonstrated by (31)P NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) techniques. Phosphorylation induced a 2.5 fold increase of adsorption capacity in the first 10 min for cationic moiety like methylene blue (MB). Thorough description of MB adsorption process was performed by several isothermal models. Reconstructed fluorescent microscopy images depict distinct amounts of dye bound to the differently treated hair. The results of this work suggest that the enzymatic phosphorylation of keratins might have significant implications in hair shampooing and conditioning, where short application times of cationic components are of prime importance. PMID:26756110

  20. Renal pelvis urothelial carcinoma of the upper moiety in complete right renal duplex: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiran; Yu, Quanfeng; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Ranlu; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) originated from renal pelvis is the common tumor of the urinary system, however, neoplasia of the renal pelvis in duplex kidneys is extremely rare, especially in the complete renal and ureteral duplex cases. We present the first case of renal pelvis UC of the upper moiety in a complete right renal duplex. This male patient has bilateral complete renal and ureteral duplex. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of renal pelvis UC in a complete renal duplex system. After this experience we feel that the diagnosis of renal pelvis UC in duplex kidneys is not so easy, and once the diagnosis is determined, the whole renal duplex units and bladder cuff or ectopic orifice should be excised radically. PMID:26823906

  1. Conformational Constraint of the Glycerol Moiety of Lysophosphatidylserine Affords Compounds with Receptor Subtype Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sejin; Inoue, Asuka; Nakamura, Sho; Kishi, Takayuki; Uwamizu, Akiharu; Sayama, Misa; Ikubo, Masaya; Otani, Yuko; Kano, Kuniyuki; Makide, Kumiko; Aoki, Junken; Ohwada, Tomohiko

    2016-04-28

    Lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) is an endogenous lipid mediator that specifically activates membrane proteins of the P2Y and its related families of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), GPR34 (LPS1), P2Y10 (LPS2), and GPR174 (LPS3). Here, in order to increase potency and receptor selectivity, we designed and synthesized LysoPS analogues containing the conformational constraints of the glycerol moiety. These reduced structural flexibility by fixation of the glycerol framework of LysoPS using a 2-hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxytetrahydropyran skeleton, and related structures identified compounds which exhibited high potency and selectivity for activation of GPR34 or P2Y10. Morphing of the structural shape of the 2-hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxytetrahydropyran skeleton into a planar benzene ring enhanced the P2Y10 activation potentcy rather than the GPR34 activation. PMID:27077565

  2. Discovery of novel diaryl urea derivatives bearing a triazole moiety as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Qin, Mingze; Yan, Shuang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Haotian; Zhao, Yanfang; Wu, Shasha; Wu, Di; Gong, Ping

    2016-06-10

    Herein, we report a novel series of diaryl urea derivatives bearing a triazole moiety, from which potent antitumor agents have been identified. With a modified triazole, most compounds showed high level activity in both cellular and enzymatic assays, accompanied with a suitable ClogD7.4 value. The most active compound, 13i, effectively suppressed proliferation of HT-29, H460 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells, with IC50 values of 0.90, 0.85 and 1.54 μM, respectively. Compound 13i also exhibited significant inhibition of tyrosine kinases including c-Kit, RET and FLT3. Furthermore, compound 13i could obviously induce apoptosis of HT-29 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The study of structure-activity relationships also revealed that a hydrophilic tail at the 4-position of the triazole was crucial for high activity of the compound. PMID:26991938

  3. Highly improved antiparasitic activity after introduction of an N-benzylimidazole moiety on protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bosc, Damien; Mouray, Elisabeth; Cojean, Sandrine; Franco, Caio Haddad; Loiseau, Philippe M; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H; Moraes, Carolina Borsoi; Grellier, Philippe; Dubois, Joëlle

    2016-02-15

    In our search for new protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors with improved antiparasitic activities, we modified our previously developed 3-arylthiophene series of inhibitors by replacing the thioisopropyl group by different substituted imidazolylmethanamino moieties. Twenty four new derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against human and parasite farnesyltransferases, and their anti-parasitic activity was determined against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania donovani. Introduction of a N-p-substituted-benzylimidazole led to significantly increase the inhibition of parasite proliferation in the submicromolar range. The structure of the best inhibitors was parasite dependent. Three compounds possess IC50 values at the same range as the reference miltefosine against L. donovani proliferation and other new derivatives display high level of anti-trypanosomal activity against T. cruzi, higher or in the same order of magnitude as the reference compounds benznidazole and nifurtimox. PMID:26774924

  4. Self-Assembled Fibers Containing Stable Organic Radical Moieties: Alignment and Magnetic Properties in Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Eimura, Hiroki; Umeta, Yoshikazu; Tokoro, Hiroko; Yoshio, Masafumi; Ohkoshi, Shin-Ichi; Kato, Takashi

    2016-06-20

    Macroscopically oriented stable organic radicals have been obtained by using a liquid-crystalline (LC) gel composed of an l-isoleucine-based low molecular weight gelator containing a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl moiety. The LC gel has allowed magnetic measurements of the oriented organic radical. The gelator has formed fibrous aggregates in liquid crystals via intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The fibrous aggregates of the radical gelator are formed and oriented on cooling by applying a magnetic field to the mixture of liquid crystals and the gelator. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements have revealed that both oriented and nonoriented fibrous aggregates exhibited antiferromagnetic interactions, in which super-exchange interaction constant J is estimated as -0.89 cm(-1) . PMID:27219716

  5. Lanthanide induced residual dipolar couplings for the conformational investigation of peripheral 15NH2 moieties.

    PubMed

    Bertini, I; Felli, I C; Luchinat, C

    2000-12-01

    The Ca2 calbindin protein in which one calcium has been substituted with Ce(III), Yb(III) and Dy(III) displays substantial alignment in high magnetic fields due to the high anisotropy of the metal magnetic susceptibility. This property has allowed the measurement of residual dipolar coupling contributions to 1J(HN) and 2J(HH) couplings of asparagine and glutamine NH2 moieties. Such data have been used to aid structural characterization of these groups. The exploitation of auto-orientation of magnetic anisotropic metalloproteins represents a step ahead in the investigation of the conformational space of peripheral residues that are not fixed by the protein folding. PMID:11200529

  6. SAR studies directed toward the pyridine moiety of the sap-feeding insecticide sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active).

    PubMed

    Loso, Michael R; Benko, Zoltan; Buysse, Ann; Johnson, Timothy C; Nugent, Benjamin M; Rogers, Richard B; Sparks, Thomas C; Wang, Nick X; Watson, Gerald B; Zhu, Yuanming

    2016-02-01

    Sap-feeding insect pests constitute a major insect pest complex that includes a range of aphids, whiteflies, planthoppers and other insect species. Sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active), a new sulfoximine class insecticide, targets sap-feeding insect pests including those resistant to many other classes of insecticides. A structure activity relationship (SAR) investigation of the sulfoximine insecticides revealed the importance of a 3-pyridyl ring and a methyl substituent on the methylene bridge linking the pyridine and the sulfoximine moiety to achieving strong Myzus persicae activity. A more in depth QSAR investigation of pyridine ring substituents revealed a strong correlation with the calculated logoctanol/water partition coefficient (SlogP). Model development resulted in a highly predictive model for a set of 18 sulfoximines including sulfoxaflor. The model is consistent with and helps explain the highly optimized pyridine substitution pattern for sulfoxaflor. PMID:26706115

  7. Formation of copper phthalocyanine thin films by electrolysis of surfactants with ferrocenyl moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Saji, T.; Ishii, Y. )

    1989-10-01

    Recently, the authors presented a novel technique for electrochemical formation of an organic thin film by disruption of micellar aggregates formed by cationic surfactants having a ferrocenyl moiety (MD method). They reported the preparation of metal-free high concentration of free FPEG not adsorbed on the CuPc particles. The agreements of absorption spectra and x-ray diffraction patterns among CuPc powders, their micellar solutions, and their films indicate that the crystalline form of CuPc is maintained throughout the film preparation processes. The results of the study presented in this paper demonstrate that the MD method is a convenient method to prepare a thin film of CuPc which has a desired crystalline form.

  8. Crowned spiropyran fluoroionophores with a carboxyl moiety for the selective detection of lithium ions.

    PubMed

    Stubing, D B; Heng, S; Abell, A D

    2016-04-12

    The absorbance and fluorescence spectra of carboxylated spiropyrans containing methyl-1-aza-12-crown-4, methyl-1-aza-15-crown-5, methyl-1-aza-18-crown-6 moieties are compared. Characteristic changes in spectra after addition of the alkali metal salts of Li(+), Na(+), K(+) and Cs(+) were observed. Chromism induced by the binding of the metal cations was observed as an increase in absorbance and fluorescence. Of these metal cations, the Li(+) ion produced the largest change in all three spiropyran systems. Reversible photoswitching of the spiropyran-metal complexes was observed on irradiation with alternating 352 nm UV and white light. This results in reversible fluorescence based sensing of lithium ions with potential for use in a biological sensor device. PMID:27001932

  9. Biosynthesis of riboflavin in Bacillus subtilis: origin of the four-carbon moiety.

    PubMed Central

    Le Van, Q; Keller, P J; Bown, D H; Floss, H G; Bacher, A

    1985-01-01

    We studied the incorporation of [1-13C]ribose and [1,3-13C2]glycerol into the riboflavin precursor 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine, using a riboflavin-deficient mutant of Bacillus subtilis. The formation of the pyrazine ring requires the addition of a four-carbon moiety to a pyrimidine precursor. The results show that C-6 alpha, C-6, C-7, and C-7 alpha of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine were biosynthetically equivalent to C-1, C-2, C-3, and C-5 of a pentose phosphate. C-4 of the pentose precursor was lost through an intramolecular skeletal rearrangement. Thus, the last steps in the biosynthesis of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine apparently involve the same mechanism in bacteria as in fungi. PMID:3922947

  10. Nitric oxide donor beta2-agonists: furoxan derivatives containing the fenoterol moiety and related furazans.

    PubMed

    Buonsanti, M Federica; Bertinaria, Massimo; Stilo, Antonella Di; Cena, Clara; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2007-10-01

    The structure of fenoterol, a beta2-adrenoceptor agonist used in therapy, has been joined with furoxan NO-donor moieties to give new NO-donor beta2-agonists. The furazan analogues, devoid of the property to release NO, were also synthesized for comparison. All the compounds retained beta2-agonistic activity at micromolar or submicromolar concentration when tested on guinea pig tracheal rings precontracted with carbachol. Among the furoxan derivatives, the NO contribution to trachea relaxation was evident with product 15b at micromolar concentrations. All the new NO-donor hybrids were able to dilate rat aortic strips precontracted with phenylephrine. Both furoxan and furazan derivatives displayed antioxidant activity greater than that of fenoterol. PMID:17845020

  11. Antidepressant potential of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic moieties: An updated review

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Nadeem; Andalip; Bawa, Sandhya; Ali, Ruhi; Afzal, Obaid; Akhtar, M. Jawaid; Azad, Bishmillah; Kumar, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    Depression is currently the fourth leading cause of disease or disability worldwide. Antidepressant is approved for the treatment of major depression (including paediatric depression), obsessive-compulsive disorder (in both adult and paediatric populations), bulimia nervosa, panic disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Antidepressant is a psychiatric medication used to alleviate mood disorders, such as major depression and dysthymia and anxiety disorders such as social anxiety disorder. Many drugs produce an antidepressant effect, but restrictions on their use have caused controversy and off-label prescription a risk, despite claims of superior efficacy. Our current understanding of its pathogenesis is limited and existing treatments are inadequate, providing relief to only a subset of people suffering from depression. Reviews of literature suggest that heterocyclic moieties and their derivatives has proven success in treating depression. PMID:21687347

  12. Syntheses, biological activities and SAR studies of novel carboxamide compounds containing piperazine and arylsulfonyl moieties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Lei; Shi, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Ma, Yi; Wang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Li-Yuan; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xing-Hai; Li, Yong-Hong; Li, Zheng-Ming; Li, Bao-Ju

    2016-07-19

    A series of novel carboxamide compounds 19a-19j, 20a-20j and 22a-22d containing piperazine and arylsulfonyl moieties have been synthesized. The bioassay results showed that some compounds exhibited favorable herbicidal activities against dicotyledonous plants and many of them possessed excellent antifungal activities. Among 24 novel compounds, some showed superiority over the commercial fungicides Chlorothalonil, Dimethomorph, Thiophanate-methyl, Iprodione, and Zhongshengmycin at 500 mg/L concentration. Some compounds also exhibited high KARI inhibitory activity at 100 μg/mL concentration and could be used as new KARI lead inhibitors for further studies. Moreover, SAR of these new compounds were comprehensively investigated using different computational methods in which 3D-QSAR model obtained provided useful information for further structural optimization for the discovery of new fungicides. The results of this research will contribute to explore comprehensive biological activities of piperazine-containing compounds in different areas of chemistry. PMID:27092414

  13. Synthesis and anticandidal evaluation of new benzothiazole derivatives with hydrazone moiety.

    PubMed

    Yurttaş, Leyla; Kaplancıklı, Zafer Asım; Göger, Gamze; Demirci, Fatih

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we have performed the synthesis of new N'-(arylidene)-4-[(benzothiazol-2-yl)thio]butanoylhydrazide derivatives (3a-s) bearing azole moiety and hydrazone group in a lipophilic structural framework. The target compounds were prepared by a three step synthetic procedure starting from 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. The structures of the target compounds were elucidated by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectra and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the obtained compounds has been determined against a number of clinic and fluconazole-resistant Candida strains by using microdilution method. Compounds (3a-3s) exhibited anticandidal activity in different ratios varying between the range of MIC: 50 and 200 µg/mL. PMID:26247354

  14. Synthesis and Biological Investigation of some Novel Sulfonamide and Amide Derivatives Containing Coumarin Moieties

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Mina; Goli, Fereshteh; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    New sulfonamide and amide derivatives containing coumarin moieties; oxo-2H-chromen-sulfamoylphenylacetamides and oxo-2H-chromen-arylacetamides were synthesized starting from diverse 2-chloroacetamide derivatives and a wide range of coumarins. The structures of compounds were elucidated by IR and NMR spectra and also analytical elemental analysis. In the next step, the above mentioned compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Their antimicrobial activity was assigned using the conventional agar dilution method and the antioxidant activity was assessed using two methods, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Although the compounds showed no remarkable antimicrobial activities, most of them exhibited good antioxidant activities. Compounds 5b showed the most potent DPPH activity, whereas 8c was the most efficient compound in FRAP assay. PMID:25276188

  15. Synthesis and Biological Investigation of some Novel Sulfonamide and Amide Derivatives Containing Coumarin Moieties.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Mina; Goli, Fereshteh; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    New sulfonamide and amide derivatives containing coumarin moieties; oxo-2H-chromen-sulfamoylphenylacetamides and oxo-2H-chromen-arylacetamides were synthesized starting from diverse 2-chloroacetamide derivatives and a wide range of coumarins. The structures of compounds were elucidated by IR and NMR spectra and also analytical elemental analysis. In the next step, the above mentioned compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Their antimicrobial activity was assigned using the conventional agar dilution method and the antioxidant activity was assessed using two methods, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Although the compounds showed no remarkable antimicrobial activities, most of them exhibited good antioxidant activities. Compounds 5b showed the most potent DPPH activity, whereas 8c was the most efficient compound in FRAP assay. PMID:25276188

  16. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  17. Measuring Lifestyle and Attachment: An Empirical Investigation Linking Individual Psychology and Attachment Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William

    2009-01-01

    P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…

  18. Attachment, Trauma, and Healing: Understanding and Treating Attachment Disorder in Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Terry M.; Orlans, Michael

    Attachment is the deep and enduring connection established between a child and caregiver in the first few years of life. It profoundly influences every component of the human condition: mind, body, emotions, relationships, and values. Children lacking secure attachments with caregivers experience many difficulties in life and may grow up to be…

  19. Attachment Security and Attentional Breadth toward the Attachment Figure in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosmans, Guy; Braet, Caroline; Koster, Ernst; De Raedt, Rudi

    2009-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the cognitive processes involved in internal working models of attachment, this study investigated the relationship between secure attachment and attentional breadth to mother using a dual task design. The content of the cues (mother vs. unfamiliar women) and the duration of the presentation of the cues (34 msec,…

  20. Surrogate motherhood: attachment, attitudes and social support.

    PubMed

    Fischer, S; Gillman, I

    1991-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in the procedure of using a surrogate mother to help infertile couples have a child. One of the issues brought into public awareness by the Baby M case, where the surrogate mother refused to give up the baby to the biological father, has been the nature of the attachment of the surrogate mother to the fetus. Thus far, research has not addressed this issue of attachment as well as it has considered other variables involved in the process of surrogacy. The current exploratory study focuses on differences between two groups of pregnant women - surrogate mothers and nonsurrogate mothers - in the degree and quality of attachment, attitudes toward pregnancy, and social support. An understanding of what pregnancy signifies for surrogate mothers is developed, based on objective measures and informal interviews with surrogate and nonsurrogate mothers. The implications of the various phenomena associated with surrogate motherhood are also considered. PMID:2023971

  1. Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.

    1982-01-01

    A reusable system for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod (12) to a support member (14). A locking cap (22) is secured to the fuel rod (12) and a locking strip (24) is fastened to the support member (14). The locking cap (22) has two opposing fingers (24a and 24b) shaped to form a socket having a body portion (26). The locking strip has an extension (36) shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion (26). The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap (22) is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip (24) causing the extension (36) to temporarily deflect open the fingers (24a and 24b) to engage the socket's body portion (26). For removal, the process is reversed.

  2. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents. PMID:26645775

  3. Expandable pallet for space station interface attachments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Described is a foldable expandable pallet for Space Station interface attachments with a basic square configuration. Each pallet consists of a series of struts joined together by node point fittings to make a rigid structure. The struts have hinge fittings which are spring loaded to permit collapse of the module for stowage transport to a Space Station in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle, and development on orbit. Dimensions of the pallet are selected to provide convenient, closely spaced attachment points between the node points of the relatively widely spaced trusses of a Space Station platform. A pallet is attached to a strut at four points: one close fitting hole, two oversize holes, and a slot to allow for thermal expansion/contraction and for manufacturing tolerances. Applications of the pallet include its use in rotary or angular joints; servicing of splints; with gridded plates; as instrument mounting bases; and as a roadbed for a Mobile Service Center (MSC).

  4. Calcium phenylphosphonate as a host for 4-aminobenzoic acid-Synthesis, characterization, and cation adsorption from ethanol solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarin, Angelica M.; Ganzerli, Thiago A.; Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, Elza I.S.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2009-11-15

    Crystalline lamellar calcium phenylphosphonate retained 4-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The intense infrared bands in the 1160-695 cm{sup -1} interval confirmed the presence of the phosphonate groups attached to the inorganic layer, with sharp and intense peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, which gave basal distances of 1532 and 1751 pm for the original and the intercalated compounds, respectively. The thermogravimetric curves of both layered compounds showed the release of water molecules and the organic moiety in distinct stages, to yield a final Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} residue. Solid-state {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra presented only one peak for the phenylphosphonate groups attached to the main inorganic polymeric structure near 12.4 ppm. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 1.68 and 0.50 mmol g{sup -1} for copper and cobalt, respectively, whose average stability constants followed Co > Cu; the number of ligands was determined as four for both cations.

  5. Chiral dicarboxamide scaffolds containing a sulfiliminyl moiety as potential ryanodine receptor activators.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sha; Jia, Zhehui; Xiong, Lixia; Yan, Tao; Yang, Na; Wu, Guiping; Song, Haibin; Li, Zhengming

    2014-07-01

    To search for new environmentally benign insecticides with high activity, low toxicity, and low residue, novel chiral configurations introduced into dicarboxamide scaffolds containing N-cyano sulfiliminyl moieties were first studied. Four series of phthalamides with sulfur-containing side chains were designed, synthesized, and evaluated against oriental armyworm (Pseudaletia separata Walker) and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) for their insecticidal activities. All structures were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and HRMS (or elemental analysis), and their configurations were confirmed by optical polarimetry. The biological assessment indicated that some title compounds exhibited significant insecticidal activities. For oriental armyworm, these stereoisomers exerted different impacts on biological activity following the sequence (Sc, Ss) ≥ (Sc, Rs) ≫ (Rc, Ss) > (Rc, Rs), and carbon chirality influenced the activities more strongly than sulfur. Compounds Ia and IIa reached as high an activity as commercial flubendiamide, with LC50 values of 0.0504 and 0.0699 mg L(-1), respectively, lower than that of flubendiamide (0.1230 mg L(-1)). For diamondback moth, the sequence of activity was (Sc, Ss) > (Sc, Rs), and the sulfur chirality influenced the activities more greatly than carbon. Compound IIe exhibited even higher activity than flubendiamide, whereas Ie and Ic,d reached the activity of the latter. The results indicated that the improvement of insecticidal activity probably required a coordination of both carbon and sulfur chirality. Comparative molecular field analysis calculation indicated that stereoisomers with Sc configurations containing strong electron-withdrawing groups such as as CN are important in maintaining the high activity. The chiral scaffolds containing the N-cyano sulfiliminyl moiety are also essential for high larvicidal activity. Some title compounds could be considered as potential candidates for ryanodine receptor activators

  6. Design, synthesis, and docking studies of afatinib analogs bearing cinnamamide moiety as potent EGFR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yuanbiao; OuYang, Yiqiang; Xu, Shan; Zhu, Yan; Li, Gen; Sun, Chao; Zheng, Pengwu; Zhu, Wufu

    2016-04-01

    Two series of afatinib derivatives bearing cinnamamide moiety (10a-n and 11a-h) were designed, synthesized and evaluated for the IC50 values against four cancer cell lines (A549, PC-3, MCF-7 and Hela). Two selected compounds (10e, 10k) were further evaluated for the inhibitory activity against EGFR and VEGFR2/KDR kinases. Seven of the compounds showed excellent cytotoxicity activity and selectivity with the IC50 values in single-digit μM to nanomole range. Three of them are equal to more active than positive control afatinib against one or more cell lines. The most promising compound 10k showed the best activity against A549, PC-3, MCF-7 and Hela cancer cell lines and EGFR kinase, with the IC50 values of 0.07±0.02μM, 7.67±0.97μM, 4.65±0.90μM and 4.83±1.28μM, which were equal to more active than afatinib (0.05±0.01μM, 4.1±2.47μM, 5.83±1.89μM and 6.81±1.77μM), respectively. Activity of compounds 10e (IC50 9.1nM) and 10k (IC50 3.6nM) against EGFR kinase were equal to the reference compound afatinib (IC50 1.6nM). Structure-activity relationships (SARs) and docking studies indicated that replacement of the aqueous solubility 4-(dimethylamino)but-2-enamide group by cinnamamide moiety didn't decrease the antitumor activity. The results suggested that methoxy substitution had a significant impact on the activity and methoxy substituted on C-4 or C-2,3,4 position was benefit for the activity. PMID:26906472

  7. Utilizing copper(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition for the surface modification of colloidal particles with electroactive and emissive moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rungta, Parul

    " chemistry; Aqueous-phase 83 nm poly(propargyl acrylate) (PA) nanoparticles were surface-functionalized with sparingly water soluble fluorescent moieties through a copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) (i.e., "click" transformation) to produce fluoroprobes with a large Stokes shift. For moieties which could not achieve extensive surface coverage on the particles utilizing a standard click transformation procedure, the presence of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) during the transformation enhanced the grafting density onto the particles. For an oxadiazole containing molecule (AO), an azide-modified coumarin 6 (AD1) and a polyethylene glycol modified naphthalimide-based emitter (AD2), respectively, an 84%, 17% and 5% increase in the grafting densities were observed, when the transformation was performed in the presence of beta-CD. In contrast, a carbazolyl-containing moiety (AC) exhibited a slight retardation in the final grafting density when beta-CD was employed. Photoluminescence studies indicated that AC & AO when attached to the particles form an exciplex. An efficient energy transfer from the exciplex to the surface attached AD2 resulted in a total Stokes shift of 180 nm for the modified particles. (3) The synthesis and characterization of near-infrared (NIR) emitting particles for potential applications in cancer therapy. PA particles were surface modified through the "click" transformation of an azide-terminated indocyanine green (azICG), an NIR emitter, and poly(ethylene glycol) (azPEG) chains of various molecular weights. The placement of azICG onto the surface of the particles allowed for the chromophores to complex with bovine serum albumin (BSA) when dispersed in PBS that resulted in an enhancement of the dye emission. In addition, the inclusion of azPEG with the chromophores onto the particle surface resulted in a synergistic nine-fold enhancement of the fluorescence intensity, with azPEGs of increasing molecular weight amplifying the response

  8. Attachment of Pneumocystis carinii to rat pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Long, E G; Smith, J S; Meier, J L

    1986-06-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were immunosuppressed by subcutaneous injections of cortisone acetate for 8 weeks to induce Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Rats were killed with ether, their lungs were filled in situ with cold glutaraldehyde, and sections were examined by transmission electron microscopy. P. carinii trophozoites were observed in lungs for as long as 6 weeks after cessation of corticosteroid injections. Trophozoites were attached most frequently to type I pneumocytes but were seen on several occasions to be attached to type II pneumocytes. In attachment, trophozoites in contact with alveolar epithelial cells produced cytoplasmic modifications of three basic forms: one was an invagination of parasite surface to pinch cytoplasmic extensions on the surface of the epithelial cells. A second was an extension that was inserted into a crevice of the host surface and enlarged at the tip to form an anchor. The third was an extension that remained pointed at the tip and was recurved to form a hook. None of these modifications was seen on the surface of the trophozoites. Filopodia did not appear to be involved in attachment but were seen on both attached and lumenal surfaces of the trophozoites. Trophozoites and cysts were also observed to be partially or completely enveloped by extensions of the host cell's cytoplasm. In these instances, parasites had rounded surfaces but appeared viable. No fusion of cell membranes between parasite and host cells was ever seen. These observations may help explain why P. carinii can attach tenaciously to lung epithelium without cell-membrane fusion, production of a glycocalyx, or invasion of host cells. PMID:3487003

  9. Attachment at (not to) work: applying attachment theory to explain individual behavior in organizations.

    PubMed

    Richards, David A; Schat, Aaron C H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of 2 studies that were conducted to investigate whether adult attachment theory explains employee behavior at work. In the first study, we examined the structure of a measure of adult attachment and its relations with measures of trait affectivity and the Big Five. In the second study, we examined the relations between dimensions of attachment and emotion regulation behaviors, turnover intentions, and supervisory reports of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Results showed that anxiety and avoidance represent 2 higher order dimensions of attachment that predicted these criteria (except for counterproductive work behavior) after controlling for individual difference variables and organizational commitment. The implications of these results for the study of attachment at work are discussed. PMID:20718531

  10. An additional fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) moiety in di-Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine induces pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation with significant advantages.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Samala Murali Mohan; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Duraipandy, Natarajan; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, several fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-functionalized amino acids and peptides have been used to construct hydrogels, which find a wide range of applications. Although several hydrogels have been prepared from mono Fmoc-functionalized amino acids, herein, we demonstrate the importance of an additional Fmoc-moiety in the hydrogelation of double Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine [Fmoc(Nα)-L-lysine(NεFmoc)-OH, (Fmoc-K(Fmoc))] as a low molecular weight gelator (LMWG). Unlike other Fmoc-functionalized amino acid gelators, Fmoc-K(Fmoc) exhibits pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation (hydrogelation at different pH values as well as organogelation), which is significant among the gelators. Distinct fibrous morphologies were observed for Fmoc-K(Fmoc) hydrogels formed at different pH values, which are different from organogels in which Fmoc-K(Fmoc) showed bundles of long fibers. In both hydrogels and organogels, the self-assembly of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) was driven by aromatic π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions, as evidenced from spectroscopic analyses. Characterization of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) gels using several biophysical methods indicates that Fmoc-K(Fmoc) has several advantages and significant importance as a LMWG. The advantages of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) include pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation, pH stimulus response, high thermal stability (∼100 °C) even at low minimum hydrogelation concentration (0.1 wt%), thixotropic property, high kinetic and mechanical stability, dye removal properties, cell viability to the selected cell type, and as a drug carrier. While single Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine amino acids failed to exhibit gelation under similar experimental conditions, the pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) demonstrates the benefit of a second Fmoc moiety in inducing gelation in a LMWG. We thus strongly believe that the current findings provide a lead to construct or design various new synthetic Fmoc-based LMW organic gelators for several

  11. Exploring the strain-specific attachment of Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum on food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Aulia, Yosi Ayu; Van der Linden, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Devlieghere, Frank

    2015-04-16

    The psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum has emerged as one of the most prevalent specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) of packaged, cold-stored food products in Northern Europe. The whole genome sequencing of the type strain L. gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum LMG 18811(T) revealed genes encoding for proteins related to adhesion. In the present study the attachment of six food and environmental isolates was monitored on stainless steel (SS) and glass surfaces incubated (7 °C for 5-9 days) in two food simulating substrates (i.e. sweet bell pepper juice and boiled eggs in brine). The selection encompassed unique genotypes, isolated from different food products or sampling sites as well as slime-forming biotypes. The evaluation of the attached cells was performed with the bead vortexing method and a viability staining assay coupled with epifluorescence microscopy. On SS surfaces the slime-formers showed the lowest attachment (3.3-4.5 logCFU/cm(2)), while strain L. gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum ab2, which was isolated from an acetic acid bath in a vegetable salad company, reached significantly higher populations of attached cells exceeding 7 logCFU/cm(2). Strain ab2 formed dense cell aggregations on SS after 9 days of incubation in sweet bell pepper juice. The attachment ability of L. gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum on surfaces documented in the present study extends our knowledge and understanding of the spoilage potential and intra-subspecies diversity of this microbe. PMID:25625910

  12. Pilot cryo tunnel: Attachments, seals, and insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. F.; Ware, G. D.; Ramsey, J. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Several different tests are described which simulated the actual configuration of a cryogenic wind tunnel operating at pressures up to 5 atmospheres (507 kPa) and temperatures from -320 F (78K) to 120 F (322K) in order to determine compatible bolting, adequate sealing, and effective insulating materials. The evaluation of flange attachments (continuous threaded studs) considered bolting based on compatible flanges, attachment materials, and prescribed bolt elongations. Various types of seals and seal configurations were studied to determine suitability and reusability under the imposed pressure and temperature loadings. The temperature profile was established for several materials used for structural supports.

  13. Attachment device for an inflatable protective cushion

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Luna, D.A.; Gwinn, K.W.

    1997-11-18

    An inflatable cushion assembly for use with an inflator comprises an inflatable cushion having an inner surface, outer surface, and at least one protrusion extending from one of the inner or outer surfaces. The inflatable cushion defines an opening between the inner surface and the outer surface for receiving the inflator. An attachment member contacts the one of the inner or outer surfaces adjacent the opening and includes a groove for receiving the protrusion, the attachment member securing the inflator within the opening. 22 figs.

  14. Effect of substratum surface chemistry and surface energy on attachment of marine bacteria and algal spores.

    PubMed

    Ista, Linnea K; Callow, Maureen E; Finlay, John A; Coleman, Sarah E; Nolasco, Aleece C; Simons, Robin H; Callow, James A; Lopez, Gabriel P

    2004-07-01

    Two series of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of omega-substituted alkanethiolates on gold were used to systematically examine the effects of varying substratum surface chemistry and energy on the attachment of two model organisms of interest to the study of marine biofouling, the bacterium Cobetia marina (formerly Halomonas marina) and zoospores of the alga Ulva linza (formerly Enteromorpha linza). SAMs were formed on gold-coated glass slides from solutions containing mixtures of methyl- and carboxylic acid-terminated alkanethiols and mixtures of methyl- and hydroxyl-terminated alkanethiols. C. marina attached in increasing numbers to SAMs with decreasing advancing water contact angles (theta(AW)), in accordance with equation-of-state models of colloidal attachment. Previous studies of Ulva zoospore attachment to a series of mixed methyl- and hydroxyl-terminated SAMs showed a similar correlation between substratum theta(AW) and zoospore attachment. When the hydrophilic component of the SAMs was changed to carboxylate, however, the profile of attachment of Ulva was significantly different, suggesting that a more complex model of interfacial energetics is required. PMID:15240295

  15. Effect of Substratum Surface Chemistry and Surface Energy on Attachment of Marine Bacteria and Algal Spores

    PubMed Central

    Ista, Linnea K.; Callow, Maureen E.; Finlay, John A.; Coleman, Sarah E.; Nolasco, Aleece C.; Simons, Robin H.; Callow, James A.; Lopez, Gabriel P.

    2004-01-01

    Two series of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of ω-substituted alkanethiolates on gold were used to systematically examine the effects of varying substratum surface chemistry and energy on the attachment of two model organisms of interest to the study of marine biofouling, the bacterium Cobetia marina (formerly Halomonas marina) and zoospores of the alga Ulva linza (formerly Enteromorpha linza). SAMs were formed on gold-coated glass slides from solutions containing mixtures of methyl- and carboxylic acid-terminated alkanethiols and mixtures of methyl- and hydroxyl-terminated alkanethiols. C. marina attached in increasing numbers to SAMs with decreasing advancing water contact angles (θAW), in accordance with equation-of-state models of colloidal attachment. Previous studies of Ulva zoospore attachment to a series of mixed methyl- and hydroxyl-terminated SAMs showed a similar correlation between substratum θAW and zoospore attachment. When the hydrophilic component of the SAMs was changed to carboxylate, however, the profile of attachment of Ulva was significantly different, suggesting that a more complex model of interfacial energetics is required. PMID:15240295

  16. The Freedom to Choose Secure Attachment Relationships in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren, Einat; Mayseless, Ofra

    2013-01-01

    This study was based on the attachment-security hypothesis (H. Latty-Mann & K. E. Davis, 1996) that predicts that all individuals, regardless of attachment style, should demonstrate a preference for secure partners who are most likely to offer attachment security. It was therefore expected that with the transfer of attachment functions from…

  17. Role of Attachment in Response to Pet Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Nigel P.; Orsini, Lisa; Gavish, Roni; Packman, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of attachment on grief severity following the death of a pet. Seventy-one participants who had lost a dog or cat within the past year completed a set of measures that included an attachment measure assessing individual differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance, strength of the past attachment to the pet, the…

  18. Attachment and the Processing of Social Information in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2007-01-01

    A key proposition of attachment theory is that experience-based cognitive representations of attachment, often referred to as internal working models of attachment, influence the manner in which individuals process attachment-relevant social information (Bowlby, 1969/1982, 1973, 1980; Bretherton & Munholland, 1999; Main, Kaplan, & Cassidy, 1985).…

  19. Preschool Teacher Attachment, School Readiness and Risk of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commodari, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Attachment is the emotional bond between children and their caregivers (parents or otherwise). Infants and young children usually have more than one selective attachment, and all of these attachment relationships, including those between children and teachers, have important effects on cognitive and social development. Secure attachment to a…

  20. A Chitosan Derivative Containing Both Carboxylic Acid and Quaternary Ammonium Moieties for the Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates.

    PubMed

    Besse, Vincent; Illy, Nicolas; David, Ghislain; Caillol, Sylvain; Boutevin, Bernard

    2016-08-23

    Chitosan, a renewable feedstock, is modified and used as a catalytic support in the presence of potassium iodide. The system is highly efficient towards the incorporation of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) into epoxides. It demonstrates very good thermal stability and is recyclable more than five times without loss of activity. The optimal reaction conditions were determined using allylglycidyl ether as a model and extended to a wide range of other epoxides. Cyclic carbonates were obtained with very high yield in a few hours under mild conditions (2-7 bar≈0.2-0.7 MPa, 80 °C) and no solvent. PMID:27440310

  1. Development of Lathe Attachment for a CNC Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, V.; Kumar, S.

    2013-04-01

    A lathe attachment has been developed for an existing CNC machine (installed with rapid prototyping attachment) using conceptual design. The CNC machine operates on mechatronic controls and a computer interface called CAMSOFT, and is used as a CNC Lathe after installing the respective attachment to it. The conceptual design phase, starts from an idea and different components of the lathe are designed as attachment using CAD modelling and is followed by fabrication phase. The lathe attachment is successfully developed and is installed to the CNC machine. The working of the CNC Lathe attachment is checked by making some machining operation like turning and thread cutting. The machining operations are successfully done. The CNC machine becomes multifunctional with the presently developed lathe attachment and the existing RP (rapid prototyping) attachment, and can be used accordingly by installing the respective attachment to it. The CNC machine is useful for carrying research work in both the fields, when installed with the appropriate attachment.

  2. Reaction of quinones and guanidine derivatives: simple access to bis-2-aminobenzimidazole moiety of benzosceptrin and other benzazole motifs.

    PubMed

    Tran, Minh Quan; Ermolenko, Ludmila; Retailleau, Pascal; Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Al-Mourabit, Ali

    2014-02-01

    A new strategy for the synthesis of 2-aminobenzimidazol-6-ols via a reaction of quinones with guanidine derivatives is reported. Sequential application of this methodology provided a simple access to the first benzosceptrin analogue bearing a bis-2-aminoimidazole moiety. A concomitant addition of two guanidines to the naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine-5,6-dione, which includes the redox neutral debenzylation and guanidine-assisted cleavage of the 2-aminopyrimidine part resulted in the synthesis of the free challenging contiguous bis-2-aminoimidazole moiety of benzosceprins in one step. PMID:24479902

  3. Attaching strain gages by ultrasonic plastic welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, A. T.; Silbert, L.

    1977-01-01

    Technique employs application of pressure and ultrasound to effect welding of encapsulated strain gates to metallic surfaces. Process requires no heat or adhesives. Technique might also be used to simplify curing of epoxy adhesives and for attachment problems like bonding cryogenic temperature sensors to structural parts.

  4. Assessing attachment in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, Patricia; Kozlowska, Kasia; Landini, Andrea

    2010-04-01

    The School-age Assessment of Attachment (SAA) is a newly developed clinical tool to identify pattern of attachment using the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment and adaptation (DMM). Seven picture cards were used to elicit fantasy stories and recalled episodes. The transcribed discourse was analyzed to yield one of 13 DMM attachment classifications, together with possible unresolved traumas and losses, and modifiers (depression and intrusions). In this article, we outline the steps necessary to validate an assessment tool, describe the development of the SAA, and report data from a preliminary clinical study testing the SAA's reliability, validity, and utility. Concurrent construct, familial, and discriminant validity were evaluated in terms of mental health status and exposure to danger on a sample of 5-12-year-old children, drawn from clinical ( n = 51) and normative (n = 40) populations. The SAA (a) differentiated children referred for psychiatric diagnosis from those in the normative population; (b) accounted for 31% of the variance (46% when family variables were added); (c) identified risk children in the normative sample; and (d) suggested risk factors associated with children's psychiatric disorder. PMID:20176770

  5. Hidden Regulators in Attachment, Separation, and Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Myron A.

    1994-01-01

    This essay discusses the similarities between animal behavior and human attachment behavior demonstrated by infants and their mothers. The provision of warmth, the tactile and olfactory stimulation of the mother's physical interactions, and the oral sensory and absorptive consequences of nursing are found to provide specific and independent…

  6. Attachment Styles, Abuse Experiences and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…

  7. Nanovalve Activation by Surface-Attached Photoacids

    PubMed Central

    Guardado-Alvarez, T. M.; Russell, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Proton transfer caused by excitation of a photoacid attached to the surface of a mesoporous silica nanoparticle activates a nanovalve and causes release of trapped molecules. The protonation of an aniline- based stalk releases a noncovalently bound cyclodextrin molecule that blocked a pore. The results show that pH-responsive molecular delivery systems can be externally controlled using light. PMID:24942753

  8. No Strings Attached: Open Source Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredricks, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Imagine downloading a new software application and not having to worry about licensing, finding dollars in the budget, or incurring additional maintenance costs. Imagine finding a Web design tool in the public domain--free for use. Imagine major universities that provide online courses with no strings attached. Imagine online textbooks without a…

  9. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  10. Morphological Heterogeneity and Attachment of Phaeobacter inhibens

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Einat; Tellez, Adèle; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Roseobacter clade is a key group of bacteria in the ocean exhibiting diverse metabolic repertoires and a wide range of symbiotic life-styles. Many Roseobacters possess remarkable capabilities of attachment to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. When attached to each other, these bacteria form multi-cellular structures called rosettes. Phaeobacter inhibens, a well-studied Roseobacter, exhibits various cell sizes and morphologies that are either associated with rosettes or occur as single cells. Here we describe the distribution of P. inhibens morphologies and rosettes within a population. We detect an N-acetylglucosamine-containing polysaccharide on the poles of some cells and at the center of all rosettes. We demonstrate that rosettes are formed by the attachment of individual cells at the polysaccharide-containing pole rather than by cell division. Finally, we show that P. inhibens attachment to abiotic surfaces is hindered by the presence of DNA from itself, but not from other bacteria. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that cell adhesiveness is likely to play a significant role in the life cycle of P. inhibens as well as other Roseobacters. PMID:26560130

  11. Reactive attachment disorder as an evolutionary adaptation.

    PubMed

    Balbernie, Robin

    2010-05-01

    This paper suggests that the behaviours associated with the formal diagnosis of the "disinhibited" form of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) might be seen as a functional adaptation rather than a mental health problem, a facultative response enhancing the probability of survival that is triggered by certain conditions. Although disinhibited RAD is most commonly observed in institutionalised children, similar behaviours may also be a part of the emotional difficulties displayed by some fostered and adopted children (the latter includes those once institutionalised), and these may demonstrate not so much a discrete attachment disorder as either the need to fend for oneself following loss of dedicated caregiving or a lack of opportunity to build specific intimate relationships with dedicated caregivers. In many cases this may be inextricably mixed with the neurobiological and psychological seqelae of maltreatment. Indiscriminate attachment behaviour, from this proposed evolutionary perspective, is less a syndrome of mental ill-health than an astute survival manoeuvre following being orphaned, abandoned or fecklessly reared. Such a response, allied to the innate facility to access caregiving from different adults, could be expected to be initiated by specific events as are the other attachment configurations. Classing disinhibited RAD as an adaptation has implications for helping children brought up under extreme duress when their caregiving environment has changed for the better. PMID:20473797

  12. OPTIMAL COST CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ATTACHED ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a cost-benefit analysis for alternative programs intended for the control of the nuisance growth of an attached alga (Cladophora). Such analyses require that changes in water quality be quantitatively related to the cost of implementation for specific manageme...

  13. Surface attachment induces Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence

    PubMed Central

    Siryaporn, Albert; Kuchma, Sherry L.; O’Toole, George A.; Gitai, Zemer

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infects every type of host that has been examined by deploying multiple virulence factors. Previous studies of virulence regulation have largely focused on chemical cues, but P. aeruginosa may also respond to mechanical cues. Using a rapid imaging-based virulence assay, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa activates virulence in response to attachment to a range of chemically distinct surfaces, suggesting that this bacterial species responds to mechanical properties of its substrates. Surface-activated virulence requires quorum sensing, but activating quorum sensing does not induce virulence without surface attachment. The activation of virulence by surfaces also requires the surface-exposed protein PilY1, which has a domain homologous to a eukaryotic mechanosensor. Specific mutation of the putative PilY1 mechanosensory domain is sufficient to induce virulence in non–surface-attached cells, suggesting that PilY1 mediates surface mechanotransduction. Triggering virulence only when cells are both at high density and attached to a surface—two host-nonspecific cues—explains how P. aeruginosa precisely regulates virulence while maintaining broad host specificity. PMID:25385640

  14. 78 FR 52868 - Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... regulations concerning pole attachments outlined in the DATES section. DATES: Effective August 27, 2013, the amendments to Sec. Sec. 1.1403(e) and 1.1404 published at 63 FR 12025, March 12, 1998,have been approved by.... ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: This document announces the approval of...

  15. An Exploratory Study of the Association between Reactive Attachment Disorder and Attachment Narratives in Early School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, Helen; Green, Jonathan; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Liew, Ashley; Glaser, D.; Taylor, E.; Follan, M.; Young, D.; Barnes, J.; Gillberg, C.; Pelosi, A.; Arthur, J.; Burston, A.; Connolly, B.; Sadiq, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore attachment narratives in children diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: We compared attachment narratives, as measured by the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task, in a group of 33 children with a diagnosis of RAD and 37 comparison children. Results: The relative risk (RR) for children with RAD having…

  16. Comparative validity of the Adult Attachment Interview and the Adult Attachment Projective.

    PubMed

    Jones-Mason, Karen; Allen, I Elaine; Hamilton, Steve; Weiss, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and the Adult Attachment Projective (AAP) purport to measure the same attachment classifications. The aims of this study were to determine the concurrent validity of the AAI and AAP, and to compare their ability to predict indicators of risk associated with socioeconomic status (SES), depression, and 5-HTTLPR genotype. Results indicated no agreement between AAI and AAP attachment classifications in a sample of late adolescents. As predicted, individuals classified as "unresolved" with regard to loss or trauma were significantly more likely to be of lower SES, have higher levels of depression, and have the 5-HTTLPR "ss" genotype than individuals with secure, preoccupied, or dismissing attachments. These associations, however, were only significant when attachment was classified with the AAI. Results suggest that the AAI and AAP measure different facets of attachment as a result of their unique methodologies and coding criteria. Further research is needed to support their comparability before investigators can assume that the AAP is a valid substitute for the AAI. PMID:26362584

  17. Measuring Infant Attachment Security in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta): Adaptation of the Attachment Q-set

    PubMed Central

    Warfield, James J.; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2010-01-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult’s availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant’s typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This paper reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists. PMID:20853398

  18. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches. PMID:27056466

  19. Measuring infant attachment security in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): adaptation of the attachment Q-set.

    PubMed

    Warfield, James J; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2011-02-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult's availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant's typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This article reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists. PMID:20853398

  20. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples. PMID:23659357

  1. Oxidation of L-ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid on the surface of the red blood cell

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, E.; Jennings, M.; Bennett, K.

    1986-05-01

    L-ascorbic acid-1-/sup 14/C when incubated with human blood did not bind irreversibly to any of the protein components of plasma but did migrate irreversibly into erythrocytes. Isolation and characterization via IR of the moiety trapped within the cell established its identity as apparently, unchanged L-ascorbic acid. When dehydroascorbic acid-1-/sup 14/C was incubated with human blood, the results were identical including the identity of the entrapped moiety, L-ascorbic acid. It was found that L-ascorbic acid was enzymatically oxidized on the surface of the red blood cell to dehydroascorbic acid which diffused through the lipid soluble portion of the cell membrane and was enzymatically reduced back to ascorbic acid within the cell.

  2. The statistical behaviour of attached eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, J. D.; Marusic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis forms the basis of an established model of the logarithmic layer in wall-bounded turbulent flows in which this inertially dominated region is characterised by a hierarchy of geometrically self-similar eddying motions that scale with their distance to the wall. The hypothesis has gained considerable support from high Reynolds number measurements of the second-order moments of the fluctuating velocities. Recently, Meneveau and Marusic ["Generalized logarithmic law for high-order moments in turbulent boundary layers," J. Fluid Mech. 719, R1 (2013)] presented experimental evidence that all even-ordered moments of the streamwise velocity will exhibit a logarithmic dependence on the distance from the wall. They demonstrated that this was consistent with the attached eddy hypothesis, so long as the velocity distribution is assumed to be Gaussian (which allows the use of the central limit theorem). In this paper, we derive this result from the attached eddy model without assuming a Gaussian velocity distribution, and find that such logarithmic behaviours are valid in the large Reynolds number limit. We also revisit the physical and mathematical basis of the attached eddy hypothesis, in order to increase rigour and minimise the assumptions required to apply the hypothesis. To this end, we have extended the proof of Campbell's theorem to apply to the velocity field corresponding to a forest of variously sized eddies that are randomly placed on the wall. This enables us to derive all moments of the velocity in the logarithmic region, including cross-correlations between different components of the velocity. By contrast, previous studies of the attached eddy hypothesis have considered only the mean velocity and its second order moments. From this, we obtain qualitatively correct skewnesses and flatnesses for the spanwise and wall-normal fluctuations. The issue of the Reynolds number dependence of von Kármán's constant is also addressed.

  3. THERMOPHILE ENDOSPORES HAVE RESPONSIVE EXOSPORIUM FOR ATTACHMENT

    SciTech Connect

    PANESSA-WARREN,B.; TORTORA,G.T.; WARREN,J.; SABATINI,R.

    1999-08-01

    Recently studies examining the colonization of Clostridial pathogens on agar and human tissue culture cells, demonstrated that (C. sporogenes ATCC 3584, C. difficile ATCC 43594 [patient isolate], C. difficile ATCC 9689 [non-clinical], C. clostridioforme [patient isolate]) bacterial spores (endospores) of the genus Clostridia have an outer membrane that becomes responsive at activation and exhibits extensions of the exosporial membrane that facilitate and maintain spore attachment to a nutritive substrate during germination and initial outgrowth of the newly developed bacterial cell. Therefore this attachment phenomenon plays an important role in insuring bacterial colonization of a surface and the initial stages of the infective process. To see if other non-clinical members of this genus also have this ability to attach to a substrate or food-source during spore germination, and how this attachment process in environmental thermophiles compares to the clinical paradigm (in relation to time sequence, exosporial membrane structure, type of attachment structures, composition of the membrane etc...), sediment samples were collected in sterile transport containers at 4 geothermal sites at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Because spore forming bacteria will produce spores when conditions are unfavorable for growth, the samples were sealed and stored at 4 C. After 8 months the samples were screened for the presence of spores by light microscope examination using malachite green/safranin, and traditional endospores were identified in significant quantities from the Terrace Spring site (a 46 C lake with bacterial mats and a rapidly moving run-off channel leading to a traditional hot spring). The highest spore population was found in the top sediment and benthic water of the run-off channel, pH 8.1.

  4. Attachment: A Study of a Child's Attachment to the Teacher as an Outgrowth of Her/His Attachment to the Mother.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Ann Jespersen

    This paper reviews the literature on attachment, presents a study of child-teacher attachment, and discusses child-teacher attachment as a secondary relationship influenced by the prototype bonding between mother and child. The literature review traces the development of psychoanalytic thought regarding the mother-child relationship and examines…

  5. Sialic Acid on the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Regulates PrP-mediated Cell Signaling and Prion Formation.

    PubMed

    Bate, Clive; Nolan, William; Williams, Alun

    2016-01-01

    The prion diseases occur following the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into disease-related isoforms (PrP(Sc)). In this study, the role of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor attached to PrP(C) in prion formation was examined using a cell painting technique. PrP(Sc) formation in two prion-infected neuronal cell lines (ScGT1 and ScN2a cells) and in scrapie-infected primary cortical neurons was increased following the introduction of PrP(C). In contrast, PrP(C) containing a GPI anchor from which the sialic acid had been removed (desialylated PrP(C)) was not converted to PrP(Sc). Furthermore, the presence of desialylated PrP(C) inhibited the production of PrP(Sc) within prion-infected cortical neurons and ScGT1 and ScN2a cells. The membrane rafts surrounding desialylated PrP(C) contained greater amounts of sialylated gangliosides and cholesterol than membrane rafts surrounding PrP(C). Desialylated PrP(C) was less sensitive to cholesterol depletion than PrP(C) and was not released from cells by treatment with glimepiride. The presence of desialylated PrP(C) in neurons caused the dissociation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 from PrP-containing membrane rafts and reduced the activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2. These findings show that the sialic acid moiety of the GPI attached to PrP(C) modifies local membrane microenvironments that are important in PrP-mediated cell signaling and PrP(Sc) formation. These results suggest that pharmacological modification of GPI glycosylation might constitute a novel therapeutic approach to prion diseases. PMID:26553874

  6. Origin of Translation - the Hypothesis of Permanently Attached Adaptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Sanjay

    1981-12-01

    A mechanism for prebiotic translation is proposed in which primeval transfer-RNA (adaptors) are assumed to be permanently associated with messenger nucleic acid molecules. Residual ‘fossil’ evidences are found to be present within the base sequences of contemporary tRNAs, suggesting the existence of inter-primal-tRNA interactions necessary for the mechanism. The structure of proposed primal-tRNA is such that it can not only choose its own amino acid in the absence of aminoacyl synthetase, but can also associate nonspecifically with adjacent primal-tRNA molecules attached to the neighbouring codons. Such associations can give rise, through cooperative binding between message and adaptors to the ‘static template surfaces’ which can direct translation of nucleotide sequences into those of amino acids. The origins of ribosomes and contemporary genetic code are suggested by this hypothesis. Proposed structures and processes are thermodynamically compatible. The approximate date of occurence of the proposed system is calculated, which is consistent with the period of occurence of the earliest organisms with ribosomes.

  7. Derivation of Cinnamon Blocks Leukocyte Attachment by Interacting with Sialosides.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Ling; Guu, Shih-Yun; Tsai, Chan-Chuan; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Viswaraman, Mohan; Chen, Hsing-Bao; Chang, Chuan-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Molecules derived from cinnamon have demonstrated diverse pharmacological activities against infectious pathogens, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the cinnamon-derived molecule IND02 on the adhesion of leukocytes to host cells. The anti-inflammatory ability of IND02, a pentameric procyanidin type A polyphenol polymer isolated from cinnamon alcohol extract, was examined. Pretreatment with IND02 significantly reduced the attachment of THP-1 cells or neutrophils to TNF-α-activated HUVECs or E-selectin/ICAM-1, respectively. IND02 also reduced the binding of E-, L- and P-selectins with sialosides. Furthermore, IND02 could agglutinate human red blood cells (RBC), and the agglutination could be disrupted by sialylated glycoprotein. Our findings demonstrate that IND02, a cinnamon-derived compound, can interact with sialosides and block the binding of selectins and leukocytes with sialic acids. PMID:26076445

  8. Retinal Attachment Instability Is Diversified among Mammalian Melanopsins.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Hisao; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Farrens, David L; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa; Furutani, Yuji

    2015-11-01

    Melanopsins play a key role in non-visual photoreception in mammals. Their close phylogenetic relationship to the photopigments in invertebrate visual cells suggests they have evolved to acquire molecular characteristics that are more suited for their non-visual functions. Here we set out to identify such characteristics by comparing the molecular properties of mammalian melanopsin to those of invertebrate melanopsin and visual pigment. Our data show that the Schiff base linking the chromophore retinal to the protein is more susceptive to spontaneous cleavage in mammalian melanopsins. We also find this stability is highly diversified between mammalian species, being particularly unstable for human melanopsin. Through mutagenesis analyses, we find that this diversified stability is mainly due to parallel amino acid substitutions in extracellular regions. We propose that the different stability of the retinal attachment in melanopsins may contribute to functional tuning of non-visual photoreception in mammals. PMID:26416885

  9. Derivation of Cinnamon Blocks Leukocyte Attachment by Interacting with Sialosides

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ling; Guu, Shih-Yun; Tsai, Chan-Chuan; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Viswaraman, Mohan; Chen, Hsing-Bao; Chang, Chuan-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Molecules derived from cinnamon have demonstrated diverse pharmacological activities against infectious pathogens, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the cinnamon-derived molecule IND02 on the adhesion of leukocytes to host cells. The anti-inflammatory ability of IND02, a pentameric procyanidin type A polyphenol polymer isolated from cinnamon alcohol extract, was examined. Pretreatment with IND02 significantly reduced the attachment of THP-1 cells or neutrophils to TNF-α-activated HUVECs or E-selectin/ICAM-1, respectively. IND02 also reduced the binding of E-, L- and P-selectins with sialosides. Furthermore, IND02 could agglutinate human red blood cells (RBC), and the agglutination could be disrupted by sialylated glycoprotein. Our findings demonstrate that IND02, a cinnamon-derived compound, can interact with sialosides and block the binding of selectins and leukocytes with sialic acids. PMID:26076445

  10. A nanoscale interface improves attachment of cast polymers to glass.

    PubMed

    Jones, Casey M; Donnelly, Patrick E; Schwartz, Jeffrey

    2010-08-01

    A novel interface was prepared on glass slides that stabilizes several cast polymers against delamination under conditions necessary for the study of cell surface interactions. This interface was synthesized by deposition of zirconium tetra(tert-butoxide) from the vapor phase onto the glass followed by mild thermolysis, which gives a surface-bound zirconium oxide coating. This oxide coating improved attachment of polymer coatings cast from formic acid or methylene chloride. Nylon, polyurethane, and polyhydroxybutyrate/polyhydroxyvalerate coatings were stable against delamination from the oxide-coated glass following sonication in ethanol for more than 30 min or immersion in water at pH 8 for at least 48 h. PMID:20690771

  11. Stereochemically Distinct Cyclotetrasiloxanes Containing 3-Pyridyl Moieties and Their Functional Coordination Polymers.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Mahesh S; Vijayakanth, Thangavel; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy

    2016-03-21

    Synthesis of new cyclotetrasiloxane scaffolds containing peripherally functionalized 3-pyridyl moieties, [MeSiO(CH═CH(3)Py)]4 (L(1)) and [MeSiO(CH2CH2(3)Py)]4 (L(2)), and their reactivity studies with certain d(10) metal ions are reported. The ligand L(1) is obtained by the Heck-coupling reaction of tetramethyl tetravinyl tetrasiloxane (D4(vi)) and 3-bromopyridine in the presence of the Pd(0) catalysts. The as-synthesized ligand L(1) shows the presence of three stereoisomers, cis-trans-cis (L(1A)), cis-cis-trans (L(1B)), and all-trans (L(1C)), which are quantitatively separated by column chromatography. Subsequent reduction of L(1A), L(1B), and L(1C) with triethylsilane in the presence of catalytic amounts of Pd/C leads to the formation of the ligands L(2A), L(2B), and L(2C) with retention of stereochemistry due to the precursor moieties. Treatment of ZnI2 with L(1A) gives a one-dimensional coordination framework [(L(1A))4(ZnI2)2]∞, 1. These 1D-chains are further connected by π-π stacking interactions between the pyridyl groups of the adjacent chains leading to the formation of a three-dimensional network with the topology of a PtS net. The reaction of silver nitrate with ligand L(1B) gives a chain like one-dimensional cationic coordination polymer {[(L(1B))4Ag2]·2NO3·H2O·CH3OH }∞, 2, consisting of two different kinds of 32-membered macrocycles. Treatment of the all-trans ligand L(2C) with copper(I) iodide salt results in the formation of a cubane-type Cu4I4 cluster MOF [(L(2C))4Cu4I4]∞, 3, in a two-dimensional 4-connected uninodal sql/Shubnikov tetragonal plane net topology represented by the Schläfli symbol {4(4).6(2)}. This MOF displays a thermochromic luminescence behavior due to Cu4I4 clusters showing an orange emission at 298 K and a blue emission at 77 K. PMID:26958986

  12. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of novel levofloxacin derivatives containing a substituted thienylethyl moiety

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Piperazinyl quinolones such as ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin are an important group of quinolone antimicrobials which are widely used in the treatment of various infectious diseases. In the present study, we synthesized a new series of levofloxacin derivatives and evaluated their antibacterial activities. Methods The N-substituted analogs of levofloxacin 6a–j were prepared by nucleophilic reaction of N-desmethyl levofloxacin 11 with thienylethyl bromide derivatives 8 or 9. All target compounds were tested using conventional agar dilution method in comparison to levofloxacin and N-desmethyl levofloxacin and their MIC values were determined against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Results All compounds showed significant antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 0.04-6.25 μg/mL); however, the activity against Gram-negative bacteria was lower (MIC = 1.56–100 μg/mL). As is evident from the data, oxime derivatives 6e, 6h and 6i are superior in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 0.04–0.19 μg/mL), and their activities were found to be 5–25 times better than N-desmethyl levofloxacin 11 and equal or better than levofloxacin 4. Conclusion We have designed and synthesized novel quinolone derivatives bearing functionalized thienylethyl moiety on the piperazine ring of levofloxacin. The results of antibacterial screening against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria revealed that the introduction of functionalized thienylethyl moiety on the piperazine ring of levofloxacin can improve the activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria are responsible for a wide range of infectious diseases, and rising resistance in this group is causing increasing concern. Thus, this study introduces structural features of levofloxacin scaffold for development of new candidates in the field of anti-Gram positive chemotherapy PMID:23351676

  13. Inelastic electron interaction (attachment/ionization) with deoxyribose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptasińska, S.; Denifl, S.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.

    2004-05-01

    We have investigated experimentally the formation of anions and cations of deoxyribose sugar (C5H10O4) via inelastic electron interaction (attachment/ionization) using a monochromatic electron beam in combination with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion yields were measured as a function of the incident electron energy between about 0 and 20 eV. As in the case of other biomolecules (nucleobases and amino acids), low energy electron attachment leads to destruction of the molecule via dissociative electron attachment reactions. In contrast to the previously investigated biomolecules dehydrogenation is not the predominant reaction channel for deoxyribose; the anion with the highest dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross section of deoxyribose is formed by the release of neutral particles equal to two water molecules. Moreover, several of the DEA reactions proceed already with "zero energy" incident electrons. In addition, the fragmentation pattern of positively charged ions of deoxyribose also indicates strong decomposition of the molecule by incident electrons. For sugar the relative amount of fragment ions compared to that of the parent cation is about an order of magnitude larger than in the case of nucleobases. We determined an ionization energy value for C5H10O4+ of 10.51±0.11 eV, which is in good agreement with ab initio calculations. For the fragment ion C5H6O2+ we obtained a threshold energy lower than the ionization energy of the parent molecular ion. All of these results have important bearing for the question of what happens in exposure of living tissue to ionizing radiation. Energy deposition into irradiated cells produces electrons as the dominant secondary species. At an early time after irradiation these electrons exist as ballistic electrons with an initial energy distribution up to several tens of electron volts. It is just this energy regime for which we find in the present study rather characteristic differences in the outcome of electron

  14. Preparation and characterization of light-switchable polymer networks attached to solid substrates.

    PubMed

    Schenderlein, Helge; Voss, Agnieszka; Stark, Robert W; Biesalski, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Surface-attached polymer networks that carry light-responsive nitrospiropyran groups in a hydrophilic PDMAA matrix were prepared on planar silicon and glass surfaces and were characterized with respect to their switching behavior under the influence of an external light trigger. Functional polymers bearing light-responsive units as well as photo-cross-linkable benzophenone groups were first synthesized using free radical copolymerization. The number of spiropyran groups in the copolymer was controlled by adjusting the concentration of the respective monomer in the copolymerization feed. The polymer films were prepared by spin-coating the functional polymers from solution and by ultraviolet light (UV)-induced cross-linking utilizing benzophenone photochemistry. On substrates with immobilized benzophenone groups, the complete polymer network is linked to the surface. The dry thickness of the films can be controlled over a wide range from a few nanometers up to more than 1 μm. The integration of such light-switchable organic moieties into a surface-attached polymer network allows one to increase the overall number of light-responsive groups per surface area by adjusting the amount of surface-attached polymer networks. The spiropyran's function in dry (solvent-free) and swollen polymer films can be reversibly switched by UV and visible irradiation. In addition, the switching in water is faster than in the dry state. Therefore, implementing light-responsive spiropyran functions in polymer films linked to solid surfaces could allow for switching of the chemical and optical surface properties in a fast and spatially controlled fashion. PMID:23461870

  15. A comparison of an ATPase from the archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum with the F1 moiety from the Escherichia coli ATP Synthase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1989-01-01

    A purified ATPase associated with membranes from Halobacterium saccharovorum was compared with the F sub 1 moiety from the Escherichia coli ATP Synthase. The halobacterial enzyme was composed of two major (I and II) and two minor subunits (III and IV), whose molecular masses were 87 kDa, 60 kDa, 29 kDa, and 20 kDa, respectively. The isoelectric points of these subunits ranged from 4.1 to 4.8, which in the case of the subunits I and II was consistent with the presence of an excess of acidic amino acids (20 to 22 Mol percent). Peptide mapping of sodium dodecylsulfate-denatured subunits I and II showed no relationship between the primary structures of the individual halobacterial subunits or similarities to the subunits of the F sub 1 ATPase (EC 3.6.1.34) from E. coli. Trypsin inactivation of the halobacterial ATPase was accompanied by the partial degradation of the major subunits. This observation, taken in conjunction with molecular masses of the subunits and the native enzyme, was consistent with the previously proposed stoichiometry of 2:2:1:1. These results suggest that H. saccharovorum, and possibly, Halobacteria in general, possess an ATPase which is unlike the ubiquitous F sub o F sub 1 - ATP Synthase.

  16. Synthesis and biological activity of furostanic analogues of brassinosteroids bearing the 5alpha-hydroxy-6-oxo moiety.

    PubMed

    Romero-Avila, Margarita; de Dios-Bravo, Guadalupe; Mendez-Stivalet, Jóse M; Rodríguez-Sotres, Rogelio; Iglesias-Arteaga, Martin A

    2007-12-01

    Two furostanic analogues of brassinosteroids bearing the 5alpha-hydroxy-6-oxo moiety were synthesized and their biological activity studied using the bean second internode elongation test. One of the compounds produced significant stimulation at doses of 2.5 and 5ng/plant. PMID:17905389

  17. Structure-activity relationships of anthranilamide-based factor Xa inhibitors containing piperidinone and pyridinone P4 moieties.

    PubMed

    Corte, James R; Fang, Tianan; Pinto, Donald J P; Han, Wei; Hu, Zilun; Jiang, Xiang-Jun; Li, Yun-Long; Gauuan, Jolicia F; Hadden, Mark; Orton, Darren; Rendina, Alan R; Luettgen, Joseph M; Wong, Pancras C; He, Kan; Morin, Paul E; Chang, Chong-Hwan; Cheney, Daniel L; Knabb, Robert M; Wexler, Ruth R; Lam, Patrick Y S

    2008-05-01

    Introduction of the phenyl piperidinone and phenyl pyridinone P4 moieties in the anthranilamide scaffold led to potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitors of factor Xa. Anthranilamide 28 displayed comparable efficacy to apixaban in the rabbit arteriovenous-shunt (AV) thrombosis model. PMID:18424044

  18. Attachment and culture. Security in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Rothbaum, F; Weisz, J; Pott, M; Miyake, K; Morelli, G

    2000-10-01

    Attachment theorists maintain that cultural differences are relatively minor, and they focus on universals. Here the authors highlight evidence of cultural variations and note ways in which attachment theory is laden with Western values and meaning. Comparisons of the United States and Japan highlight the cultural relativity of 3 core hypotheses of attachment theory: that caregiver sensitivity leads to secure attachment, that secure attachment leads to later social competence, and that children who are securely attached use the primary caregiver as a secure base for exploring the external world. Attachment theorists use measures of sensitivity, competence, and secure base that are biased toward Western ways of thinking: The measures emphasize the child's autonomy, individuation, and exploration. In Japan, sensitivity, competence, and secure base are viewed very differently, calling into question the universality of fundamental tenets of attachment theory. The authors call for an indigenous approach to the psychology of attachment. PMID:11080829

  19. Attaching Thermocouples by Peening or Crimping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murtland, Kevin; Cox, Robert; Immer, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Two simple, effective techniques for attaching thermocouples to metal substrates have been devised for high-temperature applications in which attachment by such conventional means as welding, screws, epoxy, or tape would not be effective. The techniques have been used successfully to attach 0.005- in. (0.127-mm)-diameter type-S thermocouples to substrates of niobium alloy C-103 and stainless steel 416 for measuring temperatures up to 2,600 F (1,427 C). The techniques are equally applicable to other thermocouple and substrate materials. In the first technique, illustrated in the upper part of the figure, a hole slightly wider than twice the diameter of one thermocouple wire is drilled in the substrate. The thermocouple is placed in the hole, then the edge of the hole is peened in one or more places by use of a punch (see figure). The deformed material at the edge secures the thermocouple in the hole. In the second technique a hole is drilled as in the first technique, then an annular relief area is machined around the hole, resulting in structure reminiscent of a volcano in a crater. The thermocouple is placed in the hole as in the first technique, then the "volcano" material is either peened by use of a punch or crimped by use of sidecutters to secure the thermocouple in place. This second technique is preferable for very thin thermocouples [wire diameter .0.005 in. (.0.127 mm)] because standard peening poses a greater risk of clipping one or both of the thermocouple wires. These techniques offer the following advantages over prior thermocouple-attachment techniques: . Because these techniques involve drilling of very small holes, they are minimally invasive . an important advantage in that, to a first approximation, the thermal properties of surrounding areas are not appreciably affected. . These techniques do not involve introduction of any material, other than the substrate and thermocouple materials, that could cause contamination, could decompose, or oxidize

  20. Structure, attachment properties, and ecological importance of the attachment system of English ivy (Hedera helix)

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Björn; Seidel, Robin; Steinbrecher, Tina; Speck, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Root climbers such as English ivy (Hedera helix) rely on specialized adventitious roots for attachment, enabling the plants to climb on a wide range of natural and artificial substrates. Despite their importance for the climbing habit, the biomechanical properties of these specialized adventitious roots compared with standard roots and their performance in the attachment to different host species or inert substrates have not been studied. Here organs and tissues involved in the attachment are characterized and their significance in regard to a broader functional and ecological aspect is discussed. Depending on the substrate, the root clusters show different types of failure modes at various frequencies, demonstrating the close interaction between the climber and its substrates. With a Young’s Modulus of 109.2 MPa, the attachment roots are relatively stiff for non-woody roots. The central cylinders of the attachment roots show a high tensile strength of 38 MPa and a very high extensibility of 34%. In host trees naturally co-distributed with English ivy, a ‘balanced’ occurrence of failure of the attachment system of the climber and the bark of the host is found, suggesting a co-evolution of climber and host. Maximum loads of root clusters normalized by the number of roots match those of individually tested attachment roots. In comparison with most subterranean roots the properties and structure of the attachment roots of English ivy show distinct differences. There exist similarities to the properties found for roots of Galium aparine, suggesting a trend in not fully self-supporting plants towards a higher extensibility. PMID:21914660