Whether the positioning of ancient Greek temples was deliberate and facilitated astronomical observations has been a concern for scholars since the nineteenth century. Twenty-first-century research on Greek archaeoastronomy has identified the shortcomings of earlier approaches and has built on a new methodology which integrates archaeological, epigraphical, and literary evidence on the astronomical observations, in order to create interpretations that improve our narrative, understanding, and reconstruction of the role of astronomy in ancient Greek cult practice.
Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Affolter, Michael; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; De Castro, Carlos A.; Karagounis, Leonidas G.; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.
Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx) was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors. PMID:27690094
Mohanty, R.B; Mohapatra, B.K; Padhy, S.N
This paper is a brief survey of the role of temples and holy places in nurturing the surrounding flora and its habitat. Eightysix kinds of plants in temple yards and gardens of orissa have been enlisted where they are cultivated and preserved for different temple rituals. These plants are seen rarely in wild but are saved from extinction by their association with temple rituals and ceremonies. PMID:22556826
Model development at Temple, Texas, USA has a long history. Prior to the actual model develop-ment research, a hydrological data collection programme was established at Riesel, Texas (about 60 km northeast of Temple) in 1937. Data collected from the Riesel watersheds during 1937–2006 have been valua...
Salt, Alun M.
Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity. PMID:19936239
Salt, Alun M
Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity.
Roy, Susmita; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath
This study investigated the fatty acid composition of lipid present in breast milk of mothers residing in urban and suburban regions of West Bengal with special emphasis on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which played a crucial role in the growth and development of neonates. Milk samples collected from 135 mothers of middle income group (average monthly income around 'Rs 10,000/-') were analysed by gas liquid chromatography after extraction and transmethylation to determine fatty acid composition. Information about the dietary intake of individual mothers was obtained through food frequency questionnaire. The fractions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids available in milk of urban mothers were 13.59 ± 0.94 and 3.65 ± 0.49, respectively, and in suburban mothers 12.74 ± 0.89 and 4.36 ± 0.39, respectively. The green leafy vegetables, fishes and vegetable oils were the major sources of essential fatty acids in the diet of the experimental groups of Bengali mothers. This study revealed a relationship between the alimentary habits of mothers and the concentration of essential fatty acids in breast milk of Bengali mothers.
Mickelson, M. E.; Higbie, C.
The canonical opinion about the placement of Greek temples is that they are oriented east-west (Dinsmoor 1975). Major exceptions, such as the temple of Apollo at Bassae which faces approximately north-south, are noted in the literature, but many other temples are scattered across the Greek landscape in a variety of orientations but predominately (about 80 Although no surviving ancient author ever discusses the criteria for placing or orienting temples, we may assume from scattered remarks that Greeks had reasons for choosing the sites and orientations. In the last century, archaeologists and architects such as Nissen (1896), Penrose (1893) and Dinsmoor (1939), have measured the alignments of Greek temples on the Greek mainland, the west coast of Turkey, and the Aegean islands. Their data have varying degrees of precision and accuracy, as a recent paper by Papathanassiou (1994) makes clear. Parallel work done in Italy on Etruscan, Roman and Greek temples by Aveni and Romano (1994) provides further stimulus to re-investigate Greek temples. We have undertaken three field seasons in Greece in order to check previously reported alignments. Where possible, in addition to determining the orientation of foundations, we have attempted to determine the, location of doorways and other openings, placement of cult statues, horizon altitudes etc. In this preliminary study we hope to be able to discover patterns in the orientation of these temples which relate solar observations to temple ritual and thus extend Dinmoor's hypothesis. For some of these questions, we are dependent on literary and inscriptional evidence. This paper describes the preliminary measurements made over our three field seasons in Greece. Field methods and analysis of the data will be presented along with possible application. 1. Dinsmoor, W.B., The Architecture of Ancient Greece, 3rd ed. Rev. New York, 1975. 2. Nissen, H.,Das Templum,Antiquarische Untesuchungon (Berlin, 1896). 3. Penrose, F.C., Trans. Roy
Many temples, sanctuaries and even the entire small towns have been dedicated to Aesculapius's, the god of medicine. The remnants of Aesculapius temples in the Republic of Croatia have been found on locations of Narona, Salona, Pola and in Diocletian's palace in Split. The first archbishop of Split, "Giovanni di Ravenna", at the end of the 8th century or at the beginning of the 9th century, gave to Diocletian's Mausoleum the name of "Templum Jouis" and reassigned it to Christian church. Thomas the Archdeacon in the 13th century mentioned three temples in Diocletian's Palace: "templa...Jouis, Asclepii, Martis", while in 1567 Antonio Proculiano described four temples: the octogonal temple on the east dedicated to Jupiter (the present cathedral), the rectangular temple on the west (the present baptistry), a minor round temple on the south and a round-hexagonal temple on the north. The majority of authors, for centuries, called the baptistry: Aesculapius's temple, while only a few others called it Jupiter's or Janu's temple. It seems logical to assume that there was only one Jupiter's temple in Diocletian's Palace, namely the present cathedral. Four cultic edifices within the Diocletian's Palace were given six names: "Jouis, Asclepii, Martis, Janus's Kibela's and Venus's. Should the recent research prove the baptistry not to be Aesculapius's temple, the question might be raised whether one of the two, recently discovered small temples, Kibela's or Venus's, was dedicated to Aesculapius?
Ruby, Jay; Chalfen, Richard
The exploration of nonverbal forms of culture and communication has led to the development of visual anthropology courses within the anthropology department at Temple University. Visual anthropology is conceptualized as the study of human nonlinguistic forms of communication involving film making for data collecting and analysis. Several areas of…
Belmonte, Juan Antonio
Archaeoastronomy has never been a favored discipline within Egyptology. As a consequence, important questions such as the orientation of Egyptian temples and the relevance of astronomy in this respect had not been treated with the requisite seriousness and depth. This situation is changing, however, and over the past decade, there have been several serious attempts to perform an extensive analysis of the orientation of Egyptian monuments. The orientations of approximately 400 temples have been measured in the Nile Valley, the Delta, the Oases, and the Sinai, with the aim of providing a clear answer to the question of whether the ancient Egyptian sacred constructions were astronomically aligned or not. This impressive set of data seems to answer this question in the affirmative.
Liritzis, Ioannis; Vassiliou, Helen
Two ancient Greek temples of Apollo at Bassae (Phigaleia, western Peloponnese, Greece), and Thermon at Aetolia, (Aetoloacarnania, western central Greece), have a north-south orientation of their main entrances. This is a rather rare alignment of temples in general and specifically of Apollo in classical Greece, where most of them have broadly an east-west orientation. Based on historical and mythological accounts, as well as astronomical orientation measurements, the northern direction orientation of these constructions may relate to the rare, albeit impressive, occurrence of aurorae borealis, the northern lights. These strong lights are attributed to god Apollo by the epithet ``hyperborean'', meaning to the northern lands. Attribution is supported by archaeomagnetic directional data accompanied by auroral occurrence during those times.
Papathanassiou, M.; Papadopoulou, Z.
We present the results of orientation studies of the majority (44) of the temples and the sanctuaries on Delos which date from different periods of the history of the island. Here are some examples of our study. The three Apollo temples built side by side to one another and dating from the end of the 6th century B.C. to ca. 417 B.C. face generally west (A = 263 degrees) as the horizon profile is almost horizontal. Two days (11 March 13 October) in a year the Sun---Apollo has the corresponding declination and sets exactly at the point of the orientation of these temples. During the month Hieros ( = Sacred, our February---March) of the Deliac calendar and especially in its 11---13th days great festivals were held in honour of Apollo. Therefore it is very likely that the orientation of Apollo temples is related to the setting Sun in March rather than in October. A possible explanation based on a stellar orientation towards delta Orionis or generally Orion's belt is not convincing as it is not supported by some historical arhaeological evidence. The Artemision (7th century B.C.) is related to the rising Sun. The Oikos Naxion is a unique building with two doors, the oldest (2nd half of the 7th century B.C.) being that of the eastern side and the later (575 B.C.) that of the western side. These orientations are also related to the rising and setting Sun. But there are other cases, e.g. the Letoon and the Heraion, to which only a stellar orientation could be attributed. In our study we try to examine and elucidate every case according to the measured orientation in relation to the topography of the island (Kynthos mountain, port, etc) and the archaeological evidence.
Daud, Akmar Zuraini; Mohd-Esa, Norhaizan; Azlan, Azrina; Chan, Yoke Mun
Excessive intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) could reduce the fat density of human milk and impair the desaturation of essential fatty acids. Because the mammary glands are unable to synthesize TFA, it is likely that the TFA in human milk come from dietary intake. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the sources of TFA intake for lactating mothers in one of the urban areas in Selangor. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric measurements, FFQ including 7 food groups and dietary consumption data were collected from 101 lactating mothers. Five major TFA isomers (palmitoelaidic acid (16:1t9), petroselaidic acid (18:1t6), elaidic acid (18:1t9), vaccenic acid (18:1t11) and linoelaidic acid (18:2t9,12) in human milk were measured by gas chromatography (GC). The relationship between food consumption and TFA levels was assessed using the non-parametric Spearman's rho test. The TFA content in human milk was 2.94±0.96 (SEM) % fatty acid; this is considered low, as it is lower than 4%. The most abundant TFA isomer was linoelaidic acid (1.44±0.60% fatty acid). A sub-experiment (analyzing 3 days of composite food consumption) was conducted with 18 lactating mothers, and the results showed that linoelaidic acid was the most common TFA consumed (0.07±0.01 g/100 g food). Only 10 food items had an effect on the total TFA level and the isomers found in human milk. No association was found between TFA consumption and the TFA level in human milk.
Viera, Elys; Colón, Dayan; Alonso, Yadira; Armas, Joey; Rico, Mario C; Diaz, Raquel; Pagan, Angel; Del Carpio-Cano, Fabiola; DeLa Cadena, Raul A
This Report from the Field documents a series of interventions developed by Temple University Health System and School of Medicine through participation in the RWJF initiative entitled Hablamos Juntos. The report delineates outcomes to date demonstrating that these interventions have met the challenge of improving patient provider communication for Latinos.
This article reports that Temple University, like several other urban institutions, has revamped its core curriculum to focus on its location. The "Creative Spirit" course, which fills the university's arts requirement, is one of about 30 courses in Temple's new core curriculum that are taking students off the campus and into the heart…
This paper addresses the Christian religious tradition of understanding the human body as the 'temple of the Holy Spirit' within the context of body modification in Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Drawing on ethnographic research in Jerusalem and Kansas City, interviews with artists and Orthodox Christians, and theological discourses on the body and art, this paper seeks to understand how the body is treated by Orthodox Christians and evaluates the ethical commitments and contestations around the human body and religious practice. The paper focuses specifically on tattooing practices, which, though typically prohibited in conservative forms of Christianity, are nonetheless practiced as a means of devotion in specific Eastern Orthodox Christian settings. These modifications to the body are taken in dialogue with ritual and practical concerns exhibited in Eastern Orthodox burial practice. The paper argues that while there are commonalities across Eastern Orthodox practice, the ethical implications of specific actions are highly contextualized and must be interpreted within local regimes of aesthetic behaviour.
Smith, Harry D.
The invention is a band hinge for flexibly connecting the temple member to the lens frame thereby preventing damage from inadvertent pressure or cyclic wear. A distinguishing feature of the invention is the use of a band hinge that holds together the temple member and the lens frame without the use of a pin or screw hinging mechanism. The invention allows for a high degree of freedom of movement for the temple member with respect to the lens frame which will prevent most forms of damages to the glasses from these types of events.
3. ALTOVITI VENUS STATUE IN THE TEMPLE OF VENUS AS SEEN FROM LIVING ROOM DOORS, SOUTHEAST FACADE OF KYKUIT HOUSE, ON AXIS WITH LINDEN ALLEE - Kykuit, 200 Lake Road, Pocantico Hills, Westchester County, NY
Lin, Y. C.; Wu, T. C.; Hsu, M. F.
Caisson is one of the important representations of the Minnan (southern Fujian) temple architecture craft techniques and decorative aesthetics. The special component design and group building method present the architectural thinking and personal characteristics of great carpenters of Minnan temple architecture. In late Qing Dynasty, the appearance and style of caissons of famous temples in Taiwan apparently presented the building techniques of the great carpenters. However, as the years went by, the caisson design and craft techniques were not fully inherited, which has been a great loss of cultural assets. Accordingly, with the caisson of Fulong temple, a work by the well-known great carpenter in Tainan as an example, this study obtained the thinking principles of the original design and the design method at initial period of construction through interview records and the step of redrawing the "Tng-Ko" (traditional design, stakeout and construction tool). We obtained the 3D point cloud model of the caisson of Fulong temple using 3D laser scanning technology, and established the 3D digital model of each component of the caisson. Based on the caisson component procedure obtained from interview records, this study conducted the digital simulation of the caisson component to completely recode and present the caisson design, construction and completion procedure. This model of preserving the craft techniques for Minnan temple caisson by using digital technology makes specific contribution to the heritage of the craft techniques while providing an important reference for the digital preservation of human cultural assets.
This tool is a GIS based interactive and graphical user interface tool, which locates the major Sikh temples of USA on a map. This tool is using Java programming language along with MOJO (Map Object Java Object) provided by ESRI that is the organization that provides the GIS software. It also includes some of the integration with Google's API's like Google Translator API. This application will tell users about the origin of Sikhism in India and USA, the major Sikh temples in each state of USA, location, name and detail information through their website. The primary purpose of this application is to make people aware about this religion and culture. This tool will also measure the distance between two temple points in a map and display the result in miles and kilometers. Also, there is an added support to convert each temple's website language from English to Punjabi or any other language using a language convertor tool so that people from different nationalities can understand their culture. By clicking on each point on a map, a new window will pop up showing the picture of the temple and a hyperlink that will redirect to the website of that particular temple .It will also contain links to their dance, music, history, and also a help menu to guide the users to use the software efficiently.
Ruggles, Clive L. N.
In 2002 I began a collaboration with Pat Kirch (Berkeley) to survey the temple sites (heiau) in the Kahikinui and Kaupo districts of southern Maui, and study their orientations and potential astronomical significance. Our investigations of over 70 temples in the area were completed in 2011 and are due for publication in 2016. Pat Kirch will present some of our main conclusions in his keynote talk within FM2. In this paper I propose to concentrate on issues of field methodology and procedure that have wider implications for developments in method and practice within archaeoastronomy. Methodologically, temple sites in the Hawaiian Islands constitute a "halfway house" between prehistoric monuments in Europe, where the only evidence is archaeological and studies of orientations tend to follow formal, "data-driven" or statistical, approaches, and Mesoamerica, where the existence of pre-conquest written records and inscriptions and post-conquest ethnohistory relegate "alignment studies" to a secondary role. In Hawai‘i, cultural data, including oral histories recorded after conquest, provide a finer balance between historical accounts and the physical evidence. Selection issues at the Maui temple sites include distinguishing marginal temple sites from house sites and identifying the intended direction of orientation at complex structures. Initial analyses of the principal orientations identified clusterings in orientation which were interpreted as relating to different gods, and particular the war-god Ku and the god of dryland agriculture, Lono. Later, more comprehensive surveys revealed evidence of observing platforms and foresights at some of the Lono temples, suggesting that systematic observations were made of the Pleiades, known from the ethnohistory to be of particular calendrical significance. This type of alignment evidence is too subjective to be sustained on the basis of a formal analysis alone but, given the historical context, provides a more robust cultural
Rocquelin, G; Tapsoba, S; Dop, M C; Mbemba, F; Traissac, P; Martin-Prével, Y
Optimum infant growth and development, especially neurodevelopment and visual acuity, require sufficient n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acid supplies from the placenta or breast milk. The lipid content and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk were measured in samples from 102 randomly selected Congolese mothers of 5-month-old infants, residing in a suburban district of Brazzaville. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.3; 14% of mothers were energy-deficient and 22% were overweight. Breast milk samples from these mothers were low in lipids (mean, 28.70 g/l), and 75% had a lipid content below reference values. Adequate lipid content was associated with a maternal diet high in carbohydrates and low in fats. Breast milk was rich in 8:0-14:0 fatty acids (25.97% of total fatty acids) and in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3. These findings appear related to Congolese mothers' frequent consumption of high-carbohydrate foods such as processed cassava roots, wheat bread, and doughnuts known to enhance 8:0-14:0 fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as locally produced foods such as fish, vegetable oil, leafy green vegetables, and high-fat fruit that provide n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids. Milk lipid content was inversely associated with the maternal BMI, but was unrelated to maternal age or socioeconomic status. Since the essential fatty acid content of traditional complementary foods is lower than that present in breast milk, Congolese mothers should be encouraged to postpone the introduction of such foods until their infant is 4-6 months old.
Temple College (TC) is a comprehensive community college located in Temple, Texas. Temple also is home to Scott & White Hospital, Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, King's Daughters Hospital, and Texas A&M University College of Medicine's clinical campus. In the summer of 2001, TC's health-sciences programs were scattered across…
Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Kosińska, Ida; Jamioł, Dominika; Gutowska, Izabela; Prokopowicz, Adam; Rębacz-Maron, Ewa; Goschorska, Marta; Olszowski, Tomasz; Chlubek, Dariusz
Significant progress in understanding the effects of the neurotoxic action of lead (Pb) in young organisms had led to reduction of "safe" level in the blood (Pb-B) to 5 μg/dL in children and pregnant women. Prolonged exposure to relatively low levels of Pb, generally asymptomatic and subclinical (i.e., microintoxication), is currently the dominant form of environmental poisoning, and its negative effects on health may appear after many years, e.g., secondary contamination from Pb bone deposits released in pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental exposure (urban areas) of mothers to Pb, on its levels in their milk and blood and in the blood of newborns. Moreover, the aim was to determine the fatty acid profile in the mothers' blood and milk and in the blood of newborns. We also wanted to find if infant birth weight depends on Pb blood levels, as well as on Pb and fatty acid levels in the blood and milk of the mothers. Finally, we examined if the mothers' weight and body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy influenced the concentration of Pb and fatty acid profile in the blood and milk of mothers and in the blood of their children. Analysis of fatty acids elaidic (C18:1, 9t), oleic (C18:1, 9c), vaccenic (C18:1, 11t), cis-vaccenic (C18:1, 11c), linoleic (C18:2, cis), γ-linolenic (C18:3, n-6), α-linolenic (C18:3, n-3), arachidonic (C20:4, n-6), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5, n-3), and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, n-3) was conducted by gas chromatography. The concentration of Pb in the whole blood and milk were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization and Zeeman correction. Our study established a significant and strong correlation between the content of Pb in the blood of the mother and the child. This supports the assumption that the transport of Pb through the placenta is neither regulated nor selective. Environmental maternal exposure to lead resulting in Pb-B levels considered safe for
Xi, X.; Wang, C.; Wan, Y. P.; Khuon, K. N.
Ta Keo temple is one of the very famous temple complex of Angkor Wat in northwestern Cambodia. It has been suffering massive collapse and other serious damages in recent years. Nowadays, Terrestrial Laser Scanning(TLS) technology is considered as a wellestablished resource for heritage documentation and protection (Lerma et al, 2008; Reshetyuk, 2009). This paper used TLS to reconstruct Ta Keo Temple. Firstly, we acquired 71 scanning stations of points cloud data with high density and high accuracy, and over one thousand images with high spatial resolution about the temple. Secondly, the raw points cloud data were denoised, reduced and managed efficiently, and registrated using an adjusted ICP algorithm. Thirdly, a triangulation method was used to model most objects. At last, we mapped the texture data into the digital model and a 3-D model of Ta Keo with high accuracy was achieved. The authors focus on large object reconstruction by TLS technology, and pay much attention to the scanning design, multi-station data and the whole project's data registration, and texture mapping and so on. The research result will be useful for Ta Keo restoration, reconstruction and protection. Also, it is a good reference source for large complex buildings reconstruction when using terrestrial laser scanning technology.
Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA.
A proposal is set out for a program designed to improve education by concentrating resources across all levels of instruction. It involves a mutual agreement between the Philadelphia Public Schools, the school community, and Temple University to pool their personnel and materials with the aim of creating an educational program that will…
Swisher, John D.; Horman, Richard E.
Temple University's concern for the problem of drug abuse culminated in a Retreat on the Hazards of Drug Abuse. Participants were undergraduates, graduates, and staff. An evaluation design, involving pre- and post-testing, had previously been designed to test for information gains and attitude changes. A followup was designed to focus on…
Litovchenko, Maria; Laurent, Stefan
Genetic variation occurring at the level of regulatory sequences can affect phenotypes and fitness in natural populations. This variation can be analysed in a population genetic framework to study how genetic drift and selection affect the evolution of these functional elements. However, doing this requires a good understanding of the location and nature of regulatory regions and has long been a major hurdle. The current proliferation of genomewide profiling experiments of transcription factor occupancies greatly improves our ability to identify genomic regions involved in specific DNA-protein interactions. Although software exists for predicting transcription factor binding sites (TFBS), and the effects of genetic variants on TFBS specificity, there are no tools currently available for inferring this information jointly with the genetic variation at TFBS in natural populations. We developed the software Transcription Elements Mapping at the Population LEvel (TEMPLE), which predicts TFBS, evaluates the effects of genetic variants on TFBS specificity and summarizes the genetic variation occurring at TFBS in intraspecific sequence alignments. We demonstrate that TEMPLE's TFBS prediction algorithms gives identical results to PATSER, a software distribution commonly used in the field. We also illustrate the unique features of TEMPLE by analysing TFBS diversity for the TF Senseless (SENS) in one ancestral and one cosmopolitan population of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. TEMPLE can be used to localize TFBS that are characterized by strong genetic differentiation across natural populations. This will be particularly useful for studies aiming to identify adaptive mutations. TEMPLE is a java-based cross-platform software that easily maps the genetic diversity at predicted TFBSs using a graphical interface, or from the Unix command line.
Badeau, Robert M.; Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G.; Nuutila, Pirjo
Background: Obesity among pregnant women is common, and their offspring are predisposed to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The circulating metabolites that are related to insulin resistance and are associated with this decreased tissue-specific uptake are unknown. Here, we assessed metabolite profiles in elderly women who were either female offspring from obese mothers (OOM) or offspring of lean mothers (OLM). Metabolic changes were tested for associations with metrics for insulin resistance. Methods: Thirty-seven elderly women were separated into elderly offspring from obese mothers (OOM; n = 17) and elderly offspring from lean/normal weight mothers (OLM; n = 20) groups. We measured plasma metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and insulin-dependent tissue-specific glucose uptake in skeletal muscle was assessed. Associations were made between metabolites and glucose uptake. Results: Compared to the OLM group, we found that the docosahexaenoic acid percentage of the total long-chain n-3 fatty acids (DHA/FA) was significantly lower in OOM (p = 0.015). DHA/FA associated significantly with skeletal muscle glucose uptake (GU) (p = 0.031) and the metabolizable glucose value derived from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique (M-value) in the OLM group only (p = 0.050). Conclusions: DHA/FA is associated with insulin-dependent skeletal muscle glucose uptake and this association is significantly weakened in the offspring of obese mothers. PMID:28165405
Suggestions of astronomical consideration and intentionality behind the architecture of the Neolithic Mnajdra South Temple is conducted through field studies, observations and researching relevant literature and publications. The research is founded on the temple's orientation, on cross-jam view and off-set illumination of sunrise at equinox, summer and winter solstice. The question of sacred rituals related to specific times or seasonal periods by observing the suns annual path on the eastern horizon, is investigated as a possibility of intentionality for the temples orientation and structure. Demarcated areas of the temple are illuminated at sunrise throughout the year, and especially pronounced at the beginning of modern times' ingress to the cardinal seasons. Of the extant prehistoric temples on Malta, The Mnajdra South Temple is the only one with an evident orientation towards East which coincides with both the sunrise at Equinox and during the temple period, the heliacal rising of the Pleiades.
Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata S; Kolli, Sunanda Reddy; Neogi, Sutapa B; Singh, Samiksha; John, Neena; N., Srinivas; Ramani, Sudha; Shamanna, BR; Doyle, Pat; Kinra, Sanjay; Ness, Andy; Pallepogula, Dinesh Raj; Pant, Hira B; Babbar, Smiksha; Reddy, Raghunath; Singh, Rachna
Background Evidence from high income countries shows mothers who are supplemented with folic acid in their periconceptional period and early pregnancy have significantly reduced adverse outcomes like birth defects. However, in India there is a paucity of data on association of birth defects and folic acid supplementation. We identified a few important questions to be answered using separate scientific methods and then planned to triangulate the information. Objective In this paper, we describe the protocol of our study that aims to determine the association of folic acid and pregnancy outcomes like neural tube defects (NTDs) and orofacial clefts (OFCs). We decided to fill the gaps in knowledge from India to determine public health consequences of folic acid deficiency and factors influencing dietary and periconceptional consumption of folic acid. Methods The proposed study will be carried out in five stages and will examine the questions related to folic acid deficiency across selected locations in South and North India. The study will be carried out over a period of 4 years through the hierarchical evidence-based approach. At first a systematic review was conducted to pool the current birth prevalence of NTDs and orofacial clefts OFCs in India. To investigate the population prevalence, we plan to use the key informant method to determine prevalence of NTDs and OFCs. To determine the normal serum estimates of folic acid, iron, and vitamin B12 among Indian women (15-35 years), we will conduct a population-based, cross-sectional study. We will further strengthen the evidence of association between OFCs and folic acid by conducting a hospital-based, case-control study across three locations of India. Lastly, using qualitative methods we will understand community and health workers perspective on factors that decide the intake of folic acid supplements. Results This study will provide evidence on the community prevalence of birth defects and prevalence folic acid and
Background Considering the importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to fetal development and the lack of studies that have compared the status of fatty acids between adolescents and adults mothers, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord plasma from adolescent and adults mothers. Methods Forty pregnant adolescents and forty pregnant adults were selected to assess the distribution profile of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma. Quantification of fatty acids in the total lipids of the sample groups was performed through the use of gas-liquid chromatography. Results The maternal and umbilical cord plasma of the adolescents showed a greater concentration of AA than did that of the adults (P < 0.05). However, a greater percentage of EPA was found in the umbilical cord plasma of the adults (P < 0.05). DHA in the plasma of the adolescent mothers correlated positively to birth weight and head circumference. Conclusions This suggests that in situations of greater nutritional risk, as in adolescent pregnancy, n-3PUFA concentrations have a greater influence on the proper development of newborns. Moreover, variations in fatty acid concentrations in the maternal and cord plasma of adolescents and adults may indicate that pregnancy affects the LC-PUFA status of adults and adolescents in distinct ways. PMID:23153394
Yetiman, Ahmet E; Kesmen, Zülal
Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were combined for the investigation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations in traditionally produced vinegars and mother of vinegar samples obtained from apple and grape. The culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, which targeted the V7-V8 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, showed that Komagataeibacter hansenii and Komagataeibacter europaeus/Komagataeibacter xylinus were the most dominant species in almost all of the samples analyzed directly. The culture-independent GTG5-rep PCR fingerprinting was used in the preliminary characterization of AAB isolates and species-level identification was carried out by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S rDNA internally transcribed to the spacer (ITS) region and tuf gene. Acetobacter okinawensis was frequently isolated from samples obtained from apple while K. europaeus was identified as the dominant species, followed by Acetobacter indonesiensis in the samples originating from grape. In addition to common molecular techniques, real-time PCR intercalating dye assays, including DNA melting temperature (Tm) and high resolution melting analysis (HRM), were applied to acetic acid bacterial isolates for the first time. The target sequence of ITS region generated species-specific HRM profiles and Tm values allowed discrimination at species level.
Tiede, Vance R.
Roman architect Marcus Vetruvius Pollio (ca. 75-15 BC) wrote, “[O]ne who professes himself as an architect should be…acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens…. From astronomy we find the east, west, south, and north, as well as the theory of the heavens, the Equinox, Solstice and courses of the Stars.” (De Architectura Libri Decem I:i:3,10). In order to investigate the role of astronomy in temple orientation, the author conducted a preliminary GIS DEM/Satellite Imaging survey of 11 temples at Pompeii, Italy (N 40d 45', E 14d 29'). The GIS survey measured the true azimuth and horizon altitude of each temple’s major axis and was field checked by a Ground Truth survey with theodolite and GPS, 5-18 April 2013. The resulting 3D vector data was analyzed with Program STONEHENGE (Hawkins 1983, 328) to identify the local skyline declinations aligned with the temple major axes. Analysis suggests that the major axes of the temples of Apollo, Jupiter and Venus are equally as likely to have been oriented to Pompeii’s urban grid, itself oriented NW-SE on Mt. Vesuvius’ slope and hydraulic gradient to optimize urban sewer/street drainage (cf. Hodge 1992). However, the remaining nine temples appear to be oriented to astronomical targets on the local horizon associated with Graeco-Roman calendrics and mythology. TEMPLE/ DATE/ MAJOR AXIS ASTRO-TARGET (Skyline Declination in degrees) Public Lares/AD 50/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, Last Gleam (-16.5) Vespsian/ AD 69-79/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, LG (-16.2) Fortuna Augusta/ AD 1/ Winter Solstice Sun Set, LG (-22.9) Aesculapius/ 100 BC/ Perseus Rise (β Persei-Algol = +33.0) & Midsummer Moon Major Stand Still Set, LG (-28.1) Isis/ 100 BC/ Midwinter Moon Major Stand Still Rise, Tangent (+28.5) & Equinox Sun Set, Tangent (-0.3) Jupiter/ 150 BC/ Θ Scorpionis-Sargas Rise (-38.0) Apollo/ 550 (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37.1) Venus/ 150 BC (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37
Kawai, Takashi; Takao, Hidenobu; Inoue, Tetsuri; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Noro, Kageyu
This paper describes the production and presentation of an experimental virtual museum of Japanese Buddhist art. This medium can provide an easy way to introduce a cultural heritage to people of different cultures. The virtual museum consisted of a multimedia program that included stereoscopic 3D movies of Buddhist statues; binaural 3D sounds of Buddhist ceremonies and the fragrance of incense from the Buddhist temple. The aim was to reproduce both the Buddhist artifacts and atmosphere as realistically as possible.
Coucouzeli, A.; Avghouli, O.
In this paper we present briefly the main results of our archaeoastronomical study of the temple of Zagora on Andros. This study has shown that the temple was designed for use as an astronomical observatory in the framework of the cult of the Dioskouroi and probably also for time reckoning and calendric purposes around 757 B.C. As the earliest and hitherto the only known observatory from ancient Greece, the temple of Zagora offers new insights into the beginnings of Greek astronomy.
This image of Cambodia's Angkor region, taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), reveals a temple (upper-right) not depicted on early 19th Century French archeological survey maps and American topographic maps. The temple, known as 'Sman Teng,' was known to the local Khmer people, but had remained unknown to historians due to the remoteness of its location. The temple is thought to date to the 11th Century: the heyday of Angkor. It is an important indicator of the strategic and natural resource contributions of the area northwest of the capitol, to the urban center of Angkor. Sman Teng, the name designating one of the many types of rice enjoyed by the Khmer, was 'discovered' by a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., working in collaboration with an archaeological expert on the Angkor region. Analysis of this remote area was a true collaboration of archaeology and technology. Locating the temple of Sman Teng required the skills of scientists trained to spot the types of topographic anomalies that only radar can reveal.This image, with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet), depicts an area of approximately 5 by 4.7 kilometers (3.1 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the P-band (68 centimeters, or 26.8 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change, so going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change.AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data
Both Greeks and Romans placed the building of temples and sanctuaries high on their list of architectural priorities, as these structures were a source of public pride. The temples were built as shrines for the all-important gods and goddesses of the ancient world. The Parthenon is a great example of this. The frieze on the Parthenon shows scenes…
Redmond, Elsa M.; Spencer, Charles S.
Archaeological investigations during the past two decades in Mexico’s Valley of Oaxaca have documented the appearance of key public buildings, such as the royal palace and multiroom temple, associated with the rise of an archaic state at ca. 300−100 B.C. A fuller picture is now emerging from the site of El Palenque, where recent excavations have defined a temple precinct on the east side of the site’s plaza. This precinct exhibits characteristics similar to those of the temple precincts of later Mesoamerican states described by Colonial period sources. The excavation data document a walled enclosure containing three multiroom temples, two special residences identified as priests’ residences, and an array of ritual features and activity areas. The temple precinct’s components are interpreted as comprising a hierarchy of temples staffed by a specialized priesthood. A series of radiocarbon dates indicate that the precinct’s differentiated components were all in use during the 300−100 B.C. period of archaic state emergence. The El Palenque temple precinct is the earliest temple precinct excavated thus far in the Valley of Oaxaca. PMID:23610387
Bakley, Annette McMenamin
Using archival materials from the early years of Temple University's history at the Special Collections Research Center, Templana Collection, at Samuel Paley Library of Temple University as well as historical periodicals, this project established a biographical sketch of Associate President Laura Carnell and examined her influence on the…
Redmond, Elsa M; Spencer, Charles S
Archaeological investigations during the past two decades in Mexico's Valley of Oaxaca have documented the appearance of key public buildings, such as the royal palace and multiroom temple, associated with the rise of an archaic state at ca. 300-100 B.C. A fuller picture is now emerging from the site of El Palenque, where recent excavations have defined a temple precinct on the east side of the site's plaza. This precinct exhibits characteristics similar to those of the temple precincts of later Mesoamerican states described by Colonial period sources. The excavation data document a walled enclosure containing three multiroom temples, two special residences identified as priests' residences, and an array of ritual features and activity areas. The temple precinct's components are interpreted as comprising a hierarchy of temples staffed by a specialized priesthood. A series of radiocarbon dates indicate that the precinct's differentiated components were all in use during the 300-100 B.C. period of archaic state emergence. The El Palenque temple precinct is the earliest temple precinct excavated thus far in the Valley of Oaxaca.
Shorr, Lori; Rothman, Nancy; Parks, Steve
Outlines some of the administrative changes included in Temple University's move toward a more community-based education agenda and focuses on one case, Temple Health Connection (THC). THC is an on-site, community- and university-supported medical facility that serves as a locus for community health care, student learning, and faculty research.…
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed...
Pontes, P V; Torres, A G; Trugo, N M F; Fonseca, V M; Sichieri, R
Placental transfer of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids is selectively high to maintain accretion to fetal tissues, especially the brain. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the essential fatty acid (EFA) and LCPUFA status at birth of preterm and term Brazilian infants and their mothers, from a population of characteristically low intake of n-3 LCPUFA, and to evaluate the association between fetal and maternal status, by the determination of the fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane. Blood samples from umbilical cord of preterm (26-36 weeks of gestation; n = 30) and term (37-42 weeks of gestation; n = 30) infants and the corresponding maternal venous blood were collected at delivery. The LCPUFA composition of the erythrocyte membrane and DHA status were similar for mothers of preterm and term infants. Neonatal AA was higher (P < 0.01) whereas its precursor 18:2n-6 was lower (P < 0.01) than maternal levels, as expected. There was no difference in LCPUFA erythrocyte composition between preterm and term infants, except for DHA. Term infants presented a worse DHA status than preterm infants (P < 0.01) and than their mothers (P < 0.01) at delivery. There was a negative correlation of neonatal DHA with maternal AA and a positive correlation between neonatal AA and maternal AA and 18:2n-6 only at term. These results suggest that the persistent low DHA maternal status, together with the comparatively better AA and 18:2n-6 status, might have affected maternal-fetal transfer of DHA when gestation was completed up to term, and possibly contributed to the worse DHA status of term neonates compared with the preterm neonates.
... Proposed Temple LNG Liquefaction Upgrade and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues The staff of the...) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Temple LNG Liquefaction Upgrade involving construction and operation of facilities by UGI, Inc. (UGI) at its Temple liquefied natural gas (LNG)...
Shuai, W.; Rong, Z.
Er Wang Temple, in World Heritage Site "Dujiang Weirs and Qingchengshan Mountai", was severely destroyed in Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008. There are several problems at different level in every building, such as structural distortion, foundation displacement, wall fracture, roof damage, etc. The stage was completely collapsed in the earthquake. Tableland the stage situated had a huge crack and slope collapse. This article is for the stage renovation. The survey of damage in earthquake is the basis of Er Wang Temple restituting. Survey including field survey after the earthquake and the measurement and investigation for the remained construction member of the main wood structure. For field survey, the basis of pillars which had not have significantly affects in earthquake could be seem as the reference points for measurement. The investigation of remained main wood construction member, especially the size of the key structures and site and manufacture method of the joints, is the important basis for recovery stage. Our team did our utmost to restore the original appearance of stage in design, materials and craft by various tools, which include measured drawings in different times, old images collection, fine measuring by 3D laser scan, measurement of leftover pieces, logical inference.
Hardiman, W. J.
Visiting the Temple of Kali in Calcutta, India, one understands the importance of an Afro-centric methodology in describing the complex nature of the Mother Goddess in ancient India. Discoveries of ancient female figurines indicate an early Indian concept of the female role in the creation of civilization and culture and of the notion of the…
Atya, M. A.; AL Khateeb, S. O.; Ahmed, S. B.; Musa, M. F.; Gaballa, M.; Abbas, A. M.; Shaaban, F. F.; Hafez, M. A.
GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A) includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B) includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C) includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.
Bernard, Jonathan Y; De Agostini, Maria; Forhan, Anne; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) of the n6 (ω6) and n3 series are essential for the development of a child's brain. Fetal LC-PUFA exposure as well as infant exposure via breast milk depend on the maternal intake of these LC-PUFAs and of their respective dietary precursors (PUFAs). We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal LC-PUFA and PUFA [(LC)PUFA] dietary intake during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment at ages 2 and 3 y. In 1335 mother-child pairs from the EDEN cohort, we evaluated associations between daily maternal (LC)PUFA intake during the last 3 months of pregnancy with the child's language at age 2 y and with different assessments of development at age 3 y. Associations were investigated separately in breastfed and never-breastfed children. We examined interactions between the ratios of n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intakes (n6:n3 fatty acid ratio) and duration of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding mothers had a lower n6:n3 fatty acid ratio (8.4 vs. 8.8; P = 0.02). Among never-breastfed children (n = 338), we found negative associations between maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratios and neurodevelopment, as reflected by the child's language at age 2 y (β ± SE = -2.1 ± 0.7; P = 0.001) and development assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 3 y (-1.5 ± 0.8; P = 0.05). Among mothers with a high n6:n3 fatty acid ratio only, breastfeeding duration was positively associated with language at age 2 y (P-interaction < 0.05). This suggests that the ratio between maternal dietary n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intake possibly influences the child's brain development during fetal life but not during or by breastfeeding. However, breastfeeding might compensate for prenatal imbalance in maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio.
PHILADELPHIA (March 27, 2015) Funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to Temple University will help plan for health, environmental and economic improvements for Philadelphia's Kensington area residents through the cleanup and reuse of brownf
Brincat, S; Mantell, B S
A patient who developed a partial relapse of Bell's palsy following superficial radiotherapy to a basal cell carcinoma in the temple is reported. Nerves injured by Bell's palsy may be more susceptible to radiation induced damage.
... Temple to file the unredacted Purchase and Sale Agreement under seal. That motion will be addressed in a... 202-245-0359. Assistance for the hearing impaired is available through the Federal Information...
Green, G. Dorsey
Clinical interest in lesbian mothers has begun to emerge from the closet in recent years. Culture has dictated the milieu in which lesbian parents live and has prevented most therapists from being able to respond to lesbian parenting as a healthy option. In a heterosexist world, virtually all public displays of sexuality or family life are…
Andersson, Marie; Ersson, Lisa; Brandt, Ingvar; Bergström, Ulrika
β-N-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) is a non-protein amino acid produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates. BMAA has potential to biomagnify in a terrestrial food chain, and to bioaccumulate in fish and shellfish. We have reported that administration of [(14)C]l-BMAA to lactating mice and rats results in a mother to off-spring transfer via the milk. A preferential enantiomer-specific uptake of [(14)C]l-BMAA has also been demonstrated in differentiated murine mammary epithelium HC11 cells. These findings, together with neurotoxic effects of BMAA demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, highlight the need to determine whether such transfer could also occur in humans. Here, we used four cell lines of human origin to examine and compare the transport of the two BMAA enantiomers in vitro. The uptake patterns of [(14)C]l- and [(14)C]d-BMAA in the human mammary MCF7 cell line were in agreement with the results in murine HC11 cells, suggesting a potential secretion of BMAA into human breast milk. The permeability coefficients for both [(14)C]l- and [(14)C]d-BMAA over monolayers of human intestinal Caco2 cells supported an efficient absorption from the human intestine. As a final step, transport experiments confirmed that [(14)C]l-and [(14)C]d-BMAA can be taken up by human SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells and even more efficiently by human U343 glioblastoma cells. In competition experiments with various amino acids, the ASCT2 specific inhibitor benzylserine was the most effective inhibitor of [(14)C]l-BMAA uptake tested here. Altogether, our results suggest that BMAA can be transferred from an exposed mother, via the milk, to the brain of the nursed infant.
Ozkaya, Ozlem Aslan; Boeke, Hasan
Serapis temple, which was constructed in the Roman period in the city of Pergamon (Bergama/Turkey), is one of the most important monuments of the world heritage. In this study, the characteristics of bricks and mortars used in the temple have been determined in order to define the necessary characteristics of the intervention materials, which will be used in the conservation works of the temple. Several analyses were carried out to determine their basic physical properties, raw material compositions, mineralogical and microstructural properties using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and a Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer. Analysis results indicated that the mortars are stiff, compact and hydraulic due to the use of natural pozzolanic aggregates. The Roman bricks are of low density, high porosity and were produced from raw materials containing calcium poor clays fired at low temperatures.
Kirch, Patrick V.
It is well established that the ancient Polynesians possessed sophisticated knowledge of astronomy, applying their understanding of the movements of heavenly bodies among other things to long-distance navigation and to their calendrical systems. Nonetheless, Polynesian archaeologists have been reticent to apply the methods of archaeoastronomy to the interpretation of prehistoric monumental sites, especially temples (marae and heiau). This presentation draws upon examples from the Mangareva and Hawaiian archipelagoes to demonstrate that Polynesian ritual architecture frequently exhibits regular patterns of orientation, suggesting that these temples were aligned with particular astronomical phenomena, such as solstice, equinox, and Pleiades rising positions. The argument is advanced that Polynesian temples were not only places of offering and sacrifice to the gods, but also locations for formal astronomical observation. In part, such observation was presumably crucial to keeping the Polynesian lunar calendar synchronized with the solar year.
Jain, Anil K.; Goel, Sanjay; Agarwal, Sachin; Mittal, Vipin; Sharma, Hariom; Mahindru, Ranjeev
In India a temple is not only a structure of religious significance and celebration, but it also plays an important role in the social, administrative and cultural life of the locality. Temples have served as centers for learning Indian scriptures. Music and dance were fostered and performed in the precincts of the temples. Built at the end of the 10th century, the Brihadisvara temple signified new design methodologies. We have access to a large number of images, audio and video recordings, architectural drawings and scholarly publications of this temple. A multimedia system for this temple is being designed which is intended to be used for the following purposes: (1) to inform and enrich the general public, and (2) to assist the scholars in their research. Such a system will also preserve and archive old historical documents and images. The large database consists primarily of images which can be retrieved using keywords, but the emphasis here is largely on techniques which will allow access using image content. Besides classifying images as either long shots or close-ups, deformable template matching is used for shape-based query by image content, and digital video retrieval. Further, to exploit the non-linear accessibility of video sequences, key frames are determined to aid the domain experts in getting a quick preview of the video. Our database also has images of several old, and rare manuscripts many of which are noisy and difficult to read. We have enhanced them to make them more legible. We are also investigating the optimal trade-off between image quality and compression ratios.
High Adherence to Iron/Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Time among Antenatal and Postnatal Care Attendant Mothers in Governmental Health Centers in Akaki Kality Sub City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Hierarchical Negative Binomial Poisson Regression
Gebreamlak, Bisratemariam; Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Atnafu, Azeb
Background Iron deficiency during pregnancy is a risk factor for anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. Iron/Folic Acid supplementation with optimal adherence can effectively prevent anemia in pregnancy. However, studies that address this area of adherence are very limited. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess the adherence and to identify factors associated with a number of Iron/Folic Acid uptake during pregnancy time among mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care follow up in Akaki kality sub city. Methods Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 557 pregnant women attending antenatal and postnatal care service. Systematic random sampling was used to select study subjects. The mothers were interviewed and the collected data was cleaned and entered into Epi Info 3.5.1 and analyzed by R version 3.2.0. Hierarchical Negative Binomial Poisson Regression Model was fitted to identify the factors associated with a number of Iron/Folic Acid uptake. Adjusted Incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed to assess the strength and significance of the association. Result More than 90% of the mothers were supplemented with at least one Iron/Folic Acid supplement from pill per week during their pregnancy time. Sixty percent of the mothers adhered (took four or more tablets per week) (95%CI, 56%—64.1%). Higher IRR of Iron/Folic Acid supplementation was observed among women: who received health education; which were privately employed; who achieved secondary education; and who believed that Iron/Folic Acid supplements increase blood, whereas mothers who reported a side effect, who were from families with relatively better monthly income, and who took the supplement when sick were more likely to adhere. Conclusion Adherence to Iron/Folic Acid supplement during their pregnancy time among mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care was found to be high. Activities that would address the
Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang; Potter, Daniel
We investigated the medicinal efficacies of plants used as food in 27 Korean Buddhist temples from 1997 to 2002. We studied 161 species of plants belonging to 135 genera in 65 families. Twenty-one plant parts were utilized as food in 42 different preparations. Approximately 82% of the plants studied had medicinal effects, with a wide range of efficacies (126 types). Of the medicinal plants, 52% were used for digestive problems, circulatory illnesses, and respiratory diseases. These results demonstrate that a high proportion of the food consumed in Korean temples is medicinal, and is used for a wide variety of diseases.
Tsonev, Lyubomir; Kolev, Dimiter
In this paper we describe a rare but relatively well-preserved Sardinian type underground well temple located at the village of Garlo, in Bulgaria. This dates to the fourteenth or thirteenth century BCE, and contains some unique architectural features. We postulate that the Garlo temple was used during the winter solstice for rituals associated with the 'newly-born Sun', underground water and the start of the new annual cycle of life. Solar and water cults are known from ancient Thrace, but previously they have never been combined in this way.
Ngo, Hien T T; Trinh, Huan; Yang, Jung-Eun; Won, Kyung-Hwa; Chu, Dong-Hun; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo
A Gram-stain-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain THG-DN6.14T, was isolated from a freshwater sample near Donghaksa temple in Daejeon, South Korea. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG-DN6.14T was found to be most closely related to Emticicia sediminis JBR12T (99.1 % sequence similarity), Emticicia oligotrophica DSM 17448T (97.6 %), Emticicia aquatica HMF2925T (96.5 %), and Emticicia ginsengisoli Gsoil 085T (94.4 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-DN6.14T and its phylogenetically closest neighbours was below 65.0 %. The DNA G+C content was 43.3 mol%. The major polar lipids were found to be phosphati¬dylethanolamine, unidentified glycolipid, and unidentified aminoglycolipid. The major fatty acids were identified as C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3OH, and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c). The respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-7. These data supported the affiliation of strain THG-DN6.14T to the genus Emticicia. Strain THG-DN6.14T was distinguished from related Emticicia species by physiological and biochemical tests. Therefore, the novel isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Emticicia aquatilis sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-DN6.14T as the type strain (= KACC 18540T = CGMCC 1.15958T).
Arguing that good interpersonal interactions between library staff and their patrons is a major determinant of overall patron satisfaction, this paper describes Temple University's customer service training program for its public services staff. Dubbed the "A+ Service" program, the program focuses on six aspects of library service: (1)…
Salkin, Leslie M.; And Others
An individualized, self-paced curriculum at Temple University Dental School is being used to break the lock-step pattern of the lecture-oriented system and to help students reach the clinical learning environment more quickly. Freshmen begin work in periodontology with 12 programed lessons studied in a Learning Resources Center open 75 hours a…
Kalbfleisch, M. Layne
Dr. Temple Grandin is a professor of animal sciences at Colorado State University where she conducts research and teaches courses on livestock handling and facility design. She is also a past member of the board of directors of the Autism Society of America. She lectures to parents and teachers throughout the United States on her experiences with…
This 39-month project at Temple University (Pennsylvania) provided mentoring services by retired senior professors to untenured, full-time junior faculty. The program has involved a total of 58 junior faculty from 20 disciplines and 15 retired professors from 10 disciplines. Mentors received a stipend of $500 per protege per semester. The mentors…
Li, Jing; Moore, Danièle
This paper presents data gathered in interviews with 29 informants in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, China--an administrative region with Theravada Buddhist religious identity. The data highlight tensions between the traditional faith-based education provided by Theravada Buddhist temple schools and secular state education. The…
Malville, J. McKim; Singh, Rana P. B.
We use Varanasi, the paradigmatic holy city of India, as an illustration of the incorporation of visual astronomy into Hindu culture. In the city the Sun is honored in three ways: at morning worship, during pilgrimage, and as an icon in temples. Specific attributes of the Sun are symbolized by the adityas, represented by fourteen temples which were destroyed during the years of Mughal occupation of the city after A.D. 1192. According to local tradition the locations of these temples remained in the communal memory of the city and are marked today by Sun disks, lotus-form stones or images of Surya, that are set into the walls of houses or installed in shrines or temples. Many of the sites are included in pilgrimage routes of the city. With the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) we have mapped the positions of the adityas and find that most lie along the sides of a triangle which surrounded the original center of the city. The major text that deals with Varanasi and its spiritual traditions, the Kashi Khanda, gives the myths, stories and rituals associated with each of the former Sun temples and reveals the significance of the Sun for inhabitants and pilgrims. The Sun is understood to be a caring and protective deity, providing relief from life's ordinary problems such as skin disease, infertility, hunger and the problems of old age and death. The Kashi Khanda also includes references to probable observations of naked-eye sunspots, meteor showers, and the total solar eclipse of A.D. 1054.
Kong, S.H.; Chung, K.S.; Park, J.S.; Shin, I.S.; Han, H.T.
Currently, there are many researches on the analysis of indoor environment in Sokkuram Cave Temple. However, there is not enough researches about an experimental study on the dome's indoor environment in Sokkuram Cave Temple using a miniature model. The purpose of this investigation is to measure and analyze characteristics of indoor environment such as relative humidity, dry bulb temperature and air velocity in the miniature model of Sokkuram Cave dome during winter season.
Capano, M.; Rescigno, C.; Sirleto, R.; Passariello, I.; Marzaioli, F.; D'Onofrio, A.; Terrasi, F.
We present here one recent CIRCE (Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage) - Caserta (Italy) project on cultural heritage field, analysing several mice bones, discovered in the Major Temple on the acropolis of Cumae (Napoli, Southern Italy). The bones were found in a vase linked to the holy context. In order to know their dating and formulate an hypothesis on their presence on the site, if it was an accidental rodent inclusion (believed on the base of archaeological context to have occurred during building abandonment periods (IV-V or XIII centuries AD)) or an intentional and ritual remain, the bones were 14C dated by AMS at CIRCE. The results indicate that the mice bones date to the IV century BC and are contemporaneous with building construction. This dating seems to exclude an accidental rodent presence and it supports the hypothesis of Apollo veneration in the temple, based on the already known link between mice and Apollo worship rituals.
Rao, N. Kameswara; Thakur, Priya
The navaranga in the medieval stone temple of Vidyasankara at Sringeri, built around A.D. 1350, has twelve zodiacal pillars arranged in a square with the zodiacal signs carved on them. It has been claimed that the morning sunrise lights up the pillar that corresponds to the zodiacal constellation in which Sun is located at that time, so the temple can be used as an instrument to predict calendar days. We carried out observations to investigate this aspect by monitoring both sunrises and sunsets, and found that the correspondence between the illumination of specific pillars and the zodiacal sign of the Sun could only be maintained if the epoch for such an arrangement was around 2000 B.C. The implications of this finding are discussed in this paper.
Anderson, Gary C.; John, Mike T.; Ohrbach, Richard; Nixdorf, Donald R.; Schiffman, Eric L.; Truelove, Edmond S.; List, Thomas
The relationship of the frequency of temple headache to signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) was investigated in a subset of a larger convenience sample of community TMD cases. The study sample included: 86 painful TMD, non-headache subjects; 309 painful TMD subjects with varied frequency of temple headaches; and 149 subjects without painful TMD or headache for descriptive comparison. Painful TMD included Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) diagnoses of myofascial pain, TMJ arthralgia and TMJ osteoarthritis. Mild to moderate intensity temple headaches were classified by frequency using criteria based on the ICHD-II classification of TTH. Outcomes included TMD signs and symptoms (pain duration, pain intensity, number of painful masticatory sites on palpation, mandibular range of motion), PPTs and temple headache resulting from masticatory provocation tests. Trend analyses across the painful TMD groups showed a substantial trend for aggravation of all of the TMD signs and symptoms associated with increased frequency of the temple headaches. In addition, increased headache frequency showed significant trends associated with reduced PPTs and reported temple headache with masticatory provocation tests. In conclusion, these findings suggest that these headaches may be TMD-related, as well as a possible role for peripheral and central sensitization in TMD patients. PMID:21196079
Srivastava, Saurabh; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Amit Kumar; Tandon, Anshika; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti
A 13-residue frog antimicrobial peptide Temporin L (TempL) possesses versatile antimicrobial activities and is considered a lead molecule for the development of new antimicrobial agents. To find out the amino acid sequences that influence the anti-microbial property of TempL, a phenylalanine zipper-like sequence was identified in it which was not reported earlier. Several alanine-substituted analogs and a scrambled peptide having the same composition of TempL were designed for evaluating the role of this motif. To investigate whether leucine residues instead of phenylalanine residues at 'a' and/or 'd' position(s) of the heptad repeat sequence could alter its antimicrobial property, several TempL analogs were synthesized after replacing these phenylalanine residues with leucine residues. Replacing phenylalanine residues with alanine residues in the phenylalanine zipper sequence significantly compromised the anti-endotoxin property of TempL. This is evident from the higher production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat bone-marrow-derived macrophage cells in the presence of its alanine-substituted analogs than TempL itself. However, replacement of these phenylalanine residues with leucine residues significantly augmented anti-endotoxin property of TempL. A single alanine-substituted TempL analog (F8A-TempL) showed significantly reduced cytotoxicity but retained the antibacterial activity of TempL, while the two single leucine-substituted analogs (F5L-TempL and F8L-TempL), although exhibiting lower cytotoxicity, were able to retain the antibacterial activity of the parent peptide. The results demonstrate how minor amino acid substitutions in the identified phenylalanine zipper sequence in TempL could yield analogs with better antibacterial and/or anti-endotoxin properties with their plausible mechanism of action.
The Great Temple of Bel in Palmyra was a unique edifice which had blended the well established lines of Greco-Roman architecture with the art and taste of the Orient. With the gilded bronze capitals of its 41 Corinthian columns it was the product of enormous effort and budget. It was the gem of a remarkable epoch of wealthy Palmyra and mighty Roma. With its splendidly decorated adyta ceilings it became a source of inspiration and imagination for Western architecture and decorative arts. While continuing to captivate the World, it was leveled and vanished as a grim result of conflict based vandalism. The aim of this work is to piece together this, the most eloquent and stupendous monument of the Roman East, from its ruins and reconstruct it as it was once extant. Its loss is irreplacable, but its photo-realistic reconstruction can offer some solace by waking the memories of the great temple as in the past. The lost reality of the Great Temple of Bel is revived here by digitally constructing its "ghost images".
Maternal fatty acid intake and fetal growth: evidence for an association in overweight women. The 'EDEN mother-child' cohort (study of pre- and early postnatal determinants of the child's development and health).
Drouillet, Peggy; Forhan, Anne; De Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Thiébaugeorges, Olivier; Goua, Valérie; Magnin, Guillaume; Schweitzer, Michel; Kaminski, Monique; Ducimetière, Pierre; Charles, Marie-Aline
Recent studies suggest a benefit of seafood and n-3 fatty acid intake on fetal growth and infant development. The objective was to study the association between fatty acid intake and fetal growth in pregnant French women. Pregnant women included in the EDEN mother-child cohort study completed FFQ on their usual diet: (1) in the year before pregnancy and (2) during the last 3 months of pregnancy (n 1439). Conversion into nutrient intakes was performed using data on portion size and a French food composition table. Associations between maternal fatty acid intakes and several neonatal anthropometric measurements were studied using linear regressions adjusted for centre, mother's age, smoking habits, height, parity, gestational age and newborn's sex. Due to significant interaction, analyses were stratified according to maternal pre-pregnancy overweight status. Neither total lipid nor SFA, MUFA or PUFA intake was significantly associated with newborn size. In overweight women only (n 366), a high pre-pregnancy n-3 fatty acid intake (% PUFA) was positively associated with the newborn's birth weight (P=0.01), head, arm and wrist circumferences and sum of skinfolds (P<0.04). A substitution of 1% of n-3 fatty acids per d before pregnancy by other PUFA was related to an average decrease in birth weight of 60 g (P=0.01). Relationships with n-3 fatty acid intake at the end of pregnancy were weaker and not significant. We concluded that a high pre-pregnancy n-3 fatty acid:PUFA ratio may sustain fetal growth in overweight women. Follow-up of the children may help determine whether this has beneficial consequences for the child's health and development.
Fischer, Lucy Rose
Indicated how a shift in the structure of kinship networks created changes in both the content and balance of kinship relationships. Compared the mother-daughter and the mother-in-law/daughter-in-law relationships. The shift in their kin network consisted of the birth of the daughter(in-law)'s child. (Author/RC)
Kangaroo mother care is a safe, simple method to care for low birth weight infants. This article looks at its origins, what is involved in kangaroo mother care and reviews the evidence for improved outcomes resulting from its implementation.
Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.
The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from
Pearce, Joseph Chilton
Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)
Tottenham, Nim; Shapiro, Mor; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.
In altricial species, like the human, the caregiver, very often the mother, is one of the most potent stimuli during development. The distinction between mothers and other adults is learned early in life and results in numerous behaviors in the child, most notably mother-approach and stranger wariness. The current study examined the influence of…
de Arrizabalaga y Prado, L.; de La Fuente Marcos, R.
Ancient historians refer to a temple in Rome, dedicated to the Syrian sun god Elagabal, by his high priest, the Roman emperor called Varius (204-222AD, commonly called Elagabalus or Heliogabalus). On the basis of their texts, it has been thought that Varius either built a new temple, or rededicated an existing one, expropriated from some other deity, in order to house his god's principal cult object: a large black meteorite, or baetyl, which Varius brought from its temple at Emesa, in Syria, to Rome. In this paper we analyze the hypothesis that the site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal may have been that now known as the Vigna Barberini. A stratigraphic analysis shows that the Vigna Barberini is an artificial platform, built on the rubble of earlier hillside structures, dating from prehistoric times to the Julio-Claudian period. The platform, with more or less its present shape, is of Flavian date, and at that time contained a portico surrounding a central garden. On top of these, a Severan level corresponds to the base of the foundations of a temple that are very solid and go very deep. The azimuth of the temple wall oriented south-east is about 113°. Using a computer program, we have thoroughly scan ned the night sky in AD 1-250, looking for celestial objects that may have been worshipped in the temple. After taking into account the effects of precession, the main candidate for a celestial body worshipped from this site appears to be the star Sirius. In several Mediterranean cultures, the heliacal ortus, or earliest pre-dawn sighting of Sirius (when Sirius again rises into visibility after being hidden by the Sun's light for about 70 days) was thought to have astrological significance. We have compiled the relevant astronomical data for the heliacal ortus of Sirius in the time span 0-250 AD. During that period of time, it falls between 18th and 20th July. The azimuth angle of Sirius, when rising on the heliacal ortus day ci rca 150 AD, is about 111°. Being
Song, Wonsuh; Oguchi, Chiaki; Waragai, Tetsuya
The Angkor complex is the one of the greatest cultural heritages in the world. It is constructed in the early 12th century, designated as a world cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1992. The temples at the Angkor complex are mainly made of sandstone and laterite. However, due to the tropical climate, plants, lichens and various microorganisms are growing well on the rock surface. Black crusts are also easily found on the stone surface. The 21st technical session of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of Angkor (ICC-Angkor) held in 2012 recommended that to preserve both the biofilms and the forest cover and to prohibit the biocides (chlorine-based) and organic biocides. However, there are many reports that lichens and microorganisms accelerate rock weathering. It is important to clarify that how the biofilm on the Angkor temples affect Angkor sandstones. We sampled Angkor sandstone covered by black crust at the Bayon temple, Angkor complex, and observed the section and the surface of the rock sample by using SEM. Surfaces of the samples are not polished in order to observe the original condition. The samples are coated with gold for 180 seconds. The depth of the black crust is up to 1 mm. Many filamentous materials were found on the black crust. Average energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data of the five areas of ca. 20 μm ×15 μm in the black crusts shows that over 80 % of the filamentous materials are compounds of carbon. It seems that these materials are hyphae. The shape of the hypha is like a thread and its size is few μm in diameter and up to several centimeters in length. Black crusts are consisted of elements and compounds of carbon, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe. Further research has to be done to find out the better and proper way of conservation for the Angkor complex.
Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe
Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron
Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe
Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010–1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron
The rational system of medicine distinct from magical or religious practices originated with Hippocrates. This revolutionary change established diseases with natural causes and treatments. Epilepsy with its prominent physical and psychic features was regarded in ancient times with superstitious awe and given the name "Sacred Disease." Hippocratic authors distanced themselves from the prevailing supernatural views but were careful not to oppose the traditional medicine especially the cults of Asklepios. This analysis of the practices of Hippocratic and Temple medicine in relation to epilepsy reveals some clear differences and also some overlapping features.
Klysubun, Wantana; Ravel, Bruce; Klysubun, Prapong; Sombunchoo, Panidtha; Deenan, Weeraya
Yellow and colorless ancient glasses, which were once used to decorate the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand, around 150 years ago, are studied to unravel the long-lost glass-making recipes and manufacturing techniques. Analyses of chemical compositions, using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF), indicate that the Thai ancient glasses are soda lime silica glasses (60 % SiO2; 10 % Na2O; 10 % CaO) bearing lead oxide between 2-16 %. Iron (1.5-9.4 % Fe2O3) and manganese (1.7 % MnO) are present in larger abundance than the other 3 d transition metals detected (0.04-0.2 %). K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) provide conclusive evidence on the oxidation states of Fe being 3+ and Mn being 2+ and on short-length tetrahedral structures around the cations. This suggests that iron is used as a yellow colorant with manganese as a decolorant. L 3-edge XANES results reveal the oxidation states of lead as 2+. The results from this work provide information crucial for replicating these decorative glasses for the future restoration of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha.
Schütz, R; Bertinetti, L; Rabin, I; Fratzl, P; Masic, A
Since their discovery in the late 1940s, the Dead Sea Scrolls, some 900 ancient Jewish texts, have never stopped attracting the attention of scholars and the broad public alike, because they were created towards the end of the Second Temple period and the "time of Christ". Most of the work on them has been dedicated to the information contained in the scrolls' text, leaving physical aspects of the writing materials unexamined. They are, however, crucial for both historical insight and preservation of the scrolls. Although scientific analysis requires handling, it is essential to establish the state of degradation of these valued documents. Polarized Raman Spectroscopy (PRS) is a powerful tool for obtaining information on both the composition and the level of disorder of molecular units. In this study, we developed a non-invasive and non-destructive methodology that allows a quantification of the disorder (that can be related to the degradation) of protein molecular units in collagen fibers. Not restricted to collagen, this method can be applied also to other protein-based fibrous materials such as ancient silk, wool or hair. We used PRS to quantify the degradation of the collagen fibers in a number of fragments of the Temple Scroll (11Q19a). We found that collagen fibers degrade heterogeneously, with the ones on the surface more degraded than those in the core.
Singh, Akanksha; Jain, Akansha; Sarma, Birinchi K.; Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Harikesh B.
Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC.
Peng Xi county, Sichuan province, the Bao Fan temple mural digitization survey mapping project: we use three-dimensional laserscanning, multi-baseline definition digital photography, multi-spectral digital image acquisition and other technologies for digital survey mapping. The purpose of this project is to use modern mathematical reconnaissance mapping means to obtain accurate mural shape, color, quality and other data. Combined with field investigation and laboratory analysis results, and based on a comprehensive survey and study, a comprehensive analysis of the historical Bao Fan Temple mural artistic and scientific value was conducted. A study of the mural's many qualities (structural, material, technique, preservation environment, degradation, etc.) reveal all aspects of the information carried by the Bao Fan Temple mural. From multiple angles (archeology, architecture, surveying, conservation science and other disciplines) an assessment for the Bao Fan Temple mural provides basic data and recommendations for conservation of the mural. In order to achieve the conservation of cultural relics in the Bao Fan Temple mural digitization survey mapping process, we try to apply the advantages of three-dimensional laser scanning equipment. For wall murals this means obtaining three-dimensional scale data from the scan of the building and through the analysis of these data to help determine the overall condition of the settlement as well as the deformation of the wall structure. Survey analysis provides an effective set of conclusions and suggestions for appropriate mural conservation. But before data collection, analysis and research need to first to select the appropriate scanning equipment, set the appropriate scanning accuracy and layout position of stations necessary to determine the scope of required data. We use the fine features of the three-dimensional laser scanning measuring arm to scan the mural surface deformation degradation to reflect the actual state of
He, S.; Tang, Z.; Yang, S.
Baoguo Temple is located half way up Lingshan Mountain in Northern Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. The main hall of Baoguo Temple is Song dynasty wooden structure. As the oldest wooden architecture in Jiangnan, China, it is a national major protective historical relic. In 2005, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum was set up and opens to the outside world. From 2007, to be able to protect it more effectively and foreseeably, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum began to build information collecting systems towards historical architectures using modern information technology. After comparing correlated studies both at home and abroad, we found that: heritage protection abroad started earlier than us, and it has already established thorough protection system, relevant protection mechanism, and also issued relevant protection laws and regulations. The technology which was utilized in protection abroad was not only limited in RS, GIS, GPS, VR, but also included many emerging technology such as using a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the condition of temperature and humidity. The main body of this paper are going to talk about four parts: the first one is existing information system. In this part, we'll introduce the information collecting system, which was preliminarily built in 2007 in Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum. Using the modern digital computer information technology, researchers can gradually check and acquire the information of the material of relics, the condition of the structure stress and the natural environmental information, which may probably affect the cultural architecture. And this part may be divided into information collection, information management and exhibition. The second part is update scheme design of original information collecting equipment and technology. Original information collecting system of microenvironment is relatively independent and data haven't been included in the management of the system
... Explore Fact Sheets 1 Check Out Our Latest Facebook Posts MotherToBaby 10 hours ago Keep up with ... C4eLw ... See More See Less Photo View on Facebook · Share MotherToBaby 1 day ago Are you pregnant ...
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Ferando, Annette; Newbert, David
Funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act, the Assertiveness Training Program for Single Mothers was offered to mothers with children enrolled in the Omaha Head Start and Parent-Child Center Programs. The 16-week long program, providing a total of 40 hours of training, covered a wide range of topics in addition to the initial workshops on…
McConachie, Helen; Hammal, Donna; Welsh, Brenda; Keane, Brigid; Waterston, Tony; Parker, Louise; Cook, Margaret
This paper reports indicators of wellbeing and early parenting stress in a representative sample of first-time mothers in north-east England. A total of 185 mothers were recruited in the antenatal period to a controlled trial of an early parenting intervention. They were interviewed at home when the baby was aged around one month, and completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and the Parenting Daily Hassles Scale. Almost half of mothers reported psychological distress above the accepted GHQ12 cut-off point. However, distress was not related to variables such as low socio-economic status, as had been predicted. Early parenting stress was greater in relatively more educated and older mothers. New motherhood is likely to be stressful, even where mothers do not have postpartum depression, and so a range of supports is required.
Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah
Through selected theories of melancholia, this paper seeks to shed some fresh interpretive light on the reproduction and disruption of gender, violence and family turmoil across generations of mothers and daughters. The originality of the paper lies in its exploratory deployment of theories of melancholia to consider issues of women, violence and…
Temraz, Mostafa Gouda; Khallaf, Mohamed K.
The Temple of Kom Ombo is a huge ancient Egyptian temple in Upper Egypt. It was built by Ptolemy VI Philometor (180-145 BC) and added to by subsequent Ptolemys. The structure of the temple is built of local sandstone attributed to the Quseir Formation of "Nubian Sandstone" group at Gebel el-Silsila. Sandstone samples from Kom Ombo temple were taken to verify the source rock of the quarried material. Optical Polarizing Microscope (OPM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to determine the microstructure and physical properties of the sandstone. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out for the Sandstone samples to identify its mineralogical composition. The sandstone samples were treated with six polymeric products to determine changes in their physical and mechanical properties after penetration, consolidation of polymers within them. This sandstone is composed mainly of three quartz arenite microfacies (feldspathic, sublithic and calcareous) that are interpreted to have been deposited in fluvial to fluvial-marine environment. Silane polymers is showing a good penetration and filling pores between grains and recommended for treatment and conservation of the sandstone. Acrylic polymer shows random penetration of polymer and formation of a film of polymer on the surface of sandstone. Silo11 gave the best result in consolidation of sandstone samples then primal AC33. Wacker BS29 gave the best result in isolating process of sandstone samples, then wacker BS 290.
Seelig, Beth J
The relationship between the Greek goddess Athena and her father Zeus, together with the competitive hostility she displays towards other females, is presented as illustrating some previously neglected aspects of triangular developmental conflicts in the little girl. Literature on "the Oedipus complex in the female" is reviewed and discussed. The mythological early histories of both Athena and the female monster Medusa are examined for the light they can shed on female developmental vicissitudes and resultant conflicts in both women and men. Unconscious split representations of women as assertive, phallic and dangerous, or alternatively passive, castrated and receptive result in defensive repudiation of the idea that a woman can be both actively assertive and also feminine and sexual. Athena's enraged action of transforming the beautiful young maiden Medusa into a monster as punishment for the "crime" of having been raped in her temple is discussed as illustrating an outcome of the lack of resolution of the little girl's early triangular conflicts.
Yoneyama, H; Matsushima, T; Nakamura, J; Yano, T; Adachi, M; Tano, Y
Two cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema were reported. The first cases was a 21-year-old man who had a past history of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. The second was a healthy 20-year-old man. They were admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea and chest pain, which occurred at or after vocal exercise for Xiao-lin Temple boxing. Physically, a mediastinal crunch on auscultation heard over the cardiac apex and the left sternal border (Hamman's sign) was recognized in the first case, and subcutaneous emphysema was palpated in both cases. The chest X-ray films revealed intramediastinal air and subcutaneous emphysema in both cases. We diagnosed these patients as spontaneous pneumomediastinum because of no underlying disease. This is a report of rare cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum occurring at the same time, and one of the mechanism causing them was considered to be a sudden increase in intrathoracic pressure due to the vocal exercise of chinese boxing.
Singh, Akanksha; Jain, Akansha; Sarma, Birinchi K; Abhilash, P C; Singh, Harikesh B
Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC-water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC-soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC.
Hequembourg, Amy L
Lesbian mothering strategies are commonly theorized as instances of assimilationism or resistance. This essay critiques those approaches and presents a promising alternative using the conceptual framework of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. Their concepts of "becoming" and "rhizoming" are utilized as mechanisms for understanding the inconsistencies and contradictions that constitute the subjectivities of two lesbian co-mothers. The essay concludes with the political implications of these analyses.
Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Yang, Chang-Ju; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Yang, I-Lin
Ambient suspended particulate concentrations were measured at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study. This is characteristic place of incense burning and indoor air pollution sampling site. A universal sampler, micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI) sampler and dry deposition plate were used to measure particulate concentrations. Tzu Yun Yen temple is a typical famous Buddhist-Taoist combined temple, where many pilgrims come from different areas and various belief systems indicating the eclecticism of the temple. The average number of people visiting this temple is above 5000 per day. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios ranged between 31.2 and 87.4% and averaged 69.6+/-12.3% during the incense-burning period, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the fine particulates concentrations (PM2.5) constituted the majority of indoor-suspended particulates at Tzu Yun Yen temple. PM10 concentration was 110.1 microg m(-3) for Zhong Yuan Jie (A festival on the seventh full moon in a lunar year, otherwise known as a summer lantern festival and (or) the commemoration of the dead. Almost all temples have maximum pilgrims for the commemoration of the dead on this day.) and the 1st or 15th of nong li (Nong li is a Chinese lunar calendar system in which 1 year is divided into fixed periods, and the beginning and end of a year is determined. The new moon and full moon are the 1st and 15th, respectively of each month in the Chinese lunar calendar. Many pilgrims appeared at each temple for blessing and good luck for themselves on the 1st and 15th of each Chinese lunar month.) with numbers higher than non-Zhong Yuan Jie and non-1st or -15th day of nong li (average = 85.5 microg m(-3)). In general, the average dry deposition flux (49.4 mg m(-2) day(-1)) in the indoor environment is lower than those measured in the outdoor environment (184.0 mg m(-2) day(-1)) in this study. The mean dry deposition flux of indoor/outdoor ratio was 46.2%. The average mass size distributions were bimodal
If you've been working in EMS for much more than a week, the title of this column probably evoked some sort of visceral response from you--and not a positive one. The phrase "Mother, may I...?" has long been attached to EMS systems that require EMTs and paramedics to call their base hospitals prior to performing most interventions or delivering medications. Where the rub comes in is that most field people I know would prefer a little more leeway, something like a "Mother, I'm going out now" type of system.
The body is socially constructed; and in this paper we explore the various and ever-changing constructions of the body, and thus of the embodied self, from the Greeks to the present. The one word, body, may therefore signify very different realities and perceptions of reality; and we consider briefly how and why these meanings changed. Plato believed the body was a 'tomb', Paul said it was the 'temple' of the Holy Spirit, the Stoic philosopher Epictetus taught that it was a 'corpse'. Christians believed, and believe, that the body is not only physical, but also spiritual and mystical, and many believed it was an allegory of church, state and family. Some said it was cosmic: one with the planets and the constellations. Descartes wrote that the body is a 'machine', and this definition has underpinned biomedicine to this day; but Sartre said that the body is the self. In sum, the body has no intrinsic meaning. Populations create their own meanings, and thus their own bodies; but how they create, and then change them, and why, reflects the social body.
Polseela, R; Apiwathnasorn, C; Samung, Y
Phlebotomine sand flies have long been incriminated as vectors of leishmaniasis in various parts of both the Old and New World. Prompted by recent indigenous cases of leishmaniasis in Thailand, a bionomic study of sand flies was undertaken in Tham Phra Phothisat temple, Saraburi province. In this study, sand flies were collected using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, to clarify the activity patterns and species composition of the sand flies. Traps were laid from August 2005 to July 2006. The insects were collected monthly between 1800-0600 hours. A total of 8,131 sand flies were collected with a female:male ratio of 1.9:1. Sixteen species were identified, of which 5 belonged to the genus Phlebotomus, 9 to Sergentomyia and 1 to Chinius. Species comprised the abundant species (Sergentomyia silvatica 35.6%, Sergentomyia barraudi 18.1%, Sergentomyia anodontis, 17.1%, Sergentomyia iyengari 11.9%, and Sergentomyia gemmea 11.2%); the less common species (<2%) were Sergentomyia dentata 1.8%, Phlebotomus stantoni 1.1%, Sergentomyia indica 1.0%, Phlebotomus argentipes 0.8%, Sergentomyia perturbans 0.4%, Chinius barbazani 0.3%, Phlebotomus asperulus 0.2%, Phlebotomus philippinensis gouldi 0.1%, Phlebotomus major major 0.1%, Sergentomyia quatei 0.1% and Sergentomyia bailyi 0.1%. The results revealed seasonal variation in sand fly prevalence, with the highest peak in July. Soil samples collected were characterized by alkaline (pH 7.6).
Lee, Chan Hee; Yi, Jeong Eun
The stone pagoda of the Bunhwangsa temple in Republic of Korea was made of piling small brick-shaped stones. The majority of stone bricks are andesitic rocks with variable geneses. Rock properties of the pagoda roof suffer partial significant deterioration, such as multiple peel-offs, exfoliation, onion-peel-like decomposition, cracks forming round lines and falling-off stone pieces. The stylobates and tabernacles at the four corners are composed of granitic rocks, which are heavily contaminated by lichens and mosses. Some of these contamination marks show dark black or yellowish brown colors by inorganic secondary hydrates. The four tabernacles and northern face of the pagoda body have been exposed to relatively high humidity, which causes light gray efflorescence as stalactites between the northern and western sides of the body. The efflorescences are composed of calcite, gypsum and clay minerals. The stone lion statues at the southeast and northeast corners are made of alkali granite, while the others are lithic tuff. Total rock properties of the pagoda consist of 9,708 stone bricks. Among them, 11.0% are fractured, 6.7% are fallen off, and 7.0% show considerable surface efflorescence, which shows that the pagoda has been highly deteriorated by physical, chemical and biological weathering. The authors strongly suggest long-term monitoring and comprehensive conservation researches.
Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Ed.; Surrey, Janet L., Ed.; Weingarten, Kathy, Ed.
Based on the view that increasing numbers of mothers who do not fit a narrow traditional image are often maligned, misunderstood, or ignored, this book presents the stories of a diverse group of mothers whose life circumstances place them outside the mainstream. Chapters explore the lives of mothers of exceptional children and biracial children;…
Eiduson, Bernice T.
Fifty Caucasian, never-married single mothers aged 18-30, who had opted to keep their babies, were studied longitudinally from the last trimester of pregnancy through the first three years of their children's lives in order to learn the extent to which they had reinterpreted traditional roles and responsibilities and had restructured their lives.…
... pregnancy and breastfeeding. ¡Hablamos Español! MotherToBaby Launches New Zika Virus Educational Tools Read the Press Release Call Us ... Length of Cycles * News Pregnancy Health Experts Unveil Zika Virus Educational Tools Ahead of World Birth Defects Day ...
Mathers, Sherry; And Others
Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…
Kelly, Marguerite; Parsons, Elia
This book is a compilation of practical suggestions for mothers on caring for children from birth through age 6. Everyday problems are discussed in an easy-to-read anecdotal style. The first section of the book deals with family life, including discussions of birth, breast feeding, basic child care (e.g., how to diaper a squirming baby),…
Describes Trees for Mother Earth, a program in which secondary students raise funds to buy fruit trees to plant during visits to the Navajo Reservation. Benefits include developing feelings of self-worth among participants, promoting cultural exchange and understanding, and encouraging self-sufficiency among the Navajo. (LP)
Roth, Patricia H.
A mother writes of her early years with her son as a single parent and the difficult years with twin younger siblings when she was trying to find a diagnosis and help for her son. Her son is 9 years old now, and she reflects on her experiences. (Author/CR)
Elliott, Sinikka; Reid, Megan
Baltimore mother Toya Graham became a viral video sensation after being filmed yelling at and hitting her teen son. Graham, who is Black, was trying to stop her son from joining the protests following Freddie Gray’s death in police custody in Baltimore in April 2015. Dubbed “mother of the year,” news outlets applauded Graham for her fierce determination to keep her son out of harm’s way by any means necessary. The media and ensuing public response to the video are illuminating for what they say about cultural notions of Black motherhood: the good Black mom should be superstrong to protect her children, but she is also responsible for controlling her children and preventing them from getting into trouble. In celebrating Graham, the media was implicitly condemning all the other mothers whose children participated in the protests—that is, the mothers who did not prevent their children from “senseless” rioting against institutional racism in policing. PMID:27134576
Killinger, Mimi; Binder-Hathaway, Rachel; Mitchell, Paige; Patrick, Emily
This article describes the experiences of four honors mothers as they offer sage advice. They argue convincingly that they are motivated, focused students who bring rich diversity to college programs. They further report disturbing marginalization and isolation that could be ameliorated with support and increased sensitivity on the part of…
Sylvia Barnard, a classics professor at State University of New York at Albany, discusses growing up on a dairy farm in western Massachusetts; the influence of her mother's college education at Mount Holyoke; her own educational experiences, including those at Yale University where she obtained her doctorate; and her relationship with her…
This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
INFORMATION ON THE STATUS OF WORKING MOTHERS AND ON THE FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE THEM TO SEEK PAID EMPLOYMENT IS PROVIDED THROUGH 20 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. AMONG THE NEARLY 27 MILLION WOMEN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES IN MARCH 1966 WERE 9.9 MILLION MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE. THESE WORKING MOTHERS CONSTITUTED 36 PERCENT OF ALL…
Ozer, Erdal; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Yildirim, Ali; Enginyurt, Ozgur; Din, Hasan; Evcuman, Durmus
Background All individuals under the age of 18 are considered as children by the Convention on the Rights of Children. Underage mothers are a pediatric-age group of children that become pregnant and give birth. It may be unfamiliar in Western countries, but in Middle-Eastern countries ruled by religious laws and old-fashioned traditions, it is common for an older man to marry a girl. The aim of this study was to describe the status of underage mothers within the framework of children’s rights and to draw attention to this issue. We presented this study to increase awareness and sensitivity, and to scrutinize and discuss these topics. Material/Methods We retrospectively investigated cases of underaged pregnant girls who applied to Forensic Science Department outpatient clinics and Obstetrics and Gynecology Department outpatient clinics of Gaziosmanpasa University Faculty of Medicine between 2003 and 2013. Results We accessed records of 163 underage mothers (≤18 age). Mean age was 16.9±0.83 (14–18 years). Gravida and parity rates increased proportionately with increasing age. Most of our cases were 16 and 17 years of age (n: 117, 71.8%). Conclusions Underage motherhood is not only a medical issue; it is a multi-dimensional problem with social, economic, traditional, religious, and legal aspects. PMID:24714663
Henderson, Kiersten A; Hughes, Adam L; Gottschling, Daniel E
Replicative aging in yeast is asymmetric-mother cells age but their daughter cells are rejuvenated. Here we identify an asymmetry in pH between mother and daughter cells that underlies aging and rejuvenation. Cytosolic pH increases in aging mother cells, but is more acidic in daughter cells. This is due to the asymmetric distribution of the major regulator of cytosolic pH, the plasma membrane proton ATPase (Pma1). Pma1 accumulates in aging mother cells, but is largely absent from nascent daughter cells. We previously found that acidity of the vacuole declines in aging mother cells and limits lifespan, but that daughter cell vacuoles re-acidify. We find that Pma1 activity antagonizes mother cell vacuole acidity by reducing cytosolic protons. However, the inherent asymmetry of Pma1 increases cytosolic proton availability in daughter cells and facilitates vacuole re-acidification and rejuvenation.
Maternal fatty acid intake and fetal growth: evidence for an association in overweight women. The 'EDEN mother-child' cohort (study of pre- and early postnatal determinants of the child's development and health)
Drouillet, Peggy; Forhan, Anne; De Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Thiébaugeorges, Olivier; Goua, Valérie; Magnin, Guillaume; Schweitzer, Michel; Kaminski, Monique; Ducimetière, Pierre; Charles, Marie-Aline
Background Recent studies suggest a benefit of seafood and n-3 Fatty Acids (FA) intake on fetal growth and infant development. Objectives To study the association between FA intake and fetal growth in French pregnant women. Design Pregnant women included in the EDEN mother-child cohort study answered food frequency questionnaires on their usual diet 1) in the year prior to pregnancy and 2) during the last three months of pregnancy (n=1439). Conversion into nutrient intakes was performed using data on portion size and a French food composition table. Associations between maternal FA intakes and several neonatal anthropometric measurements were studied using linear regressions adjusted for center, mother’s age, smoking habits, height, parity, gestational age and newborn’s sex. Due to significant interaction, analyses were stratified according to maternal pre-pregnancy overweight status. Results Neither total lipid nor saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fat intake were significantly associated with newborn size. In overweight women only (n=366), a high pre-pregnancy n-3FA intake (% n-3FA/PUFA) was positively associated with newborn’s birthweight (p=0.01), head, arm and wrist circumferences and sum of skinfolds (p<0.04). A substitution of one percent of n-3FA per day before pregnancy by other PUFA was related to an average decrease in birthweight of 60 g (p=0.01). Relationships with n-3FA intake at the end of pregnancy were weaker and not significant. Conclusions A high pre-pregnancy ratio n-3FA/PUFA may sustain fetal growth in overweight women. Follow-up of the children may help determine whether this has beneficial consequences for the child’s health and development. PMID:18631416
Caneva, G.; Bartoli, F.; Savo, V.; Futagami, Y.; Strona, G.
Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective. PMID:27597658
Caneva, G.; Bartoli, F.; Savo, V.; Futagami, Y.; Strona, G.
Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective.
Lo Brutto, M.; Spera, M. G.
The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Agrigento (Italy) was one of the largest temple and at the same time one of the most original of all the Greek architecture. We don't know exactly how it was because the temple is now almost completely destroyed but it is very well-known for the presence of the Telamons. The Telamons were giant statues (about 8 meters high) probably located outside the temple to fill the interval between the columns. In accordance with the theory most accredited by archaeologists the Telamons were a decorative element and also a support for the structure. However, this hypothesis has never been scientifically proven. One Telamon has been reassembled and is shown at the Archaeological Museum of Agrigento. In 2009 a group of researchers at the University of Palermo has begun a study to test the hypothesis that the Telamons support the weight of the upper part of the temple. The study consists of a 3D survey of the Telamon, to reconstruct a detailed 3D digital model, and of a structural analysis with the Finite Element Method (FEM) to test the possibility that the Telamon could to support the weight of the upper portion of the temple. In this work the authors describe the 3D survey of Telamon carry out with Range-Based Modelling (RBM) and Image-Based Modeling (IBM). The RBM was performed with a TOF laser scanner while the IBM with the ZScan system of Menci Software and Image Master of Topcon. Several tests were conducted to analyze the accuracy of the different 3D models and to evaluate the difference between laser scanning and photogrammetric data. Moreover, an appropriate data reduction to generate a 3D model suitable for FEM analysis was tested.
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
This study demonstrates the difficult life situation of many single mothers and their children on the basis of important studies on the problematical social status, elevated health risks and particularly, on the mental/psychosomatic strain of single mothers. From these investigations, potential impact on the development of the children and the necessity of attachment-oriented prevention-programs in terms of a training of the intuitive parental competences are derived. In spite of the increasing number of single mothers, a sufficient amount of such offers does not yet exist in Germany. A first group-program, especially adapted to the needs and conflicts of single mothers, will be presented.
Cardalda, Elsa B; Miranda, Susana E; Pérez, Melanie; Sierra, Elizabeth M
This investigation assesses attitudes towards breastfeeding working mothers, employees' knowledge of their legal rights and employees' views of the new amendment of Law 427 in Puerto Rico. The sample consists of 36 men and 64 women (N = 101) employed in different institutions of the San Juan metropolitan area. Participants completed the Attitude Scale toward working breastfeeding mothers. The scale's consistency is substantiated by an item-total reliability coefficient yielding r (92) = .70, p < .05. Results show that employed Puerto Ricans may support breastfeeding working mothers. However, many individuals are not aware of the laws that protect a breastfeeding working mother and how extracting milk may help productivity instead of impairing it.
Wyant, Donald G.
Deposits of uraniferous hydrocarbons are associated with carnotite in the Shinarump conglomerate of Triassic age at Shinarump Mesa and adjacent areas of the Temple Mountain district in the San Rafael Swell of Emery County, Utah. The irregular ore bodies of carnotite-bearing sandstone are genetically related to lenticular uraniferous ore bodies containing disseminated asphaltitic and humic hydrocarbon in permeable sandstones and were localized indirectly by sedimentary controls. Nearly non-uraniferous bitumen commonly permeates the sandstones in the Shinarump conglomerate and the underlying Moekopi formation in the area. The ore deposits at Temple Mountain have been altered locally by hydrothermal solutions, and in other deposits throughout the area carnotite has been transported by ground and surface water. Uraniferous asphaltite is thought to be the non-volatile residue of an original weakly uraniferous crude oil that migrated into the San Rafael anticline; the ore metals concentrated in the asphaltite as the oil was devolatilized and polymerized. Carnotite is thought to have formed from the asphaltite by ground water leaching. It is concluded that additional study of the genesis of the asphaltitic uranium ores in the San Rafael Swell, of the processes by which the hydrocarbons interact and are modified (such as heat, polymerization, and hydrogenation under the influence of alpha-ray bombardment), of petroleum source beds, and of volcanic intrusive rocks of Tertiary age are of fundamental importance in the continuing study of the uranium deposits on the Colorado Plateau.
Monzo, Lilia D.
This paper examines how Latina mothers experience violence in schools through everyday interactions with those positioned with greater power in our society. Drawing on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence, the article discusses how deficit perspectives held toward Latina mothers and the privileging of White, middle-class frames result in…
Gade, Eldon M.; Cory, Mark
The vocational interest patterns of young unwed mothers were investigated by comparing the scores of a sample of unwed mothers with percentile averages from a national norm group. The interest differences of mothers who gave up their babies and mothers who kept their babies were also examined. Subjects were 53 young unwed mothers enrolled in a…
Noble-Carr, Debbie; Bell, Catherine
This qualitative study, conducted by volunteers from the Australian Capital Territory/Southern New South Wales (ACT/SNSW) Branch of the Australian Breastfeeding Association (ABA), explored the breastfeeding experiences of younger mothers (under the age of 26 years) in the ACT by conducting three focus groups. The study aimed to gain an understanding of how, when and where younger mothers want and need to receive breastfeeding information and support. Younger mothers provided important insights into their breastfeeding experiences, which were often characterised by judgement from health professionals and the wider public. A number of key issues were identified including: breastfeeding is far from a cultural norm in our society and as such the risks of artificial baby milk are not clearly understood by many younger mothers; younger mothers are strongly influenced by their partners, mothers and peers and they rely upon them for breastfeeding information and support. Younger mothers indicated that a number of improvements could be made to the way that breastfeeding information and support is currently provided within the ACT. The findings indicated that younger mothers (and their significant others) would benefit from receiving clear, concise and consistent breastfeeding information early on in their pregnancy, that is positive in tone, not necessarily 'young mum' specific and consistent with a 'less is more' approach. Younger mothers indicated that after the birth of their baby this breastfeeding information needs to be complemented by readily accessible, seamless, respectful support for as long as they need to establish breastfeeding and overcome any breastfeeding challenges. The focus group findings were largely consistent with the existing literature available on younger mothers and breastfeeding and provide valuable insights to all stakeholders responsible for providing breastfeeding information and support to younger mothers.
Literacy Work, 1974
Reviewing the situation of literacy in the mother tongue, the article reports on projects in: (1) Africa--Mali and Nigeria, (2) the Amazonian jungle of Peru in Latin America, and (3) Papua, New Guinea. Psychological, sociological, and educational advantages of the mother tongue are discussed. (MW)
Kalmar, Magda; And Others
This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…
Maintains that the photograph, "Migrant Mother," is recognized throughout the world. Provides a three-part instructional unit on Dorothea Lange and social issues related to migrant workers. Includes four photographs by Lange, including the most well-known, "Migrant Mother 5." (CFR)
This article is concerned with exploring the impact of stigma upon teenage mothers. Drawing upon the findings of in-depth interviews with 20 teenage mothers, the study explores the ways and contexts within which stigma is experienced and identifies differential effects and coping mechanisms reported by the participants. Thereafter, it is suggested…
Endres, Thomas G.
Examines the symbolic reality of unmarried mothers using Bormann's fantasy theme analysis and Q-methodology. Identifies three rhetorical visions with a dramatistic humanistic analysis produced by and about unmarried mothers: the Down and Out Vision, the Making the Best Vision, and the Yummie Vision. (MS)
BERNSTEIN, ROSE; HERZOG, ELIZABETH
FROM REPORTS AND DATA THAT WERE AVAILABLE TO THE UNITED STATES CHILDREN'S BUREAU THROUGH 1962, A REVIEW WAS MADE OF RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATIONS THAT RELATED TO AVAILABILITY AND USE OF HEALTH SERVICES BY UNMARRIED MOTHERS. INCLUDED ARE COMPLICATIONS OF PREGNANCY IN BIRTHS OUT OF WEDLOCK--(1) STUDIES OF PRENATAL MEDICAL CARE FOR UNMARRIED MOTHERS,…
Wells, Robin A.; Thompson, Barbara
Programs for teenage mothers provided through school districts or community agencies often have their own curricular agenda for teaching teenage mothers about the proper care of and nutrition for infants and the typical stages of child development, but not all programs are successful in supporting the development of positive early relationships…
D'Arcy, Catherine; Turner, Colleen; Crockett, Belinda; Gridley, Heather
This article is a reflective narrative bringing together personal, collective, and action learning reflections from three women: all mothers, feminists, and community psychology practitioners. Its focus on mothering highlights the interconnectedness and tensions across these roles, as well as the shared learnings arising from this collaboration.…
This paper examines psychological and social issues for single mothers in the context of therapeutic strategies for effective intervention. Never married, previously married, and Lesbian mothers are considered in terms of sociocultural myths and sources of stigma; research findings related to these myths; and interventions targeting the…
Oberlander, Sarah E.; Shebl, Fatma M.; Magder, Laurence S.; Black, Maureen M.
This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the…
Describes and evaluates the replication of the Mother Child Home Program by a Canadian child welfare agency in a rural setting to determine its effectiveness in fostering a positive emotional relationship between mother and child with families at risk of abuse and neglect. (BB)
Oberlander, Sarah E; Shebl, Fatma M; Magder, Laurence S; Black, Maureen M
This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the multigenerational household; 56% lived in the household of origin continuously (IN), 21% left and never returned (OUT), and 23% had multiple moves in and out of the household (IN/OUT). Older adolescent maternal age, less supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relations, and high household density were associated with leaving the household of origin. The IN/OUT group had difficulty adopting the roles of adult and parent. Helping adolescent mothers and grandmothers negotiate roles to reduce conflict may promote autonomy and relatedness, allowing mothers to learn parenting skills, qualify for public assistance, and continue their education.
... struggled to raise children while pursuing their careers, or as single parents working to provide for their... two parents, a single mother, two mothers, a step-mom, a grandmother, or a guardian. Mother's...
El-Shishtawy, A M; Atwia, M G; El-Gohary, A; Parizek, R R
Hierakonpolis, Greek for City of the Hawk, nearly 25 km NW of Idfu (Egypt), is an important and extensive archaeological discovery covering a large area. Its richness in archaeological artifacts makes it a valuable site. It has a valid claim to be the first nation state, as indicated by the Palette of Narmer discovered in its main mound. Geological and hydrogeological investigations at the Hierakonpolis Temple Town site documented nearly a 4.0-m water table rise from as early as 1892 to the present. In addition to the rising water levels, the increase of both subsoil water salinity and humidity threatens and damages fragile carvings and paintings within tombs in Kingdom Hill, the foundation stability of the site, and the known and still to be discovered artifact that recent pottery finds dates at least 4,000 BCE. Representative rock and soil samples obtained from drilled cores in the study area were chosen for conducting detailed grain size and X-ray analysis, light and heavy mineral occurrences, distribution of moisture and total organic matter, and scanning electron microscopy investigations. Mineralogical analysis of clays indicated that the soil samples are composed of smectite/illite mixed layers with varying proportions of smectite to illite. Kaolinite is the second dominant clay constituent, besides occasional chlorite. Swelling of the clay portion of the soil, due to the presence of capillary groundwater, in contact with buried mudbrick walls expands and causes severe damage to important exposed and buried mudbrick structures, including the massive ancient "fort" believed to date from the Second Dynasty (from 2,890 to 2,686 BC). The "fort" is 1.0 km south of the Temple Town mounds near to confluence of Wadi Abu Sufian. Groundwater samples from the shallow aquifer close by the intersection of Wadi Abu Sufian and the Nile flood plain were analyzed for chemical composition and stable isotope ratios. The groundwater in the upper zone (subsoil water) within fine
Belmonte, J. A.; Gaspar, A. T.; Betancort, A. P.; Marrero, R.
Since the late 1990s, our research group has embarked on a systematic archaeoastronomical study of archaeological sites in the Maghreb. Earlier campaigns were devoted to Tunisia, Morocco and Libya (see e.g. Belmonte et. Al.1998, 1999 and 2002). In this short report we will present part of the data obtained in a field campaign carried out in winter 2002, analyzing the results yielded on early 50 ancient sacred structures (temples, churches, earlier mosques and mausoleums) of an extended area in Northern Tunisia (ancient Africa Proconsularis). These data were not discussed in previous reports on similar structures (e.g. Esteban at.al.2001) , although in a previous paper (Belmonte et.al.2003) we reported our results on the contemporary measured megalithic monuments. This paper will present the data of more than 30 temples and mausoleums of Roman era, 10 pre-Islamic Christian churches and a few earlier mosques. These new data will be discussed together with those obtained in previous campaigns in an attempt to shed some light on the possibility of astronomical alignments within this extended set of monuments (more than a hundred). Our results show that some astronomical patterns could be interpreted as solar ones. Interestingly, this solar tendency was continued by Christian churches until the arrival of Islam. This is a common feature to the other regions of early Christianity (see e.g. Romano 1992). Other curious patterns, including the planning of important cities could presumably be associated to the brightest stars of the sky, Sirius and Canopus. Finally, we will analyse how this astronomical tendencies managed to survive within the first Islamic orienting traditions.
Demircioglu, Haktan; Ömeroglu, Esra
The effect of training from trained mothers and education from mother to mother on family functions and child-rearing attitudes was examined. The study was conducted in the 2010-2011 academic year in Ankara, and was modeled based on a pre-test, post-test control group experimental pattern. The study was conducted with a total of 96 mothers, with…
Suchman, Nancy E.
Not all mothers with histories of substance use struggle as parents, but many of them do. Research has shown that, although quality of caregiving varies widely, as a group, mothers with histories of chronic substance use are at greater risk than mothers with no substance use history for losing custody of their young children (Grant et al., 2011; Choi & Ryan, 2006; Department of Health and Human Services, 1999). In observational studies, mothers with substance use disorders have demonstrated lower levels of sensitivity and responsiveness to their young children’s emotional cues and marked oscillation between intrusive, over-controlling behavior and passive withdrawal (Hans et al., 1999; Burns et al., 1997). Recent developments in the neuroscience of addiction and parenting may help to explain the marked absence of sensitivity and the dramatic juxtaposition of parenting behaviors. PMID:27840685
Benjamin, Lynn R.; And Others
A study of 54 mothers with a dissociative disorder, 20 mothers with other mental problems, and 20 normal mothers investigated what effect, if any, dissociation had on parenting. When tested on the Subjective Experiences of Parenting Scale, mothers with dissociation presented significantly more negative parenting behavior and attitudes. (CR)
Maddux, Hilary; Cobb, Nina
Noting that the well-being of children and that of mothers cannot be separated, this report uses the Mothers' Index to compare the well-being of mothers and children in 17 developed countries and 77 developing countries. The Mothers' Index is a composite of elements contributing to a woman's well-being, including health status, educational status,…
Karger, Rex H.
A measure of mother-infant synchrony was developed and used to compare the interactions of mothers with pre-term and mothers with full-term infants. Each mother-infant dyad was observed during a standard bottle feeding session on three separate occasions: once prior to discharge and at one and three months after discharge. (JMB)
Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa
Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…
Karnaukhov, V N; Karnaukhov, A V
The changes in the sea level relative to the position of the Serapeo Temple in Pozzuoly (Italia) over a period of 2100 years are discussed in the context of the well known periods of climate cooling off (Neoglacial, Little Ace Period) and climate warming (Middle Ages Optimum, Modern climate warming). It is noted that the rate of sea level lifting relative to the position of the Serapeo Temple in the modern phase of climate warming, which began the end of the 18th Century is approximately two times higher than in the previous phase of climate warming in the period from the fifth to the mid-tenth century A.D. This indicates that not only the natural cyclic component contributes to the mechanisms of Modern Climate warming but also the anthropogenic component of approximately equivalent power, which results from the waste of CO2 caused by the burning of fossilized fuels.
Watanabe, Makiko; Koizumi, Natsuko; Kato, Sayuri; Kikuchi, Ryohei; Kamei, Hiroyuki
Desertification in North Africa has rapidly advanced over the last 6,000 years. Such environmental changes began in the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt (4200 - 3150 BC), and the occupation of Achaemenid Persian and Roman cultures in Egypt occurred under even drier climates. Kharga is the largest oasis of the five oases, located in the western desert of Egypt that contains a treasure trove of archaeological resources. This oasis has been highlighted to promote resource exploration and development of archaeological tourism since the 1980's. The El-Zayyan temple is located 27 km south of the central Kharga oasis. Zayyan was once called 'Tchonemyris', which has connection with the means of 'huge well' in Greek. Although major portions of the temple were rebuilt in 140 AD during the rule of the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, this temple is considered to be originally built in the Ptolemaic period (4c-1c BC). It is likely that the area had a sufficient water supply in the past as the El-Zayyan temple stands at the lowest point (-18 m a.s.l.) in the Kharga oasis. Furthermore, the El-Ghueita temple that stands on a hill top at 68.5 m a.s.l., 4 km northward from the El-Zayyan temple, has given name that means 'beautiful garden' in Greek. From these facts, we can imagine that the past landscape of this area contained green surroundings. The El-Ghueita temple was well known as a production centre of high quality wine since the mid-Dynastic age (2050 -1786 BC). As this area is currently arid, it is expected that there were irrigation facilities to maintain the vast farm land during the ancient period. To deepen our knowledge of how people developed their technologies and conducted their life within the natural environment of a drastic drying period, understanding the process of environmental change on a region scale is necessary. The aim of this study was to extract proxies from sand deposits in the western desert area to estimate the change in the environment. We examined the
Kim, Young-Hee; Jung, Mi-Hwa; Jo, Chang-Wook; Choi, Jung-Eun
Cladosporium cladosporioides H1 was found to be the most abundant microbe in Janggyeong Panjeon. C. cladosporioides H1 produced a 20 kDa xylanase, which was generally stable below 60℃ and had specialized activity in an acidic condition. Our results may lead to the development of a strategy for preservation of organic cultural heritage environments. PMID:22783122
Schwartz, Scott C
The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.
Shi, M; Umbach, D M; Vermeulen, S H; Weinberg, C R
The prenatal environment plays an important role in many conditions, particularly those with onset early in life, such as childhood cancers and birth defects. Because both maternal and fetal genotypes can influence risk, investigators sometimes use a case-mother/control-mother design, with mother-offspring pairs as the unit of analysis, to study genetic factors. Risk models should account for both the maternal genotype and the correlated fetal genotype to avoid confounding. The usual logistic regression analysis, however, fails to fully exploit the fact that these are mothers and offspring. Consider an autosomal, diallelic locus, which could be related to disease susceptibility either directly or through linkage with a polymorphic causal locus. Three nested levels of assumptions are often natural and plausible. The first level simply assumes Mendelian inheritance. The second further assumes parental mating symmetry for the studied locus in the source population. The third additionally assumes parental allelic exchangeability. Those assumptions imply certain nonlinear constraints; the authors enforce those constraints by using Poisson regression together with the expectation-maximization algorithm. Calculations reveal that improvements in efficiency over the usual logistic analysis can be substantial, even if only the Mendelian assumption is honored. Benefits are even more marked if, as is typical, information on genotype is missing for some individuals.
Taking present-day research into so-called new momism and intense mothering as a starting point, this article argues that the current mothering discourse, rather than articulating a new phenomenon, perpetuates a regulative discourse developed in the nineteenth century, in advice books written by medical doctors for pregnant women and new mothers. Both the Victorian and the present-day texts play on feelings of guilt and inadequacy in order to control the actions and emotions of mothers, although the threatened outcome differs: present-day mothers are warned that their children may become obese or develop neuropsychological disorders, whereas Victorian mothers are warned that their children might die.
Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko
The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue–green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue–green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics. PMID:24334526
Tan, Choo Hock; Tan, Kae Yi; Yap, Michelle Khai Khun; Tan, Nget Hong
Tropidolaemus wagleri (temple pit viper) is a medically important snake in Southeast Asia. It displays distinct sexual dimorphism and prey specificity, however its venomics and inter-sex venom variation have not been thoroughly investigated. Applying reverse-phase HPLC, we demonstrated that the venom profiles were not significantly affected by sex and geographical locality (Peninsular Malaya, insular Penang, insular Sumatra) of the snakes. Essentially, venoms of both sexes share comparable intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) (0.56–0.63 μg/g) and cause neurotoxic envenomation in mice. LCMS/MS identified six waglerin forms as the predominant lethal principles, comprising 38.2% of total venom proteins. Fourteen other toxin-protein families identified include phospholipase A2, serine proteinase, snaclec and metalloproteinase. In mice, HPLC fractions containing these proteins showed insignificant contribution to the overall venom lethality. Besides, the unique elution pattern of approximately 34.5% of non-lethal, low molecular mass proteins (3–5 kDa) on HPLC could be potential biomarker for this primitive crotalid species. Together, the study unveiled the venom proteome of T. wagleri that is atypical among many pit vipers as it comprises abundant neurotoxic peptides (waglerins) but little hemotoxic proteinases. The findings also revealed that the venom is relatively well conserved intraspecifically despite the drastic morphological differences between sexes. PMID:28240232
Hidayat, Husnul; Cahyono, A. B.
Singosaritemple is one of cultural heritage building in East Java, Indonesia which was built in 1300s and restorated in 1934-1937. Because of its history and importance, complete documentation of this temple is required. Nowadays with the advent of low cost UAVs combining aerial photography with terrestrial photogrammetry gives more complete data for 3D documentation. This research aims to make complete 3D model of this landmark from aerial and terrestrial photographs with Structure from Motion algorithm. To establish correct scale, position, and orientation, the final 3D model was georeferenced with Ground Control Points in UTM 49S coordinate system. The result shows that all facades, floor, and upper structures can be modeled completely in 3D. In terms of 3D coordinate accuracy, the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSEs) are RMSEx=0,041 m; RMSEy=0,031 m; RMSEz=0,049 m which represent 0.071 m displacement in 3D space. In addition the mean difference of lenght measurements of the object is 0,057 m. With this accuracy, this method can be used to map the site up to 1:237 scale. Although the accuracy level is still in centimeters, the combined aerial and terrestrial photographs with Structure from Motion algorithm can provide complete and visually interesting 3D model.
Salvador-Carulla, L; Lukersmith, S; Sullivan, W
Guideline methods to develop recommendations dedicate most effort around organising discovery and corroboration knowledge following the evidence-based medicine (EBM) framework. Guidelines typically use a single dimension of information, and generally discard contextual evidence and formal expert knowledge and consumer's experiences in the process. In recognition of the limitations of guidelines in complex cases, complex interventions and systems research, there has been significant effort to develop new tools, guides, resources and structures to use alongside EBM methods of guideline development. In addition to these advances, a new framework based on the philosophy of science is required. Guidelines should be defined as implementation decision support tools for improving the decision-making process in real-world practice and not only as a procedure to optimise the knowledge base of scientific discovery and corroboration. A shift from the model of the EBM pyramid of corroboration of evidence to the use of broader multi-domain perspective graphically depicted as 'Greek temple' could be considered. This model takes into account the different stages of scientific knowledge (discovery, corroboration and implementation), the sources of knowledge relevant to guideline development (experimental, observational, contextual, expert-based and experiential); their underlying inference mechanisms (deduction, induction, abduction, means-end inferences) and a more precise definition of evidence and related terms. The applicability of this broader approach is presented for the development of the Canadian Consensus Guidelines for the Primary Care of People with Developmental Disabilities.
Tan, Choo Hock; Tan, Kae Yi; Yap, Michelle Khai Khun; Tan, Nget Hong
Tropidolaemus wagleri (temple pit viper) is a medically important snake in Southeast Asia. It displays distinct sexual dimorphism and prey specificity, however its venomics and inter-sex venom variation have not been thoroughly investigated. Applying reverse-phase HPLC, we demonstrated that the venom profiles were not significantly affected by sex and geographical locality (Peninsular Malaya, insular Penang, insular Sumatra) of the snakes. Essentially, venoms of both sexes share comparable intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) (0.56-0.63 μg/g) and cause neurotoxic envenomation in mice. LCMS/MS identified six waglerin forms as the predominant lethal principles, comprising 38.2% of total venom proteins. Fourteen other toxin-protein families identified include phospholipase A2, serine proteinase, snaclec and metalloproteinase. In mice, HPLC fractions containing these proteins showed insignificant contribution to the overall venom lethality. Besides, the unique elution pattern of approximately 34.5% of non-lethal, low molecular mass proteins (3-5 kDa) on HPLC could be potential biomarker for this primitive crotalid species. Together, the study unveiled the venom proteome of T. wagleri that is atypical among many pit vipers as it comprises abundant neurotoxic peptides (waglerins) but little hemotoxic proteinases. The findings also revealed that the venom is relatively well conserved intraspecifically despite the drastic morphological differences between sexes.
Di Turo, Francesca; Montoya, Noemí; Piquero-Cilla, Joan; De Vito, Caterina; Coletti, Fulvio; Favero, Gabriele; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio
Voltammetry of microparticles (VMP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques, complemented by SEM-EDX and Raman spectroscopy, were applied to a set of 15 Roman bronze coins and one Tessera from the temple of Magna Mater (Rome, Italy). The archaeological site, dated back between the second half and the end of the 4th century A.D., presented a complicated stratigraphic context. Characteristic voltammetric patterns for cuprite and tenorite for sub-microsamples of the corrosion layers of the coins deposited onto graphite electrodes in contact with 0.10 M HClO4 aqueous solution yielded a grouping of the coins into three main groups. This grouping was confirmed and refined using EIS experiments of the coins immersed in air-saturated mineral water using the reduction of dissolved oxygen as a redox probe. The electrochemical grouping of coins corroborated the complex stratigraphy of the archaeological site and, above all, the reuse of the coins during the later periods due to the economic issues related to the fall of the Roman Empire.
Undoubtedly, El-Kharga Oasis monumental sites are considered an important part of our world's cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The Roman stone monuments in Kharga represent cultural heritage of an outstanding universal value. Such those monuments have suffered weathering deterioration. There are various elements which affect the weathering process of stone monuments: climate conditions, shapes of cultural heritages, exposed time periods, terrains, and vegetation around them, etc. Among these, climate conditions are the most significant factor affecting the deterioration of Archeological sites in Egypt. El- Kharga Oasis belongs administratively to the New Valley Governorate. It is located in the southern part of the western desert of Egypt, lies between latitudes 22°30'14" and 26°00'00" N, and between 30°27'00" and 30°47'00" E. The area of El Kharga Oasis covers about 7500 square kilometers. Pilot studies were carried out on the EI-Nadura Temple, composed of sandstones originating from the great sand sea. The major objective of this study is to monitor and measure the weathering features and the weathering rate affecting the building stones forming El-Nadora Roman building rocks in cubic cm. To achieve these aims, the present study used analysis of climatic data such as annual and seasonal solar radiation, Monthly average number of hours of sunshine, maximum and minimum air temperatures, wind speed, which have obtained from actual field measurements and data Meteorological Authority of El-Kharga station for the period 1977 to 2010 (33 years), and from the period 1941-2050 (110 years) as a long term of temperature data. Several samples were collected and examined by polarizing microscopy (PLM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX). The results were in
Adams, P L
Otto Rank pioneered in regarding the mother's place as paramount in the emotional life of the child, even when he was enveloped in Freudian orthodoxy, but expanded his viewpoint after he had left the Freudian ranks. His more mature views were to stress separation and individuation as lifelong dilemmas because they were in tension with our urges to seek oneness and to merge with others and not to regard that struggle as a dialectic that got worked through or transcended in an early, pre-Oedipal stage. He believed that fusing and individuating were lifetime issues for all, in or out of their psychoanalyses. Rank showed radical feminist attitudes far ahead of his time, contending that the female is central and superior to male existence, and that women need a psychology that is not warmed-over male biases but truly a "female psychology." He foreshadowed later writers who emphasized the motherly warmth and caregiving of psychotherapists. He regarded many of his technical innovations as ways to heighten the reexperiencing of early child-and-mother interactions and thought of the analytic setting itself as being akin to the mother-child relationship. Among psychoanalysts of all colorations respecting their Freudian orthodoxy, there is a special mystique and nostalgia around the Oedipus complex and paramountcy of the father in a child's mental life; but Otto Rank took a militant, yet reasoned, stand against such patriarchal biases.
Downie, Jill; Clark, Kim; Clemenston, Katy
Volunteers represent a growing, but often undervalued, section of service delivery in many areas in the community, particularly in health care. This paper is centred on volunteers' perceptions and experiences of home visiting gained through the implementation of the Community Mothers (CM) program in Western Australia (WA). Further, the paper aims to inform debate about the issue of professional versus non-professional home visitors and offers a perspective on the issue that may provide direction for policy makers and practitioners. This qualitative study involved individual telephone interviews with a volunteer sample of 12 participants, purposefully selected. Transcription data from each interview were examined and coded utilising an adapted method of content analysis described by Burnard (1991). Three main themes emerged in the findings as to why volunteers became involved in the Community Mothers Program: (1) Empathetic concern; (2) Contribution to community life; and (3) Lifecourse issues and personal development. With experiences of volunteers in home visiting, four main themes reflected the participants' views: (1) Facilitating client empowerment; (2) Facilitating personal empowerment; (3) Promoting social connectedness; and (4) Enabling goal setting. Although programs such as the Community Mothers Program aim to benefit and support mothers in the parenting role it is clear that there are benefits that emerge also for the individual volunteer, such as increased self-esteem, self-efficacy and satisfaction. Hence, measuring the overall outcomes that result from such program remains a major challenge.
Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Ward, Kelly
In this article we explore the role of academic discipline on the careers of tenure-line faculty women with children. Longitudinal, qualitative findings show that disciplinary contexts and ideal worker norms shape what it means to be an academic and a mother. Even after achieving tenure, ideal worker norms affect these roles; professional…
Mitchell, Helen; Casto, Glendon
Project TEAM (Team Education for Adolescent Mothers) is a support program designed to counteract the socioeconomic consequences of early childbearing, by developing a model for providing high-quality care services for pregnant adolescents, adolescent parents, their infants, and their extended families. The project has four site locations:…
Mesman, Judi; van IJzendoorn, Marinus; Behrens, Kazuko; Carbonell, Olga Alicia; Cárcamo, Rodrigo; Cohen-Paraira, Inbar; de la Harpe, Christian; Ekmekçi, Hatice; Emmen, Rosanneke; Heidar, Jailan; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Mels, Cindy; Mooya, Haatembo; Murtisari, Sylvia; Nóblega, Magaly; Ortiz, Jenny Amanda; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Sichimba, Francis; Soares, Isabel; Steele, Howard; Steele, Miriam; Pape, Marloes; van Ginkel, Joost; van der Veer, René; Wang, Lamei; Selcuk, Bilge; Yavuz, Melis; Zreik, Ghadir
In this article, we test the hypothesis that beliefs about the ideal mother are convergent across cultures and that these beliefs overlap considerably with attachment theory's notion of the sensitive mother. In a sample including 26 cultural groups from 15 countries around the globe, 751 mothers sorted the Maternal Behavior Q-Set to reflect their…
Asserts that Mother Goose rhymes are culturally relevant. Offers ways in which Mother Goose can be used in the classroom. Discusses activities for language arts, movement, art, music, science, and mathematics instruction. (PRA)
Kuo, Eddie C. Y.
An explanatory model of the relationship between mother tongue retention, population ratio, and intermarriage is presented. In general, data collected on mother tongue retention in Singapore, a multilingual and multiethnic society, support the proposed model. (DS)
Robichaux, Faye B.; And Others
Describes the Program for Adolescent Mothers (PAM) established to provide opportunities for teen mothers in Louisiana to increase their self-esteem, become productive citizens, and become aware of the physical and emotional development of children. (JOW)
Science News, 1977
Reports that a mother's perception of her newborn infant frequently predicts how well the child will adjust in later childhood. The more positive the mother perceives the child, the more emotionally healthy the child will later become. (SL)
Fernandez, Roy C.; O'Connor, Carol
This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the decision-making process of two mothers' selection of treatment for their sons' attention deficit disorder (ADD). One mother opted for a medical treatment, and the other mother opted for a non-medical treatment. The boy who is medically treated is 14, and the non-medically treated…
Badger, Earladeen D.
This study hypothesized that mothers from a low socioeconomic area could be trained by teachers to implement an infant tutorial program using their 1- to 2-year-old children as subjects. The 20 mothers recruited were ADC recipients or met the OEO poverty definition. Mothers agreed to attend a 2 hour weekly class to learn teaching techniques to be…
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.
Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…
Bzostek, Sharon H.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Carlson, Marcia J.
This article examines the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of unmarried mothers' repartnering patterns following a nonmarital birth. Results indicate that, within five years after a birth, approximately two-thirds of unmarried mothers end their relationship with the focal child's biological father, and more than half of these mothers enter new…
Wadsworth, J.; And Others
Developmental outcome was compared in 1,031 Singleton children of teenage mothers and 10,950 Singleton children of older mothers. Children born to teenage mothers and living with them through the first five years of life performed less well than other children in tests of vocabulary and behavior, were shorter on the average, and had smaller head…
Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka
The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…
de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia; Guibert, Maria; Asla, Nagore; Ormaechea, Amaia
This study investigates whether mothers who are neglectful and at high risk for child physical abuse present a deficit in empathy. Participants were neglectful mothers (n = 37), mothers at high risk for child physical abuse (n = 22), and nonmaltreating mothers (n = 37). The Interpersonal Reactivity Index, a self-report measure assessing specific…
Jill Suitor, J; Sechrist, Jori; Pillemer, Karl
Research has shown that mothers often differentiate among their adult children in terms of closeness and support; however, studies have not addressed why some mothers report preferences among children and others do not. To distinguish between mothers who do and do not report favouring some of their adult children, we used data from a within-family study in which 553 older mothers were interviewed about each of their children. Almost all of the mothers reported differentiating among their children regarding emotional closeness, confiding, or preference among caregivers. Multivariate analyses revealed that mothers' values and mother-child value similarity predicted which mothers differentiated among their children regarding closeness and confiding, whereas mothers' and children's demographic characteristics predicted which mothers differentiated regarding preferred caregivers. Black mothers were less likely than white mothers to differentiate when seeking a confidant; however, race played no role in mothers' likelihood of differentiating regarding emotional closeness or help during illness. Taken together, these findings indicate that differentiating among adult children is common; further, family-level predictors of mothers' differentiating mirror the patterns shown in dyad-level analyses of mothers' favouritism.
de Valk, Helga; Merz, Eva‐Maria
Abstract Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit from their practical and emotional support. Additionally, the grandparents' home can be a (temporary) place to stay shortly after divorce. Data come from the System of social statistical datasets (Statistics Netherlands). This unique dataset combines longitudinal data from a vast number of administrative registers. It covers the complete Dutch population, making it exceptionally well suited for life course and mobility research. We studied mothers with minor children between 1/1/2008 and 31/12/2010. Our study included 579,500 mothers, of whom about 8,800 (1.5%) experienced a separation in 2008. Separated mothers moved to the grandmother's municipality more often than non‐separated mothers, which might be partially motivated by the need for childcare. They also coresided with the grandmother more than non‐separated movers, mostly because of a vulnerable socio‐economic position. Although often temporary, coresidence appears to have a prolonged impact on the mothers' location choice; mothers frequently stayed in the grandmother's municipality after moving out. Finally, our results indicated that some mothers seemed to use the parental home as a stepping stone to cohabit with a new partner. © 2016 The Authors. Population, Space and Place published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28356888
Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon
Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267
Wahbeh, W.; Nebiker, S.; Fangi, G.
This paper exploits the potential of dense multi-image 3d reconstruction of destroyed cultural heritage monuments by either using public domain touristic imagery only or by combining the public domain imagery with professional panoramic imagery. The focus of our work is placed on the reconstruction of the temple of Bel, one of the Syrian heritage monuments, which was destroyed in September 2015 by the so called "Islamic State". The great temple of Bel is considered as one of the most important religious buildings of the 1st century AD in the East with a unique design. The investigations and the reconstruction were carried out using two types of imagery. The first are freely available generic touristic photos collected from the web. The second are panoramic images captured in 2010 for documenting those monuments. In the paper we present a 3d reconstruction workflow for both types of imagery using state-of-the art dense image matching software, addressing the non-trivial challenges of combining uncalibrated public domain imagery with panoramic images with very wide base-lines. We subsequently investigate the aspects of accuracy and completeness obtainable from the public domain touristic images alone and from the combination with spherical panoramas. We furthermore discuss the challenges of co-registering the weakly connected 3d point cloud fragments resulting from the limited coverage of the touristic photos. We then describe an approach using spherical photogrammetry as a virtual topographic survey allowing the co-registration of a detailed and accurate single 3d model of the temple interior and exterior.
Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion
The associations between mothers' part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children's preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child rearing years.
Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.
Recent behavioral and physiologic observations of infants and mothers have shown them ready to begin interacting in the first minutes of life. Included among these findings are the newborn infant's ability to crawl toward the breast to initiate suckling and mother-infant thermoregulation. The attachment felt between mother and infant may be biochemically modulated through oxytocin; encouraging attachment through early contact, suckling, and rooming-in has been shown to reduce abandonment.
Kozak, Kimberly; Charbonneau, Duane; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Klaenhammer, Todd
This investigation assessed the potential of isolating novel probiotics from mothers and their infants. A subset of 21 isolates among 126 unique bacteria from breast milk and infant stools from 15 mother-infant pairs were examined for simulated GI transit survival, adherence to Caco-2 cells, bacteriocin production, and lack of antibiotic resistance. Of the 21 selected isolates a Lactobacillus crispatus isolate and 3 Lactobacillus gasseri isolates demonstrated good profiles of in vitro GI transit tolerance and Caco-2 cell adherence. Bacteriocin production was observed only by L. gasseri and Enterococcus faecalis isolates. Antibiotic resistance was widespread, although not universal, among isolates from infants. Highly similar isolates (≥ 97% similarity by barcode match) of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (1 match), Lactobacillus fermentum (2 matches), Lactobacillus gasseri (6 matches), and Enterococcus faecalis (1 match) were isolated from 5 infant-mother pairs. Antibiotic resistance profiles between these isolate matches were similar, except in one case where the L. gasseri isolate from the infant exhibited resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline, not observed in matching mother isolate. In a second case, L. gasseri isolates differed in resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and vancomycin between the mother and infant. In this study, gram positive bacteria isolated from mothers' breast milk as well as their infants exhibited diversity in GI transit survival and acid inhibition of pathogens, but demonstrated limited ability to produce bacteriocins. Mothers and their infants offer the potential for identification of probiotics; however, even in the early stages of development, healthy infants contain isolates with antibiotic resistance.
This article considers the impact of the global mental health discourse on India's traditional healing systems. Folk mental health traditions, based in religious lifeways and etiologies of supernatural affliction, are overwhelmingly sought by Indians in times of mental ill-health. This is despite the fact that the postcolonial Indian state has historically considered the popularity of these indigenous treatments regressive, and claimed Western psychiatry as the only mental health system befitting the country's aspirations as a modern nation-state. In the last decade however, as global mental health concerns for scaling up psychiatric interventions and instituting bioethical practices in mental health services begin to shape India's mental health policy formulations, the state's disapproving stance towards traditional healing has turned to vehement condemnation. In present-day India, traditional treatments are denounced for being antithetical to global mental health tenets and harmful for the population, while biomedical psychiatry is espoused as the only legitimate form of mental health care. Based on ethnographic research in the Hindu healing temple of Balaji, Rajasthan, and analysis of India's mental health policy environment, I demonstrate how the tenor of the global mental health agenda is negatively impacting the functioning of the country's traditional healing sites. I argue that crucial changes in the therapeutic culture of the Balaji temple, including the disappearance of a number of key healing rituals, are consequences of global mental health-inspired policy in India which is reducing the plural mental health landscape.
Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth
As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children's well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers' subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers' subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with their biological fathers without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered.
Palacios, Janelle F.; Strickland, Carolyn J.; Chesla, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Portillo, Carmen J.
Aims The aim of this study was to explore the mothering experience and practice among reservation based adult American Indian women who had been adolescent mothers. Background Adolescent American Indian women are at an elevated risk for teen pregnancy and poor maternal/child outcomes. Identifying mothering practices among this population may help guide intervention development that will improve health outcomes. Design A collaborative orientation to community based participatory research approach. Methods Employing interpretive phenomenology, 30 adult American Indian women who resided on a Northwestern reservation were recruited. In-depth, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted between 2007 and 2008. Findings Women shared their mothering experience and practice which encompassed a lifespan perspective grounded in their American Indian cultural tradition. Four themes were identified: mother hen, interrupted mothering and second chances, breaking cycles and mothering a community. Mothering originated in childhood, extended across their lifespan and moved beyond mothering their biological offspring. Conclusion These findings challenge the Western construct of mothering and charge nurses to seek culturally sensitive interventions that reinforce positive mothering practices and identify when additional mothering support is needed across a woman’s lifespan. PMID:23713884
Suitor, J. Jill; Sechrist, Jori; Pillemer, Karl
Research has shown that mothers often differentiate among their adult children in terms of closeness and support; however, studies have not addressed why some mothers report preferences among children and others do not. To distinguish between mothers who do and do not report favouring some of their adult children, we used data from a within-family…
Hoskins, Marie L.; Lam, Eugenie
Examines how daughters' anorexia influence the mothers' understandings of mothering and self within the greater context of societal influences. Using constructivist theory and discursive psychology, four themes characterized participants' relationship to cultural myths and discourses associated with eating disorders and mothering. (Contains 48…
Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.
We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…
Stringer, Ebonie Cunningham; Barnes, Sandra L.
Since the early 1990s, the number of children with imprisoned mothers has increased 131%. A mother's imprisonment potentially exposes children to a concentrated disadvantage that undermines their cognitive, emotional, and intellectual abilities. Additionally, such experiences can have deleterious effects on mother-child relationships, stand-in…
Mayes, Rachel; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth
Background: Despite the frequency with which mothers with intellectual disability have their children removed, little theoretical or empirical work has understood the mothers' perspectives on this. A few studies have reported mothers' feelings of grief and loss and their sense of powerlessness in the child protection system. Method: This…
Knutson, John F.; Johnson, Christina R.; Sullivan, Patricia M.
Objective: To assess the disciplinary preferences of mothers of profoundly deaf children and normally hearing children in a test of the hypothesized link between child disabilities and punitive parenting. Method: Disciplinary preferences of mothers seeking a cochlear implant for their profoundly deaf child (n = 57), mothers not seeking an implant…
Bekman, Sevda; Koçak, Aylin Atmaca
Although previous quantitative studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the mother-child education programme (MOCEP) that originated in Turkey in 1993, the study reported here uses a qualitative approach to gain an in-depth understanding of mothers' views of the outcomes of the programme. The study was conducted with 100 mothers from five…
Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire
Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…
This paper is about mothering an intellectually disabled child identified with special educational needs. It specifically looks at the parent partnership rhetoric that has dominated UK government policy and directives for nearly three decades and yet research suggests parents and more often mothers have to battle to be recognised as legitimate…
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8817 of May 11, 2012 Mother's Day, 2012 By the President of the United States... Day, we honor the remarkable women who strive and sacrifice every day to ensure their children have every opportunity to pursue their dreams. Our Nation first came together to celebrate Mother's Day...
Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.
The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…
Grow, Lucille J.
A mid-1970s study of the characteristics of pregnant unmarried mothers who keep their children and those who surrender them for adoption discloses some differences from the characteristics of such mothers in the late 1960s and early 1970s. (CM)
Clapp, Douglas F.; Raab, Rebecca Staude
As more adolescent unmarried mothers decide to keep their babies, social service agencies need to reevaluate their programs to meet changing needs. This study examines the living situations, educational and employment status, and interpersonal relationships of 30 adolescent unmarried mothers to determine the services they themselves thought they…
Berkeley Lab scientists have mimicked the structure of mother of pearl to create what may well be the toughest ceramic ever produced. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2008/12/05/scientists-create-tough-ceramic-that-mimics-mother-of-pearl/
Brantmüller, Éva; Gyúró, Mónika; Galgán, Kitti; Pakai, Annamária
Twin birth is a relevant risk factor for postnatal depression (PND). The primary objective of our study is to reveal the prevalence of suspected cases of depression and to identify some background factors among mothers of twins. We applied convenience sampling method within a retrospective, quantitative study among mothers given birth to twins for…
In this paper I argue that the "balancing two lives" approach to motherhood and work has particular limitations for academic mothers. I interrogate the perceived oppositionalities in being mother, traditionally associated with nurturing, love and emotion, and being academic, traditionally associated with reason and logic. My purpose is to show…
... bond of love and dedication a mother shares with her children and family is without bounds or.... Today, we continue to celebrate the influence, love, and nurturing our mothers provide in our lives and... and a foundation in our communities. In gratitude for their generous love, patient counsel,...
Using Astin's (1993) College Impact Model, this chapter explores the current literature as it relates to single mothers in undergraduate postsecondary education. The chapter looks at the ways that undergraduates who are single mothers are counter to the "ideal-student" norms. Policy and best-practice recommendations conclude the chapter.
Filep, Robert T.; And Others
The main objective of the Sesame Mother Pilot Project was to increase the effectiveness of the television program with preschool children in densely populated, low-income, inner-city areas. Volunteer Mothers selected from the inner-city areas of Los Angeles and Chicago were trained to conduct viewing sessions in their own homes. Following the…
Regmi, Kapil Dev
Mother Tongue Instruction has been a debatable issue since long. There may be two options in the medium of instruction: either to teach especially primary and preprimary schoolchildren in their own mother tongue or continue using second or foreign language as the medium of instruction. Both of the approaches bear some pros and cons. This article…
Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others
The infants of the adolescent mothers were found to be significantly less capable of responding to social stimuli, to be less alert, and to be less able to control motor behavior and to perform integrated motor activities than were the infants of older mothers. Journal availability: J. B. Lippincott Co., E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, PA 19105.…
For women, the transition to motherhood is often a time period filled with excitement, changes, and challenges. Mothers often face changes in their own sexuality in their adjustment to motherhood. The majority of research on the sexual changes during motherhood has focused on the first year postpartum of mothers and has emphasized biological,…
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
Berkeley Lab scientists have mimicked the structure of mother of pearl to create what may well be the toughest ceramic ever produced. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2008/12/05/scientists-create-tough-ceramic-that-mimics-mother-of-pearl/
The outcomes of the IS/MT pilot project and the expanded services program as well as program replications in other geographic areas suggest that efforts to support the teenage mother in the care of her firstborn infant can have a demonstrable effect. Completing school, securing employment, going off welfare, and acting on a decision to prevent subsequent unwanted pregnancies were all secondary effects of a 20-week postnatal mother-infant class program designed to positively influence infant development. Similar treatment effects have been reported by IS/MT replications in St. Louis and Genesee County, Michigan. Other program innovations, however, lacking the funds and/or the expertise to conduct adequate evaluations, are nonetheless significant because they provide a groundswell capable of establishing a climate for social change. At the community level, this is expressed in the creation of new service paradigms, as in Norfolk and Memphis, where individuals and agencies are transformed and experiment with new solutions to thorny problems. At the national level, it is expressed in coalitions and political alliances around a single issue, as with the Children's Defense Fund and adolescent and single-parent families. As one who has spent almost 20 years addressing the consequences of teenage parenthood, it is heartening to know that the time is near to address the prevention of the problem. Let us hope that the Children's Defense Fund agenda accurately reflects the beliefs and feelings of the majority of our citizenry and that our national priorities will change to include the reduction of teen pregnancy and teen parenthood.
In Manila, the Philippines, the Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital has been a maternity hospital for 75 years. It averages 90 deliveries a day. Its fees are P200-P500 for a normal delivery and P800-P2000 for a cesarean section. Patients pay what they can and pay the balance when they can. The hospital provides a safe motherhood package that encompasses teaching responsible parenthood, prenatal care, labor, delivery, postpartum care, breast feeding, family planning, and child survival. In 1986, the hospital introduced innovative policies and procedures that promote, protect, and support breast feeding. It has a rooming-in policy that has saved the hospital P6.5 million so far. In the prenatal stage, hospital staff inform pregnant women that colostrum protects the newborn against infections, that suckling stimulates milk production, and that there is no basis to the claim of having insufficient breast milk. Sales representatives of milk substitutes are banned from the hospital. Staff confiscate milk bottles or formula. A lactation management team demonstrates breast feeding procedures. Mothers also receive support on the correct way of breast feeding from hospital staff, volunteers from the Catholic Women's League, consumer groups, and women lawyers. The hospital's policy is no breast milk, no discharge. This encourages mothers to motivate each other to express milk immediately after birth. The hospital has received numerous awards for its breast feeding promotion efforts. UNICEF has designated Fabella Hospital as a model of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. The hospital serves as the National Lactation Management Education Training Center. People from other developing countries have received training in lactation management here. The First Lady of the Philippines, the First Lady of the US, and the Queen of Spain have all visited the hospital. The hospital has also integrated its existing services into a women's health care center.
Campos, Antonia do Carmo Soares; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão
Since 1958, phototherapy has been used as a method to cure jaundice, which is still an important disease in newborn children. Supported by a phenomenological and qualitative approach, this study aims to investigate the mothers' perception of the phototherapy treatment their children are submitted to. Research subjects were ten mothers of newborns under phototherapy treatment at the Neonatological Hospitalization Unit of a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2002. We used group meetings with the mothers as suggested by Carl Rogers. Discourse was organized into categories according to Bardin, which revealed themes that were analyzed in view of Paterson's and Zderad's humanistic nursing theory, as follows: mothers' knowledge on phototherapy and concerns about the treatment. We concluded that the analyzed mothers' major concern is related to the babies' vision.
Wan, Ming Wai; Moulton, Steff; Abel, Kathryn M
This review evaluates empirical studies that have attempted to improve observed mother-infant relationships in order to inform a potential approach for mothers with schizophrenia, a growing group of vulnerable families where mothers are known to have relational difficulties. Parenting intervention studies in: (1) mothers with a mental disorder; (2) other vulnerable groups were reviewed. Only interventions that empirically evaluated observations of mother-child interaction or child attachment were included, and their potential usefulness for mothers with schizophrenia was examined. Nine studies involved mothers with mental disorder; none involved mothers with psychotic disorder specifically. Overall, approaches that emphasise the mother-child dyad, such as sensitivity-focused behavioural techniques and toddler-parent psychotherapy, were most efficacious for improving maternal sensitivity/child attachment. Although individual psychological therapies are the more conventional treatment, little current evidence suggests that mother-infant relations improve with symptom reduction. The usefulness of the available evidence for informing interventions with mothers with schizophrenia is discussed in the context of their clinical needs. Feasibility studies are needed, which provide a focus on enhancing maternal sensitivity directly within a multi-level support package.
Panagos, PG; Vishwanathan, R; Penfield-Cyr, A; Matthan, NR; Shivappa, N; Wirth, MD; Hebert, JR; Sen, S
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of maternal obesity on breastmilk composition. STUDY DESIGN Breastmilk and food records from 21 lean and 21 obese women who delivered full-term infants were analyzed at 2 months post-partum. Infant growth and adiposity were measured at birth and 2 months of age. RESULT Breastmilk from obese mothers had higher omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and lower concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docasapentaenoic acid and lutein compared with lean mothers (P < 0.05), which were strongly associated with maternal body mass index. Breastmilk saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid concentrations were positively associated with maternal dietary inflammation, as measured by dietary inflammatory index. There were no differences in infant growth measurements. CONCLUSION Breastmilk from obese mothers has a pro-inflammatory fatty acid profile and decreased concentrations of fatty acids and carotenoids that have been shown to have a critical role in early visual and neurodevelopment. Studies are needed to determine the link between these early-life influences and subsequent cardiometabolic and neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:26741571
Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose
"Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence.
Carmona, Elenice Valentim; Coca, Kelly Pereira; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Abrão, Ana Cristina Freitas de Vilhena
The hospitalization of a newborn separates mother and child at a time when their contact is essential for developing the mother's role. Therefore, mothers tend to feel incapable of meeting their child's needs, and face difficulties in dealing with their personal feelings and the demands of their family. The objective of this study was to identify the defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis Conflict in performing the role of mother in studies addressing the experience of being a mother in the neonatal unit. This is an integrative literature review, which utilized 15 qualitative studies published between 2004 and 2009, in journals indexed in the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature and on the Medical Literature and Retrieval System Online. This diagnosis is a nursing phenomenon to be studied by neonatal nurses so they are able to recognize and propose interventions to meet the mothers' needs, considering that nine out of ten defining characteristics were identified in the mothers' statements.
Kress, Sandra; Cierpka, Manfred; Möhler, Eva; Resch, Franz
Maternal intuitive skills can be threatened as a result of severe deprivation or unresolved trauma in the own childhood and can even be inaccessible to the mother. A mother's own childhood experience of abuse maybe a risk factor for repeated child abuse. As a follow-up study to assess the emotional availability of abused mothers it was investigated how a physical or sexual abuse appears in the mother-child interaction and communication in the context of "cycle of abuse" and whether it could give effect to it. Interactions of mothers with abuse experience were compared with those of mothers without an abuse experience and evaluated five months postpartum with the Munich clinical communication scale (MKK). The results suggest that maltreatment experienced mothers show less emotion tuning to their child in a standardized interaction sequence.
Valentini, P; Annunziata, M L; Angelone, D F; Masini, L; De Santis, M; Testa, A; Grillo, R L; Speziale, D; Ranno, O
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of spiramycin/cotrimoxazole in the mother-to-child transmission of Toxoplasma gondii infection. We retrospectively analysed 76 infants born to mothers with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and estimated the risk of mother-to-child transmission considering the gestational age at the time of infection. Seventy-six mothers were given spiramycin, cotrimoxazole and folinic acid; only two babies (2.6%) were infected by Toxoplasma and none of them showed signs or symptoms of congenital infection or interference of sulphamid on tetrahydrofolate reductase (THFR) either at birth or during follow-up. Treatment did not need to be stopped in any mother because of adverse drug effects. Our results seem to encourage the use of spiramycin/cotrimoxazole in women with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.
Ebrahimi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Eissa; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Pirzadeh, Akbar; Mahmoudi, Hamzeh; Ansari, Ismail
Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child’s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α=86%), respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software. Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P<0.033). The stigma score was higher in mothers who were living independently of their relatives (P<0.029). The mean stigma score in mothers of children with a cochlear implant was lower than that of mothers of children with earphones (86.70 vs. 99.64), and this difference tended towards significance (P=0.057). Conclusion: This study showed that half of all mothers with deaf children were scorned and felt ashamed of having a deaf child in the family because of the stigma. The majority of mothers with deaf children felt stigmatized, and only their education and residency status affected this issue. The mothers of cochlear-implanted children perceived less stigma. Due to the various social and psychological problems caused by hearing impairment, it is necessary to consider the emotional health and psychological state of the mothers in addition to rehabilitation
Schilmoeller, G L; Baranowski, M D
Adolescent and older mothers of firstborn infants were observed and interviewed to learn about their childrearing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Adolescent mothers knew as much about developmental milestones and had equally positive attitudes about childrearing as older mothers. No significant differences existed between groups during observed sessions of direct childcare interactions. However, adolescent mothers scored significantly lower than older mothers on a measure of overall stimulation provided for the infant. Also, adolescents relied more on relatives and their mothers for help and information about childcare, while older mothers turned more often to friends. Implications of these results for providers of service to adolescent mothers are discussed.
Bauman, P S; Dougherty, F E
The present study compared 15 mothers on methadone maintenance (MM) and their 15 preschool children to 15 non-drug-addicted mothers (NDA) and their 15 preschool children on mothers' personalities and parenting attitudes, the mother-child interaction, and on children's intelligence and developmental levels. Findings showed that in comparison to the control group, MM mothers performed less adaptively on measures of personality and parenting behavior. There were no differences between the two groups of mothers on their parenting attitudes. Children of MM mothers performed more poorly than children of NDA mothers on measures of intelligence, development, and socially adaptive behavior.
This study aimed to compare maltreating mothers and non-maltreating mothers on attributions and affects related to child behaviors. It also assessed how attributions predict affective and behavioral reactions to child behaviors. The study population comprised of a community-based sample of mothers with children aged 2 to 4 years (n = 238). Mothers' attributions and affect were assessed using vignettes of child behavior. They also answered questions about their maltreating parenting behaviors and demographic factors such as childcare environments. Results highlighted that, as compared with non-maltreating mothers, maltreating mothers made more intentional and stable attributions to negative child behavior, and to report more anger and aversion. They also had a tendency to report less happiness toward positive child behavior. Additionally, path analyses documented a pattern of thinking-feeling-action linkages. It was revealed that attributions regarding children's behavior influenced negative affect and that negative affect in turn predicted maltreatment. Finally, the usefulness of a cognitive approach to maltreating mothers, and the implications of the findings as a model for intervention are discussed.
SmithBattle, Lee I
Teen mothers are stigmatized by stereotypes that they are unmotivated, irresponsible, and incompetent parents. In spite of the pervasiveness of these stereotypes, stigma is rarely described as a contributing factor to teen mothers' difficulties and their health and social disparities. After tracing how teen mothers have been misrepresented and stereotyped over the last half century, I describe what is known about the stigma associated with teen mothering, reasons for its persistence, efforts to reduce it, and its potentially harmful effects. Stigma should be of concern to nurses because stigmatizing practices impede effective clinical care, contribute to teen mothers' many challenges, and violate the nursing ethic that patients be treated with respect and dignity. Recommendations for restoring dignity and reducing stigma in healthcare focus on developing recognition practices that are predicated on respect and concern for the teen's well-being and her capacity as a mother. Nurses are also urged to advocate for services and policies that reduce the stigmatization and marginalization of teen mothers.
Shin, Eun-Hye; Cho, Eunhae; Lee, Cha Gon
Temple syndrome (TS, MIM 616222) is an imprinting disorder involving genes within the imprinted region of chromosome 14q32. TS is a genetically complex disorder, which is associated with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 (UPD14), paternal deletions on chromosome 14, or loss of methylation at the intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR). Here, we describe the case of a patient with maternal hetero-UPD14, mixed iso-/hetero-disomy mechanism identified by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis of patient-father duos study. The phenotype of our case is similarities to Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) during infancy and to Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) during childhood. This SNP array appears to be an effective initial screening tool for patients with nonspecific clinical features suggestive of chromosomal disorders.
Green, R; Mandel, J B; Hotvedt, M E; Gray, J; Smith, L
Two types of single-parent households and their effects on children ages 3-11 years were compared. One type comprised 50 homosexual mothers and their 56 children, and the other was a group of 40 heterosexual mothers and their 48 children. There were 30 daughters and 26 sons of homosexual mothers and 28 daughters and 20 sons of heterosexual mothers. The sexual identity and social relationships of the children were assessed in relation to the sexual orientation of the mothers. The samples consisted of families from rural and urban areas in 10 American states. All have lived without adult males (18 years or older) in the household for a minimum of 2 years (average 4). Families with heterosexual mothers were matched to families with homosexual mothers on age and race of mother; length of mother and child separation from father; educational level and income of mother; and number, age, and sex of children. Data are reported from childrens' tests designed to provide information on general intelligence, core-morphologic sexual identity, gender-role preferences, family and peer group relationships, and adjustment to the single-parent family. No significant differences were found between the two types of households for boys and few significant differences for girls. Concerns that being raised by a homosexual mother might produce sexual identity conflict and peer group stigmatization were not supported by the research findings. Data also revealed more similarities than differences in parenting experiences, marital history, and present living situations of the two groups of mothers. The postulated compromised parental fitness of lesbian mothers, commonly asserted in child custody cases, is not supported by these data.
de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá
Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.
This article explores the changing experiences and representation of Ireland's unmarried mothers from 1880 to 1973. It focuses on the stigma of illegitimacy in political and cultural discourse and the representation of unmarried mothers as immoral and their children as a drain on resources. These remained constant themes within the discourse of unmarried motherhood in Ireland throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The article uses the records of philanthropic, government and religious organisations to chart the rising interest in the moral reformation of unmarried mothers at the end of the nineteenth century and rising tolerance towards them by the end of the twentieth century.
Wahl, C K; Rundall, V F
The increasing number of women in the military, especially married women and mothers, is forcing the military to accommodate populations it did not have to deal with in the past. The military community has responded by initiating programs that address the needs of active duty wives and mothers, especially with regard to family support, health care, and available child care facilities. However, many policy questions pertaining to military women remain, including nondeployment of breastfeeding women or mothers of small infants, treating the family as the unit of analysis and not just the service member, and providing programs such as WIC and Head Start to its members overseas.
Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna
Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the "hormone of affiliation" and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as well as
Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna
Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the “hormone of affiliation” and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as
Jin, Yaping; Xi, Shuhua; Li, Xin; Lu, Chunwei; Li, Gexin; Xu, Yuanyuan; Qu, Chunqing; Niu, Yuhong; Sun, Guifan
The primary goal of the present study was to confirm the arsenic species that can be transferred from the mother to the bodies of newborn pups through the placenta and the speciated arsenic distribution in the liver and brain of newborn mice after gestational maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs). Mother mice were exposed to iAsIII and iAsV in drinking water during gestation. The livers and brains of the mother mice and their newborn pups were taken. Contents of iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and trimethylarsenic (TMA) compound were detected using the HG-AAS method. Contents of iAs, MMA, and DMA in the liver of mother mice increased with the concentration of arsenite or arsenate in their drinking water. However, only DMA increased with the concentration of arsenate or arsenite in the drinking water in the brain of mother mice. On the other hand, contents of both iAs and DMA in the liver and brain of newborn mice increased with the concentration of arsenate or arsenite administered to their mother orally. Contents of arsenic species in the liver and brain of both mother mice and their newborn pups were significantly lower in the 10 ppm iAsV group than in the 10 ppm iAsIII group. Ratios of iAs or DMA levels between the brain and the liver of newborn mice were larger than 1, whereas those in mother mice were much smaller than 1. iAs taken from drinking water was distributed and metabolized mainly in the liver of mother mice. iAsIII in low levels may be taken up and metabolized easily in the liver compared to iAsV. Both iAs and DMA are transferred from the mother through the placenta and cross the immature blood-brain barrier (BBB) easily. Compared to that in the liver of newborn mice, DMA as an organic metabolite is prevalent in brain, a lipidic organ, if the BBB is not matured enough to prevent it from entering the brain.
Luthar, S S; Suchman, N E
The Relational Psychotherapy Mothers' Group (RPMG), a developmentally informed, supportive psychotherapy designed to serve heroin-addicted mothers with children up to 16 years of age, aims at addressing psychosocial vulnerabilities, and facilitating optimal parenting, among at-risk mothers. We present preliminary evidence on the efficacy of RPMG as an "add on" treatment in comparison with standard methadone counseling alone. At the end of the 24-week treatment period, mothers receiving RPMG plus standard methadone counseling demonstrated lower levels of risk for child maltreatment, greater involvement with their children, and more positive psychosocial adjustment than women who received methadone counseling alone. Children of RPMG participants also reflected fewer problems in multiple areas. At 6 months posttreatment, RPMG recipients continued to be at a relative advantage, although the magnitude of group differences was often attenuated. Notably, urinalyses indicated that RPMG mothers showed greater improvements in levels of opioid use over time than comparison mothers.
Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M; Deng, Ciping
Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (Mage = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African American) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers.
Lee, Shu-Li; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chin, Chi-Chun
The role of "mother" is understood and represented differently by people from different cultures. In traditional Taiwanese society, mothers demonstrate their existence value by giving birth to and raising sons able to continue her husband's familial line. Sons bear the patriarchal name and care for their parents in old age. However, a son stricken, paralyzed and eventually killed by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can destroy a mother's perceived value in this traditional social context. Mothers are thus soundless sufferers. Nurses have a critical role to play in giving encouragement and hope to mothers of children with DMD. Through their own difficult situation, these mothers can also highlight the value and importance of Taiwan's nurses, who work in conditions marked by overloading, high stress, and under-appreciation. Caring for women in critical need of empathy and support help nurses realize their own positive capacity to empower sufferers.
McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A
The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known.
Educational practices and problems in Yugoslavia with regard to bilingual education are described. The effect of mother-tongue education on the students' academic achievement and literacy attainment is also examined. (RM)
Beckert, Troy; Strom, Robert; Strom, Paris; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Shen, Yuh-Ling
Education for parents was recently mandated in Taiwan and presents a challenge to the schools. The purpose of this study was to determine how two generations perceive parenting strengths and learning needs. Taiwanese mothers of 10- to 14-year-olds (n=209) and their adolescent children (n=201) completed the Parent Success Indicator. Generational reports were compared, and effects of independent variables were examined. The amount of time mothers spent talking to and doing things with their adolescents had the greatest influence on how both groups rated mother success. Unfavorable ratings expressed by mothers and adolescents identified topics that would be appropriate for parent education. The findings will be used by educators and researchers to support parent development in Taiwan.
Calabrese Barton, Angela; Hindin, Toby J.; Contento, Isobel R.; Trudeau, Michelle; Yang, Kimberley; Hagiwara, Sumi; Koch, Pamela D.
The purpose of this article is to report our findings from a qualitative study intended to develop our understandings of how inner-city mothers perceive science. Using qualitative methodologies, our analysis reveals that the mothers' perceptions can be grouped into four categories: perceptions of science as (a) schoolwork/knowledge, (b) fun projects, (c) a tool for maintaining the home and family, and (d) an untouchable domain. After we present these categories we compare our findings across categories to argue that those mothers who had spent time doing science with their children were more likely to have a more personal, dynamic, and inquiry-based view of science. We also argue that mothers' perceptions of science were more dynamic when they spoke about situations and contexts that were familiar to them, such as food, nutrition, and child care. We conclude the article with a discussion of the implications our findings have for science education reform.
... many potential obstacles. A mother planning a long separation from her nursing infant or child might wish ... over many weeks in advance of the planned separation. Infants who have never consumed milk from a ...
... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... Tweet Share Compartir When should a mother avoid breastfeeding? Health professionals agree that human milk provides the ...
HATTERS FRIEDMAN, SUSAN; RESNICK, PHILLIP J
The tragedy of maternal filicide, or child murder by mothers, has occurred throughout history and throughout the world. This review of the research literature sought to identify common predictors in the general population as well as in correctional and psychiatric samples. Further research is needed to improve identification of children and mothers at risk. Infanticide laws are discussed. Suggestions for prevention are made based on the current literature and the authors' experiences. PMID:18188430
Rosener, Stephanie E.; Barr, Wendy B.; Frayne, Daniel J.; Barash, Joshua H.; Gross, Megan E.; Bennett, Ian M.
PURPOSE Interconception care (ICC) is recommended to improve birth outcomes by targeting maternal risk factors, but little is known about its implementation. We evaluated the frequency and nature of ICC delivered to mothers at well-child visits and maternal receptivity to these practices. METHODS We surveyed a convenience sample of mothers accompanying their child to well-child visits at family medicine academic practices in the IMPLICIT (Interventions to Minimize Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants Through Continuous Improvement Techniques) Network. Health history, behaviors, and the frequency of the child’s physician addressing maternal depression, tobacco use, family planning, and folic acid supplementation were assessed, along with maternal receptivity to advice. RESULTS Three-quarters of the 658 respondents shared a medical home with their child. Overall, 17% of respondents reported a previous preterm birth, 19% reported a history of depression, 25% were smoking, 26% were not using contraception, and 58% were not taking folic acid. Regarding advice, 80% of mothers who smoked were counseled to quit, 59% reported depression screening, 71% discussed contraception, and 44% discussed folic acid. Screening for depression and family planning was more likely when the mother and child shared a medical home (P <.05). Most mothers, nearly 95%, were willing to accept health advice from their child’s physician regardless of whether a medical home was shared (P >.05). CONCLUSIONS Family physicians provide key elements of ICC at well-child visits, and mothers are highly receptive to advice from their child’s physician even if they receive primary care elsewhere. Routine integration of ICC at these visits may provide an opportunity to reduce maternal risk factors for adverse subsequent birth outcomes. PMID:27401423
Mothers who use drugs face much discriminatory action as society in general finds female drug users' modes of caring for their children unacceptable. In this article, I explore the ways in which Thai women's injecting practices revolve around the role of mother 'maae' and the ways they employ tactics to challenge the motherhood discourse. This article draws on in-depth interviews with 30 Thai mothers injecting drugs. Thai mothers injecting drugs struggled with stigma and self-blame. They internalise the values of the mother 'maae', that is, what the mother is supposed to be; attempting to combine their drug use with their parental responsibilities. Having a child is treated as a means for many women to manage the hostile social impacts of being an addict mother as well as anxieties about the future of their children. To maintain identity as a mother, as gender norms dictates, the mothers employ several tactics to defend that identity from the threats. In conclusion, the findings have implications for harm reduction and reproductive services for women using drugs in Thailand; health care providers need to appreciate the ramifications of the lived experiences of the women who take drugs.
This study examines instances of discrimination that blind mothers in the USA have experienced at the hands of doctors, nurses and social workers during hospital postnatal care. The author identifies postnatal care as the time when blind mothers are likely to face the most stigmatising interactions with medical staff, as it is when scepticism about their competence as mothers is at its height. The author argues these interactions must be understood within their institutional context in which ideologies of risk and mother-blame are embedded in hospital postnatal practices.
Perrelli, Jaqueline Galdino Albuquerque; Zambaldi, Carla Fonseca; Cantilino, Amaury; Sougey, Everton Botelho
Objective: To identify and describe research tools used to evaluate bonding between mother and child up to one year of age, as well as to provide information on reliability and validity measures related to these tools. Data source: Research studies available on PUBMED, LILACS, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases with the following descriptors: mother-child relations and mother infant relationship, as well as the expressions validity, reliability and scale. Data synthesis: 23 research studies were selected and fully analyzed. Thirteen evaluation research tools were identified concerning mother and child attachment: seven scales, three questionnaires, two inventories and one observation method. From all tools analyzed, the Prenatal Attachment Inventory presented the higher validity and reliability measures to assess mother and fetus relation during pregnancy. Concerning the puerperal period, better consistency coefficients were found for Maternal Attachment Inventory and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Besides, the last one revealed a higher sensibility to identify amenable and severe disorders in the affective relations between mother and child. Conclusions: The majority of research tools are reliable to study the phenomenon presented, although there are some limitations regarding the construct and criterion related to validity. In addition to this, only two of them are translated into Portuguese and adapted to women and children populations in Brazil, being a decisive gap to scientific production in this area. PMID:25479859
Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E
Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.
The Congress Workshop on People and Protected Areas convened to discuss the need to combine modern science and traditional knowledge to effect sustainable development among indigenous peoples in the world. The founder of the Fundacion Pro-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta talked about development of training programs for displaced farmers and rehabilitation of Indian lands and villages in the Sierra Nevada of northern Colombia. The 3 indigenous peoples (Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians) have only recently regained title to their forebears' lands. In fact, in 1990, the government of Colombia gave about 25% of the country back to indigenous populations. The forebears of the Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians constructed great stone cities and advanced systems of agriculture, terracing, and irrigation. The Indians have lived under the Law of the Mother for thousands of years. This code dictates human behavior so that humans are in unity with plant and animal cycles, star movements, climatic phenomena, and the sacred geography of the coastal mountains. They are so much an integral part of their ecosystem that they even limit their population size. Now they resurrect villages in 2 national parks and indigenous reservations. Farmers who colonized the area since the 1960s must now leave the reserves and begin anew in nearby buffer zones. Here they learn revitalized agricultural techniques to abandon their illegal marijuana, cocaine, and poppy farming. At the workshop, participants also learned about conservation activities of the Imgrauen in the Banc d'Arguin National Park in Mauritania who continue to use dolphins to catch mullet. In India, the Bisnoi people living in the Rajasthan desert have established their own unofficial protected areas to keep the fragile ecosystem. Other examples were in Niger and Central Europe. The workshop participants agreed that recognition of land tenure and intellectual property rights were high priorities.
Four children from three families in which the mother had a bipolar disorder were interviewed to understand their perspectives on their mothers' parenting. Children identified strengths in their mother's parenting, such as helping them with homework and moods and providing for their wants. They also identified challenges, such as mothers sleeping…
Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Hodge, Danelle; Nam, Cindy Y.; Botts, Betsy H.
Parenting a child with autism has been associated with maternal stress. The present investigation examined children's sleep difficulties and severity of autism along with mothers' sleep problems in relation to stress levels reported by mothers ( N = 72). Mothers' reports of their children's sleep problems were related to mothers' reports of their…
Ogle, Jennifer Paff; Damhorst, Mary Lynn
A study of 20 mothers and their adolescent daughters found that both groups distinguished between going on a diet and watching eating habits. Dieting/watching patterns varied in content, duration, and intent. Daughters' modeling of mothers' behavior varied depending on degree of identification with mothers or mothers' verbal reinforcement.…
The purpose of this study is to study anxieties of mothers related to their children's future. Qualitative method was used in order to study anxieties of mothers from different socio-economic levels. Sample of the study participants are 129 mothers living in Istanbul. 32 of those mothers are from upper socio-economic level, 57, from middle…
The present study investigated whether infants of mothers who were depressed postpartum would behave like infants of non-depressed mothers who simulated depression. A total of 24 mothers and their 3-month-old infants were videotaped during face-to-face interactions. All mothers were given the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait…
Constantin-Page, Lisette; And Others
This study compared immediate, short-term effects of different training components on mothers' acquisition of non-directive play skills. Subjects were dyads of 49 mothers and their sons, ages 4 to 6. Mother-son pairs were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. The control group received no training. All other mothers viewed the videotape…
Kendig, Sarah M.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.
Utilizing the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Survey (ATUS), this study examines the relationship between family structure and maternal time with children among 4,309 married mothers and 1,821 single mothers with children less than 13 years of age. Single mothers spend less time with their children than married mothers, though the differences are…
Combs-Orme, Terri; Cain, Daphne S.
Objectives: This study describes mothers who report spanking their infants in the first 13 months of life. Methods: Two hundred forty-six (246) mothers were interviewed in the Mother-Baby Unit of a large university-affiliated hospital in a large southeastern city of the United States. Ninety-three percent (93%) of those mothers were reinterviewed…
An, Jihoun; Goodwin, Donna L.
This study described the meaning 7 mothers of children with spina bifida ascribed to their children's physical education, the mothers' roles in the schools, and the importance of the IEP in home and school communication. The stories of 4 mothers of elementary and 3 mothers of secondary aged children were gathered using the phenomenological methods…
Beardslee, William R.; Gladstone, Tracy R. G.; Diehl, Anne
Depression in pregnant women and mothers of very young children is a pressing public health issue. Maternal depression is linked to a number of serious difficulties for mothers, their young children, and mother-child relationships. Unrecognized and untreated, it can lead to long-lasting impairment for both mothers and their children. However,…
Kucirkova, Natalia; Tompkins, Virginia
An unexplored aspect of contextual variation in emotion talk is the extent to which the emotions mothers and children discuss relate to the child, mother, or another self. To establish the extent to which mothers and children personalize the emotions they discuss, we examined the emotion talk of 40 American mother-child dyads in three…
Duarte, Cristiane S.; Bordin, Isabel A.; Yazigi, Latife; Mooney, Julia
The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the determinants of maternal stress in mothers of children with autism. Mothers of 31 children with autism from mental health clinics were matched by child age/gender and mother age to 31 mothers of children without mental health problems, drawn from public schools and a primary care…
McPherson, Andrea V.; Lewis, Kristen M.; Lynn, Amy E.; Haskett, Mary E.; Behrend, Tara S.
We examined a model of parenting stress for abusive mothers (n = 80) and nonabusive mothers (n = 86) using linear regression analyses. Predictors in the model included (a) the degree to which mothers were bothered by child misbehavior, (b) mothers' general psychological functioning, and (c) observed child behavior during parent-child interactions.…
Dillaway, Heather; Pare, Elizabeth
Most women must decide whether to work for pay while mothering or make mothering their sole social role. Often this decision is portrayed in terms of whether they will be "stay-at-home" and presumably "full-time" mothers, or "working mothers" and therefore ones who prioritize paid work over caregiving. Inferred within this construction is women's…
Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Hodge, Danelle; Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Looney, Lisa
Mothers of children diagnosed with autism (N = 104) reported higher levels of stress than mothers of typically developing children (N = 342) on 13 of 14 subscales of the "Parenting Stress Index." The only scores that did not differ were from the Attachment subscale, which indicates lack of emotional closeness and rather cold patterns of…
Luthar, Suniya S.; Ciciolla, Lucia
Developmental science is replete with studies on the impact of mothers on their children, but little is known about what might best help caregivers to function well themselves. In an initial effort to address this gap, we conducted an Internet-based study of over 2,000 mostly well-educated mothers, seeking to illuminate salient risk and protective…
Baron, Heather-Lee M.
The purpose of this six-month qualitative microethnographic case study was to determine what influence a family literacy program based on positive mother-child verbal interactions would have on the participating adolescent mothers' literacy skills. The design of the program was founded on the Hart and Risley study (1995) and their findings…
Kim, Son Chae; Burke, Leanne; Sloan, Chris; Barnett, Shannon
To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers.
Ecological theory and basic assumptions for the promotion of effective mothering among low-income and working-poor women are applied in relation to a particularly vulnerable population: street-level prostitution-involved women. Qualitative data from 38 street-level prostituted women shows barriers to effective mothering at the individual,…
Jones, Sande Gracia; Silitsky, Cindy
A qualitative analysis of culturally diverse mothers' experiences communicating with their children about HIV/AIDS following their participation in a nationally renowned prevention and education program illuminated some of the challenges and surprises these women encountered. Excerpts of "Mothers' Voices" illustrate the themes that emerged through data analysis. Implications and applications to other contexts are provided.
Carr, Suzanne J.; And Others
This study investigated the effects of mother's distance and visual field on some attachment behaviors of children 21-36 months old. Subjects were 20 male and 20 female children, half of each sex being reared primarily at home and half primarily in day care. Each child was observed with his mother in an experimental setting for a total of 16…
In debates over diagnoses of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and use of the drug Ritalin among the American school age population, discussion often centers around who is to blame for rising diagnoses and increasing use of Ritalin. Parents have come under particular scrutiny by critics who associate ADHD behaviors in children with poor parenting and view Ritalin as a "quick-fix" for socially situated problems. Biologically oriented researchers of ADHD, on the other hand have posited organically based dysfunction as the cause of ADHD behaviors. This paper explores the problem of blame in relation to ADHD diagnoses and Ritalin use from the perspective of mothers of boys with ADHD. Qualitative interviews with mothers suggest that medicalization of problematic behaviors in young boys includes an inherent narrative of blame transformation; this transformation can be expressed as a binarism: mother-blame-brain-blame. The first two sections of the paper document mothers' experiences of blame for their sons' symptomatic behaviors against the background of a cultural mothering ideology. The third section considers the promise of absolution from mother-blame inherent in the transformative binary structure. I argue that medicalization of boys' problem behaviors supports and reconstitutes the potential for mother-blame and does little to pierce oppressive cultural mothering ideals.
Shade, Daniel D.; Watson, J. Allen
A total of 41 preschool children, either 2 or 3 years of age, and their mothers were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: a microworld computer experience designed to teach the concept of inside/outside and an alphabet computer experience designed to drill ABC's. Videotapes of mother/child dyads were coded and scored using a revision of the…
Levitan, Mark; Gluck, Robin
Employment, earnings, and poverty among single mothers in New York City and across the United States in the age of welfare reform were examined to identify goals and recommendations for reauthorization of legislation regulating Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The study indicated that although job holding by single mothers has risen…
Turley, Ruth N. Lopez
Data from national sample of 3- to 16-year-olds show that lower test scores and increased behavior problems of children of younger mothers resulted from family background rather than maternal age. For nonfirstborns, maternal age at first birth, not at child's birth, influenced test scores. Disadvantage of children born to younger mothers was…
Palkovich, Einat Natalie
Mothers are essential facilitators of early Theory of Mind development and intrinsic to the acquisition, as well as the content, of many basic schemas learnt in infancy. In this article it is argued that the "mother" schema in children's literature can ease a child's transition into literary discourse by exploiting the child's…
Szenczi, Péter; Bánszegi, Oxána; Urrutia, Andrea; Faragó, Tamás; Hudson, Robyn
Acoustic communication can play an important part in mother-young recognition in many mammals. This, however, has still only been investigated in a small range mainly of herd- or colony-living species. Here we report on the behavioral response of kittens of the domestic cat, a typically solitary carnivore, to playbacks of "greeting chirps" and "meows" from their own versus alien mothers. We found significantly stronger responses to the chirps from kittens' own mother than to her meows or to the chirps or meows of alien mothers. Acoustic analysis revealed greater variation between vocalizations from different mothers than for vocalizations from the same mother. We conclude that chirps emitted by mother cats at the nest represent a specific form of vocal communication with their young, and that kittens learn and respond positively to these and distinguish them from chirps of other mothers and from other cat vocalizations while still in the nest. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 568-577, 2016.
Nixon, Elizabeth; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane M.
Little research has considered the nature of parent-child relationships in stable single-parent households that have not undergone transitions such as divorce and repartnering. This study explored how single mothers and their children negotiated their relationships in a context where the mother has been parenting alone continuously from early in…
Schlup, Barbara; Farrell, Lara; Barrett, Paula
This waitlist-controlled study investigates the impact of a group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with family involvement (CBT-F) on observed mother and child behaviors in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-four children and adolescents with OCD and their mothers were observed during family discussions before and after…
Holmes, Erin Kramer; Dunn, KayLee C.; Harper, James; Dyer, W. Justin; Day, Randal D.
We used structural equation modeling to explore associations between inhibitory maternal gatekeeping attitudes, reports of inhibitory maternal gatekeeping behaviors, maternal psychological control, observed mother-adolescent warmth, and adolescent reports of maternal involvement. Our random stratified sample consisted of 315 mothers and their…
Belli, M A
The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences, feelings and expectation of mothers of high risk newborns. The population was a group of 20 mothers of high risk newborns of three hospitals in the City of São Paulo. Interview with the mothers was the method of data collection containing opened and structured questions. It was verified that most of the mothers had none or only a little interaction with the newborn after delivery; the eye contact was the most referred during the staying of the newborn in the Intensive Care Unity; all of them demonstrated interest in participating in the care of the newborn and expressed the need of information concerning to the health status of the newborn, the Intensive Care Unity environment and the hospital team. Several were the feelings expressed and the motives that indicated the needs of the mothers.
Arvaniti, A; Spyropoulou, A; Zervas, I
Recent studies indicate that the pregnancy rates of mothers with schizophrenia do not differ significantly from those of the general population. Mothers' severe mental illness, combined with poor social support and comorbidity, may significantly affect her parenting capacity. However, the poor quality of parenting by psychotic mothers should not be taken for granted, in advance. Some of them may become excellent parents while other may abuse their children and finally lose custody because of this. The parenting capacity is significantly influenced by the existing insight of patient-parent's disease. Assessing the parenting capacity comprises the measurement of insight and of the risk of child abuse as well. Factors associated with increased risk for child abuse are: (a) active psychiatric symptomatology, (b) history of violent behavior in the past, (c) maternal history of abuse during childhood, (d) dangerous domestic environment, (e) stressful events and poor social support to the mother and (f) unrealistic parental expectations. These factors should be assessed both clinically and by using the appropriate psychometric tools. Tools which have been widely used for this purpose are: (a) "Schedule for Assessment of Insight-SAI", (b) "Childhood Trauma Interview", (c) "Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment Inventory-HOME" and "Home Screening Questionnaire -HSQ", (d) "Parental Stress Inventory-PSI", "Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire-SPSQ", "Arizona Social Support Inventory" (e) "Parent Opinion Questionnaire-POQ". Interventions to ensure a more adequate parenting capacity should be focused on family planning: mothers with severe mental illness have poor knowledge about reproductive and contraception issues. Their pregnancies are mostly not planned. It is important for the family planning to be tailored according to the specific needs of schizophrenic mothers and to take into account the following issues: (a) the severity and the duration
Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M C; Howard, Louise M; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure
Infants of parents with psychiatric disorders may be particularly vulnerable and have a higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Until the second half of the 20th century, women and infants were cared for separately. Today, hospitalisation of women with their babies in psychiatric mother-baby units enables psychiatric care of women and promotion of parent-infant interactions and child development. The distribution of psychiatric mother-baby units around the world, as well as within countries, varies strongly. Reasons for this may be related to the absence of national perinatal mental health policies related to psychiatric mother-baby unit location, differences in sources of referral for admission, and criteria for psychiatric mother-baby unit admission. Two principal national epidemiologic studies, in England and in France and Belgium, have described issues related to discharge from such care, as have smaller local studies, but no epidemiologic studies have yet demonstrated that joint inpatient psychiatric mother-baby unit care is cost-effective compared with separate care.
Kenny, Maeve; Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M; Seneviratne, Gertrude; Pawlby, Susan
Maternal severe mental illness (SMI) disrupts mother-infant interaction in the immediate postpartum and is associated with less than optimal offspring development. In-patient mother and baby units (MBUs) provide the opportunity of supporting mothers with SMI in developing their relationships with their infants in order to minimise this disruption. One way is through an individualised video feedback intervention, delivered as part of a multidisciplinary inpatient treatment package. The present study prospectively measured changes in mother-infant interaction following video feedback intervention, during admission to an MBU (N = 49). Comparisons were made with mother-infant interactions of (1) a community-based ill group of mothers (N = 67) with a mental health diagnosis of similar severity, living at home and without the intervention and (2) a group of healthy mothers (N = 22). Maternal sensitivity and unresponsiveness, and infant cooperativeness and passiveness, were measured from a 3-min videotaped play session, using the CARE-Index. Following admission and the video feedback intervention, the MBU mothers (irrespective of diagnosis) and their infants showed improvements in their interactions. Moreover, on discharge the MBU dyads were significantly more sensitive, cooperative and responsive than the community ill group, and as attuned as the healthy group. While the design of the study does not allow us to conclude unequivocally that the video feedback intervention has effects on the outcome for the mothers and babies independent from the whole inpatient therapeutic package, the results do show that the dyadic interaction of mothers with SMI and their infants improves following the focussed treatment package in a specialised MBU.
Shen, Huazhen; Tsai, Cheng-Mou; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Jen, Yi-Hsiu; Ie, Iau-Ren
This study firstly investigated the species, concentration variation, and emission factors of mercury emitted from the burning of incenses and joss papers in an Asian temple. Both indoor and outdoor speciated mercury (GEM, GOM, and PHg) were sampled by manual samplers, while ambient GEM at an indoor site was in-situ monitored by a continuous GEM monitor. Field measurement results showed that the total atmospheric mercury (TAM) concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments were in the range of 8.03-35.72 and 6.03-31.35 ng/m(3), respectively. The indoor and outdoor ratios (I/O) of TAM in the daytime and at nighttime were in the range of 0.64-0.90 and 1.50-2.04, respectively. The concentrations of GEM, GOM, and PHg during the holiday periods were approximately 1-4 times higher than those during the non-holiday periods. GEM was the dominant mercury species in the indoor and outdoor environments and accounted for 63-81% of TAM, while the oxidized mercury accounted for 19-37% of TAM. Burning incenses and joss papers in a combustion chamber showed that the concentration of GEM from joss paper burning ranged from 4.07 to 11.62 μg/m(3), or about 13.97 times higher than that of incense burning, while the concentration of PHg from incense burning ranged from 95.91 to 135.07 ng/m(3), or about 3.29 times higher than that of joss paper burning. The emission factors of incense burning were 10.39 ng/g of GEM and 1.40 ng/g of PHg, while those of joss paper burning were 12.65 ng/g of GEM and 1.27 ng/g of PHg, respectively. This study revealed that speciated mercury emitted from worship activities had significant influence on the indoor and outdoor mercury concentrations in an Asian temple. Higher intensity of worship activities during holidays resulted in a higher concentration of speciated mercury in indoor and outdoor air, which might cause health threats to worshipers, staffs, and surrounding inhabitants through long-term exposure.
Al-Hashimi, L Mossa; Gambling, Lorraine; McArdle, H J
Iron deficiency during pregnancy has many effects on both the mother and her developing foetus. These can be both short and long term. One effect is an alteration in fatty acid metabolism and we hypothesised that these changes may result in alterations in membrane function and structure. In order to test this hypothesis, we measured osmotic sensitivity in red blood cells isolated from neonates and their mothers at different times following birth. We fed female rats control or iron-deficient diets for 4 weeks prior to mating and kept them on the same diet until term. At that time, we returned one group of deficient dams to the control diet. The others were kept on the same diet. We showed that iron deficiency results in a decrease in osmotic sensitivity in the mothers but not in their neonates. Returning the dams to the control diet resulted in a return of their red cell osmotic sensitivity to control levels. In the neonates, there was no recovery in haematocrit or in any other parameter, though they did not get any worse, in contrast to the pups being suckled by deficient mothers. The data show two things. The first is that following birth, the mother restores her own iron stores at the expense of the pups, and secondly, there are differences in properties and sensitivities between red cells from mothers and their neonates. This latter observation cannot be explained by differences in the membrane fatty acid profiles, which were not significantly different.
Hispanic lesbian mothers face bicultural tensions that stigmatize their roles as mothers. Religion could produce heightened conflict given their potential incompatibility with the role of a "good mother." In particular, there is a potential for conflict between the definition of a "good mother" set forth in Catholicism and the sexual orientation of Hispanic lesbians. I conducted semistructured in-depth interviews to examine how Hispanic lesbian mothers negotiate their Catholic religious identity with aspects of their sexual identity. More specifically, I examined the strategies that Hispanic lesbian mothers use to reconcile or navigate perceived conflict between their roles as a Catholic and as a lesbian. The research questions to be answered were: How do Hispanic lesbian mothers negotiate a Catholic religious and a sexual identity? How do Hispanic lesbian mothers create and maintain a religious narrative? How do Hispanic lesbian mothers redefine religion and spirituality?
Moulton, Anthony D.
Workplace barriers contribute to low rates of breastfeeding. Research shows that supportive state laws correlate with higher rates, yet by 2009, only 23 states had adopted any laws to encourage breastfeeding in the workplace. Federal law provided virtually no protection to working mothers until the 2010 enactment of the “reasonable break time” provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This provision nonetheless leaves many working mothers uncovered, requires break time only to pump for (not feed) children younger than 1 year, and exempts small employers that demonstrate hardship. Public health professionals should explore ways to improve legal support for all working mothers wishing to breastfeed. Researchers should identify the laws that are most effective and assist policymakers in translating them into policy. PMID:21164100
Murtagh, Lindsey; Moulton, Anthony D
Workplace barriers contribute to low rates of breastfeeding. Research shows that supportive state laws correlate with higher rates, yet by 2009, only 23 states had adopted any laws to encourage breastfeeding in the workplace. Federal law provided virtually no protection to working mothers until the 2010 enactment of the "reasonable break time" provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This provision nonetheless leaves many working mothers uncovered, requires break time only to pump for (not feed) children younger than 1 year, and exempts small employers that demonstrate hardship. Public health professionals should explore ways to improve legal support for all working mothers wishing to breastfeed. Researchers should identify the laws that are most effective and assist policymakers in translating them into policy.
Bacon, C J; Bell, S A; Clulow, E E; Beattie, A B
Details of room temperature, clothing, and bedding used by night and by day and in winter and in summer were recorded for 649 babies aged 8 to 26 weeks. Room temperature at night was significantly related to outside temperature and duration of heating. Total insulation was significantly related to outside temperature and to minimum room temperature, but there was wide variation in insulation at the same room temperature. High levels of insulation for a given room temperature were found particularly at night and in winter, and were associated with the use of thick or doubled duvets and with swaddling. At least half the babies threw off some or all of their bedding at night, and at least a quarter sweated. Younger mothers and mothers in the lower social groups put more bedclothes over their babies, and the latter also kept their rooms warmer. Many mothers kept their babies warmer during infections. PMID:2039255
Bacon, C J; Bell, S A; Clulow, E E; Beattie, A B
Details of room temperature, clothing, and bedding used by night and by day and in winter and in summer were recorded for 649 babies aged 8 to 26 weeks. Room temperature at night was significantly related to outside temperature and duration of heating. Total insulation was significantly related to outside temperature and to minimum room temperature, but there was wide variation in insulation at the same room temperature. High levels of insulation for a given room temperature were found particularly at night and in winter, and were associated with the use of thick or doubled duvets and with swaddling. At least half the babies threw off some or all of their bedding at night, and at least a quarter sweated. Younger mothers and mothers in the lower social groups put more bedclothes over their babies, and the latter also kept their rooms warmer. Many mothers kept their babies warmer during infections.
Whittemore, R D; Beverly, E A
In a traditional Mandinka village of the Casamance Region of Senegal, indigenous understanding of the interdependencies of women and their children include not only patterns of nursing but the prospects for continued fertility as an outcome of the mother/nursling relationship. Based on two years of participant-observation and focused observations of 40 nursing mothers and their children from birth to over 12 months of age, this study examines breastfeeding as a relationship that is part of the process of dali lo, or socialization to the "Mandinka way." Patterns of nursing are elaborated by women's recognition of the power of fetuses and young children to control fertility, a power that affirms the concomitant role of nursing mothers as being agents of culture who nurture and wean cultural novices. The methodological implications of the female ethnographer as a social location for traditional fertility work and the ethnographers' child as resistant cultural novice are also discussed.
Cruz, Andréia Cascaes; Angelo, Margareth
The scientific production overview that concerns the family and stomas urges for studies about the subject, especially about the experience in neonatal period. The present study aimed to comprehend mothers' experience about stomized children during neonatal period or the hospitalization period in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The methodological approach adopted in this study was Oral History, where interviews were conducted with nine mothers. The rescue of individual memories enabled construction of collective memory, organized in four themes: dreams versus reality, lost protection, in fear's company and motherhood is needed. The results allow a reflection about the importance of more effective actions that contribute to the autonomy and relief of suffering of the mother in NICU, where nursing care can be guided by the principles of Family Centered Care.
Samur, Gülhan; Topcu, Ali; Turan, Semra
The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid and fatty acid contents of breast milk in Turkish women and to find the effect of breastfeeding mothers' diet on trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition. Mature milk samples obtained from 50 Turkish nursing women were analyzed. Total milk lipids extracts were transmethylated and analyzed by using gas liquid chromatography to determine fatty acids contents. A questionnaire was applied to observe eating habits and 3 days dietary records from mothers were obtained. Daily dietary intake of total energy and nutrients were estimated by using nutrient database. The mean total trans fatty acids contents was 2.13 +/- 1.03%. The major sources of trans fatty acids in mothers' diets were margarines-butter (37.0%), bakery products and confectionery (29.6%). Mothers who had high level of trans isomers in their milk consumed significantly higher amounts of these products. Saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids of human milk constituted 40.7 +/- 4.7%, 26.9 +/- 4.2% and 30.8 +/- 0.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The levels of fatty acids in human milk may reflect the current diet of the mother as well as the diet consumed early in pregnancy. Margarines, bakery products and confectionery are a major source of trans fatty acids in maternal diet in Turkey.
Harrison, M J; Morse, J M; Prowse, M
A content analysis of 141 articles on breast feeding by discipline revealed differences in the factors considered necessary for breast feeding success and in the criteria used to determine success. Whereas medical articles focused on maternal factors prenatally and infant health post-natally, or the length of time breast feeding was maintained, lay articles focused on the relationship of the mother with her infant (the nursing couple) and the mother's ability to manage breast feeding within the family context. The implications of this discrepancy for nursing practice and research are discussed.
Ryan, Ripekapaia Gloria; Wilson, Denise
In common with other indigenous women Māori mothers risk illness, harm, and possible death when abused and intimidated by their children. Yet women suffering child to mother violence are silenced by their fear and shame, and endeavour to minimise the effects of this form of abuse. A qualitative descriptive research design using kaupapa Māori methodology was adopted to explore the experiences of Māori mothers who had been abused by a son or daughter. During semi-structured interviews with five Māori women experiences of abuse by a child, and its impact on the whānau/family were recorded. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically, and three key themes emerged: behind closed doors, my child and a new journey. These Māri mothers carried the secret of the violence alone; keeping it behind closed doors while paradoxically protecting their abusive child. Nonetheless, these mothers reached a point where they chose to undertake a new journey, one that involved telling their story, reconnecting with their indigenous roots, and engaging in healing activities. The mothers' experiences highlight a lack of support and responsiveness by support and health agencies. Regardless of these negative experiences with support agencies, we highlight the important role nurses have in facilitating whānau ora (family wellbeing) for these women. This research contributes an indigenous perspective to the growing literature on child to mother violence, and provides direction for future research.
Mondschein, E R; Adolph, K E; Tamis-LeMonda, C S
Although boys outshine girls in a range of motor skills, there are no reported gender differences in motor performance during infancy. This study examined gender bias in mothers' expectations about their infants' motor development. Mothers of 11-month-old infants estimated their babies' crawling ability, crawling attempts, and motor decisions in a novel locomotor task-crawling down steep and shallow slopes. Mothers of girls underestimated their performance and mothers of boys overestimated their performance. Mothers' gender bias had no basis in fact. When we tested the infants in the same slope task moments after mothers' provided their ratings, girls and boys showed identical levels of motor performance.
Stover, Carla Smith; Zhou, Yuchun; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David
Parenting beliefs and attributions can influence parenting behavior. We used an adoption design to examine the associations among perinatal risk and poor birth mother health, adoptive parent appraisals of birth mothers' mental health, and genetic attributions to adoptive parents' feelings and behaviors toward their adopted infants. A sample of 361 pairs of adoptive parents and birth mothers were interviewed using standardized measures when infants were between 4 and 9 months old. Adoptive mothers and fathers were observed during play tasks when their infants were 9 months old. We found that adoptive mothers' and fathers' appraisals of birth mothers' health were associated with perinatal risk and poor birth mother health. Adoptive mothers' appraisals were linked to hostile parenting, after accounting for characteristics of the child that may influence her appraisals and attributions. These associations were not present for adoptive fathers. Genetic attributions were associated with both adoptive mother and fathers' feelings of daily hassles in parenting. These findings have implications for prevention and intervention.
Rasmussen, Hannah F; Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A; Cohen, Chloe; Cheung, Ryan Cheuk Ming; Fox, Schuyler; Marvin, Matthew; Blackard, Betsy
Co-regulation of behavior occurring within parent-child attachment relationships is thought to be the primary means through which children develop the capacity to regulate emotion, an ability that is protective across development. Existing research on parent-child co-regulation focuses predominantly on parent-infant dyads, and operationalizes co-regulation as the matching of facial expressions; however, matching can occur on other behaviors, including vocal tone, body movement, and language. Studies with young children find that greater matching is associated with children's lower emotion reactivity, but with unknown impacts on parents. In this study we examine a recently-developed metric of behavioral matching, language style matching (LSM), a composite measure of the similarity of function word use in spoken or written language between two or more people. We test whether LSM between mothers and their school-aged children is associated with children's and mothers' physiological and subjective emotion reactivity. Children completed a standardized stressor task while their mothers observed; children's and mother's cortisol and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed, as were their subjective reports of emotion reactivity. Following the stressor, children and mothers completed independent interviews about the experience, later assessed for LSM. Higher mother-child LSM was associated with lower emotion reactivity (lower cortisol reactivity, lower reports of negative emotion) for children, and with higher maternal cardiovascular but not cortisol or subjective reactivity. Further, higher LSM was more strongly associated with lower child cortisol reactivity when mothers were more reactive themselves. We conclude that mother-child LSM, thought to reflect a history of co-regulated interaction, confers protective benefits for children, but heightened reactivity for mothers.
Ji, Kyunghee; Lim Kho, Young; Park, Yoonsuk; Choi, Kyungho
Diet is purported to be means of exposure to many environmental contaminants. The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of dietary change on the levels of exposure to several environmental chemicals - in particular, antibiotics and phthalates. For this purpose, we examined the extent to which short-term changes in diet influenced the inadvertent exposure levels to these chemicals in an adult population. We recruited participants (n=25) of a five-day 'Temple Stay' program in Korea and collected urine samples before and after the program. We also conducted a questionnaire survey on participants' dietary patterns prior to their participation. During the program, participants followed the daily routines of Buddhist monks and maintained a vegetarian diet. Urinary levels of three antibiotics and their major metabolites, metabolites of four major phthalates, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidative stress biomarker were analyzed. The frequency and levels of detection for antibiotics and phthalates noticeably decreased during the program. Urinary MDA levels were significantly lower than before program participation (0.16 versus 0.27mg/g creatinine). Although the exposure to target compounds might be influenced by other behavioral patterns, these results suggest that even short-term changes in dietary behavior may significantly decrease inadvertent exposure to antibiotics and phthalates and hence may reduce oxidative stress levels.
Langdon, P. G.; Barber, K. E.; Hughes, P. D. M.
Analyses of plant macrofossils, peat humification and testate amoebae were used to reconstruct a proxy climate record spanning the last 7500 years from an ombrotrophic bog, Temple Hill Moss, in southeast Scotland. The plant macrofossil data were subjected to detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) which modelled effectively the significant wet shifts within the record. A mean water table depth transfer function was applied to the testate amoebae data to provide quantifiable changes. The three proxy records show coherent phase changes which are interpreted as variability in past effective precipitation. Two tephra horizons (Glen Garry and Lairg A) were used in conjunction with radiocarbon dates to construct an age/depth model, producing a robust geochronology from which a time series was calculated. The palaeoclimatic reconstruction identified major wet shifts throughout the Holocene, with specific events occurring around cal. 6650, 5850, 5300, 4500, 3850, 3400, 2800-2450, 1450-1350 and 250-150 BP. Spectral analysis of the plant macrofossil DCA and colorimetric humification data produced a millennial scale periodicity of 1100 years. The same periodicity has also been found in a palaeoclimatic reconstruction from a site in Cumbria (Walton Moss), and may be linked with millennial scale periodicities found in oceanic palaeoclimatic records.
Gioffré, M.; Cavalagli, N.; Pepi, C.; Trequattrini, M.
Non-contact measurements can be effectively used in civil engineering to assess the variation of structural performance with time. In the last decades this approach has received considerable interests from researchers working in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). Indeed, non-contact measurements are very attractive because it is possible to perform non intrusive and non destructive investigations even being at a significant distance from the targets. Within this context, contactless measurements of the tie-rod vibrations in the Santa Maria della Consolazione Temple in Todi (Italy) are presented in this paper. In particular, laser vibrometer and radar interferometer measurements are used to estimate natural frequencies and mode shapes. This information is crucial to obtain the tensile axial force in the tie-rods, which can be used as an indicator of structural integrity or possible failure. Furthermore, a novel approach is proposed where drones (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) can be successfully used to improve the effectiveness and the accuracy of the experimental activities.
Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro
Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor.
Chan, Kim Geok; Lim, Khatijah Abdullah; Ling, How Kee
This paper examines the experiences of mothers caring for a child with Down syndrome in the Malaysian (Sarawak) context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 26 biological mothers of children with Down syndrome aged 18 years and below. They were accessed through selected child health clinics, community-based rehabilitation centres and schools using purposive sampling within two regions in Sarawak, one of the two Borneo States of Malaysia. Major themes emerging within the context of care demands were children's health, developmental delays, daily needs and behaviour issues. The insights obtained into the care demands experienced by mothers of children with Down syndrome have several implications for practice by care professionals.
McKelvey, Michele M
The purpose of this study was to develop a metastory of nonbiological lesbian mothers' postpartum experiences utilizing Riessman's structural approach to thematic analysis. Ten nonbirth lesbian mothers were interviewed. Each shared a unique story of her first year of motherhood. Themes were individually analyzed within each story. The metastory of the postpartum experiences of nonbirth lesbian mothers revealed 6 themes including the following: At the mercy of health care providers, Nursing is the major difference between us, Defined by who I am not, Fighting for every piece of motherhood: The world can take them away, What's in a name?, and Epilogue: The new normal.
Nagasawa, Miho; Okabe, Shota; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi
Mother-infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. In this review, we describe the manner in which reciprocal communication between the mother and infant leads to mother-infant bonding in rodents. In rats and mice, mother-infant bond formation is reinforced by various social stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) from the pups to the mother, and feeding and tactile stimulation from the mother to the pups. Some evidence suggests that mother and infant can develop a cross-modal sensory recognition of their counterpart during this bonding process. Neurochemically, oxytocin in the neural system plays a pivotal role in each side of the mother-infant bonding process, although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brains of infants has not yet been clarified. Impairment of mother-infant bonding, that is, deprivation of social stimuli from the mother, strongly influences offspring sociality, including maternal behavior toward their own offspring in their adulthood, implying a "non-genomic transmission of maternal environment," even in rodents. The comparative understanding of cognitive functions between mother and infants, and the biological mechanisms involved in mother-infant bonding may help us understand psychiatric disorders associated with mother-infant relationships.
In this column, reviewers offer perspectives and comments on The Official Lamaze Guide, a book by Judith Lothian and Charlotte De Vries; Breastfeeding, a slideshow by Roni Chastain; 100 Promises to My Baby, a book by Mallika Chopra; and The Breastfeeding Café: Mothers Share the Joys, Challenges, and Secrets of Nursing, a book by Barbara L. Berhmann.
Ahanonu, E L; Victor, O
The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics and a chi-square test was used to test for association between variables. Findings showed that the mothers held ambivalent beliefs about the practice. Although over half of the respondents (56.8%) perceived the practice of FGM as not being beneficial, 44.2% thought that uncircumcised girls will become promiscuous. Nearly a third (30.5%) believed that FGM promotes a woman's faithfulness to her husband. About a quarter (26.3%) reported that women who have undergone FGM are not at any risk of gynaecological complications. There was a significant relationship between the educational background of the mothers and the perception that uncircumcised girls will be promiscuous. These perceptions about FGM show that government at all levels should continue with educational efforts aimed at eradicating this practice.
Mother Goose is well suited to use in the elementary ESL classroom for several reasons. The stories appeal to children's imagination, adhering to the principle that a good story should have surprise value, interesting characters, meaningful conflict, action, and realism. The natural rhythms help develop English intonation, and the stories…
Shows how writing news stories about fairy tale characters enlivens student writing classes. Suggests assignments for creating a fairy tale newspaper with news stories, obituaries, editorials and letters to the editor, advice columns ("Ask Mother Goose"), weddings and social events, sports news, and advertisements. (RL)
This paper examines Catholic girlhood, womanhood and the mother-daughter relationship, and its socio-historical construction within a range of disparate discourses. The aim of the paper is to deconstruct dominant patriarchal constructions and images of femininity, particularly those embedded within the doctrine of Catholicism. Moreover, the paper…
Explores the motivations of surrogate mothers, focusing on underlying reparative motive--to compensate for or repair an earlier loss or sense of damage. Provides an overview of the typical surrogate's characteristics and personality, discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the reparative motive, and considers the tension between reparation and…
Muasher, S; Baramki, T A; Diggs, E S
Two females are described, mother and daughter, who had the Turner phenotype and spontaneous sexual development. The mother is short and had ovulatory menstrual cycles, normal breast development, X-chromatin negative buccal smear, 45,X chromosomal pattern in her peripheral blood lymphocytes, and 45,X/46,X,r(X) mosaicism in her skin, with the majority of the cells (85%) showing X monosomy. She had a successful uncomplicated pregnancy at the age of 25 years. The daughter is short and had spontaneous sexual development, including menstruation at the age of 15 years. Her buccal smear was X-chromatin negative and karyotypes from peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts showed a 45,X chromosome constitution. Her menstrual cycles are irregular and, most probably, anovulatory. She has a horseshoe kidney. Six women with a 45, X chromosome complement are known to have delivered normal infants with no chromosomal abnormality. Five children with 45,X mosaicism have been born to mothers with 45,X mosaicism; all had a 46,XX cell line as well. This is the first report of a 45,X female born to a mother with mosaicism composed of 2 abnormal cell lines, 1 with X monosomy and 1 with a ring X chromosome.
Roshan, Anupama S; Janaki, C; Parveen, B
White Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair caused by Trichosporon asahii. It is also known as trichomycosis nodosa or trichomycosis nodularis. We report two cases of White Piedra in a mother and her daughter for the rarity of such occurrence.
A total of 225 mothers, ages 19 to 64, were asked how they felt about their children (N=309): (1) upon knowledge of pregnancy, (2) at the quickening, (3) at birth, and (4) at the time of the interview. Results contradict some of the rationale behind the current liberalized abortion arguments by showing that initially unwanted children are loved as…
MacKay-Soroka, Sherri; And Others
Examination of the nature and quality of deaf children's referential messages to their mothers, the outcome of such messages, and the reformulations of "failed" messages. Deaf children 6-10 years old, from oral or bimodal educational programs, were tested in two tasks involving identification and description of a picture. (Author/BN)
..., moms are there for their children with hope and love--scraping and sacrificing and doing whatever it... unwavering; her love, unconditional. Today, we celebrate those blessings, and we renew them for the year to... proclaim May 12, 2013, as Mother's Day. I urge all Americans to express love and gratitude to...
The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…
Margalit, M.; Kleitman, T.
The aim of the study was to examine factors that predict maternal stress, reported by mothers whose infants were diagnosed as having developmental disabilities at the beginning of participating in an early intervention programme "Me and My Mommy" and after one year. A second goal was to identify and to portray a subgroup of resilient…
Zumwalt, Karen Kepler
New mothers and beginning teachers face many of the same types of feelings and experiences as they learn to cope with their new roles. Implications for changing the conditions of support for new teachers and suggestions for involving more individuals in teaching are offered. (DF)
This article reports the results of a social network analysis (SNA) performed on the mother's primary network of interaction in 15 Mexican American families in the city of El Paso, Texas, the neighbourhood of La Villita, in Chicago, and the city of Lincoln, Nebraska. The goal of this study was to examine potential opportunities for Spanish use by…
Cooke, Gwendolyn; McEvoy, Alan
Three mothers whose children were connected to Dallas (Texas) gangs told their stories at the Fourth Joint National Conference on Gangs, Schools, and Community. It is said that gang members come from dysfunctional families, usually from homes where fathers are not present or involved in children's upbringing. In spite of a great deal of research…
Mercer, Ramona T.
This paper reports findings of an exploratory field study of the teenager's first year of motherhood. Twelve subjects, aged 14-19, were interviewed a number of times during that year. Interviews were largely unstructured, allowing mothers to express their concerns and feelings. Data for analysis were: (1) narrative style protocols that were…
Mylod, Deirdre E.; Whitman, Thomas L.; Borkowski, John G.
Investigated relationships among prenatal maternal resources, perceptions about parenting, and children's temperament at 6 months, and adaptation of 90 adolescent mothers three years after the birth of their first child. Found that maternal resources uniquely predicted later maternal cognitive functioning, personal adjustment, and child abuse…
Hellstein, John W.; Lanzel, Emily A.
Zoonotic anatrichosomiasis in a mother and daughter is reported. Both presented with a 10-week history of multiple painful oral ulcers. Biopsy specimens revealed the presence of small, coiled trichuroid nematodes with distinctive morphological features, including stichocytes and paired bacillary bands. This represents an unusual infection by a zoonotic Anatrichosoma species. PMID:24899034
Caspar, Ruth; Graham, Rosalie
It is often stated that Catholic schools in the US were built on the foundation of the poverty of vowed women religious. Dozens of communities fit this description, none more so than the Dominican Sisters of St. Mary of the Springs. Sister Stephanie Mohun's service as mother general spanned a period of tremendous growth in Catholic education at…
Khumalo, N P; Loo, W J; Hollowood, K; Salvary, I; Graham, R M; Dawber, R P R
We report two cases of keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans in a Caucasian family involving a 28-year-old woman and her mother. This is an unusual family in that no male relatives are similarly affected. Secondly, both patients have no significant eye changes but quite extensive scarring alopecia. To the best of our knowledge this is the second reported family in the UK.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Congressional Budget Office.
Adolescent pregnancy and parenthood have become increasingly important public policy issues in recent years for many reasons, including concerns about their prevalence, about the economic and social problems faced by young mothers and their children, and about the budgetary effects of adolescent parents' reliance on public assistance programs.…
Tuma, June M.
This review examines the literature on the effect of marriage and motherhood on women's psychological well-being. The paper discusses the impact of child rearing on life satisfaction and feelings of stress and considers the special problems of the working mother. Changing social attitudes surrounding a woman's role as wife and marital dissolution…
Oxford, Monica L.; Lee, Jungeun O.; Lohr, Mary Jane
This prospective longitudinal study examines the antecedents of adolescent mothers' transition into adulthood and their attainment of multiple adult statuses in their early 30s in a nonclinical sample. The distribution, timing, and impact of factors in adolescence (education, employment, marriage, economic status, criminal involvement, and others)…
Talebian, Mohammad; Talebian, Ehsan
We present a biographical sketch of Alenush Terian, the first Iranian woman physicist, who was known as the Iranian Solar Mother, since she founded the first solar telescopic observatory in Iran. She taught and carried out astronomical research for three decades with inadequate resources but with unflinching devotion, motivated by a strong desire to propagate scientific education and research in her country.
Kaplan, Bert L.
It is possible for elementary school guidance counselors to help mothers of exceptional children face the severe reality demands they experience as internal turmoil marked by anger guilt and self depreciation. Once their feelings have been elicited and legitimized exploration of how feelings influence behavior toward children becomes possible.…
Boling, Kimberly B.; Larson, Carol Novillis
Describes a successful mother/daughter math club started by a third grade teacher which is designed to help participants increase positive feelings about mathematics; further develop problem-solving skills, especially involving construction and spatial visualization tasks; and become familiar with women's contributions to the world of mathematics.…
Pelaez-Nogueras, Martha; Gewirtz, Jacob L.
This study compared the reinforcement effects of imitation to the elicitation effects of noncontingent maternal vocal stimulation. Subjects were 17 three- to six-month-old infants and their mothers. Infants received three successive experimental conditions: contingent imitation B1, noncontingent elicitations, and contingent imitation B2. Under the…
Grauer, Ann F
The Listening to Mothers II report is not only a document; it is a tool that is accessible to childbirth educators. By becoming familiar with its contents, educators can use the information to help expectant parents think about options available to them and inspire them to use evidence-based information as they make choices for the birth of their child.
Hall, D; Kirsten, G
Kangaroo Mother Care is a simple and beneficial intervention for the care of low birth weight infants. Although initially conceived for use in developing countries with limited resources, its use has expanded worldwide as clinicians, administrators and parents become familiar with the psychological, physiological, clinical and cost benefits associated with the practice. A recently documented benefit has specific relevance to blood transfusion medicine.
Bytingsvik, Jenny; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Hamers, Timo; Swart, Kees; Aars, Jon; Lie, Elisabeth; Nilsen, Else Mari Espseth; Wiig, Oystein; Derocher, Andrew E; Jenssen, Bjørn M
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are protein-binding blood-accumulating contaminants that may have detrimental toxicological effects on the early phases of mammalian development. To enable an evaluation of the potential health risks of PFAS exposure for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), an exposure assessment was made by examining plasma levels of PFASs in polar bear mothers in relation to their suckling cubs-of-the-year (~4 months old). Samples were collected at Svalbard in 1998 and 2008, and we investigated the between-year differences in levels of PFASs. Seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑₇PFCAs: PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTrDA) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (∑₂PFSAs: PFHxS and PFOS) were detected in the majority of the mothers and cubs from both years. In mothers and cubs, most PFCAs were detected in higher concentrations in 2008 than in 1998. On the contrary, levels of PFOS were lower in 2008 than in 1998, while levels of PFHxS did not differ between the two sampling years. PFOS was the dominating compound in mothers and cubs both in 1998 and in 2008. Concentration of PFHpA did not differ between mothers and cubs, while concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA, PFHxS, and PFOS were higher in mothers than in their cubs. Except from PFHpA, all compounds correlated significantly between mothers and their cubs. The mean cub to mother ratios ranged from 0.15 for PFNA to 1.69 for PFHpA. On average (mean±standard error of mean), the levels of ∑₇PFCAs and ∑₂PFSAs in cubs were 0.24±0.01 and 0.22±0.01 times the levels in their mothers, respectively. Although maternal transfer appears to be a substantial source of exposure for the cubs, the low cub to mother ratios indicate that maternal transfer of PFASs in polar bears is relatively low in comparison with hydrophobic contaminants (e.g. PCBs). Because the level of several PFASs in mothers and cubs from both sampling years exceeded the levels associated
Solomon, Coralis; Barden, Sejal Mehta
Counselor educators experience high levels of stress. Mothers in academia face an additional set of emotional stressors. The authors offer a self-compassion framework for mentors to increase emotional resilience of mothers in counselor education.
Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Ann-Bell, Martha
It is well accepted that parent-child interactions are bidirectional by nature, yet not much is known about the psychophysiological activity underlying these interactions. We examined, during a parent-child interaction, how a child’s negativity statistically predicted maternal frontal EEG asymmetry and how a mother’s negativity statistically predicted child frontal EEG asymmetry. Thirty-four mother-child dyads participated in the study. Maternal and child behavior and physiology were measured during a puzzle task. Results indicated that mothers whose children exhibited more challenging behaviors during the dyadic interaction displayed more right (relative to left) asymmetry, as did children whose mothers were high in negativity during the interaction. These findings suggest that mothers and children react to each other’s signals, not only behaviorally but also physiologically. PMID:27354097
Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O
Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH.
Karasik, Lana B.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Adolph, Karen E.
We examined mothers' verbal responses to their crawling or walking infants' object sharing (i.e. bids). Fifty mothers and their 13-month-olds were observed for 1 hour at home. Infants bid from a stationary position or they bid after carrying the object to their mothers. Mothers responded with affirmations (e.g. "thank you"),…
Javaid, G A
Children reared in homes headed by homosexual and heterosexual mothers were compared with respect to the mothers' and children's attitudes towards marriage, procreation and homosexuality. The mothers did not prefer their children to be homosexual; they desired them to marry and procreate. This was expressed more unambiguously for their sons. The children mirrored these expectations, boys with greater frequency than the girls. Most of the children expressed reservations about having a homosexual mother.
Baker, Jason; McHale, James; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn
Using new methods designed to assess coparenting between incarcerated mothers of preschool-aged children and the maternal grandmothers caring for the children during their absence, we examined relationships between coparenting quality during the mother's jail stay and both concurrent child behavior problems and later coparenting interactions following mothers' release and community reentry. Forty mother-grandmother dyads participated in joint coparenting discussions during the incarceration, with a smaller subset completing a parallel activity at home 1 month postrelease. Both women also participated in individual coparenting interviews during the incarceration, and reported on child behavior problems. Mother-grandmother coparenting interactions exhibited an overall structure similar to that documented in nuclear families, with population-specific dynamics also evident. The observational system demonstrated good interrater and internal reliability, and showed associations with maternal (but not grandmother) reports and descriptions of the coparenting relationship via interview. Greater coparenting relationship quality during incarceration was associated with fewer concurrent child externalizing behavior problems, and predicted more positive coparenting interactions postrelease. Findings suggest that the coparenting assessments were useful for understanding mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in these families and that importantly, these relationships were tied to children's functioning. Avenues for future research and considerations for intervention efforts are discussed.
Neves, Priscila Nicoletti; Ravelli, Ana Paula Xavier; Lemos, Juliana Regina Dias
Breastfeeding is one of the key practices which promote health, being associated with a reduction of diseases and mortality in childhood. Thus, from the course conclusive work, the present article was structured, which aimed to recognize the perceptions of mothers in the face of the use of the mother kangaroo method. With a qualitative, descriptive and field approach, it was held at the Philanthropic Hospital of Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil, by the months of August to October 2006, in which six mothers were included in the kangaroo mother method during the admission of the baby. For the gathering, semi-structured interviews were made and data were analyzed by the content analysis. This article analyzed two categories, maternal experience with the mother kangaroo method, with the subcategories: mother kangaroo method and maternal breastfeeding and experiences at the kangaroo practice; and knowing the kangaroo method. As a conclusion, nursing plays an essential role in the insertion of the family to the method, from the provided cares.
Reidler, Esther B; Swenson, Lance P
Recently, researchers have devoted greater attention to understanding how disagreement between mothers and their children regarding parent-child relationship quality and functioning impacts youth adjustment. While some view discrepancies as indices of developmentally appropriate individuation, discrepancies regarding family functioning also have been found to predict problematic youth functioning. This study examined the effects of mother-child discrepancies for mother-child relationship qualities and youth self-disclosure on youth- and mother-reported youth internalizing and externalizing adjustment. 232 fifth, eighth, and 11th grade youth (55 % female) and their mothers completed measures of mother-child relationship quality, youth self-disclosure, and youth internalizing and externalizing adjustment. For internalizing adjustment, few effects of discrepancy on adjustment were evident. Instead, informant-specific perceptions of mother-child relationship functioning were most relevant for informant-specific reports of youth adjustment. For youth externalizing adjustment, the magnitude of mother-child discrepancies for negative relationship quality and for youth self-disclosure predicted lower levels of problematic externalizing behavior from both the children's and the mothers' perspectives, which could indicate a lack of parent-child communication. Future research is needed to fully understand how discrepancies in negative or maladaptive aspects of mother-child relationships are formed (e.g., low disclosure), are understood by the members of the dyad, and contribute to the onset, maintenance, and treatment of problematic behavioral outcomes.
Tchiakpe, E; Hounto-Ogouyemi, A; Diop Ndiaye, H; Diouara, A A M; Aïssi, A K; Keke, R K; Kpangon, A A; Lafia, B; Métadokou, D; Bouraïma, B; Anthony, D; Hounsinou, A; Alao, M J; Azondekon, A; Ahouidi, A D; Bei, A K; Mbengue, M A S; Touré Kane, C; Zannou, D M
The goal of this study was to evaluate using the molecular diagnosis, infection transmission rate of HIV in children born to HIV-1 positive mothers as part of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in Benin. The sample consisted of 524 dried blood spots (DBS) of children born to HIV-1 positive mothers, from 30 sites (PMTCT) taken between October 2009 and June 2010. The diagnosis of HIV-1 was performed by the qualitative detection of viral nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) in DBS on filter paper using the Abbott RealTime(®) HIV-1 Qualitative assay. We found that 51 DBS were positive (9.7%) and 473 were negative (90.3%). The failure rate of PMTCT among 420 mothers who received antiretroviral prophylaxis was 6.7% (28/420). This failure rate was significantly higher among children born to infected mothers on antiretroviral monotherapy than on triple therapy (HAART). The results of our study enrich the data in the literature on highly active antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis to reduce the transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child.
On a recent Saturday morning, 20 inmate mothers filed into the prison chapel at Alabama's Tutwiler Prison to participate in a unique program--The Storybook Project, a program of Aid to Inmate Mothers (AIM). AIM is a nonprofit organization that helps mothers in prison stay in contact with their children during their incarceration. At the front of…
True, Mary McMahan; Pisani, Lelia; Oumar, Fadimata
Examined infant-mother attachment in Mali's Dogon ethnic group. Found that distribution of Strange Situation classifications was 67 percent secure, 0 percent avoidant, 8 percent resistant, and 25 percent disorganized. Infant attachment security related to quality of mother-infant communication. Mothers of disorganized infants had significantly…
Moncloa, Fe; Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.
This study explores perceptions of Mexican mother-adolescent communication about sexuality. Participants interviewed included four mother-expecting son pairs and four mother-pregnant daughter pairs. Our interviews revealed important adolescent gender differences. Pena (shame/embarrassment) played a major role vis-a-vis indirect communication about…
Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
This study focused on natural mentoring relationships between nonparental adults and African American adolescent mothers. Data were collected from 93 adolescent mothers over 5 time points, starting in the adolescent mothers' senior year of high school and ending 5 years after high school. We found that having a natural mentor was related to fewer…
Moro, Marie Rose
Mothering techniques vary significantly from one culture to another. These techniques are transformed as women migrate and come into contact with other ways of forging the mother-child bond. Being aware of and respecting mothers' cultural customs is a challenge for modern day child care workers.
Mondschein, Emily R.; Adolph, Karen E.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.
Examined influence of child's sex on mothers' expectations about their 11-month-olds' motor development. Found that mothers of girls underestimated their performance on the novel task of crawling down steep and shallow slopes and mothers of boys overestimated their performance. Girls and boys exhibited identical levels of motor performance during…
Karasik, Lana B; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Adolph, Karen E
We examined mothers' verbal responses to their crawling or walking infants' object sharing (i.e. bids). Fifty mothers and their 13-month-olds were observed for 1 hour at home. Infants bid from a stationary position or they bid after carrying the object to their mothers. Mothers responded with affirmations (e.g. 'thank you'), descriptions ('red box'), or action directives ('open it'). Infants' locomotor status and the form of their bids predicted how mothers responded. Mothers of walkers responded with action directives more often than mothers of crawlers. Notably, differences in the responses of mothers of walkers versus those of crawlers were explained by differences in bid form between the two groups of infants. Walkers were more likely to engage in moving bids than crawlers, who typically shared objects from stationary positions. When crawlers displayed moving bids, their mothers offered action directives just as often as did mothers of walkers. Findings illustrate developmental cascades, wherein Infants' locomotor status affects how infants share objects with mothers, which in turn shapes mothers' verbal responses.
Babaee, Ensiyeh; Jain, Sachin
Mothers' health is one of the most important and fundamental issues which the officials of health and care and supreme education should address as an important and effective part in society's individuals lives. The necessity of having a healthy society is having healthy mothers and this health would not be verified unless mother enjoys mental…
Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa
Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…
Mandara, Jelani; Johnston, Jamie S.; Murray, Carolyn B.; Varner, Fatima
This study examined the effects of marital status and family income on the self-esteem of 292 African American mothers. Counter to previous studies with European American mothers, family income moderated the effects of marital status. Those mothers with higher family income had higher self-esteem, regardless of their marital status. For those with…
Benjamin, Lynn R.; Benjamin, Robert; Rind, Bruce
Presents a qualitative analysis of the experience of parenting of mothers with dissociative disorders. Using the mothers' words, describes how the five symptom areas of dissociation impeded their parenting efforts. Discusses the necessity of addressing parenting in the treatment of client-mothers with dissociative disorders. (Author/MKA)
Zekoski, Ellen M.; And Others
Effects of depressed mood on mother-infant interaction were studied in 30 mother-infant dyads using a mood induction procedure consisting of neutral or self-referent statements. Among results were that mothers in the depression induction condition were less successful in eliciting positive responses from their infants than were controls.…
Dunsmore, Julie C.; Karn, Michelle A.
Described results of the alteration of Hyson and Lee's Caregiver's Beliefs about Feelings questionnaire for use with parents in order to assess emotional understanding of children. Found mothers' developmental beliefs scores were positively related to mothers' negative emotional expressiveness, and mothers' emotion language scores were positively…
Thoman, Evelyn B.; And Others
Using a modified time-sampling procedure, 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous mothers were observed while breast-feeding their 48-hour old infants. In comparison with multiparous mothers, primiparous mothers (1) spend more time in non-feeding activities, (2) spend more time feeding male infants, (3) change activity more frequently, (4) provide more…
Wartena, Beatrice Kay
This survey research assessed the perception of teen mothers relating to their nurturing/parenting role. The research was designed to identify sources that teen mothers feel they can turn to for help and to give teen mothers the opportunity to voice their opinions. Following a review of the literature on the history of nurturing, teen pregnancy,…
Karasik, Lana B.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Adolph, Karen E.; Dimitropoulou, Katherine A.
The content of mothers' emotional, verbal, and gestural communication to their infants was examined under conditions of potential physical risk in a laboratory motor task. Mothers encouraged and discouraged their 12- and 18-month-old infants to crawl or walk down a sloping walkway. Mothers expressed positive affect on nearly every trial. They…
Goodhue, Rebecca; Onslow, Mark; Quine, Susan; O'Brian, Sue; Hearne, Anna
The Lidcombe Program is a behavioral treatment for early stuttering which is implemented by parents, typically the mother. Despite this, there is limited detailed knowledge about mothers' experiences of administering the treatment. This article describes the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of 16 mothers during their…
In this article I argue that mothering in the home is an educational tool for creating positive self-agency in Latina girls. This essay articulates the ways in which my lived experiences as a Latina mother informs the socialization of "guerrera" girls. I engage in a process of "testimonio" to demonstrate how mothering, by using tools such as…
Robinson, W. P.; Arnold, Jenifer
The quality of mother-child linguistic interaction was studied in 40 6-year-old English children and their mothers. Both the middle and working classes were represented in the sample. Tasks were administered in which children were to ask questions of their mothers. Questions were analyzed in terms of open versus closed. The majority of the…
Petts, Richard J.
Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…
Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.
Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…
Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
This article examines whether children living with single mothers benefit when they also live with a grandparent, using data from the 1979 to 2002 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged mother-child file (N = 6,501). Results indicate that for White children, living with a single mother and a grandparent is associated with…
Considering the mother-child relationship as the first in which culturally-related interdependence or independence is learned, this study examined whether the interdependency hypothesis holds for the mother-child relationship in Indonesia. The study focused on the quality of the mother-child relationship, children's daily social interactions, and…
Ybarra, Gabriel; Passman, Richard H.; Eisenberg, Carl S. L.
This study compared the degree to which young children were placated during a standard medical evaluation by the presence of their mother, blanket, mother plus blanket, or no supportive agent. Participating were 64 three-year-olds who underwent 4 routine medical procedures. Children were rated by their mothers as attached or nonattached to…
Abuya, Benta A.; Oketch, Moses; Mutisya, Maurice; Ngware, Moses; Ciera, James
Research shows that fathers' level of education predicts achievement of both boys and girls, with significantly greater effect for boys. Similarly, mothers' level of education predicts the achievement of girls but not boys. This study tests the mother-child education achievement hypothesis, by examining the effect of mothers' education on the…
Garrett, Susan Corona; Tidwell, Romeria
Reports on in-depth interviews conducted with nine adolescent females, all residing in a licensed care institution. Four of them were already mothers, four were not mothers, and one was pregnant. Abuse, neglect, and family dysfunction were found to be more pronounced among the mothers and the pregnant adolescent. (Author/GCP)
Asayesh, Gelareh; And Others
Prepared by the national professional association of education reporters, this publication contains five articles that emphasize stories about mothers' crucial roles in their children's literacy. Reporters in five different parts of the United States sought out and interviewed young mothers with school-age children. "An Overview: Mothers'…
Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Bingham, Gary E.
This study examined mothers' and fathers' parenting challenges and strategies/resources used when parenting toddlers. Through a qualitative interview protocol, implemented with mothers and fathers separately at a university laboratory, this study found that both fathers and mothers appeared to be transitioning from traditional gender roles towards…
Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Au, Terry Kit-fong
Examined impact of experimentally altering mothers' style when discussing sexuality and AIDS with adolescent children. Found that intervention group mothers reduced their amount of speaking, asked more open-ended questions, acted less judgmental, and discussed dating and sexuality more than did control group mothers. Intervention group adolescents…
Gochman, Eva R. Grubler; Aisenstein, Clara
An exploratory study of high-risk mothers' interactions with their infants studied modalities of stimulation; vestibular and auditory. It was hypothesized that stimulation would be lower for non-paranoid than for paranoid types, and than for control mothers. Mothers recruited from inner city gynecological clinics were screened for probable…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dependency of mother or... ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.31 Dependency of mother or father. Claims of a mother or father for the benefits to which either may be entitled under the World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...
Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald
This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the Maternal…
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dependency of mother or... ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.31 Dependency of mother or father. Claims of a mother or father for the benefits to which either may be entitled under the World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dependency of mother or... ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.31 Dependency of mother or father. Claims of a mother or father for the benefits to which either may be entitled under the World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency of mother or... ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.31 Dependency of mother or father. Claims of a mother or father for the benefits to which either may be entitled under the World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dependency of mother or... ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.31 Dependency of mother or father. Claims of a mother or father for the benefits to which either may be entitled under the World War...
Teenage pregnancy is an issue receiving a growing amount of attention in the United States, with approximately one million children born to teenage mothers annually. Teen mothers tend to function less effectively in numerous realms than their peers who delay child-rearing, and the children of teen mothers are at greater risk of school failure. In…
Goodman, Sherryl H.
The vulnerability of children to developmental problems was studied in three groups of young children: (1) children with schizophrenic mothers (N=35); (2) children with severely depressed mothers (N=19); and children with well mothers (N=21). The children ranged in age from birth to 5 years, with 64 percent under age 2, and came from families who…
Sturges, Judith E.; Hanrahan, Kathleen J.
This exploratory study sought to understand the effects of criminality on mothers of offenders. Semistructured in-depth interviews were used to gather data from 27 mothers. Respondents reported that their children's criminality leads to a series of complications and stressors in mothers' lives, including physical, psychological, relational,…
Healy, Sarah J; Lewin, Jona; Butler, Stephen; Vaillancourt, Kyla; Seth-Smith, Fiona
This study investigated the quality of mother-infant interaction and maternal ability to recognise adult affect in three study groups consisting of mothers with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, mothers with depression and healthy controls. Sixty-four mothers were recruited from a Mother and Baby Unit and local children's centres. A 5-min mother-infant interaction was coded on a number of caregiving variables. Affect recognition and discrimination abilities were tested via a series of computerised tasks. Group differences were found both in measures of affect recognition and in the mother-infant interaction. Mothers with schizophrenia showed consistent impairments across most of the parenting measures and all measures of affect recognition and discrimination. Mothers with depression fell between the mothers with schizophrenia and healthy controls on most measures. However, depressed women's parenting was not significantly poorer than controls on any of the measures, and only showed trends for differences with mothers with schizophrenia on a few measures. Regression analyses found impairments in affect recognition and a diagnosis of schizophrenia to predict the occurrence of odd or unusual speech in the mother-infant interaction. Results add to the growing body of knowledge on the mother-infant interaction in mothers with schizophrenia and mothers with depression compared to healthy controls, suggesting a need for parenting interventions aimed at mothers with these conditions. While affect recognition impairments were not found to fully explain differences in parenting among women with schizophrenia, further research is needed to understand the psychopathology of parenting disturbances within this clinical group.
Background More than 90% of children living with HIV have been infected through mother to child transmission. The aims of our present study were to: (1) assess the utilization of the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) services in five reproductive and child health clinics in Moshi, northern Tanzania, after the implementation of routine counselling and testing; (2) explore the level of knowledge the postnatal mothers had about PMTCT; and (3) assess the quality of the counselling given. Methods This study was conducted in 2007 and 2008 in rural and urban areas of Moshi in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Mixed methods were used. We interviewed 446 mothers when they brought their four-week-old infants to five reproductive and child health clinics for immunization. On average, the urban clinics included in the study had implemented the programme two years earlier than the rural clinics. We also conducted 13 in-depth interviews with mothers and nurses, four focus group discussions with mothers, and four observations of mothers receiving counselling. Results Nearly all mothers (98%) were offered HIV testing, and all who were offered accepted. However, the counselling was hasty with little time for clarifications. Mothers attending urban antenatal clinics tended to be more knowledgeable about PMTCT than the rural attendees. Compared with previous studies in the area, our study found that PMTCT knowledge had increased and the counsellors had greater confidence in their counselling. Conclusions Routine counselling and testing for HIV at the antenatal clinics was greatly accepted and included practically every mother in this time period. However, the counselling was suboptimal due to time and resource constraints. We interpret the higher level of PMTCT knowledge among the urban as opposed to the rural attendees as a result of differences in the start up of the PMTCT programme and, thus, programme maturation. After comparison with earlier studies conducted
Belt, Ritva; Punamaki, Raija-Leena
In this article we present a novel method of outpatient care: brief, dynamic mother-infant group psychotherapy with mothers who have substance use problems. In this therapy, substance abuse treatment is part of mental health and parenting interventions. The focus is on preventing disturbance in the mother-infant relationship in this high-risk…
Bick, Johanna; Dozier, Mary; Bernard, Kristin; Grasso, Damion; Simons, Robert
This study examined the biological processes associated with foster mother-infant bonding. In an examination of foster mother-infant dyads ("N" = 41, mean infant age = 8.5 months), foster mothers' oxytocin production was associated with their expressions of behavioral delight toward their foster infant and their average P3 response to…
Dalla, Rochelle L.
This study explored the meaning of motherhood among Navajo teenagers, their mothers, and community informants living in a small, rural town on a Navajo Reservation. Participating were 8 Navajo teenage mothers ranging from 16 to 19 years, 7 grandmothers (mothers of the teens) who ranged from 41 to 57 years, and 6 community informants: two teachers,…
Examined whether children of alcoholic mothers were more psychologically damaged than children of nonalcoholic mothers. The subject families' potential for creating a good upbringing environment and subjects' childhoods were studied. Found that children of alcoholic mothers develop social maladjustment problems and addictions, and have a high rate…
Holle, Kimberly Ann
An emerging family constellation is the family headed by a "single mother by choice," a structure in which both single marital status and parental status are chosen. This study was conducted to determine whether single mothers by choice (N=12) differed significantly from inwedlock mothers (N=18) regarding their childbearing decisions.…
Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.
Social support for adolescent mothers, particularly from mother figures, can buffer risks and promote well-being. To date, no longitudinal research has investigated how the dimensions of social support may change during the transition from pregnancy to parenthood for adolescent mothers. This study examined stability and change in dimensions of…
Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.
Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…
Bonet, Mercedes; Marchand, Laetitia; Kaminski, Monique; Fohran, Anne; Betoko, Aisha; Charles, Marie-Aline; Blondel, Béatrice
Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers have been associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the association with maternal full- and part-time employment and return to work in European countries. To study the associations between breastfeeding, any and almost exclusive (infants receiving breast milk as their only milk) breastfeeding, at 4 months of infant's age and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of mothers. We used the EDEN mother-child cohort, a prospective study of 2002 singleton pregnant women in two French university hospitals. We selected all mothers (n = 1,339) who were breastfeeding at discharge from the maternity unit. Data on feeding practices were collected at the maternity unit and by postal questionnaires at 4, 8 and 12 months after the birth. Among infants breastfed at discharge, 93% were still receiving any breastfeeding (83% almost exclusive breastfeeding) at the 3rd completed week of life, 78% (63%) at the 1st completed month, and 42% (20%) at the 4th completed month. Time of return to work was a major predictor for stopping breastfeeding: the sooner the mothers returned to work, the less they breastfed their babies at 4 months of infant's age, independently of full-time or part-time employment. The association was stronger for almost exclusive breastfeeding mothers than for any breastfeeding ones. In a society where breastfeeding is not the norm, women may have difficulties combining work and breastfeeding. Specific actions need to be developed and assessed among mothers who return to work and among employers.
Melzi, Gigliana; King, Kendall A
The present study examined gender and age patterns of diminutive use in conversations between 32 Spanish-speaking Peruvian mothers and their three- and five-year-old children. Results confirm previous findings concerning both parents' greater use of diminutives with younger children and children's early acquisition of this complex aspect of morphology. However, findings do not support previous studies on gender differences in parental use of diminutives with young children. Results also revealed that mothers' and children's imitations of their interlocutors' diminutized words promoted their interlocutors' overall diminutive use. This finding highlights the acute sensitivity of both speakers to each others' language and the potential role of imitation in older children's language development.
Davanzo, Riccardo; Brovedani, Pierpaolo; Travan, Laura; Kennedy, Jacqueline; Crocetta, Anna; Sanesi, Cecilia; Strajn, Tamara; De Cunto, Angela
The practice of kangaroo mother care (KMC) is steadily increasing in high-tech settings due to its proven benefits for both infants and parents. In spite of that, clear guidelines about how to implement this method of care are lacking, and as a consequence, some restrictions are applied in many neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), preventing its practice. Based on recommendations from the Expert Group of the International Network on Kangaroo Mother Care, we developed a hospital protocol in the neonatal unit of the Institute for Maternal and Child Health in Trieste, Italy, a level 3 unit, aimed to facilitate and promote KMC implementation in high-tech settings. Our guideline is therefore proposed, based both on current scientific literature and on practical considerations and experience. Future adjustments and improvements would be considered based on increasing clinical KMC use and further knowledge.
Myers, Diana K., Ed.; Wessels, Renee, Ed.
Noting that the well-being of children and that of mothers cannot be separated, this report provides information on the well-being of mothers worldwide. The report compares the status of mothers in 20 industrialized nations and in 86 developing countries, and creates a Mothers' Index measuring the overall status of mothers. The Mothers' Index is a…
Hernandez-Trejo, Maria; Garcia-Rivas, Gerardo; Torres-Quintanilla, Alejandro
Introduction Irisin is considered to be a myokine and adipokine that may also participate in reproductive functions, as it increases significantly throughout pregnancy. However, the regulation of circulating irisin and its relationship with other cytokines has not been assessed thus far in pregnant women and their offspring. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in irisin and cytokine concentrations between women at the end of pregnancy and their offspring, as well as the relationship between maternal and newborn irisin and maternal and newborn biomarkers. Methods Twenty-eight mother/newborn pairs were included in this study. The following biomarkers were evaluated in maternal venous and arterial umbilical cord blood samples: irisin, 27 cytokine panel, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total plasma protein, and free fatty acid concentration. Results The newborns had significantly lower irisin concentrations compared to their mothers (p = 0.03), but this difference was present only in babies born from mothers without labor prior to cesarean section delivery (p = 0.01). No significant differences in maternal and newborn irisin concentrations were found between diabetic and non-diabetic mothers or between overweight/obese and normal weight mothers. A significant positive correlation was found between TAC level and irisin concentration in newborns. Maternal and newborn interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1RA, IL-5, IL-7, and interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10 levels were significantly positively correlated with irisin concentrations in both study groups. In addition, maternal IL1β, IL-5, IL-7, and IP-10 levels positively predicted maternal irisin concentrations. Furthermore, arterial cord blood TAC and IL-1β and IL1-RA levels positively predicted newborn irisin concentrations. Multiple regression analyses showed that maternal IL-13 negatively predicted offspring irisin levels (p = 0.03) and that maternal IL-1β positively predicted newborn irisin
Solis-Camarar, P; Fox, R A
Parenting practices and developmental expectations were examined in a sample of 221 Mexican mothers with very young children living in Guadalajara, Jalisco. They completed a Spanish version of the Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC), a 100-item rating scale that measures parents' developmental expectations, discipline, and nurturing practices. The psychometric properties of the PBC for Mexican mothers, including test-retest reliabilities, were very similar to those found for mothers of young children in the United States. Younger Mexican mothers used more frequent discipline and less nurturing with their young children than older mothers did. Married mothers nurtured their children more than unmarried mothers; young, unmarried mothers nurtured their children the least. Lower nurturing scores were associated with lower education levels, and higher nurturing scores were associated with higher education levels. Mothers from higher socioeconomic levels held higher developmental expectations for their children, and they used less frequent discipline and more frequent nurturing practices than mothers from lower socioeconomic levels. These findings are consistent with those for mothers of young children in the United States.
Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid
The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child’s health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized by the prototypes – between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children. PMID:26973939
Koren, Gideon; Hutson, Janine
In April 2014 Tennessee acted to criminalize pregnant women who use illegal drugs and have an offspring "considered harmed". We discuss seven major reasons why this law is wrong and dangerous. Criminalizing vulnerable, addicted mothers scare them away from treatment. The new law will practically target the poor, vulnerable, uninsured non-white pregnant woman. It is hoped that, similar to previous cases, the American justice system will once again reverse the decision and allow the true American values to prevail.
months old if you’re not breastfeeding because I think the younger they are, the less long term effects it’s going to have on them. I don’t think he...been back. Several of the mothers of young children were still breastfeeding while they prepared to deploy. [P34] I was still breastfeeding ... breastfeeding a lot more than that. To preserve their bond, an area of importance in the pre-deployment phase was setting up communication pathways
Hill, Pamela D; Aldag, Jean C; Chatterton, Robert T; Zinaman, Michael
The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to compare psychological distress as measured via self-reported perceived stress, sleep, and fatigue levels in lactating mothers of a term infant and mothers of a preterm infant and(b) to determine whether the addition of psychological distress to a previous model predicts milk volume at Postpartum Week 6 by gestation group. The convenience sample of 95 mothers of a preterm infant (31 weeks) and 98 mothers of a term infant completed the Perceived Stress Visual Analogue Scale, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, and the Fatigue Visual Analog Scale. Stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue levels decreased during the 6-week study period for mothers of a term but not for mothers of a preterm infant. Perceived stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue during the first 6 weeks postpartum were not related to milk volume; thus, the mother's perceived psychological distress had no apparent effect on lactation.
Hannan, Jean; Brooten, Dorothy; Page, Timothy; Galindo, Ali; Torres, Maritza
Background. Low-income mothers have greater challenges in accessing health care services due changes in the health care system and budget cuts. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to test a nurse practitioner (NP) intervention using cell phone and texting on maternal/infant outcomes. Methods. The sample included 129 mother-infant pairs. Intervention group mothers received NP 2-way cell phone follow-up intervention post–hospital discharge for 6 months. Results. Intervention mothers’ perceived social support was significantly higher. Intervention infants received their first newborn follow-up visit significantly earlier (6 vs 9 days); significantly more infants were immunized at recommended times (2, 4, and 6 months of age); and there were fewer infant morbidities compared to controls. The intervention saved between $51 030 and $104 277 in health care costs averted. Conclusion. This easy-to-use, safe intervention is an effective way to reach a wide range of populations and demonstrated improved maternal/infant outcomes and decreased cost. PMID:27508211
Atkins, Rahshida L
Despite suggestions in the literature that depression has serious consequences, few studies have examined specific health and psychosocial outcomes of depression in Black single mothers. The purpose of this study was to estimate paths in a just-identified theoretical model of outcomes of depression for Black single mothers based on theoretical propositions and empirical findings. The model included the variables, depressive cognitions, depressive symptomatology, perceived social support, and positive health practices. Five direct and two indirect hypothesized relationships were estimated using structural equation modeling. A nonprobability sample of convenience of 159 Black single mothers aged 18 to 45 years was recruited for the study. This study used a cross-sectional correlational design. The participants responded in person or via the U.S. mail to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, the Depressive Cognition Scale, the Personal Resource Questionnaire 85-Part 2, and the Personal Lifestyle Questionnaire. Beta and Gamma path coefficients were statistically significant for four out of five hypothesized direct relationships within the model (p < .01). The direct path between depressive cognitions and positive health practices was not supported (Gamma = -.11, p > .05). The two indirect paths were weak but statistically significant (p < .01). Depressive symptoms and perceived social support were outcomes of depressive cognitions. Positive health practices was not a direct outcome of depressive cognitions. Perceived social support and positive health practices were outcomes of depressive symptoms.
Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L
Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.
Berger, Lawrence M.; Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane
This study used data on 2,297 families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine whether Child Protective Services (CPS) involvement varies by maternal relationship status. Families were categorized according to whether the mother was living with a (male) partner or spouse, was involved in a dating relationship, or was not romantically involved. Families in which the mother was romantically involved were further delineated by whether her partner was the biological father of none, some, or all of the children in her household. Results indicated that families in which the mother was living with a man who was not the biological father of all children and those in which she was not romantically involved were significantly more likely to be contacted by CPS than those in which she was living with the biological father of all resident children. These findings withstood the inclusion of detailed controls for the mother’s characteristics and behaviors and (in two-parent families) her partner’s characteristics and behaviors, suggesting that they are not fully explained by observable social selection factors. PMID:19581431
Badiee, Zohreh; Faramarzi, Salar; MiriZadeh, Tahereh
Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC). This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group). Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001). Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers. PMID:25371871
Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.
Kulik, Lars; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja
Among mammals, individuals form strong social bonds preferentially with their kin. Differences in these relationships are linked to differential kin availability due to sex-specific dispersal patterns, but there is some indication that differential bonding among sexes already occurs prior to maturation. However, little is known about how these patterns arise during individual development. Here we investigated sex differences in the development of mother-offspring bonds in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our results revealed that mothers showed sex-biased bonding toward their offspring. Sons had a distinctly higher probability of receiving aggression from their mothers than did daughters in the first year of life, while no differences were found with respect to affiliative interactions. After the first year, probabilities of all affiliative and aggressive behaviours investigated were higher for daughters than for sons, although generally declining. Furthermore, sons spending less time with their mother and receiving more maternal aggression tended to disperse earlier. The results of our study suggest that mothers influence their bonding strength with offspring by interacting less affiliative with sons than daughters. PMID:27191403
Mothers' literacy skills are emerging as a key determinant of children's health and survival in low-income contexts, with emphasis on the cognitive and psychological agency that literacy skills provide. This work has clearly established a strong association between mothers' reading skills--a key subcomponent of broader literacy and language skills--and child mortality. However, this relatively nascent literature has not yet considered how broader social structures condition the process. In Nigeria and in sub-Saharan Africa more broadly, gender-based social inequality constrains many mothers' decision-making power over children's health matters; this structural feature may condition the association between mothers' reading skills and child mortality. This paper uses data from the 2003 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (N = 12,076) to test the conditionality of the relationship between mothers' reading skills and child survival on mothers' decision-making power, highlighting how structural realities should factor more heavily into this individual-action-oriented literature. Among Nigerian children whose mothers have decision-making power, mothers' reading skills convey a 27 percent lower risk of child mortality; however, for children whose mothers lack decision-making power, mothers' reading skills do not yield a significant survival advantage. Overall, these findings support the need for future work to further analyze how broader social structures condition the benefits of mothers' reading skills for children's health.
Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Villarreal, Deyaun L; Smith, Olivia A
This study examined whether daily variations in levels of mothers' work, home, and relationship stress were related to collaborative and oppositional qualities of mother-child conflict interactions across 1 week. Mothers reported on 1 specific conflict interaction with their 5- to 8-year-old child and their work, home, and relationship stress through online surveys each day for 7 consecutive days. Diary data from 142 mothers were analyzed in 6 multilevel models, each including within- and between-family levels of a stressor predicting collaborative or oppositional conflict qualities. Results suggested that families in the sample differed from each other, and also varied during the week, in collaborative and oppositional conflict qualities as well as stress in all 3 domains. Mothers reported a greater degree of oppositional conflict qualities on days characterized by higher perceptions of home chaos. Additionally, mothers who reported higher average levels of negativity in romantic relationships endorsed oppositional conflict qualities to a greater extent than mothers with lower relationship negativity. Two multilevel models including all 3 stressors in relation to collaborative and oppositional conflict revealed that for mothers managing multiple roles, average romantic relationship stress was the most important unique contributor to mother-child conflict qualities and daily relationship stress was particularly influential among mothers with sons compared to those with daughters. Results support the spillover hypothesis of stress within the family system and are discussed in terms of mothers' coping mechanisms and emotional engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record
Garbett, Kirsty M; Diedrichs, Phillippa C
Mothers are a key influence on adolescent girls' body image. This study aimed to improve understanding of mothers' and daughters' preferences for content in body image interventions designed to assist mothers to promote positive body image among their daughters. British mother-daughter dyads (N=190) viewed descriptions of five evidence-based influences on body image (family, friends, and relationships; appearance-based teasing; media and celebrities; appearance conversations; body acceptance and care). Mothers and daughters each selected the two most important influences to learn about in these interventions. Overall, both mothers and daughters most frequently opted for family, friends, and relationships and body acceptance and care, whereas media and celebrities was their least preferred topic. While the overall sample of mothers and daughters agreed on preferences, Fisher's exact tests showed that within-dyad agreement was low. Recommendations for improving parent and child engagement with, and effectiveness of, child body image interventions delivered to parents are discussed.
Pemberton, Travis A.; Still, Brady R.; Christensen, Emily M.; Singh, Harkewal; Srivastava, Dhiraj; Tanner, John J.
L-Proline is one of Mother Nature's cryoprotectants. Plants and yeast accumulate proline under freeze-induced stress and the use of proline in the cryopreservation of biological samples is well established. Here, it is shown that L-proline is also a useful cryoprotectant for protein crystallography. Proline was used to prepare crystals of lysozyme, xylose isomerase, histidine acid phosphatase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase for low-temperature data collection. The crystallization solutions in these test cases included the commonly used precipitants ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol and spanned the pH range 4.6-8.5. Thus, proline is compatible with typical protein-crystallization formulations. The proline concentration needed for cryoprotection of these crystals is in the range 2.0-3.0 M. Complete data sets were collected from the proline-protected crystals. Proline performed as well as traditional cryoprotectants based on the diffraction resolution and data-quality statistics. The structures were refined to assess the binding of proline to these proteins. As observed with traditional cryoprotectants such as glycerol and ethylene glycol, the electron-density maps clearly showed the presence of proline molecules bound to the protein. In two cases, histidine acid phosphatase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, proline binds in the active site. It is concluded that L-proline is an effective cryoprotectant for protein crystallography.
Pemberton, Travis A; Still, Brady R; Christensen, Emily M; Singh, Harkewal; Srivastava, Dhiraj; Tanner, John J
L-Proline is one of Mother Nature's cryoprotectants. Plants and yeast accumulate proline under freeze-induced stress and the use of proline in the cryopreservation of biological samples is well established. Here, it is shown that L-proline is also a useful cryoprotectant for protein crystallography. Proline was used to prepare crystals of lysozyme, xylose isomerase, histidine acid phosphatase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase for low-temperature data collection. The crystallization solutions in these test cases included the commonly used precipitants ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol and spanned the pH range 4.6-8.5. Thus, proline is compatible with typical protein-crystallization formulations. The proline concentration needed for cryoprotection of these crystals is in the range 2.0-3.0 M. Complete data sets were collected from the proline-protected crystals. Proline performed as well as traditional cryoprotectants based on the diffraction resolution and data-quality statistics. The structures were refined to assess the binding of proline to these proteins. As observed with traditional cryoprotectants such as glycerol and ethylene glycol, the electron-density maps clearly showed the presence of proline molecules bound to the protein. In two cases, histidine acid phosphatase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, proline binds in the active site. It is concluded that L-proline is an effective cryoprotectant for protein crystallography.
Gomel, Jessica N; Zamora, Angela
Parent beliefs regarding food, health, and child feeding behaviors among Latinos have not been well-documented. A series of eight focus groups were conducted with English-speaking and Spanish-speaking low-income Latina mothers of preschoolers to investigate their beliefs regarding how food and food preparation are related to their children's health and to their own roles as mothers. Systematic content analysis using NUDIST 6 revealed seven themes discussed by the focus groups. Integration of these themes revealed three major areas of consideration: (1) a lack of connection between the domains of eating, overweight, and health outcomes; (2) the role of parent modeling of eating behaviors; and (3) the use of feeding strategies that may not be conducive to the development of healthy eating behaviors. Furthermore, the data suggest that there are important distinctions among Latinos based on language preference, and that a "one-size-fits-all" approach to modeling Latino mothers' feeding beliefs may not be appropriate.
Uskokovic, Lila Milica
This study compared maternal lifestyle variables pertinent to the perinatal period in groups of chemically dependent mothers and drug-free mothers. Twenty-nine cocaine -abusing mothers were compared to 29 drug-free mothers carefully matched on age, race, education, and primipara versus multipara status. The drug history of each chemically dependent woman was explicitly documented. The chemically dependent group was subdivided into two groups, mothers who abused cocaine and those who abused cocaine with concomitant opiate use. Each of these two subgroups was compared to its respective matched drug-free control group. Finally, a comparison was made between the two drug subgroups. All subjects were interviewed within 48 hours after delivery using the following measures: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (A-State), Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale, The Self-Esteem Scale, Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitude Questionnaire, The Neonatal Perception Inventory, The Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Events Scale, Maternal Social Support Index, and Short Marital Adjustment Test. A t-test analysis revealed significant differences (p <.05) between the total experimental group and its matched control group on state anxiety, depression, self-esteem, maternal adjustment and attitudes, and life events. An analysis of covariance indicated that life events was the only significant variable when the influence of all other variables was removed. Comparisons made between each drug subgroup and its respective matched control group showed similar results, except that those who abused opiates with cocaine did not differ from their controls on depression and maternal adjustment and attitudes. No significant differences were obtained in the drug subgroup comparisons. These results identify increased life events and specific negative affect states that clinical intervention programs should address to assure the best possible outcome for chemically dependent
Hoover, D W; Milich, R
This study tested the hypothesis that commonly reported negative effects of sugar on children's behavior may be due to parental expectancies. A challenge study design was employed, in which thirty-five 5- to 7-year-old boys reported by their mothers to be behaviorally "sugar sensitive," and their mothers, were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, mothers were told their children had received a large dose of sugar, whereas in the control condition mothers were told their sons received a placebo; all children actually received the placebo (aspartame). Mothers and sons were videotaped while interacting together and each mother was then questioned about the interaction. Mothers in the sugar expectancy condition rated their children as significantly more hyperactive. Behavioral observations revealed these mothers exercised more control by maintaining physical closeness, as well as showing trends to criticize, look at, and talk to their sons more than did control mothers. For several variables, the expectancy effect was stronger for cognitively rigid mothers.
White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li
While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant's biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29-34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant's Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training-Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-min play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (β = 2.03, p = 0.06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (β = 0.75, p
Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan
Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents.
López-Rodríguez, Flor; Velasco-Herrera, Víctor M.; Álvarez-Béjar, Román; Gómez-Chávez, Sergio; Gazzola, Julie
The ground penetrating radar (GPR) -a non-invasive method based on the emission of electromagnetic waves and the reception of their reflections at the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity discontinuities of the materials surveyed- may be applied instead of the destructive and invasive methods used to find water in celestial bodies. As multichannel equipment is increasingly used, we developed two algorithms for multivariable wavelet analysis of GPR signals -multi-cross wavelet (MCW) and Fourier multi-cross function (FMC)- and applied them to analyze raw GPR traces of archeological subsurface strata. The traces were from the tunnel located beneath the Temple of the Feathered Serpent (The Citadel, Teotihuacan, Mexico), believed to represent the underworld, an outstanding region of the Mesoamerican mythology, home of telluric forces emanating from deities, where life was constantly created and recreated. GPR profiles obtained with 100 MHz antennas suggested the tunnel is 12-14 m deep and 100-120 m long with three chambers at its end, interpretations that were confirmed by excavations in 2014. Archeologists believe that due to the tunnel's sacredness and importance, one of the chambers may be the tomb of a ruler of the ancient city. The MCW and FMC algorithms determined the periods of subsurface strata of the tunnel. GPR traces inside-and-outside the tunnel/chamber, outside the tunnel/chamber and inside the tunnel/chamber analyzed with the MCW and filtered FMC algorithms determined the periods of the tunnel and chamber fillings, clay and matrix (limestone-clay compound). The tunnel filling period obtained by MCW analysis (14.37 ns) reflects the mixed limestone-clay compound of this stratum since its value is close to that of the period of the matrix (15.22 ns); periods of the chamber filling (11.40 ± 0.40 ns) and the matrix (11.40 ± 1.00 ns) were almost identical. FMC analysis of the tunnel obtained a period (5.08 ± 1.08 ns) close to that of the chamber (4
Schindler, M.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Huminicki, D.M.C.; Haynes, P.; Grice, Joel D.; Evans, H.T.
Bobjonesite, V4+ O (SO4) (H2O 3, is a new mineral species from Temple Mountain, Emery County, Utah, U.S.A. It occurs as blue-green crusts and efflorescences in fractures in a fossil (Triassic) tree: individual crystals are ??1 mm and are intimately intergrown. Bobjonesite hydrates very easily, and is unstable in all but the driest atmosphere. Its structure was determined on a crystal of bobjonesite: however, the physical properties, optical properties and X-ray powder-diffraction pattern were recorded on the synthetic equivalent, and an electron-microprobe analysis was not possible. Bobjonesite has a pale blue streak, a vitreous luster and no observable fluorescence under ultraviolet light. It has no cleavage or parting. The Mohs hardness is ???1, and the calculated density is 2.28 g/cm3. Bobjonesite is biaxial positive, with ?? 1.555(2 , ?? 1.561(1), ?? 1.574(2), 2V(obs.) = 72(1)??, 2V(calc.) = 69??; it is non-pleochroic, X = b, Y ??? 19?? (in ?? obtuse). Bobjonesite is monoclinic, space group P21/n, cell dimensions from single-crystal data: a 7.3940(5), b 7.4111(3), c 12.0597(9) A??, ?? 106.55(1)??, V 633.5(1) A??3, Z=4. The strongest seven lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A??(I)(hkl)] are as follows: 5.795(100)(002), 3.498(90)(112), 3.881(48)(1??03), 5.408(37) (101), 4.571(20)(012), 6.962(11 (1??01) and 6.254(11)(011). The chemical formula was derived from crystal-structure analysis; the end-member formula is V O (SO4) (H2O)3. The crystal structure of bobjonesite was refined to an R index of 3.6% for 1105 observed (Fo> 5??F) reflections measured with an automated four-circle X-ray diffractometer using MoK?? X-radiation. There is one V site occupied by V4+ and surrounded by three O atoms and three (H2O) groups in an octahedral arrangement, with one short vanadyl bond (1.577 A??), four similar equatorial bonds (<2.022 A??), and one longer V-O bond (2.278 A??) trans to the vanadyl bond. The structure consists of isolated [V4+2 O2 (H2O)6 (SO4
Shams, Behzad; Golshiri, Parasto; Saleki, Azam; Isfagani, Motahereh Rabar; Najimi, Arash
Background: Studies have shown that the growth status of the children with working mothers is about 2 standard deviations lower than that of the children of housewife mothers. It seems that absence of mothers in the second stage of nutritional evolution (attachment), which is a very sensitive stage, has an important role in initiating and continuation of an appropriate supplemental feeding. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 50 children of working mothers and 50 children of housewife mothers were selected by non-probable consecutive sampling method. Growth charts of the children in the two studied groups were assessed within seven age groups. Knowledge and attitude of the mothers regarding nutritional evolution stages in the two studied groups were assessed Obtained data were analyzed using Software SPSS18 and statistical tests such as chi-square, t-test, and Mann–Whitney test. Results: Growth monitoring charts of the infants with housewife mothers were better than those of infants with working mothers in three out of seven age groups (12–18, 18–24, and 24–30 months) (P=0.02). Mean of knowledge and performance of the mothers about nutritional evolution stages was not significant in the two studied groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that growth status of children with housewife mothers in their second year of life was better than that of children with working mothers. Awareness and knowledge of the mothers about nutritional evolution stages and education of mothers about appropriate behaviors in each stage helped them to recognize the children's needs and did their best for their children. PMID:23555119
Montalvão-de-Azevedo, Rafaela; Vasconcelos, Gisele M.; Vargas, Fernando R.; Thuler, Luiz Claudio; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.
Aim: Embryonic tumors are associated with an interruption during normal organ development; they may be related to disturbances in the folate pathway involved in DNA synthesis, methylation, and repair. Prenatal supplementation with folic acid is associated with a decreased risk of neuroblastoma, brain tumors, retinoblastoma, and nephroblastoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR rs1801133 (C677T) and RFC-1 rs1051266 (G80A) genotypes with the risk of developing nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma. Materials and Methods: Case-mother/control-mother dyad study. Samples from Brazilian children with nephroblastoma (n=80), neuroblastoma (n=66), healthy controls (n=453), and their mothers (case n=93; control n=75) were analyzed. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells and/or buccal cells and genotyped to identify MTHFR C677T and RFC-1 G80A polymorphisms. Differences in genotype distribution between patients and controls were tested by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Risk for nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma was two- to fourfold increased among children with RFC-1 polymorphisms. An increased four- to eightfold risk for neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma was seen when the child and maternal genotypes were combined. Conclusion: Our results suggest that mother and child RFC-1 G80A genotypes play a role on the risk of neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma since this polymorphism may impair the intracellular levels of folate, through carrying fewer folate molecules to the cell interior, and thus, the intracellular concentration is not enough to maintain regular DNA synthesis and methylation pathways. PMID:25536437
Wilk, P.A.; Gregorich, K.E.; Hoffman, D.C.
A set of eight stand-alone sample chambers with a common interface were constructed at LBNL for improved detection of alpha and fission decay chains over currently used designs. The stainless steel chambers (see Figure 1 for a schematic and Figure 2 for a photograph of a completed chamber) were constructed to allow for low background detection of a daughter event by removal of the sample following the detection of a parent event. This mother-daughter mode of operation has been utilized successfully with our Merry-go-Round (MG) detection system [Gregorich 1994].
Douglas, Heather; Walsh, Tamara
This article explores the relationship between understandings of domestic violence and the child protection response drawing on material gathered in focus groups with workers who support mothers dealing with both domestic violence and child protection issues. The interviewees expressed concern that the dynamics of domestic violence are often misunderstood and inappropriately responded to by child protection workers. This article critically examines the interviewees' concerns and concludes that to properly protect children, it is crucial that child protection workers have a clear understanding of the dynamics of and issues related to domestic violence.
Puckett, Julia A; Horne, Sharon G; Levitt, Heidi M; Reeves, Teresa
Rural and urban sexual minority mothers' parenting experiences related to sexual orientation were compared. Participants were 414 mothers in same-sex relationships with at least one child under the age of 18 years living in their home who was planned with their current partner. Rural mothers were more likely to be biological parents and not adoptive parents. Rural mothers reported higher rates of discrimination from strangers and people in service or helping professions. Although outness for rural and urban mothers did not differ, for children, classmates' parents and neighbors were less likely to know the family's status in rural areas. Rural and urban mothers did not differ on internalized homophobia, social support, or stigma consciousness. Clinical and policy implications are discussed.
Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
We assessed prevalence rates of mental disorders in 206 mothers who had experienced the Kosovo war 10 years previously: 100 lone mothers widowed by the war, 71 non-bereaved married mothers, and 35 married mothers bereaved since the war (loss of family other than husband). A total of 96% of widowed lone mothers reported a major depressive episode, an anxiety disorder or a substance use disorder as compared with 54.9% and 60% in the married groups. Furthermore, 45% of widowed lone mothers reported current suicide risk as compared with 16.9% and 22.9% in the married samples. War-related widowhood combined with lone motherhood constitutes a significant factor for elevated psychopathology.
Bob, Petr; Selesova, Petra; Raboch, Jiri; Kukla, Lubomir
Abstract Current findings suggest that mother's marital status indicating father's absence or conflicting relationship to father may be specifically related to dissociation and other stress-related symptoms. We have assessed relationships of mother's marital status, dissociative symptoms, and other psychopathological manifestations in a sample of 19 years’ old young adults (N = 364) participating in European longitudinal study (European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood). The results show clinically significant manifestations of dissociative symptoms in young adult men whose mothers were fatherless and in women whose mothers were re-married. Other psychopathological symptoms did not reach clinically significant manifestations. The results suggest that significant factor related to high level of dissociative symptoms in men growing in fatherless families might be linked with disturbed and conflicting attachment to a father's figure and pathological dependent attachment to mother. In women dissociative symptoms likely are linked to conflicting relationship between mother and daughter associated with stepfather’ presence in the family. PMID:25590849
Pellegrini, A D; Perlmutter, J C; Galda, L; Brody, G H
This study examined the behaviors of black Head Start children and their mothers around a series of experimental joint reading contexts in their homes. There were 2 specific objectives: (1) to examine the effects of text genre (narrative and expository) and text format (familiar and traditional) on mothers' teaching strategies while interacting with their children around reading tasks, and (2) to examine the effectiveness of mothers' teaching strategies in eliciting children's participation in the joint reading tasks. 13 mother-child dyads were videotaped in their homes while interacting around a series of texts in each genre and format. Results indicated that genre, not format, affected mothers' teaching strategies. Further, mothers adjusted their level of teaching to children's level of task competence. Results are discussed in terms of Vygotsky's notion of the zone of proximal development.
Pemberton, Travis A.; Still, Brady R.; Christensen, Emily M.; Singh, Harkewal; Srivastava, Dhiraj; Tanner, John J.
The amino acid l-proline is shown to be a good cryoprotectant for protein crystals. Four examples are provided; the range of proline used for cryoprotection is 2.0–3.0 M. l-Proline is one of Mother Nature’s cryoprotectants. Plants and yeast accumulate proline under freeze-induced stress and the use of proline in the cryopreservation of biological samples is well established. Here, it is shown that l-proline is also a useful cryoprotectant for protein crystallography. Proline was used to prepare crystals of lysozyme, xylose isomerase, histidine acid phosphatase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase for low-temperature data collection. The crystallization solutions in these test cases included the commonly used precipitants ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol and spanned the pH range 4.6–8.5. Thus, proline is compatible with typical protein-crystallization formulations. The proline concentration needed for cryoprotection of these crystals is in the range 2.0–3.0 M. Complete data sets were collected from the proline-protected crystals. Proline performed as well as traditional cryoprotectants based on the diffraction resolution and data-quality statistics. The structures were refined to assess the binding of proline to these proteins. As observed with traditional cryoprotectants such as glycerol and ethylene glycol, the electron-density maps clearly showed the presence of proline molecules bound to the protein. In two cases, histidine acid phosphatase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, proline binds in the active site. It is concluded that l-proline is an effective cryoprotectant for protein crystallography.
Argues that depictions of Black mother-daughter relationships in American literature are rare and often negatively stereotyped. Focuses on five novels said to reveal these relationships in realistic complexity: Dorothy West's "The Living Is Easy," Paule Marshall's "Brown Girl, Brownstones," Toni Morrison's "Sula" and "The Bluest Eye," and Alice…
A recent study of Korean middle-class mothers' perceptions and parenting practices associated with children's participation in musical activities reported unique forms of musical parenting, which closely correspond with previous studies of concerted cultivation in Western middle-class families. Are these unique patterns exclusive to middle-class…
Durrant, Joan E.; Broberg, Anders G.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
Used maternal beliefs, emotions, and experiences of Canadian and Swedish mothers to predict hypothetical physical punishment of preschoolers. Found that Canadians were more likely than Swedes to suggest physical punishment and demonstrate stronger support for spanking. Support for physical punishment and rating target misbehaviors as stable…
Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Mauritzson, Ulla; Carlsson, Maj Asplund; Ueda, Miyoko
Examined Swedish and Japanese mothers' understanding of the story, "The Giving Tree," by Shel Silverstein, and possible effects of how their conceptions relate to social and cultural experiences in each society. Found six qualitatively different conceptions, related to differences in age and differences in cultural background. (JPB)
Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Velasco, Anne E.
This paper examines maternal influences on daughters' choices of occupations. Using a survey of high school seniors in Charlotte (North Carolina) as the primary data source, the career choices of adolescent girls and the influences of their mothers' occupations on their occupational expectations were studied. Previous research has suggested that…
Robinson, Emily Erin Peterson
Single parent households are on the rise, and female headed households are more likely to live in poverty than other single parent households (Holyfield, 2002). Many single mothers who do not have an undergraduate degree see education as a way out of poverty (Holyfield, 2002; Heller & Bjorklund, 2004). This research was undertaken to highlight…
Gullo, Dominic F.
Comparison of never pregnant teenagers, adolescent and older mothers was undertaken to determine differences on (1) an overall infant development test, (2) a developmental infant abilities test, and (3) first and second year infant abilities test. Findings are discussed in terms of differences in social class and parent child interaction styles.…
Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping
Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (M[subscript age] = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African…
Luo, Ma; Czarnecki, Chris; Ramdahin, Suzie; Embree, Joanne; Plummer, Francis A
Transplacental passage is a well-known phenomenon in HIV infection and immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface play a critical role in perinatal mother-to-child HIV transmission (MCHT). The high expression of HLA-G at the maternal-fetal interface and its role in mediating immune tolerance suggest that it could play an important role in MCHT. We investigated the role of HLA-G polymorphism in perinatal HIV transmission in 348 ART naïve mother-child pairs enrolled in a mother-child HIV transmission cohort, established in Nairobi, Kenya in 1986. Among the 348 children born to 266 HIV+ mothers, 258 were uninfected and 90 became infected perinatally. HLA-G exons 2 and 3 of 266 mothers and 251 children were sequenced and genotyped. Among 14 HLA-G alleles identified, only 4 alleles have a phenotype frequency above 10%. Correlation analysis showed that HLA-G(∗)01:03+ mothers were less likely to perinatally transmit HIV-1 to their children (p=0.038, Odds ratio:0.472, 95%CI:0.229-0.973). Mother-child HLA-G concordance was not associated with the increased perinatal HIV transmission. There was no significant difference in the general health between the transmitting mothers and the mothers who did not transmit HIV to their children.
Fägerskiöld, Astrid; Timpka, Toomas; Ek, Anna-Christina
The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate mothers' experiences of their encounters with the child health (CH) nurse. A cross-sectional design was used for the study, based on data from 140 mothers gathered by the critical incident technique. The analysis was accomplished by a thematic content analysis, using inductive reasoning in three steps. Symbolic interactionism was used as a frame of reference. The results suggest that the central factor in the encounter between mother and nurse is that they are able to share the realm of motherhood, meaning that the nurse is open and willing to share all types of emotions, experiences and attitudes related to being a mother. Given this basis, other important factors are the supply of sound advice and practical interventions, and that the nurse is reassuring and accessible. The majority of the participating mothers had experienced CH nurses who had provided them with valuable support during troublesome incidents. However, there were also several dissatisfied mothers who had expected support but thought they received insulting treatment instead. The mothers and the nurses have varying experiences and background and therefore different perspectives, which may lead to difficulties in understanding each other. Knowledge about the important factors, that affect the mother-nurse encounter, can be used to strengthen the nurses' positive behaviours and facilitate understanding of how disappointed mothers have experienced their health care encounters.
Notar, M; McDaniel, S A
In spite of the growing amount of research on women's issues, there are few empirical studies of mother-daughter relationships, and almost none on the effects of the major women's movement of our times on relationships between mothers and daughters. In this study of late adolescent daughters' perceptions of their relationships with their mothers, two alternative hypotheses are examined: (1) feminism, with its emphasis on bonding among women, strengthens relations between adolescent daughters and their mothers, or (2) feminism as a force of social change, both attitudinal and behavioral, weakens the adolescent daughter-mother relationship. Based on 102 questionnaires completed by university-age women in the winter of 1983, it was found that the majority of daughters who have a good relationship with their mothers see both themselves and their mothers as feminist. However, these daughters do not attribute their positive mother-daughter relationship explicitly to feminism. For the minority of daughters who claim to have a poor relationship with their mothers, they attribute the problems to feminism.
Lesser, Janna; Oakes, Rachel; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah
Pregnant adolescents and young mothers living in Los Angeles County are vulnerable to acquiring HIV/AIDS through sexual transmission because they lack the resources, social status, and power to protect themselves. In this article we describe adolescent mothers' (n = 76) responses to an HIV prevention program. The design of the study was based in ethnography, the anthropological tradition of qualitative research. Many of the pregnant teens and young mothers described how the experience of becoming a mother helped empower them to improve their lives. Yet efforts to decrease risky sexual behavior were overshadowed by more immediate concerns and by relationship issues of gender and power and of trust.
León, Inmaculada; Rodrigo, María José; Quiñones, Ileana; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Lage, Agustín; Padrón, Iván; Bobes, María Antonieta
Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz) and lower alpha (8–10 Hz) bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers. PMID:24498200
Baldwin, William F.
Fifty nursing mothers were given regular doses of a senna compound (Senokot Granules) and 50 received mineral oil or magnesia (Magnolax) to determine whether senna was an effective laxative and whether senna affected the bowel habits of infants of nursing mothers. Senna laxative was effective in 49 of 50 mothers. Infant bowel habits were not affected by senna administration to nursing mothers. The evidence suggests that the active principles of senna if they are transmitted in breast milk have no effect on the evacuation patterns of nursed infants. PMID:14045350
DePace, N L; Betesh, J S; Kotler, M N
A 27-year-old primigravida of 37 weeks' gestation suffered cardiopulmonary arrest after massive hemoptysis. After extensive advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation measures, it was thought that the mother could not be resuscitated and a cesarean section was performed. Immediately after delivery of the fetus, the mother's pulse was palpated, and both the mother and infant are alive without neurological sequelae 20 months later. The reversal of the supine hypotensive syndrome, which was precipitated by massive blood loss, may be the mechanism to account for the restoration of the mother's cardiac output after delivery.
Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn; Jamison, Tyler; Feistman, Richard
When divorced parents remarry or cohabit with new partners, it is challenging to maintain functional postdivorce coparenting systems. In this grounded theory study of 19 divorced mothers, we examined the processes by which they maintained boundaries around coparental relationships after 1 or both coparents had repartnered. Mothers saw themselves as captains of the coparenting team, making decisions about who should play what roles in parenting their children. They viewed themselves as having primary responsibility for their children, and they saw their children's fathers as important coparenting partners. Mothers used a variety of strategies to preserve boundaries around the coparental subsystem when either they or their ex-husbands repartnered. Stepparents became more active participants in coparenting when: (a) mothers perceived them to be adequate caregivers, (b) biological parents were able to cooperatively coparent, (c) mothers perceived the fathers as good parents and responsible fathers, and (d) mothers felt secure as the primary parents. When all 4 conditions were present, mothers were likely to expand the coparental subsystem to include new partners. If any of these conditions were not present, mothers resisted including stepparents as part of the child rearing team. The findings from this study highlight how coparental roles in a nonclinical sample of families develop and change; mothers often modify coparenting boundaries over time to include stepparents.
Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping
Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (mean age = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African Americans) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers. PMID:23581633
Bick, Johanna; Dozier, Mary; Bernard, Kristin; Grasso, Damion; Simons, Robert
This study examined the biological processes associated with foster mother-infant bonding. In an examination of foster mother-infant dyads (N = 41, mean infant age = 8.5 months), foster mothers' oxytocin production was associated with their expressions of behavioral delight toward their foster infant and their average P3 response to images of all infant faces in the first 2 months of the relationship. Three months later, foster mothers' oxytocin production was still associated with delight toward their foster infant and was also specifically associated with their P3 response to an image of their foster infant. Similar to biologically related mothers and infants, oxytocin appears to be associated with foster mothers' brain activity and caregiving behavior, with patterns suggestive of bond formation.
Wayland, J; Rawlins, R
The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) during pregnancy and postpartum depression are associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. While antidepressants are readily used in pregnancy, studies have raised concerns regarding neurobehavioral outcomes in exposed infants. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, most frequently from fish oil, has emerged as a possible treatment or prevention strategy for MDD in non-pregnant individuals, and may have beneficial effects in pregnant women. Although published observational studies in the psychiatric literature suggest that maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency may lead to the development of MDD in pregnancy and postpartum, there are more intervention trials suggesting clinical benefit for supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in MDD. Methods/Design The Mothers, Omega-3 and Mental Health study is a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to assess whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may prevent antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms among pregnant women at risk for depression. We plan to recruit 126 pregnant women at less than 20 weeks gestation from prenatal clinics at two health systems in Ann Arbor, Michigan and the surrounding communities. We will follow them prospectively over the course of their pregnancies and up to 6 weeks postpartum. Enrolled participants will be randomized to one of three groups: a) EPA-rich fish oil supplement (1060 mg EPA plus 274 mg DHA) b) DHA-rich fish oil supplement (900 mg DHA plus 180 mg EPA; or c) a placebo. The primary outcome for this study is the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score at 6 weeks postpartum. We will need to randomize 126 women to have 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in participants' mean BDI scores with EPA or DHA supplementation compared with placebo. We will also gather information on secondary outcome measures which will include: omega-3 fatty acid concentrations in maternal plasma and cord blood
Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Prout, Joanna T.; O'Rourke, Flannery; Lane, Tonya J.; Kovacs, Maria
This study examines how mothers with and without a history of childhood-onset depression respond to their 3-9 year-old children's emotions. Mother-child dyads included 55 offspring of mothers with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorders and 57 offspring of never-depressed mothers. Mothers with a history of childhood depression were less…
Lucey, Rose; Fox, Robert A.; Byrnes, Judith B.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare the parenting behavior, stress and support of foster mothers and biological mothers of young children. A sample of 60 mothers of young children (30 foster mothers, 30 biological mothers) completed measures of parenting behavior, parenting stress, child problem behaviors, and perceived social…
Pederson, David R.; Gleason, Karin E.; Moran, Greg; Bento, Sandi
Examined the mediating role of maternal sensitivity for the association between maternal attachment representations and the quality of infant-mother attachment. Found that autonomous mothers and mothers in secure relationships were more sensitive at home than nonautonomous mothers and mothers in nonsecure relationships, respectively. Infants in…
Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Burrell, Lori; Beers, Lee S. A.; Duggan, Anne K.
This study examined the relationship between a teen mother's perceptions of nurturance from her mother and father and her mental health and parenting attitudes. One-hundred and thirty-eight urban, primarily African American adolescent mothers were interviewed. Multivariate results indicate that teen mothers who felt nurtured by their mothers had…
Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C
Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction.
Giuffrida, Francesca; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Bertschy, Emmanuelle; Fontannaz, Patric; Masserey Elmelegy, Isabelle; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Marmet, Cynthia; Sanchez-Bridge, Belén; Thakkar, Sagar K.; De Castro, Carlos Antonio; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu
Fatty acids (FA), phospholipids (PL), and gangliosides (GD) play a central role in infant growth, immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to determine FA, PL, and GD compositional changes in human milk (HM) during lactation in a large group of Chinese lactating mothers (540 volunteers) residing in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Suzhou. HM samples were collected after full expression from one breast and while the baby was fed on the other breast. FA were assessed by direct methylation followed by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. PL and GD were extracted using chloroform and methanol. A methodology employing liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and with time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry was used to quantify PL and GD classes in HM, respectively. Saturated FA (SFA), mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA), and PL content decreased during lactation, while polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and GD content increased. Among different cities, over the lactation time, HM from Beijing showed the highest SFA content, HM from Guangzhou the highest MUFA content and HM from Suzhou the highest n-3PUFA content. The highest total PL and GD contents were observed in HM from Suzhou. In order to investigate the influence of the diet on maternal milk composition, a careful analyses of dietary habits of these population needs to be performed in the future. PMID:27834894
Bohannon, Judy Rollins
Examined religiosity and bereaved mothers' (n=143) and fathers' (n=129) scores on Grief Experience Inventory. High church attendance had significant inverse relationship with death anxiety. Mothers who attended church more frequently reported significantly less loss of control, rumination, depersonalization, and optimism/despair. Church attendance…
Feshbach, Norma D.
The purpose of the present investigation is to assess social class and race differences in the use of reinforcement by mothers and children. The general hypotheses underlying this approach is the expectation of a functional similarity between social class and race effects on the use of reinforcements by mothers and children. The subjects were 109…
Scopesi, Alda M.; Rosso, Anna Maria; Viterbori, Paola; Panchieri, Erika
This study aims to investigate the association between the mental state talk of mothers and their preadolescent children, with the hypothesis that an intergenerational transmission of mentalizing abilities may extend beyond early childhood. The participants were 41 mother-preadolescent child nonclinical dyads. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI)…
Using the Add Health data (N = 9,530 dyads), this study explores sexual socialization in the family using the theory of reasoned action by assessing how mothers' opinions are associated with their childrens' sexual behavior. Findings suggest that the more sexually liberal teens think their mothers are, the more likely the teens are to have higher…
Shill, Merton A.; And Others
The preference of the infant for mother versus father as an attachment figure and as a secure base for exploration is examined in this study. Subjects were fifteen 15-month-old infants whose mothers were their primary caregiver. The Ainsworth Strange Situation procedure was modified to permit both parents' simultaneous presence during separation…
Howes, Carolee; And Others
Two studies examined the influences of concordant and nonconcordant attachment relationships to mothers and to child caregivers on children's behavior in child care. In both studies, the child's level of competence in play with the caregiver and engagement with peers was a function of attachment security with both mother and caregiver. (NH)
Smith, Matthew Lee; Wilson, Kelly L.
Background: Many programs emphasize subsequent pregnancy prevention and high school graduation among teenage mothers; however, less is known about their ability to increase financial earnings from employment opportunities while concurrently enrolled in school. This study evaluates factors influencing employment status among teenage mothers after…
Bower, Laura A.; Klecka, Cari L.
Albeit growing in number, lesbian mothers and their children remain a statistical minority in schools. Lesbian mothers in this study described their families as "normal" or "just like any other family." From the perspective of queer theory, normal is a socially constructed and insidious concept. This study analyzes both the strategies participants…
Akinnaso, F. Niyi
Assesses Nigeria's efforts to achieve mother-tongue literacy for its citizens. Describes Nigeria's complicated sociolinguistic landscape, national language policies, and the Ife experimental project, studying the use of the mother tongue in primary schools. Points to nonlinguistic factors in educational success, including parental background,…
Rinkoff, Robert F.
This study measured infant responses to mother and stranger as a function of mother and stranger distance. A group of 10-month-old infants were pretested for level of object permanence and person permanence, and 18 males and 18 females were chosen as study participants. The infants were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1)…
This study is the expanded version of the advocacy brief "Mother Tongue-Based Teaching and Education for Girls" [ED495413]. It highlights in more detail the correlations between girls, language and marginality, and shows that there are indeed positive links between the use of mother tongue in education and female participation and…
Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank
Thirty infants at 1;1 and their mothers were videotaped while playing for 18 minutes. Experimental stimuli were presented in three communicative intent contexts--proto-declarative, proto-imperative, and ambiguous--to elicit infant communicative bids that did and did not contain gestures. Mothers' responses were analyzed, and their verbal responses…
Sedykh, S V
Early breast-feeding is a standard of perinatal care currently. After cesarean section it can be possible in case of early mother activation (verticalization). Assessment of perioperative analgesia influence on activation timing was the aim of our research. We included 120 parturient women. It was proved, that local analgesia using in postoperative period promotes early mother verticaliration, and optimal breast-feeding starting.
Arguing that Mother Goose is becoming an endangered species, this paper reports on the results of an informal survey of undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in a children's literature course. The survey results reported in the paper indicated that some students were able to complete a cloze-type Mother Goose couplet, but others audibly…
Current Department of Health advice for mothers who are HIV positive is not to breastfeed. The aim of this paper is to encourage debate on this subject among health-care professionals who care for such mothers. Both formula feeding and breastfeeding could be considered a risk in such circumstances, but information and options can be make this choice safer.
In this study, eight mothers of pre-term infants under the care of nursing staff and neonatologists in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, were observed and interviewed about their birth experience and their images of themselves as mothers during their stay. Patterns and themes in the…
This article explores young mothers' experiences of turbulent pathways in and out of education and work in Northern England. Data are drawn from an ethnography conducted between 2010 and 2013 that incorporated participant observation, life-story maps, photographs and interviews carried out in young mothers' homes, parenting classes and…
Representations of attachment relationships were assessed in 54 children ages 2.5 to 7.5 years whose mothers were currently incarcerated. Consistent with their high-risk status, most (63%) children were classified as having insecure relationships with mothers and caregivers. Secure relationships were more likely when children lived in a stable…
Shure, Myrna, B.; Spivack, George
This study examined the effects of interpersonal cognitive problem solving (ICPS) training for inner city mothers on the problem-solving skills and behaviors of their children. Twenty black mother-child pairs received training and 20 pairs matched in ICPS ability served as controls. The children were of comparable mean age (4.3 years), school…
Meadows, Denis; Elias, Gordon; Bain, John
Investigated the ability of 35 mothers to identify consistently what they perceived to be communicative acts by infants at three ages (6 months, 9 months, and 1 year). Comparisons of the mothers coded records indicated that they were able to identify infants' communicative acts consistently at each age. (Author/VWL)
Ortiz, Elizabeth T.; Bassoff, Betty Z.
Early pregnancy and parenthood are established indicators of high-risk status for both mother and child with regard to future health problems, poverty, and child abuse and neglect. A study was conducted to describe the views of a sample of teenage Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) mothers. Subjects (N=53) were urban teenage mothers…
Fivush, Robyn; Sales, Jessica McDermott
Based on attachment theory and recent findings with adults on relations between narrative coherence and well-being, we hypothesized that mothers who are more securely attached and who cope more effectively would be more engaged and more emotionally expressive in mother-child co-constructed narratives about stressful events. Twenty-seven mostly…
Peery, J. Craig
This study was designed to examine the nature of nonverbal social interaction between mothers and infants and to compare various situational effects. A total of ten 3-month-old twin infants (five male and five female) and their mothers were videotaped in their homes during free play, bottle feeding and spoon feeding situations. A repeated measures…
Turner, D.; Shaughnessy, A.; Gould, E.
The recognition process and the basis for that recognition, in brown bats, between mother and infant are analyzed. Two parameters, ultrasonic communication and olfactory stimuli, are investigated. The test animals were not allowed any visual contact. It was concluded that individual recognition between mother and infant occurred. However, it could not be determined if the recognition was based on ultrasonic signals or olfactory stimuli.
This article explores the menarche or first-period narratives of 155 young women, focusing on their relationships with their mothers at this time. It finds that maternal scripts are changing as young women of this cohort, most of whom started their periods around the new millennium, recalled supportive mothers who were emotionally engaged with…
Uhlenberg, Peter; Cooney, Teresa M.
Examined effects of family size on mother-child relationships in later life. Subjects were taken from national probability sample which included adults aged 35-55 (n=3,083) who had a living mother and women aged 60-79 (n=1,101) with at least one living child. Found generally positive relationship between number of siblings and favorable…
LaMonica, Laura Tripp
There has been a dramatic increase in the number of women who both work and mother into the workforce in recent years. The patriarchal structure of the typical U.S. organization is based on rational-economic models and the "economic man" model of worker. This structure systematically disadvantages women who work and mother. The HRD function within…
Riese, Marilyn L.
To investigate differences in mothers' interaction patterns with their neonate twins based on birth order, relative size at birth, or gender, 37 neonate twins and their mothers were observed during the first 10 minutes of a feeding in a hospital nursery. Time-sampling recordings were made of maternal behaviors related to proximal stimulation,…
Kilbourne, Brock K.; Ginsburg, Gerald P.
This study reports a replication of an earlier study by Kilbourne and Ginsberg (1980) which indicated the occurrence of a transition from predominantly coacting to predominantly alternating infant-mother vocalization patterns. In addition, the present study examined the modulating influences of nursing activity and mother's focus of attention upon…
Burton, Linda M.; Graham, Joan E.
A five-year longitudinal ethnographic study explores the relationship between the temporal organization of neighborhood activities and the social engagements of urban African American teen mothers. Found that courting activities occurred during the morning, baby parading during the afternoon-evening, with teen mothers avoiding the illicit drug…