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Sample records for acid mothers temple

  1. Which mothers take folic acid and folate containing foods?

    PubMed

    Binns, Colin; Scott, Jane; Nwafor, Nkeonyelu; Graham, Kathleen; Oddy, Wendy; Lee, Andy

    2006-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence (proportion) of mothers taking folic as supplements or as fortified foods and explored the factors that determined whether folic acid was taken. A cross sectional analysis of the baseline data of mothers who participated in the Perth Infant Feeding Study was performed. A total of 587 mothers who delivered at the two hospitals in the study completed baseline questionnaires. The factors associated with the decision to take folic acid supplements or fortified foods were investigated using multivariate logistic regression. Main outcome measures were the percentage of mothers taking folic acid or folic acid fortified foods. A total of 455 (78%) mothers stated that they took folic acid supplements before or during the first three months of their pregnancy. Of the 132 who did not take folate supplements only 35 (6% of all participating mothers) claimed to have taken folate fortified food or beverages. In the highest income group, 87% of mothers took folic acid supplements compared to 64% in the poorest group. The significant factors independently associated with not taking folic acid supplements or fortified food were " years of education " (OR ' 10 years or less' 0.45 (0.23-0.88)), " family income " (OR < $ 25000 0.40(0.20-0.80)), and for taking folic acid "the timing of the pregnancy. "(OR'actively trying'2.01 (0.1.04-0.3.87)). There was a significant proportion of mothers who did not take folic acid periconceptually. The mothers who were not taking folic were less educated, from lower socio-economic groups and were not actively trying to fall pregnant at the time they became pregnant. The results suggest that in order to reach all Australian mothers, mandatory fortification of foods with folic acid should be required.

  2. Temples of Malta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Frank; Hoskin, Michael

    The unique Neolithic temples of Malta have a distinctive orientation toward the range SE-SSW (except for the Mnajdra South Temple which faces E). However, the motive for this preferred direction is not clear. If the motive was astronomical, then the builders could have targeted the bright stars of the Southern Cross and Centaurus. If the opposite direction is taken, then the target could have been the temple builders' ancestral home in Sicily and the surrounding islands. The orientation of the Mnajdra South Temple is remarkable and suggests an alignment with either sunrise midway between the solstices or the heliacal rising of the Pleiades around 3000 BC. The evidence for these alternatives is discussed.

  3. Rebuilding the Temple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The author believes that any effort to promote a curriculum focused on traditional values in today's academic culture will be promptly and thoroughly sabotaged by those assigned to teach it--which is why she thinks the best bet for traditionalists is to refocus on the Enlightenment inspired "temple of science" vision of a university, which at…

  4. Orientation of Phoenician Temples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escacena Carrasco, José Luis

    The orientation of Phoenician temples has revealed some of the astronomical knowledge of their builders. What we now know on this topic is complemented by other archaeological documents from Syrio-Palestinian cities and their colonies. The astral aspects of Phoenician religion are a direct legacy from the Canaanite traditions 1,000 years earlier and display connections with Mesopotamia and Egypt.

  5. Greek Temples and Rituals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutsikas, Efrosyni

    Whether the positioning of ancient Greek temples was deliberate and facilitated astronomical observations has been a concern for scholars since the nineteenth century. Twenty-first-century research on Greek archaeoastronomy has identified the shortcomings of earlier approaches and has built on a new methodology which integrates archaeological, epigraphical, and literary evidence on the astronomical observations, in order to create interpretations that improve our narrative, understanding, and reconstruction of the role of astronomy in ancient Greek cult practice.

  6. Esthetic rejuvenation of the temple.

    PubMed

    Rose, Amy E; Day, Doris

    2013-01-01

    Loss of volume in the temples is an early sign of aging that is often overlooked by both the physician and the patient. Augmentation of the temple using soft tissue fillers improves the contours of the upper face with the secondary effect of lengthening and lifting the lateral brow. After replacement of volume, treatment of the overlying skin with skin-tightening devices or laser resurfacing help to complete a comprehensive rejuvenation of the temple and upper one-third of the face.

  7. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Affolter, Michael; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; De Castro, Carlos A.; Karagounis, Leonidas G.; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx) was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors. PMID:27690094

  8. PLANT CONSERVATION IN TEMPLE YARDS OF ORISSA

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, R.B; Mohapatra, B.K; Padhy, S.N

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a brief survey of the role of temples and holy places in nurturing the surrounding flora and its habitat. Eightysix kinds of plants in temple yards and gardens of orissa have been enlisted where they are cultivated and preserved for different temple rituals. These plants are seen rarely in wild but are saved from extinction by their association with temple rituals and ceremonies. PMID:22556826

  9. Fatty acid patterns early after premature birth, simultaneously analysed in mothers' food, breast milk and serum phospholipids of mothers and infants

    PubMed Central

    Sabel, Karl-Göran; Lundqvist-Persson, Cristina; Bona, Elsa; Petzold, Max; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    Background The supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids via the placenta is interrupted in premature infants, making them exclusively dependent on breast milk, which varies in fatty acid (FA) concentrations depending on the mother's diet. Objective To in a longitudinal study explore the relation between FA status in mothers and infants from an unselected cohort of prematures, not requiring intensive care. Design Breast milk and mothers' and infants' plasma phospholipid FA concentrations from birth to 44 weeks of gestational age were analysed and compared with mothers' food intake, assessed using a 3-day diary. Fatty acids were analysed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Results The energy intake was low in 75% of mothers, and 90% had low intake of essential FAs (EFAs). Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2w6), but not w3 FAs, correlated to concentrations in breast milk. Infants' plasma and breast milk correlated for arachidonic (AA, 20:4w6), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5w3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6w3) acids. A high concentration of mead acid (20:3w9) in the infants at birth correlated negatively to the concentrations of LA, AA and w3 FAs. Infants of mothers who stopped breastfeeding during the study period showed decreased DHA concentrations and increased w6/w3 ratios, with the opposite FA pattern seen in the mothers' plasma. Conclusion Although dietary w3 FAs were insufficient in an unselected cohort of mothers of premature infants, breastfeeding resulted in increased levels of DHA in the premature infants at the expense of the mothers, suggesting a general need to increase dietary w3 FAs during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:19515230

  10. But I've already had a healthy baby: folic acid formative research with Latina mothers.

    PubMed

    Prue, Christine E; Flores, Alina L; Panissidi, Paula; Lira, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    Each year, approximately 3000 pregnancies in the United States are affected by neural tube defects (NTDs), serious birth defects of the brain and spine. Daily periconceptional consumption of folic acid can reduce the incidence of NTDs by 50%-70%. This study was designed to understand Latina mothers' folic acid awareness, knowledge, and behaviors and to capture their reactions to advertising concepts and draft educational materials. The goal of the materials was to increase folic acid consumption through the use of a daily multivitamin. This study presents three phases of research that led to the development of Spanish language print advertisements, posters, a brochure, and radio ads that promote folic acid consumption in a manner that addresses the needs of Latina mothers.

  11. But I've already had a healthy baby: folic acid formative research with Latina mothers.

    PubMed

    Prue, Christine E; Flores, Alina L; Panissidi, Paula; Lira, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    Each year, approximately 3000 pregnancies in the United States are affected by neural tube defects (NTDs), serious birth defects of the brain and spine. Daily periconceptional consumption of folic acid can reduce the incidence of NTDs by 50%-70%. This study was designed to understand Latina mothers' folic acid awareness, knowledge, and behaviors and to capture their reactions to advertising concepts and draft educational materials. The goal of the materials was to increase folic acid consumption through the use of a daily multivitamin. This study presents three phases of research that led to the development of Spanish language print advertisements, posters, a brochure, and radio ads that promote folic acid consumption in a manner that addresses the needs of Latina mothers. PMID:18752460

  12. Comparative evaluation of essential fatty acid composition of mothers' milk of some urban and suburban regions of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Susmita; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the fatty acid composition of lipid present in breast milk of mothers residing in urban and suburban regions of West Bengal with special emphasis on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which played a crucial role in the growth and development of neonates. Milk samples collected from 135 mothers of middle income group (average monthly income around 'Rs 10,000/-') were analysed by gas liquid chromatography after extraction and transmethylation to determine fatty acid composition. Information about the dietary intake of individual mothers was obtained through food frequency questionnaire. The fractions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids available in milk of urban mothers were 13.59 ± 0.94 and 3.65 ± 0.49, respectively, and in suburban mothers 12.74 ± 0.89 and 4.36 ± 0.39, respectively. The green leafy vegetables, fishes and vegetable oils were the major sources of essential fatty acids in the diet of the experimental groups of Bengali mothers. This study revealed a relationship between the alimentary habits of mothers and the concentration of essential fatty acids in breast milk of Bengali mothers.

  13. The Astronomical Orientation of Ancient Greek Temples

    PubMed Central

    Salt, Alun M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity. PMID:19936239

  14. Civil Disobedience at the Mormon Temple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocol, Cleo Fellers

    1981-01-01

    This article chronicles events surrounding the pro-ERA/anti-Mormon civil involvement demonstration by 21 feminists in Bellevue, Washington, on the occasion of the dedication of the Bellevue Mormon Temple. (DB)

  15. ROBERT TEMPLE: an eye for data. Interview.

    PubMed

    Temple, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Robert Temple has spent more than thirty years of his career at the Food and Drug Administration-and he still likes it! After medical school, internship, and residency, Temple pursued endocrinology research at the NIH before deciding, in the early 70s, to apply his interests in science to consumer advocacy at the FDA. The FDA was undergoing enormous changes at that time, and Temple enjoyed the challenges associated with improving drug development and patient safety. Always relying on a critical evaluation of data, he is comfortable discussing mechanisms of drug action, experimental design, and regulatory policies, as well as the social implications of direct-to-consumer advertising of drugs. Currently, Temple is Director of one of the six Offices of Drug Evaluation and also serves as the Associate Director for Medical Policy. PMID:15616158

  16. Amino acid composition of lactating mothers' milk and confinement diet in rural North China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Wang, Peiyu; Sheng, Qing Hai

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the amino acids composition of lactating mothers' milk and their confinement diet in a town in Northern China, as well as to assess the relation of amino acids content in human milk and diet. Forty lactating mothers age 19 to 35 years participated in the study. They were 4 to 180 days postpartum. A 24-hour dietary recall was done and amino acids content of maternal milk was analyzed. The main findings are as follows: (1) The protein content of human milk is 1.58 g/dL and the ratio of EAA to NEAA is about 1:2. The most abundant amino acids in human milk are GLU (16.0%), PRO (10.2%), LEU (8.67%) and the lowest two are MET (1.76%) and TRP (0.91%). (2)The diet contains enough energy and protein, but lacks vitamins A, B and C, indicating that it is a characteristic confinement diet. Grain and eggs are the main source of protein, and soy and fish were consumed less frequently. (3) Amino acids composition in diet and milk are similar; and the correlation of the amino acids patterns between diet and milk is 0.989, demonstrating that the amino acid composition of diet is the foundation of that in human milk. However, almost no relation is found between the amino acids concentration in maternal diet and milk, suggesting that the amino acids content of the diet does not have a direct relation with that of human milk.

  17. Solar Alignments of Greek Temples Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelson, M. E.; Higbie, C.

    2005-08-01

    The canonical opinion about the placement of Greek temples is that they are oriented east-west (Dinsmoor 1975). Major exceptions, such as the temple of Apollo at Bassae which faces approximately north-south, are noted in the literature, but many other temples are scattered across the Greek landscape in a variety of orientations but predominately (about 80 Although no surviving ancient author ever discusses the criteria for placing or orienting temples, we may assume from scattered remarks that Greeks had reasons for choosing the sites and orientations. In the last century, archaeologists and architects such as Nissen (1896), Penrose (1893) and Dinsmoor (1939), have measured the alignments of Greek temples on the Greek mainland, the west coast of Turkey, and the Aegean islands. Their data have varying degrees of precision and accuracy, as a recent paper by Papathanassiou (1994) makes clear. Parallel work done in Italy on Etruscan, Roman and Greek temples by Aveni and Romano (1994) provides further stimulus to re-investigate Greek temples. We have undertaken three field seasons in Greece in order to check previously reported alignments. Where possible, in addition to determining the orientation of foundations, we have attempted to determine the, location of doorways and other openings, placement of cult statues, horizon altitudes etc. In this preliminary study we hope to be able to discover patterns in the orientation of these temples which relate solar observations to temple ritual and thus extend Dinmoor's hypothesis. For some of these questions, we are dependent on literary and inscriptional evidence. This paper describes the preliminary measurements made over our three field seasons in Greece. Field methods and analysis of the data will be presented along with possible application. 1. Dinsmoor, W.B., The Architecture of Ancient Greece, 3rd ed. Rev. New York, 1975. 2. Nissen, H.,Das Templum,Antiquarische Untesuchungon (Berlin, 1896). 3. Penrose, F.C., Trans. Roy

  18. Potential health effects of exposure to carcinogenic compounds in incense smoke in temple workers.

    PubMed

    Navasumrit, Panida; Arayasiri, Manasawee; Hiang, Ohmar May Tin; Leechawengwongs, Manoon; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Choonvisase, Suppachai; Chantchaemsai, Samroeng; Nakngam, Netnapa; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2008-05-01

    Incense smoke is a potential hazard to human health due to various airborne carcinogens emitted from incense burning. This study aimed to evaluate the potential health effects of exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incense smoke in temple workers. Exposure and health risks were assessed through the measurement of ambient exposure as well as through the use of biomarkers of exposure and early biological effects. Ambient air measurement showed that incense burning generates significantly higher levels of airborne benzene (P<0.01), 1,3-butadiene (P<0.001) and total PAHs (P<0.01) inside the temples, compared to those of the control workplace. Temple workers were exposed to relatively high levels of benzene (45.90 microg/m(3)) 1,3-butadiene (11.29 microg/m(3)) and PAHs (19.56 ng/m(3)), which were significantly higher than those of control workers (P<0.001). The most abundant PAHs were chrysene, B[ghi]P, B[a]P, B[a]F and fluoranthene. Concentrations of B[a]P and B[a]P equivalents in air samples to which temple workers were exposed were 63- and 16-fold, higher, respectively, than those to which control subjects were exposed (P<0.001). Biomarkers of exposure to benzene (blood benzene and the urinary metabolites trans,trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid), 1,3-butadiene (urinary monohydroxy-butenyl mercapturic acid) and PAHs (1-hydroxypyrene) were all significantly higher in temple workers than those in control workers. DNA damage and DNA repair capacity were measured as biomarkers of early biological effects. Temple workers had a significant increase in DNA damage observed as a 2-fold increase in the levels of leukocyte 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxguanosine (8-OHdG) and DNA strand breaks (P<0.001). A significant reduction of DNA repair capacity in temple workers determined by the radiation challenge assay was also observed. These results indicate that exposure to carcinogens emitted from incense burning may increase

  19. Acres of Rhinestones: Temple Betrays Its Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelnick, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Liberal education has been disappearing, and what remains is diminished and compromised. At Temple University, the largest department in the college of liberal arts is criminal justice. The second largest is counseling psychology, and the humanities disciplines have become left-veering sociology. While islands of traditional learning survive, the…

  20. Were Greek temples oriented towards aurorae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, Ioannis; Vassiliou, Helen

    2006-02-01

    Two ancient Greek temples of Apollo at Bassae (Phigaleia, western Peloponnese, Greece), and Thermon at Aetolia, (Aetoloacarnania, western central Greece), have a north-south orientation of their main entrances. This is a rather rare alignment of temples in general and specifically of Apollo in classical Greece, where most of them have broadly an east-west orientation. Based on historical and mythological accounts, as well as astronomical orientation measurements, the northern direction orientation of these constructions may relate to the rare, albeit impressive, occurrence of aurorae borealis, the northern lights. These strong lights are attributed to god Apollo by the epithet ``hyperborean'', meaning to the northern lands. Attribution is supported by archaeomagnetic directional data accompanied by auroral occurrence during those times.

  1. Orientation of Egyptian Temples: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Archaeoastronomy has never been a favored discipline within Egyptology. As a consequence, important questions such as the orientation of Egyptian temples and the relevance of astronomy in this respect had not been treated with the requisite seriousness and depth. This situation is changing, however, and over the past decade, there have been several serious attempts to perform an extensive analysis of the orientation of Egyptian monuments. The orientations of approximately 400 temples have been measured in the Nile Valley, the Delta, the Oases, and the Sinai, with the aim of providing a clear answer to the question of whether the ancient Egyptian sacred constructions were astronomically aligned or not. This impressive set of data seems to answer this question in the affirmative.

  2. Methanol-induced neurotoxicity in pups exposed during lactation through mother: role of folic acid.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Moammir Hasan; Agrawal, Ashok Kumar; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Ali, Mohammad M; Baig, Masroor A; Seth, Prahlad Kishore

    2002-01-01

    Role of folic acid on methanol-induced neurotoxicity was studied in pups at Postnatal Day (PND) 45 exposed to methanol (1%, 2% and 4%, v/v) during lactation through mothers maintained on folic acid-deficient (FD) and folic acid-sufficient (FS) diet. A gradual loss in the body weight gain was observed in the pups exposed to 2% and 4% methanol in the FD group, while FS group exhibited this alteration only at 4% exposure. The assessment of spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) showing a significant increase in the distance travelled was observed in the 2% and 4% methanol-exposed groups in both the FS and FD animals when compared with their respective controls, but the effect was more marked in the FD group. A significant decrease in the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) was observed in pups exposed to 2% and 4% methanol in the FD group at PND 45. The results also suggest that disturbances in dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors were more pronounced in the FD group as compared to the FS group. A significant decrease in striatal dopamine levels was also observed in the FD group at 2% and 4% methanol exposure, while in the FS group, a significant decrease was exhibited only at 4% methanol exposure. An aberrant increase in the expression of Growth-Associated Protein (GAP-43), a neuron-specific growth-associated protein was observed in pups in the FD group exposed to 2% and 4% methanol, while an increase in the expression of GAP-43 in the FS group was found only at 4% methanol exposure in the hippocampal region as compared to their respective controls. Results suggests that methanol exposure during growth spurt period adversely affects the developing brain, the effect being more pronounced in FD rats as compared to FS rats, suggesting a possible role of folic acid in methanol-induced neurotoxicity.

  3. Methanol-induced neurotoxicity in pups exposed during lactation through mother: role of folic acid.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Moammir Hasan; Agrawal, Ashok Kumar; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Ali, Mohammad M; Baig, Masroor A; Seth, Prahlad Kishore

    2002-01-01

    Role of folic acid on methanol-induced neurotoxicity was studied in pups at Postnatal Day (PND) 45 exposed to methanol (1%, 2% and 4%, v/v) during lactation through mothers maintained on folic acid-deficient (FD) and folic acid-sufficient (FS) diet. A gradual loss in the body weight gain was observed in the pups exposed to 2% and 4% methanol in the FD group, while FS group exhibited this alteration only at 4% exposure. The assessment of spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) showing a significant increase in the distance travelled was observed in the 2% and 4% methanol-exposed groups in both the FS and FD animals when compared with their respective controls, but the effect was more marked in the FD group. A significant decrease in the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) was observed in pups exposed to 2% and 4% methanol in the FD group at PND 45. The results also suggest that disturbances in dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors were more pronounced in the FD group as compared to the FS group. A significant decrease in striatal dopamine levels was also observed in the FD group at 2% and 4% methanol exposure, while in the FS group, a significant decrease was exhibited only at 4% methanol exposure. An aberrant increase in the expression of Growth-Associated Protein (GAP-43), a neuron-specific growth-associated protein was observed in pups in the FD group exposed to 2% and 4% methanol, while an increase in the expression of GAP-43 in the FS group was found only at 4% methanol exposure in the hippocampal region as compared to their respective controls. Results suggests that methanol exposure during growth spurt period adversely affects the developing brain, the effect being more pronounced in FD rats as compared to FS rats, suggesting a possible role of folic acid in methanol-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:12127898

  4. Use of Astronomical Principles in Indian Temple Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shylaja, B. S.

    Temples, identified as places of worship, served an important role in building religious tradition and culture in Indian society. Many of them are known to have astronomical elements incorporated in their architecture to facilitate their role in timekeeping and calendar making. In this chapter, we present examples of the use of astronomy in temple architecture.

  5. Means to flexibly attach lens frames to temple members

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Harry D.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a band hinge for flexibly connecting the temple member to the lens frame thereby preventing damage from inadvertent pressure or cyclic wear. A distinguishing feature of the invention is the use of a band hinge that holds together the temple member and the lens frame without the use of a pin or screw hinging mechanism. The invention allows for a high degree of freedom of movement for the temple member with respect to the lens frame which will prevent most forms of damages to the glasses from these types of events.

  6. 3. ALTOVITI VENUS STATUE IN THE TEMPLE OF VENUS AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ALTOVITI VENUS STATUE IN THE TEMPLE OF VENUS AS SEEN FROM LIVING ROOM DOORS, SOUTHEAST FACADE OF KYKUIT HOUSE, ON AXIS WITH LINDEN ALLEE - Kykuit, 200 Lake Road, Pocantico Hills, Westchester County, NY

  7. Statistical Analysis of Temple Orientation in Ancient India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Alba; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2015-05-01

    The great diversity of religions that have been followed in India for over 3000 years is the reason why there are hundreds of temples built to worship dozens of different divinities. In this work, more than one hundred temples geographically distributed over the whole Indian land have been analyzed, obtaining remarkable results. For this purpose, a deep analysis of the main deities who are worshipped in each of them, as well as of the different dynasties (or cultures) who built them has also been conducted. As a result, we have found that the main axes of the temples dedicated to Shiva seem to be oriented to the east cardinal point while those temples dedicated to Vishnu would be oriented to both the east and west cardinal points. To explain these cardinal directions we propose to look back to the origins of Hinduism. Besides these cardinal orientations, clear solar orientations have also been found, especially at the equinoctial declination.

  8. GIS tool to locate major Sikh temples in USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Saumya

    This tool is a GIS based interactive and graphical user interface tool, which locates the major Sikh temples of USA on a map. This tool is using Java programming language along with MOJO (Map Object Java Object) provided by ESRI that is the organization that provides the GIS software. It also includes some of the integration with Google's API's like Google Translator API. This application will tell users about the origin of Sikhism in India and USA, the major Sikh temples in each state of USA, location, name and detail information through their website. The primary purpose of this application is to make people aware about this religion and culture. This tool will also measure the distance between two temple points in a map and display the result in miles and kilometers. Also, there is an added support to convert each temple's website language from English to Punjabi or any other language using a language convertor tool so that people from different nationalities can understand their culture. By clicking on each point on a map, a new window will pop up showing the picture of the temple and a hyperlink that will redirect to the website of that particular temple .It will also contain links to their dance, music, history, and also a help menu to guide the users to use the software efficiently.

  9. 78 FR 12134 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Temple and Tomb...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Temple and Tomb: Prehistoric Malta... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Temple and Tomb: Prehistoric Malta,''...

  10. 77 FR 33267 - Eric Temple-Control Exemption-Portland Vancouver Junction Railroad, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board Eric Temple--Control Exemption--Portland Vancouver Junction Railroad, LLC AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Correction to Notice of Exemption. On February 6, 2012, Eric Temple (applicant), a noncarrier individual, filed with the Surface Transportation Board...

  11. 76 FR 56491 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Tombs, Temples and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Tombs, Temples and Warriors: China's..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Tombs, Temples...

  12. Environmental Lead (Pb) Exposure Versus Fatty Acid Content in Blood and Milk of the Mother and in the Blood of Newborn Children.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Kosińska, Ida; Jamioł, Dominika; Gutowska, Izabela; Prokopowicz, Adam; Rębacz-Maron, Ewa; Goschorska, Marta; Olszowski, Tomasz; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    Significant progress in understanding the effects of the neurotoxic action of lead (Pb) in young organisms had led to reduction of "safe" level in the blood (Pb-B) to 5 μg/dL in children and pregnant women. Prolonged exposure to relatively low levels of Pb, generally asymptomatic and subclinical (i.e., microintoxication), is currently the dominant form of environmental poisoning, and its negative effects on health may appear after many years, e.g., secondary contamination from Pb bone deposits released in pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental exposure (urban areas) of mothers to Pb, on its levels in their milk and blood and in the blood of newborns. Moreover, the aim was to determine the fatty acid profile in the mothers' blood and milk and in the blood of newborns. We also wanted to find if infant birth weight depends on Pb blood levels, as well as on Pb and fatty acid levels in the blood and milk of the mothers. Finally, we examined if the mothers' weight and body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy influenced the concentration of Pb and fatty acid profile in the blood and milk of mothers and in the blood of their children. Analysis of fatty acids elaidic (C18:1, 9t), oleic (C18:1, 9c), vaccenic (C18:1, 11t), cis-vaccenic (C18:1, 11c), linoleic (C18:2, cis), γ-linolenic (C18:3, n-6), α-linolenic (C18:3, n-3), arachidonic (C20:4, n-6), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5, n-3), and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, n-3) was conducted by gas chromatography. The concentration of Pb in the whole blood and milk were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization and Zeeman correction. Our study established a significant and strong correlation between the content of Pb in the blood of the mother and the child. This supports the assumption that the transport of Pb through the placenta is neither regulated nor selective. Environmental maternal exposure to lead resulting in Pb-B levels considered safe for

  13. Hawaiian temples and their orientations: issues of method and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    In 2002 I began a collaboration with Pat Kirch (Berkeley) to survey the temple sites (heiau) in the Kahikinui and Kaupo districts of southern Maui, and study their orientations and potential astronomical significance. Our investigations of over 70 temples in the area were completed in 2011 and are due for publication in 2016. Pat Kirch will present some of our main conclusions in his keynote talk within FM2. In this paper I propose to concentrate on issues of field methodology and procedure that have wider implications for developments in method and practice within archaeoastronomy. Methodologically, temple sites in the Hawaiian Islands constitute a "halfway house" between prehistoric monuments in Europe, where the only evidence is archaeological and studies of orientations tend to follow formal, "data-driven" or statistical, approaches, and Mesoamerica, where the existence of pre-conquest written records and inscriptions and post-conquest ethnohistory relegate "alignment studies" to a secondary role. In Hawai‘i, cultural data, including oral histories recorded after conquest, provide a finer balance between historical accounts and the physical evidence. Selection issues at the Maui temple sites include distinguishing marginal temple sites from house sites and identifying the intended direction of orientation at complex structures. Initial analyses of the principal orientations identified clusterings in orientation which were interpreted as relating to different gods, and particular the war-god Ku and the god of dryland agriculture, Lono. Later, more comprehensive surveys revealed evidence of observing platforms and foresights at some of the Lono temples, suggesting that systematic observations were made of the Pleiades, known from the ethnohistory to be of particular calendrical significance. This type of alignment evidence is too subjective to be sustained on the basis of a formal analysis alone but, given the historical context, provides a more robust cultural

  14. Partners in Excellence: Development of the Temple College Clinical Simulation Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Temple College (TC) is a comprehensive community college located in Temple, Texas. Temple also is home to Scott & White Hospital, Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, King's Daughters Hospital, and Texas A&M University College of Medicine's clinical campus. In the summer of 2001, TC's health-sciences programs were scattered across three…

  15. A Mixed-Method Study to Determine the Benefits of Periconceptional Folic Acid Supplementation and Effects of Folic Acid Deficiency in Mothers on Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata S; Kolli, Sunanda Reddy; Neogi, Sutapa B; Singh, Samiksha; John, Neena; N., Srinivas; Ramani, Sudha; Shamanna, BR; Doyle, Pat; Kinra, Sanjay; Ness, Andy; Pallepogula, Dinesh Raj; Pant, Hira B; Babbar, Smiksha; Reddy, Raghunath; Singh, Rachna

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence from high income countries shows mothers who are supplemented with folic acid in their periconceptional period and early pregnancy have significantly reduced adverse outcomes like birth defects. However, in India there is a paucity of data on association of birth defects and folic acid supplementation. We identified a few important questions to be answered using separate scientific methods and then planned to triangulate the information. Objective In this paper, we describe the protocol of our study that aims to determine the association of folic acid and pregnancy outcomes like neural tube defects (NTDs) and orofacial clefts (OFCs). We decided to fill the gaps in knowledge from India to determine public health consequences of folic acid deficiency and factors influencing dietary and periconceptional consumption of folic acid. Methods The proposed study will be carried out in five stages and will examine the questions related to folic acid deficiency across selected locations in South and North India. The study will be carried out over a period of 4 years through the hierarchical evidence-based approach. At first a systematic review was conducted to pool the current birth prevalence of NTDs and orofacial clefts OFCs in India. To investigate the population prevalence, we plan to use the key informant method to determine prevalence of NTDs and OFCs. To determine the normal serum estimates of folic acid, iron, and vitamin B12 among Indian women (15-35 years), we will conduct a population-based, cross-sectional study. We will further strengthen the evidence of association between OFCs and folic acid by conducting a hospital-based, case-control study across three locations of India. Lastly, using qualitative methods we will understand community and health workers perspective on factors that decide the intake of folic acid supplements. Results This study will provide evidence on the community prevalence of birth defects and prevalence folic acid and

  16. Composition of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma of adolescent and adult mothers: relationship with anthropometric parameters of newborn

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Considering the importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to fetal development and the lack of studies that have compared the status of fatty acids between adolescents and adults mothers, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord plasma from adolescent and adults mothers. Methods Forty pregnant adolescents and forty pregnant adults were selected to assess the distribution profile of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma. Quantification of fatty acids in the total lipids of the sample groups was performed through the use of gas-liquid chromatography. Results The maternal and umbilical cord plasma of the adolescents showed a greater concentration of AA than did that of the adults (P < 0.05). However, a greater percentage of EPA was found in the umbilical cord plasma of the adults (P < 0.05). DHA in the plasma of the adolescent mothers correlated positively to birth weight and head circumference. Conclusions This suggests that in situations of greater nutritional risk, as in adolescent pregnancy, n-3PUFA concentrations have a greater influence on the proper development of newborns. Moreover, variations in fatty acid concentrations in the maternal and cord plasma of adolescents and adults may indicate that pregnancy affects the LC-PUFA status of adults and adolescents in distinct ways. PMID:23153394

  17. Identification of acetic acid bacteria in traditionally produced vinegar and mother of vinegar by using different molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Yetiman, Ahmet E; Kesmen, Zülal

    2015-07-01

    Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were combined for the investigation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations in traditionally produced vinegars and mother of vinegar samples obtained from apple and grape. The culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, which targeted the V7-V8 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, showed that Komagataeibacter hansenii and Komagataeibacter europaeus/Komagataeibacter xylinus were the most dominant species in almost all of the samples analyzed directly. The culture-independent GTG5-rep PCR fingerprinting was used in the preliminary characterization of AAB isolates and species-level identification was carried out by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S rDNA internally transcribed to the spacer (ITS) region and tuf gene. Acetobacter okinawensis was frequently isolated from samples obtained from apple while K. europaeus was identified as the dominant species, followed by Acetobacter indonesiensis in the samples originating from grape. In addition to common molecular techniques, real-time PCR intercalating dye assays, including DNA melting temperature (Tm) and high resolution melting analysis (HRM), were applied to acetic acid bacterial isolates for the first time. The target sequence of ITS region generated species-specific HRM profiles and Tm values allowed discrimination at species level.

  18. Identification of acetic acid bacteria in traditionally produced vinegar and mother of vinegar by using different molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Yetiman, Ahmet E; Kesmen, Zülal

    2015-07-01

    Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were combined for the investigation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations in traditionally produced vinegars and mother of vinegar samples obtained from apple and grape. The culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, which targeted the V7-V8 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, showed that Komagataeibacter hansenii and Komagataeibacter europaeus/Komagataeibacter xylinus were the most dominant species in almost all of the samples analyzed directly. The culture-independent GTG5-rep PCR fingerprinting was used in the preliminary characterization of AAB isolates and species-level identification was carried out by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S rDNA internally transcribed to the spacer (ITS) region and tuf gene. Acetobacter okinawensis was frequently isolated from samples obtained from apple while K. europaeus was identified as the dominant species, followed by Acetobacter indonesiensis in the samples originating from grape. In addition to common molecular techniques, real-time PCR intercalating dye assays, including DNA melting temperature (Tm) and high resolution melting analysis (HRM), were applied to acetic acid bacterial isolates for the first time. The target sequence of ITS region generated species-specific HRM profiles and Tm values allowed discrimination at species level. PMID:25828705

  19. Ta Keo Temple Reconstruction Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X.; Wang, C.; Wan, Y. P.; Khuon, K. N.

    2015-08-01

    Ta Keo temple is one of the very famous temple complex of Angkor Wat in northwestern Cambodia. It has been suffering massive collapse and other serious damages in recent years. Nowadays, Terrestrial Laser Scanning(TLS) technology is considered as a wellestablished resource for heritage documentation and protection (Lerma et al, 2008; Reshetyuk, 2009). This paper used TLS to reconstruct Ta Keo Temple. Firstly, we acquired 71 scanning stations of points cloud data with high density and high accuracy, and over one thousand images with high spatial resolution about the temple. Secondly, the raw points cloud data were denoised, reduced and managed efficiently, and registrated using an adjusted ICP algorithm. Thirdly, a triangulation method was used to model most objects. At last, we mapped the texture data into the digital model and a 3-D model of Ta Keo with high accuracy was achieved. The authors focus on large object reconstruction by TLS technology, and pay much attention to the scanning design, multi-station data and the whole project's data registration, and texture mapping and so on. The research result will be useful for Ta Keo restoration, reconstruction and protection. Also, it is a good reference source for large complex buildings reconstruction when using terrestrial laser scanning technology.

  20. Graeco-Roman Astro-Architecture: The Temples of Pompeii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiede, Vance R.

    2014-01-01

    Roman architect Marcus Vetruvius Pollio (ca. 75-15 BC) wrote, “[O]ne who professes himself as an architect should be…acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens…. From astronomy we find the east, west, south, and north, as well as the theory of the heavens, the Equinox, Solstice and courses of the Stars.” (De Architectura Libri Decem I:i:3,10). In order to investigate the role of astronomy in temple orientation, the author conducted a preliminary GIS DEM/Satellite Imaging survey of 11 temples at Pompeii, Italy (N 40d 45', E 14d 29'). The GIS survey measured the true azimuth and horizon altitude of each temple’s major axis and was field checked by a Ground Truth survey with theodolite and GPS, 5-18 April 2013. The resulting 3D vector data was analyzed with Program STONEHENGE (Hawkins 1983, 328) to identify the local skyline declinations aligned with the temple major axes. Analysis suggests that the major axes of the temples of Apollo, Jupiter and Venus are equally as likely to have been oriented to Pompeii’s urban grid, itself oriented NW-SE on Mt. Vesuvius’ slope and hydraulic gradient to optimize urban sewer/street drainage (cf. Hodge 1992). However, the remaining nine temples appear to be oriented to astronomical targets on the local horizon associated with Graeco-Roman calendrics and mythology. TEMPLE/ DATE/ MAJOR AXIS ASTRO-TARGET (Skyline Declination in degrees) Public Lares/AD 50/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, Last Gleam (-16.5) Vespsian/ AD 69-79/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, LG (-16.2) Fortuna Augusta/ AD 1/ Winter Solstice Sun Set, LG (-22.9) Aesculapius/ 100 BC/ Perseus Rise (β Persei-Algol = +33.0) & Midsummer Moon Major Stand Still Set, LG (-28.1) Isis/ 100 BC/ Midwinter Moon Major Stand Still Rise, Tangent (+28.5) & Equinox Sun Set, Tangent (-0.3) Jupiter/ 150 BC/ Θ Scorpionis-Sargas Rise (-38.0) Apollo/ 550 (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37.1) Venus/ 150 BC (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37

  1. Virtual museum of Japanese Buddhist temple features for intercultural communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Takashi; Takao, Hidenobu; Inoue, Tetsuri; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Noro, Kageyu

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes the production and presentation of an experimental virtual museum of Japanese Buddhist art. This medium can provide an easy way to introduce a cultural heritage to people of different cultures. The virtual museum consisted of a multimedia program that included stereoscopic 3D movies of Buddhist statues; binaural 3D sounds of Buddhist ceremonies and the fragrance of incense from the Buddhist temple. The aim was to reproduce both the Buddhist artifacts and atmosphere as realistically as possible.

  2. At the Dawn of Greek Astronomy: The Temple of Zagora on Andros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coucouzeli, A.; Avghouli, O.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we present briefly the main results of our archaeoastronomical study of the temple of Zagora on Andros. This study has shown that the temple was designed for use as an astronomical observatory in the framework of the cult of the Dioskouroi and probably also for time reckoning and calendric purposes around 757 B.C. As the earliest and hitherto the only known observatory from ancient Greece, the temple of Zagora offers new insights into the beginnings of Greek astronomy.

  3. Studies in Continuity and Change: A Comparative Study of the Mother Goddess in Ancient India and Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardiman, W. J.

    Visiting the Temple of Kali in Calcutta, India, one understands the importance of an Afro-centric methodology in describing the complex nature of the Mother Goddess in ancient India. Discoveries of ancient female figurines indicate an early Indian concept of the female role in the creation of civilization and culture and of the notion of the…

  4. Radar Image with Color as Height, Sman Teng, Temple, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Cambodia's Angkor region, taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), reveals a temple (upper-right) not depicted on early 19th Century French archeological survey maps and American topographic maps. The temple, known as 'Sman Teng,' was known to the local Khmer people, but had remained unknown to historians due to the remoteness of its location. The temple is thought to date to the 11th Century: the heyday of Angkor. It is an important indicator of the strategic and natural resource contributions of the area northwest of the capitol, to the urban center of Angkor. Sman Teng, the name designating one of the many types of rice enjoyed by the Khmer, was 'discovered' by a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., working in collaboration with an archaeological expert on the Angkor region. Analysis of this remote area was a true collaboration of archaeology and technology. Locating the temple of Sman Teng required the skills of scientists trained to spot the types of topographic anomalies that only radar can reveal.

    This image, with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet), depicts an area of approximately 5 by 4.7 kilometers (3.1 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the P-band (68 centimeters, or 26.8 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change, so going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change.

    AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data

  5. Temple University Persistence Rates for Community College of Philadelphia Transfer Students. Report #118.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Community Coll., PA. Office of Institutional Research.

    Temple University has been the transfer institute most frequently attended by Community College of Philadelphia graduates and former students. This report provides short and long-term persistence rates of college students who transfer to Temple University (Pennsylvania). During fall semesters between 1988 and 1998, 22,248 students were admitted to…

  6. Early (300−100 B.C.) temple precinct in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Elsa M.; Spencer, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Archaeological investigations during the past two decades in Mexico’s Valley of Oaxaca have documented the appearance of key public buildings, such as the royal palace and multiroom temple, associated with the rise of an archaic state at ca. 300−100 B.C. A fuller picture is now emerging from the site of El Palenque, where recent excavations have defined a temple precinct on the east side of the site’s plaza. This precinct exhibits characteristics similar to those of the temple precincts of later Mesoamerican states described by Colonial period sources. The excavation data document a walled enclosure containing three multiroom temples, two special residences identified as priests’ residences, and an array of ritual features and activity areas. The temple precinct’s components are interpreted as comprising a hierarchy of temples staffed by a specialized priesthood. A series of radiocarbon dates indicate that the precinct’s differentiated components were all in use during the 300−100 B.C. period of archaic state emergence. The El Palenque temple precinct is the earliest temple precinct excavated thus far in the Valley of Oaxaca. PMID:23610387

  7. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF FRONT ELEVATION OF PYTHIAN TEMPLE/NEW GRANADA THEATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF FRONT ELEVATION OF PYTHIAN TEMPLE/NEW GRANADA THEATER FROM NORTHEAST. THIS 1927 STRUCTURE WAS DESIGNED BY ARCHITECT LOUIS A. BELLINGER FOR THE KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS. IT WAS CONVERTED INTO THE NEW GRANADA THEATER DURING THE 1930S. - Pythian Temple, 2007-2013 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Voices of Women in the Field: A Voice from Temple University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Shari J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her career journey at Temple University, a major urban research university located in the heart of North Philadelphia. Temple is a place that believes in its mission of providing access to a quality education. After years of being in small or mid-sized isolated communities with black families accounting for less…

  9. My Temple with a Frieze: Learning from the Greeks and Romans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsche, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Both Greeks and Romans placed the building of temples and sanctuaries high on their list of architectural priorities, as these structures were a source of public pride. The temples were built as shrines for the all-important gods and goddesses of the ancient world. The Parthenon is a great example of this. The frieze on the Parthenon shows scenes…

  10. Early (300-100 B.C.) temple precinct in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Elsa M; Spencer, Charles S

    2013-05-01

    Archaeological investigations during the past two decades in Mexico's Valley of Oaxaca have documented the appearance of key public buildings, such as the royal palace and multiroom temple, associated with the rise of an archaic state at ca. 300-100 B.C. A fuller picture is now emerging from the site of El Palenque, where recent excavations have defined a temple precinct on the east side of the site's plaza. This precinct exhibits characteristics similar to those of the temple precincts of later Mesoamerican states described by Colonial period sources. The excavation data document a walled enclosure containing three multiroom temples, two special residences identified as priests' residences, and an array of ritual features and activity areas. The temple precinct's components are interpreted as comprising a hierarchy of temples staffed by a specialized priesthood. A series of radiocarbon dates indicate that the precinct's differentiated components were all in use during the 300-100 B.C. period of archaic state emergence. The El Palenque temple precinct is the earliest temple precinct excavated thus far in the Valley of Oaxaca.

  11. Understanding Privilege as Loss: Community-Based Education at Temple University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, Lori; Rothman, Nancy; Parks, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Outlines some of the administrative changes included in Temple University's move toward a more community-based education agenda and focuses on one case, Temple Health Connection (THC). THC is an on-site, community- and university-supported medical facility that serves as a locus for community health care, student learning, and faculty research.…

  12. Early (300-100 B.C.) temple precinct in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Elsa M; Spencer, Charles S

    2013-05-01

    Archaeological investigations during the past two decades in Mexico's Valley of Oaxaca have documented the appearance of key public buildings, such as the royal palace and multiroom temple, associated with the rise of an archaic state at ca. 300-100 B.C. A fuller picture is now emerging from the site of El Palenque, where recent excavations have defined a temple precinct on the east side of the site's plaza. This precinct exhibits characteristics similar to those of the temple precincts of later Mesoamerican states described by Colonial period sources. The excavation data document a walled enclosure containing three multiroom temples, two special residences identified as priests' residences, and an array of ritual features and activity areas. The temple precinct's components are interpreted as comprising a hierarchy of temples staffed by a specialized priesthood. A series of radiocarbon dates indicate that the precinct's differentiated components were all in use during the 300-100 B.C. period of archaic state emergence. The El Palenque temple precinct is the earliest temple precinct excavated thus far in the Valley of Oaxaca. PMID:23610387

  13. Temple U. Shuts Down For-Profit Distance-Education Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2001-01-01

    Describes how Temple University ended Virtual Temple, its for-profit distance education effort, saying that such companies cannot make money. However, universities with similar programs--such as Columbia, Cornell, New York University, and the University of Maryland--disagree. (EV)

  14. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed...

  15. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed...

  16. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...

  17. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...

  18. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...

  19. Deutsche Literatur in englischer Sprache an der Temple University--Eine Zwischenbilanz (German Literature in English Translation at Temple University--An Interim Statement)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo-Mayr, Maria-Luise

    1975-01-01

    Reports on three German literature courses taught in English at Temple University. The descriptions give course content, materials and methodologies used, and an indication of the success of each course. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  20. Human baby hair amino acid natural abundance 15N-isotope values are not related to the 15N-isotope values of amino acids in mother's breast milk protein.

    PubMed

    Romek, Katarzyna M; Julien, Maxime; Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Tea, Illa; Antheaume, Ingrid; Hankard, Régis; Robins, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    Since exclusively breast-suckled infants obtain their nutrient only from their mother's milk, it might be anticipated that a correlation will exist between the (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios of amino acids of protein of young infants and those supplied by their mother. The work presented here aimed to determine whether amino nitrogen transfer from human milk to infant hair protein synthesized within the first month of life conserves the maternal isotopic signature or whether post-ingestion fractionation dominates the nitrogen isotope spectrum. The study was conducted at 1 month post-birth on 100 mother-infant pairs. Isotope ratios (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C were measured using isotope ratio measurement by Mass Spectrometry (irm-MS) for whole maternal milk, and infant hair and (15)N/(14)N ratios were also measured by GC-irm-MS for the N-pivaloyl-O-isopropyl esters of amino acids obtained from the hydrolysis of milk and hair proteins. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C (‰) were found to be significantly higher in infant hair than in breast milk (δ(15)N, P < 0.001; δ(13)C, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the δ(15)N (‰) of individual amino acids in infant hair was also significantly higher than that in maternal milk (P < 0.001). By calculation, the observed shift in isotope ratio was shown not to be accounted for by the amino acid composition of hair and milk proteins, indicating that it is not simply due to differences in the composition in the proteins present. Rather, it would appear that each pool-mother and infant-turns over independently, and that fractionation in infant N-metabolism even in the first month of life dominates over the nutrient N-content.

  1. The dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio during pregnancy is inversely associated with child neurodevelopment in the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jonathan Y; De Agostini, Maria; Forhan, Anne; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) of the n6 (ω6) and n3 series are essential for the development of a child's brain. Fetal LC-PUFA exposure as well as infant exposure via breast milk depend on the maternal intake of these LC-PUFAs and of their respective dietary precursors (PUFAs). We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal LC-PUFA and PUFA [(LC)PUFA] dietary intake during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment at ages 2 and 3 y. In 1335 mother-child pairs from the EDEN cohort, we evaluated associations between daily maternal (LC)PUFA intake during the last 3 months of pregnancy with the child's language at age 2 y and with different assessments of development at age 3 y. Associations were investigated separately in breastfed and never-breastfed children. We examined interactions between the ratios of n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intakes (n6:n3 fatty acid ratio) and duration of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding mothers had a lower n6:n3 fatty acid ratio (8.4 vs. 8.8; P = 0.02). Among never-breastfed children (n = 338), we found negative associations between maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratios and neurodevelopment, as reflected by the child's language at age 2 y (β ± SE = -2.1 ± 0.7; P = 0.001) and development assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 3 y (-1.5 ± 0.8; P = 0.05). Among mothers with a high n6:n3 fatty acid ratio only, breastfeeding duration was positively associated with language at age 2 y (P-interaction < 0.05). This suggests that the ratio between maternal dietary n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intake possibly influences the child's brain development during fetal life but not during or by breastfeeding. However, breastfeeding might compensate for prenatal imbalance in maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio.

  2. GPR investigation to allocate the archaeological remains in Mut temple, Luxor, Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atya, M. A.; AL Khateeb, S. O.; Ahmed, S. B.; Musa, M. F.; Gaballa, M.; Abbas, A. M.; Shaaban, F. F.; Hafez, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A) includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B) includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C) includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.

  3. Congenital malformations in infants whose mothers reported the use of folic acid in early pregnancy in Sweden. A prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Källén, Bengt

    2007-12-01

    The use of folic acid prior to conception is generally recommended for the prevention of birth defects, notably neural tube defects. In a previous study from Sweden, based on interviews of women in early pregnancy, no such effect was found on the general malformation rate, but data for neural tube defects were scarce. Using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register for the years 1995-2004, 20 891 women were identified who reported the use of folic acid in early pregnancy, but not of anticonvulsants. These women were compared to all other women who gave birth during the study period. Malformations in the infants born were identified from multiple sources. No reduction in the general malformation rate was seen among infants born to women who reported the use of folic acid (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.17) and no effect of neural tube defect rate was seen (RR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.82-2.22), based on 16 infants with neural tube defect whose mother reported the use of folic acid. No effect was seen on the rates of other malformations except for cardiac defects, where a statistically significant increased risk (notably for severe defects) was found (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.35). The effect of various deficiencies in data collection is discussed, but is unlikely to explain the lack of protective effect noticed. So far, it has not been possible to demonstrate a beneficial effect of folic acid supplementation on malformation risk in Sweden. A more complete ascertainment and detailed timing and dosage of folic acid use in a prospective study is recommended.

  4. Characteristics of emissions of air pollutants from burning of incense in temples, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Lee, S C; Ho, K F; Kang, Y M

    2007-05-01

    Field investigations of target air pollutants at two of the most famous temples in Hong Kong were conducted. The air pollution problems in these two temples during peak and non-peak periods were characterized. The target air pollutants included particulate matters (PM(10), PM(2.5)), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyl compounds, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), methane (CH(4)), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and inorganic ions (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Na(+), NH(4)(+), and K(+)). The pollutant levels of the two temples during peak period were shown to be significantly higher than those during non-peak period. The highest average CO level was obtained at Temple 1 during peak period, which exceeded IAQO 8-h Good Class criteria. In general, the average PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios were approximately 82%. The results revealed that the fine particulates (PM(2.5)) constituted the majority of suspended particulates at both temples. It was noted that formaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl compounds, followed by acetaldehyde. At Temple 1 during peak period, the average benzene concentration exceeded almost 8 times more than Indoor Air Quality Objectives for Office Buildings and Public Places (IAQO) [HKEPD, 2003. Guidance notes for the management of indoor air quality in offices and public places. Indoor air quality management group, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.] Good Class criteria. The average OC/EC ratios ranged from 2.6 to 17 in PM(10) and from 4.2 to 18 in PM(2.5) at two temples, which suggested that OC measured in these two temple areas may be due to both direct emission from incense burning and secondary formation by chemical reactions. The total mass of inorganic ions, organic carbon, and elemental carbon accounted for about 71% in PM(2.5) and 72% in PM(10).

  5. Mothering Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeptner Poling, Linda; Suominen Guyas, Anniina; Keys, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This article attends to revealing complicated, intersecting, and symbiotic relationships of mothering, academia, and art education practice. The authors seek to articulate rhizomatic interconnections through their narratives and art, attempting to make sense of what it means to educate, nurture, and care within a location of power, in the…

  6. Paleoenvironmental implications of lacustrine sedimentation patterns in the Temple Lake Valley, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Lacustrine sediment cores were collected from three paternoster lakes in the Temple Lake valley, southern Wind River Range, Wyoming to model Holocene lacustrine sedimentation patterns and to evaluate controls on the sediment cascade system in this high-alpine valley. Coarse-grained sediments probably are deposited by turbidity flows and density underflows in Temple lake (3246 m) and by snow avalanching onto lake ice (dropstones.) in Miller Lake (3230 m). Such processes are minor in Rapid Lake (3134 m). Very poor sorting of fine-grained sediments suggests that fluvial and eolian components are recorded in sediment cores from each lake. Organic matter strongly influences chemical weathering in the Temple Lake valley. In addition, these 3 lakes are efficient sediment traps due to focusing of sediment to the deep upper end of each lake. Radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from lakes both inside and outside of the type Temple Lake moraine indicate that the deposit dates about 12,000 years B.P. Percentage organic detritus in these cores reach a maximum about 9500-8500 years B.P. and remain high from the early Holocene until 3300 years B.P., although slightly lower values occur 8500-7000 years B.P., probably not a period of major glacier activity. Similarly, valley-wall rock glaciers in lower Temple Lake valley probably were not active 5000 to 3000 years B.P. From 3300 years B.P. to almost the present, marked changes in most sediment parameters suggest an increase in physical weathering possibly associated with Neoglacial activity. Thus, the late-Pleistocene and Holocene glacial chronology of the Temple Lake valley includes a 12,000 years B.P. age for deposition of the type Temple lake moraine and a 3300 years B.P. age for the beginning of Neoglaciation.

  7. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and methylmercury on child's brain development due to consumption of fish by Finnish mother during pregnancy: a probabilistic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Leino, O; Karjalainen, A K; Tuomisto, J T

    2013-04-01

    Fish contains both beneficial substances e.g. docosahexaenoic acids but also harmful compounds e.g. methylmercury. Importantly, the health effects caused by these two substances can be evaluated in one common end point, intelligence quotient (IQ), providing a more transparent analysis. We estimated health effects of maternal fish consumption on child's central nervous system by creating a model with three alternative maternal fish consumption scenarios (lean fish, fatty fish, and current fish consumption). Additionally, we analyzed impacts of both regular fish consumption and extreme fish consumption habits. At the individual level, the simulated net effects were small, encompassing a range of one IQ point in all scenarios. Fatty fish consumption, however, clearly generated a beneficial net IQ effect, and lean fish consumption evoked an adverse net IQ effect. In view of the current fish consumption pattern of Finnish mothers the benefits and risks seem to more or less compensate each other. This study clearly shows the significance of which fish species are consumed during pregnancy and lactation, and the results can be generalized to apply to typical western population fish consumption habits.

  8. Properties of Roman bricks and mortars used in Serapis temple in the city of Pergamon

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkaya, Ozlem Aslan; Boeke, Hasan

    2009-09-15

    Serapis temple, which was constructed in the Roman period in the city of Pergamon (Bergama/Turkey), is one of the most important monuments of the world heritage. In this study, the characteristics of bricks and mortars used in the temple have been determined in order to define the necessary characteristics of the intervention materials, which will be used in the conservation works of the temple. Several analyses were carried out to determine their basic physical properties, raw material compositions, mineralogical and microstructural properties using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and a Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer. Analysis results indicated that the mortars are stiff, compact and hydraulic due to the use of natural pozzolanic aggregates. The Roman bricks are of low density, high porosity and were produced from raw materials containing calcium poor clays fired at low temperatures.

  9. Marae o te Rangi, Temples of the Heavens: Explorations in Polynesian Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirch, Patrick V.

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that the ancient Polynesians possessed sophisticated knowledge of astronomy, applying their understanding of the movements of heavenly bodies among other things to long-distance navigation and to their calendrical systems. Nonetheless, Polynesian archaeologists have been reticent to apply the methods of archaeoastronomy to the interpretation of prehistoric monumental sites, especially temples (marae and heiau). This presentation draws upon examples from the Mangareva and Hawaiian archipelagoes to demonstrate that Polynesian ritual architecture frequently exhibits regular patterns of orientation, suggesting that these temples were aligned with particular astronomical phenomena, such as solstice, equinox, and Pleiades rising positions. The argument is advanced that Polynesian temples were not only places of offering and sacrifice to the gods, but also locations for formal astronomical observation. In part, such observation was presumably crucial to keeping the Polynesian lunar calendar synchronized with the solar year.

  10. 78 FR 47691 - UGI, Inc.; Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Temple LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Proposed Temple LNG Liquefaction Upgrade and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues The staff of the...) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Temple LNG Liquefaction Upgrade involving.... Summary of the Proposed Project UGI plans to construct and operate facilities to increase the...

  11. Multimedia systems for art and culture: a case study of Brihadisvara Temple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anil K.; Goel, Sanjay; Agarwal, Sachin; Mittal, Vipin; Sharma, Hariom; Mahindru, Ranjeev

    1997-01-01

    In India a temple is not only a structure of religious significance and celebration, but it also plays an important role in the social, administrative and cultural life of the locality. Temples have served as centers for learning Indian scriptures. Music and dance were fostered and performed in the precincts of the temples. Built at the end of the 10th century, the Brihadisvara temple signified new design methodologies. We have access to a large number of images, audio and video recordings, architectural drawings and scholarly publications of this temple. A multimedia system for this temple is being designed which is intended to be used for the following purposes: (1) to inform and enrich the general public, and (2) to assist the scholars in their research. Such a system will also preserve and archive old historical documents and images. The large database consists primarily of images which can be retrieved using keywords, but the emphasis here is largely on techniques which will allow access using image content. Besides classifying images as either long shots or close-ups, deformable template matching is used for shape-based query by image content, and digital video retrieval. Further, to exploit the non-linear accessibility of video sequences, key frames are determined to aid the domain experts in getting a quick preview of the video. Our database also has images of several old, and rare manuscripts many of which are noisy and difficult to read. We have enhanced them to make them more legible. We are also investigating the optimal trade-off between image quality and compression ratios.

  12. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of the Syracuse Athena Temple: Scale Invariance in the Timing of Ruptures

    SciTech Connect

    Niccolini, G.; Carpinteri, A.; Lacidogna, G.; Manuello, A.

    2011-03-11

    We perform a comparative statistical analysis between the acoustic-emission time series from the ancient Greek Athena temple in Syracuse and the sequence of nearby earthquakes. We find an apparent association between acoustic-emission bursts and the earthquake occurrence. The waiting-time distributions for acoustic-emission and earthquake time series are described by a unique scaling law indicating self-similarity over a wide range of magnitude scales. This evidence suggests a correlation between the aging process of the temple and the local seismic activity.

  13. The Sardinian type underground well temple at Garlo, Bulgaria: an architectural and astronomical survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsonev, Lyubomir; Kolev, Dimiter

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we describe a rare but relatively well-preserved Sardinian type underground well temple located at the village of Garlo, in Bulgaria. This dates to the fourteenth or thirteenth century BCE, and contains some unique architectural features. We postulate that the Garlo temple was used during the winter solstice for rituals associated with the 'newly-born Sun', underground water and the start of the new annual cycle of life. Solar and water cults are known from ancient Thrace, but previously they have never been combined in this way.

  14. Reconsideration of the Coexistence of Buddhist Temple Education and State Education in Xishuangbanna, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jing; Moore, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents data gathered in interviews with 29 informants in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, China--an administrative region with Theravada Buddhist religious identity. The data highlight tensions between the traditional faith-based education provided by Theravada Buddhist temple schools and secular state education. The…

  15. Measurement of acoustic characteristics of Japanese Buddhist temples in relation to sound source location and direction.

    PubMed

    Soeta, Yoshiharu; Shimokura, Ryota; Kim, Yong Hee; Ohsawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Although temples are important buildings in the Buddhist community, the acoustic quality has not been examined in detail. Buddhist monks change the location and direction according to the ceremony, and associated acoustical changes have not yet been examined scientifically. To discuss the desired acoustics of temples, it is necessary to know the acoustic characteristics appropriate for each phase of a ceremony. In this study, acoustic measurements were taken at various source locations and directions in Japanese temples. A directional loudspeaker was used as the source to provide vocal acoustic fields, and impulse responses were measured and analyzed. The speech transmission index was higher and the interaural cross-correlation coefficient was lower for the sound source directed toward the side wall than that directed toward the altar. This suggests that the change in direction improves speech intelligibility, and the asymmetric property of direct sound and complex reflections from the altar and side wall increases the apparent source width. The large and coupled-like structure of the altar of a Buddhist temple may have reinforced the reverberation components and the table in the altar, which is called the "syumidan," may have decreased binaural coherence.

  16. Deep Rifts Divide Faculty in Temple U.'s Afrocentric Ph.D. Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Denise K.

    1997-01-01

    Molefi Kete Asante, chairman of the Temple University (Pennsylvania) African American studies department, the first doctoral program in the discipline in the country, is stepping down amidst controversy over his leadership. An avowed Afrocentrist, his administration is viewed by some as creating rancor and instability among faculty, and has led…

  17. Rare and Powerful Visual--Spatial Talent: An Interview with Temple Grandin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Temple Grandin is a professor of animal sciences at Colorado State University where she conducts research and teaches courses on livestock handling and facility design. She is also a past member of the board of directors of the Autism Society of America. She lectures to parents and teachers throughout the United States on her experiences with…

  18. Virtual Reconstruction of the Almaqah Temple of Yeha in Ethiopia by Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstaedt, M.; Mechelke, K.; Schnelle, M.; Kersten, Th.

    2011-09-01

    In autumn 2009 the Almaqah Temple of Yeha in Ethiopia has been recorded by terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry in cooperation between the Sana'a Branch of the Orient Department of the German Archaeological Institute and the HafenCity University Hamburg. The temple dates from the 7th Century BC and is one of the best preserved buildings of Sabaean architecture in Africa. As a basis for all future project works a geodetic network was established in UTM-coordinates by GPS measurements. The geodata collected will form the basis for all future work on the temple. The deformations of the facades were determined for restoration issues and the existing parts of the temple were modelled by meshing (3D triangulation). Using the scanned point cloud and a technical analysis of the building the Propylon, which is no longer existent today, was virtually reconstructed. In future, the data will also be included in the master plan for touristic development of the region of Axum and Yeha in northern Ethiopia.

  19. Customer Service Training for Public Services Staff at Temple University's Central Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Gwen

    Arguing that good interpersonal interactions between library staff and their patrons is a major determinant of overall patron satisfaction, this paper describes Temple University's customer service training program for its public services staff. Dubbed the "A+ Service" program, the program focuses on six aspects of library service: (1) importance…

  20. 77 FR 10618 - Eric Temple-Control Exemption-Portland Vancouver Junction Railroad, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Eric Temple--Control Exemption--Portland Vancouver Junction Railroad, LLC... pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35594, must be filed with the Surface Transportation Board, 395...

  1. The Implementation of an Individualized Curriculum in Periodontology at the Temple University School of Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salkin, Leslie M.; And Others

    An individualized, self-paced curriculum at Temple University Dental School is being used to break the lock-step pattern of the lecture-oriented system and to help students reach the clinical learning environment more quickly. Freshmen begin work in periodontology with 12 programed lessons studied in a Learning Resources Center open 75 hours a…

  2. An experimental study on Sokkuram Cave Temple dome's indoor environment using a miniature model in winter season

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, S.H.; Chung, K.S.; Park, J.S.; Shin, I.S.; Han, H.T.

    1999-07-01

    Currently, there are many researches on the analysis of indoor environment in Sokkuram Cave Temple. However, there is not enough researches about an experimental study on the dome's indoor environment in Sokkuram Cave Temple using a miniature model. The purpose of this investigation is to measure and analyze characteristics of indoor environment such as relative humidity, dry bulb temperature and air velocity in the miniature model of Sokkuram Cave dome during winter season.

  3. Influence of headache frequency on clinical signs and symptoms of TMD in subjects with temple headache and TMD pain

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gary C.; John, Mike T.; Ohrbach, Richard; Nixdorf, Donald R.; Schiffman, Eric L.; Truelove, Edmond S.; List, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The relationship of the frequency of temple headache to signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) was investigated in a subset of a larger convenience sample of community TMD cases. The study sample included: 86 painful TMD, non-headache subjects; 309 painful TMD subjects with varied frequency of temple headaches; and 149 subjects without painful TMD or headache for descriptive comparison. Painful TMD included Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) diagnoses of myofascial pain, TMJ arthralgia and TMJ osteoarthritis. Mild to moderate intensity temple headaches were classified by frequency using criteria based on the ICHD-II classification of TTH. Outcomes included TMD signs and symptoms (pain duration, pain intensity, number of painful masticatory sites on palpation, mandibular range of motion), PPTs and temple headache resulting from masticatory provocation tests. Trend analyses across the painful TMD groups showed a substantial trend for aggravation of all of the TMD signs and symptoms associated with increased frequency of the temple headaches. In addition, increased headache frequency showed significant trends associated with reduced PPTs and reported temple headache with masticatory provocation tests. In conclusion, these findings suggest that these headaches may be TMD-related, as well as a possible role for peripheral and central sensitization in TMD patients. PMID:21196079

  4. AMS 14C dating at CIRCE: The Major Temple in Cumae (NA - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capano, M.; Rescigno, C.; Sirleto, R.; Passariello, I.; Marzaioli, F.; D'Onofrio, A.; Terrasi, F.

    2015-10-01

    We present here one recent CIRCE (Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage) - Caserta (Italy) project on cultural heritage field, analysing several mice bones, discovered in the Major Temple on the acropolis of Cumae (Napoli, Southern Italy). The bones were found in a vase linked to the holy context. In order to know their dating and formulate an hypothesis on their presence on the site, if it was an accidental rodent inclusion (believed on the base of archaeological context to have occurred during building abandonment periods (IV-V or XIII centuries AD)) or an intentional and ritual remain, the bones were 14C dated by AMS at CIRCE. The results indicate that the mice bones date to the IV century BC and are contemporaneous with building construction. This dating seems to exclude an accidental rodent presence and it supports the hypothesis of Apollo veneration in the temple, based on the already known link between mice and Apollo worship rituals.

  5. Temple Mountain member, a new member of the Chinle formation in the San Rafael Swell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robeck, Raymond C.

    1956-01-01

    A lithologic unit, referred to as mottled purple and white, or the 'pinto bed,' in the San Rafael Swell has E?nough thickness and continuity to be formally named the Temple Mountain member of the Chinle formationo The member is characterized by the presence of: the interfingering of siltstone, mudstone, and sandstone; purple and white color; quartz grains and pebbles; jasper; and coalified material.

  6. Emission characters of particulate concentrations and dry deposition studies for incense burning at a Taiwanese temple.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chu, Chia-Chium; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng

    2002-05-01

    Suspended particulate concentrations were measured at the Tzu Yun Yen temple in the Taichung region of Taiwan. The temple performs traditional incense burning. A universal sampler and a micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI) sampler with a dry deposition plate were used to measure the particulate concentrations. The results show that the average PM2.5/PM10 ratio was 74% during the incense burning period at this temple. In addition, the average suspended particulate (PM10) element concentration of anthropogenic element Zn (495 ng/m3) was higher than the other anthropogenic elements (Pb, Mn, Ni, and Cd). Furthermore, the average mass size distribution was bimodal with major peaks occurring at 0.32-0.56 microm and 5.6-10 microm during the incense burning period. The dry deposition velocities of Cd used fine particulates (PM2.5) and suspended particulate (PM10) mode were 1.86 and 0.99 cm/s in this study, respectively.

  7. Estimating the frequency distributions of particulate matter and their metal elements in a temple.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsin-Chung; Fang, Gour-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen

    2006-07-01

    Air quality inside Asian temples is typically poor because of the burning of incense. This study measured and analyzed concentrations of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate matter and their metal elements inside a temple in central Taiwan. Experimental results showed that the concentrations of metals Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr inside the temple were higher than those at rural, suburban, urban, and industrial areas in other studies. Three theoretical parent distributions (lognormal, Weibull, and gamma) were used to fit the measured data. The lognormal distribution was the most appropriate distribution for representing frequency distributions of PM10, PM2.5, and their metal elements. Furthermore, the central limit theorem, H-statistic-based scheme, and parametric and nonparametric bootstrap methods were used to estimate confidence intervals for mean pollutant concentrations. The estimated upper confidence limits (UCLs) of means between different methods were very consistent, because the sample coefficient of variation (CV) was < 1. When the sample CV was > 1, the UCL based on H-statistical method tended to overestimate the UCLs when compared with other methods. Confidence intervals for pollutant concentrations at different percentiles were evaluated using parametric and nonparametric bootstrap methods. The probabilities of pollutants exceeding a critical concentration were also calculated.

  8. Mother-Child Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  9. Calcareous palaeosols and temples in the floodplain of Thebes, Egypt: droughts and decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.

    2014-05-01

    The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from

  10. Characteritization of, and health risks from, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans from incense burned in a temple.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Tsan; Chen, Shen-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Lee, Jia-Twu; Chiu, Chuen-Huey

    2009-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) may cause adverse health effects. However, PCDD/F emissions from burning incense in temples have rarely been addressed. This study investigates PCDD/F emissions from burning incense in a temple. The mean total PCDD/F concentrations were 72.4-82.2 pg Nm(-3) at two indoor sites; their corresponding mean total PCDD/Fs I-TEQ concentrations (0.24-0.27 pg I-TEQ Nm(-3)) were approximately 11 times that at a background location. In air samples collected from burning incense, OCDFs accounted for approximately 90% of total PCDD/Fs at the two indoor sites and an outdoor site near the temple, while the major PCDD/Fs in incense ash were PCDDs. The total PCDD/F content and toxic equivalent value of incense ash were 617 pg g(-1) and 1.55 pg I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. At the three sites inside/outside the temple, the air and ash samples contained the same four primary PCDD/Fs-OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. The Cl- emission factor, which is related to the PCDD/F formation, from burning incense was 0.454 mg g(-1). The resultant lifetime average daily dose and cancer risk for temple workers were 0.00964 pg I-TEQ day(-1) kg(-1) and 9.64 x 10(-6), respectively, approximately 2 times that for residents near the temple (0.00489 pg I-TEQ day(-1) kg(-1) and 4.89 x 10(-6), respectively). We suggest that the chlorine content in incense must be regulated, and the high risk of PCDD/F exposure from burning incense for temple workers and visitors should be of concern.

  11. The site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal in Rome: topographical and astronomical approach to the question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arrizabalaga y Prado, L.; de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    2005-03-01

    Ancient historians refer to a temple in Rome, dedicated to the Syrian sun god Elagabal, by his high priest, the Roman emperor called Varius (204-222AD, commonly called Elagabalus or Heliogabalus). On the basis of their texts, it has been thought that Varius either built a new temple, or rededicated an existing one, expropriated from some other deity, in order to house his god's principal cult object: a large black meteorite, or baetyl, which Varius brought from its temple at Emesa, in Syria, to Rome. In this paper we analyze the hypothesis that the site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal may have been that now known as the Vigna Barberini. A stratigraphic analysis shows that the Vigna Barberini is an artificial platform, built on the rubble of earlier hillside structures, dating from prehistoric times to the Julio-Claudian period. The platform, with more or less its present shape, is of Flavian date, and at that time contained a portico surrounding a central garden. On top of these, a Severan level corresponds to the base of the foundations of a temple that are very solid and go very deep. The azimuth of the temple wall oriented south-east is about 113°. Using a computer program, we have thoroughly scan ned the night sky in AD 1-250, looking for celestial objects that may have been worshipped in the temple. After taking into account the effects of precession, the main candidate for a celestial body worshipped from this site appears to be the star Sirius. In several Mediterranean cultures, the heliacal ortus, or earliest pre-dawn sighting of Sirius (when Sirius again rises into visibility after being hidden by the Sun's light for about 70 days) was thought to have astrological significance. We have compiled the relevant astronomical data for the heliacal ortus of Sirius in the time span 0-250 AD. During that period of time, it falls between 18th and 20th July. The azimuth angle of Sirius, when rising on the heliacal ortus day ci rca 150 AD, is about 111°. Being

  12. Influence of Temple Headache Frequency on Physical Functioning and Emotional Functioning in Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorder Pain

    PubMed Central

    List, Thomas; John, Mike T.; Ohrbach, Richard; Schiffman, Eric L.; Truelove, Edmond L.; Anderson, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship of headache frequency with patient-reported physical functioning and emotional functioning in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) subjects with concurrent temple headache. Methods The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Validation Project identified, as a subset of 614 TMD cases and 91 controls (n = 705), 309 subjects with concurrent TMD pain diagnoses (RDC/TMD) and temple headache. The temple headaches were subdivided into infrequent, frequent, and chronic headache according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD–II). Study variables included self-report measures of physical functioning (Jaw Function Limitation Scale [JFLS], Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS], Short Form–12 [SF–12]) and emotional functioning (depression and anxiety as measured by the Symptom Checklist–90R/SCL–90R). Differences among the three headache subgroups were characterized by increasing headache frequency. The relationship between ordered headache frequency and physical as well as emotional functioning was analyzed using linear regression and trend tests for proportions. Results Physical functioning, as assessed with the JFLS (P < .001), SF-12 (P < .001), and GCPS (P < .001), was significantly associated with increased headache frequency. Emotional functioning, reflected in depression and anxiety, was also associated with increased frequency of headache (both P < .001). Conclusion Headache frequency was substantially correlated with reduced physical functioning and emotional functioning in subjects with TMD and concurrent temple headaches. A secondary finding was that headache was precipitated by jaw activities more often in subjects with more frequent temple headaches. PMID:22558607

  13. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron

  14. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010–1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron

  15. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron

  16. Chemical analysis of black crust on the Angkor sandstone at the Bayon temple, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wonsuh; Oguchi, Chiaki; Waragai, Tetsuya

    2014-05-01

    The Angkor complex is the one of the greatest cultural heritages in the world. It is constructed in the early 12th century, designated as a world cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1992. The temples at the Angkor complex are mainly made of sandstone and laterite. However, due to the tropical climate, plants, lichens and various microorganisms are growing well on the rock surface. Black crusts are also easily found on the stone surface. The 21st technical session of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of Angkor (ICC-Angkor) held in 2012 recommended that to preserve both the biofilms and the forest cover and to prohibit the biocides (chlorine-based) and organic biocides. However, there are many reports that lichens and microorganisms accelerate rock weathering. It is important to clarify that how the biofilm on the Angkor temples affect Angkor sandstones. We sampled Angkor sandstone covered by black crust at the Bayon temple, Angkor complex, and observed the section and the surface of the rock sample by using SEM. Surfaces of the samples are not polished in order to observe the original condition. The samples are coated with gold for 180 seconds. The depth of the black crust is up to 1 mm. Many filamentous materials were found on the black crust. Average energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data of the five areas of ca. 20 μm ×15 μm in the black crusts shows that over 80 % of the filamentous materials are compounds of carbon. It seems that these materials are hyphae. The shape of the hypha is like a thread and its size is few μm in diameter and up to several centimeters in length. Black crusts are consisted of elements and compounds of carbon, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe. Further research has to be done to find out the better and proper way of conservation for the Angkor complex.

  17. Analytical characterisation of homoeopathic mother tinctures.

    PubMed

    Biber, A; Franck-Karl, G; Waimer, F; Riegert, U; Wiget, R

    2009-03-01

    Quality of homoeopathic mother tinctures is assured by the definition of the starting material, the manufacturing process and the analytical characteristics described in the monograph. Traditionally analytical characterisation of the mother tincture comprises appearance, odour, identity, density and dry residue. According to annex I of directive 2001/83/EC an assay is only performed in case of a health hazard due to toxic compounds. The concept of marker substances as usually used in phytotherapy cannot be transferred to mother tinctures without research effort. For example the marker substances echinacoside, apigenin-7-glucoside and rosmarinic acid found in dried underground parts of Echinacea pallida Nutt., dried flower heads of Matricaria recutita L. and dried herb of Pulmonaria officinalis L. cannot be found in homoeopathic mother tinctures prepared from fresh material thereof. PMID:19275866

  18. Epilepsy in the Graeco-Roman world: Hippocratic medicine and Asklepian temple medicine compared.

    PubMed

    Todman, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The rational system of medicine distinct from magical or religious practices originated with Hippocrates. This revolutionary change established diseases with natural causes and treatments. Epilepsy with its prominent physical and psychic features was regarded in ancient times with superstitious awe and given the name "Sacred Disease." Hippocratic authors distanced themselves from the prevailing supernatural views but were careful not to oppose the traditional medicine especially the cults of Asklepios. This analysis of the practices of Hippocratic and Temple medicine in relation to epilepsy reveals some clear differences and also some overlapping features. PMID:18979345

  19. Heavy incense burning in temples promotes exposure risk from airborne PMs and carcinogenic PAHs.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kuo-Chih; Liao, Chung-Min

    2006-12-15

    We present the mechanistic-based exposure and risk models, appraised with reported empirical data, to assess how the human exposure to airborne particulate matters (PMs) and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during heavy incense burning episodes in temples. The models integrate size-dependent PM levels inside a temple from a published exploratory study associated with a human expiratory tract (HRT) model taking into account the personal exposure levels and size distributions in the HRT. The probabilistic exposure profiles of total-PAH levels inside a temple and internal PAHs doses are characterized by a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model with the reconstructed dose-response relationships based on an empirical three-parameter Hill equation model, describing PAHs toxicity for DNA adducts formation and lung tumor incidence responses in human white blood cells and lung. Results show that the alveolar-interstitial (AI) region has a lower mass median diameter (0.29 microm) than that in extrathoracic (ET(1), 0.37 microm), brochial (BB, 0.36 microm) and bronchiolar (bb, 0.32 microm) regions. The 50% probability (risk=0.5) of exceeding the DNA adducts frequency (DA(f)) ratio of 1.28 (95% CI: 0.55-2.40) and 1.78 (95% CI: 0.84-2.95) for external exposure of B[a]P and B[a]P(eq), respectively. The 10% (risk=0.1) probability or more of human affected by lung tumor is approximately 7.62x10(-5)% (95% CI: 3.39x10(-5)-1.71x10(-4)%) and 3.87x10(-4)% (95% CI: 1.72x10(-4)-8.69x10(-4)%) for internal exposure of B[a]P and B[a]P(eq), respectively. Our results implicate that exposure to smoke emitted from heavy incense burning may promote lung cancer risk. Our study provides a quantitative basis for objective risk prediction of heavy incense burning exposure in temples and for evaluating the effectiveness of management.

  20. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  1. MotherToBaby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Explore Fact Sheets 1 Check Out Our Latest Facebook Posts MotherToBaby 4 hours ago If you are ... part of your routine. If you... View on Facebook · Share MotherToBaby 2 days ago A powerful piece ...

  2. Quantifying degradation of collagen in ancient manuscripts: the case of the Dead Sea Temple Scroll.

    PubMed

    Schütz, R; Bertinetti, L; Rabin, I; Fratzl, P; Masic, A

    2013-10-01

    Since their discovery in the late 1940s, the Dead Sea Scrolls, some 900 ancient Jewish texts, have never stopped attracting the attention of scholars and the broad public alike, because they were created towards the end of the Second Temple period and the "time of Christ". Most of the work on them has been dedicated to the information contained in the scrolls' text, leaving physical aspects of the writing materials unexamined. They are, however, crucial for both historical insight and preservation of the scrolls. Although scientific analysis requires handling, it is essential to establish the state of degradation of these valued documents. Polarized Raman Spectroscopy (PRS) is a powerful tool for obtaining information on both the composition and the level of disorder of molecular units. In this study, we developed a non-invasive and non-destructive methodology that allows a quantification of the disorder (that can be related to the degradation) of protein molecular units in collagen fibers. Not restricted to collagen, this method can be applied also to other protein-based fibrous materials such as ancient silk, wool or hair. We used PRS to quantify the degradation of the collagen fibers in a number of fragments of the Temple Scroll (11Q19a). We found that collagen fibers degrade heterogeneously, with the ones on the surface more degraded than those in the core.

  3. Characterization of yellow and colorless decorative glasses from the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klysubun, Wantana; Ravel, Bruce; Klysubun, Prapong; Sombunchoo, Panidtha; Deenan, Weeraya

    2013-06-01

    Yellow and colorless ancient glasses, which were once used to decorate the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand, around 150 years ago, are studied to unravel the long-lost glass-making recipes and manufacturing techniques. Analyses of chemical compositions, using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF), indicate that the Thai ancient glasses are soda lime silica glasses (60 % SiO2; 10 % Na2O; 10 % CaO) bearing lead oxide between 2-16 %. Iron (1.5-9.4 % Fe2O3) and manganese (1.7 % MnO) are present in larger abundance than the other 3 d transition metals detected (0.04-0.2 %). K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) provide conclusive evidence on the oxidation states of Fe being 3+ and Mn being 2+ and on short-length tetrahedral structures around the cations. This suggests that iron is used as a yellow colorant with manganese as a decolorant. L 3-edge XANES results reveal the oxidation states of lead as 2+. The results from this work provide information crucial for replicating these decorative glasses for the future restoration of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha.

  4. Nondestructive characterization of musical pillars of Mahamandapam of Vitthala Temple at Hampi, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anish; Jayakumar, T; Rao, C Babu; Sharma, Govind K; Rajkumar, K V; Raj, Baldev; Arundhati, P

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the first scientific investigation on the musical pillars of the Vitthala Temple at Hampi, India. The solid stone columns in these pillars produce audible sound, when struck with a finger. Systematic investigations on the acoustic characteristics of the musical pillars of mahamandapam (great stage) of the Vitthala Temple have been carried out. The 11 most popular pillars that produce sounds of specific musical instruments are considered for the investigations. The sound produced from these 11 most popular musical pillars was recorded systematically and different nondestructive testing techniques such as low frequency ultrasonic testing, impact echo testing, and in situ metallography were employed on the musical columns of these pillars. The peak frequencies in the amplitude spectrum of the sound produced from various columns in these pillars are correlated with the dimensional measurements and ultrasonic velocity determined using impact echo technique. The peak frequencies obtained experimentally have been found to have excellent correlation with the calculated flexural frequencies based on the dimensional measurements and ultrasonic velocities of the columns.

  5. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Akanksha; Jain, Akansha; Sarma, Birinchi K.; Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Harikesh B.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC.

  6. Assessment of sandstone deterioration at Ta Keo temple (Angkor): first results and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Marie-Françoise; Etienne, Samuel; Mercier, Denis; Vautier, Franck; Voldoire, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    A first application of geomorphological methods to the assessment of sandstone deterioration at Angkor is presented. Damage diagnosis was carried out on the first eastern tier of the central pyramid of the 1,000 year-old Ta Keo temple. Methods combine field observations and measurements at 230 sampling points, high-resolution lasergrammetry and stereophotogrammetry on a 2-m2 test zone, and SEM observations. The first results indicate that decay operates through a synergistic combination of weathering phenomena dominated by scaling and solution, and exhibits a high spatial variability. Percentages of deteriorated surfaces vary from 17.6 to 93.8%, and average stone recession values from 0.00 to 2.71 cm (minimum) and 0.34 to 5.49 cm (maximum). On the test-zone, stereophotogrammetry and 3D-mapping of the present and reconstructed initial states using lasergrammetry indicate that erosion scars up to 6 cm deep have formed since 1963. On the whole, the amount of deteriorated surfaces more than tripled between 1963 and 2008. The degree of implication of salts in stone decay remains unclear for most efflorescences are composed of calcite (CaCO3), with secondary importance of barite (BaSO4) and gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). Future prospects aim to evaluate the impact on stone decay of the clearing out of the temple from the forest in the 1920s.

  7. Melancholic Mothering: Mothers, Daughters and Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah

    2008-01-01

    Through selected theories of melancholia, this paper seeks to shed some fresh interpretive light on the reproduction and disruption of gender, violence and family turmoil across generations of mothers and daughters. The originality of the paper lies in its exploratory deployment of theories of melancholia to consider issues of women, violence and…

  8. Design of Information Collecting System Towards The Song Dynasty Wooden Hall of Baoguo Temple, Ningbo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, S.; Tang, Z.; Yang, S.

    2015-09-01

    Baoguo Temple is located half way up Lingshan Mountain in Northern Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. The main hall of Baoguo Temple is Song dynasty wooden structure. As the oldest wooden architecture in Jiangnan, China, it is a national major protective historical relic. In 2005, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum was set up and opens to the outside world. From 2007, to be able to protect it more effectively and foreseeably, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum began to build information collecting systems towards historical architectures using modern information technology. After comparing correlated studies both at home and abroad, we found that: heritage protection abroad started earlier than us, and it has already established thorough protection system, relevant protection mechanism, and also issued relevant protection laws and regulations. The technology which was utilized in protection abroad was not only limited in RS, GIS, GPS, VR, but also included many emerging technology such as using a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the condition of temperature and humidity. The main body of this paper are going to talk about four parts: the first one is existing information system. In this part, we'll introduce the information collecting system, which was preliminarily built in 2007 in Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum. Using the modern digital computer information technology, researchers can gradually check and acquire the information of the material of relics, the condition of the structure stress and the natural environmental information, which may probably affect the cultural architecture. And this part may be divided into information collection, information management and exhibition. The second part is update scheme design of original information collecting equipment and technology. Original information collecting system of microenvironment is relatively independent and data haven't been included in the management of the system

  9. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Peng Xi county, Sichuan province, the Bao Fan temple mural digitization survey mapping project: we use three-dimensional laserscanning, multi-baseline definition digital photography, multi-spectral digital image acquisition and other technologies for digital survey mapping. The purpose of this project is to use modern mathematical reconnaissance mapping means to obtain accurate mural shape, color, quality and other data. Combined with field investigation and laboratory analysis results, and based on a comprehensive survey and study, a comprehensive analysis of the historical Bao Fan Temple mural artistic and scientific value was conducted. A study of the mural's many qualities (structural, material, technique, preservation environment, degradation, etc.) reveal all aspects of the information carried by the Bao Fan Temple mural. From multiple angles (archeology, architecture, surveying, conservation science and other disciplines) an assessment for the Bao Fan Temple mural provides basic data and recommendations for conservation of the mural. In order to achieve the conservation of cultural relics in the Bao Fan Temple mural digitization survey mapping process, we try to apply the advantages of three-dimensional laser scanning equipment. For wall murals this means obtaining three-dimensional scale data from the scan of the building and through the analysis of these data to help determine the overall condition of the settlement as well as the deformation of the wall structure. Survey analysis provides an effective set of conclusions and suggestions for appropriate mural conservation. But before data collection, analysis and research need to first to select the appropriate scanning equipment, set the appropriate scanning accuracy and layout position of stations necessary to determine the scope of required data. We use the fine features of the three-dimensional laser scanning measuring arm to scan the mural surface deformation degradation to reflect the actual state of

  10. Weathering behavior investigations and treatment of Kom Ombo temple sandstone, Egypt - Based on their sedimentological and petrogaphical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temraz, Mostafa Gouda; Khallaf, Mohamed K.

    2016-01-01

    The Temple of Kom Ombo is a huge ancient Egyptian temple in Upper Egypt. It was built by Ptolemy VI Philometor (180-145 BC) and added to by subsequent Ptolemys. The structure of the temple is built of local sandstone attributed to the Quseir Formation of "Nubian Sandstone" group at Gebel el-Silsila. Sandstone samples from Kom Ombo temple were taken to verify the source rock of the quarried material. Optical Polarizing Microscope (OPM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to determine the microstructure and physical properties of the sandstone. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out for the Sandstone samples to identify its mineralogical composition. The sandstone samples were treated with six polymeric products to determine changes in their physical and mechanical properties after penetration, consolidation of polymers within them. This sandstone is composed mainly of three quartz arenite microfacies (feldspathic, sublithic and calcareous) that are interpreted to have been deposited in fluvial to fluvial-marine environment. Silane polymers is showing a good penetration and filling pores between grains and recommended for treatment and conservation of the sandstone. Acrylic polymer shows random penetration of polymer and formation of a film of polymer on the surface of sandstone. Silo11 gave the best result in consolidation of sandstone samples then primal AC33. Wacker BS29 gave the best result in isolating process of sandstone samples, then wacker BS 290.

  11. Faculty Voting Behavior in the Collective Bargaining Elections for the Pennsylvania State Colleges and University System and Temple University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozier, G. Gregory; Mortimer, Kenneth P.

    After faculty collective bargaining elections were held in the 14-campus Pennsylvania State College system and Temple University, questionnaires were administered to a sample of faculty. The objectives of the research were to identify relationships between the independent variable of faculty voting behavior in these elections and the following…

  12. Fine (PM2.5), coarse (PM2.5-10), and metallic elements of suspended particulates for incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chu, Chia-Chium; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Pi-Cheng Fu, Peter; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Yang, I-Lin

    2003-06-01

    Ambient suspended particulate concentrations were measured at Tzu Yun Yen temple (120 degrees, 34('), 10(") E; 24 degrees, 16('), 12(") N) in this study. This is representative of incense burning and semi-open sampling sites. The Universal-sampler collected fine and coarse particle material was used to measure suspended particulate concentrations, and sampling periods were from 16/08/2001 to 2/1/2002 at Tzu Yun Yen temple. In addition, metallic element concentrations, compositions of PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) for incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple were also analyzed in this study. The PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios ranged between 31% and 87% and averaged 70+/-11% during incense the burning period, respectively. The median metallic element concentration order for these elements is Fe>Zn>Cr>Cd>Pb>Mn>Ni>Cu in fine particles (PM(2.5)) at the Tzu Yun Yen temple sampling site. The median metallic element concentration order for these elements is Fe>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cd>Ni>Mn>Cu in coarse particle (PM(2.5-10)) at the Tzu Yun Yen temple sampling site. Fine particulates (PM(2.5)) are the main portion of PM(10) at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study. From the point of view of PM(10), these data reflect that the elements Fe, Zn, and Cr were the major elements distributed at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study.

  13. Infants' Recognition of Their Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann

    The ability of infants to recognize their mothers as distinct from others was investigated by presenting 6 boys and 6 girls at two age levels (5 weeks and 13 weeks) with the following six sequential stimulus conditions: (1) mother's face (MO); (2) stranger's face (SO); (3) mother's face with stranger's voice (MS); (4) stranger's face with mother's…

  14. Pollution effects on stone benches of the Eagle Warriors Precinct at the Major Temple, Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, J.; Gallardo, M. L.; Grimaldi, D. M.; Román-Berrelleza, J. A.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.; Ontalba Salamanca, M. A.; Morales, J. G.

    1999-04-01

    During Major Temple archaeological site excavations in Downtown Mexico City, the precinct of one of the most important Mexica military caste, the Eagle Warriors, was discovered. The ceremonial enclosure is composed of three rooms surrounded by paintings on 11 stone benches placed against the walls. Nowadays, these paintings and the stones present the effects of different deterioration processes produced by the underground water level, high humidity, and the presence of soil, water, and air pollutants. Ion beam analysis of samples from the benches and wall paintings was performed using PIXE and RBS techniques. Using enrichment factors of elements relative to iron concentrations, possible contamination by sulfur and chlorine salts was found, as well as airborne zinc scavenged by rain.

  15. Withdrawal or second childhood: the challenge of old age in the temple town of Bhubaneswar.

    PubMed

    Menon, Usha

    2012-03-01

    The essay examines variations in the meanings attached to old age by upper-caste Hindu women of all ages in the temple town of Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. Based on ethnographic data, it suggests that there are two competing cultural constructions of old age: one as withdrawal from the struggles of the mundane world and the other as a second childhood. Through the narratives of two old women, it demonstrates the ways in which these constructions shape and influence their experience of this phase of life. It analyses the satisfaction that Oriya Hindu women derive during mature adulthood in terms of three indigenously derived measures: centrality, dominance and coherence. Finally, it examines the two constructions of old age in light of these three measures of satisfaction in order to see the degree to which they provide or do not provide old women with meaning and purpose during this, their final phase of life. PMID:22350647

  16. The rape of Medusa in the temple of Athena: aspects of triangulation in the girl.

    PubMed

    Seelig, Beth J

    2002-08-01

    The relationship between the Greek goddess Athena and her father Zeus, together with the competitive hostility she displays towards other females, is presented as illustrating some previously neglected aspects of triangular developmental conflicts in the little girl. Literature on "the Oedipus complex in the female" is reviewed and discussed. The mythological early histories of both Athena and the female monster Medusa are examined for the light they can shed on female developmental vicissitudes and resultant conflicts in both women and men. Unconscious split representations of women as assertive, phallic and dangerous, or alternatively passive, castrated and receptive result in defensive repudiation of the idea that a woman can be both actively assertive and also feminine and sexual. Athena's enraged action of transforming the beautiful young maiden Medusa into a monster as punishment for the "crime" of having been raped in her temple is discussed as illustrating an outcome of the lack of resolution of the little girl's early triangular conflicts. PMID:12204171

  17. Robot mother ship design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2000-07-01

    Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.

  18. Mothers' experiences of induction

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Ann

    1977-01-01

    Mothers of a random sample of 2182 legitimate live births were interviewed about their experiences of pregnancy, labour, and delivery. Of these, 24% reported that their labours were induced, and data about this from a subsample of mothers tallied with information obtained through the doctors in charge in 88% of cases. All but 3% of the mothers who were induced perceived some medical reason for the induction. The proportion of inductions in the 24 study areas ranged from 6% to 39%. A relatively small proportion of labours in “teaching” hospitals, small hospitals with less than 100 beds, and GP maternity hospitals were induced, but a comparatively high proportion of private patients had an induction. There was no clear association between induction and the mother's age or parity. Despite being given more pain relief, those who were induced reported similar intensities of pain during the first and second stages of labour to those whose labour started spontaneously; they also reported that they had “bad pains” for a similar period. The period they had contractions was shorter for the induced than for those starting spontaneously, and the intensity of pain at delivery was rated somewhat less by those who were induced. There was no difference between induced babies and others in the proportion who were held by their mothers immediately after their birth. Two-fifths of the mothers who were induced would have liked more information about induction; and a similar proportion said they had not discussed induction with a doctor, midwife, or nurse during their pregnancy. Only 17% of the mothers who had an induction said they would prefer to be induced if they had another baby. This contrasts with 63% of those who had epidural analgesia who would opt for the same procedure next time, while 83% of those who had had a baby in hospital, and 91% of those having had a home birth, would want their next baby in the same type of place. PMID:912282

  19. Suspended particulate variations and mass size distributions of incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple in Taiwan, Taichung.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Yang, Chang-Ju; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Yang, I-Lin

    2002-11-01

    Ambient suspended particulate concentrations were measured at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study. This is characteristic place of incense burning and indoor air pollution sampling site. A universal sampler, micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI) sampler and dry deposition plate were used to measure particulate concentrations. Tzu Yun Yen temple is a typical famous Buddhist-Taoist combined temple, where many pilgrims come from different areas and various belief systems indicating the eclecticism of the temple. The average number of people visiting this temple is above 5000 per day. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios ranged between 31.2 and 87.4% and averaged 69.6+/-12.3% during the incense-burning period, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the fine particulates concentrations (PM2.5) constituted the majority of indoor-suspended particulates at Tzu Yun Yen temple. PM10 concentration was 110.1 microg m(-3) for Zhong Yuan Jie (A festival on the seventh full moon in a lunar year, otherwise known as a summer lantern festival and (or) the commemoration of the dead. Almost all temples have maximum pilgrims for the commemoration of the dead on this day.) and the 1st or 15th of nong li (Nong li is a Chinese lunar calendar system in which 1 year is divided into fixed periods, and the beginning and end of a year is determined. The new moon and full moon are the 1st and 15th, respectively of each month in the Chinese lunar calendar. Many pilgrims appeared at each temple for blessing and good luck for themselves on the 1st and 15th of each Chinese lunar month.) with numbers higher than non-Zhong Yuan Jie and non-1st or -15th day of nong li (average = 85.5 microg m(-3)). In general, the average dry deposition flux (49.4 mg m(-2) day(-1)) in the indoor environment is lower than those measured in the outdoor environment (184.0 mg m(-2) day(-1)) in this study. The mean dry deposition flux of indoor/outdoor ratio was 46.2%. The average mass size distributions were bimodal

  20. Amino acid polymorphism in the reverse transcriptase region of hepatitis B virus and the relationship with nucleos(t)ide analogues treatment for preventing mother-to-infant transmission.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Yan, Ling; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Liu, Jian-Xun; Li, Rong-Cheng; Wang, Fu-Zhen; Li, Jie; Zhuang, Hui

    2014-08-01

    A high maternal serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level is associated with vaccine failure. The administration of nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) in pregnancy for decreasing serum HBV is regarded as an effective and safe method to reduce HBV perinatal transmission. However, the effect of NAs treatment is closely related to amino acid polymorphisms in the HBV reverse transcriptase (RT) region. The full-length RT coding region of 334 HBV isolates from untreated Chinese women of childbearing age with persistent HBV infection were sequenced and amino acid polymorphic analysis was performed to evaluate its impact on NAs treatment for decreasing HBV perinatal transmission. Of the 334 isolates, 36 (10.8%) harbored NAs resistance (NAr) mutations which were mainly putative drug mutations related to lamivudine. The primary drug mutation rtA181T/V was detected in three HBeAg-negative women with an HBV DNA level of <4 log IU/ml. These NAr mutations were rarely detected in women with an HBV DNA level of ≥7 log IU/ml (P = 0.014) or in women younger than 35 years (P = 0.001). The NAr mutation rate among young women (<35 years) who had a high HBV DNA level (≥7 log IU/ml) was significantly lower than in women who had lower HBV DNA levels (<7 log IU/ml) or who were older (≥35 years; P = 0.017). These results suggest that younger women with a high HBV DNA level harbor fewer NAr mutations and that this population may respond to NAs treatment for the prevention of mother-to-infant transmission.

  1. Mothering against the Odds: Diverse Voices of Contemporary Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Ed.; Surrey, Janet L., Ed.; Weingarten, Kathy, Ed.

    Based on the view that increasing numbers of mothers who do not fit a narrow traditional image are often maligned, misunderstood, or ignored, this book presents the stories of a diverse group of mothers whose life circumstances place them outside the mainstream. Chapters explore the lives of mothers of exceptional children and biracial children;…

  2. The Mother's Almanac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Marguerite; Parsons, Elia

    This book is a compilation of practical suggestions for mothers on caring for children from birth through age 6. Everyday problems are discussed in an easy-to-read anecdotal style. The first section of the book deals with family life, including discussions of birth, breast feeding, basic child care (e.g., how to diaper a squirming baby),…

  3. Mothers in Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killinger, Mimi; Binder-Hathaway, Rachel; Mitchell, Paige; Patrick, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of four honors mothers as they offer sage advice. They argue convincingly that they are motivated, focused students who bring rich diversity to college programs. They further report disturbing marginalization and isolation that could be ameliorated with support and increased sensitivity on the part of…

  4. Trees for Mother Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sandy

    1993-01-01

    Describes Trees for Mother Earth, a program in which secondary students raise funds to buy fruit trees to plant during visits to the Navajo Reservation. Benefits include developing feelings of self-worth among participants, promoting cultural exchange and understanding, and encouraging self-sufficiency among the Navajo. (LP)

  5. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  6. Contemporary Single Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiduson, Bernice T.

    Fifty Caucasian, never-married single mothers aged 18-30, who had opted to keep their babies, were studied longitudinally from the last trimester of pregnancy through the first three years of their children's lives in order to learn the extent to which they had reinterpreted traditional roles and responsibilities and had restructured their lives.…

  7. Mother, doctor, wife.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Women physicians often play a triple role: mother, doctor, and wife. This situation can be extremely stressful. Understanding the stresses of each role and setting priorities to help make each role more fulfilling are important for balancing career and personal life. PMID:8348020

  8. Intellectually Limited Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminer, Ruth K.; Cohen, Herbert J.

    The paper examines whether a relationship exists between intellectual limitation on the mother's part and unfavorable outcomes for her children. The scope of the problem is examined and the difficulties inherent in estimating prevalence are noted. The issue of child neglect, rather than abuse is shown to be a major problem among institutionalized…

  9. Adolescent mothers and their infants.

    PubMed

    McAnarney, E R; Lawrence, R A; Aten, M J; Iker, H P

    1984-03-01

    It is unclear why children of adolescent mothers experience more developmental problems than children of adult mothers. There has been minimal systematic investigation of whether there is a relationship between the young age of the mother and her mothering behaviors. Our data fail to demonstrate any relationship between adolescent maternal age and the counts of maternal behaviors three days following birth. Seventy-five normal primiparous mothers less than 20 years old were videotaped with their normal infants for ten minutes in a standardized laboratory setting during the three days following birth. The frequency of maternal behaviors was counted from the videotapes by trained observers. Future studies of primiparous adolescent mothers should consider the effects of maternal race/culture and socioeconomic status on their mothering behaviors. The relationship between adolescent maternal age and the vocalizations expressed by the mother to her infant should also be explored further.

  10. Excess omega-3 fatty acid consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation caused shorter life span and abnormal ABRs in old adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Church, M W; Jen, K-L C; Anumba, J I; Jackson, D A; Adams, B R; Hotra, J W

    2010-01-01

    Consuming omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) during pregnancy and lactation is beneficial to fetal and infant development and might reduce the incidence and severity of preterm births by prolonging pregnancy. Consequently, supplementing maternal diets with large amounts of omega-3 FA is gaining acceptance. However, both over- and under-supplementation with omega-3 FA can harm offspring development. Adverse fetal and neonatal conditions in general can enhance age-related neural degeneration, shorten life span and cause other adult-onset disorders. We hypothesized that maternal over- and under-nutrition with omega-3 FA would shorten the offspring's life span and enhance neural degeneration in old adulthood. To test these hypotheses, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the three diet conditions starting from day 1 of pregnancy through the entire period of pregnancy and lactation. The three diets were Control omega-3 FA (omega-3/omega-6 ratio approximately 0.14), Excess omega-3 FA (omega-3/omega-6 ratio approximately 14.5) and Deficient omega-3 FA (omega-3/omega-6 ratio approximately 0% ratio). When possible, one male and female offspring from each litter were assessed for life span and sensory/neural degeneration (n=15 litters/group). The Excess offspring had shorter life spans compared to their Control and Deficient cohorts (mean+/-SEM=506+/-24, 601+/-14 and 585+/-21 days, p

  11. Early Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agostino, Micheline

    1986-01-01

    This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…

  12. Tomb, temple, machine and self: the social construction of the body.

    PubMed

    Synnott, A

    1992-03-01

    The body is socially constructed; and in this paper we explore the various and ever-changing constructions of the body, and thus of the embodied self, from the Greeks to the present. The one word, body, may therefore signify very different realities and perceptions of reality; and we consider briefly how and why these meanings changed. Plato believed the body was a 'tomb', Paul said it was the 'temple' of the Holy Spirit, the Stoic philosopher Epictetus taught that it was a 'corpse'. Christians believed, and believe, that the body is not only physical, but also spiritual and mystical, and many believed it was an allegory of church, state and family. Some said it was cosmic: one with the planets and the constellations. Descartes wrote that the body is a 'machine', and this definition has underpinned biomedicine to this day; but Sartre said that the body is the self. In sum, the body has no intrinsic meaning. Populations create their own meanings, and thus their own bodies; but how they create, and then change them, and why, reflects the social body.

  13. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Jain, Akansha; Sarma, Birinchi K; Abhilash, P C; Singh, Harikesh B

    2013-05-01

    Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC-water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC-soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC. PMID:23481343

  14. Seasonal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Tham Phra Phothisat temple, Saraburi province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Polseela, R; Apiwathnasorn, C; Samung, Y

    2011-08-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies have long been incriminated as vectors of leishmaniasis in various parts of both the Old and New World. Prompted by recent indigenous cases of leishmaniasis in Thailand, a bionomic study of sand flies was undertaken in Tham Phra Phothisat temple, Saraburi province. In this study, sand flies were collected using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, to clarify the activity patterns and species composition of the sand flies. Traps were laid from August 2005 to July 2006. The insects were collected monthly between 1800-0600 hours. A total of 8,131 sand flies were collected with a female:male ratio of 1.9:1. Sixteen species were identified, of which 5 belonged to the genus Phlebotomus, 9 to Sergentomyia and 1 to Chinius. Species comprised the abundant species (Sergentomyia silvatica 35.6%, Sergentomyia barraudi 18.1%, Sergentomyia anodontis, 17.1%, Sergentomyia iyengari 11.9%, and Sergentomyia gemmea 11.2%); the less common species (<2%) were Sergentomyia dentata 1.8%, Phlebotomus stantoni 1.1%, Sergentomyia indica 1.0%, Phlebotomus argentipes 0.8%, Sergentomyia perturbans 0.4%, Chinius barbazani 0.3%, Phlebotomus asperulus 0.2%, Phlebotomus philippinensis gouldi 0.1%, Phlebotomus major major 0.1%, Sergentomyia quatei 0.1% and Sergentomyia bailyi 0.1%. The results revealed seasonal variation in sand fly prevalence, with the highest peak in July. Soil samples collected were characterized by alkaline (pH 7.6).

  15. A Technical Characterization of Roman Plasters, Luxor Temple,Upper Egypt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey Mahmoud, Hussein; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Stratis, John

    The present paper aims to characterize some Roman plasters from the reign of the Emperor Diocletian in the late 3rd century AD. These plasters were applied over Pharaonic walls from the reign of Amenhotep III (c.1402-1364 BC) at Luxor temple, Upper Egypt. For the characterization of theses plasters, several analytical techniques were applied such as optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRPD), micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies (μ-Raman and FT-IR). Based on the results of these analyses, the stratigraphic structure of the plaster layers was identified as fine coat 'intonaco' which is based mainly on lime and coarse coat 'arriccio' which consists of silica sand, phases of calcium carbonates and different pozzolanic additives. Moreover, the results revealed the green pigment as green earth (celadonite), the red pigment as red ochre, the yellow pigment as yellow ochre and the white pigment as cal-cium carbonate. The obtained data helped in improving our knowledge of some materials used during the Roman age in Egypt.

  16. Weathering damage evaluation of rock properties in the Bunhwangsa temple stone pagoda, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chan Hee; Yi, Jeong Eun

    2007-06-01

    The stone pagoda of the Bunhwangsa temple in Republic of Korea was made of piling small brick-shaped stones. The majority of stone bricks are andesitic rocks with variable geneses. Rock properties of the pagoda roof suffer partial significant deterioration, such as multiple peel-offs, exfoliation, onion-peel-like decomposition, cracks forming round lines and falling-off stone pieces. The stylobates and tabernacles at the four corners are composed of granitic rocks, which are heavily contaminated by lichens and mosses. Some of these contamination marks show dark black or yellowish brown colors by inorganic secondary hydrates. The four tabernacles and northern face of the pagoda body have been exposed to relatively high humidity, which causes light gray efflorescence as stalactites between the northern and western sides of the body. The efflorescences are composed of calcite, gypsum and clay minerals. The stone lion statues at the southeast and northeast corners are made of alkali granite, while the others are lithic tuff. Total rock properties of the pagoda consist of 9,708 stone bricks. Among them, 11.0% are fractured, 6.7% are fallen off, and 7.0% show considerable surface efflorescence, which shows that the pagoda has been highly deteriorated by physical, chemical and biological weathering. The authors strongly suggest long-term monitoring and comprehensive conservation researches.

  17. Parenting attitudes of addict mothers.

    PubMed

    Wellisch, D K; Steinberg, M R

    1980-08-01

    Parenting attitudes of female heroin addicts were investigated in a single factor design which compared addict mothers, addict non-mothers, nonaddict mothers, and nonaddict nonmothers. A principal components factor analysis was performed on the PARI and used as the dependent measure. A factor labeled "authoritarian overinvolvement" emerged which significantly differentiated between groups. Further, the effects of mothering and addiction proved to be additive such that addict mothers were extremely high on this scale. This result was discussed in terms of the parental home environment of addict women.

  18. Underage mothers in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Erdal; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Yildirim, Ali; Enginyurt, Ozgur; Din, Hasan; Evcuman, Durmus

    2014-01-01

    Background All individuals under the age of 18 are considered as children by the Convention on the Rights of Children. Underage mothers are a pediatric-age group of children that become pregnant and give birth. It may be unfamiliar in Western countries, but in Middle-Eastern countries ruled by religious laws and old-fashioned traditions, it is common for an older man to marry a girl. The aim of this study was to describe the status of underage mothers within the framework of children’s rights and to draw attention to this issue. We presented this study to increase awareness and sensitivity, and to scrutinize and discuss these topics. Material/Methods We retrospectively investigated cases of underaged pregnant girls who applied to Forensic Science Department outpatient clinics and Obstetrics and Gynecology Department outpatient clinics of Gaziosmanpasa University Faculty of Medicine between 2003 and 2013. Results We accessed records of 163 underage mothers (≤18 age). Mean age was 16.9±0.83 (14–18 years). Gravida and parity rates increased proportionately with increasing age. Most of our cases were 16 and 17 years of age (n: 117, 71.8%). Conclusions Underage motherhood is not only a medical issue; it is a multi-dimensional problem with social, economic, traditional, religious, and legal aspects. PMID:24714663

  19. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  20. The mother market.

    PubMed

    Braus, P

    1996-10-01

    Giving a woman good prenatal and maternity care can capture the health-care spending of her entire family for life. The next decade will bring several challenges to those who market maternity products and services, including fewer new moms, fewer babies in many markets, more minority mothers, and the end of childbearing for the baby-boom generation. The biggest challenge will be to provide a wide range of high-quality childbirth options in the cost-conscious world of managed health care.

  1. Combining Statistical Tools and Ecological Assessments in the Study of Biodeterioration Patterns of Stone Temples in Angkor (Cambodia).

    PubMed

    Caneva, G; Bartoli, F; Savo, V; Futagami, Y; Strona, G

    2016-01-01

    Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective. PMID:27597658

  2. Combining Statistical Tools and Ecological Assessments in the Study of Biodeterioration Patterns of Stone Temples in Angkor (Cambodia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caneva, G.; Bartoli, F.; Savo, V.; Futagami, Y.; Strona, G.

    2016-09-01

    Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective.

  3. Combining Statistical Tools and Ecological Assessments in the Study of Biodeterioration Patterns of Stone Temples in Angkor (Cambodia)

    PubMed Central

    Caneva, G.; Bartoli, F.; Savo, V.; Futagami, Y.; Strona, G.

    2016-01-01

    Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective. PMID:27597658

  4. Mothers' Voices: Enhancing Mother-Child Communication for HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silitsky, Cindy; Jones, Sande Gracia

    2004-01-01

    Parents are an important component of HIV prevention efforts for adolescents. The purpose of this study was to work with a community-based organization, Mothers' Voices South Florida, to evaluate the effectiveness of their educational program that teaches mothers how to talk to their children about HIV and safer sexual practices. Questionnaires…

  5. A Mother's Humiliation: School Organizational Violence toward Latina Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monzo, Lilia D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how Latina mothers experience violence in schools through everyday interactions with those positioned with greater power in our society. Drawing on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence, the article discusses how deficit perspectives held toward Latina mothers and the privileging of White, middle-class frames result in…

  6. Uranium deposits at Shinarump Mesa and some adjacent areas in the Temple Mountain district, Emery County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.

    1953-01-01

    Deposits of uraniferous hydrocarbons are associated with carnotite in the Shinarump conglomerate of Triassic age at Shinarump Mesa and adjacent areas of the Temple Mountain district in the San Rafael Swell of Emery County, Utah. The irregular ore bodies of carnotite-bearing sandstone are genetically related to lenticular uraniferous ore bodies containing disseminated asphaltitic and humic hydrocarbon in permeable sandstones and were localized indirectly by sedimentary controls. Nearly non-uraniferous bitumen commonly permeates the sandstones in the Shinarump conglomerate and the underlying Moekopi formation in the area. The ore deposits at Temple Mountain have been altered locally by hydrothermal solutions, and in other deposits throughout the area carnotite has been transported by ground and surface water. Uraniferous asphaltite is thought to be the non-volatile residue of an original weakly uraniferous crude oil that migrated into the San Rafael anticline; the ore metals concentrated in the asphaltite as the oil was devolatilized and polymerized. Carnotite is thought to have formed from the asphaltite by ground water leaching. It is concluded that additional study of the genesis of the asphaltitic uranium ores in the San Rafael Swell, of the processes by which the hydrocarbons interact and are modified (such as heat, polymerization, and hydrogenation under the influence of alpha-ray bombardment), of petroleum source beds, and of volcanic intrusive rocks of Tertiary age are of fundamental importance in the continuing study of the uranium deposits on the Colorado Plateau.

  7. Microbial Community Analysis of Fresh and Old Microbial Biofilms on Bayon Temple Sandstone of Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wensheng; Li, Hui; Wang, Wei-Dong; Katayama, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available from this region. This study investigated the microbial community diversity by examining the fresh and old biofilms of the biodeteriorated bas-relief wall surfaces of the Bayon Temple by analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the retrieved sequences were clustered in 11 bacterial, 11 eukaryotic and two archaeal divisions with disparate communities (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria; Alveolata, Fungi, Metazoa, Viridiplantae; Crenarchaeote, and Euyarchaeota). A comparison of the microbial communities between the fresh and old biofilms revealed that the bacterial community of old biofilm was very similar to the newly formed fresh biofilm in terms of bacterial composition, but the eukaryotic communities were distinctly different between these two. This information has important implications for understanding the formation process and development of the microbial diversity on the sandstone surfaces, and furthermore to the relationship between the extent of biodeterioration and succession of microbial communities on sandstone in tropic region. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9707-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20593173

  8. Microbial community analysis of fresh and old microbial biofilms on Bayon temple sandstone of Angkor Thom, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wensheng; Li, Hui; Wang, Wei-Dong; Katayama, Yoko; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2010-07-01

    The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available from this region. This study investigated the microbial community diversity by examining the fresh and old biofilms of the biodeteriorated bas-relief wall surfaces of the Bayon Temple by analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the retrieved sequences were clustered in 11 bacterial, 11 eukaryotic and two archaeal divisions with disparate communities (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria; Alveolata, Fungi, Metazoa, Viridiplantae; Crenarchaeote, and Euyarchaeota). A comparison of the microbial communities between the fresh and old biofilms revealed that the bacterial community of old biofilm was very similar to the newly formed fresh biofilm in terms of bacterial composition, but the eukaryotic communities were distinctly different between these two. This information has important implications for understanding the formation process and development of the microbial diversity on the sandstone surfaces, and furthermore to the relationship between the extent of biodeterioration and succession of microbial communities on sandstone in tropic region.

  9. Hydrogeologic factors affecting the availability and quality of ground water in the Temple Terrace area : Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Joseph William; Goetz, Carole L.; Mills, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    Ground water occurs in two aquifers in the Temple Terrace area of Hillsborough County, Fla. The lower one is the artesian Floridan aquifer; the upper is the water-table aquifer. The Floridan aquifer is a thick sequence of limestone and dolomite layers which include several permeable zones that generally are treated as a single hydrologic unit. The top of the Tampa Limestone is considered to be the top of the Floridan in the Temple Terrace area. The public supply wells of the city tap the Tampa Limestone and the underlying Suwannee Limestone, in the upper part of the Floridan. The general direction of ground-water movement in the Floridan aquifer is from north to south, but within the city the direction of movement is from northeast to southwest. The quantity of water moving southwest through a 1.8 mile section of the aquifer is about 2.7 million gallons per day. Ample supplies of water in a cavernous limestone, considered to be the most productive water-yielding zone in the aquifer, are available for additional development from the Floridan aquifer. Water-quality data are included also. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Mother's Leading: Models of Maternalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masini, Douglas E.

    When examining basic leadership models, the traits of one of the most important leaders in society, the mother, are rarely considered. This paper reflects on models of leadership found in textbooks and feminist literature and conjures a model, inclusive of popularly held beliefs, of the role of mothers in family and society. The paper asks whether…

  11. Where's the Feminism in Mothering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Arcy, Catherine; Turner, Colleen; Crockett, Belinda; Gridley, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This article is a reflective narrative bringing together personal, collective, and action learning reflections from three women: all mothers, feminists, and community psychology practitioners. Its focus on mothering highlights the interconnectedness and tensions across these roles, as well as the shared learnings arising from this collaboration.…

  12. Strategies for Supporting Teenage Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Robin A.; Thompson, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Programs for teenage mothers provided through school districts or community agencies often have their own curricular agenda for teaching teenage mothers about the proper care of and nutrition for infants and the typical stages of child development, but not all programs are successful in supporting the development of positive early relationships…

  13. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  14. Comparison of the B vitamin composition of milk from mothers of preterm and term babies.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, J E; Zechalko, A; Murphy, J; Brooke, O G

    1983-01-01

    Samples of milk were taken at intervals during lactation from 35 mothers of term and 26 mothers of preterm infants and assayed for 8 B complex vitamins. Both term and preterm milks varied widely in vitamin content between mothers. Mean concentrations of thiamin, vitamin B6, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin, and folic acid increased progressively over several weeks after parturition but vitamin B12 concentrations declined generally and riboflavin values showed little change. Preterm milk was not richer in vitamins than term milk of the corresponding stage of lactation and it appeared that intake of B vitamins differed widely among preterm infants given their own mothers' milk. These infants may have meagre body reserves and an increased need for vitamins, and breast milk whether from their own mother or from the milk bank may not meet their needs. There is a strong case for supplementing breast milk given to preterm babies with the B complex vitamins. PMID:6859917

  15. Effect of Training from Trained Mothers and Education from Mother to Mother on Family Functions and Child-Rearing Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demircioglu, Haktan; Ömeroglu, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The effect of training from trained mothers and education from mother to mother on family functions and child-rearing attitudes was examined. The study was conducted in the 2010-2011 academic year in Ankara, and was modeled based on a pre-test, post-test control group experimental pattern. The study was conducted with a total of 96 mothers, with…

  16. Impact of soil and groundwater corrosion on the Hierakonpolis Temple Town archaeological site, Wadi Abu Sufian, Idfu, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shishtawy, A M; Atwia, M G; El-Gohary, A; Parizek, R R

    2013-06-01

    Hierakonpolis, Greek for City of the Hawk, nearly 25 km NW of Idfu (Egypt), is an important and extensive archaeological discovery covering a large area. Its richness in archaeological artifacts makes it a valuable site. It has a valid claim to be the first nation state, as indicated by the Palette of Narmer discovered in its main mound. Geological and hydrogeological investigations at the Hierakonpolis Temple Town site documented nearly a 4.0-m water table rise from as early as 1892 to the present. In addition to the rising water levels, the increase of both subsoil water salinity and humidity threatens and damages fragile carvings and paintings within tombs in Kingdom Hill, the foundation stability of the site, and the known and still to be discovered artifact that recent pottery finds dates at least 4,000 BCE. Representative rock and soil samples obtained from drilled cores in the study area were chosen for conducting detailed grain size and X-ray analysis, light and heavy mineral occurrences, distribution of moisture and total organic matter, and scanning electron microscopy investigations. Mineralogical analysis of clays indicated that the soil samples are composed of smectite/illite mixed layers with varying proportions of smectite to illite. Kaolinite is the second dominant clay constituent, besides occasional chlorite. Swelling of the clay portion of the soil, due to the presence of capillary groundwater, in contact with buried mudbrick walls expands and causes severe damage to important exposed and buried mudbrick structures, including the massive ancient "fort" believed to date from the Second Dynasty (from 2,890 to 2,686 BC). The "fort" is 1.0 km south of the Temple Town mounds near to confluence of Wadi Abu Sufian. Groundwater samples from the shallow aquifer close by the intersection of Wadi Abu Sufian and the Nile flood plain were analyzed for chemical composition and stable isotope ratios. The groundwater in the upper zone (subsoil water) within fine

  17. Advanced Representation Technologies Applied to the Temple of Neptune, the Sphinx and the Metope in the Archaeological Park of Paestum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinale, T.; Valva, R.; Lucarelli, M.

    2013-02-01

    The Summer School of Surveying and 3D modelling in Paestum was an opportunity to explore the use of innovative tools and advanced techniques in the design, implementation and management of surveys of historic and artistic complexes. In general such methods are used specifically for the development and management of vulnerability maps of existing heritage and so for the preventive conservation and valorisation of the built environment. The accurate detection of risk situations and the systematic promotion of highly selected and minimally invasive maintenance practices means that restoration and the efficiency of cycles of intervention can be optimized, with clear benefits from economic and cultural points of view. The group worked on the survey and 3D modelling of the Temple of Neptune, the Sphinx and the Metope of the Archaeological Park in Paestum.

  18. Impact of soil and groundwater corrosion on the Hierakonpolis Temple Town archaeological site, Wadi Abu Sufian, Idfu, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shishtawy, A M; Atwia, M G; El-Gohary, A; Parizek, R R

    2013-06-01

    Hierakonpolis, Greek for City of the Hawk, nearly 25 km NW of Idfu (Egypt), is an important and extensive archaeological discovery covering a large area. Its richness in archaeological artifacts makes it a valuable site. It has a valid claim to be the first nation state, as indicated by the Palette of Narmer discovered in its main mound. Geological and hydrogeological investigations at the Hierakonpolis Temple Town site documented nearly a 4.0-m water table rise from as early as 1892 to the present. In addition to the rising water levels, the increase of both subsoil water salinity and humidity threatens and damages fragile carvings and paintings within tombs in Kingdom Hill, the foundation stability of the site, and the known and still to be discovered artifact that recent pottery finds dates at least 4,000 BCE. Representative rock and soil samples obtained from drilled cores in the study area were chosen for conducting detailed grain size and X-ray analysis, light and heavy mineral occurrences, distribution of moisture and total organic matter, and scanning electron microscopy investigations. Mineralogical analysis of clays indicated that the soil samples are composed of smectite/illite mixed layers with varying proportions of smectite to illite. Kaolinite is the second dominant clay constituent, besides occasional chlorite. Swelling of the clay portion of the soil, due to the presence of capillary groundwater, in contact with buried mudbrick walls expands and causes severe damage to important exposed and buried mudbrick structures, including the massive ancient "fort" believed to date from the Second Dynasty (from 2,890 to 2,686 BC). The "fort" is 1.0 km south of the Temple Town mounds near to confluence of Wadi Abu Sufian. Groundwater samples from the shallow aquifer close by the intersection of Wadi Abu Sufian and the Nile flood plain were analyzed for chemical composition and stable isotope ratios. The groundwater in the upper zone (subsoil water) within fine

  19. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  20. On the orientation of pre-islamic temples of north Africa: a re-appraisal (new data in Africa proconsularis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, J. A.; Gaspar, A. T.; Betancort, A. P.; Marrero, R.

    Since the late 1990s, our research group has embarked on a systematic archaeoastronomical study of archaeological sites in the Maghreb. Earlier campaigns were devoted to Tunisia, Morocco and Libya (see e.g. Belmonte et. Al.1998, 1999 and 2002). In this short report we will present part of the data obtained in a field campaign carried out in winter 2002, analyzing the results yielded on early 50 ancient sacred structures (temples, churches, earlier mosques and mausoleums) of an extended area in Northern Tunisia (ancient Africa Proconsularis). These data were not discussed in previous reports on similar structures (e.g. Esteban at.al.2001) , although in a previous paper (Belmonte et.al.2003) we reported our results on the contemporary measured megalithic monuments. This paper will present the data of more than 30 temples and mausoleums of Roman era, 10 pre-Islamic Christian churches and a few earlier mosques. These new data will be discussed together with those obtained in previous campaigns in an attempt to shed some light on the possibility of astronomical alignments within this extended set of monuments (more than a hundred). Our results show that some astronomical patterns could be interpreted as solar ones. Interestingly, this solar tendency was continued by Christian churches until the arrival of Islam. This is a common feature to the other regions of early Christianity (see e.g. Romano 1992). Other curious patterns, including the planning of important cities could presumably be associated to the brightest stars of the sky, Sirius and Canopus. Finally, we will analyse how this astronomical tendencies managed to survive within the first Islamic orienting traditions.

  1. Views of classical medicine. Theurgical and secular rational medicine in the healing-temples of ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, L R

    1991-01-01

    The medicine described in Homer's epic is essentially a war medicine. The therapies, such as healing herbs, are a gift of the gods, the healing Apollo and Centaur Chiron. According to Hesiod, the author of Opera et dies (Works and days), in the eighth century medicine was a combination of religious and magical elements along with hygienic rules, dietetics and healing herbs. Health and diseases were attributed to the gods and Daímones and Theoí intermediate, as far as human events are concerned, between the Pantheon and men. In ancient times medicine was associated with the gods, especially Apollo, son of Zeus, and only in the 6th-5th century B.C. Asklepius (Asklepiós), the Thessalian king of the Iliad, was deified. Thus, theurgical medicine was practised by the priests of Asklepius and Asklepíeia (Asklepius' temples) were built as places for all kinds of medical treatment. In the 5th century, scientific observation became a common method of medical practice due to the physician working as a craftsman, arising from naturalistic philosophy, knowledge of anatomy, etiopatogenetic view of medicine and consideration of chronic diseases. Therapy was usually ineffective and the best doctors were those especially good at prognosis. Health and diseases were thus seen as a balance of the whole person, holistic view of man. As classical medicine was usually ineffective, in buildings devoted to health (i.e. tà Asklepíeia) the custom was to combine medicine (téchne) with the practice of dreams (incubatio) and theurgical aspects: the sacred spring, an odeîon or theatre, an ábaton for incubation and dreams, a temple devoted to the gods of healing (Apollo, Asklepius, Amphiaraos, etc.) were present together with those health buildings where physicians practised medicine.

  2. Mother-baby package.

    PubMed

    Tamburlini, G

    1995-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme developed the Mother-Baby package to facilitate the development of national strategies and plans of action. It was presented at an international meeting in Geneva in April 1994. The goals of the package are by the year 2000 to reduce maternal mortality by half and perinatal and neonatal mortality by 30-40% of 1990 levels. The package comprises: 1) a section on the technical basis and underlying strategies, 2) a section describing intervention before and during pregnancy, and during and after delivery, and 3) detailed recommendations on operating the program. The underlying strategy aims to reduce the number of high-risk and unwanted pregnancies; the number of obstetric complications; and the case fatality rate in women with complications. Interventions are based on a fourfold approach of family planning, quality antenatal care, clean and safe delivery, and access to essential obstetric care for high-risk pregnancies and complications. The district health system is the basic unit for planning and implementing the interventions. Midwives who live in the community are best equipped to provide appropriate community-based care to pregnant women. Pregnancy and obstetric complications requiring surgery and anesthesia should be available in the district hospital with an adequate referral system. Upgrading the skills of traditional birth attendants is also essential. National authorities should undertake a series of steps to carry out the interventions. A basic infrastructure, the upgrading of peripheral facilities, the development of human resources for safe motherhood, the effective delegation of responsibility, information, education, and communication (IEC), the involvement of nongovernmental organizations and women's groups, and the monitoring of results are other important elements in carrying out the interventions.

  3. When mothers leave their children behind.

    PubMed

    Schen, Cathy R

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatry has studied the effect on children of separation from their mothers or primary caregivers, but has not given equal attention to the effect on mothers of separation from their children. This article examines the current literature on separation from the mother's perspective. Following a review of the literature on mothers' attachment behaviors, as evidenced by separation from their very young children due to ordinary circumstances, attention will turn to specific populations of mothers enduring separation from their children in situations of hardship: mothers with mental illness, homeless mothers, mothers in prison, and two groups of working mothers-immigrant mothers and deployed navy mothers. Separation can be experienced as temporary, bringing on anxiety, or may involve a mother's choice between her child's safety and her own wish to keep the child near her, causing a conflict in the mother's feelings. In other situations, separation may be involuntary and long-lasting, inducing symptoms of depression, despair, and grief, all of which are characteristic of loss. The particular conditions of the separation-such as choice, control, and ongoing communication between mother and child-can mitigate the impact of the separation and transform it from a total to a partial loss. Three clinical cases of mothers forced to separate from their children in extreme circumstances are examined, with recommendations for treatment.

  4. "Good mothering" or "good citizenship"?

    PubMed

    Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism. PMID:23180199

  5. "Good mothering" or "good citizenship"?

    PubMed

    Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism.

  6. Characterization of magnetic spherical fractions in sand deposits for interpretation of environmental change around the El- Zayyan temple, Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Makiko; Koizumi, Natsuko; Kato, Sayuri; Kikuchi, Ryohei; Kamei, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Desertification in North Africa has rapidly advanced over the last 6,000 years. Such environmental changes began in the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt (4200 - 3150 BC), and the occupation of Achaemenid Persian and Roman cultures in Egypt occurred under even drier climates. Kharga is the largest oasis of the five oases, located in the western desert of Egypt that contains a treasure trove of archaeological resources. This oasis has been highlighted to promote resource exploration and development of archaeological tourism since the 1980's. The El-Zayyan temple is located 27 km south of the central Kharga oasis. Zayyan was once called 'Tchonemyris', which has connection with the means of 'huge well' in Greek. Although major portions of the temple were rebuilt in 140 AD during the rule of the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, this temple is considered to be originally built in the Ptolemaic period (4c-1c BC). It is likely that the area had a sufficient water supply in the past as the El-Zayyan temple stands at the lowest point (-18 m a.s.l.) in the Kharga oasis. Furthermore, the El-Ghueita temple that stands on a hill top at 68.5 m a.s.l., 4 km northward from the El-Zayyan temple, has given name that means 'beautiful garden' in Greek. From these facts, we can imagine that the past landscape of this area contained green surroundings. The El-Ghueita temple was well known as a production centre of high quality wine since the mid-Dynastic age (2050 -1786 BC). As this area is currently arid, it is expected that there were irrigation facilities to maintain the vast farm land during the ancient period. To deepen our knowledge of how people developed their technologies and conducted their life within the natural environment of a drastic drying period, understanding the process of environmental change on a region scale is necessary. The aim of this study was to extract proxies from sand deposits in the western desert area to estimate the change in the environment. We examined the

  7. A Narrative of Fear: Advice to Mothers.

    PubMed

    Åström, Berit

    2015-01-01

    Taking present-day research into so-called new momism and intense mothering as a starting point, this article argues that the current mothering discourse, rather than articulating a new phenomenon, perpetuates a regulative discourse developed in the nineteenth century, in advice books written by medical doctors for pregnant women and new mothers. Both the Victorian and the present-day texts play on feelings of guilt and inadequacy in order to control the actions and emotions of mothers, although the threatened outcome differs: present-day mothers are warned that their children may become obese or develop neuropsychological disorders, whereas Victorian mothers are warned that their children might die.

  8. Mother and Student: The Experience of Mothering in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pare, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally the academic discussion and popular discourse surrounding how a female will engage the role of mother primarily focuses on the decision of whether to be "at-home" or "at-work". However, this ignores the many different parents, parenting decisions, and role conflict experiences that exist in contemporary society. For instance, a…

  9. Mother Love: Natural Mothering, Birth to Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricklin, Alice G.

    This book discusses aspects of natural parenthood based largely on the author's own experiences, with references to other supportive studies and expert opinions. Topics covered include emotional changes brought on by pregnancy; home type delivery; family sleeping quarters and baby-led nursing. Chapters are (1) On Becoming a Mother; (2) Conscious,…

  10. Important Results From Shallow Seismic Observations at the Ancient Hierakonpolis Temple-Town Site in Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Walters, E.; Cakir, R.

    2011-12-01

    A number of shallow seismic profiles were run within the walled 200x300m perimeter of the ancient Hierakonpolis Temple-Town site in Upper Egypt as part of an interdisciplinary investigation of the progressive rise in the water table caused by nearby irrigation practices. Each of these lines provided a profile of water table depth that is accurate to within approximately 10-15 cm when compared to point measurements on a piezometer array. Water table depths currently range from approximately 0.6m to 1.5m mainly because of buried structures and there is a seasonal variation modulating a steady shallowing trend. Prominent continuous high-velocity, high-frequency (200-300Hz)signals from very shallow depths above the water table were observed along some of these profiles and additional crossing lines were run to map these anomalies; this high-velocity layer is imbedded in the upper layer of unconsolidated, air-filled sediments that have extremely low velocities and very low Q. Subsequent shallow excavations (2001, 2005-2010) at several locations on the site have revealed that the cause of this shallow high-velocity layer is the presence of a zone of closely spaced artifacts (dense in potsherds and stone fragments) above the water table that reveal new, previously-unknown evidence of occupation in the ancient town as early as Dynasty I, c. 3200 BCE. In the northwest excavation an 'in situ' deposit of special pottery lies next to a bench, a large block of dressed limestone. Further to the north, layered occupation suggests a secular context with pottery of Dynasty II, 2900 BCE and a new early date, terminus ante quem, for the accompanying figurines, thus far exclusive to two temple sites in southern Egypt. Of key significance is the discovery of the first reported ebony artifacts (leg of a statue and eyes) found in the region, and rare anywhere in Egypt. To date only a fraction of these anomalous areas have been excavated, so important additional new archaeological finds

  11. Characterization of Xylanase of Cladosporium cladosporioides H1 Isolated from Janggyeong Panjeon in Haeinsa Temple.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin-Young; Kim, Young-Hee; Jung, Mi-Hwa; Jo, Chang-Wook; Choi, Jung-Eun

    2011-12-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides H1 was found to be the most abundant microbe in Janggyeong Panjeon. C. cladosporioides H1 produced a 20 kDa xylanase, which was generally stable below 60℃ and had specialized activity in an acidic condition. Our results may lead to the development of a strategy for preservation of organic cultural heritage environments.

  12. Academic Mothers: Exploring Disciplinary Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Ward, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore the role of academic discipline on the careers of tenure-line faculty women with children. Longitudinal, qualitative findings show that disciplinary contexts and ideal worker norms shape what it means to be an academic and a mother. Even after achieving tenure, ideal worker norms affect these roles; professional…

  13. A Letter to My Mother.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisley, Margaret

    In a letter to her mother, herself a former English teacher, a teaching assistant details impressions of her first year in the Writing Program at the University of Massachusetts (Amherst). During a semester an instructor gets to know writing students individually in a way that pierces deeply through the veneer of stereotype. The class published…

  14. We Are Our Mothers' Daughters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.; LaCost, Barbara Y.

    2004-01-01

    Writing that makes one think, writing that enriches one's understanding of the past and present, that's what Cokie Roberts' book, "We Are Our Mothers' Daughters" provides, and that, too, is what the authors of this issue of the "Journal of Women in Educational Leadership" provide. Roberts' background as a news analyst covering politics, Congress…

  15. Volunteerism: 'community mothers' in action.

    PubMed

    Downie, Jill; Clark, Kim; Clemenston, Katy

    Volunteers represent a growing, but often undervalued, section of service delivery in many areas in the community, particularly in health care. This paper is centred on volunteers' perceptions and experiences of home visiting gained through the implementation of the Community Mothers (CM) program in Western Australia (WA). Further, the paper aims to inform debate about the issue of professional versus non-professional home visitors and offers a perspective on the issue that may provide direction for policy makers and practitioners. This qualitative study involved individual telephone interviews with a volunteer sample of 12 participants, purposefully selected. Transcription data from each interview were examined and coded utilising an adapted method of content analysis described by Burnard (1991). Three main themes emerged in the findings as to why volunteers became involved in the Community Mothers Program: (1) Empathetic concern; (2) Contribution to community life; and (3) Lifecourse issues and personal development. With experiences of volunteers in home visiting, four main themes reflected the participants' views: (1) Facilitating client empowerment; (2) Facilitating personal empowerment; (3) Promoting social connectedness; and (4) Enabling goal setting. Although programs such as the Community Mothers Program aim to benefit and support mothers in the parenting role it is clear that there are benefits that emerge also for the individual volunteer, such as increased self-esteem, self-efficacy and satisfaction. Hence, measuring the overall outcomes that result from such program remains a major challenge. PMID:15729811

  16. Parenting Education for Incarcerated Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennon, Suzanne S.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    A parenting curriculum developed for incarcerated mothers was evaluated using a pretest, posttest, follow-up design with 57 women incarcerated in state prisons. Developmental psychologists delivered a 12-session curriculum focused on parenting issues unique to incarcerated parents. Each class met for 2 hours and followed a prepared curriculum that…

  17. Will the Child be Normal? Ask Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reports that a mother's perception of her newborn infant frequently predicts how well the child will adjust in later childhood. The more positive the mother perceives the child, the more emotionally healthy the child will later become. (SL)

  18. Mother Goose Is Alive and Culturally Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that Mother Goose rhymes are culturally relevant. Offers ways in which Mother Goose can be used in the classroom. Discusses activities for language arts, movement, art, music, science, and mathematics instruction. (PRA)

  19. The Climate and its Impacts on deterioration and weathering rate of EI-Nadura Temple in El- Kharga Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismael, Hossam

    2015-04-01

    Undoubtedly, El-Kharga Oasis monumental sites are considered an important part of our world's cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The Roman stone monuments in Kharga represent cultural heritage of an outstanding universal value. Such those monuments have suffered weathering deterioration. There are various elements which affect the weathering process of stone monuments: climate conditions, shapes of cultural heritages, exposed time periods, terrains, and vegetation around them, etc. Among these, climate conditions are the most significant factor affecting the deterioration of Archeological sites in Egypt. El- Kharga Oasis belongs administratively to the New Valley Governorate. It is located in the southern part of the western desert of Egypt, lies between latitudes 22°30'14" and 26°00'00" N, and between 30°27'00" and 30°47'00" E. The area of El Kharga Oasis covers about 7500 square kilometers. Pilot studies were carried out on the EI-Nadura Temple, composed of sandstones originating from the great sand sea. The major objective of this study is to monitor and measure the weathering features and the weathering rate affecting the building stones forming El-Nadora Roman building rocks in cubic cm. To achieve these aims, the present study used analysis of climatic data such as annual and seasonal solar radiation, Monthly average number of hours of sunshine, maximum and minimum air temperatures, wind speed, which have obtained from actual field measurements and data Meteorological Authority of El-Kharga station for the period 1977 to 2010 (33 years), and from the period 1941-2050 (110 years) as a long term of temperature data. Several samples were collected and examined by polarizing microscopy (PLM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX). The results were in

  20. Reciprocity in mother-infant vocal interactions: relationship to the quantity of mothers' vocal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Roe, K V; Drivas, A

    1997-10-01

    A study of 147 mother-infant dyads revealed that the most talkative mothers did not allow their infants to initiate many conversations. The least talkative mothers ignored many of their infants' vocalizations. Mothers in the mid-level talking range demonstrated the greatest reciprocity, allowing their infants to initiate more conversations.

  1. State of the World's Mothers 2002: Mothers & Children in War & Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geoghegan, Tracy

    This report provides a comprehensive look at the challenges facing mothers and children during and after armed conflict. The examination is divided into the sections "Mothers in War,""Mothers Rebuilding," and "Call to Action." Key findings include the following: (1) the nature of war has changed dramatically in recent decades, putting mothers and…

  2. Depressed and Well Mothers' Emotion Interpretation Accuracy and the Quality of Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broth, Michelle Robbins; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Hall, Christine; Raynor, Lynne Catherine

    2004-01-01

    The inadequate parenting associated with mothers' depression may be related to mothers' problems in interpreting infants' emotional expressions. The relations between depressed and well mothers' accuracy at interpreting babies' facial expressions and the quality of the mothers' interactions with their infants were examined. In partial support of…

  3. Facial Expressivity in Infants of Depressed Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickens, Jeffrey; Field, Tiffany

    1993-01-01

    Facial expressions were examined in 84 3-month-old infants of mothers classified as depressed, nondepressed, or low scoring on the Beck Depression Inventory. Infants of both depressed and low-scoring mothers showed significantly more sadness and anger expressions and fewer interest expressions than infants of nondepressed mothers. (Author/MDM)

  4. Exploring Behavioral Intentions among Young Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…

  5. College Students' Positivity toward Teen Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2011-01-01

    Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…

  6. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement with Their Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra

    2009-01-01

    We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…

  7. Incest Survivor Mothers: Protecting the Next Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreklewetz, Christine M.; Piotrowski, Caroline C.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 16 incest-survivor mothers with daughters between the ages of 9-14 found the mothers described themselves as very protective and often overly-protective parents, wanting to parent differently, and better, than they were parented. Many survivors strive to be the "perfect mother" including over-protecting and over-nurturing…

  8. Attention Deficit Disorder: Two Mothers' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Roy C.; O'Connor, Carol

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the decision-making process of two mothers' selection of treatment for their sons' attention deficit disorder (ADD). One mother opted for a medical treatment, and the other mother opted for a non-medical treatment. The boy who is medically treated is 14, and the non-medically treated…

  9. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  10. Mothers' Repartnering after a Nonmarital Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bzostek, Sharon H.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Carlson, Marcia J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of unmarried mothers' repartnering patterns following a nonmarital birth. Results indicate that, within five years after a birth, approximately two-thirds of unmarried mothers end their relationship with the focal child's biological father, and more than half of these mothers enter new…

  11. Mothers' Training Program: The Group Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Earladeen D.

    This study hypothesized that mothers from a low socioeconomic area could be trained by teachers to implement an infant tutorial program using their 1- to 2-year-old children as subjects. The 20 mothers recruited were ADC recipients or met the OEO poverty definition. Mothers agreed to attend a 2 hour weekly class to learn teaching techniques to be…

  12. Temple syndrome: improving the recognition of an underdiagnosed chromosome 14 imprinting disorder: an analysis of 51 published cases.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Yiannis; Lokulo-Sodipe, Kemi; Mackay, Deborah J G; Davies, Justin H; Temple, I Karen

    2014-08-01

    Chromosome 14 harbours an imprinted locus at 14q32. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14, paternal deletions and loss of methylation at the intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) result in a human phenotype of low birth weight, hypotonia, early puberty and markedly short adult stature. The analysis of the world literature of 51 cases identifies the key features that will enhance diagnosis and potentially improve treatment. We found a median birth weight SD score (SDS) of -1.88 and median adult final height of -2.04 SDS. Hypotonia and motor delay were reported in 93% and 83% of cases, respectively. Early puberty was reported in 86% of cases with the mean age of menarche at 10 years and 2 months of age. Small hands and feet were reported frequently (87% and 96%, respectively). Premature birth was common (30%) and feeding difficulties frequently reported (n = 22). There was evidence of mildly reduced intellectual ability (measured IQ 75-95). Obesity was reported in 49% of cases, and three patients developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Two patients were reported to have recurrent hypoglycaemia, and one of these patients was subsequently demonstrated to be growth hormone deficient and started replacement therapy. We propose the use of the name 'Temple syndrome' for this condition and suggest that improved diagnosis and long-term monitoring, especially of growth and cardiovascular risk factors, is required.

  13. Bacterial communities in pigmented biofilms formed on the sandstone bas-relief walls of the Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue-green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue-green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics.

  14. Bacterial Communities in Pigmented Biofilms Formed on the Sandstone Bas-Relief Walls of the Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue–green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue–green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics. PMID:24334526

  15. When mothers have favourites: conditions under which mothers differentiate among their adult children.

    PubMed

    Jill Suitor, J; Sechrist, Jori; Pillemer, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that mothers often differentiate among their adult children in terms of closeness and support; however, studies have not addressed why some mothers report preferences among children and others do not. To distinguish between mothers who do and do not report favouring some of their adult children, we used data from a within-family study in which 553 older mothers were interviewed about each of their children. Almost all of the mothers reported differentiating among their children regarding emotional closeness, confiding, or preference among caregivers. Multivariate analyses revealed that mothers' values and mother-child value similarity predicted which mothers differentiated among their children regarding closeness and confiding, whereas mothers' and children's demographic characteristics predicted which mothers differentiated regarding preferred caregivers. Black mothers were less likely than white mothers to differentiate when seeking a confidant; however, race played no role in mothers' likelihood of differentiating regarding emotional closeness or help during illness. Taken together, these findings indicate that differentiating among adult children is common; further, family-level predictors of mothers' differentiating mirror the patterns shown in dyad-level analyses of mothers' favouritism. PMID:17613441

  16. Mothers' characteristics, interactions, and infants' characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stevenson-Hinde, J; Simpson, M J

    1981-01-01

    Stable characteristics of rhesus monkey mothers, in terms of Confident and Excitable scores, were significantly positively correlated with the respective scores of their daughters but not their sons. With sons, mothers' Excitable scores were significantly negatively correlated with sons' Confident scores. Correlations of the maternal scores with earlier mother/infant interactions suggest how mothers' characteristics could have influenced infant characteristics. Mothers' Confident scores were negatively correlated with both rejecting and leaving their daughters. When a year old the daughters, on the other hand, left mothers relatively frequently and played a relatively low role in maintaining proximity. For both sons and daughters, mothers' Excitable scores were positively correlated with approaching and leaving their infants, as well as restricting at the age of weaning. Infants approached Excitable mothers relatively frequently, and year-old sons played a relatively high role in maintaining proximity with mother. In terms of attachment theory, Confident mothers appear to provide a "secure base" for their daughters, but reject their sons when very young. Excitable mothers appear to behave inappropriately to both sons and daughters, producing infants who may be "insecurely attached." PMID:7198571

  17. The Mother-Infant Feeding Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa F.; Thoyre, Suzanne; Pridham, Karen; Schubert, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and evaluation of an observation system to assess the process of mother-infant feeding interaction relevant to infant neuro-behavioral regulation: the Mother-Infant Feeding Tool. Design Secondary analysis. Setting Special care nursery just before discharge and in the home at 1 and 4 months postterm age. Participants Forty-three mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotaped feeding interactions were examined to assess regulatory processes of mother-infant interaction. Data were collected at three times over the infant’s first 4 postterm months: before the infant’s discharge from the special care nursery and at 1 and 4 months postterm age in the home. Results Across all three data points mothers rarely talked to their infants. Conclusion Further testing is needed, but the Mother-Infant Feeding Tool shows promise in assessing very early mother-infant feeding interactions. PMID:19614885

  18. Job Displacement Among Single Mothers:

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon

    2015-01-01

    Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267

  19. Giving voice to the burden of blame: a feminist study of mothers' experiences of mother blaming.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy

    2004-08-01

    Mother blaming has been identified as a pervasive and serious problem and it is known that the professional literature has strong and entrenched mother-blaming messages. Using a feminist approach, this paper explores mother blaming as it has been experienced by a group of mothers themselves. Analysis of narrative exposes mother blaming as a burden that complicates the already-complex responsibilities that comprise mothering. Health providers are among those identified by women as being particularly likely to attribute problems with (even grown) children to maternal fault. Implications for practice and research are drawn from the findings of this paper.

  20. Combining Public Domain and Professional Panoramic Imagery for the Accurate and Dense 3d Reconstruction of the Destroyed Bel Temple in Palmyra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahbeh, W.; Nebiker, S.; Fangi, G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper exploits the potential of dense multi-image 3d reconstruction of destroyed cultural heritage monuments by either using public domain touristic imagery only or by combining the public domain imagery with professional panoramic imagery. The focus of our work is placed on the reconstruction of the temple of Bel, one of the Syrian heritage monuments, which was destroyed in September 2015 by the so called "Islamic State". The great temple of Bel is considered as one of the most important religious buildings of the 1st century AD in the East with a unique design. The investigations and the reconstruction were carried out using two types of imagery. The first are freely available generic touristic photos collected from the web. The second are panoramic images captured in 2010 for documenting those monuments. In the paper we present a 3d reconstruction workflow for both types of imagery using state-of-the art dense image matching software, addressing the non-trivial challenges of combining uncalibrated public domain imagery with panoramic images with very wide base-lines. We subsequently investigate the aspects of accuracy and completeness obtainable from the public domain touristic images alone and from the combination with spherical panoramas. We furthermore discuss the challenges of co-registering the weakly connected 3d point cloud fragments resulting from the limited coverage of the touristic photos. We then describe an approach using spherical photogrammetry as a virtual topographic survey allowing the co-registration of a detailed and accurate single 3d model of the temple interior and exterior.

  1. Ground penetrating radar data used in discovery of the early Christian church of Notre Dame de Baudes near Labastide-du-Temple, France

    PubMed Central

    Gragson, Ted L; Thompson, Victor D.; Leigh, David S.; Hautefeuille, Florent

    2016-01-01

    Data on ground-penetrating radar transect files are provided that support the research presented in "Discovery and Appraisal of the Early Christian Church of Notre Dame de Baudes near Labastide-du-Temple, France" [1]. Data consist of 102 transect files obtained with a GSSI SIR-3000 controller and a 400 MHz center frequency antenna in two grid blocks covering ca. 2700 m2. The data are distributed raw without post-processing in SEG-Y rev. 1 format (little endian). PMID:27222858

  2. Ground penetrating radar data used in discovery of the early Christian church of Notre Dame de Baudes near Labastide-du-Temple, France.

    PubMed

    Gragson, Ted L; Thompson, Victor D; Leigh, David S; Hautefeuille, Florent

    2016-06-01

    Data on ground-penetrating radar transect files are provided that support the research presented in "Discovery and Appraisal of the Early Christian Church of Notre Dame de Baudes near Labastide-du-Temple, France" [1]. Data consist of 102 transect files obtained with a GSSI SIR-3000 controller and a 400 MHz center frequency antenna in two grid blocks covering ca. 2700 m(2). The data are distributed raw without post-processing in SEG-Y rev. 1 format (little endian).

  3. Working with mothers for change.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R; Reidy, A

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation of the effectiveness of teaching mothers how to prevent childhood blindness was made in the Raipur District of Madhya Pradesh, India. Of the district's 700,000 inhabitants, 1/2 live in poorly housed urban areas. Adult females in all 270 houses in 1 urban slum were interviewed twice. They were asked the same questions in April 1985, and 18 months later in September 1986. During this period of time, each family was visited twice each month, and trained in the general health of mother and child. Each child was weighed once a month, and had his eyes examined. In the training, specific emphasis was given to breastfeeding and its timing, early infant feeding practice and introduction of semi-solids and vegetables, diarrhea and oral rehydration therapy, the implication of night blindness, the role of vitamin A, and also immunization. The basis for the teaching was the Road to Health Chart. For the post-teaching survey a new worker was introduced to increase objectivity. The evaluation of impact of this training shows an improvement in the answers. Some mothers appear more aware of their child's needs. 30% of them recognize breastfeeding as important from the 1st day, know that semi-solids should be introduced early, show some understanding of oral rehydration therapy for diarrhea (20%), of the interest of suitable foods to remedy night blindness (14%), and of the value of immunization. This progress in awareness, if not of the actual practice, leaves hopes that, in time, child care will be improved markedly. PMID:12315566

  4. Mothers in the NICU: outsider to partner.

    PubMed

    Heermann, Judith A; Wilson, Margaret E; Wilhelm, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    The emerging care delivery model for Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) is family-focused, developmentally supportive care. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe mothers' experience of becoming a mother while their infants were receiving care in the NICU. A qualitative research design was used. Interviews with 15 mothers whose infants were in a Level III NICU were analyzed using Spradley's domain analysis approach. Mothers developed from outsider to engaged parent along four continua: (1) focus: from NICU to baby; (2) ownership: from their baby to my baby; (3) caregiving: from passive to active; and (4) voice: from silence to advocacy. Mothers entered the continua at different points and moved at different rates toward "engaged parenting." The final stage, partnering, required active participation of nurses. Mothers' development evolved in predictable patterns. The results of this study can be considered in implementation and evaluation plans for NICUs moving to family-focused developmental care.

  5. Fatty acid composition of breast milk from three racial groups from Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, G M; Kneebone, R; Gibson, R A

    1985-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of samples of breast milk obtained from 51 mothers (26 Malay, 15 Chinese, 10 Indian) residing in Penang, Malaysia was determined by gas chromatography. Despite living in close physical proximity the mothers from the three racial groups showed distinct cultural differences in dietary intake. These differences were reflected in differences in the fatty acid composition of breast milk samples. The milk of Chinese mothers was generally less saturated (41%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (52 and 50% respectively). The milk of Chinese mothers was also richer in linoleic acid (17%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (9% and 11% respectively). Overall the level of individual fatty acids fell within the range of values reported for Western mothers on well nourished diets and pointed to breast milk of high standard despite large variations in the diet of Malaysian mothers. PMID:3984928

  6. Fatty acid composition of breast milk from three racial groups from Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, G M; Kneebone, R; Gibson, R A

    1985-04-01

    The fatty acid composition of samples of breast milk obtained from 51 mothers (26 Malay, 15 Chinese, 10 Indian) residing in Penang, Malaysia was determined by gas chromatography. Despite living in close physical proximity the mothers from the three racial groups showed distinct cultural differences in dietary intake. These differences were reflected in differences in the fatty acid composition of breast milk samples. The milk of Chinese mothers was generally less saturated (41%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (52 and 50% respectively). The milk of Chinese mothers was also richer in linoleic acid (17%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (9% and 11% respectively). Overall the level of individual fatty acids fell within the range of values reported for Western mothers on well nourished diets and pointed to breast milk of high standard despite large variations in the diet of Malaysian mothers.

  7. Mothers' union histories and the mental and physical health of adolescents born to unmarried mothers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children's well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers' subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers' subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with their biological fathers without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered.

  8. Mothers in prison: maintaining connections with children.

    PubMed

    Mignon, Sylvia I; Ransford, Paige

    2012-01-01

    The significant increase in the number of incarcerated women ensures that many children must live without their mothers for some period of time. Women in prison were interviewed about their efforts to maintain relationships with their children. Mail and telephone contacts were more frequent than actual visits. Almost one half of mothers had never received a visit from their children. This article identifies challenges to the development and maintenance of contact between incarcerated mothers and their children. Recommendations are made for correctional agencies to enhance opportunities for incarcerated mothers to foster positive connections with their children.

  9. The lived experience of mothering after prison.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Margaret Oot

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experience of mothering after prison. In-depth interviewing was conducted with six participants for a period of up to 1 year after their release from prison. All interviews were focused on the research question, "What has been your experience of mothering since your release from prison?" Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The following themes emerged: Doing Mothering Right; Family: A Double-Edged Sword; The Honeymoon is Over; and Mothering Beyond the Honeymoon.

  10. Mothers' Training Program: Educational Intervention by the Mothers of Disadvantaged Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Earladeen

    Twenty mothers of culturally disadvantaged children took part in a program of self-help which was both child- and mother-centered. Two groups of ten mothers each met weekly with two staff members over an 8-month period and were trained to tutor their infants (1 to 2-years-old) in their homes. Fifteen of the initial 20 mothers remained in the…

  11. Adolescent mothers' relationships with their own mothers: impact on parenting outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Katie; Black, Maureen M; Boris, Neil W; Oberlander, Sarah E; Myers, Leann

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between mother-grandmother relationship quality and adolescent mothers' parenting behaviors using longitudinal multimethod, multi-informant data. Participants were 181 urban, African American adolescent mothers. Self-report data on mother-grandmother relationship conflict and depressive symptoms were collected after delivery and at 6-, 13-, and 24-month follow-up visits. Videotaped observations were used to measure mother-grandmother relationship quality at baseline. Mother-child interactions were videotaped at 6, 13, and 24 months to operationalize parenting. Mixed-model regression methods were used to investigate the relation between mother-grandmother relationships and mother-child interactions. Mother-grandmother relationship quality predicted both negative control and nurturing parenting. Mothers whose own mothers were more direct (both demanding and clear) and who reported low relationship conflict demonstrated low negative control in their parenting. Mothers who demonstrated high levels of individuation (a balance of autonomy and mutuality) and reported low relationship conflict showed high nurturing parenting. The implications of these findings for adolescent health and emotional development are discussed.

  12. Mothers' Cognitions about Children's Self-Control: Implications for Mothers' Responses to Children's Helplessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Elizabeth A.; Pomerantz, Eva M.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the role of mothers' cognitions about children's self-control in their responses to children's helplessness. Mothers and their four-year-old children (N = 109) were asked to work on a difficult task in the laboratory. Mothers' hostility and warmth as well as children's helpless (vs. mastery) behavior were coded every minute.…

  13. On the vicissitudes of Freud's early mothering. II: Alienation from his biological mother.

    PubMed

    Hardin, H T

    1988-01-01

    Continuing an exploration of the vicissitudes of Freud's early mothering experience, this paper utilizes three clinical examples to focus on alienation between Freud and his biological mother. This state of affairs is demonstrated in his reticence about her, his concern about dying before her, and, finally, in his perception of daughter Anna's being his surrogate mourner at the time of his mother's death.

  14. Referential Choice and Informativeness in Mother-Child Conversation: A Focus on the Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiung-chih

    2012-01-01

    This study explored Mandarin-speaking mothers' referential choice in relation to informativeness. The data consisted of two Mandarin-speaking mothers' natural conversation with their children, collected when the children were between the ages of 2;2 and 3;1. The subject and object arguments of the mothers' utterances were coded for the categories…

  15. Weaving Dreamcatchers: Mothering among American Indian Women who were Teen Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Janelle F.; Strickland, Carolyn J.; Chesla, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Portillo, Carmen J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to explore the mothering experience and practice among reservation based adult American Indian women who had been adolescent mothers. Background Adolescent American Indian women are at an elevated risk for teen pregnancy and poor maternal/child outcomes. Identifying mothering practices among this population may help guide intervention development that will improve health outcomes. Design A collaborative orientation to community based participatory research approach. Methods Employing interpretive phenomenology, 30 adult American Indian women who resided on a Northwestern reservation were recruited. In-depth, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted between 2007 and 2008. Findings Women shared their mothering experience and practice which encompassed a lifespan perspective grounded in their American Indian cultural tradition. Four themes were identified: mother hen, interrupted mothering and second chances, breaking cycles and mothering a community. Mothering originated in childhood, extended across their lifespan and moved beyond mothering their biological offspring. Conclusion These findings challenge the Western construct of mothering and charge nurses to seek culturally sensitive interventions that reinforce positive mothering practices and identify when additional mothering support is needed across a woman’s lifespan. PMID:23713884

  16. Mothering while Imprisoned: The Effects of Family and Child Dynamics on Mothering Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Ebonie Cunningham; Barnes, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the number of children with imprisoned mothers has increased 131%. A mother's imprisonment potentially exposes children to a concentrated disadvantage that undermines their cognitive, emotional, and intellectual abilities. Additionally, such experiences can have deleterious effects on mother-child relationships, stand-in…

  17. Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

  18. Mothers' Experiences with a Mother-Child Education Programme in Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekman, Sevda; Koçak, Aylin Atmaca

    2013-01-01

    Although previous quantitative studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the mother-child education programme (MOCEP) that originated in Turkey in 1993, the study reported here uses a qualitative approach to gain an in-depth understanding of mothers' views of the outcomes of the programme. The study was conducted with 100 mothers from…

  19. The Impact of Daughters' Eating Disorders in Mothers' Sense of Self: Contextualizing Mothering Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Marie L.; Lam, Eugenie

    2001-01-01

    Examines how daughters' anorexia influence the mothers' understandings of mothering and self within the greater context of societal influences. Using constructivist theory and discursive psychology, four themes characterized participants' relationship to cultural myths and discourses associated with eating disorders and mothering. (Contains 48…

  20. Imitation Within the Context of Mother-Newborn Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Patricia L.; And Others

    Two studies were conducted to examine (1) 1- to 3-day-old infants' imitation of their mothers, and (2) mothers' imitation of their newborn infants. For the infant imitation study, 30 mothers and their infants served as subjects. Two observers stood behind the mother to view the infant's face while the mother presented one of the following…

  1. MTHFR Genetic Polymorphism As a Risk Factor in Egyptian Mothers with Down Syndrome Children

    PubMed Central

    Meguid, Nagwa A.; Dardir, Ahmed A.; Khass, Mohamed; Hossieny, Lamia El; Ezzat, Afaf; Awady, Mostafa K. El

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports linking Down syndrome (DS) to maternal polymorphisms at the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene locus have generated great interest among investigators in the field. The present study aimed at evaluation of MTHFR 677C/T and 1298A/C polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene as maternal risk factors for DS. Forty two mothers of proven DS outcomes and forty eight control mothers with normal offspring were included. Complete medical and nutritional histories for all mothers were taken with special emphasis on folate intake. Folic acid intake from food or vitamin supplements was significantly low (below the Recommended Daily Allowance) in the group of case mothers compared to control mothers. Frequencies of MTHFR 677T and MTHFR 1298C alleles were significantly higher among case mothers (32.1% and 57.1%, respectively) compared to control mothers (18.7% and 32.3%, respectively). Heterozygous and homozygous genotype frequencies of MTHFR at position 677 (CT and TT) were higher among case mothers than controls (40.5% versus 25% and 11.9% versus 6.2%, respectively) with an odds ratio of 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93–5.89) and 2.75 (95% CI 0.95–12.77), respectively. Interestingly, the homozygous genotype frequency (CC) at position 1298 was significantly higher in case mothers than in controls (33.3% versus 2.1% respectively) with an odds ratio of 31.5 (95% CI 3.51 to 282.33) indicating that this polymorphism may have more genetic impact than 677 polymorphism. Heterozygous genotype (AC) did not show significant difference between the two groups. We here report on the first pilot study of the possible genetic association between DS and MTHFR 1298A/C genotypes among Egyptians. Further extended studies are recommended to confirm the present work. PMID:18057532

  2. MTHFR genetic polymorphism as a risk factor in Egyptian mothers with Down syndrome children.

    PubMed

    Meguid, Nagwa A; Dardir, Ahmed A; Khass, Mohamed; Hossieny, Lamia El; Ezzat, Afaf; El Awady, Mostafa K

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports linking Down syndrome (DS) to maternal polymorphisms at the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene locus have generated great interest among investigators in the field. The present study aimed at evaluation of MTHFR 677C/T and 1298A/C polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene as maternal risk factors for DS. Forty two mothers of proven DS outcomes and forty eight control mothers with normal offspring were included. Complete medical and nutritional histories for all mothers were taken with special emphasis on folate intake. Folic acid intake from food or vitamin supplements was significantly low (below the Recommended Daily Allowance) in the group of case mothers compared to control mothers. Frequencies of MTHFR 677T and MTHFR 1298C alleles were significantly higher among case mothers (32.1% and 57.1%, respectively) compared to control mothers (18.7% and 32.3%, respectively). Heterozygous and homozygous genotype frequencies of MTHFR at position 677 (CT and TT) were higher among case mothers than controls (40.5% versus 25% and 11.9% versus 6.2%, respectively) with an odds ratio of 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-5.89) and 2.75 (95% CI 0.95-12.77), respectively. Interestingly, the homozygous genotype frequency (CC) at position 1298 was significantly higher in case mothers than in controls (33.3% versus 2.1% respectively) with an odds ratio of 31.5 (95% CI 3.51 to 282.33) indicating that this polymorphism may have more genetic impact than 677 polymorphism. Heterozygous genotype (AC) did not show significant difference between the two groups. We here report on the first pilot study of the possible genetic association between DS and MTHFR 1298A/C genotypes among Egyptians. Further extended studies are recommended to confirm the present work.

  3. Life as a Mother-Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Lucille

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the difficulties she faced as she tried to reach a balance between her career as a scientist and her role as a mother. She speaks of how she often found problems in putting her children into day care centers. She also relates that the confidence mothers have in their academic careers is correlated to the quality…

  4. Tough Ceramic Mimics Mother of Pearl

    ScienceCinema

    Ritchie, Robert

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab scientists have mimicked the structure of mother of pearl to create what may well be the toughest ceramic ever produced. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2008/12/05/scientists-create-tough-ceramic-that-mimics-mother-of-pearl/

  5. Mother-blaming in major clinical journals.

    PubMed

    Caplan, P J; Hall-McCorquodale, I

    1985-07-01

    The incidence of mother-blaming in major clinical journals was investigated for the years 1970, 1976, and 1982 to determine whether reductions have resulted from the efforts of the women's movement. Very few changes were found across the target years, and mother-blaming was only slightly affected by type of journal and by sex of author.

  6. Adult Daughters of Working Mothers: Supermom Juniors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abruzzese, Michele; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated the effects of mothers' working status on their college student child's current attitudes toward maternal employment. This study attempted to find an explanation for the finding from previous research that female college students whose mothers were employed during their childhood reported that they would have been happier…

  7. 78 FR 28715 - Mother's Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-11757 Filed 5-14-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8980 of May 10, 2013 Mother's Day, 2013 By the President of the United States... Americans first came together to mark Mother's Day, generations of women have empowered their children...

  8. Looking Mother Tongue Instruction through Different Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2008-01-01

    Mother Tongue Instruction has been a debatable issue since long. There may be two options in the medium of instruction: either to teach especially primary and preprimary schoolchildren in their own mother tongue or continue using second or foreign language as the medium of instruction. Both of the approaches bear some pros and cons. This article…

  9. The Father's Impact on Mother and Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke-Stewart, Alison

    This study investigates the father's contribution to child development in the context of a triadic family constellation, integrating data that parallel previous investigations of fathers: differences in children's behavior to mother and father, differences in mothers' and fathers' behavior to the child, and correlations between parental and child…

  10. Hispanic Mothers' Perceptions of Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shogren, Karrie

    2012-01-01

    Limited research has explored the perceptions of self-determination held by diverse families. In this study, seven mothers of transition-age youth with severe disabilities who were Hispanic were interviewed. Each mother was actively engaged in advocacy related to diverse children with disabilities in their local schools and communities. Mothers…

  11. How Mothers Perceive Their Own Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trice-Black, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    For women, the transition to motherhood is often a time period filled with excitement, changes, and challenges. Mothers often face changes in their own sexuality in their adjustment to motherhood. The majority of research on the sexual changes during motherhood has focused on the first year postpartum of mothers and has emphasized biological,…

  12. Tough Ceramic Mimics Mother of Pearl

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Berkeley Lab scientists have mimicked the structure of mother of pearl to create what may well be the toughest ceramic ever produced. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2008/12/05/scientists-create-tough-ceramic-that-mimics-mother-of-pearl/

  13. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  14. Mother ship and physical agents collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stuart H.; Budulas, Peter P.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses ongoing research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that investigates the feasibility of developing a collaboration architecture between small physical agents and a mother ship. This incudes the distribution of planning, perception, mobility, processing and communications requirements between the mother ship and the agents. Small physical agents of the future will be virtually everywhere on the battlefield of the 21st century. A mother ship that is coupled to a team of small collaborating physical agents (conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); logistics; sentry; and communications relay) will be used to build a completely effective and mission capable intelligent system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the smaller agents. The mother ship also establishes a robust communications network between the agents and is the primary information disseminating and receiving point to the external world. Because of its global knowledge and processing power, the mother ship does the high-level control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. This high level control and interaction between the mother ship and its agents (including inter agent collaboration) will be software agent architecture based. The mother ship incorporates multi-resolution battlefield visualization and analysis technology, which aids in mission planning and sensor fusion.

  15. Mothering and Intellectual Disability: Partnership Rhetoric?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Chrissie

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about mothering an intellectually disabled child identified with special educational needs. It specifically looks at the parent partnership rhetoric that has dominated UK government policy and directives for nearly three decades and yet research suggests parents and more often mothers have to battle to be recognised as legitimate…

  16. Effects of Parenting Training for Incarcerated Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Alvin R.; Clement, Mary J.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of a parenting-training program, Mothers Inside Loving Kids, was evaluated (N=40). Effects on parenting techniques and on self-esteem were studied. Data from a national profile of incarcerated women are reviewed, and the effects of mother's incarceration on children are discussed. Implications for public policy are addressed.…

  17. Mothers' and Children's Beliefs about Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Teresa M.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 36 mothers and their first and third grade children were questioned regarding their conceptions of listening. Mothers' and children's beliefs revealed dissimilarities in their understandings of the criteria by which listeners should regulate their behavior and their conceptions of the actions listeners should take when confused.…

  18. Teen Mothers: Marriage, Cohabitation, and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the proportions of ethnically diverse low-income teen mothers who are cohabitating and/or married to the father of their child(ren) at approximately 14, 24, and 36 months after birth of their child. In addition, the relationship between marital status and education among teen mothers is explored. At 36 months after giving…

  19. Breastmilk from obese mothers has pro-inflammatory properties and decreased neuroprotective factors

    PubMed Central

    Panagos, PG; Vishwanathan, R; Penfield-Cyr, A; Matthan, NR; Shivappa, N; Wirth, MD; Hebert, JR; Sen, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of maternal obesity on breastmilk composition. STUDY DESIGN Breastmilk and food records from 21 lean and 21 obese women who delivered full-term infants were analyzed at 2 months post-partum. Infant growth and adiposity were measured at birth and 2 months of age. RESULT Breastmilk from obese mothers had higher omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and lower concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docasapentaenoic acid and lutein compared with lean mothers (P < 0.05), which were strongly associated with maternal body mass index. Breastmilk saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid concentrations were positively associated with maternal dietary inflammation, as measured by dietary inflammatory index. There were no differences in infant growth measurements. CONCLUSION Breastmilk from obese mothers has a pro-inflammatory fatty acid profile and decreased concentrations of fatty acids and carotenoids that have been shown to have a critical role in early visual and neurodevelopment. Studies are needed to determine the link between these early-life influences and subsequent cardiometabolic and neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:26741571

  20. An exceptionally low percentage of Thai expectant mothers and medical personnel with folic acid knowledge and peri-conceptional consumption urges an urgent education program and/or food fortification.

    PubMed

    Vilaiphan, Prapaporn; Suphapeetiporn, Kanya; Phupong, Vorapong; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk

    2007-06-01

    It has been widely accepted that peri-conceptional consumption of folic acid (FA) can prevent many congenital anomalies, including more than one-half of all neural tube defects. In several developed countries, educational campaigns and/or food fortification with FA have been launched, resulting in lower incidences of some anomalies. In Thailand, congenital anomalies preventable by FA are still an important public health problem. However, there have been no recommendations on the use of FA supplementations from the health authorities. In order to achieve a goal of reducing the diseases' incidences, our initial effort is to assess knowledge and use of peri-conceptional FA. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 500 pregnant women and 500 child-bearing-age female medical personnel in the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from June 2003 through December 2003. Of the 383 pregnant women who completed the survey, 23.5% (90/383) knew that FA helped to prevent birth defects, 3.4% (13/383) knew that FA should be taken before pregnancy, and only 0.3% (1/383) reported taking FA before pregnancy. Among the 422 female medical personnel who completed the survey, 84.4% (356/422) knew that FA could prevent birth defects, whereas 40.0% (169/422) knew that FA should be taken prior to pregnancy. This study provided strong evidence that educational campaigns and/or food fortification are urgently needed.

  1. Autonomy in mothers with careers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, G E; Perrotta, M; Burne, S

    1982-06-01

    We analyzed questionnaires filled out by 23 mothers with careers and rated them as to degrees of autonomy; 26% received a '1' (least autonomous) rating, 39% a '2', 22% a '3' and 4% (1 person) received a '4' (most autonomous). Psychoanalyst Dr. Elizabeth Zetzel (1) stated "The healthy woman should be able to combine successful marriage and motherhood with some sort of personal career." It would seem that the woman who is most effective at doing so is one who is highly autonomous and, therefore, feels free to construct a non-traditional role for herself. Unfortunately, in our study, these women were very much in the minority. In keeping with our hypothesis, the mere fact that a woman is combining a career and family is not a guaranteed indicator that she is highly autonomous.

  2. Autonomy in mothers with careers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, G E; Perrotta, M; Burne, S

    1982-06-01

    We analyzed questionnaires filled out by 23 mothers with careers and rated them as to degrees of autonomy; 26% received a '1' (least autonomous) rating, 39% a '2', 22% a '3' and 4% (1 person) received a '4' (most autonomous). Psychoanalyst Dr. Elizabeth Zetzel (1) stated "The healthy woman should be able to combine successful marriage and motherhood with some sort of personal career." It would seem that the woman who is most effective at doing so is one who is highly autonomous and, therefore, feels free to construct a non-traditional role for herself. Unfortunately, in our study, these women were very much in the minority. In keeping with our hypothesis, the mere fact that a woman is combining a career and family is not a guaranteed indicator that she is highly autonomous. PMID:7104937

  3. [Mothers' knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nichelle Monique; Waterkemper, Roberta; da Silva, Eveline Franco; Cordova, Fernanda Peixoto; Bonilha, Ana Lucia de Lourenzi

    2014-01-01

    This is a descriptive study, with a qualitative approach, aimed to identify the knowledge of puerperal women on exclusive breastfeeding. Data were collected between September-October 2011, through semi-structured interview. Thirteen puerperal women, interned in a rooming unit of a public institution in the city of Caxias do Sul-RS, participated in the study. Data analysis was performed using thematic analysis. From the interpretation of information three categories emerged: the knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding, the breastfeeding process and the influences of received information. Even getting information from health professionals in the prenatal period, it is possible to understand that there is a need to improve communication and monitoring of mothers, as a continuity of professional care in the postpartum period, and also later, in the remote.

  4. Mother's personality and infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Macedo, A; Marques, M; Bos, S; Maia, B R; Pereira, T; Soares, M J; Valente, J; Gomes, A A; Nogueira, V; Azevedo, M H

    2011-12-01

    We examined if perfectionism and the perception of being an anxious person were associated with more negative infant temperament ratings by the mothers. 386 women (mean age=30.08; standard deviation=4.21) in their last trimester of pregnancy completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and an item about their perception of being or not an anxious person. The Portuguese version of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies and the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness were used to generate diagnoses according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. After delivery, women completed eight items of the Difficult Infant Temperament Questionnaire (developed by our team) and filled in, again, the BDI-II and were interviewed with the DIGS. Women with depression (DSM-IV/ICD-10) and probable cases of depression using different cut-offs adjusted to Portuguese prevalence (BDI-II), in pregnancy and postpartum, were excluded. The Difficult Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed to have factorial validity and internal consistency. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between perfectionism total scale score and item 6 from the temperament scale ("is your baby irritable or fussy?"). Considering MPS 3-factor solution found for pregnancy there was also a statistically significant negative correlation between SOP and the same item. Women with low SOP differed from those with medium and high SOP in the total temperament score. Moreover, the low SOP group differed from the medium group on items three and four scores. There were no significant associations with SPP, which is the dimension more closely associated with negative outcomes. There was an association between anxiety trait status (having it or not) and scoring low, medium or high in the infant temperament scale. The proportion of anxious vs. non-anxious women presenting a high score on the infant temperament scale was higher (24.2% vs. 12

  5. [Newborn children under phototherapy: the mother's perception].

    PubMed

    Campos, Antonia do Carmo Soares; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão

    2004-01-01

    Since 1958, phototherapy has been used as a method to cure jaundice, which is still an important disease in newborn children. Supported by a phenomenological and qualitative approach, this study aims to investigate the mothers' perception of the phototherapy treatment their children are submitted to. Research subjects were ten mothers of newborns under phototherapy treatment at the Neonatological Hospitalization Unit of a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2002. We used group meetings with the mothers as suggested by Carl Rogers. Discourse was organized into categories according to Bardin, which revealed themes that were analyzed in view of Paterson's and Zderad's humanistic nursing theory, as follows: mothers' knowledge on phototherapy and concerns about the treatment. We concluded that the analyzed mothers' major concern is related to the babies' vision.

  6. The infant caring process among Cherokee mothers.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Lee Anne

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the social process of infant care among Cherokee mothers. Nineteen informants, who had an infant less than 2 years of age, were interviewed. The data were analyzed using the technique of constant comparative analysis. A social process of Indian infant care among Cherokee mothers was identified. Eight concepts emerged from data analysis. The first and principal concept, being a Cherokee mother, describes the functions of being an Indian mother in Cherokee society. The other seven concepts describe the patterns of cultural care the mothers provided to their infants. These included accommodating everyday infant care, accommodating health perspectives, building a care-providing consortium, living spiritually, merging the infant into Indian culture, using noncoercive discipline techniques, and vigilantly watching for the natural unfolding of the infant. Trustworthiness and credibility of the generated theory were evaluated through multiple measures. PMID:15296577

  7. Balinese mothers' developmental timetables for young children.

    PubMed

    Williams, P D; Soetjiningsih; Williams, A R

    2000-10-01

    The study examined Balinese mothers' expectations for children's development and mothers' child-rearing practices, as influenced by selected variables (child's gender and ordinal position, mother's education, and rural or urban residence). Rural (n = 100) and urban (n = 100) mothers responded to structured questionnaires read aloud to them by trained interviewers who recorded responses. All children were between 4 and 6 years. Equal numbers of male and female children were included, and the entire economic and educational ranges of families were represented. MANOVA results showed significant interaction effects of residential location and maternal education on mothers' expectations of children's cognitive, F(2, 170) = 4.31, p = .04, and psychosocial development, F(2, 170) = 4.35, p = .01. Significant interaction effects were found for maternal education, residential location, child's ordinal position, and gender, F(3, 170) = 5.92, p = .001, on maternal child-rearing practices. Two developmental timetables were constructed. PMID:11094575

  8. Parenting from prison: helping children and mothers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P J; Harm, N J

    2000-01-01

    Incarceration of a mother disrupts the mother-child relationship and the child's emotional development. The researchers evaluated a 15-week parenting program in a women's prison that was designed to enhance mother-child interactions during imprisonment. Pre- and postmeasures for the 104 women were Hudson's (1982) Index of Self-Esteem, Bavolek's (1984) Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory, and semistructured questionnaires. Self-esteem and attitudes about expectations of children, corporal punishment, and family roles improved significantly. Empathy and mother-child interactions through visits and letters improved. Participants identified the most helpful components of the program. Those who had been physically, sexually, and emotionally abused and those who had used drugs and alcohol had positive results. Findings support the value of parent education for self-development of incarcerated mothers and for the welfare of their children.

  9. [Newborn children under phototherapy: the mother's perception].

    PubMed

    Campos, Antonia do Carmo Soares; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão

    2004-01-01

    Since 1958, phototherapy has been used as a method to cure jaundice, which is still an important disease in newborn children. Supported by a phenomenological and qualitative approach, this study aims to investigate the mothers' perception of the phototherapy treatment their children are submitted to. Research subjects were ten mothers of newborns under phototherapy treatment at the Neonatological Hospitalization Unit of a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2002. We used group meetings with the mothers as suggested by Carl Rogers. Discourse was organized into categories according to Bardin, which revealed themes that were analyzed in view of Paterson's and Zderad's humanistic nursing theory, as follows: mothers' knowledge on phototherapy and concerns about the treatment. We concluded that the analyzed mothers' major concern is related to the babies' vision. PMID:15651644

  10. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans.

    PubMed

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2014-04-11

    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence.

  11. [Maternal affect regulation of mothers with a history of abuse in mother-infant-interaction].

    PubMed

    Kress, Sandra; Cierpka, Manfred; Möhler, Eva; Resch, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Maternal intuitive skills can be threatened as a result of severe deprivation or unresolved trauma in the own childhood and can even be inaccessible to the mother. A mother's own childhood experience of abuse maybe a risk factor for repeated child abuse. As a follow-up study to assess the emotional availability of abused mothers it was investigated how a physical or sexual abuse appears in the mother-child interaction and communication in the context of "cycle of abuse" and whether it could give effect to it. Interactions of mothers with abuse experience were compared with those of mothers without an abuse experience and evaluated five months postpartum with the Munich clinical communication scale (MKK). The results suggest that maltreatment experienced mothers show less emotion tuning to their child in a standardized interaction sequence.

  12. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  13. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Eissa; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Pirzadeh, Akbar; Mahmoudi, Hamzeh; Ansari, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child’s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α=86%), respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software. Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P<0.033). The stigma score was higher in mothers who were living independently of their relatives (P<0.029). The mean stigma score in mothers of children with a cochlear implant was lower than that of mothers of children with earphones (86.70 vs. 99.64), and this difference tended towards significance (P=0.057). Conclusion: This study showed that half of all mothers with deaf children were scorned and felt ashamed of having a deaf child in the family because of the stigma. The majority of mothers with deaf children felt stigmatized, and only their education and residency status affected this issue. The mothers of cochlear-implanted children perceived less stigma. Due to the various social and psychological problems caused by hearing impairment, it is necessary to consider the emotional health and psychological state of the mothers in addition to rehabilitation

  14. Oxytocin links mothering received, mothering bestowed and adult stress responses.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Cort A; Boccia, Maria L

    2002-12-01

    We review recent discoveries that implicate oxytocin in the intergenerational transmission of similar levels of maternal behavior and acute stress responses in female rats. First, ICV-infused oxytocin antagonist decreased the display by nursing dams of pup-licking (PL) and arched-back nursing (ABN), but not other components of maternal behavior, and increased maternal self-grooming suggesting that oxytocin may shift the balance of oral grooming by dams away from themselves and toward pups. Second, oxytocin receptor concentrations in areas of the adult brain where oxytocin stimulates maternal behavior or diminishes anxiety and adrenal axis responses to acute stress were positively related to PL-ABN received during infancy. Third, oxytocin and oxytocin antagonist treatments of pups on postnatal days 2-10, respectively increased and decreased PL by the treated rats when adult and themselves nursing dams. This indicates that oxytocin activity in female pups, which may be regulated by PL-ABN received from their mothers, influences their adult levels of PL. These three lines of evidence suggest that oxytocin selectively enhances PL-ABN by rat dams, which then increases oxytocin activity in female pups and, thereby, facilitates their expression of central oxytocin receptors (and perhaps other aspects of central oxytocin systems) and, consequently, their adult PL-ABN frequencies and acute stress responses.

  15. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk.

    PubMed

    Shaikh Alaudeen; Nor Muslim; Kamarul Faridah; Ali Azman; Hamid Arshat

    1988-12-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income, and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. The authors have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers (Malay, Chinese, and Indians) of full-term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/1) of sodium is highest 48.2 +/- 1.7; mean +/- SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation. Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers was similar but the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7 +/- 3.4 mmpl/1) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited the lowest concentration (25.9 +/- 2.6 mmol/1) of sodium that is significantly (p .05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however, did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. PMID:12342168

  16. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk.

    PubMed

    Alaudeen, S; Muslim, N; Faridah, K; Azman, A; Arshat, H

    1988-12-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's). PMID:12342169

  17. Reducing the stigmatization of teen mothers.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee I

    2013-01-01

    Teen mothers are stigmatized by stereotypes that they are unmotivated, irresponsible, and incompetent parents. In spite of the pervasiveness of these stereotypes, stigma is rarely described as a contributing factor to teen mothers' difficulties and their health and social disparities. After tracing how teen mothers have been misrepresented and stereotyped over the last half century, I describe what is known about the stigma associated with teen mothering, reasons for its persistence, efforts to reduce it, and its potentially harmful effects. Stigma should be of concern to nurses because stigmatizing practices impede effective clinical care, contribute to teen mothers' many challenges, and violate the nursing ethic that patients be treated with respect and dignity. Recommendations for restoring dignity and reducing stigma in healthcare focus on developing recognition practices that are predicated on respect and concern for the teen's well-being and her capacity as a mother. Nurses are also urged to advocate for services and policies that reduce the stigmatization and marginalization of teen mothers.

  18. Attitudes of Saudi mothers towards breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Sobaih, Badr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the practice and attitudes of Saudi mothers towards breastfeeding. A cross-sectional survey done on a total of 517 Saudi mothers using a questionnaire inquiring about their demographic data, breastfeeding practice in the first 6 months after delivery and longer, different reasons for stopping breastfeeding. Furthermore, their impression on the relation between breastfeeding and breast cancer as well as prevention of infant’s allergic and infectious diseases. Only 37.5% of the mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. 31.9% of the mothers continued breastfeeding until 9–12 months, and only 23% continued until 18–24 months. Insufficient breast milk was the commonest reason for stopping breastfeeding (25.9%). The vast majority of the mothers (95.2%) believe that breast milk can prevent allergy and infection to their infants, and 88.4% agreed that breastfeeding may decrease the risk of breast cancer. 30% of mothers with higher income and higher socio-economic class tend to have less compliance with breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months lag far behind the WHO recommendation. There is a major problem with adequacy of breast milk production in the majority of mothers in this study which might indicate the need for proper awareness and teaching programs regarding breastfeeding in our community. PMID:27651551

  19. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk.

    PubMed

    Alaudeen, S; Muslim, N; Faridah, K; Azman, A; Arshat, H

    1988-12-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's).

  20. Attitudes of Saudi mothers towards breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Alshebly, Mashael; Sobaih, Badr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the practice and attitudes of Saudi mothers towards breastfeeding. A cross-sectional survey done on a total of 517 Saudi mothers using a questionnaire inquiring about their demographic data, breastfeeding practice in the first 6 months after delivery and longer, different reasons for stopping breastfeeding. Furthermore, their impression on the relation between breastfeeding and breast cancer as well as prevention of infant's allergic and infectious diseases. Only 37.5% of the mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. 31.9% of the mothers continued breastfeeding until 9-12 months, and only 23% continued until 18-24 months. Insufficient breast milk was the commonest reason for stopping breastfeeding (25.9%). The vast majority of the mothers (95.2%) believe that breast milk can prevent allergy and infection to their infants, and 88.4% agreed that breastfeeding may decrease the risk of breast cancer. 30% of mothers with higher income and higher socio-economic class tend to have less compliance with breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months lag far behind the WHO recommendation. There is a major problem with adequacy of breast milk production in the majority of mothers in this study which might indicate the need for proper awareness and teaching programs regarding breastfeeding in our community. PMID:27651551

  1. Mother-pup interactions: rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Lucion, Aldo B; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2014-01-01

    In order to survive after birth, mammalian infants need a caretaker, usually the mother. Several behavioral strategies have evolved to guarantee the transition from a period of intense caregiving to offspring independence. Here, we examine a selection of literature on the genetic, epigenetic, physiological, and behavioral factors relating to development and mother-infant interactions. We intend to show the utility of comparisons between rodent and human models for deepening knowledge regarding this key relationship. Particular attention is paid to the following factors: the distinct developmental stages of the mother-pup relationship as relating to behavior; examples of key genetic components of mammalian mother-infant interactions, specifically those coding for the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin; and the possible functions of gene imprinting in mediating interactions between genetics and environment in the mother-infant relationship. As early mother-infant attachment seems to establish the basic parameters for later social interactions, ongoing investigations in this area are essential. We propose the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration in order to better understand the network of genes, gene regulation, neuropeptide action, physiological processes, and feedback loops essential to understand the complex behaviors of mother-infant interaction. PMID:24616713

  2. [Mother's attributions regarding children's behavior and maltreatment].

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Namiko

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare maltreating mothers and non-maltreating mothers on attributions and affects related to child behaviors. It also assessed how attributions predict affective and behavioral reactions to child behaviors. The study population comprised of a community-based sample of mothers with children aged 2 to 4 years (n = 238). Mothers' attributions and affect were assessed using vignettes of child behavior. They also answered questions about their maltreating parenting behaviors and demographic factors such as childcare environments. Results highlighted that, as compared with non-maltreating mothers, maltreating mothers made more intentional and stable attributions to negative child behavior, and to report more anger and aversion. They also had a tendency to report less happiness toward positive child behavior. Additionally, path analyses documented a pattern of thinking-feeling-action linkages. It was revealed that attributions regarding children's behavior influenced negative affect and that negative affect in turn predicted maltreatment. Finally, the usefulness of a cognitive approach to maltreating mothers, and the implications of the findings as a model for intervention are discussed. PMID:27180512

  3. Effects of motherhood on physiological and subjective responses to infant cries in teenage mothers: a comparison with non-mothers and adult mothers.

    PubMed

    Giardino, Jennifer; Gonzalez, Andrea; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether becoming a mother during the adolescent period changes maternal responsiveness or maternal motivation, assessed through hormonal, autonomic, and hedonic responses to recorded infant cries and interactions with their babies. Fifty-six teen mothers were compared to 58 teen non-mothers and 49 adult mothers. Teen mothers reported more sympathy and alertness in response to recorded infant cries compared to non -mother teens; however, among the teen women there were no differences between mothers and non-mothers in heart rate and cortisol responses to infant cries. In contrast, in comparison to adult mothers, teen mothers reported the same levels of sympathy and alertness to infant cries; however, adult mothers showed an 'alerted' pattern of heart rate and cortisol response to infant cries not seen in the teen mother group. Inclusion of the covariate, fathers' employment classification as an index of SES or time of testing and cortisol sampling did not affect this pattern of results. Taken together, these results show that where self-report is used as a measure of maternal responsiveness, teen mothers are no different in responsiveness than adult mothers; however, where physiological and interactional measures of responsiveness are considered, teen mothers are less likely to show heightened or selective responses to infant cries or respond 'attentively' to the infant.

  4. The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá

    2007-10-01

    Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care. PMID:17881409

  5. Probiotics for mother and child.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor; Devillard, Estelle

    2004-07-01

    For the survival of humankind, nothing can be as important as the health of a mother and a child. As the world's population grows to more than 6 billion, it might seem ridiculous to suggest that any real threat exists to the human species. Diseases have long ravaged populations, as have wars, poverty, and malnutrition. Life today is no different with new and emerging diseases such as SARS and Mad Cow Disease leaving a trail of concern around the planet. All that being said, the AIDS crisis is threatening humans like no other. In countries such as Botswana, close to half the population of pregnant women is infected. Of great concern, the disease is now prevalent among women and teenage girls, threatening not only their lives but those of their offspring. Efforts to control this spread are quite abysmal, albeit well intentioned. Likewise, the death of a child every 15 seconds from diarrheal disease is not being addressed with the same vigor as SARS, even though the risk of dying from the latter for most people is similar to being struck by lightning. In the end, it is the economy and politics that dictate health spending. Image and perception are everything. While deaths mount among women and children from AIDS and other infections, the potential to intervene with a low-risk natural concept of probiotics seemed all too distant. As evidence mounts of the attributes of certain probiotic strains to treat diarrhea and reduce the risk of urogenital and other diseases, the developing world has failed to embrace it, support its evaluation and implementation, and take it to where it is needed the most. In this review, the case for and against probiotics for urogenital and intestinal infections is presented based on current literature. The story is far from complete, but the potential for improving the health of the mother and child is significant. United Nations and World Health Organization guidelines have now been developed to vanquish the unproved marketing hype products

  6. The schizophrenogenic mother concept in American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, C E

    1996-01-01

    The development of the schizophrenogenic mother concept within American psychiatry has been something of an enigma. This interpersonal hypothesis of the etiology of schizophrenia involved a sharp break in the historical progression of understanding the disease. Though former promulgators have gone from calling the schizophrenogenic mother a "half truth" to a psychiatric "myth," this psychiatric concept remains a puzzle, still (Arieti 1997, p. 353; Neill 1990). The circumstances surrounding the development, flowering, and decline of the schizophrenogenic mother concept have not been fully explored. PMID:8912946

  7. Why are Chinese mothers more controlling than American mothers? "My child is my report card".

    PubMed

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M; Deng, Ciping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (Mage  = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African American) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers.

  8. [Being a mother: encounters between mothers of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and nurses in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Li; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chin, Chi-Chun

    2013-06-01

    The role of "mother" is understood and represented differently by people from different cultures. In traditional Taiwanese society, mothers demonstrate their existence value by giving birth to and raising sons able to continue her husband's familial line. Sons bear the patriarchal name and care for their parents in old age. However, a son stricken, paralyzed and eventually killed by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can destroy a mother's perceived value in this traditional social context. Mothers are thus soundless sufferers. Nurses have a critical role to play in giving encouragement and hope to mothers of children with DMD. Through their own difficult situation, these mothers can also highlight the value and importance of Taiwan's nurses, who work in conditions marked by overloading, high stress, and under-appreciation. Caring for women in critical need of empathy and support help nurses realize their own positive capacity to empower sufferers. PMID:23729346

  9. Why are Chinese mothers more controlling than American mothers? "My child is my report card".

    PubMed

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M; Deng, Ciping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (Mage  = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African American) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers. PMID:23581633

  10. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  11. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known.

  12. Temple syndrome: A patient with maternal hetero-UPD14, mixed iso- and hetero-disomy detected by SNP microarray typing of patient-father duos.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Hye; Cho, Eunhae; Lee, Cha Gon

    2016-08-01

    Temple syndrome (TS, MIM 616222) is an imprinting disorder involving genes within the imprinted region of chromosome 14q32. TS is a genetically complex disorder, which is associated with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 (UPD14), paternal deletions on chromosome 14, or loss of methylation at the intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR). Here, we describe the case of a patient with maternal hetero-UPD14, mixed iso-/hetero-disomy mechanism identified by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis of patient-father duos study. The phenotype of our case is similarities to Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) during infancy and to Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) during childhood. This SNP array appears to be an effective initial screening tool for patients with nonspecific clinical features suggestive of chromosomal disorders. PMID:26867509

  13. Infant of a substance using mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  14. Surrogate mothers: whose baby is it?

    PubMed

    Cohen, B

    1984-01-01

    Advances in medical technology offer infertile couples who wish to raise children alternatives to adoption. The increasing number of surrogate mother contracts creates a myriad of legal issues surrounding the rights of the natural mother, the natural father and the child that is produced. In this Article, the Author discusses the legal issues and rights of the parties under the Constitution, the surrogate contract and family law principles. The Author proposes that courts should consider a surrogate contract as a revocable prebirth agreement which allows the natural mother to keep the child if she chooses. In addition, the Author advocates an interpretation of the statutes forbidding baby selling that would prohibit surrogate contracts in which the mother is paid a fee for the child.

  15. Mothering during war and postwar in Bosnia.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Cheryl Lee; Duckett, Laura

    2007-11-01

    The study aim was to describe displaced Bosnian mothers' experiences caring for their children during and immediately after the war (1992-1995). Mothers described their progression into war, through war, and into vastly changed lives. Using ethnographic methods, narrative data were collected near Sarajevo, Bosnia, from 14 displaced women who participated in one to three interviews each between 1996 and 1999. Data from the semistructured interviews were analyzed to determine patterns in participants' descriptions of mothering during war. Four common themes of mothering were identified in the data: "on the move," "I have to feed them," "living somewhere in between," and "still living the war inside." As care providers and policy makers develop initiatives to improve the health of women and children during complex humanitarian emergencies, there is much to learn from the narratives of Bosnian women about their extraordinary struggle to protect the lives of their children amid violence and loss.

  16. When Should a Mother Avoid Breastfeeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... Tweet Share Compartir When should a mother avoid breastfeeding? Health professionals agree that human milk provides the ...

  17. Underprivileged urban mothers' perspectives on science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese Barton, Angela; Hindin, Toby J.; Contento, Isobel R.; Trudeau, Michelle; Yang, Kimberley; Hagiwara, Sumi; Koch, Pamela D.

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to report our findings from a qualitative study intended to develop our understandings of how inner-city mothers perceive science. Using qualitative methodologies, our analysis reveals that the mothers' perceptions can be grouped into four categories: perceptions of science as (a) schoolwork/knowledge, (b) fun projects, (c) a tool for maintaining the home and family, and (d) an untouchable domain. After we present these categories we compare our findings across categories to argue that those mothers who had spent time doing science with their children were more likely to have a more personal, dynamic, and inquiry-based view of science. We also argue that mothers' perceptions of science were more dynamic when they spoke about situations and contexts that were familiar to them, such as food, nutrition, and child care. We conclude the article with a discussion of the implications our findings have for science education reform.

  18. Child murder by mothers: patterns and prevention.

    PubMed

    Hatters Friedman, Susan; Resnick, Phillip J

    2007-10-01

    The tragedy of maternal filicide, or child murder by mothers, has occurred throughout history and throughout the world. This review of the research literature sought to identify common predictors in the general population as well as in correctional and psychiatric samples. Further research is needed to improve identification of children and mothers at risk. Infanticide laws are discussed. Suggestions for prevention are made based on the current literature and the authors' experiences. PMID:18188430

  19. Child murder by mothers: patterns and prevention

    PubMed Central

    HATTERS FRIEDMAN, SUSAN; RESNICK, PHILLIP J

    2007-01-01

    The tragedy of maternal filicide, or child murder by mothers, has occurred throughout history and throughout the world. This review of the research literature sought to identify common predictors in the general population as well as in correctional and psychiatric samples. Further research is needed to improve identification of children and mothers at risk. Infanticide laws are discussed. Suggestions for prevention are made based on the current literature and the authors' experiences. PMID:18188430

  20. [(Lack of) motivation of the puerperal mother to practice the Kangaroo Mother Method].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Gisele Perin; Monticelli, Marisa

    2007-03-01

    This article aims at describing the context of the development of the Mother-Kangaroo Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital, and discussing the reasons why some women/mothers do not seem stimulated to maintain skin contact with their premature babies. The methodology included three steps: reality problematization, literature review, and systematic reflection aiming at solving the identified problem. It was concluded that the perception of the neonatal team as to mother-newly born infant bond needs to be changed, in the sense of understanding that often the mothers' reaction are different from those expected by the health professionals. PMID:17658053

  1. Between stigma and mother-blame: blind mothers' experiences in USA hospital postnatal care.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Angela

    2015-11-01

    This study examines instances of discrimination that blind mothers in the USA have experienced at the hands of doctors, nurses and social workers during hospital postnatal care. The author identifies postnatal care as the time when blind mothers are likely to face the most stigmatising interactions with medical staff, as it is when scepticism about their competence as mothers is at its height. The author argues these interactions must be understood within their institutional context in which ideologies of risk and mother-blame are embedded in hospital postnatal practices.

  2. Mothers' perceptions of infant distress vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Petrovich-Bartell, N; Cowan, N; Morse, P A

    1982-09-01

    In the present study the psychological and acoustic properties of the distress vocalizations of five 3-4-month-old infants were examined. Each vocalization was rated on a 5-point scale from "definitely fuss" to "definitely cry" by mothers on two home visits. On the first home visit, each mother rated a set of her own infant's vocalizations recorded 1/2 hour previously and presented in the order of occurrence. Three weeks later, on the second home visit, mothers were presented with the master tape that contained the vocalizations of all five infants in random order. Analyses of the judgment data and acoustic parameters of the vocalizations revealed that (a) mothers were able to rate infant vocalizations reliably along a fuss-cry continuum, both shortly after these vocalizations were produced and 3 weeks later with fewer available nonacoustic, contextual cues; (b) mothers relied upon mean and peak intensity, mean F2 frequency, the ratio of F1 to F2, and mean duration in their judgments of infant cries versus fusses; and (c) although there was a high level of rating consistency across mothers, there were some discrepancies between visit 1 and 2 ratings due to the contribution of context cues present on visit 1 only.

  3. Mother-child bonding assessment tools☆

    PubMed Central

    Perrelli, Jaqueline Galdino Albuquerque; Zambaldi, Carla Fonseca; Cantilino, Amaury; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify and describe research tools used to evaluate bonding between mother and child up to one year of age, as well as to provide information on reliability and validity measures related to these tools. Data source: Research studies available on PUBMED, LILACS, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases with the following descriptors: mother-child relations and mother infant relationship, as well as the expressions validity, reliability and scale. Data synthesis: 23 research studies were selected and fully analyzed. Thirteen evaluation research tools were identified concerning mother and child attachment: seven scales, three questionnaires, two inventories and one observation method. From all tools analyzed, the Prenatal Attachment Inventory presented the higher validity and reliability measures to assess mother and fetus relation during pregnancy. Concerning the puerperal period, better consistency coefficients were found for Maternal Attachment Inventory and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Besides, the last one revealed a higher sensibility to identify amenable and severe disorders in the affective relations between mother and child. Conclusions: The majority of research tools are reliable to study the phenomenon presented, although there are some limitations regarding the construct and criterion related to validity. In addition to this, only two of them are translated into Portuguese and adapted to women and children populations in Brazil, being a decisive gap to scientific production in this area. PMID:25479859

  4. Intergenerational Ethics of Caring for Teenage Mothers and Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Lee Smith

    1996-01-01

    Examined teenage mothers' transition to mothering as shaped by family (n=16) caregiving practices. Families demonstrating adversarial care experienced conflict over infant care with the mother, whereas families with a responsive ethic of care shared caregiving with the mother in a highly fluid manner. Provides suggestions for responsive…

  5. Predictors of Mothers' Use of Spanking with Their Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs-Orme, Terri; Cain, Daphne S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study describes mothers who report spanking their infants in the first 13 months of life. Methods: Two hundred forty-six (246) mothers were interviewed in the Mother-Baby Unit of a large university-affiliated hospital in a large southeastern city of the United States. Ninety-three percent (93%) of those mothers were reinterviewed…

  6. Factors Associated with Stress in Mothers of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Cristiane S.; Bordin, Isabel A.; Yazigi, Latife; Mooney, Julia

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the determinants of maternal stress in mothers of children with autism. Mothers of 31 children with autism from mental health clinics were matched by child age/gender and mother age to 31 mothers of children without mental health problems, drawn from public schools and a primary care…

  7. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Mothers' Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Hodge, Danelle; Nam, Cindy Y.; Botts, Betsy H.

    2008-01-01

    Parenting a child with autism has been associated with maternal stress. The present investigation examined children's sleep difficulties and severity of autism along with mothers' sleep problems in relation to stress levels reported by mothers ( N = 72). Mothers' reports of their children's sleep problems were related to mothers' reports of their…

  8. Interactive Behaviors of Ethnic Minority Mothers and their Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Design Descriptive, comparative study. Setting Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Participants Seventy-seven mother-infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother-infant dyads and 60 African American mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotapes of mother-infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at six months corrected age. Results American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Conclusion Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother-infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother-infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors. PMID:23682698

  9. Physical Education for Students with Spina Bifida: Mothers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Jihoun; Goodwin, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    This study described the meaning 7 mothers of children with spina bifida ascribed to their children's physical education, the mothers' roles in the schools, and the importance of the IEP in home and school communication. The stories of 4 mothers of elementary and 3 mothers of secondary aged children were gathered using the phenomenological methods…

  10. Characteristics of the Mother and Child in Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Stanley M.; Petzold, Audrey S.

    1983-01-01

    Data from nearly 30,000 pregnant and third decade (20-29 years) mothers show that small infant size among teenage mothers is consistent with the mother's size and not directly related to early age at conception. Third decade mothers of comparable size give birth to infants with essentially the same characteristics and problems. (Author/GC)

  11. Study of Mothers' Anxieties Related to Their Children's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgar, Sengul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to study anxieties of mothers related to their children's future. Qualitative method was used in order to study anxieties of mothers from different socio-economic levels. Sample of the study participants are 129 mothers living in Istanbul. 32 of those mothers are from upper socio-economic level, 57, from middle…

  12. Parenting among Mothers with Bipolar Disorder: Children's Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkataraman, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Four children from three families in which the mother had a bipolar disorder were interviewed to understand their perspectives on their mothers' parenting. Children identified strengths in their mother's parenting, such as helping them with homework and moods and providing for their wants. They also identified challenges, such as mothers sleeping…

  13. Single, Cohabitating, and Married Mothers' Time with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendig, Sarah M.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Utilizing the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Survey (ATUS), this study examines the relationship between family structure and maternal time with children among 4,309 married mothers and 1,821 single mothers with children less than 13 years of age. Single mothers spend less time with their children than married mothers, though the differences are…

  14. Early Interactions between Infants and Their Postpartum Depressed Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    The present study investigated whether infants of mothers who were depressed postpartum would behave like infants of non-depressed mothers who simulated depression. A total of 24 mothers and their 3-month-old infants were videotaped during face-to-face interactions. All mothers were given the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait…

  15. Training Mothers in the Child's Game: A Comparison of Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantin-Page, Lisette; And Others

    This study compared immediate, short-term effects of different training components on mothers' acquisition of non-directive play skills. Subjects were dyads of 49 mothers and their sons, ages 4 to 6. Mother-son pairs were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. The control group received no training. All other mothers viewed the videotape…

  16. Personalization in Mother-Child Emotion Talk across Three Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Tompkins, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    An unexplored aspect of contextual variation in emotion talk is the extent to which the emotions mothers and children discuss relate to the child, mother, or another self. To establish the extent to which mothers and children personalize the emotions they discuss, we examined the emotion talk of 40 American mother-child dyads in three…

  17. Predictors of Parenting Stress for Abusive and Nonabusive Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Andrea V.; Lewis, Kristen M.; Lynn, Amy E.; Haskett, Mary E.; Behrend, Tara S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined a model of parenting stress for abusive mothers (n = 80) and nonabusive mothers (n = 86) using linear regression analyses. Predictors in the model included (a) the degree to which mothers were bothered by child misbehavior, (b) mothers' general psychological functioning, and (c) observed child behavior during parent-child interactions.…

  18. Assessment of Coping Strategies of Child Abusing Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantos, Arthur L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study that compared abusing mothers (n=17) to nonabusing mothers (n=16) of children with conduct problems, found that the abusing mothers exhibited a greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies and less use of effective problem-focused strategies. Abusing mothers also perceived their coping to be more ineffective than the nonabusing…

  19. The law of the mother.

    PubMed

    Kemf, E

    1992-01-01

    The Congress Workshop on People and Protected Areas convened to discuss the need to combine modern science and traditional knowledge to effect sustainable development among indigenous peoples in the world. The founder of the Fundacion Pro-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta talked about development of training programs for displaced farmers and rehabilitation of Indian lands and villages in the Sierra Nevada of northern Colombia. The 3 indigenous peoples (Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians) have only recently regained title to their forebears' lands. In fact, in 1990, the government of Colombia gave about 25% of the country back to indigenous populations. The forebears of the Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians constructed great stone cities and advanced systems of agriculture, terracing, and irrigation. The Indians have lived under the Law of the Mother for thousands of years. This code dictates human behavior so that humans are in unity with plant and animal cycles, star movements, climatic phenomena, and the sacred geography of the coastal mountains. They are so much an integral part of their ecosystem that they even limit their population size. Now they resurrect villages in 2 national parks and indigenous reservations. Farmers who colonized the area since the 1960s must now leave the reserves and begin anew in nearby buffer zones. Here they learn revitalized agricultural techniques to abandon their illegal marijuana, cocaine, and poppy farming. At the workshop, participants also learned about conservation activities of the Imgrauen in the Banc d'Arguin National Park in Mauritania who continue to use dolphins to catch mullet. In India, the Bisnoi people living in the Rajasthan desert have established their own unofficial protected areas to keep the fragile ecosystem. Other examples were in Niger and Central Europe. The workshop participants agreed that recognition of land tenure and intellectual property rights were high priorities.

  20. The law of the mother.

    PubMed

    Kemf, E

    1992-01-01

    The Congress Workshop on People and Protected Areas convened to discuss the need to combine modern science and traditional knowledge to effect sustainable development among indigenous peoples in the world. The founder of the Fundacion Pro-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta talked about development of training programs for displaced farmers and rehabilitation of Indian lands and villages in the Sierra Nevada of northern Colombia. The 3 indigenous peoples (Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians) have only recently regained title to their forebears' lands. In fact, in 1990, the government of Colombia gave about 25% of the country back to indigenous populations. The forebears of the Kogi, Arsario, and Arhuaco Indians constructed great stone cities and advanced systems of agriculture, terracing, and irrigation. The Indians have lived under the Law of the Mother for thousands of years. This code dictates human behavior so that humans are in unity with plant and animal cycles, star movements, climatic phenomena, and the sacred geography of the coastal mountains. They are so much an integral part of their ecosystem that they even limit their population size. Now they resurrect villages in 2 national parks and indigenous reservations. Farmers who colonized the area since the 1960s must now leave the reserves and begin anew in nearby buffer zones. Here they learn revitalized agricultural techniques to abandon their illegal marijuana, cocaine, and poppy farming. At the workshop, participants also learned about conservation activities of the Imgrauen in the Banc d'Arguin National Park in Mauritania who continue to use dolphins to catch mullet. In India, the Bisnoi people living in the Rajasthan desert have established their own unofficial protected areas to keep the fragile ecosystem. Other examples were in Niger and Central Europe. The workshop participants agreed that recognition of land tenure and intellectual property rights were high priorities. PMID:12317699

  1. Handgrip force of maltreating mothers in reaction to infant signals.

    PubMed

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Reijman, Sophie; Werner, Claudia D; Maras, Athanasios; Rijnberk, Corine; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2015-02-01

    Handgrip force responses to infant signals were examined in a sample of 43 maltreating and 40 non-maltreating mothers. During a standardized handgrip paradigm, mothers were asked to squeeze a handgrip dynamometer at maximal and at half of their maximal handgrip strength while listening to infant crying and laughter sounds. Maltreating mothers used excessive force more often while listening to infant crying and laughter than non-maltreating mothers. Of the maltreating mothers, only neglectful mothers (n=20) tended to use excessive force more often during crying than non-maltreating mothers. Participants did not rate the sounds differently, indicating that maltreating mothers cannot be differentiated from non-maltreating mothers based on their perception of infant signals, but show different behavioral responses to the signals. Results imply that, in response to infant signals (i.e., crying or laughing), maltreating mothers may be insufficiently able to regulate the exertion of physical force.

  2. Locating Mothers: How Cultural Debates about Stay-at-Home versus Working Mothers Define Women and Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillaway, Heather; Pare, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Most women must decide whether to work for pay while mothering or make mothering their sole social role. Often this decision is portrayed in terms of whether they will be "stay-at-home" and presumably "full-time" mothers, or "working mothers" and therefore ones who prioritize paid work over caregiving. Inferred within this construction is women's…

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Well-Being and Coping among Mothers of Toddlers and Mothers of Adolescents with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann E.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Greenberg, Jan S.; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of autism symptoms and coping strategies on the well-being of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sample consisted of 153 mothers of toddlers and 201 mothers of adolescents drawn from two ongoing, longitudinal studies of families of individuals with ASD. For mothers of toddlers, lower…

  4. Mother-offspring recognition in the domestic cat: Kittens recognize their own mother's call.

    PubMed

    Szenczi, Péter; Bánszegi, Oxána; Urrutia, Andrea; Faragó, Tamás; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic communication can play an important part in mother-young recognition in many mammals. This, however, has still only been investigated in a small range mainly of herd- or colony-living species. Here we report on the behavioral response of kittens of the domestic cat, a typically solitary carnivore, to playbacks of "greeting chirps" and "meows" from their own versus alien mothers. We found significantly stronger responses to the chirps from kittens' own mother than to her meows or to the chirps or meows of alien mothers. Acoustic analysis revealed greater variation between vocalizations from different mothers than for vocalizations from the same mother. We conclude that chirps emitted by mother cats at the nest represent a specific form of vocal communication with their young, and that kittens learn and respond positively to these and distinguish them from chirps of other mothers and from other cat vocalizations while still in the nest. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 568-577, 2016. PMID:26935009

  5. Young Infants' Vocalizations towards Mother versus Stranger: Associations with the Infant-Mother Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Infants' differential vocal response (DVR) towards their mother and a female stranger at 3 months of age has been predominantly investigated as an index of early cognitive functioning. The present study explored the relationship between DVR and different infant and mother indicators of the developing relationship quality in a sample of 23…

  6. "I Fell off [the Mothering] Track": Barriers to "Effective Mothering" among Prostituted Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalla, Rochelle

    2004-01-01

    Ecological theory and basic assumptions for the promotion of effective mothering among low-income and working-poor women are applied in relation to a particularly vulnerable population: street-level prostitution-involved women. Qualitative data from 38 street-level prostituted women shows barriers to effective mothering at the individual,…

  7. Constructing Mother-Infant Interactions: A Cognitive-Developmental Analysis of Young Mothers' Interactive Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rita Bowdish

    This study examines the developmental status of young mothers' social and logical-physical reasoning in relation to the characteristics of their interactions with their infants. A total of 36 mothers 15 to 21 years of age and their 4-month-old infants were videotaped in their homes during play, infant teaching, and bathing. Selman's "concepts of…

  8. Mother-Child Interactions and Childhood OCD: Effects of CBT on Mother and Child Observed Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlup, Barbara; Farrell, Lara; Barrett, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This waitlist-controlled study investigates the impact of a group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with family involvement (CBT-F) on observed mother and child behaviors in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-four children and adolescents with OCD and their mothers were observed during family discussions before and after…

  9. Attitudes toward teen mothers among nursing students and psychometric evaluation of Positivity Toward Teen Mothers scale.

    PubMed

    Kim, Son Chae; Burke, Leanne; Sloan, Chris; Barnett, Shannon

    2013-09-01

    To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers.

  10. Mothering from Prison: Using Narratives in a Mother-Child Support Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trost, Betty Chamness

    2009-01-01

    Incarcerated and formerly incarcerated women who participated in the Storybook Project of Iowa told passionate stories of how their understanding of mothering had changed. They spoke of how the Storybook Project strengthened their mothering practices and relationships with their children and families. This study was an opportunity for reflection…

  11. Negotiating Relationships in Single-Mother Households: Perspectives of Children and Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Elizabeth; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has considered the nature of parent-child relationships in stable single-parent households that have not undergone transitions such as divorce and repartnering. This study explored how single mothers and their children negotiated their relationships in a context where the mother has been parenting alone continuously from early in…

  12. Who Mothers Mommy? Factors That Contribute to Mothers' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthar, Suniya S.; Ciciolla, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Developmental science is replete with studies on the impact of mothers on their children, but little is known about what might best help caregivers to function well themselves. In an initial effort to address this gap, we conducted an Internet-based study of over 2,000 mostly well-educated mothers, seeking to illuminate salient risk and protective…

  13. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  14. Mothers' Work: Single Mothers' Employment, Earnings, and Poverty in the Age of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Mark; Gluck, Robin

    Employment, earnings, and poverty among single mothers in New York City and across the United States in the age of welfare reform were examined to identify goals and recommendations for reauthorization of legislation regulating Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The study indicated that although job holding by single mothers has risen…

  15. Mother Knows Best? Inhibitory Maternal Gatekeeping, Psychological Control, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Erin Kramer; Dunn, KayLee C.; Harper, James; Dyer, W. Justin; Day, Randal D.

    2013-01-01

    We used structural equation modeling to explore associations between inhibitory maternal gatekeeping attitudes, reports of inhibitory maternal gatekeeping behaviors, maternal psychological control, observed mother-adolescent warmth, and adolescent reports of maternal involvement. Our random stratified sample consisted of 315 mothers and their…

  16. The "Mother" of All Schemas: Creating Cognitive Dissonance in Children's Fantasy Literature Using the Mother Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palkovich, Einat Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Mothers are essential facilitators of early Theory of Mind development and intrinsic to the acquisition, as well as the content, of many basic schemas learnt in infancy. In this article it is argued that the "mother" schema in children's literature can ease a child's transition into literary discourse by exploiting the child's…

  17. Mothers Don't Have Long Hair: An Exploratory Study of Preschool Perceptions of Mother.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denne, Joan M.

    A class of preschoolers, aged 44-63 months and grouped according to age, sex, sibling position, family size and the occupation of each parent, were the subjects of a 2-part study to examine preschoolers' perceptions of mothers. In the first part of the study, each child was shown 4 sets of pictures depicting a variety of possible mother figures.…

  18. Attitudes toward teen mothers among nursing students and psychometric evaluation of Positivity Toward Teen Mothers scale.

    PubMed

    Kim, Son Chae; Burke, Leanne; Sloan, Chris; Barnett, Shannon

    2013-09-01

    To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers. PMID:23182309

  19. [Parenting capacity of mothers with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Arvaniti, A; Spyropoulou, A; Zervas, I

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the pregnancy rates of mothers with schizophrenia do not differ significantly from those of the general population. Mothers' severe mental illness, combined with poor social support and comorbidity, may significantly affect her parenting capacity. However, the poor quality of parenting by psychotic mothers should not be taken for granted, in advance. Some of them may become excellent parents while other may abuse their children and finally lose custody because of this. The parenting capacity is significantly influenced by the existing insight of patient-parent's disease. Assessing the parenting capacity comprises the measurement of insight and of the risk of child abuse as well. Factors associated with increased risk for child abuse are: (a) active psychiatric symptomatology, (b) history of violent behavior in the past, (c) maternal history of abuse during childhood, (d) dangerous domestic environment, (e) stressful events and poor social support to the mother and (f) unrealistic parental expectations. These factors should be assessed both clinically and by using the appropriate psychometric tools. Tools which have been widely used for this purpose are: (a) "Schedule for Assessment of Insight-SAI", (b) "Childhood Trauma Interview", (c) "Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment Inventory-HOME" and "Home Screening Questionnaire -HSQ", (d) "Parental Stress Inventory-PSI", "Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire-SPSQ", "Arizona Social Support Inventory" (e) "Parent Opinion Questionnaire-POQ". Interventions to ensure a more adequate parenting capacity should be focused on family planning: mothers with severe mental illness have poor knowledge about reproductive and contraception issues. Their pregnancies are mostly not planned. It is important for the family planning to be tailored according to the specific needs of schizophrenic mothers and to take into account the following issues: (a) the severity and the duration

  20. The Effect of Iron Deficiency on Osmotic Sensitivity of Red Blood Cells from Neonatal Rats and Their Mothers.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashimi, L Mossa; Gambling, Lorraine; McArdle, H J

    2015-12-01

    Iron deficiency during pregnancy has many effects on both the mother and her developing foetus. These can be both short and long term. One effect is an alteration in fatty acid metabolism and we hypothesised that these changes may result in alterations in membrane function and structure. In order to test this hypothesis, we measured osmotic sensitivity in red blood cells isolated from neonates and their mothers at different times following birth. We fed female rats control or iron-deficient diets for 4 weeks prior to mating and kept them on the same diet until term. At that time, we returned one group of deficient dams to the control diet. The others were kept on the same diet. We showed that iron deficiency results in a decrease in osmotic sensitivity in the mothers but not in their neonates. Returning the dams to the control diet resulted in a return of their red cell osmotic sensitivity to control levels. In the neonates, there was no recovery in haematocrit or in any other parameter, though they did not get any worse, in contrast to the pups being suckled by deficient mothers. The data show two things. The first is that following birth, the mother restores her own iron stores at the expense of the pups, and secondly, there are differences in properties and sensitivities between red cells from mothers and their neonates. This latter observation cannot be explained by differences in the membrane fatty acid profiles, which were not significantly different.

  1. MTHFR polymorphisms in Puerto Rican children with isolated congenital heart disease and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    García-Fragoso, Lourdes; García-García, Inés; Leavitt, Gloria; Renta, Jessicca; Ayala, Miguel A.; Cadilla, Carmen L.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are among the most common birth defects. There is evidence suggesting that polymorphisms in folate metabolism could alter susceptibility to CHD. The MTHFR 677TT genotype has been associated with the development of structural congenital heart malformations. The objective of this study was to identify common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in children with isolated CHD and their mothers. The DNA analysis for the C677T and A1298C mutations was performed. The study group included 27 mothers, 27 children with CHD, and 220 controls. The prevalence of the TT polymorphism was higher in mothers (22%) than in controls (10%). Compound heterozygosity for both polymorphisms was 3.7 times more common in children with CHD than in the newborn controls. Mothers of children with CHD were more likely to be compound heterozygotes. The higher prevalence of C677T polymorphisms in mothers of children with CHD and of compound heterozygosity for both polymorphisms suggests the possible role of folic acid in the prevention of CHD. Due to the relation of this enzyme to folate metabolism, current folate recommendations for women in childbearing age in Puerto Rico to reduce neural tube defects may need to be extended to the prevention of CHD. PMID:20657745

  2. MTHFR polymorphisms in Puerto Rican children with isolated congenital heart disease and their mothers.

    PubMed

    García-Fragoso, Lourdes; García-García, Inés; Leavitt, Gloria; Renta, Jessicca; Ayala, Miguel A; Cadilla, Carmen L

    2010-03-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are among the most common birth defects. There is evidence suggesting that polymorphisms in folate metabolism could alter susceptibility to CHD. The MTHFR 677TT genotype has been associated with the development of structural congenital heart malformations. The objective of this study was to identify common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in children with isolated CHD and their mothers. The DNA analysis for the C677T and A1298C mutations was performed. The study group included 27 mothers, 27 children with CHD, and 220 controls. The prevalence of the TT polymorphism was higher in mothers (22%) than in controls (10%). Compound heterozygosity for both polymorphisms was 3.7 times more common in children with CHD than in the newborn controls. Mothers of children with CHD were more likely to be compound heterozygotes. The higher prevalence of C677T polymorphisms in mothers of children with CHD and of compound heterozygosity for both polymorphisms suggests the possible role of folic acid in the prevention of CHD. Due to the relation of this enzyme to folate metabolism, current folate recommendations for women in childbearing age in Puerto Rico to reduce neural tube defects may need to be extended to the prevention of CHD.

  3. [Stomas in neonatology: recovering the mother's memory].

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andréia Cascaes; Angelo, Margareth

    2012-12-01

    The scientific production overview that concerns the family and stomas urges for studies about the subject, especially about the experience in neonatal period. The present study aimed to comprehend mothers' experience about stomized children during neonatal period or the hospitalization period in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The methodological approach adopted in this study was Oral History, where interviews were conducted with nine mothers. The rescue of individual memories enabled construction of collective memory, organized in four themes: dreams versus reality, lost protection, in fear's company and motherhood is needed. The results allow a reflection about the importance of more effective actions that contribute to the autonomy and relief of suffering of the mother in NICU, where nursing care can be guided by the principles of Family Centered Care.

  4. A child returns to her mother....

    PubMed

    Mathew, M C

    1997-01-01

    There are various expressions of attachment and separation processes in children under 5 years of age. One particular experience in the life of a mother and her daughter is illustrated here. The woman, having lost her young husband following a brief illness, had concealed her grief and pain in an attempt to be brave and to face the future. She decided to send her 5-year-old daughter to a residential school. This was her way of adjusting to her distress and providing the best for her daughter. That was the beginning of the separation-anxiety process which left stress reactions in the mother and the child. The story of the mother and child is one of gradual recovery from their grief and loss. This story takes us into the dynamics of the attachment-separation process in children, to which we need to pay special attention as part of our commitment to child development. PMID:9689240

  5. Labor and delivery complications among teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    Lopoo, Leonard M

    2011-01-01

    A broad set of academic literatures shows that childbearing is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes for teenage mothers. Many researchers question whether teenage childbearing is the causal explanation for the negative outcomes (i.e., whether there is a biological effect of teenage childbearing or whether the relationship is due to other factors correlated with health and teenage childbearing). This study investigates the relationship between teenage childbearing and labor and delivery complications using a panel of confidential birth certificate data over the period from 1994 to 2003 from the state of Texas. Findings show that compared to mothers aged 25 to 29 having their first child, teenager mothers appear to have superior health in most--but not all--labor and delivery outcomes.

  6. Mother-child planning and child compliance.

    PubMed

    Gauvain, Mary; Perez, Susan M

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated child compliance and maternal instruction during planning. Based on the Child Behavior Checklist and free-play observations, 40 mothers and their 4- to 5-year-old children were assigned to a group with children who behaved within the normal range of compliance (n = 20) or a group with children with high rates of noncompliance for this age (n = 20). Mothers in the noncompliant group provided more low-level, directive, and negative instruction; requested more compliance; and shared less task responsibility with children. Mothers in both groups responded to child compliance by increasing or maintaining the level of instruction. Results are discussed in relation to the role of child compliance in regulating opportunities for cognitive development in social context. PMID:18489426

  7. 'I want to see my mother's picture!'.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    A case study is presented involving the propriety of releasing to a 17-year-old girl medical information about her now-dead mother, including a photograph taken of the mother when she was terminally ill. The physician to whom the request was made was unaware that the daughter herself had medical and psychiatric problems. Soon afterward, the daughter attempted suicide. Two commentaries explore the nature of the relationship between the physician and the former patient's daughter, whether the dead patient's photograph should have been released, and whether the physician bears any responsibility for the daughter's subsequent suicide attempt. PMID:6654666

  8. Mothers as informal science class teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Phyllis

    This study explores the participation of mothers as teachers (termed "Adult Leaders") in the Hands On Science Outreach (HOSO) informal science program for pre-kindergarten through sixth grade children. Since women continue to be underrepresented in the sciences (AAUW, 1992; AAUW 1998), there is a need to probe the nature of mothers' choices in science experiences, in the family context, and as role models. Mothers of school age children who choose to lead informal science activities are in a position to teach and learn not only within this alternative setting, but within their homes where values, attitudes, beliefs and motivations are continually cultivated by daily choices (Gordon, 1972; Tamir, 1990; Gerber, 1997). Policy makers recognize that schools are only one environment from many for learning science (National Science Board, 1983; National Research Council, 1996). Using complementary methodology, this study was conducted in two HOSO sessions that extended over six months. Twelve mothers who were HOSO teachers were case study participants. Primary data collection strategies were interviews, journals, and "draw-a-scientist." A larger sample of HOSO mother-teachers (N = 112) also contributed to a surrey, developed from an analysis of the case studies. Informal learning settings must, by their non-compulsory nature, focus on the affective component of learning as a necessity of participation. The framework for the qualitative analysis was from the affective characteristics described by Simpson et al. (1994). The interpretation is informed by sociobiology, science education and adult education theories. The study finds that the twelve mothers began their HOSO teaching believing in science as a way of knowing and valuing the processes and information from its practice. These women perceive their participation as a likely means to increase the success of their child(ren)'s education and are interested in the potential personal gains of leading an informal science

  9. Successful breast feeding: the mother's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M J; Morse, J M; Prowse, M

    1985-05-01

    A content analysis of 141 articles on breast feeding by discipline revealed differences in the factors considered necessary for breast feeding success and in the criteria used to determine success. Whereas medical articles focused on maternal factors prenatally and infant health post-natally, or the length of time breast feeding was maintained, lay articles focused on the relationship of the mother with her infant (the nursing couple) and the mother's ability to manage breast feeding within the family context. The implications of this discrepancy for nursing practice and research are discussed.

  10. Mothering and anxiety: Social support and competence as mitigating factors for first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Chavis, Llena

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated anxiety as a phenomenon distinct from depression and evaluated several variables that influence anxiety in first-time mothers. This explored the relationship between maternal sense of competence (both of mothering and efficacy) and perceived social support (from family, friends, and significant others) and first-time mothers' postpartum anxiety, when depression, socioeconomic status (SES), and marital status were controlled for. The population studied were 86 first-time mothers made up of women with children 24 months or younger in two populations of Kentucky and Michigan. The constructs of maternal sense of competence and perceived social support were found to be significant in explaining first-time mothers' anxiety. The study concluded that a combined association of perceived social support and maternal sense of competence were associated with a 34% (change in R-squared = .339) decrease of a first-time mothers' anxiety. However, not all types of social support, or maternal competence appeared to be equally important with regards to maternal anxiety: social support from friends and family and maternal sense of competence in regard to productivity appeared to be most significant. Lastly, some recommendations for health practitioners who work with mothers are provided. PMID:27266719

  11. Comparison of the complementary feeding practices between mothers with twins and mothers with singletons

    PubMed Central

    Bentil, Helena Joycelyn; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Lartey, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have been done on infant feeding practices but few have focused on twins. The aim of this study was to compare the complementary feeding practices between mothers with twins and mothers with singletons. Methods Mother-infant pairs (50 mother-twin pairs and 50 mother-singleton pairs) with children aged 6 to 23 months were recruited from two public health clinics and communities in Tema and Ashaiman. Information was collected on the background characteristics of the mothers. Recumbent length and weight of the children were measured. Dietary information on the infants was collected using 24 hour recall. The differences between two groups were tested using independent t-student test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables. Results The minimum dietary diversity (4+ food groups) was met by only 32% of the twins and 40% of the singletons, and 28% of the twins and 38% of the singletons met the requirement for minimum acceptable diet (minimum dietary diversity and the minimum meal frequency). Minimum meal frequency was met by 78% of the twins and 76% of the singletons. There were no significant differences between the two groups of infants. Prevalence of undernutrition was not significantly different among the two groups (twins versus singletons: underweight-26% versus 24%, stunting-20% versus 24% and wasting-14% versus 10%. Conclusion Complementary feeding practices were suboptimal in both groups of mothers requiring interventions to improve infant feeding practices. PMID:27642393

  12. Comparison of the complementary feeding practices between mothers with twins and mothers with singletons

    PubMed Central

    Bentil, Helena Joycelyn; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Lartey, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have been done on infant feeding practices but few have focused on twins. The aim of this study was to compare the complementary feeding practices between mothers with twins and mothers with singletons. Methods Mother-infant pairs (50 mother-twin pairs and 50 mother-singleton pairs) with children aged 6 to 23 months were recruited from two public health clinics and communities in Tema and Ashaiman. Information was collected on the background characteristics of the mothers. Recumbent length and weight of the children were measured. Dietary information on the infants was collected using 24 hour recall. The differences between two groups were tested using independent t-student test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables. Results The minimum dietary diversity (4+ food groups) was met by only 32% of the twins and 40% of the singletons, and 28% of the twins and 38% of the singletons met the requirement for minimum acceptable diet (minimum dietary diversity and the minimum meal frequency). Minimum meal frequency was met by 78% of the twins and 76% of the singletons. There were no significant differences between the two groups of infants. Prevalence of undernutrition was not significantly different among the two groups (twins versus singletons: underweight-26% versus 24%, stunting-20% versus 24% and wasting-14% versus 10%. Conclusion Complementary feeding practices were suboptimal in both groups of mothers requiring interventions to improve infant feeding practices.

  13. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    PubMed

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor.

  14. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    PubMed

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. PMID:24463037

  15. The other mother: a narrative analysis of the postpartum experiences of nonbirth lesbian mothers.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Michele M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a metastory of nonbiological lesbian mothers' postpartum experiences utilizing Riessman's structural approach to thematic analysis. Ten nonbirth lesbian mothers were interviewed. Each shared a unique story of her first year of motherhood. Themes were individually analyzed within each story. The metastory of the postpartum experiences of nonbirth lesbian mothers revealed 6 themes including the following: At the mercy of health care providers, Nursing is the major difference between us, Defined by who I am not, Fighting for every piece of motherhood: The world can take them away, What's in a name?, and Epilogue: The new normal.

  16. Oxytocin and mutual communication in mother-infant bonding

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Miho; Okabe, Shota; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    Mother-infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. In this review, we describe the manner in which reciprocal communication between the mother and infant leads to mother-infant bonding in rodents. In rats and mice, mother-infant bond formation is reinforced by various social stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) from the pups to the mother, and feeding and tactile stimulation from the mother to the pups. Some evidence suggests that mother and infant can develop a cross-modal sensory recognition of their counterpart during this bonding process. Neurochemically, oxytocin in the neural system plays a pivotal role in each side of the mother-infant bonding process, although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brains of infants has not yet been clarified. Impairment of mother-infant bonding, that is, deprivation of social stimuli from the mother, strongly influences offspring sociality, including maternal behavior toward their own offspring in their adulthood, implying a “non-genomic transmission of maternal environment,” even in rodents. The comparative understanding of cognitive functions between mother and infants, and the biological mechanisms involved in mother-infant bonding may help us understand psychiatric disorders associated with mother-infant relationships. PMID:22375116

  17. Perfluoroalkyl substances in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels from 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Hamers, Timo; Swart, Kees; Aars, Jon; Lie, Elisabeth; Nilsen, Else Mari Espseth; Wiig, Oystein; Derocher, Andrew E; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2012-11-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are protein-binding blood-accumulating contaminants that may have detrimental toxicological effects on the early phases of mammalian development. To enable an evaluation of the potential health risks of PFAS exposure for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), an exposure assessment was made by examining plasma levels of PFASs in polar bear mothers in relation to their suckling cubs-of-the-year (~4 months old). Samples were collected at Svalbard in 1998 and 2008, and we investigated the between-year differences in levels of PFASs. Seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑₇PFCAs: PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTrDA) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (∑₂PFSAs: PFHxS and PFOS) were detected in the majority of the mothers and cubs from both years. In mothers and cubs, most PFCAs were detected in higher concentrations in 2008 than in 1998. On the contrary, levels of PFOS were lower in 2008 than in 1998, while levels of PFHxS did not differ between the two sampling years. PFOS was the dominating compound in mothers and cubs both in 1998 and in 2008. Concentration of PFHpA did not differ between mothers and cubs, while concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA, PFHxS, and PFOS were higher in mothers than in their cubs. Except from PFHpA, all compounds correlated significantly between mothers and their cubs. The mean cub to mother ratios ranged from 0.15 for PFNA to 1.69 for PFHpA. On average (mean±standard error of mean), the levels of ∑₇PFCAs and ∑₂PFSAs in cubs were 0.24±0.01 and 0.22±0.01 times the levels in their mothers, respectively. Although maternal transfer appears to be a substantial source of exposure for the cubs, the low cub to mother ratios indicate that maternal transfer of PFASs in polar bears is relatively low in comparison with hydrophobic contaminants (e.g. PCBs). Because the level of several PFASs in mothers and cubs from both sampling years exceeded the levels associated

  18. Perfluoroalkyl substances in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels from 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Hamers, Timo; Swart, Kees; Aars, Jon; Lie, Elisabeth; Nilsen, Else Mari Espseth; Wiig, Oystein; Derocher, Andrew E; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2012-11-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are protein-binding blood-accumulating contaminants that may have detrimental toxicological effects on the early phases of mammalian development. To enable an evaluation of the potential health risks of PFAS exposure for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), an exposure assessment was made by examining plasma levels of PFASs in polar bear mothers in relation to their suckling cubs-of-the-year (~4 months old). Samples were collected at Svalbard in 1998 and 2008, and we investigated the between-year differences in levels of PFASs. Seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑₇PFCAs: PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTrDA) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (∑₂PFSAs: PFHxS and PFOS) were detected in the majority of the mothers and cubs from both years. In mothers and cubs, most PFCAs were detected in higher concentrations in 2008 than in 1998. On the contrary, levels of PFOS were lower in 2008 than in 1998, while levels of PFHxS did not differ between the two sampling years. PFOS was the dominating compound in mothers and cubs both in 1998 and in 2008. Concentration of PFHpA did not differ between mothers and cubs, while concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA, PFHxS, and PFOS were higher in mothers than in their cubs. Except from PFHpA, all compounds correlated significantly between mothers and their cubs. The mean cub to mother ratios ranged from 0.15 for PFNA to 1.69 for PFHpA. On average (mean±standard error of mean), the levels of ∑₇PFCAs and ∑₂PFSAs in cubs were 0.24±0.01 and 0.22±0.01 times the levels in their mothers, respectively. Although maternal transfer appears to be a substantial source of exposure for the cubs, the low cub to mother ratios indicate that maternal transfer of PFASs in polar bears is relatively low in comparison with hydrophobic contaminants (e.g. PCBs). Because the level of several PFASs in mothers and cubs from both sampling years exceeded the levels associated

  19. Mother-Child Interactions: A Longitudinal Microanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velleman, Shelley L.

    This longitudinal pilot study, which extends Veneziano's (1987) work on phonetically and semantically contingent maternal response types, compared, microanalytically and globally, maternal response types and mother-child dyadic interactions of normally developing and Down syndrome children. Participants were three normally developing infants, five…

  20. Internal and External Constraints on Teenage Mothering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Ramona T.

    This paper reports findings of an exploratory field study of the teenager's first year of motherhood. Twelve subjects, aged 14-19, were interviewed a number of times during that year. Interviews were largely unstructured, allowing mothers to express their concerns and feelings. Data for analysis were: (1) narrative style protocols that were…

  1. PTSD in Depressed Mothers in Home Visitation

    PubMed Central

    Ammerman, Robert T.; Putnam, Frank W.; Chard, Kathleen M.; Stevens, Jack; Van Ginkel, Judith B.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that mothers participating in home visitation programs have a high incidence of mental health problems, particularly depression. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common comorbidity with depression, yet its prevalence among home visiting populations and implications for parenting and maternal functioning have not been examined. This study contrasted depressed mothers with (n = 35) and without PTSD (n = 55) who were enrolled in a home visitation program. Results indicated that depressed mothers with comorbid PTSD were more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse, had greater severity of depressive symptoms, increased social isolation, and lower overall functioning than their counterparts without PTSD. Among PTSD mothers, greater severity of PTSD symptoms, in particular avoidance and emotional numbness, were associated with increased maternal psychopathology and parenting deficits even after controlling for depression severity. These findings add to the literature documenting the negative impacts of PTSD on maternal functioning and parenting. Implications for screening and treatment in the context of home visitation are discussed. PMID:24307928

  2. Mothers' Community Participation and Child Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobles, Jenna; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    We use rich data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey to assess the relationship between mothers' access to social capital via participation in community activities and their children's health. We exploit the advantages of longitudinal data and community fixed effects to mitigate some of the concerns about spuriousness and reverse causality that…

  3. 76 FR 27601 - Mother's Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... adults up to age 26. First Lady Michelle Obama's ``Let's Move!'' initiative is also providing mothers.... IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this sixth day of May, in the year of our Lord two.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-11749 Filed 5-10-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P...

  4. Mothers' Speech in Three Social Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, C. E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Functional and linguistic aspects of the speech of Dutch-speaking mothers from three social classes to their two-year-old children were studied to test the hypothesis that simplified speech is crucial to language acquisition. Available from Plenum Publishing Corp., 227 W. 17th St., New York, NY 10011. (Author/RM)

  5. The Economic Resource Receipt of New Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Laura; Elman, Cheryl; Feltey, Kathryn M.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. federal policies do not provide a universal social safety net of economic support for women during pregnancy or the immediate postpartum period but assume that employment and/or marriage will protect families from poverty. Yet even mothers with considerable human and marital capital may experience disruptions in employment, earnings, and…

  6. 77 FR 28761 - Mother's Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-11992 Filed 5-15-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8817 of May 11, 2012 Mother's Day, 2012 By the President of the United States... Day, we honor the remarkable women who strive and sacrifice every day to ensure their children...

  7. Mother Tongue Education: Necessary? Possible? Sustainable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Barbara Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Issues affecting pre-school education in a rural area of Kenya are highlighted in a study of a mother tongue education (MTE) programme in one indigenous language group, the Pokomo. Factors supporting the introduction of MTE include official support for MTE, the welcoming of non-government stakeholder involvement in education, the presence of…

  8. Alenush Terian: The Iranian Solar Mother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebian, Mohammad; Talebian, Ehsan

    2012-06-01

    We present a biographical sketch of Alenush Terian, the first Iranian woman physicist, who was known as the Iranian Solar Mother, since she founded the first solar telescopic observatory in Iran. She taught and carried out astronomical research for three decades with inadequate resources but with unflinching devotion, motivated by a strong desire to propagate scientific education and research in her country.

  9. The Mother-Child Home Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    This paper provides a description and evaluation of the Mother-Child Program (developed by the Verbal Interaction Project) for prevention of educational disadvantage. The program consists of 46 semi-weekly home visits by "Toy Demonstrators" in each of two seven month program years, following the local school calendar. Toy Demonstrators are former…

  10. A Treatment Model for Divorced Single Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betchen, Stephen J.

    1988-01-01

    Introduces and tests an eclectic model of psychotherapy aimed at alleviating problems of single divorced mothers, including what was believed to be an underlying dependency. Model includes psychodynamic and behavioral techniques. Used a repeated single-subject design to evaluate the treatment model. (Author/ABL)

  11. Predicting Markers of Adulthood among Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Monica L.; Lee, Jungeun O.; Lohr, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examines the antecedents of adolescent mothers' transition into adulthood and their attainment of multiple adult statuses in their early 30s in a nonclinical sample. The distribution, timing, and impact of factors in adolescence (education, employment, marriage, economic status, criminal involvement, and others)…

  12. Syntactic Complexity in Mother-Child Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, A. L.; Frank, S. M.

    To find out what factors are involved in a child's learning of syntax, investigators studied the syntactic complexity of the language a mother and child use when talking to each other. The complexity measure used was one developed by Dr. Sheldon Frank and Dr. Harry Osser, and is based on the concepts of generative grammar and transformations.…

  13. Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a…

  14. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  15. Mother-Daughter Communication Patterns Re Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Greer L.

    After a review of the literature on teenage sexual behavior and contraceptive practice and their consequences, this paper presents a brief description of a research project on mother-daughter communication patterns, which is intended to investigate the influence of female parents on the sexual and contraceptive behavior of teenage daughters. It…

  16. Counseling with Mothers of Exceptional Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bert L.

    1971-01-01

    It is possible for elementary school guidance counselors to help mothers of exceptional children face the severe reality demands they experience as internal turmoil marked by anger guilt and self depreciation. Once their feelings have been elicited and legitimized exploration of how feelings influence behavior toward children becomes possible.…

  17. Mothers of Gang Members Give Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Gwendolyn; McEvoy, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Three mothers whose children were connected to Dallas (Texas) gangs told their stories at the Fourth Joint National Conference on Gangs, Schools, and Community. It is said that gang members come from dysfunctional families, usually from homes where fathers are not present or involved in children's upbringing. In spite of a great deal of research…

  18. "Motherly Business" and the Moves to Manhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John Noell

    1994-01-01

    Discusses three novels that focus on the mother/son relationship: Bruce Books'"The Moves Make the Man," Chris Crutcher's "Stotan!" and Walter Dean Myers'"Fallen Angels." Notes that all three deal with forms of combat, both physical and mental, with competition, and with a struggle to survive--a struggle that each novelist turns into a metaphor for…

  19. Got a Problem? Ask Mother Goose!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Debra

    1981-01-01

    Shows how writing news stories about fairy tale characters enlivens student writing classes. Suggests assignments for creating a fairy tale newspaper with news stories, obituaries, editorials and letters to the editor, advice columns ("Ask Mother Goose"), weddings and social events, sports news, and advertisements. (RL)

  20. Mother Goose in the ESL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeano, Karen

    Mother Goose is well suited to use in the elementary ESL classroom for several reasons. The stories appeal to children's imagination, adhering to the principle that a good story should have surprise value, interesting characters, meaningful conflict, action, and realism. The natural rhythms help develop English intonation, and the stories…

  1. Zoonotic Anatrichosomiasis in a Mother and Daughter

    PubMed Central

    Hellstein, John W.; Lanzel, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic anatrichosomiasis in a mother and daughter is reported. Both presented with a 10-week history of multiple painful oral ulcers. Biopsy specimens revealed the presence of small, coiled trichuroid nematodes with distinctive morphological features, including stichocytes and paired bacillary bands. This represents an unusual infection by a zoonotic Anatrichosoma species. PMID:24899034

  2. Female Bonding among Low Income Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy L.

    There has been much work on social networks and interpersonal worlds, but until recently little discussion of the unique aspects of women's networks. To examine the factors that constrain or facilitate such female bonding, 43 low-income urban mothers were interviewed. For these respondents, female bonding was a significant aspect of their lives.…

  3. Mother-infant cultural group selection.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, James S; Coall, David A; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Richerson et al. argue that "cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation." We believe that cooperation came first, making culture and thus cultural group selection possible. Cooperation and culture began - and begins - in mother-infant interaction. PMID:27562314

  4. Children and mothers at clinics: who is disturbed?

    PubMed Central

    Cundall, D B

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and eighty one white children aged 6 to 11 years who were attending medical outpatient clinics with their mothers were studied to assess the prevalence of psychological disturbance in the children, and anxiety and depression in the mothers. Teachers were also asked to assess the children independently using the Rutter scales. Mothers assessed 70 (39%) of the children as being disturbed, 20 of whom were also assessed as being disturbed by their teachers. A further 15 children were assessed as being disturbed by their teachers but not by their mothers. Thirty five (19%) of the mothers assessed themselves as anxious and two as depressed using the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Anxious and depressed mothers were significantly more likely to assess their child as being disturbed. In contrast, the teachers' assessments of the children were not affected by the mental state of the mothers. These findings confirm that mothers' perceptions of their children are modified by their own moods. PMID:3662587

  5. Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV during Childbirth

    MedlinePlus

    HIV and Pregnancy Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV During Childbirth (Last updated 8/17/2015; last ... the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV reduced during childbirth? During childbirth, women with HIV ...

  6. Self-Compassion: A Mentorship Framework for Counselor Educator Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Coralis; Barden, Sejal Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Counselor educators experience high levels of stress. Mothers in academia face an additional set of emotional stressors. The authors offer a self-compassion framework for mentors to increase emotional resilience of mothers in counselor education.

  7. More than Half of All Children Have Working Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Allyson Sherman

    1982-01-01

    Various statistics are reported concerning working mothers: age of children and mothers, divorce rate, type of family, race and ethnic origin, number of children in the family, and status of father. (CT)

  8. Effects of mothers' perceptions of children's competence: the moderating role of mothers' theories of competence.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Eva M; Dong, Wei

    2006-09-01

    There is much evidence that parents' perceptions of children's competence affect the development of children's academic functioning. In the current research, the possibility that this is moderated by parents' theories about the stability of competence was examined. In a 2-wave, 1-year study of 126 children (9 to 12 years old) and their mothers, children's academic functioning (i.e., grades, perceptions of competence, attributions for performance, and mastery orientation) and affective functioning (i.e., self-esteem and depressive symptoms) were examined. Among mothers with relatively high entity theories, their perceptions acted as self-fulfilling prophecies foreshadowing children's academic and affective functioning over time. However, among mothers with relatively low entity theories, mothers' perceptions did not predict children's academic and affective functioning.

  9. Effects of mothers' simulated withdrawal and depressed affect on mother-toddler interactions.

    PubMed

    Seiner, S H; Gelfand, D M

    1995-10-01

    Effects of enacted maternal withdrawal and depression were observed in a sample of 18-36-month-old children during counterbalanced brief (10-min) episodes of simulated depression and normal affect. As predicted, when mothers enacted withdrawal and depressed affect by becoming less positive, expressive, involved, talkative, and responsive, toddlers physically withdrew from them, made more negative physical bids for attention, and became more unfocused and generally negative. Children accepted their unresponsive mothers' infrequent interaction bids, but did not attempt to comfort them when they appeared depressed. In mothers' normal mood episodes, children were more positive, were never unfocused, and played closer to their mothers. As expected, toddlers reacted negatively to transitory maternal withdrawal and depressed affect, displaying their distress in a developmentally appropriate manner. PMID:7555227

  10. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation.

    PubMed

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2016-08-01

    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH. PMID:27083128

  11. Influence of a five-day vegetarian diet on urinary levels of antibiotics and phthalate metabolites: a pilot study with "Temple Stay" participants.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kyunghee; Lim Kho, Young; Park, Yoonsuk; Choi, Kyungho

    2010-05-01

    Diet is purported to be means of exposure to many environmental contaminants. The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of dietary change on the levels of exposure to several environmental chemicals - in particular, antibiotics and phthalates. For this purpose, we examined the extent to which short-term changes in diet influenced the inadvertent exposure levels to these chemicals in an adult population. We recruited participants (n=25) of a five-day 'Temple Stay' program in Korea and collected urine samples before and after the program. We also conducted a questionnaire survey on participants' dietary patterns prior to their participation. During the program, participants followed the daily routines of Buddhist monks and maintained a vegetarian diet. Urinary levels of three antibiotics and their major metabolites, metabolites of four major phthalates, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidative stress biomarker were analyzed. The frequency and levels of detection for antibiotics and phthalates noticeably decreased during the program. Urinary MDA levels were significantly lower than before program participation (0.16 versus 0.27mg/g creatinine). Although the exposure to target compounds might be influenced by other behavioral patterns, these results suggest that even short-term changes in dietary behavior may significantly decrease inadvertent exposure to antibiotics and phthalates and hence may reduce oxidative stress levels.

  12. Crawling and Walking Infants Elicit Different Verbal Responses from Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasik, Lana B.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined mothers' verbal responses to their crawling or walking infants' object sharing (i.e. bids). Fifty mothers and their 13-month-olds were observed for 1 hour at home. Infants bid from a stationary position or they bid after carrying the object to their mothers. Mothers responded with affirmations (e.g. "thank you"),…

  13. Got Milk? Breastfeeding and Milk Analysis of a Mother on Chronic Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Balzer, Michael S.; Gross, Mechthild M.; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Haller, Hermann; Schmitt, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Women on dialysis rarely become pregnant. However, the overall rate of successful pregnancies is increasing in this patient population and breastfeeding becomes an option for mothers on dialysis. In this study we performed a systematic breast milk composition analysis of a mother on chronic hemodialysis (HD). Methods Specimens of breast milk and blood were collected in regular intervals before and after HD from a 39-year old woman starting on day 10 postpartum. Samples were analyzed for electrolytes, retention solutes, nutrients and other laboratory measurements. Breast milk samples from low-risk mothers matched for postpartum age were used as controls. Results Significantly higher levels of creatinine and urea were found in pre-HD breast milk when compared to post-HD. A similar post-dialytic decrease was only found for uric acid but not for any other investigated parameter. Conversely, sodium and chloride were significantly increased in post-HD samples. Compared to controls creatinine and urea were significantly higher in pre-HD samples while the difference remained only significant for post-HD creatinine. Phosphate was significantly lower in pre- and post-HD breast milk when compared to controls, whereas calcium showed no significant differences. In terms of nutrient components glucose levels showed a strong trend for a decrease, whereas protein, triglycerides and cholesterol did not differ. Similarly, no significant differences were found in iron, potassium and magnesium content. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on a breastfeeding mother on chronic dialysis. Although we found differences in creatinine, urea, sodium, chloride and phosphate, our general analysis showed high similarity of our patient’s breast milk to samples from low-risk control mothers. Significant variations in breast milk composition between pre- and post-HD samples suggest that breastfeeding might be preferably performed after dialysis treatment. In

  14. Here's looking at you, kid: attention to infant emotional faces in mothers and non-mothers.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Booth, Chloe; Viding, Essi; Mayes, Linda C; Rutherford, Helena J V; Hodsoll, Sara; McCrory, Eamon J

    2014-01-01

    Infant facial cues play a critical role in eliciting care and nurturance from an adult caregiver. Using an attentional capture paradigm we investigated attentional processing of adult and infant emotional facial expressions in a sample of mothers (n = 29) and non-mothers (n = 37) to determine whether infant faces were associated with greater task interference. Responses to infant target stimuli were slower than adult target stimuli in both groups. This effect was modulated by parental status, such that mothers compared to non-mothers showed longer response times to infant compared to adult faces. Both groups also responded more slowly to emotional faces, an effect that was more marked for infant emotional faces. Finally, it was found that greater levels of mothers' self-reported parental distress was associated with less task interference when processing infant faces. These findings indicate that for adult women, infant faces in general and emotional infant faces in particular, preferentially engage attention compared to adult faces. However, for mothers, infant faces appear to be more salient in general. Therefore, infant faces may constitute a special class of social stimuli. We suggest that alterations in attentional processing in motherhood may constitute an adaptive behavioural change associated with becoming a parent.

  15. Longitudinal effects of contextual and proximal factors on mother-infant interactions among Brazilian adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Eva; DeSousa, Diogo; Koller, Silvia H; Volling, Brenda L

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent mothers often come from vulnerable backgrounds which might impact the quality of both maternal and infant behavior. Despite the negative impact of adolescent motherhood for maternal and infant behavior, social support may decrease the risks and promote maternal behavior toward the infant. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the effects of proximal (maternal behavior) and distal (mother's perceived social support) variables on infant development in a sample of Brazilian adolescent mothers and their infants. Thirty-nine adolescent mothers (Mage=17.26years; SD=1.71) were observed interacting with their infants at 3 and 6 months postpartum and reported on social support. Results revealed that maternal and infant behavior were associated within and across times. Mothers' perceived social support at 3 months had an indirect effect on infant behavior at 6 months, totally mediated by maternal behavior at 6 months. Our findings revealed the mutual influence between maternal and infant behavior, revealing a proximal process. The results also underscored the importance of the passage of time in the interplay between mother-infant interactions and their developmental context. PMID:27110652

  16. Single Mothers' Religious Participation and Early Childhood Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petts, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…

  17. Neonate-Mother Interaction during Breast-Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Evelyn B.; And Others

    Using a modified time-sampling procedure, 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous mothers were observed while breast-feeding their 48-hour old infants. In comparison with multiparous mothers, primiparous mothers (1) spend more time in non-feeding activities, (2) spend more time feeding male infants, (3) change activity more frequently, (4) provide more…

  18. Crawling and walking infants elicit different verbal responses from mothers.

    PubMed

    Karasik, Lana B; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Adolph, Karen E

    2014-05-01

    We examined mothers' verbal responses to their crawling or walking infants' object sharing (i.e. bids). Fifty mothers and their 13-month-olds were observed for 1 hour at home. Infants bid from a stationary position or they bid after carrying the object to their mothers. Mothers responded with affirmations (e.g. 'thank you'), descriptions ('red box'), or action directives ('open it'). Infants' locomotor status and the form of their bids predicted how mothers responded. Mothers of walkers responded with action directives more often than mothers of crawlers. Notably, differences in the responses of mothers of walkers versus those of crawlers were explained by differences in bid form between the two groups of infants. Walkers were more likely to engage in moving bids than crawlers, who typically shared objects from stationary positions. When crawlers displayed moving bids, their mothers offered action directives just as often as did mothers of walkers. Findings illustrate developmental cascades, wherein Infants' locomotor status affects how infants share objects with mothers, which in turn shapes mothers' verbal responses.

  19. Relation between Aspects of Mother's Personality and Children's Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaee, Ensiyeh; Jain, Sachin

    2009-01-01

    Mothers' health is one of the most important and fundamental issues which the officials of health and care and supreme education should address as an important and effective part in society's individuals lives. The necessity of having a healthy society is having healthy mothers and this health would not be verified unless mother enjoys mental…

  20. Working Models about Mother-Child Relationships in Abandoned Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Torres, Belen; Guerrero, Pilar Garcia-Calvo

    2000-01-01

    Sixty abandoned and 36 non-abandoned school-aged children were told six short stories about mother-child relationships. Abandoned children showed less positive affect attribution to the mother, more compliant behavior in the child, and more justification of the mother when her behaviors were unfair. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  1. Immigrant Latina Mothers' Participation in a Community Mathematization Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Craig

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows how Latina, immigrant mothers expanded their mathematical boundaries by participating in a community mathematization project. These mothers were not only participants, but also curriculum designers in collaboration with university researchers. By involving the mothers in the design of the project, researchers improved the…

  2. The Developmental Nature of Parental Awareness in Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, Louise H.; McSweeney, Maryellen

    Adolescent mothers display less frequent, accepting, and involved interaction with their children than do older mothers. Yet the role of the young mothers' psychosocial immaturity in these phenomena remains unexplained. This project explores the validity of Newberger's model of Parental Awareness (PA) which outlines hierarchical stages in the…

  3. Support Systems of Mothers of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinkanda, E. N.

    A study was conducted with a sample of 80 black mothers of mildly to profoundly mentally retarded children in the Pretoria, South Africa, townships of Atteridgeville and Mamelodi. The study sought to identify support systems utilized by the mothers, identify latent systems that could be supportive to the mothers, ascertain the extent to which…

  4. Communicatively Inhibiting Behaviors of Mothers with Language Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, W. Paul

    Four mothers and their language handicapped children (2-4 years old) were compared with four mothers and their normal language children. Mother-child interactions were tape recorded and analyzed for semantic, syntactic, and morphologic complexity. The normal language group had more sophisticated semantic, syntactic, and morphologic abilities than…

  5. The Preschool Home Literacy Environment Provided by Teenage Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an issue receiving a growing amount of attention in the United States, with approximately one million children born to teenage mothers annually. Teen mothers tend to function less effectively in numerous realms than their peers who delay child-rearing, and the children of teen mothers are at greater risk of school failure. In…

  6. Activities for Infant Stimulation or Mother-Infant Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Earladeen

    Specific suggestions are offered for mother-infant activities, sequenced according to developmental levels, which foster the physical and mental development of the infant and the socio-emotional relationship between mother and infant. The activities are intended for use by professionals, paraprofessionals, and mother-teacher aides who work with…

  7. Differences between Adolescent Mothers and Nonmothers: An Interview Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Susan Corona; Tidwell, Romeria

    1999-01-01

    Reports on in-depth interviews conducted with nine adolescent females, all residing in a licensed care institution. Four of them were already mothers, four were not mothers, and one was pregnant. Abuse, neglect, and family dysfunction were found to be more pronounced among the mothers and the pregnant adolescent. (Author/GCP)

  8. Relationships Between Neonatal Characteristics and Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Danzger, Barbara

    A total of 51 mothers and their newborn infants were studied in order to evaluate the relationship between neonatal style and the early mother-infant relationship. The procedure included an infant assessment with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale, a mother-infant interaction observation during feeding, and an interview concerning maternal…

  9. Neonatal Characteristics and Directional Effects in Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.

    This study of 134 mothers and their newborn infants evaluated the relationships between neonatal style and mother-infant interaction. The procedure included a newborn assessment with the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale and two mother-infant interaction observations, one carried out during feeding and the other during a semi-structured…

  10. The Lidcombe Program of Early Stuttering Intervention: Mothers Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhue, Rebecca; Onslow, Mark; Quine, Susan; O'Brian, Sue; Hearne, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The Lidcombe Program is a behavioral treatment for early stuttering which is implemented by parents, typically the mother. Despite this, there is limited detailed knowledge about mothers' experiences of administering the treatment. This article describes the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of 16 mothers during their…

  11. Guilt and Anxiety in Mothers with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mary J.; Friedle, James

    Guilt and anxiety in mothers of preschool children as a function of marital and career status, child care arrangements, and traditionalism were studied in a sample of 51 non-student women. The sample comprised four major groups: Group One mothers had an intact marriage and were at home with their children; Group Two mothers had an intact marriage,…

  12. Early Mother/Baby Contact: Consequences/Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorster, de Wet

    To assess the effect of early mother-infant proximity on later stress and behavior, two studies were made which involved a sample of mother-baby pairs that was larger than samples utilized in previous studies. In Study 1, involving 300 consecutive mother-baby couples at the Maternity Hospital in Plymouth, England clinical medical officers used a…

  13. Inmate Mothers Bonding with Their Children through Read-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potok, Carol

    2012-01-01

    On a recent Saturday morning, 20 inmate mothers filed into the prison chapel at Alabama's Tutwiler Prison to participate in a unique program--The Storybook Project, a program of Aid to Inmate Mothers (AIM). AIM is a nonprofit organization that helps mothers in prison stay in contact with their children during their incarceration. At the front of…

  14. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Challenges, Strategies, and Resources in Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Bingham, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined mothers' and fathers' parenting challenges and strategies/resources used when parenting toddlers. Through a qualitative interview protocol, implemented with mothers and fathers separately at a university laboratory, this study found that both fathers and mothers appeared to be transitioning from traditional gender roles towards…

  15. Explorations in High-Risk Stimulation: Two Modalities in Mothering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gochman, Eva R. Grubler; Aisenstein, Clara

    An exploratory study of high-risk mothers' interactions with their infants studied modalities of stimulation; vestibular and auditory. It was hypothesized that stimulation would be lower for non-paranoid than for paranoid types, and than for control mothers. Mothers recruited from inner city gynecological clinics were screened for probable…

  16. When Daughter's Sexual Abuse Is an Injury to Mother's Narcissism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePinho, Connie Maria

    The mother's reaction to the disclosure of sexual abuse is often dramatic and her particular type of response in turn affects the daughter's coping mechanisms to deal with the abuse and the disclosure. The type of symptoms developed are thus considered in part dependent on the mother's reaction. Mothers of children who have been sexually abused…

  17. Helping Mothers Discuss Sexuality and AIDS with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2000-01-01

    Examined impact of experimentally altering mothers' style when discussing sexuality and AIDS with adolescent children. Found that intervention group mothers reduced their amount of speaking, asked more open-ended questions, acted less judgmental, and discussed dating and sexuality more than did control group mothers. Intervention group adolescents…

  18. Marriage, Money, and African American Mothers' Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Johnston, Jamie S.; Murray, Carolyn B.; Varner, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital status and family income on the self-esteem of 292 African American mothers. Counter to previous studies with European American mothers, family income moderated the effects of marital status. Those mothers with higher family income had higher self-esteem, regardless of their marital status. For those with…

  19. Security Blanket or Mother: Which Benefits Linus during Pediatric Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybarra, Gabriel; Passman, Richard H.; Eisenberg, Carl S. L.

    This study compared the degree to which young children were placated during a standard medical evaluation by the presence of their mother, blanket, mother plus blanket, or no supportive agent. Participating were 64 three-year-olds who underwent 4 routine medical procedures. Children were rated by their mothers as attached or nonattached to…

  20. Pregnancy Problems, Postpartum Depression, and Early Mother-Infant Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Mothers observed at 3 to 5 months postpartum interacting with their infants were given attitude questionnaires. Mothers who had reported preganancy problems were more depressed and anxious and expressed more punitive childrearing attitudes than mothers not reporting pregnancy problems. (Author/NH)

  1. Korean Mothers' Proactive Socialisation Beliefs regarding Preschoolers' Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung-Yun; Cheah, Charissa S. L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the proactive socialisation beliefs (goals, attributions, strategies) of Korean mothers regarding preschoolers' social skills (sharing, controlling negative emotions, and helping others). Participants were 116 mothers in Seoul, Korea. The reasons that mothers provided for the importance of each…

  2. Crawling and walking infants elicit different verbal responses from mothers.

    PubMed

    Karasik, Lana B; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Adolph, Karen E

    2014-05-01

    We examined mothers' verbal responses to their crawling or walking infants' object sharing (i.e. bids). Fifty mothers and their 13-month-olds were observed for 1 hour at home. Infants bid from a stationary position or they bid after carrying the object to their mothers. Mothers responded with affirmations (e.g. 'thank you'), descriptions ('red box'), or action directives ('open it'). Infants' locomotor status and the form of their bids predicted how mothers responded. Mothers of walkers responded with action directives more often than mothers of crawlers. Notably, differences in the responses of mothers of walkers versus those of crawlers were explained by differences in bid form between the two groups of infants. Walkers were more likely to engage in moving bids than crawlers, who typically shared objects from stationary positions. When crawlers displayed moving bids, their mothers offered action directives just as often as did mothers of walkers. Findings illustrate developmental cascades, wherein Infants' locomotor status affects how infants share objects with mothers, which in turn shapes mothers' verbal responses. PMID:24314018

  3. Single versus Two Parent Families: A Comparison of Mothers' Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanik, Margaret Mietus; Mauldin, Teresa

    1986-01-01

    Studied time use by mothers in single- and two-parent families, with both employed and nonemployed mothers. Single, employed mothers have least amount of time to spend in most activities. Analysis of covariance and least square means were used to study and identify significant differences in household tasks, child care, volunteer time, personal…

  4. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  5. Young Mothers' Involvement in a Prenatal and Postpartum Support Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaoli; Korfmacher, Jon; Hans, Sydney L.; Henson, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    The involvement of 124 young mothers in a doula support program was measured in two dimensions--quantity of program contact and quality of mother-doula helping relationship. The study examined each dimension's differential associations with maternal outcomes, as well as the moderating effects of mother characteristics on these associations.…

  6. Natural Mentoring Relationships among Adolescent Mothers: A Study of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on natural mentoring relationships between nonparental adults and African American adolescent mothers. Data were collected from 93 adolescent mothers over 5 time points, starting in the adolescent mothers' senior year of high school and ending 5 years after high school. We found that having a natural mentor was related to fewer…

  7. Listening to Mothers' Voices: A Reporter's Guide to Family Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asayesh, Gelareh; And Others

    Prepared by the national professional association of education reporters, this publication contains five articles that emphasize stories about mothers' crucial roles in their children's literacy. Reporters in five different parts of the United States sought out and interviewed young mothers with school-age children. "An Overview: Mothers' Voices"…

  8. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  9. Cultivating a Guerrera Spirit in Latinas: The Praxis of Mothering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    In this article I argue that mothering in the home is an educational tool for creating positive self-agency in Latina girls. This essay articulates the ways in which my lived experiences as a Latina mother informs the socialization of "guerrera" girls. I engage in a process of "testimonio" to demonstrate how mothering, by using tools such as…

  10. Immigrant Parents' Involvement in American Schools: Perspectives from Korean Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Soomin; Wang, X. Christine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on their involvement in American schools. In-depth interviews were conducted with six mothers. The findings indicated that the Korean mothers confronted difficulties while contacting teachers and participating in school activities. These difficulties included…

  11. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the…

  12. Father, Mother, and Stranger as Elicitors of Attachment Behaviors in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Leslie Jordan; Campos, Joseph J.

    1974-01-01

    Fathers were compared to mothers and strangers as elicitors of attachment behavior in infants. Infants usually preferred their mothers as measured by length of time taken to approach mother and use of mother as secure base. (ST)

  13. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  14. Foster Mother-Infant Bonding: Associations between Foster Mothers' Oxytocin Production, Electrophysiological Brain Activity, Feelings of Commitment, and Caregiving Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Johanna; Dozier, Mary; Bernard, Kristin; Grasso, Damion; Simons, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the biological processes associated with foster mother-infant bonding. In an examination of foster mother-infant dyads ("N" = 41, mean infant age = 8.5 months), foster mothers' oxytocin production was associated with their expressions of behavioral delight toward their foster infant and their average P3 response to images of…

  15. Measuring Social Support from Mother Figures in the Transition from Pregnancy to Parenthood among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Social support for adolescent mothers, particularly from mother figures, can buffer risks and promote well-being. To date, no longitudinal research has investigated how the dimensions of social support may change during the transition from pregnancy to parenthood for adolescent mothers. This study examined stability and change in dimensions of…

  16. Mother-Infant Group Psychotherapy as an Intensive Treatment in Early Interaction among Mothers with Substance Abuse Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belt, Ritva; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present a novel method of outpatient care: brief, dynamic mother-infant group psychotherapy with mothers who have substance use problems. In this therapy, substance abuse treatment is part of mental health and parenting interventions. The focus is on preventing disturbance in the mother-infant relationship in this high-risk…

  17. Low-Income Mothers' Nighttime and Weekend Work: Daily Associations with Child Behavior, Mother-Child Interactions, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated low-income mothers' daily nighttime and weekend work and family outcomes. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children reported daily on work hours, mood, mother-child interaction, and child behavior for two weeks (N = 724 person-days). Although nighttime and weekend work are both nonstandard schedules, results showed…

  18. Mothers as Early Cognitive Trainers: Guiding Low-Income Mothers to Work with Their Pre-Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The Mother-Child Home Program was planned as a home-based, two-year cognitive intervention method. Women with varied incomes and education, both volunteer and paid, made 30-minute home visits twice weekly to help mothers become cognitive trainers of their own toddlers (starting at age two). Mother-child verbal interaction was stimulated with gifts…

  19. Effects of home visiting on adolescent mothers' parenting attitudes.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Burrow, Nicola A; Balamurugan, Appathurai; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Plummer, Pamela

    2012-10-01

    We examined the impact of a home visiting intervention on 227 adolescent mothers' parenting attitudes. At enrollment, half of mothers were at risk for child maltreatment. Mothers assigned to intervention (n = 161) received home visits and case management. Intervention and comparison mothers (n = 66) participated in monthly peer group meetings. Regression analyses controlling for enrollment differences indicated that intervention group mothers had significant improvements in 3 of 5 subscales and in total Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 scores relative to the comparison group.

  20. Nutritional Assessment of Newborns of HIV Infected Mothers.

    PubMed

    Gangar, J

    2009-04-01

    Nutritional status of 50 newborns born to HIV infected mothers in a tertiary care hospital was compared with that of babies born to HIV seronegative mothers, as assessed by birthweight, mid arm circumference to head circumference ratio (MAC/HC), ponderal index (PI), and clinical assessment of nutritional status (CAN) score. The incidence of malnutrition in babies born to HIV infected mothers was 36%, 82%, 20%, and 44% using birth weight, MAC/HC, PI, and CAN scores, respectively, compared to 10%, 56%, 8%, and 22% incidence in babies born to HIV seronegative mothers, respectively. Rate of fetal malnutrition was significantly more in babies born to HIV infected mothers. PMID:19213988

  1. Korean American mother and daughter communication on women's health topics.

    PubMed

    Park, Wansoo; Grindel, Cecelia Gatson

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore communication patterns about health behaviors and lifestyles between Korean mothers and daughters living in the United States. Demographic and general health information was also collected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Korean mother and daughter dyads. Korean mothers talked with their daughters about healthy diets and exercise but relied on daughters' schools to provide much of their daughters'health education information related to growth and developmental changes and women's health issues such as screening and HIV prevention practice. Intervention models to enhance mother/daughter health communication and to improve mothers' self care need to be investigated.

  2. State of the World's Mothers 2000. A Report by Save the Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Diana K., Ed.; Wessels, Renee, Ed.

    Noting that the well-being of children and that of mothers cannot be separated, this report provides information on the well-being of mothers worldwide. The report compares the status of mothers in 20 industrialized nations and in 86 developing countries, and creates a Mothers' Index measuring the overall status of mothers. The Mothers' Index is a…

  3. Cocaine use and the breastfeeding mother.

    PubMed

    Jones, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug. Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding may have severe consequences for the baby due to its pharmacokinetic properties. Midwives need to be aware of the prolonged action of cocaine and be alert to the possibility of cocaine toxicity if a baby is excessively irritable and tachycardic. Euphoric highs are brief but breast milk and urine remain positive for long periods. Infant urine following exposure to cocaine via breast milk may remain positive for up to 60 hours. Mothers who snort cocaine should pump and dump breast milk for 24-48 hours. Passive inhalation of crack cocaine smoke may also result in infants with positive toxicology screens. Cocaine powder should never be applied to the nipples of breastfeeding mothers. PMID:26310088

  4. Mercury in Alaskan Eskimo mothers and infants.

    PubMed

    Galster, W A

    1976-06-01

    The potential danger of natural mercury accumulation in the diet of the Eskimo is evaluated through mercury levels determined in cord blood, placenta, maternal blood, hair, and milk of 38 maternal-infant pairs from Anchorage and the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Although mercury levels are not discernably dangerous, trends to larger accumulations in maternal and fetal RBC and placental tissue with proximity to the sea and consumption of seals during pregnancy provide the basis for considering possible indicators of neonatal involvement. Mercury level in RBC from cord blood appeared as the best potential indicator of this involvement, although relationships with the mother's diet and level of mercury in the placenta also appear useful. In this area, average and maximal mercury levels in cord blood are 39 and 78 ng/ml, respectively, far below the acknowledged toxic level in infants of these mothers who eat seals or fish every day during their pregnancy.

  5. Intermittent kangaroo mother care: a NICU protocol.

    PubMed

    Davanzo, Riccardo; Brovedani, Pierpaolo; Travan, Laura; Kennedy, Jacqueline; Crocetta, Anna; Sanesi, Cecilia; Strajn, Tamara; De Cunto, Angela

    2013-08-01

    The practice of kangaroo mother care (KMC) is steadily increasing in high-tech settings due to its proven benefits for both infants and parents. In spite of that, clear guidelines about how to implement this method of care are lacking, and as a consequence, some restrictions are applied in many neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), preventing its practice. Based on recommendations from the Expert Group of the International Network on Kangaroo Mother Care, we developed a hospital protocol in the neonatal unit of the Institute for Maternal and Child Health in Trieste, Italy, a level 3 unit, aimed to facilitate and promote KMC implementation in high-tech settings. Our guideline is therefore proposed, based both on current scientific literature and on practical considerations and experience. Future adjustments and improvements would be considered based on increasing clinical KMC use and further knowledge.

  6. The neonatal nurse: advocating for breastfeeding mothers.

    PubMed

    Darby, Colm; Nurse, Sharon

    2016-02-01

    Accurate information and support from healthcare professionals as well as respect for parental choice are all factors which contribute to effective breastfeeding in the neonatal unit; with this in mind, Colm Darby and Sharon Nurse discuss the potential problems in expressing breast milk and the interventions which might be effective in avoiding them. Advocacy is an inherent part of neonatal nurses' role whilst caring for sick, vulnerable babies. Colm Darby is a male neonatal nurse working in a predominantly female environment and passionately believes in supporting and advocating for mothers who want to provide breast milk for their babies. In this article, CoIm uses Borton's model of reflection to discuss how he acted as an effective advocate for such a mother. PMID:27008754

  7. The neonatal nurse: advocating for breastfeeding mothers.

    PubMed

    Darby, Colm; Nurse, Sharon

    2016-02-01

    Accurate information and support from healthcare professionals as well as respect for parental choice are all factors which contribute to effective breastfeeding in the neonatal unit; with this in mind, Colm Darby and Sharon Nurse discuss the potential problems in expressing breast milk and the interventions which might be effective in avoiding them. Advocacy is an inherent part of neonatal nurses' role whilst caring for sick, vulnerable babies. Colm Darby is a male neonatal nurse working in a predominantly female environment and passionately believes in supporting and advocating for mothers who want to provide breast milk for their babies. In this article, CoIm uses Borton's model of reflection to discuss how he acted as an effective advocate for such a mother.

  8. Crazy making: embryos and gestational mothers.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1991-01-01

    Annas discusses the legal and public policy aspects of two 1990 in vitro fertilization cases. In Davis v. Davis, a Tennessee case involving disputed custody of frozen embryos in a divorce, an appellate court reversed a trial judge and ruled that the couple, not just the woman, should decide the disposition of the embryos. In Johnson v. Calvert, a surrogate mother in California failed to gain custody of the child she bore after gestating an embryo from the ovum and sperm of the couple who hired her. The judges in both cases based their decisions on the genetic relationship of the adult parties to the embryos or child. Annas is critical of determining parenthood exclusively on the basis of genes and argues for continuing the current legal presumption that a woman who gives birth to a child should be considered its legal mother. PMID:2004902

  9. German and Korean mothers' sensitivity and related parenting beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Ziehm, Jeanette; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias; Park, Seong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to a differentiated understanding of maternal sensitivity in cultural and situational context. We investigated differences and similarities in German and Korean mothers' maternal sensitivity. We interviewed 92 German and 100 Korean mothers of first graders about their preference for proactive (anticipating children's needs) or reactive sensitivity (responding to children's direct cues) in different scenarios. Related parenting beliefs were assessed by asking the mothers to explain the reasons why they would prefer specific parenting behaviors. Results revealed significant cultural differences in reactive vs. proactive sensitivity preferences. Overall, German mothers were more likely to indicate that a mother should respond reactively and less likely to report that a mother should act proactively than were Korean mothers. Korean mothers gave preference to both reactive and proactive sensitivity depending on the scenario. With regard to parenting beliefs, analyses revealed that German and Korean mothers who preferred reactive sensitivity mainly explained their choices as attempts to encourage children's development of independence. In contrast, Korean and German mothers with a preference for proactive sensitivity were more likely to report that mothers would assist their children due to their immaturity in dealing with emotional distress. Results are discussed in the framework of the different meanings and functions of maternal sensitivity for socialization in different cultural contexts. PMID:23986740

  10. Psychosocial adjustment in children of mothers with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoke, L A

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-five children of 28 mothers diagnosed with breast cancer during the previous year were compared to 34 children of 24 mothers with recent benign breast biopsies. Mothers and children, ages 8-16, completed questionnaires about mood, behavior problems and social functioning to assess whether children of mothers with breast cancer were at increased risk for adjustment problems. Significant differences were not found between children in the breast cancer group and the comparison group on any of the measures, even though mothers with breast cancer reported more psychological distress than mothers with benign biopsies. In addition, children in both groups were functioning better than normative samples on some adjustment measures. Variables measuring the mother's illness and treatment were not significantly related to children's adjustment in the breast cancer group. Findings suggested that some adolescents whose mothers had breast cancer did better in social and academic activities when their mothers were more distressed, while adolescents whose mothers had benign biopsies did less well when their mothers were distressed. The study's small sample size limits conclusions that can be drawn; however, clinical and research implications are discussed, given other reports that some children of parents with cancer may experience adjustment problems.

  11. Childhood Overweight Dependence on Mother-Child Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child’s health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized by the prototypes – between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children. PMID:26973939

  12. Psychological distress and milk volume in lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Pamela D; Aldag, Jean C; Chatterton, Robert T; Zinaman, Michael

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to compare psychological distress as measured via self-reported perceived stress, sleep, and fatigue levels in lactating mothers of a term infant and mothers of a preterm infant and(b) to determine whether the addition of psychological distress to a previous model predicts milk volume at Postpartum Week 6 by gestation group. The convenience sample of 95 mothers of a preterm infant (31 weeks) and 98 mothers of a term infant completed the Perceived Stress Visual Analogue Scale, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, and the Fatigue Visual Analog Scale. Stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue levels decreased during the 6-week study period for mothers of a term but not for mothers of a preterm infant. Perceived stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue during the first 6 weeks postpartum were not related to milk volume; thus, the mother's perceived psychological distress had no apparent effect on lactation. PMID:16157942

  13. How Accurate Can Mothers and Teachers Be regarding Children's Emergent Literacy Development? A Comparison between Mothers with High and Low Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between mothers' and educators' evaluation of 75 children's emergent literacy levels and actual levels were investigated. Two groups of mothers participated: mothers with a low education and mothers with a high education. The children's emergent literacy was measured. The mothers evaluated their own children and 40 teachers…

  14. Low-Income First-Time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Jean; Brooten, Dorothy; Page, Timothy; Galindo, Ali; Torres, Maritza

    2016-01-01

    Background. Low-income mothers have greater challenges in accessing health care services due changes in the health care system and budget cuts. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to test a nurse practitioner (NP) intervention using cell phone and texting on maternal/infant outcomes. Methods. The sample included 129 mother-infant pairs. Intervention group mothers received NP 2-way cell phone follow-up intervention post–hospital discharge for 6 months. Results. Intervention mothers’ perceived social support was significantly higher. Intervention infants received their first newborn follow-up visit significantly earlier (6 vs 9 days); significantly more infants were immunized at recommended times (2, 4, and 6 months of age); and there were fewer infant morbidities compared to controls. The intervention saved between $51 030 and $104 277 in health care costs averted. Conclusion. This easy-to-use, safe intervention is an effective way to reach a wide range of populations and demonstrated improved maternal/infant outcomes and decreased cost. PMID:27508211

  15. Re-searching the schizophrenogenic mother.

    PubMed

    Parker, G

    1982-08-01

    Numerous studies of schizophrenics have defined a dominant, overprotective but basically rejecting mother as the schizophrenogenic mother of the literature. While such a maternal style has been incriminated as a causal influence on the development of schizophrenia and/or a response to schizophrenia or prodromal schizophrenic disturbance in a child, case-control studies raise doubt as to whether such a maternal style is over-represented at all in the families of schizophrenics. The present paper reviews the evolution of the concept and its critical evaluation, principally by American workers, and then attempts to integrate that research with British studies of expressed emotion. The British studies have looked principally a the course, rather than at the onset, of schizophrenic disturbance and demonstrated that exposure to high levels of expressed emotion in a key relative is predictive of schizophrenic relapse. The review suggests that the key components of expressed emotion--critical comments and overinvolvement--parallel the rejecting and overprotective characteristics imputed to the schizophrenogenic mother of the literature. While expressed emotion has been shown to predict relapse, causality has not, as yet, been demonstrated and several noncausal links are explored. As such research has the potential to promote key advances in the clinical management of schizophrenic patients, the review attempts to draw attention to the way in which findings from the regions complement each other. PMID:7097262

  16. Mothers Make a Difference: Mothers Develop Weaker Bonds with Immature Sons than Daughters

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Lars; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Among mammals, individuals form strong social bonds preferentially with their kin. Differences in these relationships are linked to differential kin availability due to sex-specific dispersal patterns, but there is some indication that differential bonding among sexes already occurs prior to maturation. However, little is known about how these patterns arise during individual development. Here we investigated sex differences in the development of mother-offspring bonds in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our results revealed that mothers showed sex-biased bonding toward their offspring. Sons had a distinctly higher probability of receiving aggression from their mothers than did daughters in the first year of life, while no differences were found with respect to affiliative interactions. After the first year, probabilities of all affiliative and aggressive behaviours investigated were higher for daughters than for sons, although generally declining. Furthermore, sons spending less time with their mother and receiving more maternal aggression tended to disperse earlier. The results of our study suggest that mothers influence their bonding strength with offspring by interacting less affiliative with sons than daughters. PMID:27191403

  17. Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.

  18. Mothers Make a Difference: Mothers Develop Weaker Bonds with Immature Sons than Daughters.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Lars; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Among mammals, individuals form strong social bonds preferentially with their kin. Differences in these relationships are linked to differential kin availability due to sex-specific dispersal patterns, but there is some indication that differential bonding among sexes already occurs prior to maturation. However, little is known about how these patterns arise during individual development. Here we investigated sex differences in the development of mother-offspring bonds in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our results revealed that mothers showed sex-biased bonding toward their offspring. Sons had a distinctly higher probability of receiving aggression from their mothers than did daughters in the first year of life, while no differences were found with respect to affiliative interactions. After the first year, probabilities of all affiliative and aggressive behaviours investigated were higher for daughters than for sons, although generally declining. Furthermore, sons spending less time with their mother and receiving more maternal aggression tended to disperse earlier. The results of our study suggest that mothers influence their bonding strength with offspring by interacting less affiliative with sons than daughters. PMID:27191403

  19. Health and development of mothers through system of ICDS.

    PubMed

    Yajnik, N D

    1993-01-01

    In order to accelerate welfare and nutrition programs for women and children in tribal, hilly, and backward areas of India, the government of India has accepted the National Program of Integrated Services. Delivery of these services is coordinated by the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS). The package of services for prenatal women include physical and obstetrical exams; serial recording of weight, blood pressure, hemoglobin, and urinalysis; tetanus immunization; iron (60 mg) and folic acid (.5 mg) tablets; food supplements; identification and referral of high-risk mothers; and health education on antenatal care, breast feeding, child rearing, and family planning. Postnatal women received 2 home visits within 10 days of delivery and make 1 visit after 1 month of delivery. These visits cover general health, breast feeding, delivery records, infant health, and birth control measures. Food supplementation continues for nursing mothers. All women 15-44 years of age receive health and nutrition education. Specially organized courses, campaigns, home visits by anganwadi workers, cooking demonstrations, and mass media emphasize simple messages regarding health and nutrition. Areas that are covered include family welfare; antenatal, intranatal, and postnatal care; breast feeding; immunization; prevention of such common communicable diseases as malaria, tuberculosis, and leprosy; weaning and supplementary feeding; improvement of children's nutritional status; balanced diet; food storage, preparation, cooking, and serving; eye and ear care; personal and environmental hygiene; sanitation; management of acute respiratory infections; management of diarrhea; and control and treatment of internal parasites. The mobile food and extension units of the Department of Food are utilized. Pregnant and nursing mothers belonging to families of landless agricultural laborers, of marginal farmers, of the scheduled caste, of the scheduled tribe, and of poorer sections of the

  20. Mothers' reading skills and child survival in Nigeria: examining the relevance of mothers' decision-making power.

    PubMed

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2013-11-01

    Mothers' literacy skills are emerging as a key determinant of children's health and survival in low-income contexts, with emphasis on the cognitive and psychological agency that literacy skills provide. This work has clearly established a strong association between mothers' reading skills--a key subcomponent of broader literacy and language skills--and child mortality. However, this relatively nascent literature has not yet considered how broader social structures condition the process. In Nigeria and in sub-Saharan Africa more broadly, gender-based social inequality constrains many mothers' decision-making power over children's health matters; this structural feature may condition the association between mothers' reading skills and child mortality. This paper uses data from the 2003 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (N = 12,076) to test the conditionality of the relationship between mothers' reading skills and child survival on mothers' decision-making power, highlighting how structural realities should factor more heavily into this individual-action-oriented literature. Among Nigerian children whose mothers have decision-making power, mothers' reading skills convey a 27 percent lower risk of child mortality; however, for children whose mothers lack decision-making power, mothers' reading skills do not yield a significant survival advantage. Overall, these findings support the need for future work to further analyze how broader social structures condition the benefits of mothers' reading skills for children's health.

  1. Ketone body metabolism in the mother and fetus.

    PubMed

    Shambaugh, G E

    1985-04-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by a rapid accumulation of lipid stores during the first half of gestation and a utilization of these stores during the latter half of gestation. Lipogenesis results from dietary intake, an exaggerated insulin response, and an intensified inhibition of glucagon release. Increasing levels of placental lactogen and a heightened response of adipose tissue to additional lipolytic hormones balance lipogenesis in the fed state. Maternal starvation in late gestation lowers insulin, and lipolysis supervenes. The continued glucose drain by the conceptus aids in converting the maternal liver to a ketogenic organ, and ketone bodies produced from incoming fatty acids are not only utilized by the mother but cross the placenta where they are utilized in several ways by the fetus: as a fuel in lieu of glucose; as an inhibitor of glucose and lactate oxidation with sparing of glucose for biosynthetic disposition; and for inhibition of branched-chain ketoacid oxidation, thereby maximizing formation of their parent amino acids. Ketone bodies are widely incorporated into several classes of lipids including structural lipids as well as lipids for energy stores in fetal tissues, and may inhibit protein catabolism. Finally, it has recently been shown that ketone bodies inhibit the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines in fetal rat brain slices. Thus during maternal starvation ketone bodies may maximize chances for survival both in utero and during neonatal life by restraining cell replication and sustaining protein and lipid stores in fetal tissues.

  2. Proline: Mother Nature;s cryoprotectant applied to protein crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Pemberton, Travis A.; Still, Brady R.; Christensen, Emily M.; Singh, Harkewal; Srivastava, Dhiraj; Tanner, John J.

    2012-09-05

    L-Proline is one of Mother Nature's cryoprotectants. Plants and yeast accumulate proline under freeze-induced stress and the use of proline in the cryopreservation of biological samples is well established. Here, it is shown that L-proline is also a useful cryoprotectant for protein crystallography. Proline was used to prepare crystals of lysozyme, xylose isomerase, histidine acid phosphatase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase for low-temperature data collection. The crystallization solutions in these test cases included the commonly used precipitants ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol and spanned the pH range 4.6-8.5. Thus, proline is compatible with typical protein-crystallization formulations. The proline concentration needed for cryoprotection of these crystals is in the range 2.0-3.0 M. Complete data sets were collected from the proline-protected crystals. Proline performed as well as traditional cryoprotectants based on the diffraction resolution and data-quality statistics. The structures were refined to assess the binding of proline to these proteins. As observed with traditional cryoprotectants such as glycerol and ethylene glycol, the electron-density maps clearly showed the presence of proline molecules bound to the protein. In two cases, histidine acid phosphatase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, proline binds in the active site. It is concluded that L-proline is an effective cryoprotectant for protein crystallography.

  3. Mother-infant interactions of teen-age mothers as measured at six months in a natural setting.

    PubMed

    Landy, S; Clark, C; Schubert, J; Jillings, C

    1983-11-01

    Mother-infant interaction of 14 teen-age mothers and their six-month-old infants was observed in the home and compared with that of 12 women 20 years or older and their infants. A further group was designated a "noncontact" group and was seen only at the beginning and end of the first year and was a control for research intervention or experimenter effects. Teen-agers showed few significant differences from older mothers in their mothering skills as measured by simple frequency distributions of individual behaviors and social interaction. Transitional probabilities and flow of interaction matrixes also revealed few significant differences. Like previous studies, the present study found that teen-age mothers showed high warmth and physical interaction but low verbal interaction with their infants. Support of the mothers through experience in the observational sessions may have influenced the results. The possibility is noted of differences in patterns of mothering as the infant develops. PMID:6644628

  4. Mother-infant interactions of teen-age mothers as measured at six months in a natural setting.

    PubMed

    Landy, S; Clark, C; Schubert, J; Jillings, C

    1983-11-01

    Mother-infant interaction of 14 teen-age mothers and their six-month-old infants was observed in the home and compared with that of 12 women 20 years or older and their infants. A further group was designated a "noncontact" group and was seen only at the beginning and end of the first year and was a control for research intervention or experimenter effects. Teen-agers showed few significant differences from older mothers in their mothering skills as measured by simple frequency distributions of individual behaviors and social interaction. Transitional probabilities and flow of interaction matrixes also revealed few significant differences. Like previous studies, the present study found that teen-age mothers showed high warmth and physical interaction but low verbal interaction with their infants. Support of the mothers through experience in the observational sessions may have influenced the results. The possibility is noted of differences in patterns of mothering as the infant develops.

  5. a Comparison Between Chemically Dependent Mothers and Drug-Free Mothers: Lifestyle during the Perinatal Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uskokovic, Lila Milica

    This study compared maternal lifestyle variables pertinent to the perinatal period in groups of chemically dependent mothers and drug-free mothers. Twenty-nine cocaine -abusing mothers were compared to 29 drug-free mothers carefully matched on age, race, education, and primipara versus multipara status. The drug history of each chemically dependent woman was explicitly documented. The chemically dependent group was subdivided into two groups, mothers who abused cocaine and those who abused cocaine with concomitant opiate use. Each of these two subgroups was compared to its respective matched drug-free control group. Finally, a comparison was made between the two drug subgroups. All subjects were interviewed within 48 hours after delivery using the following measures: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (A-State), Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale, The Self-Esteem Scale, Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitude Questionnaire, The Neonatal Perception Inventory, The Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Events Scale, Maternal Social Support Index, and Short Marital Adjustment Test. A t-test analysis revealed significant differences (p <.05) between the total experimental group and its matched control group on state anxiety, depression, self-esteem, maternal adjustment and attitudes, and life events. An analysis of covariance indicated that life events was the only significant variable when the influence of all other variables was removed. Comparisons made between each drug subgroup and its respective matched control group showed similar results, except that those who abused opiates with cocaine did not differ from their controls on depression and maternal adjustment and attitudes. No significant differences were obtained in the drug subgroup comparisons. These results identify increased life events and specific negative affect states that clinical intervention programs should address to assure the best possible outcome for chemically dependent

  6. Interactions between Turkish mothers and preschool children with autism.

    PubMed

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the Maternal Behavior Rating Scale and the Child Behavior Rating Scale (O. Diken, 2009 ). Similar to mothers from Western countries, Turkish mothers tended to engage in highly directive interactions with their children. However, a cluster analysis revealed considerable variability in mothers' style of interaction. This included a directive nonengaged style, a directive/achievement-oriented style, and a responsive style of interaction. Children's level of engagement was associated with differences in mothers' style of interaction. Children were least engaged with directive/nonengaged mothers and most engaged with responsive mothers. However, children's engagement was only associated with their mothers' responsiveness, not with their directiveness. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for early intervention.

  7. Effects of sugar ingestion expectancies on mother-child interactions.

    PubMed

    Hoover, D W; Milich, R

    1994-08-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that commonly reported negative effects of sugar on children's behavior may be due to parental expectancies. A challenge study design was employed, in which thirty-five 5- to 7-year-old boys reported by their mothers to be behaviorally "sugar sensitive," and their mothers, were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, mothers were told their children had received a large dose of sugar, whereas in the control condition mothers were told their sons received a placebo; all children actually received the placebo (aspartame). Mothers and sons were videotaped while interacting together and each mother was then questioned about the interaction. Mothers in the sugar expectancy condition rated their children as significantly more hyperactive. Behavioral observations revealed these mothers exercised more control by maintaining physical closeness, as well as showing trends to criticize, look at, and talk to their sons more than did control mothers. For several variables, the expectancy effect was stronger for cognitively rigid mothers.

  8. Is miR-34a a Well-equipped Swordsman to Conquer Temple of Molecular Oncology?

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Fayyaz, Sundas; Shatynska-Mytsyk, Iryna; Javed, Zeeshan; Jabeen, Saima; Yaylim, Ilhan; Gasparri, Maria Luisa; Panici, Pierluigi Benedetti

    2016-03-01

    Overwhelmingly increasing advancements in miRNA biology have opened new avenues for pharmaceutical companies to initiate studies on designing effective, safe, and therapeutically active candidates using miRNA mimetics and miRNA inhibitors. In accordance with this approach, development of miravirsen and SPC3649, an LNA-based (locked nucleic acid) antisense molecule against miR-122, to treat hepatitis C has sparked interest in identifying most efficient microRNAs for journey from bench-top toward pharmaceutical industry and breakthroughs in delivery technology will pave the way to 'final frontier'. MRX34, a liposome-formulated mimic of miR-34 for treatment of metastatic cancer with liver involvement and unresectable primary liver cancer, has also entered in clinical trial. There is a successive increase in the research work related to miR-34 biology and miRNA regulation of modulators of intracellular signaling cascades. We partition this review into how miR-34a is regulated by different proteins and how Wnt- and TGF-induced intracellular signaling cascades are modulated by miR-34a. In this review, we bring to limelight how miR-34a regulates its target genes to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation as evidenced by in vitro and in vivo analysis. We also discuss miR-34 regulation of PDGFR and c-MET and recent advancements in nanotechnologically delivered miR-34a. Spotlight is also set on modulation of chemotherapeutic sensitivity by miR-34a in cancer cells using reconstruction studies. Clinical trial of miR-34 is indicative of its tremendous potential, and continuous cutting research will prove to be effective in efficiently translating laboratory findings into clinically effective therapeutics. PMID:26259537

  9. RFC-1 80G>A Polymorphism in Case-Mother/Control-Mother Dyads Is Associated with Risk of Nephroblastoma and Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Montalvão-de-Azevedo, Rafaela; Vasconcelos, Gisele M.; Vargas, Fernando R.; Thuler, Luiz Claudio; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Embryonic tumors are associated with an interruption during normal organ development; they may be related to disturbances in the folate pathway involved in DNA synthesis, methylation, and repair. Prenatal supplementation with folic acid is associated with a decreased risk of neuroblastoma, brain tumors, retinoblastoma, and nephroblastoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR rs1801133 (C677T) and RFC-1 rs1051266 (G80A) genotypes with the risk of developing nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma. Materials and Methods: Case-mother/control-mother dyad study. Samples from Brazilian children with nephroblastoma (n=80), neuroblastoma (n=66), healthy controls (n=453), and their mothers (case n=93; control n=75) were analyzed. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells and/or buccal cells and genotyped to identify MTHFR C677T and RFC-1 G80A polymorphisms. Differences in genotype distribution between patients and controls were tested by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Risk for nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma was two- to fourfold increased among children with RFC-1 polymorphisms. An increased four- to eightfold risk for neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma was seen when the child and maternal genotypes were combined. Conclusion: Our results suggest that mother and child RFC-1 G80A genotypes play a role on the risk of neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma since this polymorphism may impair the intracellular levels of folate, through carrying fewer folate molecules to the cell interior, and thus, the intracellular concentration is not enough to maintain regular DNA synthesis and methylation pathways. PMID:25536437

  10. Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents.

  11. Comparison of growth and nutritional evolution stages in infants with working mothers and infants with housewife mothers in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Behzad; Golshiri, Parasto; Saleki, Azam; Isfagani, Motahereh Rabar; Najimi, Arash

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that the growth status of the children with working mothers is about 2 standard deviations lower than that of the children of housewife mothers. It seems that absence of mothers in the second stage of nutritional evolution (attachment), which is a very sensitive stage, has an important role in initiating and continuation of an appropriate supplemental feeding. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 50 children of working mothers and 50 children of housewife mothers were selected by non-probable consecutive sampling method. Growth charts of the children in the two studied groups were assessed within seven age groups. Knowledge and attitude of the mothers regarding nutritional evolution stages in the two studied groups were assessed Obtained data were analyzed using Software SPSS18 and statistical tests such as chi-square, t-test, and Mann–Whitney test. Results: Growth monitoring charts of the infants with housewife mothers were better than those of infants with working mothers in three out of seven age groups (12–18, 18–24, and 24–30 months) (P=0.02). Mean of knowledge and performance of the mothers about nutritional evolution stages was not significant in the two studied groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that growth status of children with housewife mothers in their second year of life was better than that of children with working mothers. Awareness and knowledge of the mothers about nutritional evolution stages and education of mothers about appropriate behaviors in each stage helped them to recognize the children's needs and did their best for their children. PMID:23555119

  12. Proline: Mother Nature’s cryoprotectant applied to protein crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Pemberton, Travis A.; Still, Brady R.; Christensen, Emily M.; Singh, Harkewal; Srivastava, Dhiraj; Tanner, John J.

    2012-08-01

    The amino acid l-proline is shown to be a good cryoprotectant for protein crystals. Four examples are provided; the range of proline used for cryoprotection is 2.0–3.0 M. l-Proline is one of Mother Nature’s cryoprotectants. Plants and yeast accumulate proline under freeze-induced stress and the use of proline in the cryopreservation of biological samples is well established. Here, it is shown that l-proline is also a useful cryoprotectant for protein crystallography. Proline was used to prepare crystals of lysozyme, xylose isomerase, histidine acid phosphatase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase for low-temperature data collection. The crystallization solutions in these test cases included the commonly used precipitants ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol and spanned the pH range 4.6–8.5. Thus, proline is compatible with typical protein-crystallization formulations. The proline concentration needed for cryoprotection of these crystals is in the range 2.0–3.0 M. Complete data sets were collected from the proline-protected crystals. Proline performed as well as traditional cryoprotectants based on the diffraction resolution and data-quality statistics. The structures were refined to assess the binding of proline to these proteins. As observed with traditional cryoprotectants such as glycerol and ethylene glycol, the electron-density maps clearly showed the presence of proline molecules bound to the protein. In two cases, histidine acid phosphatase and 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, proline binds in the active site. It is concluded that l-proline is an effective cryoprotectant for protein crystallography.

  13. The relationship between mothers' thin-ideal and children's drive for thinness: A survey of Japanese early adolescents and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yoko; Omori, Mika

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association of mothers' thin-ideal internalization and children's drive for thinness. Early adolescents (175 girls and 198 boys) completed a questionnaire to assess their drive for thinness and perceptions of mothers' attitudes and behaviors related to body shape. The questionnaire for mothers (n = 206) measured mothers' thin-ideal internalization. Mothers' thin-ideal internalization was associated with girls' drive for thinness through the perception of mothers' attitudes directed to girls, and with boys' drive for thinness through mothers' weight-loss behavior. The findings suggest the possibility that mothers transmit social standards on body shape to their children.

  14. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Oburu, Paul Odhiambo

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The present study examined differences and similarities between Kenyan mothers and fathers in attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. Design Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 100 two-parent families in Kenya. Results Mothers were more likely to make attributions regarding adult-controlled failure in caregiving situations than were fathers, but mothers and fathers did not differ on attributions regarding uncontrollable success, child-controlled failure, or authoritarian or progressive attitudes. Moderate to large correlations were found between mothers and fathers in terms of attributions regarding uncontrollable success, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes. Conclusions Kenyan mothers and fathers hold very similar attributions for success and failures in caregiving situations as well as parenting attitudes. PMID:21927588

  15. Dissociative Symptoms and Mother's Marital Status in Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Selesova, Petra; Raboch, Jiri; Kukla, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Current findings suggest that mother's marital status indicating father's absence or conflicting relationship to father may be specifically related to dissociation and other stress-related symptoms. We have assessed relationships of mother's marital status, dissociative symptoms, and other psychopathological manifestations in a sample of 19 years’ old young adults (N = 364) participating in European longitudinal study (European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood). The results show clinically significant manifestations of dissociative symptoms in young adult men whose mothers were fatherless and in women whose mothers were re-married. Other psychopathological symptoms did not reach clinically significant manifestations. The results suggest that significant factor related to high level of dissociative symptoms in men growing in fatherless families might be linked with disturbed and conflicting attachment to a father's figure and pathological dependent attachment to mother. In women dissociative symptoms likely are linked to conflicting relationship between mother and daughter associated with stepfather’ presence in the family. PMID:25590849

  16. Time allocation of the mother and child nutrition.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B M

    1980-01-01

    The effects of labor force participation of mothers on dietary and time inputs into child care, as well as the resultant impact on the nutritional status of children from 34 rural barios in Laguna, Philippines, are examined. Rural mothers who engage in market activities especially in jobs incompatible with child care, are shown to reduce the time they devote to leisure and child care. Child care provided by older-sibling mother substitutes replaces a part of the mother's reduced child care time. Mothers who engage in market activities are able to provide their children with more calories and protein in relation to their needs. Analysis showed, however, that the intrahousehold time substitutions have net negative effects on the average nutritional status of children ages 1-71 months in each rural household. The results of this study are compatible with other studies which indicate potential conflicts between the mother's participation in market work and child nutrition.

  17. Specificity of infants' response to mothers' affective behavior.

    PubMed

    Cohn, J F; Tronick, E

    1989-03-01

    Mother-infant face-to-face interaction is central to infant socioemotional development. Little has been known about the mechanisms that mediate the mother's influence. Findings are reviewed from a series of laboratory studies that suggest the major functional components of a mother's behavior are its affective quality and its contingent relationship to her baby's behavior. Quality of mother's affective expression accounted for individual differences in the behavior of thirteen 7-month-old infants living in multiproblem families. Infants' response was specific to the type of affective expression mothers displayed. Flat, withdrawn maternal affective expression was associated with infant distress. Intrusive maternal expression was associated with increased gaze aversion. Lack of contingent responsiveness was common to all but four mothers. Findings suggest that withdrawn or intrusive maternal affective expression, together with lack of contingent responsiveness, may in part be responsible for the risk-status of infants in multiproblem families.

  18. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  19. One born every minute: mothers' performance anxiety.

    PubMed

    Otley, Henrietta

    2012-02-01

    The majority of women in the UK will give birth in hospital, and Channel 4's latest series of One born every minute continues to give a realistic representation of what women can expect during labour. Henrietta Otley believes that the programme--now in its third series--has been invaluable to many couples because it demystifies the delivery suite setting and it has familiarised the public at large with the birth process. She wonders, however, whether watching women labour on television may have heightened the performance anxiety that many mothers feel during labour, making women even more self conscious about how they should act while giving birth. PMID:22720447

  20. Breast-feeding and the Working Mother

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Verity H.; Grams, Garry D.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the resurgent popularity and known benefits of breast-feeding, most Canadian women do not consider the possibility of continuing breast-feeding when they return to work. This paper examines the reasons why many women make this choice, and what factors are involved in continuing to breast-feed. The long-range goal of our society should be to increase the percentage of mothers who continue to breast-feed their babies until at least six months of age, and to increase the percentage of places of employment where it is possible for an employee to continue to breast-feed after returning to work. PMID:21274179

  1. Mothers, domestic violence, and child protection.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Heather; Walsh, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    This article explores the relationship between understandings of domestic violence and the child protection response drawing on material gathered in focus groups with workers who support mothers dealing with both domestic violence and child protection issues. The interviewees expressed concern that the dynamics of domestic violence are often misunderstood and inappropriately responded to by child protection workers. This article critically examines the interviewees' concerns and concludes that to properly protect children, it is crucial that child protection workers have a clear understanding of the dynamics of and issues related to domestic violence.

  2. Case Report of Sepsis in Neonates Fed Expressed Mother's Milk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sandra L; Serke, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Mother's milk is the recommended food for premature infants cared for in the NICU. In the cases presented in this article, mothers pumped their milk into food-grade aseptic plastic containers. Milk was refrigerated before use. In Case 1, an infant developed Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis. In Case 2, an infant developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Both cases were attributed to contaminated mother's milk. Proper cleaning and sterilization of pump parts is essential to prevent milk contamination. PMID:27486089

  3. Educational Leaders Who Are Mothers: The Negotiation of Their Roles as School Leader and Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldur, Stephanie E.

    2009-01-01

    Women who work outside the home have two jobs: their workplace responsibilities and their home duties. Like working mothers in other fields, school administrators have the challenge of negotiating their rigorous jobs, often while running a household. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of female school administrators who are…

  4. Early social exposure in wild chimpanzees: Mothers with sons are more gregarious than mothers with daughters

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Carson M.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Stanton, Margaret A.; Wellens, Kaitlin R.; Miller, Jordan A.; Goodall, Jane; Pusey, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    In many mammals, early social experience is critical to developing species-appropriate adult behaviors. Although mother–infant interactions play an undeniably significant role in social development, other individuals in the social milieu may also influence infant outcomes. Additionally, the social skills necessary for adult success may differ between the sexes. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), adult males are more gregarious than females and rely on a suite of competitive and cooperative relationships to obtain access to females. In fission–fusion species, including humans and chimpanzees, subgroup composition is labile and individuals can vary the number of individuals with whom they associate. Thus, mothers in these species have a variety of social options. In this study, we investigated whether wild chimpanzee maternal subgrouping patterns differed based on infant sex. Our results show that mothers of sons were more gregarious than mothers of daughters; differences were especially pronounced during the first 6 mo of life, when infant behavior is unlikely to influence maternal subgrouping. Furthermore, mothers with sons spent significantly more time in parties containing males during the first 6 mo. These early differences foreshadow the well-documented sex differences in adult social behavior, and maternal gregariousness may provide sons with important observational learning experiences and social exposure early in life. The presence of these patterns in chimpanzees raises questions concerning the evolutionary history of differential social exposure and its role in shaping sex-typical behavior in humans. PMID:25422411

  5. Mothers, Workers and Students: Examining the Experiences of Single Mothers Transferring from Community Colleges into Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Emily Erin Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Single parent households are on the rise, and female headed households are more likely to live in poverty than other single parent households (Holyfield, 2002). Many single mothers who do not have an undergraduate degree see education as a way out of poverty (Holyfield, 2002; Heller & Bjorklund, 2004). This research was undertaken to highlight…

  6. When Children Have Two Mothers: Relationships with Nonresident Mothers, Stepmothers, and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Valarie

    2007-01-01

    Using data on 294 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health who live with a biological father and have both a resident stepmother and a nonresident biological mother, this study examines the prevalence, antecedents, and consequences of adolescents' closeness to each of their parents. Findings demonstrate that…

  7. A Mother and a Friend: Differences in Japanese and Swedish Mothers' Understanding of a Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Mauritzson, Ulla; Carlsson, Maj Asplund; Ueda, Miyoko

    1998-01-01

    Examined Swedish and Japanese mothers' understanding of the story, "The Giving Tree," by Shel Silverstein, and possible effects of how their conceptions relate to social and cultural experiences in each society. Found six qualitatively different conceptions, related to differences in age and differences in cultural background. (JPB)

  8. The Truths of Our Mothers' Lives: Mother-Daughter Relationships in Black Women's Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade-Gayles, Gloria

    1984-01-01

    Argues that depictions of Black mother-daughter relationships in American literature are rare and often negatively stereotyped. Focuses on five novels said to reveal these relationships in realistic complexity: Dorothy West's "The Living Is Easy," Paule Marshall's "Brown Girl, Brownstones," Toni Morrison's "Sula" and "The Bluest Eye," and Alice…

  9. Political Mothering: Latina and African American Mothers in the Struggle for Educational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the process and impact of women organizing for educational justice in Northern California by documenting the efforts of a committed group of mothers who sought to address the disproportionate underachievement of Latino and African American students within their city's high school. Using a combined methodology of…

  10. What Do Mothers Say? Korean Mothers' Perceptions of Children's Participation in Extra-Curricular Musical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eun

    2015-01-01

    A recent study of Korean middle-class mothers' perceptions and parenting practices associated with children's participation in musical activities reported unique forms of musical parenting, which closely correspond with previous studies of concerted cultivation in Western middle-class families. Are these unique patterns exclusive to middle-class…

  11. Effects of Mothers' Perceptions of Children's Competence: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Theories of Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Eva M.; Dong, Wei

    2006-01-01

    There is much evidence that parents' perceptions of children's competence affect the development of children's academic functioning. In the current research, the possibility that this is moderated by parents' theories about the stability of competence was examined. In a 2-wave, 1-year study of 126 children (9 to 12 years old) and their mothers,…

  12. Divorced mothers' coparental boundary maintenance after parents repartner.

    PubMed

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn; Jamison, Tyler; Feistman, Richard

    2015-04-01

    When divorced parents remarry or cohabit with new partners, it is challenging to maintain functional postdivorce coparenting systems. In this grounded theory study of 19 divorced mothers, we examined the processes by which they maintained boundaries around coparental relationships after 1 or both coparents had repartnered. Mothers saw themselves as captains of the coparenting team, making decisions about who should play what roles in parenting their children. They viewed themselves as having primary responsibility for their children, and they saw their children's fathers as important coparenting partners. Mothers used a variety of strategies to preserve boundaries around the coparental subsystem when either they or their ex-husbands repartnered. Stepparents became more active participants in coparenting when: (a) mothers perceived them to be adequate caregivers, (b) biological parents were able to cooperatively coparent, (c) mothers perceived the fathers as good parents and responsible fathers, and (d) mothers felt secure as the primary parents. When all 4 conditions were present, mothers were likely to expand the coparental subsystem to include new partners. If any of these conditions were not present, mothers resisted including stepparents as part of the child rearing team. The findings from this study highlight how coparental roles in a nonclinical sample of families develop and change; mothers often modify coparenting boundaries over time to include stepparents.

  13. Health of Young Children Whose Mothers Have Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Powell, Robyn M; Parish, Susan L; Akobirshoev, Ilhom

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the needs and experiences of parents with intellectual disability (ID) and their children is critical to ensuring that policies can effectively support these families. This research analyzed data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the health outcomes of U.S. children whose mothers have (n = 263) and do not have ID (n = 1,298). Compared to mothers without ID, mothers with ID experienced worse outcomes related to socioeconomic status, limited support networks, and poor self-reported health. However, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, mother's intellectual disability was not associated with a child having fair or poor health, asthma, or being overweight or obese.

  14. Feminist attitudes and mother-daughter relationships in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Notar, M; McDaniel, S A

    1986-01-01

    In spite of the growing amount of research on women's issues, there are few empirical studies of mother-daughter relationships, and almost none on the effects of the major women's movement of our times on relationships between mothers and daughters. In this study of late adolescent daughters' perceptions of their relationships with their mothers, two alternative hypotheses are examined: (1) feminism, with its emphasis on bonding among women, strengthens relations between adolescent daughters and their mothers, or (2) feminism as a force of social change, both attitudinal and behavioral, weakens the adolescent daughter-mother relationship. Based on 102 questionnaires completed by university-age women in the winter of 1983, it was found that the majority of daughters who have a good relationship with their mothers see both themselves and their mothers as feminist. However, these daughters do not attribute their positive mother-daughter relationship explicitly to feminism. For the minority of daughters who claim to have a poor relationship with their mothers, they attribute the problems to feminism.

  15. Teen Mothers' Experience of Intimate Partner Violence: A Metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, Sarah; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers become increasingly isolated, and live with the physical and psychological consequences of IPV. Trauma-informed nursing practice is needed to support teen mothers in violent intimate relationships to spin a new web. PMID:27490882

  16. Health of Young Children Whose Mothers Have Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Powell, Robyn M; Parish, Susan L; Akobirshoev, Ilhom

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the needs and experiences of parents with intellectual disability (ID) and their children is critical to ensuring that policies can effectively support these families. This research analyzed data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the health outcomes of U.S. children whose mothers have (n = 263) and do not have ID (n = 1,298). Compared to mothers without ID, mothers with ID experienced worse outcomes related to socioeconomic status, limited support networks, and poor self-reported health. However, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, mother's intellectual disability was not associated with a child having fair or poor health, asthma, or being overweight or obese. PMID:27351697

  17. Maternal depression and filicide-case study of ten mothers.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Anne; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Vanamo, Tuija; Merikanto, Juhani; Karkola, Kari

    2008-07-01

    This study describes ten cases of filicides committed by mothers who intentionally killed one or more of their children within 12 months after delivery. The data were collected from police and court records, forensic psychiatric records, autopsy reports, and other medical records. The mean age of the mothers was 28.5 years and of the victims 4 months. The symptoms of depression were clear: an irritable, severely depressed mood with crying spells, insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, preoccupation with worries about the baby's well-being and the mother's caring abilities, suicidal ideation, or even psychotic thoughts. Most mothers had had house calls from the public health nurse or psychologist. The mothers' conditions deteriorated rapidly, and the filicide was committed when the mother was left alone with the baby against her will. The babies were well taken care of, not neglected or abused. The majority of the mothers had felt that their own parents, especially their mothers, were very demanding, rejecting, and emotionally unsupportive. All the mothers had also had traumatic experiences in their childhood or in adulthood. PMID:18587626

  18. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in neglectful mothers.

    PubMed

    León, Inmaculada; Rodrigo, María José; Quiñones, Ileana; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Lage, Agustín; Padrón, Iván; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz) and lower alpha (8-10 Hz) bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers.

  19. Electrophysiological Responses to Affective Stimuli in Neglectful Mothers

    PubMed Central

    León, Inmaculada; Rodrigo, María José; Quiñones, Ileana; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Lage, Agustín; Padrón, Iván; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz) and lower alpha (8–10 Hz) bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers. PMID:24498200

  20. Divorced mothers' coparental boundary maintenance after parents repartner.

    PubMed

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn; Jamison, Tyler; Feistman, Richard

    2015-04-01

    When divorced parents remarry or cohabit with new partners, it is challenging to maintain functional postdivorce coparenting systems. In this grounded theory study of 19 divorced mothers, we examined the processes by which they maintained boundaries around coparental relationships after 1 or both coparents had repartnered. Mothers saw themselves as captains of the coparenting team, making decisions about who should play what roles in parenting their children. They viewed themselves as having primary responsibility for their children, and they saw their children's fathers as important coparenting partners. Mothers used a variety of strategies to preserve boundaries around the coparental subsystem when either they or their ex-husbands repartnered. Stepparents became more active participants in coparenting when: (a) mothers perceived them to be adequate caregivers, (b) biological parents were able to cooperatively coparent, (c) mothers perceived the fathers as good parents and responsible fathers, and (d) mothers felt secure as the primary parents. When all 4 conditions were present, mothers were likely to expand the coparental subsystem to include new partners. If any of these conditions were not present, mothers resisted including stepparents as part of the child rearing team. The findings from this study highlight how coparental roles in a nonclinical sample of families develop and change; mothers often modify coparenting boundaries over time to include stepparents. PMID:25730402

  1. Why are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? “My Child is My Report Card”

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (mean age = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African Americans) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers. PMID:23581633

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Well-Being and Coping among Mothers of Toddlers and Mothers of Adolescents with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Leann E.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Greenberg, Jan S.; Carter, Alice S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of autism symptoms and coping strategies on the well-being of mothers of children with ASD. The sample consisted of 153 mothers of toddlers and 201 mothers of adolescents drawn from two ongoing, longitudinal studies of families of individuals with ASD. For mothers of toddlers, lower levels of emotion-focused coping and higher levels of problem-focused coping were generally associated with better maternal well-being, regardless of the level of child symptomatology. For mothers of adolescents, coping often acted as a buffer when autism symptoms were high. Although there was evidence of maternal distress in both groups, the presence of significant buffering effects reflects adaptation in the face of stress, particularly for mothers of adolescents. PMID:17924181

  3. Surplus suffering, mothers don't know best: denial of mothers' reality when parenting a child with mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Juanne Nancarrow

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative interview study of 16 mothers whose children had received a diagnosis with one, or more, mental health issue. It is based on retrospective accounts from mothers describing the early days of noticing that something seemed a bit problematic with their child. When they tried to discuss their concerns and asked for advice from family and friends their concerns were usually dismissed. When they took the child to the doctor, the doctor initially denied the mother's own assessment of the child. Other professionals weighed in and often blamed the mother and denied her reality too. These findings are discussed in terms of the theories of surplus suffering, good and intensive mothering, mother blame and stigma. Implications for practice are considered.

  4. Bobjonesite, V4+ O (SO4) (H2O 3, a new mineral species from Temple Mountain, Emery County, Utah, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schindler, M.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Huminicki, D.M.C.; Haynes, P.; Grice, Joel D.; Evans, H.T.

    2003-01-01

    Bobjonesite, V4+ O (SO4) (H2O 3, is a new mineral species from Temple Mountain, Emery County, Utah, U.S.A. It occurs as blue-green crusts and efflorescences in fractures in a fossil (Triassic) tree: individual crystals are ??1 mm and are intimately intergrown. Bobjonesite hydrates very easily, and is unstable in all but the driest atmosphere. Its structure was determined on a crystal of bobjonesite: however, the physical properties, optical properties and X-ray powder-diffraction pattern were recorded on the synthetic equivalent, and an electron-microprobe analysis was not possible. Bobjonesite has a pale blue streak, a vitreous luster and no observable fluorescence under ultraviolet light. It has no cleavage or parting. The Mohs hardness is ???1, and the calculated density is 2.28 g/cm3. Bobjonesite is biaxial positive, with ?? 1.555(2 , ?? 1.561(1), ?? 1.574(2), 2V(obs.) = 72(1)??, 2V(calc.) = 69??; it is non-pleochroic, X = b, Y ??? 19?? (in ?? obtuse). Bobjonesite is monoclinic, space group P21/n, cell dimensions from single-crystal data: a 7.3940(5), b 7.4111(3), c 12.0597(9) A??, ?? 106.55(1)??, V 633.5(1) A??3, Z=4. The strongest seven lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A??(I)(hkl)] are as follows: 5.795(100)(002), 3.498(90)(112), 3.881(48)(1??03), 5.408(37) (101), 4.571(20)(012), 6.962(11 (1??01) and 6.254(11)(011). The chemical formula was derived from crystal-structure analysis; the end-member formula is V O (SO4) (H2O)3. The crystal structure of bobjonesite was refined to an R index of 3.6% for 1105 observed (Fo> 5??F) reflections measured with an automated four-circle X-ray diffractometer using MoK?? X-radiation. There is one V site occupied by V4+ and surrounded by three O atoms and three (H2O) groups in an octahedral arrangement, with one short vanadyl bond (1.577 A??), four similar equatorial bonds (<2.022 A??), and one longer V-O bond (2.278 A??) trans to the vanadyl bond. The structure consists of isolated [V4+2 O2 (H2O)6 (SO4

  5. Analysis of ground penetrating radar data from the tunnel beneath the Temple of the Feathered Serpent in Teotihuacan, Mexico, using new multi-cross algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Rodríguez, Flor; Velasco-Herrera, Víctor M.; Álvarez-Béjar, Román; Gómez-Chávez, Sergio; Gazzola, Julie

    2016-11-01

    The ground penetrating radar (GPR) -a non-invasive method based on the emission of electromagnetic waves and the reception of their reflections at the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity discontinuities of the materials surveyed- may be applied instead of the destructive and invasive methods used to find water in celestial bodies. As multichannel equipment is increasingly used, we developed two algorithms for multivariable wavelet analysis of GPR signals -multi-cross wavelet (MCW) and Fourier multi-cross function (FMC)- and applied them to analyze raw GPR traces of archeological subsurface strata. The traces were from the tunnel located beneath the Temple of the Feathered Serpent (The Citadel, Teotihuacan, Mexico), believed to represent the underworld, an outstanding region of the Mesoamerican mythology, home of telluric forces emanating from deities, where life was constantly created and recreated. GPR profiles obtained with 100 MHz antennas suggested the tunnel is 12-14 m deep and 100-120 m long with three chambers at its end, interpretations that were confirmed by excavations in 2014. Archeologists believe that due to the tunnel's sacredness and importance, one of the chambers may be the tomb of a ruler of the ancient city. The MCW and FMC algorithms determined the periods of subsurface strata of the tunnel. GPR traces inside-and-outside the tunnel/chamber, outside the tunnel/chamber and inside the tunnel/chamber analyzed with the MCW and filtered FMC algorithms determined the periods of the tunnel and chamber fillings, clay and matrix (limestone-clay compound). The tunnel filling period obtained by MCW analysis (14.37 ns) reflects the mixed limestone-clay compound of this stratum since its value is close to that of the period of the matrix (15.22 ns); periods of the chamber filling (11.40 ± 0.40 ns) and the matrix (11.40 ± 1.00 ns) were almost identical. FMC analysis of the tunnel obtained a period (5.08 ± 1.08 ns) close to that of the chamber (4

  6. Maternal Attachment Representations, Maternal Sensitivity, and the Infant-Mother Attachment Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, David R.; Gleason, Karin E.; Moran, Greg; Bento, Sandi

    1998-01-01

    Examined the mediating role of maternal sensitivity for the association between maternal attachment representations and the quality of infant-mother attachment. Found that autonomous mothers and mothers in secure relationships were more sensitive at home than nonautonomous mothers and mothers in nonsecure relationships, respectively. Infants in…

  7. The Experience of Young Children and Their Incarcerated Mothers: A Call for Humanly-Responsive Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Describes the IMCIPE Project (Incarcerated Mothers and Children: Impact of Prison Environments) which investigates the experiences of incarcerated mothers whose children live with them in Mother and Baby Units and incarcerated mothers who are separated from their children; the impact of the prison environment on mother-child relationships; and…

  8. Mothers' Parenting Cognitions in Cultures of Origin, Acculturating Cultures, and Cultures of Destination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Japanese and South American immigrant mothers' parenting cognitions (attributions and self-perceptions) were compared with mothers from their country of origin (Japan and Argentina, respectively) and European American mothers in the United States. Participants were 231 mothers of 20-month-old children. Generally, South American immigrant mothers'…

  9. Socialization of Emotion and Offspring Internalizing Symptoms in Mothers with Childhood-Onset Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Prout, Joanna T.; O'Rourke, Flannery; Lane, Tonya J.; Kovacs, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how mothers with and without a history of childhood-onset depression respond to their 3-9 year-old children's emotions. Mother-child dyads included 55 offspring of mothers with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorders and 57 offspring of never-depressed mothers. Mothers with a history of childhood depression were less…

  10. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction. PMID:27090342

  11. Ten years of experience in the prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission in a university teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Weon; Yang, Tae-Whan; Choi, Byung-Min; Kim, Hai-Joong; Park, Dae-Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Administration of antiretroviral drugs to mothers and infants significantly decreases mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission; cesarean sections and discouraging breastfeeding further decreases this risk. The present study confirmed the HIV status of babies born to mothers infected with HIV and describes the characteristics of babies and mothers who received preventive treatment. Methods This study retrospectively analyzed medical records of nine infants and their mothers positive for HIV who gave birth at Korea University Ansan Hospital, between June 1, 2003, and May 31, 2013. Maternal parameters, including HIV diagnosis date, CD4+ count, and HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) copy number, were analyzed. Infant growth and development, HIV RNA copy number, and HIV antigen/antibody test results were analyzed. Results Eight HIV-positive mothers delivered nine babies; all the infants received antiretroviral therapy. Three (37.5%) and five mothers (62.5%) were administered single- and multidrug therapy, respectively. Intravenous zidovudine was administered to four infants (50%) at birth. Breastfeeding was discouraged for all the infants. All the infants were negative for HIV, although two were lost to follow-up. Third trimester maternal viral copy numbers were less than 1,000 copies/mL with a median CD4+ count of 325/µL (92-729/µL). Among the nine infants, two were preterm (22.2%) and three had low birth weights (33.3%). Conclusion This study concludes that prophylactic antiretroviral therapy, scheduled cesarean section, and prohibition of breastfeeding considerably decrease mother-to-child HIV transmission. Because the number of infants infected via mother-to-child transmission may be increasing, studies in additional regions using more variables are necessary. PMID:24778693

  12. Fertility pattern of mothers in a changing rural environment.

    PubMed

    Thimmayamma, B V; Rao, P; Rao, K W

    1981-09-01

    A study conducted in a rural area of India over a decade reveals an improvement in the socioeconomic status of families, yet the effect of an increase in monetary income could not be seen on diet and nutritional status because of the rise in prices of food and nonfood items. Yet, a declining trend in the mortality pattern of preschool children was observed over the years. As part of the same study, information collected on the reproductive performance of rural mothers in both 1961 and 1974 is reported here. Data available on 138 mothers in 1961 regarding their reproductive performance was compared with that collected on 101 mothers (including 42 immigrant mothers) in 1974. A comparison also was made regarding infant and child deaths in the 2 study periods. Information collected about the fertility pattern of the same mothers (33) in both the study periods also was compared. There was no difference in the age at 1st delivery of mothers in the 2 study periods, but the duration of the marriage was comparatively less in 1974, primarily due to the younger age of mothers. A significant increase in the percentage of hospital deliveries was observed in 1974. Mothers studied in 1974 had a significantly lower fertility as compared with those in 1961, mostly due to immigrant mothers. No mother had adopted family planning in 1961, but about 9% of the mothers in 1974 had undergone a tubal ligation (after 7-8 deliveries). There was a significant increase in the percentage of literate mothers in 1974 as comapred with those in 1961, and this increase was seen more in the younger age group of mothers in 1974. When the live births/mother by age group were analyzed, the overall decrease ws mainly attributable to the influence of immigrant mothers as well as to the younger age group of mothers among the local residents in 1974. This trend was not observed among the older age group of others in the 2 study periods. The avarage spacing between live births was 2.7 years in 1961, 2

  13. Will feeding mothers prevent the Asian metabolic syndrome epidemic?

    PubMed

    James, W Philip T

    2002-01-01

    Evolutionary pressures have probably amplified the mechanisms for minimizing the impact of environmental factors through compensatory maternal mechanisms. Nevertheless, experimentally there are clear long-term programming effects of manipulations to the maternal diet on the likelihood of neural-tube defects associated with folate deficiency The fat/lean ratios of the newborn, and subsequent development, seem to be linked to amino acid or folate supply. An altered balance in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which experimentally has profound effects on brain development, is induced by low-protein maternal diets. Such diets are linked to a reduced pancreatic capacity for insulin production and to an altered hepatic architecture, with a change in the control of glucose metabolism. Human studies suggest that what happens in pregnancy is modified by the child's diet in the first months of life. Low birthweight is linked to early stunting, and predisposes to abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Metabolic syndrome amplifies the risks of diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease and probably some cancers. Mothers with gestational diabetes are themselves prone to early type 2 diabetes and produce heavier babies prone to childhood obesity and adolescent type 2 diabetes. There is increasing evidence of an intergenerational effect, with big babies being prone to excess weight gain, which then, in girls, predisposes them to diabetes in pregnancy, which, in turn, promotes an accelerating cycle of early diabetes in subsequent generations. Essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins are important, but we need early interventions and monitoring systems to justify coherent policies. PMID:12492642

  14. Women's Perceptions of How Their Dyslexia Impacts on Their Mothering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Women with children have been depicted as struggling to justify themselves in the shadow of intensive mothering ideology. However, little is said about women who have a disability such as dyslexia, and how disability may intersect with intensive mothering ideology to present additional challenges. In this paper, life-story interviews are drawn…

  15. Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2008-01-01

    A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother-infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother-infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond toward the infant and infant attachment toward the…

  16. Mothers' Emotional Care Work in Education and Its Moral Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Maeve

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to build on feminist and egalitarian critiques of the traditional allocation of care work to mothers, particularly in relation to understandings of educational care work. It seeks to locate the emotional support work carried out by mothers in the educational field within their daily routines of care, and to make visible the…

  17. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  18. Becoming a Worker-Mother: Understanding the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMonica, Laura Tripp

    2010-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of women who both work and mother into the workforce in recent years. The patriarchal structure of the typical U.S. organization is based on rational-economic models and the "economic man" model of worker. This structure systematically disadvantages women who work and mother. The HRD function within…

  19. Teaching Low-Income Mothers to Teach Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of the Avance Parent-Child Education Program in teaching low-income, Mexican American mothers of infants to teach their own children. Found significant program effects on Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores, on view of self as teacher, and on videotaped mother-child interactions. Found results…

  20. Teaching Low-Income Mothers To Teach Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale L.; And Others

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Avance Parent-Child Education Program, a 9-month center-based program, with an in-home component, designed to provide low-income, Mexican-American mothers of infants with parenting education and family support services. A total of 524 mother-infant diads took part in the Avance program or served in a…