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Sample records for acid n-3 pufa

  1. Effect of dietary enrichment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or n-9 PUFA on arachidonate metabolism in vivo and experimentally induced inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Masaru; Watanabe, Shiro; Niimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Ishikura, Yoshiyuki; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2004-03-01

    Mice were fed a diet supplemented with palm oil (control diet), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-, or n-9 PUFA-rich oil for 3 weeks. The n-3 PUFA-rich diet suppressed the generation of both leukotrienes (LT) and prostaglandins (PG), but the n-9 PUFA-rich diet did LT but not PG generation during acute inflammation. Leukocyte accumulation during acute inflammation was not different in the n-3 or n-9 PUFA-rich diet group as compared with the control group. The n-3 PUFA-rich diet but not the n-9 PUFA-rich diet suppressed Freund's adjuvant-induced granuloma formation. The n-9 PUFA-rich diet significantly attenuated galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury more effectively than the n-3 PUFA-rich diet as compared with the control diet. The present study revealed the differential modification of experimentally induced inflammation in mice by dietary n-3 PUFA and n-9 PUFA, which may be due to their different effects on 5-lipoxygenease and cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid during inflammatory processes.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from alpha-linolenic acid by rat brain is unaffected by dietary n-3 PUFA deprivation.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Miki; DeMar, James C; Ma, Kaizong; Chang, Lisa; Bell, Jane M; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2007-05-01

    Rates of conversion of alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA, 18:3n-3) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) by the mammalian brain and the brain's ability to upregulate these rates during dietary deprivation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are unknown. To answer these questions, we measured conversion coefficients and rates in post-weaning rats fed an n-3 PUFA deficient (0.2% alpha-LNA of total fatty acids, no DHA) or adequate (4.6% alpha-LNA, no DHA) diet for 15 weeks. Unanesthetized rats in each group were infused intravenously with [1-(14)C]alpha-LNA, and their arterial plasma and microwaved brains collected at 5 minutes were analyzed. The deficient compared with adequate diet reduced brain DHA by 37% and increased brain arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosapentaenoic (22:5n-6) acids. Only 1% of plasma [1-(14)C]alpha-LNA entering brain was converted to DHA with the adequate diet, and conversion coefficients of alpha-LNA to DHA were unchanged by the deficient diet. In summary, the brain's ability to synthesize DHA from alpha-LNA is very low and is not altered by n-3 PUFA deprivation. Because the liver's reported ability is much higher, and can be upregulated by the deficient diet, DHA converted by the liver from circulating alphaLNA is the source of the brain's DHA when DHA is not in the diet.

  3. Endogenous synthesis of n-3 PUFA modifies fatty acid composition of kidney phospholipids and eicosanoid levels in the fat-1 mouse.

    PubMed

    Kelton, D; Lysecki, C; Aukema, H; Anderson, B; Kang, J X; Ma, D W L

    2013-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether endogenous synthesis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the fat-1 mouse is comparable to fish oil feeding with respect to kidney n-3 PUFA composition and eicosanoid levels. Wild-type and heterozygous fat-1 mice, capable of synthesizing n-3 PUFA endogenously, were given diets enriched in either n-3 or n-6 PUFA in a 2×2 factorial design and terminated after 12 weeks. Kidney phospholipid fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Kidney eicosanoids were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Relative to control mice fed n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA fed and fat-1 mice had higher levels of kidney phospholipid n-3 PUFA, and lower levels of n-6 PUFA and eicosanoids. However, mice fed n-3 PUFA mice had higher levels of n-3 PUFA and lower levels of eicosanoids as compared to fat-1 mice. In conclusion, diet feeding had a greater impact on kidney fatty acid composition and eicosanoid levels than the genetic effect of the fat-1 gene. However, the fat-1 mouse remains a close approximation that can be used as a complementary model to study the role of n-3 PUFA in the kidney. PMID:23994161

  4. A low omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) diet increases omega-3 (n-3) long chain PUFA status in plasma phospholipids in humans.

    PubMed

    Wood, K E; Lau, A; Mantzioris, E; Gibson, R A; Ramsden, C E; Muhlhausler, B S

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of reducing the dietary linoleic acid (LA) intake from ~5% to <2.5% energy (%E) on n-3 long chain PUFA (LCPUFA) status in humans. Thirty-six participants followed a <2.5%E LA diet for 4 weeks. Nutrient intakes were estimated from diet diaries and blood samples were collected for assessment of fatty acid composition in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids. LA intakes were reduced from 4.6%E to 2%E during the low LA intervention (P<0.001) while n-3 LCPUFA intakes were unchanged. LA and total n-6 PUFA content of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were significantly reduced after the low LA diet phase (P<0.001). The n-3 LCPUFA content of plasma phospholipids was significantly increased after the low LA diet compared to baseline (6.22% vs. 5.53%, P<0.001). These data demonstrate that reducing LA intake for 4 weeks increases n-3 LCPUFA status in humans in the absence of increased n-3 LCPUFA intake.

  5. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on circulating adiponectin and leptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Stirban, A; Nandrean, S; Götting, C; Stratmann, B; Tschoepe, D

    2014-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [n-3 PUFAs: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], improve insulin sensitivity in humans. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study, we investigated the effects of EPA/DHA on paraoxonase-1 activity as well as fasting and postprandial levels of circulating adiponectin and leptin in 34 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who received daily for 6 weeks either 2 g purified EPA/DHA or olive oil (placebo), separated by a 6 weeks washout. At the end of each treatment, measurements were performed in fasting state and 2, 4, and 6 h following a standardized high-fat meal (600 kcal). No significant differences in fasting and postprandial circulating adiponectin, leptin, and paraoxonase-1 activity were seen between n-3 PUFAs and placebo. Our data do not support an insulin sensitizing effect of n-3 PUFAs by means of influencing circulating adipocytokines in this population. Clinical Trial Register Number: NCT00328536.

  6. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on fatty acid composition, free amino acid profile and gene expression of transporters in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengna; Duan, Yehui; Li, Yinghui; Tang, Yulong; Geng, Meimei; Oladele, Oso Abimbola; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2015-03-14

    Revealing the expression patterns of fatty acid and amino acid transporters as affected by dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio would be useful for further clarifying the importance of the balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA. A total of ninety-six finishing pigs were fed one of four diets with the ratio of 1:1, 2·5:1, 5:1 and 10:1. Pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 had the highest (P< 0·05) daily weight gain, and those fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 had the largest loin muscle area (P< 0·01). The concentration of n-3 PUFA was raised as the ratio declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The contents of tryptophan, tasty amino acids and branched-chain amino acids in the longissimus dorsi were enhanced in pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1. The mRNA expression level of the fatty acid transporter fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) was declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1, and increased (P< 0·05) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 and 10:1. The expression profile of FATP-4 was similar to those of FATP-1 in the adipose tissue. The mRNA expression level of the amino acid transceptors LAT1 and SNAT2 was up-regulated (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1 and 2·5:1. In conclusion, maintaining the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1 would facilitate the absorption and utilisation of fatty acids and free amino acids, and result in improved muscle and adipose composition. PMID:25704496

  7. Effect of diet, sex and age on fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens: n-3 and n-6 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Poureslami, R; Raes, K; Turchini, G M; Huyghebaert, G; De Smet, S

    2010-07-01

    The PUFA metabolism in broiler chicken was studied through the whole body fatty acid balance method. Four dietary lipid sources (palm fat, Palm; soyabean oil, Soya; linseed oil, Lin; fish oil, Fish) were added at 3 % to a basal diet containing 5 % palm fat. Diets were fed to female and male birds from day 1 to either day 21 or day 42 of age. Birds fed the Lin diet showed a significantly higher 18 : 2n-6 accumulation compared with the other diets (85.2 v. 73.6 % of net intake), whereas diet did not affect 18 : 3n-3 accumulation (mean 63 % of net intake). Bioconversion of 18 : 2n-6 significantly decreased in the order Palm>Lin>Soya>Fish (4.7, 3.9, 3.4 and 1 % of net intake, respectively). The 18 : 3n-3 bioconversion on the Palm and Soya diets was similar and significantly higher than in broilers on the Lin diet (9.1 v. 5.8 % of net intake). The beta-oxidation of 18 : 2n-6 was significantly lower on the Lin diet than on the other diets (10.8 v. 23.3 % of net intake), whereas beta-oxidation of 18 : 3n-3 was significantly higher on the Fish diet than on the other diets (41.5 v. 27.3 % of net intake). Feeding fish oil suppressed apparent elongase and desaturase activity, whereas a higher dietary supply of 18 : 3n-3 and 18 : 2n-6 enhanced apparent elongation and desaturation activity on the PUFA involved in the n-3 and n-6 pathway, respectively. Accumulation of 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3 increased and beta-oxidation decreased with age. Sex had a marginal effect on the PUFA metabolism.

  8. Recent findings of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs) on atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) contrasting studies in Western countries to Japan.

    PubMed

    Sekikawa, Akira; Doyle, Margaret F; Kuller, Lewis H

    2015-11-01

    Recent long-term randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs) on coronary heart disease (CHD) among high-risk patients conducted in Western countries all failed to show their clinical benefits. In striking contrast, an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on CHD conducted in Japan, which is a combination of secondary and primary prevention, showed a significant 19% reduction. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are large differences in doses of LCn-3 PUFAs administered (300-900 mg/day in Western countries vs. 1800 mg/day in Japan) and background dietary intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (<300 mg/day in Western countries vs. >1000 mg/day in Japan). These observations suggest that higher doses of LCn-3 PUFAs than examined in RCTs in Western countries may be cardio-protective. Atherosclerosis is the major underlying cause of CHD. Recent observational studies and an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis in Japan show that LCn-3 PUFAs are anti-atherogenic. In this brief review, we focus on recent epidemiological and clinical findings of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis and CHD, contrasting studies in Western countries to those in Japan. We also discuss mechanisms of high-dose LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis.

  9. Current evidence and future perspectives on n-3 PUFAs.

    PubMed

    Pelliccia, Francesco; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Greco, Cesare; Franzoni, Ferdinando; Speziale, Giuseppe; Gaudio, Carlo

    2013-12-20

    The family of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which can be found in most lipid classes, includes n-3 PUFAs essential for mammals and whose deficiency is associated with multiple diseases. Because of their multiple physiological actions, n-3 PUFAs play a crucial role in normal human metabolism as well as maintenance of a healthy status, with clinical effects that are not limited to the cardiovascular system but also include maternal and offspring health, growth and development, immune system disorders, cancer, cognitive function and psychological status. Multiple health organisations and scientific societies recommend increasing food-derived n-3 PUFA intake and also suggest that patients with documented coronary heart disease receive a minimum of 1000 mg/day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The preventive and therapeutic effects of n-3 PUFAs appear to be largely dependent on the dosages employed and the characteristics of selected patients. So, in the era of personalised medicine, the time has come to move from generic advice to increase n-3 PUFA intake to a more evidence-based approach characterised by tailored indications to n-3 PUFA dietary or supplement consumption. This approach will require evaluation on a case-to-case basis the potential usefulness of n-3 PUFAs, taking into consideration their 'pleiotropic effects', the optimal dose for any given indication in relation to international guidelines, potential interactions with background therapy, possible side effects, differences in genetics and dietary response to supplementation, and the cost:benefit ratio, which is likely to vary as a function of differences in the range of fish intake in the diet.

  10. Association between Polymorphisms in the Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Cluster and the Plasma Triacylglycerol Response to an n-3 PUFA Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Thifault, Elisabeth; Garneau, Véronique; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02) with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA. PMID:23016130

  11. Long-term treatment of N-3 PUFAS on plasma lipoprotein levels and fatty acid composition of total serum and erythrocyte lipids in hypertriglyceridemic patients.

    PubMed

    Putadechakum, Supanee; Tanphaichitr, Vichai; Leelahagul, Preeya; Pakpeankitvatana, Varapat; Surapisitchart, Thitima; Komindr, Surat

    2005-02-01

    The low incidence of coronary heart disease in Greenland Eskimos and Japanese fishermen who have high consumption of fish and seafood has called the attention in the role of eicosapentaenoic (EPA = 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA = 22: 6n-3) acids, the major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish oils, in reducing cardiovascular risk. N-3 PUFAs may reduce serum lipids by promoting fatty acid oxidation and decrease VLDL producing from the liver, depress tissue arachidonate synthesis and alter the composition and tissue PUFAs. Plasma lipoprotein and fatty acid composition of total serum and erythrocyte lipids in 9 hypertriglyceridemic patients consisting of 4 males and 5 females aged 39-72 yr who attended the Nutrition Clinic, Ramathibodi Hospital were investigated. The study period consisted of 4 wks of dietary advice only followed by 48 wks of dietary advice with a daily intake of 6 g of fish oil capsules (FOC). Six grams of FOC provided 1080 mg of 2:5n-3 and 720 mg of 22:6n-3. Their plasma triglyceride (TG) levels at wk 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 were 356.7, 230.1, 209.7, 192.9, 22 7.4 mg/dL and M-particle (equivalent to very low density lipoprotein, VLDL) were 484.4, 354.8, 383.1, 349.7, 453.2 mg/dL respectively that decreased significantly, whereas their plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels at the same periods were 139.4, 164.9, 171.0, 157.1, 158.3 mg/dL that increased significantly. Serum and erythrocyte 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in these subjects were significantly higher than those at wk 0 throughout the study. These findings indicate the bioavailability of 20: 5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in TG lowering effect of FOC. Fatty acids from fish oil have a remarkable effect on the synthesis and clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins, especially VLDL and chylomicrons. Though daily treatment with 6 g of FOC has a striking effect in increasing plasma LDL-C levels. PMID:15962668

  12. A Novel Process for the Synthesis of Highly Pure n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA)-Enriched Triglycerides by Combined Transesterification and Ethanolysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Daoming; Wang, Weifei; Qin, Xiaoli; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-08-31

    In this study, a novel two-step enzymatic reaction was developed for the synthesis of highly pure triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a high content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Glyceride mixtures were primarily synthesized by Novozym 435-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters (EEs), followed by removal of partial glycerides, for the first time, by immobilized mono- and diacylglycerol lipase SMG1-F278N-catalyzed ethanolysis. TAG yield as high as 98.66% was achieved under the optimized conditions, and highly pure (98.75%) n-3 PUFA-enriched TAGs with 88.44% of n-3 PUFA was obtained after molecular distillation at lower temperature (140 °C). In addition, the EEs produced during ethanolysis had a FA composition similar to that of the original EEs, making them feasible for cyclic utilization. This was the first study reporting removal of partial glycerides by ethanolysis. Through ethanolysis, a higher purity product could be easily obtained at a relatively low temperature compared with the conventional high-temperature molecular distillation. PMID:27540752

  13. Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses.

    PubMed

    Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Seal, Chris J; Sanderson, Roy; Benbrook, Charles; Steinshamn, Håvard; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Eyre, Mick; Cozzi, Giulio; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Jordon, Teresa; Niggli, Urs; Sakowski, Tomasz; Calder, Philip C; Burdge, Graham C; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Stergiadis, Sokratis; Yolcu, Halil; Chatzidimitriou, Eleni; Butler, Gillian; Stewart, Gavin; Leifert, Carlo

    2016-03-28

    Demand for organic milk is partially driven by consumer perceptions that it is more nutritious. However, there is still considerable uncertainty over whether the use of organic production standards affects milk quality. Here we report results of meta-analyses based on 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic and conventional bovine milk. There were no significant differences in total SFA and MUFA concentrations between organic and conventional milk. However, concentrations of total PUFA and n-3 PUFA were significantly higher in organic milk, by an estimated 7 (95 % CI -1, 15) % and 56 (95 % CI 38, 74) %, respectively. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid (ALA), very long-chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DPA+DHA) and conjugated linoleic acid were also significantly higher in organic milk, by an 69 (95 % CI 53, 84) %, 57 (95 % CI 27, 87) % and 41 (95 % CI 14, 68) %, respectively. As there were no significant differences in total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations, the n-6:n-3 and LA:ALA ratios were lower in organic milk, by an estimated 71 (95 % CI -122, -20) % and 93 (95 % CI -116, -70) %. It is concluded that organic bovine milk has a more desirable fatty acid composition than conventional milk. Meta-analyses also showed that organic milk has significantly higher α-tocopherol and Fe, but lower I and Se concentrations. Redundancy analysis of data from a large cross-European milk quality survey indicates that the higher grazing/conserved forage intakes in organic systems were the main reason for milk composition differences.

  14. Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses.

    PubMed

    Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Seal, Chris J; Sanderson, Roy; Benbrook, Charles; Steinshamn, Håvard; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Eyre, Mick; Cozzi, Giulio; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Jordon, Teresa; Niggli, Urs; Sakowski, Tomasz; Calder, Philip C; Burdge, Graham C; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Stergiadis, Sokratis; Yolcu, Halil; Chatzidimitriou, Eleni; Butler, Gillian; Stewart, Gavin; Leifert, Carlo

    2016-03-28

    Demand for organic milk is partially driven by consumer perceptions that it is more nutritious. However, there is still considerable uncertainty over whether the use of organic production standards affects milk quality. Here we report results of meta-analyses based on 170 published studies comparing the nutrient content of organic and conventional bovine milk. There were no significant differences in total SFA and MUFA concentrations between organic and conventional milk. However, concentrations of total PUFA and n-3 PUFA were significantly higher in organic milk, by an estimated 7 (95 % CI -1, 15) % and 56 (95 % CI 38, 74) %, respectively. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid (ALA), very long-chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DPA+DHA) and conjugated linoleic acid were also significantly higher in organic milk, by an 69 (95 % CI 53, 84) %, 57 (95 % CI 27, 87) % and 41 (95 % CI 14, 68) %, respectively. As there were no significant differences in total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations, the n-6:n-3 and LA:ALA ratios were lower in organic milk, by an estimated 71 (95 % CI -122, -20) % and 93 (95 % CI -116, -70) %. It is concluded that organic bovine milk has a more desirable fatty acid composition than conventional milk. Meta-analyses also showed that organic milk has significantly higher α-tocopherol and Fe, but lower I and Se concentrations. Redundancy analysis of data from a large cross-European milk quality survey indicates that the higher grazing/conserved forage intakes in organic systems were the main reason for milk composition differences. PMID:26878105

  15. Dietary n-3 PUFAs Deficiency Increases Vulnerability to Inflammation-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Thomazeau, Aurore; Madore, Charlotte; Bosch-Bouju, Clementine; Larrieu, Thomas; Lacabanne, Chloe; Remus-Borel, Julie; Aubert, Agnès; Joffre, Corinne; Nadjar, Agnès; Layé, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical components of inflammatory response and memory impairment. However, the mechanisms underlying the sensitizing effects of low n-3 PUFAs in the brain for the development of memory impairment following inflammation are still poorly understood. In this study, we examined how a 2-month n-3 PUFAs deficiency from pre-puberty to adulthood could increase vulnerability to the effect of inflammatory event on spatial memory in mice. Mice were given diets balanced or deficient in n-3 PUFAs for a 2-month period starting at post-natal day 21, followed by a peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, at adulthood. We first showed that spatial memory performance was altered after LPS challenge only in n-3 PUFA-deficient mice that displayed lower n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in the hippocampus. Importantly, long-term depression (LTD), but not long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in the hippocampus of LPS-treated n-3 PUFA-deficient mice. Proinflammatory cytokine levels were increased in the plasma of both n-3 PUFA-deficient and n-3 PUFA-balanced mice. However, only n-3 PUFA-balanced mice showed an increase in cytokine expression in the hippocampus in response to LPS. In addition, n-3 PUFA-deficient mice displayed higher glucocorticoid levels in response to LPS as compared with n-3 PUFA-balanced mice. These results indicate a role for n-3 PUFA imbalance in the sensitization of the hippocampal synaptic plasticity to inflammatory stimuli, which is likely to contribute to spatial memory impairment.

  16. Why and How Meet n-3 PUFA Dietary Recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Legry, Vanessa; Leclercq, Isabelle A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are systemic inflammatory diseases reaching epidemic proportions. Contemporary changes in human nutrition occurred characterized by increased consumption of fat and of vegetable oils rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) together with decrease in n-3 PUFA-rich foods, resulting in an n-6/n-3 ratio of 10–20/1 in Western diet for a ratio around 1/1 in the diet of our ancestors. The literature provides compelling evidence for the health benefit of n-3 PUFA consumption on inflammation and metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment. Such evidence led to the establishment of comprehensive recommendations. However, we show here that, both in collective catering proposed to children and in hospital diet, it is not straightforward to meet such recommendations. Willingness of governments to institute changes, with accountable decisions on catering, nutritional education, and food processing, is required to face our neglected responsibility in promoting balanced diet and consumption of foods rich in essential nutrients in the general population. PMID:21197079

  17. n-3 PUFA: bioavailability and modulation of adipose tissue function.

    PubMed

    Kopecky, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin; Flachs, Pavel; Kuda, Ondrej; Brauner, Petr; Jilkova, Zuzana; Stankova, Barbora; Tvrzicka, Eva; Bryhn, Morten

    2009-11-01

    Adipose tissue has a key role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS), which includes obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and other disorders. Systemic insulin resistance represents a major factor contributing to the development of MS in obesity. The resistance is precipitated by impaired adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism, linked to a low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue and secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines. Development of MS could be delayed by lifestyle modifications, while both dietary and pharmacological interventions are required for the successful therapy of MS. The n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA, EPA and DHA, which are abundant in marine fish, act as hypolipidaemic factors, reduce cardiac events and decrease the progression of atherosclerosis. Thus, n-3 LC PUFA represent healthy constituents of diets for patients with MS. In rodents n-3 LC PUFA prevent the development of obesity and impaired glucose tolerance. The effects of n-3 LC PUFA are mediated transcriptionally by AMP-activated protein kinase and by other mechanisms. n-3 LC PUFA activate a metabolic switch toward lipid catabolism and suppression of lipogenesis, i.e. in the liver, adipose tissue and small intestine. This metabolic switch improves dyslipidaemia and reduces ectopic deposition of lipids, resulting in improved insulin signalling. Despite a relatively low accumulation of n-3 LC PUFA in adipose tissue lipids, adipose tissue is specifically linked to the beneficial effects of n-3 LC PUFA, as indicated by (1) the prevention of adipose tissue hyperplasia and hypertrophy, (2) the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocytes, (3) the induction of adiponectin and (4) the amelioration of adipose tissue inflammation by n-3 LC PUFA. PMID:19698199

  18. Effects of n-3 PUFAs on Intestinal Mucosa Innate Immunity and Intestinal Microbiota in Mice after Hemorrhagic Shock Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Feng; Gao, Xuejin; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xinying; Wan, Xiao; Jiang, Tingting; Wu, Chao; Bi, Jingcheng; Lei, Qiucheng

    2016-01-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can improve the function of the intestinal barrier after damage from ischemia-reperfusion or hemorrhagic shock resuscitation (HSR). However, the effects of n-3 PUFAs on intestinal microbiota and the innate immunity of the intestinal mucosa after HSR remain unclear. In the present study, 40 C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to five groups: control, sham, HSR, HSR + n-3 PUFAs and HSR + n-6 PUFAs. Mice were sacrificed 12 h after HSR. Liver, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and terminal ileal tissues were collected. Intestinal mucosae were scraped aseptically. Compared with the HSR group, the number of goblet cells increased, expression of mucin 2 was restored and disturbed intestinal microbiota were partly stabilized in the PUFA-administered groups, indicating that both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs reduced overproliferation of Gammaproteobacteria while promoting the growth of Bacteroidetes. Notably, n-3 PUFAs had an advantage over n-6 PUFAs in improving ileal tissue levels of lysozyme after HSR. Thus, PUFAs, especially n-3 PUFAs, partly improved the innate immunity of intestinal mucosa in mice after HSR. These findings suggest a clinical rationale for providing n-3 PUFAs to patients recovering from ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:27690096

  19. Lifelong exposure to n-3 PUFA affects pubertal mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Breanne M; MacLennan, Mira B; Hillyer, Lyn M; Ma, David W L

    2014-06-01

    There is growing evidence that early developmental periods may importantly influence future breast cancer risk. Also, there is great interest in the role of dietary fat in breast cancer risk, but the role of dietary fat during pubertal mammary gland development remains poorly understood. This study investigated the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) using complementary dietary and genetic approaches to examine the effect of lifelong exposure of n-3 PUFA or n-6 PUFA (control) on mammary gland development and fatty acid composition. n-3 PUFA from both diet and genetics were enriched in mammary glands as early as 3 weeks of age. Parameters related to mammary gland development, including number of terminal end buds (TEB), percent coverage of ductal tree, and infiltration of TEB, were influenced by n-3 PUFA at 3 and 4 weeks of age. Overall, findings suggest that n-3 PUFA incorporation into the mammary gland early in life plays a role in the morphological development of the mammary gland during puberty.

  20. Modulation of the insulin anabolic signalling cascade in growing chickens by n-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Tesseraud, Sophie; Chartrin, Pascal; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Hermier, Dominique; Simon, Noémie; Peyronnet, Corinne; Lessire, Michel; Baéza, Elisabeth

    2014-03-14

    n-3 PUFA are crucial for health and development. Their effects as regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism are well documented. They also appear to affect protein metabolism, especially by acting on insulin sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of n-3 PUFA, i.e. the precursor α-linolenic acid (ALA) 18:3n-3 or long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), in chickens, by focusing on their potential function as co-regulators of the insulin anabolic signalling cascade. Ross male broilers were divided into six dietary treatment groups. Diets were isoproteic (22 % crude protein) and isoenergetic (12·54 MJ metabolisable energy/kg) and contained similar lipid levels (6 %) provided by different proportions of various lipid sources: oleic sunflower oil rich in 18:1n-9 as control; fish oil rich in LC-PUFA; rapeseed and linseed oils providing ALA. The provision of diets enriched with n-3 PUFA, i.e. rich in LC-PUFA or in the precursor ALA, for 3 weeks improved the growth performance of chickens, whereas that of only the ALA diet enhanced the development of the pectoralis major muscle. At 23 d of age, we studied the insulin sensitivity of the pectoralis major muscle and liver of chickens after an intravenous injection of insulin or saline. The present results indicate that the activation patterns of n-3 PUFA are different in the liver and muscles. An ALA-enriched diet may improve insulin sensitivity in muscles, with greater activation of the insulin-induced 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase/ribosomal protein S6 pathway involved in the translation of mRNA into proteins, thereby potentially increasing muscle protein synthesis and growth. Our findings provide a basis on which to optimise dietary fatty acid provision in growing animals.

  1. n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio is involved in regulating lipid metabolism and inflammation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yehui; Li, Fengna; Li, Lili; Fan, Juexin; Sun, Xiaoming; Yin, Yulong

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the optimal dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios that regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation in pigs. A total of ninety-six cross-bred (Large White × Landrace) growing-finishing pigs (73·8 (SEM 1·6) kg) were chosen and fed one of the four isoenergetic diets with n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1, 2·5:1, 5:1 and 10:1. The growth performance of pigs fed the diet with an n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 was the best, but the group fed the diet with an n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 had the highest muscle mass and the lowest adipose tissue mass (P< 0·05). The concentrations of IL-6 and IL-1β of pigs fed the diet with an n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 were decreased compared with those of the other groups (P< 0·05). The concentration of adiponectin of pigs fed the diet with an n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 was also markedly decreased, but the concentration of leptin was increased compared with that of the groups fed the diets with n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 and 10:1 (P< 0·05). Additionally, the optimal dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA of 1:1 and 5:1 markedly suppressed the expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase-α, fatty acid transport protein-1 and PPARγ. They also significantly suppressed the expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. The results indicated that the optimal n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1 and 5:1 exerted beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and inflammatory system, leading to the availability of more energy and nutrients for high performance and homeostatic pathways. PMID:23947577

  2. Adipose tissue RNASeq reveals novel gene-nutrient interactions following n-3 PUFA supplementation and evoked inflammation in humans.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jane F; Xue, Chenyi; Hu, Yu; Li, Mingyao; Reilly, Muredach P

    2016-04-01

    Dietary consumption of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may protect against cardiometabolic disease through modulation of systemic and adipose inflammation. However, it is often difficult to detect the subtle effects of n-3 PUFA on inflammatory biomarkers in traditional intervention studies. We aimed to identify novel n-3 PUFA modulated gene expression using unbiased adipose transcriptomics during evoked endotoxemia in a clinical trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation. We analyzed adipose gene expression using RNA sequencing in the fenofibrate and omega-3 fatty acid modulation of endotoxemia (FFAME) trial of healthy individuals at three timepoints: before and after n-3 PUFA supplementation (n=8; 3600mg/day EPA/DHA) for 6weeks compared with placebo (n=6), as well as during a subsequent evoked inflammatory challenge (lipopolysaccharide 0.6ng/kg i.v.). As expected, supplementation with n-3 PUFA vs. placebo alone had only modest effects on adipose tissue gene expression, e.g., increased expression of immediate early response IER2. In contrast, the transcriptomic response to evoked endotoxemia was significantly modified by n-3 PUFA supplementation, with several genes demonstrating significant n-3 PUFA gene-nutrient interactions, e.g., enhanced transcriptional responses in specific immune genes IER5L, HES1, IL1RN, CCL18, IL1RN, IL7R, IL8, CCL3 and others. These data highlight potential mechanisms whereby n-3 PUFA consumption may enhance the immune response to an inflammatory challenge. In conclusion, unbiased transcriptomics during evoked inflammation reveals novel immune modulating functions of n-3 PUFA nutritional intervention in a dynamic pathophysiological setting. PMID:27012629

  3. The association of serum long-chain n-3 PUFA and hair mercury with exercise cardiac power in men.

    PubMed

    Tajik, Behnam; Kurl, Sudhir; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K

    2016-08-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish and exercise capacity are associated with CVD risk. Fish, especially large and old predatory fish, may contain Hg, which may attenuate the inverse association of long-chain n-3 PUFA with CVD. However, the associations of long-chain n-3 PUFA or Hg exposure with exercise capacity are not well known. We aimed to evaluate the associations of serum long-chain n-3 PUFA EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA and hair Hg with exercise cardiac power (ECP, a ratio of VO2max:maximal systolic blood pressure (SBP) during an exercise test), a measure for exercise capacity. For this, data from the population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study were analysed cross-sectionally in order to determine the associations between serum long-chain n-3 PUFA, hair Hg and ECP in 1672 men without CVD, aged 42-60 years. After multivariate adjustments, serum total long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was associated with higher ECP and VO2max (P trend across quartiles=0·04 and P trend=0·02, respectively), but not with maximal SBP (P trend=0·69). Associations were generally similar when EPA, DPA and DHA were evaluated individually. Hair Hg was not associated with ECP, VO2max or maximal SBP. However, the associations of total long-chain n-3 PUFA (P interaction=0·03) and EPA (P interaction=0·02) with higher VO2max were stronger among men with lower hair Hg. Higher serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration, mainly a marker for fish consumption in this study population, was associated with higher ECP and VO2max in middle-aged men from eastern Finland.

  4. Influence of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on growth, nutritional composition and immune function in marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shiming; Yue, Yanfeng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Yin, Fei; Wang, Jiangang

    2014-09-01

    A 60-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth, nutritional composition and immune function of marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus. Five diets containing 3.6, 10.2, 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg n-3 LC-PUFA were prepared. The results reveal significant influences of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on the final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and condition factor. As dietary n-3 LCPUFA increased, weight gain and specific growth rate increased and were significantly higher in groups fed 18.2, 26.5 and 37.0 g/kg than in groups fed 3.6 and 10.2 g/kg ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference between groups fed 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg ( P>0.05). With increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid content in muscle and liver increased significantly, immunoglobulin class M content gradually increased from 9.1 to 14.8 μg/L, and lysozyme activity content increased from 1 355 to 2 268 U/mL. Broken line model analysis according to weight gain indicated that a dietary n-3 LC-PUFA level of 18.2 g/kg is essential for normal growth at a fat level of 125 g/kg. Therefore, appropriate dietary n-3 LC-PUFA not only promote growth and improve the n-3 LC-PUFA content, but also enhance immune function in S. marmoratus.

  5. n-3 PUFAs enhance the frequency of murine B-cell subsets and restore the impairment of antibody production to a T-independent antigen in obesity.

    PubMed

    Teague, Heather; Fhaner, Cassie J; Harris, Mitchel; Duriancik, David M; Reid, Gavin E; Shaikh, Saame Raza

    2013-11-01

    The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on in vivo B-cell immunity is unknown. We first investigated how n-3 PUFAs impacted in vivo B-cell phenotypes and antibody production in the absence and presence of antigen compared with a control diet. Lean mice consuming n-3 PUFAs for 4 weeks displayed increased percentage and frequency of splenic transitional 1 B cells. Upon stimulation with trinitrophenylated-lipopolysaccharide, n-3 PUFAs increased the number of splenic transitional 1/2, follicular, premarginal, and marginal zone B cells. n-3 PUFAs also increased surface, but not circulating, IgM. We next tested the effects of n-3 PUFAs in a model of obesity that is associated with suppressed humoral immunity. An obesogenic diet after ten weeks of feeding, relative to a lean control, had no effect on the frequency of B cells but lowered circulating IgM upon antigen stimulation. Administration of n-3 PUFAs to lean and obese mice increased the percentage and/or frequency of transitional 1 and marginal zone B cells. Furthermore, n-3 PUFAs in lean and obese mice increased circulating IgM relative to controls. Altogether, the data show n-3 PUFAs enhance B cell-mediated immunity in vivo, which has implications for immunocompromised populations, such as the obese.

  6. Chemoprotective epigenetic mechanisms in a colorectal cancer model: Modulation by n-3 PUFA in combination with fermentable fiber

    PubMed Central

    Triff, Karen; Kim, Eunjoo; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third major cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women worldwide. The beneficial role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in preventing colon cancer is substantiated by experimental, epidemiological, and clinical data. From a mechanistic perspective, n-3 PUFA are pleiotropic and multifaceted with respect to their molecular mechanisms of action. For example, this class of dietary lipid uniquely modulates membrane and nuclear receptors, sensors/ion channels, and membrane structure/cytoskeletal function, thereby regulating signaling processes that influence patterns of gene expression and cell phenotype. In addition, n-3 PUFA can synergize with other potential chemoprotective agents known to reprogram the chromatin landscape, such as the fermentable fiber product, butyrate. Nutri-epigenomics is an emerging field of research that is focused on the interaction between nutrition and epigenetics. Epigenetics refers to a group of heterogeneous processes that regulate transcription without changing the DNA coding sequence, ranging from DNA methylation, to histone tail modifications and transcription factor activity. One implication of the nutri-epigenome is that it may be possible to reprogram epigenetic marks that are associated with increased disease risk by nutritional or lifestyle interventions. This review will focus on the nutri-epigenomic role of n-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, as well as the combinatorial effects of n-3 PUFA and fermentable fiber in relation to colon cancer. PMID:25938013

  7. Dietary n-3 PUFAs augment caspase 8 activation in Staphylococcal aureus enterotoxin B stimulated T-cells.

    PubMed

    Gill, R; Jen, K L; McCabe, M J J; Rosenspire, A

    2016-10-15

    Epidemiological studies have linked consumption of n-3 PUFAs with a variety of beneficial health benefits, particularly with respect to putative anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, many of these results remain somewhat controversial because in most instances there has not been a linkage to specific molecular mechanisms. For instance, dietary exposure to low levels of mercury has been shown to be damaging to neural development, but concomitant ingestion of n-3 PUFAs as occurs during consumption of fish, has been shown to counteract the detrimental effects. As the mechanisms mediating the neurotoxicity of environmental mercury are not fully delineated, it is difficult to conceptualize a testable molecular mechanism explaining how n-3 PUFAs negate its neurotoxic effects. However, environmental exposure to mercury also has been linked to increased autoimmunity. By way of a molecular understanding of this immuno-toxic association, disruption of CD95 signaling is well established as a triggering factor for autoimmunity, and we have previously shown that environmentally relevant in vitro and dietary exposures to mercury interfere with CD95 signaling. In particular we have shown that activation of caspase 8, as well as downstream activation of caspase 3, in response to CD95 agonist stimulation is depressed by mercury. More recently we have shown in vitro that the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid counteracts the negative effect of mercury on CD95 signaling by restoring caspase activity. We hypothesized that concomitant ingestion of n-3 PUFAs with mercury might be protective from the immuno-toxic effects of mercury, as it is with mercury's neuro-toxic effects, and in the case of immuno-toxicity this would be related to restoration of CD95 signal strength. We now show that dietary ingestion of n-3 PUFAs generally promotes CD95 signaling by upregulating caspase 8 activation. Apart from accounting for the ability of n-3 PUFAs to specifically counteract autoimmune sequelae of

  8. Dietary n-3 PUFAs augment caspase 8 activation in Staphylococcal aureus enterotoxin B stimulated T-cells.

    PubMed

    Gill, R; Jen, K L; McCabe, M J J; Rosenspire, A

    2016-10-15

    Epidemiological studies have linked consumption of n-3 PUFAs with a variety of beneficial health benefits, particularly with respect to putative anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, many of these results remain somewhat controversial because in most instances there has not been a linkage to specific molecular mechanisms. For instance, dietary exposure to low levels of mercury has been shown to be damaging to neural development, but concomitant ingestion of n-3 PUFAs as occurs during consumption of fish, has been shown to counteract the detrimental effects. As the mechanisms mediating the neurotoxicity of environmental mercury are not fully delineated, it is difficult to conceptualize a testable molecular mechanism explaining how n-3 PUFAs negate its neurotoxic effects. However, environmental exposure to mercury also has been linked to increased autoimmunity. By way of a molecular understanding of this immuno-toxic association, disruption of CD95 signaling is well established as a triggering factor for autoimmunity, and we have previously shown that environmentally relevant in vitro and dietary exposures to mercury interfere with CD95 signaling. In particular we have shown that activation of caspase 8, as well as downstream activation of caspase 3, in response to CD95 agonist stimulation is depressed by mercury. More recently we have shown in vitro that the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid counteracts the negative effect of mercury on CD95 signaling by restoring caspase activity. We hypothesized that concomitant ingestion of n-3 PUFAs with mercury might be protective from the immuno-toxic effects of mercury, as it is with mercury's neuro-toxic effects, and in the case of immuno-toxicity this would be related to restoration of CD95 signal strength. We now show that dietary ingestion of n-3 PUFAs generally promotes CD95 signaling by upregulating caspase 8 activation. Apart from accounting for the ability of n-3 PUFAs to specifically counteract autoimmune sequelae of

  9. Reduction of n-3 PUFAs, specifically DHA and EPA, and enhancement of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in type 2 diabetic rat heart

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is overwhelming evidence that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly EPA (C20:5n-3) and DHA (C22:6n-3), has cardiovascular protective effects on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but not on healthy people. Because the T2DM heart increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO) to compensate for the diminished utilization of glucose, we hypothesize that T2DM hearts consume more n-3 PUFAs and, therefore, need more n-3 PUFAs. In the present study, we investigated the changes in cardiac n-3 PUFAs and peroxisomal beta-oxidation, which are responsible for the degradation of PUFAs in a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic rat model. Methods and results The capillary gas chromatography results showed that all the n-3 (or omega-3) PUFAs, especially DHA (~50%) and EPA (~100%), were significantly decreased, and the n-6/n-3 ratio (~115%) was significantly increased in the hearts of diabetic rats. The activity of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, which is crucial to very-long-chain and unsaturated FA metabolism (including DHA), was significantly elevated in DM hearts. Additionally, the real-time PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of most peroxisomal beta-oxidation key enzymes were up-regulated in T2DM rat hearts, which might contribute to the reduction of n-3 (or omega-3) PUFAs. Conclusion In conclusion, our results indicate that T2DM hearts consume more n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA and EPA, due to exaggerated peroxisomal beta-oxidation. PMID:23057715

  10. n3 PUFAs do not affect adipose tissue inflammation in overweight to moderately obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Mario; Kuzma, Jessica N; Hagman, Derek K; van Yserloo, Brian; Matthys, Colleen C; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease adipose tissue inflammation in rodents and in morbidly obese humans. We investigated whether a diet rich in n3 PUFAs from both marine and plant sources reduces adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese adults. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design, placebo-controlled feeding trial. Healthy men and women with a body mass index between 28 and 33 kg/m(2) consumed a diet rich in n3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake; n = 11) from plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n3 PUFAs; n = 13). These diets were consumed for 14 wk (ad libitum for 12 wk). All foods were provided for the entire study period. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and fasting plasma were collected after the first 2 wk with the control diet and again at the end of the 14-wk dietary period. The primary outcome of this ex post analysis was the adipose tissue gene expression of 13 key mediators of inflammation. Adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the 2 groups, after adjustment for weight change. Furthermore, none of the 5 plasma markers of systemic inflammation differed significantly as an effect of diet treatment. We conclude that a relatively high dose of n3 PUFAs from plant and marine sources did not significantly lower adipose tissue or systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese healthy men and women over 14 wk.

  11. Protective role of n6/n3 PUFA supplementation with varying DHA/EPA ratios against atherosclerosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Hu, Qinling; Wu, Huihui; Xue, Yihong; Cai, Liang; Fang, Min; Liu, Zhiguo; Yao, Ping; Wu, Yongning; Gong, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    The effects of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiovascular disease are controversial. We currently explored the effects of various ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on high-fat-induced atherosclerosis. In model apoE(-/-) mice, high-fat diets (HFD) were partially replaced with fish and algal oils (DHA/EPA 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) and/or plant oils enriched in linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids with an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1. PUFA supplementation significantly reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area, serum lipid profile, inflammatory response, aortic ROS production, proinflammatory factors and scavenger receptor expression as compared to those in the HFD group. However, plant oils did not have a significant effect on the following: serum HDL-C level; aortic ABCA1, ABCG1 and LAL mRNA expression; and CD36 and LOX-1 protein expression. Compared to the plant-oil-treated group, the DHA/EPA 1:1 group had a smaller atherosclerotic plaque area, higher serum HDL-C levels and lesser CD36 and MSR-1 mRNA expression; the DHA/EPA 2:1 group had lower serum TC, LDL-C and TNF-α levels and lower aortic ROS levels. Our study suggested that n3 PUFA from animals had more potent atheroprotective effects than that from plants. Supplementation involving higher DHA/EPA ratios and an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1 was beneficial for reducing serum "bad cholesterol" and a 1:1 DHA/EPA ratio with an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1 was beneficial for improving serum "good cholesterol" and inhibiting ox-LDL uptake. Our results suggest that achieving an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1 in the diet is also important in addition to having an optimal DHA/EPA ratio. PMID:27142749

  12. Genetic variant modifies the effect of N3 PUFAs on DNA methylation of IL6 in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    N3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N3 PUFAs) ameliorate inflammation status with specific regulation on interleukin-6 (IL6) expression. However, the molecular mechanism for this regulation is unclear. Using both cell lines data from Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) consortium and population data f...

  13. Dietary n-3 LC-PUFA during the perinatal period as a strategy to minimize childhood allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Makrides, Maria; Gunaratne, Anoja W; Collins, Carmel T

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in the modulation of the immune response during early childhood and whether this may translate to a reduction in childhood allergic disease. Several randomized controlled trials of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation have been reported, largely involving children who are at high hereditary risk of developing allergies. These studies relatively consistently indicate that supplementation during pregnancy results in fewer children with atopic eczema in early childhood. On the other hand, supplementation studies confined exclusively to the postnatal period have demonstrated mixed results with one trial showing no effect and the other suggesting a transient effect on symptoms of respiratory disease. In summary, supplementation with n-3 LC-PUFA during the perinatal period and before allergic response is established may be a useful strategy to prevent early childhood allergic disease in children at high hereditary risk. Further work is needed to establish the optimal period of supplementation and whether longer term benefits exist. PMID:24107505

  14. Dietary n-3 LC-PUFA during the perinatal period as a strategy to minimize childhood allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Makrides, Maria; Gunaratne, Anoja W; Collins, Carmel T

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in the modulation of the immune response during early childhood and whether this may translate to a reduction in childhood allergic disease. Several randomized controlled trials of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation have been reported, largely involving children who are at high hereditary risk of developing allergies. These studies relatively consistently indicate that supplementation during pregnancy results in fewer children with atopic eczema in early childhood. On the other hand, supplementation studies confined exclusively to the postnatal period have demonstrated mixed results with one trial showing no effect and the other suggesting a transient effect on symptoms of respiratory disease. In summary, supplementation with n-3 LC-PUFA during the perinatal period and before allergic response is established may be a useful strategy to prevent early childhood allergic disease in children at high hereditary risk. Further work is needed to establish the optimal period of supplementation and whether longer term benefits exist.

  15. Fish, a Mediterranean source of n-3 PUFA: benefits do not justify limiting consumption.

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Gil, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Fish is an important source of energy, high-quality proteins, fat, vitamins and minerals. Within lipids, n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC PUFA), mainly EPA and DHA, play an important role in health promotion and disease prevention. In contrast to the potential health benefits of dietary fish intake, certain chemical pollutants, namely heavy metals and some organic compounds, contained in seafood have emerged as an issue of concern, particularly for frequent fish consumers and sensitive groups of populations. The present review summarises the health benefits and risks of fish consumption. n-3 LC-PUFA are key compounds of cell membranes and play an important role in human health from conception through every stage of human development, maturation and ageing. DHA has a major role in the development of brain and retina during fetal development and the first 2 years of life and positively influences neurodevelopment, mainly visual acuity and cognitive functions. n-3 LC-PUFA are also effective in preventing cardiovascular events (mainly stroke and acute myocardial infarction) especially in persons with high cardiovascular risk. By contrast, there is convincing evidence of adverse neurological/neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and young children associated with methylmercury exposure during fetal development due to maternal fish consumption during pregnancy. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls present in contaminated fish may also develop a risk for both infants and adults. However, for major health outcomes among adults, the vast majority of epidemiological studies have proven that the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks with the exception of a few selected species in sensitive populations.

  16. Innovative dietary sources of n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jay; Rust, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    It is now established that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in health promotion and disease prevention, particularly those traditionally derived from marine sources (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). A number of organizations have made specific recommendations for the general population to increase their intakes of these nutrients. In response to and along with these recommendations, n-3 PUFAs are being incorporated into nontraditional food sources because of advances in the technology to safely enrich/fortify our food supply. Fatty acid compositions of traditional oils (e.g., canola and soybean) are being genetically modified to deliver more highly concentrated sources of n-3 PUFA. The advent of algal sources of docosahexaenoic acid provides one of the few terrestrial sources of this fatty acid in a concentrated form. All of this is possible because of newer technologies (microencapsulation) and improved processing techniques that ensure stability and preserve the integrity of these unstable fatty acids.

  17. How plausible is the use of dietary n-3 PUFA in the adjuvant therapy of cancer?

    PubMed

    Serini, Simona; Ottes Vasconcelos, Renata; Fasano, Elena; Calviello, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    Considerable debate exists regarding the potential antineoplastic effect of dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA contained in fatty fishes. Since the majority of published data has proven that their intake does not induce toxic or carcinogenic effects in humans, their possible preventive use against cancer has been suggested. On the other hand, it is unlikely that they could be effective in cancer patients as a single therapy. Nevertheless, a considerable effort has been put forth in recent years to evaluate the hypothesis that n-3 PUFA might improve the antineoplastic efficiency of currently used anticancer agents. The rationale for this therapeutic combinatory strategy is trying to increase cancer sensitivity to conventional therapies. This could allow the use of lower drug/radiation doses and, thereby, a reduction in the detrimental health effects associated with these treatments. We will here critically examine the studies that have investigated this possibility, by focusing particularly on the biological and molecular mechanisms underlying the antineoplastic effect of these combined treatments. A possible use of n-3 PUFA in combination with the innovative single-targeted anti-cancer therapies, that often are not completely devoid of dangerous side-effects, is also suggested. PMID:27172872

  18. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids in animal models with neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Orr, Sarah K; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Bazinet, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is present in the majority of acute and chronic neurological disorders. Excess or prolonged inflammation in the brain is thought to exacerbate neuronal damage and loss. Identifying modulators of neuroinflammation is an active area of study since it may lead to novel therapies. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are anti-inflammatory in many non-neural tissues; their role in neuroinflammation is less studied. This review summarizes the relationship between n-3 PUFA and brain inflammation in animal models of brain injury and aging. Evidence by and large shows protective effects of n-3 PUFA in models of sickness behavior, stroke, aging, depression, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and cytokine- and irradiation-induced cognitive impairments. However, rigorous studies that test the direct effects of n-3 PUFA in neuroinflammation in vivo are lacking. Future research in this area is necessary to determine if, and if so which, n-3 PUFA directly target brain inflammatory pathways. n-3 PUFA bioactive metabolites may provide novel therapeutic targets for neurological disorders with a neuroinflammatory component.

  19. n-3 PUFAs have beneficial effects on anxiety and cognition in female rats: Effects of early life stress.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Matteo M; Kelly, Philip; Ariffin, Nurbazilah; Cryan, John F; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G

    2015-08-01

    Stressful life events, especially those in early life, can exert long-lasting changes in the brain, increasing vulnerability to mental illness especially in females. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) play a critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, we investigated the influence of an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (80% EPA, 20% DHA) n-3 PUFAs mixture on stress-related behavioural and neurobiological responses. Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to an early-life stress, maternal separation (MS) procedure from postnatal days 2 to 12. Non-separated (NS) and MS rats were administered saline, EPA/DHA 0.4g/kg/day or EPA/DHA 1g/kg/day, respectively. In adulthood, EPA/DHA treated animals had a dose dependent reduction in anxiety in NS rats. Furthermore, cognitive performance in the novel object recognition task (NOR) was improved by EPA/DHA treatment in NS animals only. EPA/DHA 1g/kg/day decreased behavioural despair in the forced swim test. Notably, EPA/DHA high dose increased the translocation of GRs into the nucleus of NS rat hippocampus. However, the levels of mBDNF remained unchanged in all the experimental groups. The corticosterone response to an acute stress was blunted in MS rats and this was further attenuated by pre-treatment with EPA/DHA. Immune response and monoamine neurotransmission were significantly altered by early-life stress. In conclusion, our study supports the view that n-3 PUFAs are beneficial in neurodevelopmentally normal animals but have little positive benefit in animals exposed to early life stress.

  20. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autoimmune-Mediated Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Pestka, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil suppresses inflammatory processes making these fatty acids attractive candidates for both the prevention and amelioration of several organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies have been conducted to determine whether fish oils containing the n-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can be used in the prevention and treatment of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and lupus nephritis. In a toxin-induced mouse model that mimics the early stages of IgAN, n-3 PUFA consumption suppresses aberrant interleukin (IL)-6-driven IgA production and mesangial IgA immune complex deposition by impairing phosphorylation of upstream kinases and activation of transcription factors essential for IL-6 gene transcription. n-3 PUFAs can also suppress production of anti-double-stranded DNA IgG antibodies and the resultant development of lupus nephritis in the NZBW F1 mouse and related models. These effects have been linked in part to impaired expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules as well as increases in antioxidant enzymes in kidney and immune organs. Several recent clinical trials have provided compelling evidence that n-3 PUFA supplementation could be useful in treatment of human IgAN and lupus nephritis, although some other studies suggest such supplementation might be without benefit. Future investigations employing genomics/proteomics and novel genetically altered mice should provide further insight into how n-3 PUFAs modulate these diseases as well help to identify clinically relevant biomarkers. The latter could be employed in future well-designed, long-term clinical studies that will resolve current controversies on n-3 PUFA efficacy in autoimmune-mediated glomerulonephritis. PMID:20189790

  1. Effect of altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on cardiovascular risk measures in patients treated with statins: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sabrina P S; Dart, Anthony M; Walker, Karen Z; O'Dea, Kerin; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P F; Skilton, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    Increasing dietary n-3 PUFA decreases the risk of CHD. Since n-6 PUFA compete with n-3 PUFA for common metabolic enzymes, the n-6:n-3 ratio intake rather than the n-3 PUFA intake levels per se may be critical. We aimed to examine whether altering the n-6:n-3 ratio affects cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolaemic patients on lipid management with statins. Adhering to a randomised, crossover study design, patients on statins (n 11) were placed on one of two dietary interventions (Diet high-ratio (HR) - n-6:n-3 = 30:1 or Diet low-ratio (LR) - n-6:n-3 = 1·7:1) for 4 weeks followed after an 8-week washout period by the alternate diet. Foods enriched with n-3 or n-6 PUFA were delivered to each patient, who were given clear guidance on consumption expectations for the study. Measures of lipid profile, blood pressure and vascular function were determined. Diet LR significantly reduced body weight, LDL-cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure and the apoA-1:apoB ratio. While Diet HR trended towards a similar cardioprotective profile, most of the parameters examined did not reach statistical significance. A direct comparison between diets demonstrated no significant superiority of Diet LR over Diet HR. These results suggest that a dietary intervention focused on n-6 and n-3 fatty acids may improve cardiovascular risk factors in patients over and above standard lipid management, but there is no significant advantage of a low n-6:n-3 ratio diet when compared to a high-ratio diet. PMID:22182482

  2. Effect of B-vitamins and n-3 PUFA supplementation for 5 years on blood pressure in patients with CVD.

    PubMed

    Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Julia, Chantal; Hercberg, Serge; Blacher, Jacques; Galan, Pilar

    2012-03-01

    Certain epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that n-3 fatty acids and folate can reduce blood pressure (BP). We investigated the effect of a daily supplementation with dietary doses of B-vitamins or n-3 fatty acids for 5 years on BP in patients with a history of CVD who participated in the Supplémentation en Folates et Omega-3 trial. The patients (n 2501; 1987 men and 514 women) were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of four groups: B-vitamins (5-methyl-THF (560 μg); vitamin B₆ (3 mg) and vitamin B₁₂ (20 μg)) and a placebo capsule for n-3 fatty acids; n-3 fatty acids (600 mg of EPA and DHA at a ratio of 2:1) and a placebo capsule for B-vitamins; both B-vitamins and n-3 fatty acids; or placebo capsules for both treatments. The patients took two capsules daily in a double-blind manner for a median duration of 4·7 years. At baseline and annual examination for 5 years, the patients underwent a clinical examination where BP and clinical and biological parameters were assessed. No effect of supplementation with either n-3 PUFA or B-vitamins on BP was observed in crude and adjusted multivariate models. Change in BP was not associated with change in homocysteine. In conclusion, the present results do not support the routine use of dietary supplements containing B-vitamins, or of n-3 fatty acids, to reduce BP in people with prior CVD.

  3. Membrane lipid raft organization is uniquely modified by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Harmony F.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil, enriched in bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has been shown to play a role in prevention of colon cancer. The effects of n-3 PUFA are pleiotropic and multifaceted, resulting in an incomplete understanding of their molecular mechanisms of action. Here, we focus on a highly conserved mechanism of n-3 PUFA, which is the alteration of the organization of the plasma membrane. We highlight recent work demonstrating that enrichment of n-3 PUFA in the plasma membrane alters the lateral organization of membrane signaling assemblies (i.e. lipid rafts). This mechanism is central for n-3 PUFA regulation of downstream signaling, T-cell activation, transcriptional activation, and cytokine secretion. We conclude that these studies provide strong evidence for a predominant mechanism by which n-3 PUFA function in colon cancer prevention. PMID:22515942

  4. LC-PUFA-Enriched Oil Production by Microalgae: Accumulation of Lipid and Triacylglycerols Containing n-3 LC-PUFA Is Triggered by Nitrogen Limitation and Inorganic Carbon Availability in the Marine Haptophyte Pavlova lutheri

    PubMed Central

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B.

    2013-01-01

    In most microalgal species, triacyglycerols (TAG) contain mostly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, rather than PUFA, while PUFA-enriched oil is the form most desirable for dietary intake. The ability of some species to produce LC-PUFA-enriched oil is currently of specific interest. In this work, we investigated the role of sodium bicarbonate availability on lipid accumulation and n-3 LC-PUFA partitioning into TAG during batch cultivation of Pavlova lutheri. Maximum growth and nitrate uptake exhibit an optimum concentration and threshold tolerance to bicarbonate addition (~9 mM) above which both parameters decreased. Nonetheless, the transient highest cellular lipid and TAG contents were obtained at 18 mM bicarbonate, immediately after combined alkaline pH stress and nitrate depletion (day nine), while oil body and TAG accumulation were highly repressed with low carbon supply (2 mM). Despite decreases in the proportions of EPA and DHA, maximum volumetric and cellular EPA and DHA contents were obtained at this stage due to accumulation of TAG containing EPA/DHA. TAG accounted for 74% of the total fatty acid per cell, containing 55% and 67% of the overall cellular EPA and DHA contents, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that inorganic carbon availability and elevated pH represent two limiting factors for lipid and TAG accumulation, as well as n-3 LC-PUFA partitioning into TAG, under nutrient-depleted P. lutheri cultures. PMID:24177672

  5. Effect of a long chain n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on production and reproduction variables in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Elis, Sebastien; Freret, Sandrine; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Dupont, Mickael; Faverdin, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a rumen-protected fish oil supplement on the production and reproduction variables in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=46) were given a basal total mixed diet plus one PUFA supplement: n-3 (n-3; protected fish oil; 1% dry matter intake (DMI); n=23) or control (n-6; toasted soybeans; 1.8% DMI; n=23), in a switchback design over two consecutive lactations. Supplements were added to the diet between calving and 2 months after calving to assess the effect on growth and maturation of ovarian follicles from which ovulation occurred around the day of insemination. Body weight (BW), milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), subcutaneous fat thickness, plasma fatty acid composition, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and urea concentrations, follicular activity, embryo mortalities and fertility (conception rate after first AI, AI1) were assessed. BW, MY, DMI, plasma NEFA, glucose and urea were unaffected by the diet. There was a trend of an increased number of large follicles (diameter≥10mm) with the n-3 dietary supplementation (P=0.06) and a decrease in infertility or early embryo mortality rate 21 days after AI, 13.5% in the n-3 compared with 38.8% in the n-6 group (P=0.09), with no effect on the conception rate at 35d or 90d after AI1. These data suggest that the effect seen on ovarian variables is not associated with an effect on production and metabolic variables and is specific to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Further studies are necessary to determine whether DHA or EPA enhances fertility in lactating dairy cattle.

  6. Antidepressant-like effect of n-3 PUFAs in CUMS rats: role of tPA/PAI-1 system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi; Jiang, Pei; Li, Huande; Cai, Hualin; Liu, Yiping; Gong, Hui; Zhang, Lihong

    2015-02-01

    BDNF is strongly implicated in the development of depression. Recent evidence has indicated that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are related to the cleavage of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) into its mature form. Chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) is widely used to induce depressive behaviors in rodents. Therefore, we investigated the effects of PUFAs and sertraline on tPA/PAI-1 system in CUMS rats. After 5 weeks of CUMS procedures, the rats were induced to a depressive-like state. The expressions of PAI-1 and proBDNF were increased in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of CUMS rats. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or sertraline administration reversed the changes in behavioral test and induced the expression of tPA in certain brain areas, but failed to restore the CUMS-induced PAI-1 expression. Meanwhile, the antidepressant treatment also accelerated the extracellular conversion of proBDNF into mature BDNF in CUMS rats. Our results firstly showed the synchronously altered balance of tPA/PAI-1 system in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of CUMS rats, which was partly ameliorated by PUFAs and sertraline medication, providing new evidence for the involvement of tPA/PAI-1 system in the progression and treatment of depression.

  7. Relationship between diet and plasma long-chain n-3 PUFAs in older people: impact of apolipoprotein E genotype

    PubMed Central

    Samieri, Cécilia; Lorrain, Simon; Buaud, Benjamin; Vaysse, Carole; Berr, Claudine; Peuchant, Evelyne; Cunnane, Stephen C.; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The main risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, age and the ϵ4 allele of the APOE gene (APOE4), might modify the metabolism of n-3 PUFAs and in turn, their impact on cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary fat and plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in elderly persons, taking the APOE4 genotype into account. The sample was composed of 1,135 participants from the Three-City study aged 65 years and over, of whom 19% were APOE4 carriers. Mean plasma proportions of EPA [1.01%, standard deviation (SD) 0.60] and DHA (2.41%, SD 0.81) did not differ according to APOE4. In multivariate models, plasma EPA increased with frequency of fish consumption (P < 0.0001), alcohol intake (P = 0.0006), and female gender (P = 0.02), and decreased with intensive consumption of n-6 oils (P = 0.02). The positive association between fish consumption and plasma DHA was highly significant whatever the APOE genotype (P < 0.0001) but stronger in APOE4 noncarriers than in carriers (P = 0.06 for interaction). Plasma DHA increased significantly with age (P = 0.009) in APOE4 noncarriers only. These findings suggest that dietary habits, gender, and APOE4 genotype should be considered when designing interventions to increase n-3 PUFA blood levels in older people. PMID:23801662

  8. Postgraduate Symposium: Long-chain n-3 PUFA: intakes in the UK and the potential of a chicken meat prototype to increase them.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian

    2010-02-01

    With the wide acceptance of the long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA EPA and DHA as important nutrients playing a role in the amelioration of certain diseases, efforts to understand factors affecting intakes of these fatty acids along with potential strategies to increase them are vital. Widespread aversion to oil-rich fish, the richest natural source of EPA and DHA, highlights both the highly suboptimal current intakes in males and females across all age-groups and the critical need for an alternative supply of EPA and DHA. Poultry meat is a popular and versatile food eaten in large quantities relative to other meats and is open to increased LC n-3 PUFA content through manipulation of the chicken's diet to modify fatty acid deposition and therefore lipid composition of the edible tissues. It is therefore seen as a favourable prototype food for increasing human dietary supply of LC n-3 PUFA. Enrichment of chicken breast and leg tissue is well established using fish oil or fishmeal, but concerns about sustainability have led to recent consideration of algal biomass as an alternative source of LC n-3 PUFA. Further advances have also been made in the quality of the resulting meat, including achieving acceptable flavour and storage properties as well as understanding the impact of cooking on the retention of fatty acids. Based on these considerations it may be concluded that EPA- and DHA-enriched poultry meat has a very positive potential future in the food chain.

  9. Transgenic n-3 PUFAs enrichment leads to weight loss via modulating neuropeptides in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuangshuang; Ge, Yinlin; Gai, Xiaoying; Xue, Meilan; Li, Ning; Kang, Jingxuan; Wan, Jianbo; Zhang, Jinyu

    2016-01-12

    Body weight is related to fat mass, which is associated with obesity. Our study explored the effect of fat-1 gene on body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. In present study, we observed that the weight/length ratio of fat-1 transgenic mice was lower than that of wild-type mice. The serum levels of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CT), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and blood glucose (BG) in fat-1 transgenic mice were all decreased. The weights of peri-bowels fat, perirenal fat and peri-testicular fat in fat-1 transgenic mice were reduced. We hypothesized that increase of n-3 PUFAs might alter the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes and lead to loss of body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. Therefore, we measured mRNA levels of appetite neuropeptides, Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti-related peptides (AgRP), Proopiomelanocortin (POMC), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in hypothalamus by real-time PCR. Compared with wild-type mice, the mRNA levels of CART, POMC and ghrelin were higher, while the mRNA levels of NPY, AgRP and nesfatin-1 were lower in fat-1 transgenic mice. The results indicate that fat-1 gene or n-3 PUFAs participates in regulation of body weight, and the mechanism of this phenomenon involves the expression of appetite neuropeptides and lipoproteins in fat-1 transgenic mice. PMID:26610903

  10. Transgenic n-3 PUFAs enrichment leads to weight loss via modulating neuropeptides in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuangshuang; Ge, Yinlin; Gai, Xiaoying; Xue, Meilan; Li, Ning; Kang, Jingxuan; Wan, Jianbo; Zhang, Jinyu

    2016-01-12

    Body weight is related to fat mass, which is associated with obesity. Our study explored the effect of fat-1 gene on body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. In present study, we observed that the weight/length ratio of fat-1 transgenic mice was lower than that of wild-type mice. The serum levels of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CT), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and blood glucose (BG) in fat-1 transgenic mice were all decreased. The weights of peri-bowels fat, perirenal fat and peri-testicular fat in fat-1 transgenic mice were reduced. We hypothesized that increase of n-3 PUFAs might alter the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes and lead to loss of body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. Therefore, we measured mRNA levels of appetite neuropeptides, Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti-related peptides (AgRP), Proopiomelanocortin (POMC), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in hypothalamus by real-time PCR. Compared with wild-type mice, the mRNA levels of CART, POMC and ghrelin were higher, while the mRNA levels of NPY, AgRP and nesfatin-1 were lower in fat-1 transgenic mice. The results indicate that fat-1 gene or n-3 PUFAs participates in regulation of body weight, and the mechanism of this phenomenon involves the expression of appetite neuropeptides and lipoproteins in fat-1 transgenic mice.

  11. n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF) diet or high-fat (HF, 20%) diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL) or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG). Results Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i) inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), (ii) leptin and (iii) 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution. Conclusion Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing the size of

  12. Chronic dietary n-3 PUFA intervention improves dyslipidaemia and subsequent cardiovascular complications in the JCR:LA- cp rat model of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Borthwick, Faye; Hassanali, Zahra; Wang, Ye; Mangat, Rabban; Ruth, Megan; Shi, Danni; Jaeschke, Anja; Russell, James C; Field, Catherine J; Proctor, Spencer D; Vine, Donna F

    2011-06-01

    There is increasing interest in the potential chronic beneficial effects of dietary n-3 PUFA on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated cardiovascular complications. We have recently established that increased dietary n-3 PUFA has a profound acute benefit on fasting lipids and the postprandial pro-inflammatory response in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a model of the MetS. However, it is unclear to what extent chronic dietary n-3 PUFA intervention can modulate the progression of end-stage metabolic and vascular complications. The present study aimed to determine the chronic effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on fasting and non-fasting dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and vascular complications in the JCR:LA-cp rodent model. JCR:LA-cp rats were fed an isoenergetic lipid-balanced diet supplemented with 5 % n-3 PUFA (w/w) of the total fat (fish oil-derived EPA/DHA) for 16 weeks. Fasting and non-fasting (postprandial) plasma lipid profile was assessed. Hepatic and adipose tissue was probed for the expression of lipogenic proteins (acyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1)), while the activity of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was assessed via Western blot to target phosphorylated JNK protein in primary enterocytes. The frequency of myocardial lesions was assessed by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Increased dietary n-3 PUFA improved both the fasting and postprandial lipid profiles (TAG, cholesterol and apoB48) in the JCR:LA-cp rat, potentially via the down-regulation of the hepatic or adipose tissue expression of lipogenic enzymes (ACC, FAS and SREBP-1). Rats fed the 5 % n-3 PUFA diet had lower (58·2 %; P < 0·01) enterocytic phosphorylated JNK protein and secreted less cholesterol (30 %; P < 0·05) into mesenteric lymph compared with the control. The chronic metabolic benefits of dietary n-3 PUFA may underlie the potential to reduce vascular complications during the MetS, including the observed

  13. The high-level accumulation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic pigs harboring the n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanrong; Lin, Yanli; Wu, Xiaojie; Feng, Chong; Long, Chuan; Xiong, Fuyin; Wang, Ning; Pan, Dengke; Chen, Hongxing

    2014-02-01

    Livestock meat is generally low in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are beneficial to human health. An alternative approach to increasing the levels of n-3 PUFAs in meat is to generate transgenic livestock animals. In this study, we describe the generation of cloned pigs that express the cbr-fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae, encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Analysis of fatty acids demonstrated that the cbr-fat-1 transgenic pigs produced high levels of n-3 fatty acids from n-6 analogs; consequently, a significantly reduced ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids was observed. We demonstrated that the n-3 desaturase gene from C. briggsae was functionally expressed, and had a significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the transgenic pigs, which may allow the production of pork enriched in n-3 PUFAs.

  14. n-3 LC-PUFA deposition efficiency and appetite-regulating hormones are modulated by the dietary lipid source during rainbow trout grow-out and finishing periods.

    PubMed

    Francis, D S; Thanuthong, T; Senadheera, S P S D; Paolucci, M; Coccia, E; De Silva, S S; Turchini, G M

    2014-04-01

    Largely attributable to concerns surrounding sustainability, the utilisation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich (n-3 LC-PUFA) fish oils in aquafeeds for farmed fish species is an increasingly concerning issue. Therefore, strategies to maximise the deposition efficiency of these key health beneficial fatty acids are being investigated. The present study examined the effects of four vegetable-based dietary lipid sources (linseed, olive, palm and sunflower oil) on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and the circulating blood plasma concentrations of the appetite-regulating hormones, leptin and ghrelin, during the grow-out and finishing phases in rainbow trout culture. Minimal detrimental effects were noted in fish performance; however, major modifications were apparent in tissue fatty acid compositions, which generally reflected that of the diet. These modifications diminished somewhat following the fish oil finishing phase, but longer-lasting effects remained evident. The fatty acid composition of the alternative oils was demonstrated to have a modulatory effect on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and on the key endocrine hormones involved in appetite regulation, growth and feed intake during both the grow-out and finishing phases. In particular, n-6 PUFA (sunflower oil diet) appeared to 'spare' the catabolism of n-3 LC-PUFA and, as such, resulted in the highest retention of these fatty acids, ultimately highlighting new nutritional approaches to maximise the maintenance of the qualitative benefits of fish oils when they are used in feeds for aquaculture species.

  15. n-3 LC-PUFA deposition efficiency and appetite-regulating hormones are modulated by the dietary lipid source during rainbow trout grow-out and finishing periods.

    PubMed

    Francis, D S; Thanuthong, T; Senadheera, S P S D; Paolucci, M; Coccia, E; De Silva, S S; Turchini, G M

    2014-04-01

    Largely attributable to concerns surrounding sustainability, the utilisation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich (n-3 LC-PUFA) fish oils in aquafeeds for farmed fish species is an increasingly concerning issue. Therefore, strategies to maximise the deposition efficiency of these key health beneficial fatty acids are being investigated. The present study examined the effects of four vegetable-based dietary lipid sources (linseed, olive, palm and sunflower oil) on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and the circulating blood plasma concentrations of the appetite-regulating hormones, leptin and ghrelin, during the grow-out and finishing phases in rainbow trout culture. Minimal detrimental effects were noted in fish performance; however, major modifications were apparent in tissue fatty acid compositions, which generally reflected that of the diet. These modifications diminished somewhat following the fish oil finishing phase, but longer-lasting effects remained evident. The fatty acid composition of the alternative oils was demonstrated to have a modulatory effect on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and on the key endocrine hormones involved in appetite regulation, growth and feed intake during both the grow-out and finishing phases. In particular, n-6 PUFA (sunflower oil diet) appeared to 'spare' the catabolism of n-3 LC-PUFA and, as such, resulted in the highest retention of these fatty acids, ultimately highlighting new nutritional approaches to maximise the maintenance of the qualitative benefits of fish oils when they are used in feeds for aquaculture species. PMID:24078221

  16. Preservation of metabolic flexibility in skeletal muscle by a combined use of n-3 PUFA and rosiglitazone in dietary obese mice.

    PubMed

    Horakova, Olga; Medrikova, Dasa; van Schothorst, Evert M; Bunschoten, Annelies; Flachs, Pavel; Kus, Vladimir; Kuda, Ondrej; Bardova, Kristina; Janovska, Petra; Hensler, Michal; Rossmeisl, Martin; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Illig, Thomas; Keijer, Jaap; Kopecky, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance, the key defect in type 2 diabetes (T2D), is associated with a low capacity to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability, i.e., metabolic inflexibility. This, in turn, contributes to a further damage of insulin signaling. Effectiveness of T2D treatment depends in large part on the improvement of insulin sensitivity and metabolic adaptability of the muscle, the main site of whole-body glucose utilization. We have shown previously in mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet that a combined use of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) and thiazolidinediones (TZDs), anti-diabetic drugs, preserved metabolic health and synergistically improved muscle insulin sensitivity. We investigated here whether n-3 LC-PUFA could elicit additive beneficial effects on metabolic flexibility when combined with a TZD drug rosiglitazone. Adult male C57BL/6N mice were fed an obesogenic corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF) for 8 weeks, or randomly assigned to various interventions: cHF with n-3 LC-PUFA concentrate replacing 15% of dietary lipids (cHF+F), cHF with 10 mg rosiglitazone/kg diet (cHF+ROSI), cHF+F+ROSI, or chow-fed. Indirect calorimetry demonstrated superior preservation of metabolic flexibility to carbohydrates in response to the combined intervention. Metabolomic and gene expression analyses in the muscle suggested distinct and complementary effects of the interventions, with n-3 LC-PUFA supporting complete oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and the combination with n-3 LC-PUFA and rosiglitazone augmenting insulin sensitivity by the modulation of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. These beneficial metabolic effects were associated with the activation of the switch between glycolytic and oxidative muscle fibers, especially in the cHF+F+ROSI mice. Our results further support the idea that the combined use of n-3 LC-PUFA and TZDs could improve the efficacy of the therapy of obese and diabetic patients. PMID:22952760

  17. Preservation of Metabolic Flexibility in Skeletal Muscle by a Combined Use of n-3 PUFA and Rosiglitazone in Dietary Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    van Schothorst, Evert M.; Bunschoten, Annelies; Flachs, Pavel; Kus, Vladimir; Kuda, Ondrej; Bardova, Kristina; Janovska, Petra; Hensler, Michal; Rossmeisl, Martin; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Illig, Thomas; Keijer, Jaap; Kopecky, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance, the key defect in type 2 diabetes (T2D), is associated with a low capacity to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability, i.e., metabolic inflexibility. This, in turn, contributes to a further damage of insulin signaling. Effectiveness of T2D treatment depends in large part on the improvement of insulin sensitivity and metabolic adaptability of the muscle, the main site of whole-body glucose utilization. We have shown previously in mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet that a combined use of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) and thiazolidinediones (TZDs), anti-diabetic drugs, preserved metabolic health and synergistically improved muscle insulin sensitivity. We investigated here whether n-3 LC-PUFA could elicit additive beneficial effects on metabolic flexibility when combined with a TZD drug rosiglitazone. Adult male C57BL/6N mice were fed an obesogenic corn oil–based high-fat diet (cHF) for 8 weeks, or randomly assigned to various interventions: cHF with n-3 LC-PUFA concentrate replacing 15% of dietary lipids (cHF+F), cHF with 10 mg rosiglitazone/kg diet (cHF+ROSI), cHF+F+ROSI, or chow-fed. Indirect calorimetry demonstrated superior preservation of metabolic flexibility to carbohydrates in response to the combined intervention. Metabolomic and gene expression analyses in the muscle suggested distinct and complementary effects of the interventions, with n-3 LC-PUFA supporting complete oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and the combination with n-3 LC-PUFA and rosiglitazone augmenting insulin sensitivity by the modulation of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. These beneficial metabolic effects were associated with the activation of the switch between glycolytic and oxidative muscle fibers, especially in the cHF+F+ROSI mice. Our results further support the idea that the combined use of n-3 LC-PUFA and TZDs could improve the efficacy of the therapy of obese and diabetic patients. PMID:22952760

  18. Associations of serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA and hair mercury with the risk of incident stroke in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD).

    PubMed

    Daneshmand, Roya; Kurl, Sudhir; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K

    2016-05-28

    PUFA have been associated with lower risk of CVD, but less is known about their association with stroke risk. Fish, a major source of n-3 PUFA, may also contain methylmercury, which has been associated with higher risk of CVD and attenuation of the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA. We investigated the associations of serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA and hair Hg with risk of stroke in men. A total of 1828 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989 were studied. Cox regression models were used for the analyses. During the mean follow-up of 21·2 years, 202 stroke cases occurred, of which 153 were ischaemic strokes. After adjustment for age and examination year, the only statistically significant association among the n-3 and n-6 PUFA was observed between the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid and risk of haemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio in the highest v. the lowest quartile 0·33; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·86; P trend=0·03). However, further adjustments attenuated the association to statistically non-significant. Hair Hg was not associated with stroke risk, but among those with hair Hg above the median level, higher serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentrations were associated with a higher risk of ischaemic stroke. In our cohort of men, serum n-3 or n-6 PUFA or hair Hg were not associated with stroke risk; however, the interaction between Hg and long-chain n-3 PUFA with regard to ischaemic stroke risk warrants further investigation.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA in rhinovirus-infected cultured airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Gibson, Peter G; Wark, Peter A B

    2009-02-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) including DHA and EPA, are known to decrease inflammation by inhibiting arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism to eicosanoids, decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reducing immune cell function. The aim of this study was to determine if EPA and DHA reduced the release of inflammatory mediators from airway epithelial cells infected with rhinovirus (RV). Airway epithelial cells (Calu-3) were incubated with EPA, DHA and AA for 24 h, followed by rhinovirus infection for 48 h. IL-6, IL-8 and interferon-gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10) released by cells were measured using ELISA. Viral replication was measured by serial titration assays. The fatty acid content of cells was analysed using GC. Cellular viability was determined by visual inspection of cells and lactate dehydrogenase release. DHA (400 microm) resulted in a significant 16% reduction in IL-6 release after RV-43 infection, 29% reduction in IL-6 release after RV-1B infection, 28% reduction in IP-10 release after RV-43 infection and 23 % reduction in IP-10 release after RV-1B infection. Cellular DHA content negatively correlated with IL-6 and IP-10 release. None of the fatty acids significantly modified rhinovirus replication. DHA supplementation resulted in increased cellular content of DHA at the cost of AA, which may explain the decreased inflammatory response of cells. EPA and AA did not change the release of inflammatory biomarkers significantly. It is concluded that DHA has a potential role in suppressing RV-induced airway inflammation.

  20. Enriched endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alleviate cognitive and behavioral deficits in a mice model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kefeng; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Baoyan; Chen, Shiyu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Zhidong; Gan, Yuhong; Cui, Liao; Kang, Jing Xuan; Li, Wende; Huang, Ren

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that accompanied by memory deficits and neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have seemly therapeutic potential in AD, but the benefit of n-3 PUFAs is still in debates. Here, we employed a transgenic mice carry fat-1 gene to encode n-3 desaturase from Caenorhabditis elegans, which increase endogenous n-3 PUFAs by converting n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs crossed with amyloid precursor protein (APP) Tg mice to evaluate the protective effects of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on cognitive and behavioral deficits of APP Tg mice. We fed APP, APP/fat-1 and fat-1 mice with n-6 PUFAs rich diet. Brain tissues were collected at 3, 9 and 12 months for fatty acid and gene expression analysis, histology and protein assays. Morris Water Maze Test, open field test and elevated plus maze test were performed to measure the behavior capability. From the results, the expression of fat-1 transgene increased cortical n-3: n-6 PUFAs ratio and n-3 PUFAs concentrations, and sensorimotor dysfunction and cognitive deficits in AD were significantly less severe in APP/fat-1 mice with endogenous n-3 PUFAs than in APP mice controls. The protection against disturbance of spontaneous motor activity and cognitive deficits in AD was strongly correlated with increased n-3: n-6 PUFAs ratio and endogenous n-3 PUFAs, reduced APP generation, inhibited amyloid β peptide aggregation, suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B and astroglia activation, and reduced death of neurons in the cortex of APP/fat-1 mice compared with APP mice controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that an available medication with the maintenance of enriched n-3 PUFAs in the brain could slow down cognitive decline and prevent neuropsychological disorder in AD. PMID:27474225

  1. Synovial fluid and plasma n3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Moghaddami, Mahin; James, Michael; Proudman, Susanna; Cleland, Leslie G

    2015-06-01

    Relationships between n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in plasma and synovial fluid (SF) were examined in 36 patients with knee effusion within the context of a variety of rheumatic diagnoses and various stated fish oil (FO) intakes (from 0 to 30mL of standard FO daily) of variable duration. In a sub-group of patients, correlations between PUFA in SF mononuclear cells (MNC) and cell-free supernatants of SF and between SF MNC and peripheral blood (PB) MNC were examined. Correlations were also sought between clinical data (stated FO intake, pain score) and n-3 LC-PUFA. Correlations between plasma n-3 LC-PUFA and SF n-3 LC-PUFA were very strong (r(2)>0.9, p<0.001). The LC-PUFA profiles of SF supernatants differed from those of MNC. PUFA profiles in PB MNC and SF MNC were similar, except for a higher proportion of DHA in the latter. Positive correlations were observed between stated intakes of FO and EPA in plasma and SF (for both r=0.37, p=0.02) and DHA in plasma (r=0.37, p=0.02) and SF (r=0.36, p=0.03). n-3 LC-PUFA in plasma and SF correlated inversely with pain score (plasma r(2)=0.16, p<0.02; SF r(2) 0.32, p=0.001). In conclusion, plasma n-3 LC-PUFA is a strong indicator of SF n-3 LC-PUFA status across a broad range of rheumatic diagnoses and FO intakes. Higher n-3 LC-PUFA in plasma and SF were associated with lesser pain experience. PMID:25817850

  2. Erythrocyte DHA level as a biomarker of DHA status in specific brain regions of n-3 long-chain PUFA-supplemented aged rats.

    PubMed

    Létondor, Anne; Buaud, Benjamin; Vaysse, Carole; Fonseca, Laurence; Herrouin, Coralie; Servat, Benjamin; Layé, Sophie; Pallet, Véronique; Alfos, Serge

    2014-12-14

    n-3 Long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA), particularly EPA and DHA, play a key role in the maintenance of brain functions such as learning and memory that are impaired during ageing. Ageing is also associated with changes in the DHA content of brain membranes that could contribute to memory impairment. Limited studies have investigated the effects of ageing and n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation on both blood and brain fatty acid compositions. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between fatty acid contents in plasma and erythrocyte membranes and those in the hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex during ageing, and after a 5-month period of EPA/DHA supplementation in rats. In the blood, ageing was associated with an increase in plasma DHA content, whereas the DHA content remained stable in erythrocyte membranes. In the brain, ageing was associated with a decrease in DHA content, which was both region-specific and phospholipid class-specific. In EPA/DHA-supplemented aged rats, DHA contents were increased both in the blood and brain compared with the control rats. The present results demonstrated that n-3 LC-PUFA level in the plasma was not an accurate biomarker of brain DHA status during ageing. Moreover, we highlighted a positive relationship between the DHA levels in erythrocyte phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and those in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in EPA/DHA-supplemented aged rats. Within the framework of preventive dietary supplementation to delay brain ageing, these results suggest the possibility of using erythrocyte PE DHA content as a reliable biomarker of DHA status in specific brain regions. PMID:25331622

  3. Biohydrogenation of dietary n-3 PUFA and stability of ingested vitamin E in the rumen, and their effects on microbial activity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Chikunya, S; Demirel, G; Enser, M; Wood, J D; Wilkinson, R G; Sinclair, L A

    2004-04-01

    The present study investigated the susceptibility of dietary n-3 PUFA to ruminal biohydrogenation, the stability of ingested vitamin E in the rumen and the subsequent uptake of PUFA and vitamin E into plasma. Six cannulated sheep were assigned to six diets over five 33 d periods, in an incomplete 6x5 Latin square. The diets, based on dried grass, were formulated to supply 50 g fatty acids/kg DM using three lipid sources: Megalac (calcium soap of palm fatty acid distillate; Volac Ltd, Royston, Herts., UK), linseed (formaldehyde-treated; Trouw Nutrition, Northwich, Ches., UK) and linseed-fish oil (formaldehyde-treated linseed+fish oil). The diets were supplemented with 100 or 500 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg DM. Fat source or level of vitamin E in the diet did not alter microbial activity in the rumen. Biohydrogenation of linoleic acid (18 : 3n-6; 85-90 %), linolenic acid (18 : 3n-3; 88-93 %), docosahexaenoic acid (22 : 6n-3; 91 %) and EPA (20 : 5n-3; 92 %) was extensive. Feeding formaldehyde-treated linseed elevated concentrations of 18 : 3n-3 in plasma, whilst 22 : 6n-3 and 20 : 5n-3 were only increased by feeding the linseed-fish oil blend. Duodenal recovery of ingested vitamin E was high (range 0.79-0.92 mg/mg fed). High dietary vitamin E was associated with increased plasma alpha-tocopherol (2.57 v. 1.46 microg/ml for 500 and 100 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg DM respectively), although all concentrations were low. Plasma vitamin E levels, however, tended to decrease as the type and quantity of PUFA in the diet increased. The present study illustrates that nutritionally beneficial PUFA in both fish and linseed oils are highly susceptible to biohydrogenation in the rumen. Although alpha-tocopheryl acetate resisted degradation in the rumen, plasma vitamin E status remained deficient to borderline, suggesting either that uptake may have been impaired or metabolism post-absorption increased.

  4. The n-3 long-chain PUFAs modulate the impact of the GCKR Pro446Leu polymorphism on triglycerides in adolescents[S

    PubMed Central

    Rousseaux, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Dumont, Julie; Dallongeville, Jean; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; Breidenassel, Christina; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Censi, Laura; Ascensión, Marcos; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Dietary n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) are associated with improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) is a key protein regulating intracellular glucose disposal. Our aim was to investigate: i) the relationship between the GCKR rs1260326 (Pro446Leu) polymorphism and parameters of the MetS; and ii) a potential influence of n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA levels on this relationship in the HELENA study (1,155 European adolescents). Linear regression analyses were performed to study the association between rs1260326 and the outcomes of interest. Interactions between rs1260326 and LC-PUFA levels on outcomes were explored. The T allele of rs1260326 was associated with higher serum TG concentrations compared with the C allele. In contrast to n-6 LC-PUFA levels, a significant interaction (P = 0.01) between rs1260326 and total n-3 LC-PUFA levels on serum TG concentrations was observed. After stratification on the n-3 LC-PUFA median values, the association between rs1260326 and TG concentration was significant only in the group with high n-3 LC-PUFA levels. In conclusion, this is the first evidence that n-3 LC-PUFAs may modulate the impact of the GCKR rs1260326 polymorphism on TG concentrations in adolescents. Several molecular mechanisms, in link with glucose uptake, could explain these findings. PMID:26136510

  5. The n-3 long-chain PUFAs modulate the impact of the GCKR Pro446Leu polymorphism on triglycerides in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Dumont, Julie; Dallongeville, Jean; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; Breidenassel, Christina; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Censi, Laura; Ascensión, Marcos; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Dietary n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) are associated with improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) is a key protein regulating intracellular glucose disposal. Our aim was to investigate: i) the relationship between the GCKR rs1260326 (Pro446Leu) polymorphism and parameters of the MetS; and ii) a potential influence of n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA levels on this relationship in the HELENA study (1,155 European adolescents). Linear regression analyses were performed to study the association between rs1260326 and the outcomes of interest. Interactions between rs1260326 and LC-PUFA levels on outcomes were explored. The T allele of rs1260326 was associated with higher serum TG concentrations compared with the C allele. In contrast to n-6 LC-PUFA levels, a significant interaction (P = 0.01) between rs1260326 and total n-3 LC-PUFA levels on serum TG concentrations was observed. After stratification on the n-3 LC-PUFA median values, the association between rs1260326 and TG concentration was significant only in the group with high n-3 LC-PUFA levels. In conclusion, this is the first evidence that n-3 LC-PUFAs may modulate the impact of the GCKR rs1260326 polymorphism on TG concentrations in adolescents. Several molecular mechanisms, in link with glucose uptake, could explain these findings.

  6. The n-3 long-chain PUFAs modulate the impact of the GCKR Pro446Leu polymorphism on triglycerides in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Dumont, Julie; Dallongeville, Jean; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; Breidenassel, Christina; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Censi, Laura; Ascensión, Marcos; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Dietary n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) are associated with improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) is a key protein regulating intracellular glucose disposal. Our aim was to investigate: i) the relationship between the GCKR rs1260326 (Pro446Leu) polymorphism and parameters of the MetS; and ii) a potential influence of n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA levels on this relationship in the HELENA study (1,155 European adolescents). Linear regression analyses were performed to study the association between rs1260326 and the outcomes of interest. Interactions between rs1260326 and LC-PUFA levels on outcomes were explored. The T allele of rs1260326 was associated with higher serum TG concentrations compared with the C allele. In contrast to n-6 LC-PUFA levels, a significant interaction (P = 0.01) between rs1260326 and total n-3 LC-PUFA levels on serum TG concentrations was observed. After stratification on the n-3 LC-PUFA median values, the association between rs1260326 and TG concentration was significant only in the group with high n-3 LC-PUFA levels. In conclusion, this is the first evidence that n-3 LC-PUFAs may modulate the impact of the GCKR rs1260326 polymorphism on TG concentrations in adolescents. Several molecular mechanisms, in link with glucose uptake, could explain these findings. PMID:26136510

  7. A high-cholesterol, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet causes different responses in rats and hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Huei; Lu, Shao-Chun; Huang, Po-Chao; Liu, Young-Chau; Liu, Shyun-Yeu

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the response to a high-cholesterol, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or n-6 PUFA diet in rats and hamsters. Animals were fed n-3 or n-6 PUFA with a cholesterol-free diet, or with a diet enriched with cholesterol (0.5%, w/w) for 2 weeks. In rats and hamsters fed a cholesterol-free diet, plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride levels in n-3 PUFA group were significantly lower than those in n-6 PUFA group. In contrast, when diets were supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol, the plasma cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering effect of dietary n-3 PUFA disappeared. In hamsters fed with the atherogenic diet (0.5% dietary cholesterol) for 2 weeks, n-3 PUFA induced hypercholesterolemia more than n-6 PUFA, the increase being in the VLDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions. Our data thus indicate that elevation of VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol in hamsters by n-3 PUFA, compared with n-6 PUFA, is dependent on 0.5% dietary cholesterol supplementation. In rats, on the other hand, dietary n-3 PUFA did not induce hypercholesterolemia more than n-6 PUFA when 0.5% cholesterol was supplemented. Although the effects of n-3 PUFA on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL-triglycerides were similar in hamsters and rats, the interactive effects of n-3 PUFA and cholesterol on plasma and lipoprotein cholesterol levels differed in the two species. It was also found that plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hamsters are higher than in rats in the presence and absence of dietary cholesterol. In addition, cholesterol feeding induces hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia only in hamsters. Moreover, liver triglyceride concentrations increased in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet and hepatic triglyceride levels of the n-3 PUFA-fed rats were significantly lower than those in the n-6 PUFA-fed rats in the presence and absence of dietary cholesterol. However

  8. The autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular disease: role of n-3 PUFAs.

    PubMed

    La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup

    2015-08-01

    In the last decades, a large body of experimental and clinical evidence has been accumulated showing that cardiovascular diseases are often accompanied by an imbalance in the sympathetic-vagal outflow to the heart, resulting in a chronic adrenergic activation. The arterial baroreceptor system is a key component of mechanisms contributing to the neural regulation of the cardiovascular system. Several methods have been proposed to assess autonomic activity by analyzing heart rate and blood pressure changes either spontaneously occurring or following provocations. The autonomic nervous system has been regarded as one of the putative mechanisms involved into the beneficial effects of exposure to n-3 fatty acids observed in epidemiological studies. The aim of the present review is to provide an update on the clinical evidence proposed so far linking exposure to n-3 fatty acids to autonomic nervous system modulation.

  9. The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajie; Ma, David W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA), however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research. PMID:25412153

  10. Human requirement for N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    2000-07-01

    The diet of our ancestors was less dense in calories, being higher in fiber, rich in fruits, vegetables, lean meat, and fish. As a result, the diet was lower in total fat and saturated fat, but contained equal amounts of n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids. Linoleic acid (LA) is the major n-6 fatty acid, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the major n-3 fatty acid. In the body, LA is metabolized to arachidonic acid (AA), and ALA is metabolized to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The ratio of n-6 to n-3 essential fatty acids was 1 to 2:1 with higher levels of the longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as EPA, DHA, and AA, than today's diet. Today this ratio is about 10 to 1:20 to 25 to 1, indicating that Western diets are deficient in n-3 fatty acids compared with the diet on which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established. The n-3 and n-6 EPA are not interconvertible in the human body and are important components of practically all cell membranes. The N-6 and n-3 fatty acids influence eicosanoid metabolism, gene expression, and intercellular cell-to-cell communication. The PUFA composition of cell membranes is, to a great extent, dependent on dietary intake. Therefore, appropriate amounts of dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids need to be considered in making dietary recommendations. These two classes of PUFA should be distinguished because they are metabolically and functionally distinct and have opposing physiological functions; their balance is important for homeostasis and normal development. Studies with nonhuman primates and human newborns indicate that DHA is essential for the normal functional development of the retina and brain, particularly in premature infants. A balanced n-6/n-3 ratio in the diet is essential for normal growth and development and should lead to decreases in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases and improve mental health. Although a recommended dietary allowance for essential

  11. Dietary n-3 PUFA affect lipid metabolism and tissue function-related genes in bovine muscle.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Beate; Hocquette, Jean-Francois; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Nuernberg, Gerd; Nuernberg, Karin

    2012-09-01

    Gene expression profiles of bovine longissimus muscle as affected by dietary n-3 v. n-6 fatty acid (FA) intervention were analysed by microarray pre-screening of >3000 muscle biology/meat quality-related genes as well as subsequent quantitative RT-PCR gene expression validation of genes encoding lipogenesis-related transcription factors (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1), key-lipogenic enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)), lipid storage-associated proteins (adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP)) and muscle biology-related proteins (cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, α1, farnesyl diphosphate farnesyl transferase 1, sema domain 3C (SEMA3C)). Down-regulation of ACACA (P = 0·00), FASN (P = 0·09) and SCD (P = 0·02) gene expression upon an n-3 FA intervention directly corresponded to reduced SFA, MUFA and total FA concentrations in longissimus muscle, whereas changes in ADFP (P = 0·00) and SEMA3C (P = 0·05) gene expression indicated improved muscle function via enhanced energy metabolism, vasculogenesis, innervation and mediator synthesis. The present study highlights the significance of dietary n-3 FA intervention on muscle development, maintenance and function, which are relevant for meat quality tailoring of bovine tissues and modulating animal production-relevant physiological processes.

  12. Effect of pre-emulsified fish oil - as source of PUFA n-3 - on microstructure and sensory properties of mortadella, a Spanish bologna-type sausage.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Ester; García, María Luisa; Selgas, María Dolores

    2008-10-01

    Conventional and low-fat cooked sausages (cursive) were prepared with fish oil as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fish oil was incorporated pre-emulsified with caseinates and water. Pre-emulsion was added in sufficient amounts to give fish oil levels of 1-6% in the final product. Lipid oxidation was determined (TBARs index) and instrumental measures of colour and texture were carried out. A sensory analysis was performed in which sensory parameters were evaluated by a hedonic test. There were no significant changes in TBAR values of final products being similar in both control and fish oil added sausages. In general terms, a slight increase in hardness and work of shearing were observed at the higher fish oil levels independently of the fat content. Sausages were analysed after 90 days of storage under refrigeration and similar results were observed. Microstructure of sausages was also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a more compact structure was observed when the high levels were assayed. However, all sausages were well accepted when sensory quality was evaluated. Fat composition showed an increase in n-3 PUFA yielding a n-6/n-3 ratio close to 2, which is considered as healthier. For this, the incorporation of fish oil pre-emulsified seems to be a good option to include n-3 PUFA in cooked meat products, obtaining sensorially adequate and healthier stable sausages.

  13. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmagid, Salma A.; MacKinnon, Jessica L.; Janssen, Sarah M.; Ma, David W.L.

    2016-01-01

    Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise. These lines of evidence highlight potential new avenues for research and strategies for breast cancer prevention. PMID:27812288

  14. Impulsivity-based thrifty eating phenotype and the protective role of n-3 PUFAs intake in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reis, R S; Dalle Molle, R; Machado, T D; Mucellini, A B; Rodrigues, D M; Bortoluzzi, A; Bigonha, S M; Toazza, R; Salum, G A; Minuzzi, L; Buchweitz, A; Franco, A R; Pelúzio, M C G; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects brain responses to palatable foods and whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain) serum levels moderate the association between IUGR and brain and behavioral responses to palatable foods. Brain responses to palatable foods were investigated using a functional magnetic resonance imaging task in which participants were shown palatable foods, neutral foods and non-food items. Serum DHA was quantified in blood samples, and birth weight ratio (BWR) was used as a proxy for IUGR. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to evaluate eating behaviors. In the contrast palatable food > neutral items, we found an activation in the right superior frontal gyrus with BWR as the most important predictor; the lower the BWR (indicative of IUGR), the greater the activation of this region involved in impulse control/decision making facing the viewing of palatable food pictures versus neutral items. At the behavioral level, a general linear model predicting external eating using the DEBQ showed a significant interaction between DHA and IUGR status; in IUGR individuals, the higher the serum DHA, the lower is external eating. In conclusion, we suggest that IUGR moderates brain responses when facing stimuli related to palatable foods, activating an area related to impulse control. Moreover, higher intake of n-3 PUFAs can protect IUGR individuals from developing inappropriate eating behaviors, the putative mechanism of protection would involve decreasing intake in response to external food cues in adolescents/young adults. PMID:26978737

  15. Impulsivity-based thrifty eating phenotype and the protective role of n-3 PUFAs intake in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reis, R S; Dalle Molle, R; Machado, T D; Mucellini, A B; Rodrigues, D M; Bortoluzzi, A; Bigonha, S M; Toazza, R; Salum, G A; Minuzzi, L; Buchweitz, A; Franco, A R; Pelúzio, M C G; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2016-03-15

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects brain responses to palatable foods and whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain) serum levels moderate the association between IUGR and brain and behavioral responses to palatable foods. Brain responses to palatable foods were investigated using a functional magnetic resonance imaging task in which participants were shown palatable foods, neutral foods and non-food items. Serum DHA was quantified in blood samples, and birth weight ratio (BWR) was used as a proxy for IUGR. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to evaluate eating behaviors. In the contrast palatable food > neutral items, we found an activation in the right superior frontal gyrus with BWR as the most important predictor; the lower the BWR (indicative of IUGR), the greater the activation of this region involved in impulse control/decision making facing the viewing of palatable food pictures versus neutral items. At the behavioral level, a general linear model predicting external eating using the DEBQ showed a significant interaction between DHA and IUGR status; in IUGR individuals, the higher the serum DHA, the lower is external eating. In conclusion, we suggest that IUGR moderates brain responses when facing stimuli related to palatable foods, activating an area related to impulse control. Moreover, higher intake of n-3 PUFAs can protect IUGR individuals from developing inappropriate eating behaviors, the putative mechanism of protection would involve decreasing intake in response to external food cues in adolescents/young adults.

  16. The marine n-3 PUFA DHA evokes cytoprotection against oxidative stress and protein misfolding by inducing autophagy and NFE2L2 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Ida; Monsen, Vivi Talstad; Pettersen, Kristine; Mildenberger, Jennifer; Misund, Kristine; Kaarniranta, Kai; Schønberg, Svanhild; Bjørkøy, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins is a hallmark of several diseases collectively known as proteinopathies. Autophagy has a cytoprotective role in diseases associated with protein aggregates. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common neurodegenerative eye disease that evokes blindness in elderly. AMD is characterized by degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and leads to loss of photoreceptor cells and central vision. The initial phase associates with accumulation of intracellular lipofuscin and extracellular deposits called drusen. Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse correlation between dietary intake of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases, including AMD. However, the disease-preventive mechanism(s) mobilized by n-3 PUFAs is not completely understood. In human retinal pigment epithelial cells we find that physiologically relevant doses of the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induce a transient increase in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels that activates the oxidative stress response regulator NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2). Simultaneously, there is a transient increase in intracellular protein aggregates containing SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) and an increase in autophagy. Pretreatment with DHA rescues the cells from cell cycle arrest induced by misfolded proteins or oxidative stress. Cells with a downregulated oxidative stress response, or autophagy, respond with reduced cell growth and survival after DHA supplementation. These results suggest that DHA both induces endogenous antioxidants and mobilizes selective autophagy of misfolded proteins. Both mechanisms could be relevant to reduce the risk of developing aggregate-associate diseases such as AMD. PMID:26237736

  17. Association of plasma n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with synovitis in the knee: the MOST study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In osteoarthritis (OA) the synovium is often inflamed and inflammatory cytokines contribute to cartilage damage. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory effects whereas omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) have, on balance, proinflammatory effects. The goal ...

  18. Increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acid levels in human plasma after a single dose of long-chain omega-3 PUFA

    PubMed Central

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schneider, Inga; Willenberg, Ina; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D.; Hahn, Andreas; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several supplementation studies with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) describe an increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in blood, while changes in levels of other LC n-3 and n-6 PUFA-derived oxylipins were minor. In order to investigate the kinetics of changes in oxylipin levels in response to LC n-3 PUFA ingestion, we conducted a single dose treatment study with healthy subjects. Subjects and methods In the present kinetic study, we compared patterns of hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in plasma of 6 healthy men before and after 6, 8, 24, and 48 h of fish oil (1008 mg EPA and 672 mg DHA) ingestion. Levels of EPA- as well as other LC PUFA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids were analyzed in plasma by LC–MS. Additionally, levels of these oxylipins were compared with their parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids. Results All EPA-derived oxylipin levels were significantly increased 6 h after LC n-3 PUFA ingestion and gradually drop thereafter reaching the baseline levels about 48 h after treatment. The relative increase in EPA plasma phospholipid levels highly correlated with the increase of plasma EPA-derived oxylipin levels at different time points. In contrast, plasma levels of arachidonic acid- and DHA-derived oxylipins as well as parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids were hardly changed. Discussion and conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a single dose of LC n-3 PUFAs can rapidly induce a shift in the EPA oxylipin profile of healthy subjects within a few hours. Taking the high biological activity of the EPA-derived epoxy fatty acids into account, even short-term treatment with LC n-3 PUFAs may cause systemic effects, which warrant further investigation. PMID:24667634

  19. Searching for health beneficial n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Degen, Christian; Jaudszus, Anke; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2012-02-01

    Various plant seeds have received little attention in fatty acid research. Seeds from 30 species mainly of Boraginaceae and Primulaceae were analysed in order to identify potential new sources of the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) and of the n-6 PUFA γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The fatty acid distribution differed enormously between genera of the same family. Echium species (Boraginaceae) contained the highest amount of total n-3 PUFA (47.1%), predominantly ALA (36.6%) and SDA (10.5%) combined with high GLA (10.2%). Further species of Boraginaceae rich in both SDA and GLA were Omphalodes linifolia (8.4, 17.2%, resp.), Cerinthe minor (7.5, 9.9%, resp.) and Buglossoides purpureocaerulea (6.1, 16.6%, resp.). Alkanna species belonging to Boraginaceae had comparable amounts of ALA (37.3%) and GLA (11.4%) like Echium but lower SDA contents (3.7%). Different genera of Primulaceae (Dodecatheon and Primula) had varying ALA (14.8, 28.8%, resp.) and GLA portions (4.1, 1.5%, resp.), but similar amounts of SDA (4.9, 4.5%, resp.). Cannabis sativa cultivars (Cannabaceae) were rich in linoleic acid (57.1%), but poor in SDA and GLA (0.8, 2.7%, resp.). In conclusion, several of the presented plant seeds contain considerable amounts of n-3 PUFA and GLA, which could be relevant for nutritional purposes due to their biological function as precursors for eicosanoid synthesis. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: N-3 PUFA are important for human health and nutrition. Unfortunately, due to the increasing world population, overfishing of the seas and generally low amounts of n-3 PUFA in major oil crops, there is a demand for new sources of n-3 PUFA. One approach involves searching for potential vegetable sources of n-3 PUFA; especially those rich in ALA and SDA. The conversion of ALA to SDA in humans is dependent on the rate-limiting Δ6-desaturation. Plant-derived SDA is therefore a promising precursor regarding the endogenous synthesis of n-3 long-chain PUFA in humans. The

  20. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis.

  1. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids exert immunomodulatory effects on lymphocytes by targeting plasma membrane molecular organization

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Jolly, Christopher A.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Fish oil, enriched in bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has therapeutic value for the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders. The effects of n-3 PUFAs are pleiotropic and complex; hence, an understanding of their cellular targets and molecular mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Here we focus on recent data indicating n-3 PUFAs exert immunosuppressive effects on the function of effector and regulatory CD4+ T cells. In addition, we also present emerging evidence that n-3 PUFAs have immunomodulatory effects on B cells. We then focus on one multifaceted mechanism of n-3 PUFAs, which is the alteration of the biophysical and biochemical organization of the plasma membrane. This mechanism is central for downstream signaling, eicosanoid production, transcriptional regulation and cytokine secretion. We highlight recent work demonstrating n-3 PUFA acyl chains in the plasma membrane target the lateral organization of membrane signaling assemblies (i.e. lipid rafts or signaling networks) and de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. We conclude by proposing new functional and mechanistic questions in this area of research that will aid in the development of fish oil as adjuvant therapy for treating unresolved chronic inflammation. PMID:22020145

  2. Opportunities to enhance alternative sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids within the diet.

    PubMed

    Delarue, Jacques; Guriec, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Health benefits or advocated health benefits of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA are better known by medical doctors as well as by consumers, so that consumption increases. In addition, the development of aquaculture requires more fishmeal and fish oil. Humanisation of care of companion animals is also associated with addition of LC n-3 PUFA in pet foods. The risk of the increased demand for LC n-3 PUFA is the excess harvesting of natural sources, especially of marine origin (oily fishes, krill). In order to improve sustainability, alternative sources of LC n-3 PUFA have been developed. These alternative sources are: (a) terrestrial plants naturally or genetically enriched in stearidonic acid (SDA), which bypasses the first limiting step of (i.e. ∆6 desaturase) of the biosynthesis of LC n-3 PUFA; (b) single-cell oils rich in LC n-3 PUFA (microalgae, Escherichia coli) and krill. Currently, plants rich in SDA are expensive, metabolic engineering is unfavourably accepted by consumers in many countries, cultivation of microalgae is very expensive even though their ability (for some of them) to synthesise biofuels could induce a decrease in industrial costs, and Antarctic krill harvest must be restricted. Thus, it is difficult to predict their real development in the future.

  3. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis.

  4. Nutritional quality of salmon products available from major retailers in the UK: content and composition of n-3 long-chain PUFA.

    PubMed

    Henriques, João; Dick, James R; Tocher, Douglas R; Bell, J Gordon

    2014-09-28

    In the present study, salmon products available from UK retailers were analysed to determine the levels of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), a key determinant of nutritional quality. There was a wide variation in the proportions and absolute contents of EPA and DHA in the products. Relatively high contents of 18 : 1n-9, 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3, characteristic of vegetable oils (VO), were found in several farmed salmon products, which also had generally lower proportions of EPA and DHA. In contrast, farmed salmon products with higher levels of 16 : 0 and 22 : 1, characteristic of fish oil (FO), had higher proportions of EPA and DHA. Therefore, there was a clear correlation between the levels of VO and FO in feeds and the proportions of n-3 LC-PUFA in products. Although wild salmon products were characterised by higher proportions of n-3 LC-PUFA (20-40%) compared with farmed fish (9-26%), they contained lower total lipid contents (1-6% compared with 7-17% in farmed salmon products). As a result, farmed salmon products invariably had higher levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in absolute terms (g/100 g fillet) and, therefore, delivered a higher 'dose' of EPA and DHA per portion. Overall, despite the finite and limiting supply of FO and increasing use of VO, farmed salmon continue to be an excellent source of and delivery system for n-3 LC-PUFA to consumers.

  5. Nutritional quality of salmon products available from major retailers in the UK: content and composition of n-3 long-chain PUFA.

    PubMed

    Henriques, João; Dick, James R; Tocher, Douglas R; Bell, J Gordon

    2014-09-28

    In the present study, salmon products available from UK retailers were analysed to determine the levels of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), a key determinant of nutritional quality. There was a wide variation in the proportions and absolute contents of EPA and DHA in the products. Relatively high contents of 18 : 1n-9, 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3, characteristic of vegetable oils (VO), were found in several farmed salmon products, which also had generally lower proportions of EPA and DHA. In contrast, farmed salmon products with higher levels of 16 : 0 and 22 : 1, characteristic of fish oil (FO), had higher proportions of EPA and DHA. Therefore, there was a clear correlation between the levels of VO and FO in feeds and the proportions of n-3 LC-PUFA in products. Although wild salmon products were characterised by higher proportions of n-3 LC-PUFA (20-40%) compared with farmed fish (9-26%), they contained lower total lipid contents (1-6% compared with 7-17% in farmed salmon products). As a result, farmed salmon products invariably had higher levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in absolute terms (g/100 g fillet) and, therefore, delivered a higher 'dose' of EPA and DHA per portion. Overall, despite the finite and limiting supply of FO and increasing use of VO, farmed salmon continue to be an excellent source of and delivery system for n-3 LC-PUFA to consumers. PMID:25017007

  6. Low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA and edible seaweed: Effects of olive oil and chilled storage on physicochemical, sensory and microbial characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2009-09-01

    This article reports a study of the physicochemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of low-fat (10%) and n-3 PUFA-enriched frankfurters as affected by addition of seaweed (5% Himanthalia elongata), partial substitution (50%) of animal fat by olive oil and chilled storage (41days at 2°C). The presence of seaweed improved water and fat binding properties, reduced (P<0.05) lightness and redness and increased (P<0.05) the hardness and chewiness of low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA. The effect of olive oil on those characteristics was less pronounced than that of seaweed. Replacing pork backfat with olive oil in frankfurters produced acceptable sensory characteristics, similar to control, while addition of seaweed resulted in less acceptable products, due mainly to the special flavour of the seaweed. Formulation and storage time affected the total viable count and lactic acid bacteria count. Frankfurters containing olive oil and seaweed had the highest total viable count from day 14 of storage, with lactic acid bacteria becoming the predominant microflora. PMID:20416775

  7. Application of Silver Ion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Quantitative Analysis of Selected n-3 and n-6 PUFA in Oil Supplements.

    PubMed

    Czajkowska-Mysłek, Anna; Siekierko, Urszula; Gajewska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple method for simultaneous determination of selected cis/cis PUFA-LNA (18:2), ALA (18:3), GLA (18:3), EPA (20:5), and DHA (22:6) by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (Ag-HPLC-DAD). The separation was performed on three Luna SCX Silver Loaded columns connected in series maintained at 10 °C with isocratic elution by 1% acetonitrile in n-hexane. The applied chromatographic system allowed a baseline separation of standard mixture of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid methyl esters containing LNA, DHA, and EPA and partial separation of ALA and GLA positional isomers. The method was validated by means of linearity, precision, stability, and recovery. Limits of detection (LOD) for considered PUFA standard solutions ranged from 0.27 to 0.43 mg L(-1). The developed method was used to evaluate of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids contents in plant and fish softgel oil capsules, results were compared with reference GC-FID based method. PMID:26939680

  8. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Dulce Alves; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Pereira, Hugo; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Varela, João; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

    2013-01-01

    The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented. PMID:23807546

  9. DNA methylation patterns are associated with n-3 fatty acid intake in Yup'ik people.

    PubMed

    Aslibekyan, Stella; Wiener, Howard W; Havel, Peter J; Stanhope, Kimber L; O'Brien, Diane M; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Absher, Devin M; Tiwari, Hemant K; Boyer, Bert B

    2014-04-01

    A large body of evidence links a high dietary intake of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with improved cardiometabolic outcomes. Recent studies suggested that the biologic processes underlying the observed associations may involve epigenetic changes, specifically DNA methylation. To evaluate changes in methylation associated with n-3 PUFA intake, we conducted an epigenome-wide methylation association study of long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and tested associations between the diabetes- and cardiovascular disease-related traits. We assessed DNA methylation at ∼470,000 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites in a cross-sectional study of 185 Yup'ik Alaska Native individuals representing the top and bottom deciles of PUFA intake. Linear regression models were used to test for the associations of interest, adjusting for age, sex, and community group. We identified 27 differentially methylated CpG sites at biologically relevant regions that reached epigenome-wide significance (P < 1 × 10⁻⁷). Specifically, regions on chromosomes 3 (helicase-like transcription factor), 10 (actin α 2 smooth muscle/Fas cell surface death receptor), and 16 (protease serine 36/C16 open reading frame 67) each harbored 2 significant correlates of n-3 PUFA intake. In conclusion, we present promising evidence of association between several biologically relevant epigenetic markers and long-term intake of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs. PMID:24477300

  10. C19 odd-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUfas) are metabolized to C21-PUfas in a rat liver cell line, and curcumin, gallic acid, and their related compounds inhibit their desaturation.

    PubMed

    Nakano, N; Shirasaka, N; Koyama, H; Hino, M; Murakami, T; Shimizu, S; Yoshizumi, H

    2000-08-01

    It was demonstrated that the rat liver cell line BRL-3A converted exogenous C19 odd chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into the corresponding C21- and C23-PUFAs as follows: 21:3n-8, 21:4n-8, 23:3n-8, and 23:4n-8 (from 19:3n-8); 21:4n-5, 21:5n-5, 23:4n-5, and 23:5n-5 (from 19:4n-5); 21:5n-2, 21:6n-2, 23:5n-2, and 23:6n-2 (from 19:5n-2). It presumed that these C19 PUFAs were converted through the mimic route to docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) from eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3). In addition, the characterization of the change of fatty acid composition of cellular lipids in rat liver cells were examined, using 19:4n-5 and several fatty acid desaturation inhibitors. Curcumin related compounds, curcumin, capsaicin, isoeugenol, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one, and gallic acid esters with near five carbon numbered alcohol had great changes of fatty acid composition of cellular lipids based on inhibition of the A6 desaturation of C24-PUFAs in rat liver cells.

  11. Gender differences in the n-3 fatty acid content of tissues.

    PubMed

    Childs, Caroline E; Romeu-Nadal, Meritxell; Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2008-02-01

    Dietary n-3 PUFA have many beneficial effects on cell and tissue function and on human health. In mammals the n-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALNA) can be converted into longer-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA such as EPA and DHA via a series of desaturase and elongase enzymes that are mainly active in the liver. Human studies have identified that males and females appear to differ in their ability to synthesise EPA and DHA from ALNA, with associated differences in circulating concentrations. Based on studies of women using the contraceptive pill or hormone-replacement therapy and of trans-sexual subjects it is suggested that sex hormones play a role in these differences. The rat has been used to investigate gender differences in n-3 PUFA status since this model allows greater dietary control than is possible in human subjects. Like human subjects, female rats have higher plasma DHA concentrations than males. Rats also respond to increased dietary ALNA in a way that is comparable with available human data. The concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA in rat plasma and tissues are positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone and negatively associated with circulating concentrations of testosterone. These findings suggest that sex hormones act to modify plasma and tissue n-3 PUFA content, possibly by altering the expression of desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver, which is currently under investigation. PMID:18234128

  12. Occurrence of Hexacosapolyenoic Acids 26:7(n-3), 26:6(n-3), 26:6(n-6) and 26:5(n-3) in Deep-Sea Brittle Stars from Near the Kuril Islands.

    PubMed

    Svetashev, Vasily; Kharlamenko, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    Significant amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with a chain length of 26 carbon atoms were detected in lipids of five deep water species of Ophiuroidea besides common fatty acids with chain lengths between 14 and 24. By means of hydrogenation, GC-MS of the methyl esters, and 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) derivatives of these C26 acids were characterized as 5,8,11,14,17,20,23-hexacosaheptaenoic [26:7(n-3)]; 8,11,14,17,20,23-hexacosahexaenoic [26:6(n-3)]; 5,8,11,14,17,20- hexacosahexaenoic [26:6(n-6)]; and 11,14,17,20,23-hexacosapentaenoic [26:5(n-3)]. Concentrations of these acids varied from 0.3 to 4.5 mol% of the total FA. In all the samples investigated, the main component of C26PUFA was hexacosaheptaenoic acid 26:7(n-3). These C26PUFA are localized mainly in polar lipids. The presence of the possible biosynthesis precursors suggests that the C26PUFA are produced by the brittle stars, and are not accumulated from food sources. This finding can also explain the presence of small amounts of the 26:7(n-3) acid detected earlier in flesh lipids of the roughscale sole Clidoderma asperrimum, which feeds on deep water brittle stars. We suggest a possible scheme of the biosynthesis of C26 PUFA.

  13. Impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognition, motor skills and hippocampal neurogenesis in developing C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Carola I F; Zerbi, Valerio; Mutsaers, Martina P C; de Jong, Bas S W; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Geenen, Bram; Heerschap, Arend; Muskiet, Frits A J; Jouni, Zeina E; van Tol, Eric A F; Gross, Gabriele; Homberg, Judith R; Berg, Brian M; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is critical during perinatal development of the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 PUFA in the brain and influences neuronal membrane function and neuroprotection. The present study aims to assess the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA availability during the gestational and postnatal period on cognition, brain metabolism and neurohistology in C57BL/6J mice. Female wild-type C57BL/6J mice at day 0 of gestation were randomly assigned to either an n-3 PUFA deficient diet (0.05% of total fatty acids) or an n-3 PUFA adequate diet (3.83% of total fatty acids) containing preformed DHA and its precursor α-linolenic acid. Male offspring remained on diet and performed cognitive tests during puberty and adulthood. In adulthood, animals underwent (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess brain energy metabolites. Thereafter, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed assessing inflammation, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Compared to the n-3 PUFA deficient group, pubertal n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice demonstrated increased motor coordination. Adult n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice exhibited increased exploratory behavior, sensorimotor integration and spatial memory, while neurogenesis in the hippocampus was decreased. Selected brain regions of n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice contained significantly lower levels of arachidonic acid and higher levels of DHA and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. Our data suggest that dietary n-3 PUFA can modify neural maturation and enhance brain functioning in healthy C57BL/6J mice. This indicates that availability of n-3 PUFA in infant diet during early development may have a significant impact on brain development.

  14. A genome-wide association study of n-3 and n-6 plasma fatty acids in a Singaporean Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Sun, Ye; Han, Yi; Ke, Tingjing; Burger, Ayala; Chang, Xuling; Low, Hui Qi; Guan, Weihua; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; Tai, E Shyong; Liu, Jianjun; van Dam, Rob M; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2015-11-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a major impact on human health. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic loci that are associated with plasma levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in primarily subjects of European ancestry. However, the relevance of these findings has not been evaluated extensively in other ethnic groups. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate for genetic loci associated with n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and to validate the role of recently identified index loci using data from a Singaporean Chinese population. Using a GWAS approach, we evaluated associations with plasma concentrations of three n-3 PUFAs [alphalinolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid], four n-6 PUFAs [linoleic acid (LA), gammalinolenic acid, dihomogammalinolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid], and estimates of delta-5 desaturase and delta-6 desaturase activities among the participants (N = 1361) of the Singaporean Chinese Health Study. Our results reveal robust genome-wide associations (p value <5 × 10(-8)) with ALA, all four n-6 PUFAs, and delta-6 desaturase activity at the FADS1/FADS2 locus. We further replicated the associations between common index variants at the NTAN1/PDXDC1 locus and n-6 PUFAs LA and DGLA, and between the JMJD1C locus and n-6 PUFA LA (p value between 0.0490 and 9.88 × 10(-4)). These associations were independent of dietary intake of PUFAs. In aggregate, we show that genetic loci that influence plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are shared across different ethnic groups. PMID:26584805

  15. Test meals rich in marine long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase postprandial chylomicron response.

    PubMed

    Griffo, E; Di Marino, L; Patti, L; Bozzetto, L; Annuzzi, G; Cipriano, P; Mangione, A; Della Pepa, G; Cocozza, S; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A

    2014-08-01

    Postprandial lipid abnormalities are considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Hence, it is important to find nutritional strategies that are able to positively influence these abnormalities. Since the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and polyphenols on postprandial lipids in humans is still under debate, we evaluated the acute response of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to test meals that are naturally rich in polyphenols and/or marine long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs. We hypothesized that LC n-3 PUFA would have a different effect on chylomicron and very low density lipoproteins when compared with polyphenols or their combination. We randomly assigned 78 individuals who were at high cardiometabolic risk to 4 isoenergetic diets. These diets only differed in amount of LC n-3 PUFA and/or polyphenols. Prior to starting the intervention, each subject underwent a test meal similar to the type of diet assigned: low in LC n-3 PUFA and polyphenols (control), rich in LC n-3 PUFA and low in polyphenols, rich in polyphenols and low in LC n-3 PUFA, or rich in both. Blood samples were taken before and up to 6 hours after the test meal in order to evaluate cholesterol and triglycerides (plasma and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein), apolipoprotein B-48 (large very low density lipoprotein), glucagon-like peptide-1, and free fatty acid plasma levels. The levels of chylomicron cholesterol and triglyceride in response to the test meal rich in LC n-3 PUFA were significantly higher than after the control meal (P = .037 and P = .018); there was no difference in the other variables. In conclusion, this study indicates that acute administration of marine LC n-3 PUFA increases postprandial chylomicron response in contrast with their lowering chronic effects. These differences underline the importance of understanding the acute and chronic effects of nutritional, as well as of other types of, interventions. PMID:25193793

  16. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids - New anabolic compounds improving protein metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous animal studies demonstrated that chronic feeding of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) that modifies muscle membrane fatty acid composition promotes protein anabolism by blunting the age-associated deterioration in insulin sensitivity. The current study assessed, as a pr...

  17. Filled hydrogel particles as a delivery system for n-3 long chain PUFA in low-fat frankfurters: Consequences for product characteristics with special reference to lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    This article examines the suitability of filled hydrogel particles for use as a delivery system for n-3 long chain PUFAs in low-fat frankfurters. Their effects on product characteristics over chilled storage were compared with those of frankfurters containing all-pork fat (control) or a comparable amount of fish oil (n-3 LCPUFA) incorporated in liquid form or in an oil-in-water emulsion. In modified samples n-3 fatty acids ranged between 801.34 to 996.37 mg/100g as opposed to 66 mg/100g in all-pork fat product. As compared with the control, hardness and chewiness values were similar (P>0.05) in filled hydrogel frankfurter. The presence of fish oil favoured lipid oxidation to varying degrees depending on delivery system, in descending order: direct oil addition>oil-in-water emulsion>hydrogels. Sensory evaluation demonstrated the advantages, from a sensory point of view, of hydrogel filled particles as n-3 delivery systems in frankfurters. PMID:26232749

  18. A case-control pilot study on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid as a negative risk factor for myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Hatada, Katsuharu; Katoh, Kiminori; Kodama, Makoto; Nakamura, Yuichi; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2005-07-01

    The relation between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and nonfatal myocardial infarction is still controversial. A multicenter case-control pilot study on n-3 PUFA as a negative risk factor for myocardial infarction was performed in Niigata prefecture. Seventy-three patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and age and gender matched controls (n = 84) were recruited. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in patients with AMI than the controls (8.1 +/- 6.7 ng/mL versus 5.8 +/- 3.7 ng/mL, P < 0.01), and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) levels were significantly lower in patients with AMI than the controls (46 +/- 10.5 mg/dL versus 60 +/- 15 mg/dL, P < 0.00001). Statistically significant differences were preserved in leptin and HDLc when the data were analyzed separately by gender. Serum levels (%weight) of linolenic acid (C18:3:n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5:n3), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5:n3), and total n-3 PUFA were significantly lower in patients with AMI than the control group (P < 0.000001, < 0.05, < 0.05, < 0.05, respectively). The serum n-3 PUFA/saturated fatty acid (SF) ratio and n-3 PUFA/n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) ratio were significantly lower in patients with AMI than the controls (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). When the subjects were separated into two categories according to an n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio below 0.3 or above 0.3, patients with AMI were more frequently in the former while the controls were more frequently in the latter (P < 0.05). N-3 PUFA may be a negative risk factor for AMI. The results suggest leptin is a risk factor for AMI irrespective of ethnicity and gender. PMID:16157949

  19. n-3 fatty acids: role in neurogenesis and neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Crupi, R; Marino, A; Cuzzocrea, S

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential unsaturated fatty acids with a double bond (C=C) starting after the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. They are important nutrients but, unfortunately, mammals cannot synthesize them, whereby they must be obtained from food sources or from supplements. Amongst nutritionally important polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are highly concentrated in the brain and have anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. They are involved in many bodily processes and may reportedly lead to neuron protection in neurological diseases. aged or damaged neurons and in Alzheimer's disease. Their effect in cognitive and behavioral functions and in several neurological and psychiatric disorders has been also proven. The dentate gyrus (DG), a sub-region of hippocampus, is implicated in cognition and mood regulation. The hippocampus represents one of the two areas in the mammalian brain in which adult neurogenesis occurs. This process is associated with beneficial effects on cognition, mood and chronic pharmacological treatment. The exposure to n-3 fatty acids enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis associated with cognitive and behavioral processes, promotes synaptic plasticity by increasing long-term potentiation and modulates synaptic protein expression to stimulate the dendritic arborization and new spines formation. On this basis we review the effect of n-3 fatty acids on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Moreover their possible use as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases is pointed out. PMID:23746276

  20. Regulation of tissue LC-PUFA contents, Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase (FADS2) gene expression and the methylation of the putative FADS2 gene promoter by different dietary fatty acid profiles in Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus).

    PubMed

    Xu, Houguo; Dong, Xiaojing; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zuo, Rantao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the influences of different dietary fatty acid profiles on the tissue content and biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in a euryhaline species Japanese seabass reared in seawater. Six diets were prepared, each with a characteristic fatty acid: Diet PA: Palmitic acid (C16:0); Diet SA: Stearic acid (C18:0); Diet OA: Oleic acid (C18:1n-9); Diet LNA: α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3); Diet N-3 LC-PUFA: n-3 LC-PUFA (DHA+EPA); Diet FO: the fish oil control. A 10-week feeding trial was conducted using juvenile fish (29.53 ± 0.86 g). The results showed that Japanese seabass had limited capacity to synthesize LC-PUFA and fish fed PA, SA, OA and LNA showed significantly lower tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents compared to fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. The putative gene promoter and full-length cDNA of FADS2 was cloned and characterized. The protein sequence was confirmed to be homologous to FADS2s of marine teleosts and possessed all the characteristic features of microsomal fatty acid desaturases. The FADS2 transcript levels in liver of fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO were significantly lower than those in fish fed other diets except LNA while Diet PA significantly up-regulated the FADS2 gene expression compared to Diet LNA, N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. Inversely, fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO showed significantly higher promoter methylation rates of FADS2 gene compared to fish fed the LC-PUFA deficient diets. These results suggested that Japanese seabass had low LC-PUFA synthesis capacity and LC-PUFA deficient diets caused significantly reduced tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The liver gene expression of FADS2 was up-regulated in groups enriched in C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9 respectively but not in the group enriched in C18:3n-3 compared to groups with high n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The FADS2 gene expression regulated by dietary fatty acids was significantly negatively correlated with the methylation rate of putative FADS2 gene promoter.

  1. Regulation of Tissue LC-PUFA Contents, Δ6 Fatty Acyl Desaturase (FADS2) Gene Expression and the Methylation of the Putative FADS2 Gene Promoter by Different Dietary Fatty Acid Profiles in Japanese Seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus)

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zuo, Rantao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the influences of different dietary fatty acid profiles on the tissue content and biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in a euryhaline species Japanese seabass reared in seawater. Six diets were prepared, each with a characteristic fatty acid: Diet PA: Palmitic acid (C16:0); Diet SA: Stearic acid (C18:0); Diet OA: Oleic acid (C18:1n-9); Diet LNA: α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3); Diet N-3 LC-PUFA: n-3 LC-PUFA (DHA+EPA); Diet FO: the fish oil control. A 10-week feeding trial was conducted using juvenile fish (29.53±0.86 g). The results showed that Japanese seabass had limited capacity to synthesize LC-PUFA and fish fed PA, SA, OA and LNA showed significantly lower tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents compared to fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. The putative gene promoter and full-length cDNA of FADS2 was cloned and characterized. The protein sequence was confirmed to be homologous to FADS2s of marine teleosts and possessed all the characteristic features of microsomal fatty acid desaturases. The FADS2 transcript levels in liver of fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO were significantly lower than those in fish fed other diets except LNA while Diet PA significantly up-regulated the FADS2 gene expression compared to Diet LNA, N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. Inversely, fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO showed significantly higher promoter methylation rates of FADS2 gene compared to fish fed the LC-PUFA deficient diets. These results suggested that Japanese seabass had low LC-PUFA synthesis capacity and LC-PUFA deficient diets caused significantly reduced tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The liver gene expression of FADS2 was up-regulated in groups enriched in C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9 respectively but not in the group enriched in C18:3n-3 compared to groups with high n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The FADS2 gene expression regulated by dietary fatty acids was significantly negatively correlated with the methylation rate of putative FADS2 gene promoter. PMID:24498178

  2. Physiological management of dietary deficiency in n-3 fatty acids by spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joshua T; Green, Christopher C

    2015-08-01

    Lipid dynamics of spawning fish are critical to the production of viable embryos and larvae. The present study utilized manipulation of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles to examine the ability of spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to mobilize critical lipid components from somatic reserves or synthesize long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) de novo from shorter-chain C18 precursors. An egg and multi-tissue evaluation of changes in FA concentrations across time after fish were switched from LC-PUFA-rich to LC-PUFA-deficient experimental diets was employed. The two experimental diets contained lipid sources which differed drastically in n-3 C18 FA content but had similar levels of n-6 C18 FAs. Discrete effects of dietary n-3 FAs can be analyzed because n-3 and n-6 represent distinct metabolic families which cannot be exchanged in vivo. Results indicate that a combination of mobilization and de novo synthesis is likely utilized to maintain physiologically required FA levels in critical tissues and embryos. Mobilization was supported by decreases in LC-PUFAs in somatic tissues and decreases in intraperitoneal fat content and liver mass. Evidence for biosynthesis was provided by a higher level of n-3 LC-PUFAs in the liver and ova of fish fed diets containing n-3 C18 precursors versus those fed diets with low levels of precursor FAs. The characteristic physiological plasticity of Gulf killifish is exemplified in the nutritional domain by its management of dietary FA deficiency. PMID:25939715

  3. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation in Obesity: Local Effect and Systemic Benefit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Huang, Feiruo

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelming consensus emerges among countless evidences that obesity is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissue (AT), which subsequently develops into a systemic inflammatory state contributing to obesity-associated diseases. N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), known as important modulators participating in inflammatory process, turn out to be an effective mitigating strategy dealing with local and systemic inflammation observed in obesity. Some of the effects of n-3 PUFA are brought about by regulation of gene expression through interacting with nuclear receptors and transcription factors; other effects are elicited by modulation of the amount and type of mediator derived from PUFAs. The metabolic effects of n-3 PUFA mainly result from their interactions with several organ systems, not limited to AT. Notably, the attenuation of inflammation in hard-hit AT, in turn, contributes to reducing circulating concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and detrimental metabolic derivatives, which is beneficial for the function of other involved organs. The present review highlights a bridging mechanism between n-3 PUFA-mediated inflammation relief in AT and systemic benefits. PMID:26339623

  4. Development of Rabbit Meat Products Fortified With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA. PMID:22253971

  5. Effect of antioxidants on stabilization of meat products fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Faustman, C; Djordjevic, D; Faraji, H; Decker, E A

    2006-01-01

    The effects of an n-3 oil emulsion, with and without added antioxidants, on lipid oxidation in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-fortified meat products were studied. An emulsion of n-3 PUFAs was prepared (25% algal oil, 2.5% whey protein isolates, 10mM sodium citrate, 0.2% potassium sorbate, 500ppm of 70% mixed tocopherols, 100μM EDTA, pH 3, pasteurized at 75°C for 30min) and incorporated into fresh ground turkey, and fresh pork sausage (20% fat) to achieve a concentration of 500mg n-3 PUFA/110g meat. An antioxidant combination containing rosemary (0.2% w/w; radical quencher), citrate (0.5% w/w; sequestrant) and erythorbate (1g/kg product; reductant) was prepared and incorporated into ground turkey patties (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick) or fresh pork sausages (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick). Meat products were stored at 4°C or -18°C and analyzed for color (L*, a*, b* values), lipid oxidation (TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides) and n-3 PUFA profile. a* Values of refrigerated ground turkey patties decreased with storage, and an antioxidant combination effect was observed after 4 days (P<0.05). For fresh pork sausages at 4°C, control+antioxidant (CON+ANTI), and n-3+antioxidant (n-3+ANTI) groups showed greater a* values than controls (CON) indicating that the antioxidant combination stabilized meat color. TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides of both n-3 PUFA-enhanced meat products increased with storage (P<0.05); there were no significant changes in TBARS or lipid hydroperoxides for treatments containing the antioxidant combination (P<0.05). The actual level of n-3 PUFA incorporation in both meat products was greater than 87%; n-3 PUFA concentrations did not change within any treatment during storage (P>0.05). These results provide support for including antioxidant protection in n-3 PUFA fortified meat products.

  6. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter the expression of genes involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis in the bovine uterus.

    PubMed

    Coyne, G S; Kenny, D A; Childs, S; Sreenan, J M; Waters, S M

    2008-09-15

    Nutrition plays a critical role in the regulation of cow fertility. There is emerging evidence that dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may act as specific regulators of some reproductive processes. In vitro studies suggest that the n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may play pivotal roles by suppressing the synthesis of uterine prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) which is centrally involved in the control of the bovine oestrous cycle and in early embryo survival. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of dietary inclusion of n-3 PUFA on uterine endometrial mRNA expression of key genes regulating PGF(2alpha) biosynthesis. Beef heifers were fed either a low (CON; n=10) or high (HIGH PUFA; n=10) n-3 PUFA diet for 45 days and endometrial tissues were harvested following slaughter. Following analysis, tissues within each dietary group were ranked on the basis of their PUFA concentrations and the highest (n=7) and lowest (n=7) within each of HIGH PUFA and CON, respectively, were used in gene expression studies. Endometrial n-3 PUFA concentrations were more than two-fold higher (P<0.05) and EPA concentrations alone more than seven-fold higher (P<0.01) in the HIGH PUFA than the CON group. Endometrial concentrations of arachidonic acid, were lower (P<0.001) in the tissues from HIGH PUFA than those from the CON group. Total RNA was isolated from all endometrial tissues and real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR conducted to compare the relative expression of 11 genes with known involvement in uterine biosynthesis of 2-series prostaglandins. Expression of mRNA for prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, PPAR alpha and delta was increased (P<0.05) while mRNA expression of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) was decreased (P=0.06) in the HIGH PUFA endometrial tissues. Expression of genes coding for the oxytocin receptor (OTR), phospholipase C (PLC

  7. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.; Mersmann, Harry M.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27735847

  8. Effects of marine n-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of soluble adhesion molecules in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Eschen, O; Christensen, J H; LA Rovere, M T; Romano, P; Sala, P; Schmidt, E B

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory markers as circulating soluble cellular adhesion molecules (sCAMs) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) are elevated in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and may constitute an increased risk of adverse outcome. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( n-3 PUFA) may have anti-inflammatory effect and reduce levels of sCAMs (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), P-selectin) and hsCRP. In a randomized, controlled trial, 138 patients with NYHA class II-III CHF were allocated to receive a daily supplement of 0.9 g of n-3 PUFA or olive oil for 24 weeks. After supplementation, no significant changes occurred in sCAMs or hsCRP after adjusting for possible confounders. However, a significant reduction was observed in sP-selectin in patients receiving n-3 PUFA, but this result was only of borderline significance in a between-group analysis. In conclusion, a daily supplement with 0.9 g of n-3 PUFA does not significantly affect plasma levels of sCAMs or hs-CRP in patients with CHF. n-3 PUFA may reduce sP-selectin, indicating a possible effect on platelet (and endothelial) activation. The results also indicate that the low dose of n-3 PUFA used in many intervention trials does not have deleterious effects on sCAMs or hsCRP.

  9. Does sow reproduction and piglet performance benefit from the addition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to the maternal diet?

    PubMed

    Tanghe, Sofie; De Smet, Stefaan

    2013-09-01

    Good sow reproductive performance and piglet survival are essential for the profitability of the pig industry. Based on basic research of fatty acid and endocrine metabolism, it has been suggested that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could enhance reproductive outcome. However, proper requirements for these nutrients in sow diets have not been established. This review examines the literature on the effect of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet on sow reproduction and piglet performance. Few reported studies have included biochemical analyses, e.g. eicosanoid concentrations or gene expression data, which could help elucidate any link between dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation and reproduction. Additionally, most studies used relatively low numbers of pigs, limiting the validity of the conclusions which can be drawn. In pregnant pigs, supplementing with n-3 PUFA has not been shown to increase significantly the number of embryos (in gilts) or (in most studies) the total number of piglets born (live and/or stillborn), but may prolong gestation, although the literature is not consistent. Most studies found no effect of n-3 PUFA on piglet birth weight, although positive effects on piglet vitality and pre- and post-weaning growth have been reported. In contrast to the impact during pregnancy, low amounts of n-3 PUFA in the lactation diet may increase litter size in the subsequent gestation.

  10. Vulnerability to dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency after exposure to early stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Fries, Gabriel Rodrigo; de Aguiar, Bianca Wollenhaupt; Senter, Gabrielle; Kapczinski, Flávio Pereira; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Dalmaz, Carla

    2013-06-01

    The exposure to adverse events early in life may affect brain development. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) deficiency has been linked to the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between variations in the early environment (handling or maternal separation) and the chronic exposure to a nutritional n-3 PUFA deficiency on locomotor activity, sucrose preference, forced swimming test and on serum and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Rats were randomized into Non-handled (NH), Neonatal Handled (H) and Maternal Separated (MS) groups. Pups were removed from their dams (incubator at 32°C on postnatal days (PND) 1-10) during 10 min/day (H) or 3h/day (MS). On PND 35, males were subdivided into diets adequate or deficient in n-3 PUFA for 15 weeks. H and MS gained weight differently, and animals receiving the n-3 PUFA deficient diet gained less weight. MS displayed a higher food consumption and higher consumption of sucrose solution during the second hour of exposure to the sucrose preference test. No differences were observed in the swimming test. H group had increased locomotion and showed a higher response to amfepramone. No significant effect was observed on serum BDNF levels. BDNF protein levels were decreased in animals receiving the n-3 PUFA deficient diet. We observed that early life environment and a mild n-3 PUFA deficiency are able to affect several behavioral aspects (food and sucrose consumption and locomotor response), and lead to a differential hippocampal BDNF metabolism in adult life.

  11. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27679638

  12. N-3 fatty acids modulate Th1 and Th2 dichotomy in diabetic pregnancy and macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naim Akhtar; Yessoufou, Akadiri; Kim, Minji; Hichami, Aziz

    2006-06-01

    We assessed the implication of Th (helper)-cells and the modulation of the Th1/Th2 dichotomy by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in type I diabetic pregnancy (DP) and macrosomia. Female gestant rats fed a standard diet or n-3 PUFA regimen were rendered diabetic by administration of five low doses of streptozotocin. The macrosomic (MAC) offspring were sacrificed at the age of 90 days. The mRNAs of IL-2 and IFN-gamma (Th1 cytokines) and IL-4 (Th2 cytokine) were downregulated in the pancreas and spleen of diabetic pregnant rats. The levels of IL-10 mRNA, another Th2 cytokine, were unchanged in the spleen or upregulated in the pancreas of these animals. Feeding an n-3 PUFA diet to rats with DP upregulated IL-10 mRNA in the pancreas and IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA in the spleen. In MAC offspring, high expression of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA, but not of Th2 cytokines, was observed. The n-3 PUFA diet diminished Th1 mRNA quantities and increased the levels of IL-4, but not of IL-10, mRNA in MAC offspring. Our study shows that DP is associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype and IL-4 mRNA expression in the pancreas and spleen, and an n-3 PUFA diet upregulates Th2 profile. In MAC offspring, the Th1 phenotype is upregulated and an n-3 PUFA diet downregulates this phenomenon.

  13. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27679638

  14. The amount of dietary cholesterol changes the mode of effects of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid on lipoprotein cholesterol in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Huei; Lu, Shao-Chun; Huang, Po-Chao; Liu, Young-Chau; Liu, Shyun-Yeu

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of the interaction between dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and different dietary cholesterol content on plasma and liver cholesterol in hamsters. Male Syrian hamsters consumed diets containing an incremental increase in dietary cholesterol content (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%, w/w) with either (n-3) PUFA (21 g/100 g fatty acids) or (n-6) PUFA (37.4 g/100 g fatty acids) fat for 6 weeks. In hamsters fed the nonatherogenic diet (0 or 0.025% dietary cholesterol), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol levels in the (n-3) PUFA group were not significantly different from those in the (n-6) PUFA group, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels in the (n-3) PUFA group were significantly lower than those in the (n-6) PUFA group. In contrast, in hamsters fed the atherogenic diet (0.1 or 0.2% dietary cholesterol), VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels in the (n-3) PUFA group were significantly higher than those in the (n-6) PUFA group, in a dose-dependent manner. When the hamsters were fed with 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2% (w/w) dietary cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in the (n-3) PUFA group than those in the (n-6) PUFA group. Hepatic cholesteryl esters were significantly lower, while hepatic microsomal acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity and VLDL-cholesteryl esters were significantly higher in hamsters fed (n-3) PUFA with the atherogenic diet (0.1 or 0.2% dietary cholesterol) than in those fed (n-6) PUFA with the atherogenic diet. Our results demonstrate that the amount of dietary cholesterol is an important factor in determining the mode and extent of effects of dietary (n-3) PUFA, especially on VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels. When dietary cholesterol intake was above 0.1% (w/w), the plasma cholesterol-lowering effect of (n-3) PUFA disappeared, and instead, it showed a cholesterol-increasing effect. However, the

  15. Hepatic n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Depletion Promotes Steatosis and Insulin Resistance in Mice: Genomic Analysis of Cellular Targets

    PubMed Central

    Pachikian, Barbara D.; Essaghir, Ahmed; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Catry, Emilie; De Backer, Fabienne C.; Dejeans, Nicolas; Dewulf, Evelyne M.; Sohet, Florence M.; Portois, Laurence; Deldicque, Louise; Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Leclercq, Isabelle A.; Francaux, Marc; Carpentier, Yvon A.; Foufelle, Fabienne; Muccioli, Giulio G.; Cani, Patrice D.; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are characterised by a decreased n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio in hepatic phospholipids. The metabolic consequences of n-3 PUFA depletion in the liver are poorly understood. We have reproduced a drastic drop in n-3 PUFA among hepatic phospholipids by feeding C57Bl/6J mice for 3 months with an n-3 PUFA depleted diet (DEF) versus a control diet (CT), which only differed in the PUFA content. DEF mice exhibited hepatic insulin resistance (assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp) and steatosis that was associated with a decrease in fatty acid oxidation and occurred despite a higher capacity for triglyceride secretion. Microarray and qPCR analysis of the liver tissue revealed higher expression of all the enzymes involved in lipogenesis in DEF mice compared to CT mice, as well as increased expression and activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Our data suggest that the activation of the liver X receptor pathway is involved in the overexpression of SREBP-1c, and this phenomenon cannot be attributed to insulin or to endoplasmic reticulum stress responses. In conclusion, n-3 PUFA depletion in liver phospholipids leads to activation of SREBP-1c and lipogenesis, which contributes to hepatic steatosis. PMID:21853118

  16. Dietary flavonoids increase plasma very long-chain (n-3) fatty acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Toufektsian, Marie-Claire; Salen, Patricia; Laporte, François; Tonelli, Chiara; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids probably contribute to the health benefits associated with the consumption of fruit and vegetables. However, the mechanisms by which they exert their effects are not fully elucidated. PUFA of the (n-3) series also have health benefits. Epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that wine flavonoids may interact with the metabolism of (n-3) PUFA and increase their blood and cell levels. The present studies in rats were designed to assess whether flavonoids actually increase plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main very long-chain (n-3) PUFA. Rats were fed a corn-derived anthocyanin (ACN)-rich (ACN-rich) or ACN-free diet with constant intakes of plant and marine (n-3) PUFA for 8 wk (Expt. 1). Plasma fatty acids were measured by GC. The ACN-rich diet contained ~0.24 ± 0.01 mg of ACN/g pellets. There were no significant differences between groups in the main saturated, monounsaturated, and (n-6) fatty acids. In contrast, plasma EPA and DHA were greater in the ACN-rich diet group than in the ACN-free diet group (P < 0.05). We obtained similar results in 2 subsequent experiments in which rats were administered palm oil (80 μL/d) and consumed the ACN-rich or ACN-free diet (Expt. 2) or were supplemented with fish oil (60 mg/d, providing 35 mg DHA and 12 mg EPA) and consumed the ACN-rich or ACN-free diet (Expt. 3). In both experiments, plasma EPA and DHA were significantly greater in the ACN-rich diet group. These studies demonstrate that the consumption of flavonoids increases plasma very long-chain (n-3) PUFA levels. These data confirm previous clinical and epidemiological studies and provide new insights into the health benefits of flavonoids.

  17. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha

    2009-10-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition. PMID:19557745

  18. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha

    2009-10-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition.

  19. (n-6) and (n-3) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and the aging brain: food for thought.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jay

    2008-12-01

    Over the last decade, the role of dietary PUFA in growth, development, and cognitive function in the infant has been a topic at numerous national and international meetings. Only recently has the role of PUFA been more seriously examined as they relate to the aging brain. In fact, a search of the literature reveals very few randomized control trials exploring this research area. However, the literature reveals growing mechanistic evidence that cognitive function of the aging brain can be preserved, or loss of function can be diminished with docosahexaenoic acid, a long-chain (n-3) PUFA. Furthermore, no symposia have taken a serious look at the impact of (n-6) PUFA on the brain, in particular arachidonic acid (AA), the most highly concentrated (n-6) PUFA in the brain. This symposium explores the role of AA metabolism in the brain as it relates to neurological mood disorders. To that end, this symposium was designed to highlight the potential effects of dietary PUFA on the adult brain, an important issue given the growing elderly population in this country and the growing problems with neurological disorders (dementia, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, bipolar disorders, etc.).

  20. How do n-3 fatty acid (short-time restricted vs unrestricted) and n-6 fatty acid enriched diets affect the fatty acid profile in different tissues of German Simmental bulls?

    PubMed

    Herdmann, A; Martin, J; Nuernberg, G; Wegner, J; Dannenberger, D; Nuernberg, K

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of n-6 (control group) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supply (treatment group unrestricted) and a short-time feed restriction for n-3 PUFA supply (treatment group restricted) on intramuscular fat content and the total fatty acid composition in different tissues (muscle, subcutaneous fat, liver, serum and erythrocytes) and lipid classes of intramuscular fat of German Simmental bulls (n=25). Exogenous n-3 PUFA caused a higher concentration of the sum of all single n-3 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) in all analysed tissues. Feed restriction compared to control feeding induced a significant decrease of C18:1cis-9 in the phospholipid fraction of longissimus muscle and in subcutaneous fat. The concentration of C18:3n-3 in liver of treatment groups was between 34 and 44% higher compared to control. PUFA in serum and the sum of n-3 PUFA in erythrocytes were significantly higher in both treatment groups compared to control. The synthesis and deposition of n-3 LC PUFA seems to be tissue dependent according to different relative amounts.

  1. Chemopreventive n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reprogram Genetic Signatures during Colon Cancer Initiation and Progression in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Laurie A.; Nguyen, Danh V.; Hokanson, Regina M.; Callaway, Evelyn S.; Isett, Robert B.; Turner, Nancy D.; Dougherty, Edward R.; Wang, Naisyin; Lupton, Joanne R.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease colon tumor formation have not been fully elucidated. Examination of genes up- or down-regulated at various stages of tumor development via the monitoring of gene expression relationships will help to determine the biological processes ultimately responsible for the protective effects of n-3 PUFA. Therefore, using a 3 × × × 2 factorial design, we used Codelink DNA microarrays containing ∼9000 genes to help decipher the global changes in colonocyte gene expression profiles in carcinogen-injected Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were assigned to three dietary treatments differing only in the type of fat (corn oil/n-6 PUFA, fish oil/n-3 PUFA, or olive oil/n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid), two treatments (injection with the carcinogen azoxymethane or with saline), and two time points (12 hours and 10 weeks after first injection). Only the consumption of n-3 PUFA exerted a protective effect at the initiation (DNA adduct formation) and promotional (aberrant crypt foci) stages. Importantly, microarray analysis of colonocyte gene expression profiles discerned fundamental differences among animals treated with n-3 PUFA at both the 12 hours and 10-week time points. Thus, in addition to demonstrating that dietary fat composition alters the molecular portrait of gene expression profiles in the colonic epithelium at both the initiation and promotional stages of tumor development, these findings indicate that the chemopreventive effect of fish oil is due to the direct action of n-3 PUFA and not to a reduction in the content of n-6 PUFA. PMID:15374999

  2. High concentrations of plasma n3 fatty acids are associated with decreased risk for late age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Malet, Florence; Féart, Catherine; Le Goff, Mélanie; Peuchant, Evelyne; Letenneur, Luc; Dartigues, Jean-François; Colin, Joseph; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Delcourt, Cécile

    2013-04-01

    High dietary intakes of n3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and fish have been consistently associated with a decreased risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We assessed the associations of late AMD with plasma n3 PUFA, a nutritional biomarker of n3 PUFA status. The Antioxydants Lipides Essentiels Nutrition et Maladies Occulaires (Alienor) Study is a prospective, population-based study on nutrition and age-related eye diseases performed in 963 residents of Bordeaux (France) aged ≥73 y. Participants had a first eye examination in 2006-2008 and were followed for 31 mo on average. Plasma fatty acids were measured by GC from fasting blood samples collected in 1999-2001. AMD was graded from non-mydriatic color retinal photographs at all examinations and spectral domain optical coherence tomography at follow-up. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, education, physical activity, plasma HDL-cholesterol, plasma triglycerides, CFH Y402H, apoE4, and ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms, and follow-up time, high plasma total n3 PUFA was associated with a reduced risk for late AMD [OR = 0.62 for 1-SD increase (95% CI: 0.44-0.88); P = 0.008]. Associations were similar for plasma 18:3n3 [OR = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88); P = 0.008] and n3 long-chain PUFA [OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.92); P = 0.01]. This study gives further support to the potential role of n3 PUFAs in the prevention of late AMD and highlights the necessity of randomized clinical trials to determine more accurately the value of n3 PUFAs as a means of reducing AMD incidence. PMID:23406618

  3. Trans, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function-a yin yang situation?

    PubMed

    Dyerberg, Jørn; Christensen, Jeppe H; Eskesen, Dorte; Astrup, Arne; Stender, Steen

    2006-05-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have opposite effects on several biological functions. We report a study on the effects on risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Eighty-seven healthy males were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of daily intake of either 20 g of industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA), 4 g n-3 PUFA, or control fat, incorporated in bakery products as part of the daily food. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the TFA-group, triglycerides and mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the n-3 group. Heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, flow mediated vasodilation, compliance, and distensibility were unchanged. Post hoc, we did a subgroup analysis of the results from the subjects with normal initial HRV. In these, 24-h heart rate (HR) was significantly increased by approximately three beats/min in the TFA group, with a decrease of the same magnitude in the n-3 group. A high HR is associated to an increased mortality and vice versa. Our results thus support the notion that IP-TFA and n-3 PUFA affect risk for cardiovascular mortality via mechanisms not only related to changes in plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. PMID:16713391

  4. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the development of renovascular hypertension in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, D.; Helies-Toussaint, C.; Raederstorff, D.; Moreau, D.; Grynberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    The consequences of a dietary n-3 PUFA supply was investigated on the blood pressure (BP) increase elicited by left renal artery stenosis in rats distributed in 3 groups (n = 8) fed for 8 weeks a semi-purified diet either as control diet or enriched diets (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, or eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA). The PUFA intake induced large alterations in heart and kidney phospholipid fatty acid profile, but did not influence body weight, cardiac hypertrophy, renal left atrophy and right hypertrophy. Within 4 weeks, BP raised from 120-180 +/- 2 mm Hg in the control group, but only to 165 +/- 3 mm Hg in the n-3 PUFA groups. After stabilization of BP in the 3 groups, the rats received a short administration of increasing dose of perindopril. The lower dose (0.5 mg/kg) moderately decreased BP only in the control group. With higher doses (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) BP was normalized in the 3 groups, with a higher amplitude of the BP lowering effect in the control group. A moderate n-3 PUFA intake can contribute to prevent the development of peripheral hypertension in rats by a mechanism that may involve angiotensin converting enzyme.

  5. Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Sunderland, Elsie M; Chan, Hing Man; Choi, Anna L; Grandjean, Philippe; Mariën, Koenraad; Oken, Emily; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Schoeny, Rita; Weihe, Pál; Yan, Chong-Huai; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are widely available foods that provide important nutrients, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to many populations globally. These nutrients, especially docosahexaenoic acid, confer benefits to brain and visual system development in infants and reduce risks of certain forms of heart disease in adults. However, fish and shellfish can also be a major source of methylmercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxicant that is particularly harmful to fetal brain development. This review documents the latest knowledge on the risks and benefits of seafood consumption for perinatal development of infants. It is possible to choose fish species that are both high in n-3 PUFAs and low in MeHg. A framework for providing dietary advice for women of childbearing age on how to maximize the dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs while minimizing MeHg exposures is suggested. PMID:21884130

  6. Ratio of Dietary n-6/n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Independently Related to Muscle Mass Decline in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Yu-Tong; Wu, Pei-Yu; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2015-01-01

    Background n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might be useful nutritional strategy for treating patients with sarcopenia. We evaluated the effect of the intake of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the skeletal muscle mass (SMM), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), and its determinants in patients receiving standard hemodialysis (HD) treatment for the management of end stage renal disease. Methods In this cross-sectional study, data of 111 HD patients were analyzed. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements used to estimate the muscle mass were performed the day of dialysis immediately after the dialysis session. Routine laboratory and 3-day dietary data were also collected. The cutoff value of adequate intake (AI) for both n-3 PUFAs and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was 1.6 g/day and 1.1 g/day for men and women, respectively. Results The mean age, mean dietary n-3 PUFAs intake, ALA intake, ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs intake, SMM, and ASM of patients were 61.4 ± 10.4 years, 2.0 ± 1.3 g/day, 1.5 ± 1.0 g/day, 9.5 ± 6.7 g/day, 23.9 ± 5.5 kg, and 17.5 ± 4.5 kg, respectively. A higher SMM and ASM significantly observed in patients who achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Similar trends appeared to be observed among those patients who achieved the AI of ALA, but the difference was not significantly, except for ASM (P = 0.047). No relevant differences in demographics, laboratory and nutritional parameters were observed, regardless of whether the patients achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Multivariate analysis showed that the BMI and equilibrated Kt/V were independent determinants of the muscle mass. Moreover, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was an independent risk determinant of reduced ASM in HD patients. Conclusion Patients with an AI of n-3 PUFAs had better total-body SMM and ASM. A higher dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs seemed to be associated with a reduced muscle mass in HD patients. PMID:26466314

  7. The effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on infection with the nematodes Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves.

    PubMed

    Muturi, K N; Scaife, J R; Lomax, M A; Jackson, F; Huntley, J; Coop, R L

    2005-05-15

    Diet-induced changes in the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of immune cells influences the immune phenotype that develops following infection. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating dietary PUFA supply on tissue fatty acids composition and immunity to a mixed infection with an abomasal and an intestinal nematode parasite in calves. Calves (n=24) were allocated into two treatment groups and fed 25 g/day of either fish oil (n-3 group) or a binary mixture of palm/rapeseed oil (normal group) as a supplement in milk replacer. Within each treatment group eight calves were infected with 2000 L3 Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora, three times per week for 8 weeks, the remaining calves were pair-fed uninfected controls. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were carried out twice weekly. At slaughter, the whole gut was removed intact for worm counts and tissue samples were taken for fatty acid analysis. Samples of abomasum, duodenum and mid-gut were also collected for immunohistological analysis. FEC were not significantly influenced by oil supplement but tended to remain higher in the palm/rapeseed oil-fed group (normal infected). The number of intestinal immature worms was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the n-3 group. Mucosal mast cell (MMC) and eosinophil numbers were significantly increased (p<0.05) by infection and were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the intestinal tissue of the fish oil supplemented and infected group (n-3 infected group). These results suggest that feeding an n-3 PUFA-rich supplement (fish oil) can influence cellular mediators of immunity to nematode infection. This is the first report of the establishment of patency and the subsequent development of immunity to a mixed infection with O. ostertagi and C. oncophora in calves undergoing early rumen development. The trend in the FEC, MMC and eosinophil numbers in the n-3 group suggests that decreasing the dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio may be a worthwhile immunonutritional

  8. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate B cell activity in pre-clinical models: Implications for the immune response to infections.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jarrett; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Shaikh, Saame Raza

    2016-08-15

    B cell antigen presentation, cytokine production, and antibody production are targets of pharmacological intervention in inflammatory and infectious diseases. Here we review recent pre-clinical evidence demonstrating that pharmacologically relevant levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) derived from marine fish oils influence key aspects of B cell function through multiple mechanisms. N-3 PUFAs modestly diminish B cell mediated stimulation of classically defined naïve CD4(+) Th1 cells through the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II pathway. This is consistent with existing data showing that n-3 PUFAs suppress the activation of Th1/Th17 cells through direct effects on helper T cells and indirect effects on antigen presenting cells. Mechanistically, n-3 PUFAs lower antigen presentation and T cell signaling by disrupting the formation of lipid microdomains within the immunological synapse. We then review data to show that n-3 PUFAs boost B cell activation and antibody production in the absence and presence of antigen stimulation. This has potential benefits for several clinical populations such as the aged and obese that have poor humoral immunity. The mode of action by which n-3 PUFA boost B cell activation and antibody production remains unclear, but may involve Th2 cytokines, enhanced production of specialized proresolving lipid mediators, and targeting of protein lateral organization in lipid microdomains. Finally, we highlight evidence to show that different n-3 PUFAs are not biologically equivalent, which has implications for the development of future interventions to target B cell activity.

  9. Transgenesis of humanized fat1 promotes n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in goat cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yixuan; Ren, Caifang; Wang, Zhibo; Jia, Ruoxin; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Guomin; Wan, Yongjie; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme, which can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. The n-3 PUFAs are essential components required for normal cellular function and have preventive and therapeutic effects on many diseases. Goat is an important domestic animal for human consumption of meat and milk. To elevate the concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and examine the regulatory mechanism of fat1 in PUFA metabolism in goat cells, we successfully constructed a humanized fat1 expression vector and confirmed the efficient expression of fat1 in goat ear skin-derived fibroblast cells (GEFCs) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid analysis showed that fat1 overexpression significantly increased the levels of total n-3 PUFAs and decreased the levels of total n-6 PUFAs in GEFCs. In addition, qRT-PCR results indicate that the FADS1 and FADS2 desaturase genes, ELOV2 and ELOV5 elongase genes, ACO and CPT1 oxidation genes, and PPARa and PPARγ transcription factors are up-regulated, and transcription factors of SREBP-1c gene are down-regulated in the fat1 transgenic goat cells. Overall, fat1-overexpression resulted in an increase in the n-3 fatty acids and altered expression of PUFA synthesis related genes in GEFCs. This work lays a foundation for both the production of fat1 transgenic goats and further study of the mechanism of fat1 function in the PUFAs metabolism. PMID:26474750

  10. Transgenesis of humanized fat1 promotes n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in goat cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yixuan; Ren, Caifang; Wang, Zhibo; Jia, Ruoxin; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Guomin; Wan, Yongjie; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme, which can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. The n-3 PUFAs are essential components required for normal cellular function and have preventive and therapeutic effects on many diseases. Goat is an important domestic animal for human consumption of meat and milk. To elevate the concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and examine the regulatory mechanism of fat1 in PUFA metabolism in goat cells, we successfully constructed a humanized fat1 expression vector and confirmed the efficient expression of fat1 in goat ear skin-derived fibroblast cells (GEFCs) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid analysis showed that fat1 overexpression significantly increased the levels of total n-3 PUFAs and decreased the levels of total n-6 PUFAs in GEFCs. In addition, qRT-PCR results indicate that the FADS1 and FADS2 desaturase genes, ELOV2 and ELOV5 elongase genes, ACO and CPT1 oxidation genes, and PPARa and PPARγ transcription factors are up-regulated, and transcription factors of SREBP-1c gene are down-regulated in the fat1 transgenic goat cells. Overall, fat1-overexpression resulted in an increase in the n-3 fatty acids and altered expression of PUFA synthesis related genes in GEFCs. This work lays a foundation for both the production of fat1 transgenic goats and further study of the mechanism of fat1 function in the PUFAs metabolism.

  11. Inhibition of the HER2 pathway by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevents breast cancer in fat-1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zuquan; Bellenger, Sandrine; Massey, Karen A.; Nicolaou, Anna; Geissler, Audrey; Bidu, Célia; Bonnotte, Bernard; Pierre, Anne-Sophie; Minville-Walz, Mélaine; Rialland, Michaël; Seubert, John; Kang, Jing X.; Lagrost, Laurent; Narce, Michel; Bellenger, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the tyrosine kinase receptor, ErbB2/HER2/Neu, occurs in 25–30% of invasive breast cancer (BC) with poor patient prognosis. Due to confounding factors, inconsistencies still remain regarding the protective effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on BC. We therefore evaluated whether fat-1 transgenic mice, endogenously synthesizing n-3 PUFAs from n-6 PUFAs, were protected against BC development, and we then aimed to study in vivo a mechanism potentially involved in such protection. E0771 BC cells were implanted into fat-1 and wild-type (WT) mice. After tumorigenesis examination, we analyzed the expression of proteins involved in the HER2 signaling pathway and lipidomic analyses were performed in tumor tissues and plasma. Our results showed that tumors totally disappeared by day 15 in fat-1 mice but continued to grow in WT mice. This prevention can be related in part to significant repression of the HER2/β-catenin signaling pathway and formation of significant levels of n-3 PUFA-derived bioactive mediators (particularly 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, and prostaglandin E3) in the tumors of fat-1 mice compared with WT mice. All together these data demonstrate an anti-BC effect of n-3 PUFAs through, at least in part, HER2 signaling pathway downregulation, and highlight the importance of gene-diet interactions in BC. PMID:24052576

  12. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    An, Lei; Pang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hong-Mei; Tao, Li; Miao, Kai; Wu, Zhong-Hong; Tian, Jian-Hui

    2012-11-23

    In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs. PMID:23103373

  13. Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese, Korean and Mongolian workers.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Akiko; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Limei; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Mamiko; Watanabe, Minako; Hashimoto, Michio; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2007-05-01

    The favorable role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been demonstrated in animal experiments and in humans in Western countries, but its effect remains controversial in Asian populations. An observational study of Japanese, Koreans and Mongolians with extended histories of remarkably different frequencies of fish intake was conducted to examine whether differences in plasma n-3 PUFA affects CVD risk factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study in workplace settings and determined body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fatty acid composition in plasma. A total of 411 Japanese, 418 Korean and 252 Mongolian workers aged 30-60 yr participated in this study. The Japanese ate fish more frequently and had remarkably higher values of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 PUFA, and lower values of BMI and HOMA-IR, followed by the Koreans, and then the Mongolians. In age groups, the Japanese and Koreans showed a similar tendency of increase in n-3 PUFA with increasing age. General linear measurement multivariate analysis after adjustment for gender, age, smoking, drinking, exercise habits and BMI showed n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese, while it was associated with systolic blood pressure in the Koreans, and TG in the Mongolians. In conclusion, an increase in n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese and Mongolians, but these beneficial effects were not constant across the three Asian ethnic groups.

  14. Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida for production of docosahexaenoic acid based on a myxobacterial PUFA synthase.

    PubMed

    Gemperlein, Katja; Zipf, Gregor; Bernauer, Hubert S; Müller, Rolf; Wenzel, Silke C

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) can be produced de novo via polyketide synthase-like enzymes known as PUFA synthases, which are encoded by pfa biosynthetic gene clusters originally discovered from marine microorganisms. Recently similar gene clusters were detected and characterized in terrestrial myxobacteria revealing several striking differences. As the identified myxobacterial producers are difficult to handle genetically and grow very slowly we aimed to establish heterologous expression platforms for myxobacterial PUFA synthases. Here we report the heterologous expression of the pfa gene cluster from Aetherobacter fasciculatus (SBSr002) in the phylogenetically distant model host bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida. The latter host turned out to be the more promising PUFA producer revealing higher production rates of n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). After several rounds of genetic engineering of expression plasmids combined with metabolic engineering of P. putida, DHA production yields were eventually increased more than threefold. Additionally, we applied synthetic biology approaches to redesign and construct artificial versions of the A. fasciculatus pfa gene cluster, which to the best of our knowledge represents the first example of a polyketide-like biosynthetic gene cluster modulated and synthesized for P. putida. Combination with the engineering efforts described above led to a further increase in LC-PUFA production yields. The established production platform based on synthetic DNA now sets the stage for flexible engineering of the complex PUFA synthase. PMID:26617065

  15. Associations of the Ratios of n-3 to n-6 Dietary Fatty Acids With Longitudinal Changes in Depressive Symptoms Among US Women.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Fanelli Kuczmarski, Marie T; Beydoun, Hind A; Rostant, Ola S; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, we examined longitudinal changes in self-reported depressive symptoms (and related domains) in relation to baseline intakes of n-3 fatty acids (absolute and relative to n-6 fatty acids). Sex-specific associations were evaluated in a prospective cohort of adults (n = 2,053) from Baltimore, Maryland, who were 30-64 years of age at baseline and were followed for a mean of 4.65 (standard deviation, 0.93) years (2004-2013). Using mean intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids reported on two 24-hour dietary recalls, we estimated the ratios of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids for both highly unsaturated fatty acids (≥20 carbon atoms) (HUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (≥18 carbon atoms) (PUFAs). Outcomes included total and domain-specific scores on the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Based on mixed-effects regression models, among women, both higher n-3 HUFA:n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA ratios were associated with a slower rate of increase in total Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scores over time. Higher n-3 HUFA:n-6 HUFA ratios were associated with slower increases in somatic complaints in men, whereas among women, higher n-3 HUFA:n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA ratios were both linked to putative longitudinal improvement in positive affect over time. Among US adults, n-3:n-6 dietary fatty acid ratio was associated with longitudinal changes in depressive symptoms, with a higher ratio linked to a slower increase in depressive symptoms over time, particularly among women.

  16. BMI Affects the Relationship between Long Chain N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Stroke Risk: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pengfei; Huang, Wen; Bai, Shunjie; Wu, Yu; Yu, Jia; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Qi, Zhiguo; Shao, Weihua; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and stroke risk. Relevant studies were identified by searching online databases through May 2015. Log relative risks (RRs) of the highest versus the lowest for cohort studies were weighed by the inverse variance method to obtain pooled RRs. Fourteen prospective cohort studies including 514,483 individuals and 9,065 strokes were included. The pooled RR of overall stroke risk for long chain n-3 PUFA intake was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-0.95]. Stratification analysis showed that higher long chain n-3 PUFAs intake was associated with reduced fatal stroke risk (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.97), reduced stroke risk for BMI < 24 (RR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.98) and reduced stroke risk for females (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92), but was not associated with stroke risk for either BMI ≥ 24 or men. This meta-analysis reveals that higher long chain n-3 PUFA intake is inversely associated with risk of stroke morbidity and mortality with BMI and sex as key factors influencing this risk. Individuals should be encouraged to manage their body weight while increasing their intake of long chain n-3 PUFAs. PMID:26369699

  17. Dietary (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit ischemia and reperfusion arrhythmias and infarction in rat heart not enhanced by ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Abdukeyum, Grace G; Owen, Alice J; McLennan, Peter L

    2008-10-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and (n-3) PUFA are both cardioprotective. This study compared effects of dietary fish oil, IPC, and their interactions on heart function and injury during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Male Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10% wt:wt fat comprising either 7% high-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [22:6(n-3)] tuna fish oil + 3% olive oil [(n-3) PUFA]; 5% sunflower seed oil + 5% olive oil [(n-6) PUFA]; or 7% beef tallow + 3% olive oil [saturated fat (SF)] for 6 wk. In control experiments, isolated perfused hearts were subjected to 30-min regional ischemia and reperfused for 120 min. The IPC hearts were subjected to 3 cycles of 5-min global ischemia before the ischemia and reperfusion. Control (n-3) PUFA hearts had significantly lower heart rate, coronary flow, end diastolic pressure, maximum relaxation rate, and ischemic and reperfusion arrhythmias. In reperfusion, they had greater developed pressure and maximum relaxation rate and smaller infarct (10.9 +/- 0.6% ischemic zone, n = 6) than (n-6) PUFA (47.4 +/- 0.3%, n = 6) or SF (50.3 +/- 0.3%, n = 6). Compared with control, IPC significantly improved heart function and reduced infarct in (n-6) PUFA (11.8 +/- 0.4%, n = 6) and SF hearts (13.1 +/- 0.1%, n = 6). Heart function and infarct [(n-3) PUFA 9.6 +/- 0.1%, n = 6] did not differ among dietary IPC groups. Arrhythmias, significantly reduced by IPC in (n-6) PUFA and SF hearts, were significantly lower in (n-3) PUFA IPC hearts. Dietary fish oil induces a form of preconditioning, nutritional preconditioning, limiting ischemic cardiac injury, and myocardial infarction and endows cardioprotection as powerful as IPC, which provides no additional protection in (n-3) PUFA hearts.

  18. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat. PMID:22489205

  19. Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on bovine uterine endometrial and hepatic gene expression of the insulin-like growth factor system.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Gerard S; Kenny, David A; Waters, Sinéad M

    2011-02-01

    Supplementation of cattle diets with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been suggested to have positive effects on fertility. In addition, the actions of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system both systemically and locally have been shown to influence reproductive processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on hepatic and endometrial expression of IGF signalling genes in cattle. Beef heifers were supplemented with a rumen protected source of either a saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid; CON) or high n-3 PUFA diet (n-3 PUFA) for 45 days before slaughter and tissue recovery. Transcription level of candidate IGF signalling genes was measured by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in total RNA isolated from uterine endometrial and liver tissue from seven CON and seven n-3 PUFA supplemented animals. Compared to controls, mRNA abundance in n-3 PUFA liver tissues was higher for IGF-2R, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-5 (P < 0.05); lower for GHR-1A (P < 0.05); and unchanged for IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-6, ALS and GHR(total) (P > 0.05). Compared to controls, mRNA abundance in n-3 PUFA endometrial tissues was higher for IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and IGFBP-2 (P < 0.05); lower for IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-6 (P < 0.05); and unchanged for IGFBP-1, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5 and GHR(total) (P > 0.05). Thus, dietary supplementation of cattle with n-3 PUFA affects transcription of genes involved in IGF signalling, in a tissue dependent fashion.

  20. A grass-based diet favours muscle n-3 long-chain PUFA deposition without modifying gene expression of proteins involved in their synthesis or uptake in Charolais steers.

    PubMed

    Cherfaoui, M; Durand, D; Bonnet, M; Bernard, L; Bauchart, D; Ortigues-Marty, I; Gruffat, D

    2013-11-01

    N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) are subject of growing interest as they are of particular relevance for meat quality and human health. However, their content in the muscles of cattle is generally low probably as the complex result of their biosynthesis from dietary n-3 PUFA in the muscle and/or in other tissues/organs and of their subsequent uptake by the muscle. In view of this, this study aimed at understanding whether the changes in the muscle n-3 LCPUFA content, depending on the diet (maize silage v. grass) or the muscle type (Rectus abdominis, RA v. Semitendinosus, ST) in 12 Charolais steers, were related to variations in the gene expression of proteins involved in n-3 LCPUFA biosynthesis or cellular uptake. Tissue fatty acid composition was analysed by gas-liquid chromatography and mRNA abundance of proteins by quantitative real-time PCR. The grass-based diet resulted in a 2.3-fold (P < 0.0002) increase in both RA and ST n-3 LCPUFA content compared with the maize silage-based diet, whereas no difference in the expression of genes involved in n-3 LCPUFA biosynthesis and uptake was observed between diets. ST exhibited a 1.5-fold higher n-3 LCPUFA content than RA (P < 0.003), whereas the gene expression of proteins involved in n-3 LCPUFA biosynthesis and uptake was 1.3- to 18-fold higher in RA than in ST (P < 0.05). In conclusion, diet- or muscle type-dependent changes in the muscle n-3 LCPUFA content of Charolais steers did not seem to be mediated by the gene expression regulation of proteins involved in the biosynthesis or uptake of these fatty acids. PMID:23916277

  1. A review of nutritional effects on fat composition of animal products with special emphasis on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Maryline; Mourot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of animal products (eggs, milk and meat) is the reflect of both the tissue fatty acid biosynthesis and the fatty acid composition of ingested lipids. This relationship is stronger in monogastrics (pigs, poultry and rabbits) than in ruminants, where dietary fatty acids are hydrogenated in the rumen. There is an increasing recognition of the health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), because these fatty acids are essential for humans. In addition, the ratio n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the human diet is important. This ratio by far exceeds the recommended value of 5. Therefore, inclusion of fish meals, or n-3 PUFA rich oils, or linseed in animal diets is a valid means of meeting consumer demand for animal products that are nutritionally beneficial. The studies that are undertaken on animals mainly use diets supplemented with linseed, as a source of n-3 fatty acids. The use of linseed diets generally leads to an increased n-3 fatty acid content in animal products (egg, meat, milk) in ruminants and monogastrics. Recent studies have also demonstrated that neither the processing nor the cooking affects the PUFA content of pork meat or meat products. The ability of unsaturated fatty acids, especially those with more than two double bonds, to rapidly oxidise, is important in regulating the shelf life of animal products (rancidity and colour deterioration); however, a good way to avoid such problems is to use antioxidant products (such as vitamin E) in the diet. Some studies also show that it is not necessary to feed animals with linseed-supplemented diets for a long time to have the highest increase in PUFA content of the products. So, short-term diet manipulation can be a practical reality for industry. As the market for n-3 PUFA enriched products is today limited in most countries, other studies must be undertaken to develop this kind of production. PMID:20188790

  2. Identification and quantification of triacylglycerols containing n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqian; Moate, Peter; Ezerniks, Vilnis; Cocks, Benjamin G; Rochfort, Simone

    2015-12-01

    The n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are low-abundance components in milk fat, but have great potential in promoting human health. A comprehensive survey on triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species in milk that contain at least one type of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid, was conducted in this work using HPLC-linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap and HPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry techniques. A total of 51 TAG species that contain n-3 LC-PUFA have been identified in bovine milk and their structures assigned. The TAG species containing docosahexaenoic acid were found in much smaller number and at much lower abundance compared with the other 2 types of TAG. An HPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry-based method was developed, which provides relative quantification of all these TAG species in a run of 36 min. Application of this method to the quantification of n-3 LC-PUFA-incorporated TAG in 32 individual animal milk samples allowed us to determine variation between animals, identify strong metabolic relationships between TAG species, and reveal negative effect of a grape marc supplement on the accumulation of eicosapentaenoic acid in milk.

  3. Identification and quantification of triacylglycerols containing n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqian; Moate, Peter; Ezerniks, Vilnis; Cocks, Benjamin G; Rochfort, Simone

    2015-12-01

    The n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are low-abundance components in milk fat, but have great potential in promoting human health. A comprehensive survey on triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species in milk that contain at least one type of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid, was conducted in this work using HPLC-linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap and HPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry techniques. A total of 51 TAG species that contain n-3 LC-PUFA have been identified in bovine milk and their structures assigned. The TAG species containing docosahexaenoic acid were found in much smaller number and at much lower abundance compared with the other 2 types of TAG. An HPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry-based method was developed, which provides relative quantification of all these TAG species in a run of 36 min. Application of this method to the quantification of n-3 LC-PUFA-incorporated TAG in 32 individual animal milk samples allowed us to determine variation between animals, identify strong metabolic relationships between TAG species, and reveal negative effect of a grape marc supplement on the accumulation of eicosapentaenoic acid in milk. PMID:26476942

  4. n-3 Fatty Acids Induce Neurogenesis of Predominantly POMC-Expressing Cells in the Hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Lucas F R; Souza, Gabriela F P; Morari, Joseane; Barbosa, Guilherme O; Solon, Carina; Moura, Rodrigo F; Victório, Sheila C; Ignácio-Souza, Letícia M; Razolli, Daniela S; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Velloso, Lício A

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis of hypothalamic neurons is believed to play an important role in the development and perpetuation of obesity. Similar to the hippocampus, the hypothalamus presents constitutive and stimulated neurogenesis, suggesting that obesity-associated hypothalamic dysfunction can be repaired. Here, we explored the hypothesis that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce hypothalamic neurogenesis. Both in the diet and injected directly into the hypothalamus, PUFAs were capable of increasing hypothalamic neurogenesis to levels similar or superior to the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Most of the neurogenic activity induced by PUFAs resulted in increased numbers of proopiomelanocortin but not NPY neurons and was accompanied by increased expression of BDNF and G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40). The inhibition of GPR40 was capable of reducing the neurogenic effect of a PUFA, while the inhibition of BDNF resulted in the reduction of global hypothalamic cell. Thus, PUFAs emerge as a potential dietary approach to correct obesity-associated hypothalamic neuronal loss.

  5. Upstream Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Myth or Reality?

    PubMed Central

    Orso, Francesco; Fabbri, Gianna; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in adults and is associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal events. Antiarrhythmic drugs provide limited protection against AF recurrence and have a poor safety profile. Several mechanisms have been proven to be involved in AF, e.g. inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and ischaemia. Prevention of AF with interventions that target these mechanisms has emerged as a result of experimental studies suggesting the use of upstream therapies. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have multiple effects on cardiac electrophysiology, and epidemiological studies on fish oil suggest a possible use of n-3 PUFA in AF prevention. Several randomised clinical trials have been designed to evaluate the efficacy of n-3 PUFA in preventing AF. In this review, we report the conflicting results of these trials in two different clinical settings: recurrence in patients with history of AF and development of post-operative AF in patient undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:26835119

  6. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cooking methods (electric grilling and pan-frying in olive oil) on the composition of reduced-fat and reduced-fat/PUFA enriched pork patties was studied. Fat reduction was performed by replacing pork backfat (38% and 100%) with konjac gel and PUFA-enrichment by replacing pork backfat (49%) with a konjac-based oil bulking system stabilizing a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils). Cooking losses (13%-27%) were affected (p<0.05) by formulation and cooking procedure. Compared with raw products, cooked samples had higher (p<0.05) concentrations of MUFAs and PUFAs (both n-3 and n-6); the difference was greater (p<0.05) in the pan-fried patties. Fatty acid retention was generally better in pan-fried than in grilled samples. When cooked, the PUFA levels in the medium-fat/improved sample containing the oil bulking system ranged between 1.4 and 1.6g/100g (0.47-0.51 from n-3 PUFAs), with EPA+DHA concentrations of around 75mg/100g. Konjac materials were successfully used to produce pork patties with a better lipid composition.

  7. Brain phospholipid arachidonic acid half-lives are not altered following 15 weeks of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid adequate or deprived diet

    PubMed Central

    Green, Joshua T.; Liu, Zhen; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have infused radiolabeled arachidonic acid (AA) into rat brains and followed AA esterification into phospholipids for up to 24 h; however, the half-life of AA in rat brain phospholipids is unknown. Eighteen day old rats were fed either an n-3 PUFA adequate or deprived diet for 15 weeks. Following the 15 weeks, 40 µCi of [3H] AA was injected intracerebroventricularly into the right lateral ventricle using stereotaxic surgery and returned to their dietary treatment. From 4–120 days after [3H] AA administration, brains were collected for chemical analyses. The half-life of AA in rat brain phospholipids was 44 ± 4 days for the n-3 PUFA adequate group and 46 ± 4 days for the n-3 PUFA deprived group, which closely approximates the predicted half-life previously reported, based on the rate of entry from the plasma unesterified pool, suggesting the plasma unesterified pool is a major contributor to brain uptake of AA. Furthermore, unlike a previous report in which the half-life of brain phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was increased in n-3 PUFA deprived rats, n-3 PUFA deprivation did not significantly alter the AA half-life, suggesting different mechanisms exist to maintain brain concentrations of AA and DHA. PMID:19661256

  8. UVB radiation variably affects n-3 fatty acids but elevated temperature reduces n-3 fatty acids in juvenile Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Arts, Michael T; Palmer, Michelle E; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Jokinen, Ilmari E; Browman, Howard I

    2012-12-01

    Temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB 290-320 nm) are inextricably linked to global climate change. These two variables may act separately, additively, or synergistically on specific aspects of fish biochemistry. We raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) parr for 54 days in outdoor tanks held at 12 and 19 °C and, at each temperature, we exposed them to three spectral treatments differing in UV radiation intensity. We quantified individual fatty acid (FA) mass fractions in four tissues (dorsal muscle, dorsal and ventral skin, and ocular tissue) at each temperature × UV combination. FA composition of dorsal muscle and dorsal and ventral skin was not affected by UV exposure. Mass fractions of 16:0, 18:0, and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were greater in dorsal muscle of warm-reared fish whereas 18:3n-3, 20:2, 20:4n-6, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3, n-3, n-6, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and total FA were significantly higher in cold-reared fish. Mass fractions of most of the FA were greater in the dorsal and ventral skin of warm-reared fish. Cold-reared salmon exposed to enhanced UVB had higher ocular tissue mass fractions of 20:2, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, n-3, n-6, and PUFA compared to fish in which UV had been removed. These observations forecast a host of ensuing physiological and ecological responses of juvenile Atlantic Salmon to increasing temperatures and UVB levels in native streams and rivers where they mature before smolting and returning to the sea.

  9. Diversity of fatty acid composition of symbiotic dinoflagellates in corals: evidence for the transfer of host PUFAs to the symbionts.

    PubMed

    Imbs, Andrey B; Yakovleva, Irina M; Dautova, Tatiana N; Bui, Long H; Jones, Paul

    2014-05-01

    High diversity of fatty acid (FA) composition of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates of the Symbiodinium group (zooxanthellae) isolated from different cnidarian groups has been found. To explain this diversity, FA composition of the total lipids of pure symbiont fractions (SF) and host cell tissue fractions (HF) isolated from one hydrocoral, two soft coral, and seven hard coral species inhabiting the shallow waters of the South China Sea (Vietnam) were compared. Symbiodinium phylogenetic clade designation for each SF was also determined, however, the relationship between the clade designation and FA composition of Symbiodinium was not found. The profiles of marker polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of symbionts (18:4n-3, 18:5n-3, 20:5n-3) did not depend on taxonomic designation of the host and reflected only a specimen-specific diversity of the SF lipids. Several FAs such as 20:0, C24 PUFAs, 22:5n-6, and 18:2n-7 concentrated in HF lipids but were also found in SF lipids. For ten cnidarian species studied, the principal components analysis of total FAs (27 variables) of the symbiotic fractions was performed. The clear division of the symbiotic dinoflagellates according to the host systematic identity was found on a subclass level. This division was mainly caused by the FAs specific for the host lipids of each cnidarian subclasses such as hard corals, soft corals, and hydrocorals. Thus, the coral hosts affect the FA profile of their symbionts and cause the diversity of FA composition of Symbiodinium. The transfer of FAs from the coral host to their symbiotic dinoflagellates and modulation of PUFA biosynthesis in symbionts by the host are considered as possible reasons of the diversity studied.

  10. The near-ideal catalytic property of Candida antarctica lipase A to highly concentrate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in monoacylglycerols via one-step ethanolysis of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    He, Yongjin; Li, Jingbo; Kodali, Sitharam; Chen, Bilian; Guo, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Declining quantity/quality of available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) resources demand innovative technology to concentrate n-3 PUFAs from low quality oils into value-added products/health-beneficial ingredients rich in n-3 PUFAs. This work proposed the catalytic property and specificity of an ideal enzyme required to tackle this task and identified Candida antarctica lipase A (CAL-A) is such a near-ideal enzyme in practice, which concentrates n-3 PUFAs from 25% to 27% in oils to a theoretically closer value 90% in monoacylglycerols (MAGs) via one-step enzymatic ethanolysis. Non-regiospecificity and high non-n-3 PUFAs preference of CAL-A are the catalytic feature to selectively cleave non-n-3 PUFAs in all 3 positions of triacylglycerols (TAGs); while high ethanol/TAGs ratio, low operation temperature and high tolerance to polar ethanol are essential conditions beyond biocatalyst itself. C-13 Nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) analysis and competitive factor estimation verified the hypothesis and confirmed the plausible suggestion of catalytic mechanism of CAL-A.

  11. The near-ideal catalytic property of Candida antarctica lipase A to highly concentrate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in monoacylglycerols via one-step ethanolysis of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    He, Yongjin; Li, Jingbo; Kodali, Sitharam; Chen, Bilian; Guo, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Declining quantity/quality of available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) resources demand innovative technology to concentrate n-3 PUFAs from low quality oils into value-added products/health-beneficial ingredients rich in n-3 PUFAs. This work proposed the catalytic property and specificity of an ideal enzyme required to tackle this task and identified Candida antarctica lipase A (CAL-A) is such a near-ideal enzyme in practice, which concentrates n-3 PUFAs from 25% to 27% in oils to a theoretically closer value 90% in monoacylglycerols (MAGs) via one-step enzymatic ethanolysis. Non-regiospecificity and high non-n-3 PUFAs preference of CAL-A are the catalytic feature to selectively cleave non-n-3 PUFAs in all 3 positions of triacylglycerols (TAGs); while high ethanol/TAGs ratio, low operation temperature and high tolerance to polar ethanol are essential conditions beyond biocatalyst itself. C-13 Nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) analysis and competitive factor estimation verified the hypothesis and confirmed the plausible suggestion of catalytic mechanism of CAL-A. PMID:27521783

  12. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    An, Lei; Pang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hong-Mei; Tao, Li; Miao, Kai; Wu, Zhong-Hong; and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  13. Mitochondrial and Oxidative Stress Aspects in Hippocampus of Rats Submitted to Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency After Exposure to Early Stress.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; da Silva, Diego Carrilho; de Sá Couto-Pereira, Natividade; de Souza Mota, Carina; Krolow, Rachel; Weis, Simone Nardin; Pettenuzzo, Letícia; Kapczinski, Flávio; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Dalmaz, Carla

    2015-09-01

    Chronic dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) deficiency may lead to changes in cortex and hippocampus neuronal membrane phospholipids, and may be linked to impaired central nervous system function. Particularly docosahexaenoic acid deficiency appears to be involved in neuropsychiatric disorders. On the other hand, adverse events early in life may also profoundly affect brain development, leading to long-lasting effects on neurophysiology, neurobiology and behavior. This research assessed if neonatal stress and a dietary n-3 PUFAs deficiency could interact to produce hippocampal alterations related to mitochondrial functions in adult rats. There were no effects of diet, neonatal intervention or interactions on superoxide dismutase or catalase enzymatic activities, mitochondrial membrane potential and respiratory chain complexes. Rats fed n-3 PUFAs deficient diet displayed higher levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity, higher free radicals production and higher thiol content compared to rats fed n-3 PUFAs adequate diet. There were interactions among diets and neonatal stress, since glutathione peroxidase, free radicals production and thiol content were increased in groups that were subjected to neonatal interventions fed n-3 PUFAs deficient diet. Additionally, reduced mitochondrial potential was observed in handled animals. Total thiol revealed a neonatal stress effect, since animals subjected to neonatal interventions displayed lower thiol content. In conclusion, we observed that a chronic treatment with deficient n-3 PUFAs diet, from the puberty period on, increased free radicals production and imbalanced antioxidant enzymes activities, and these increases were higher in animals subjected to neonatal interventions.

  14. Long term adequate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet protects from depressive-like behavior but not from working memory disruption and brain cytokine expression in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Moranis, Aurélie; Delpech, Jean-Christophe; De Smedt-Peyrusse, Véronique; Aubert, Agnès; Guesnet, Philippe; Lavialle, Monique; Joffre, Corinne; Layé, Sophie

    2012-07-01

    Converging epidemiological studies suggest that dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of mood and cognitive disorders linked to aging. The question arises as to whether the decreased prevalence of these symptoms in the elderly with high n-3 PUFA consumption is also associated with improved central inflammation, i.e. cytokine activation, in the brain. To answer this, we measured memory performance and emotional behavior as well as cytokine synthesis and PUFA level in the spleen and the cortex of adult and aged mice submitted to a diet with an adequate supply of n-3 PUFA in form of α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) or a n-3 deficient diet. Our results show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main n-3 PUFA in the brain, was higher in the spleen and cortex of n-3 adequate mice relative to n-3 deficient mice and this difference was maintained throughout life. Interestingly, high level of brain DHA was associated with a decrease in depressive-like symptoms throughout aging. On the opposite, spatial memory was maintained in adult but not in aged n-3 adequate mice relative to n-3 deficient mice. Furthermore, increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decreased IL-10 expression were found in the cortex of aged mice independently of the diets. All together, our results suggest that n-3 PUFA dietary supply in the form of α-LNA is sufficient to protect from deficits in emotional behavior but not from memory disruption and brain proinflammatory cytokine expression linked to age.

  15. The dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio during pregnancy is inversely associated with child neurodevelopment in the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jonathan Y; De Agostini, Maria; Forhan, Anne; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) of the n6 (ω6) and n3 series are essential for the development of a child's brain. Fetal LC-PUFA exposure as well as infant exposure via breast milk depend on the maternal intake of these LC-PUFAs and of their respective dietary precursors (PUFAs). We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal LC-PUFA and PUFA [(LC)PUFA] dietary intake during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment at ages 2 and 3 y. In 1335 mother-child pairs from the EDEN cohort, we evaluated associations between daily maternal (LC)PUFA intake during the last 3 months of pregnancy with the child's language at age 2 y and with different assessments of development at age 3 y. Associations were investigated separately in breastfed and never-breastfed children. We examined interactions between the ratios of n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intakes (n6:n3 fatty acid ratio) and duration of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding mothers had a lower n6:n3 fatty acid ratio (8.4 vs. 8.8; P = 0.02). Among never-breastfed children (n = 338), we found negative associations between maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratios and neurodevelopment, as reflected by the child's language at age 2 y (β ± SE = -2.1 ± 0.7; P = 0.001) and development assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 3 y (-1.5 ± 0.8; P = 0.05). Among mothers with a high n6:n3 fatty acid ratio only, breastfeeding duration was positively associated with language at age 2 y (P-interaction < 0.05). This suggests that the ratio between maternal dietary n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intake possibly influences the child's brain development during fetal life but not during or by breastfeeding. However, breastfeeding might compensate for prenatal imbalance in maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio.

  16. Maternal n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation during pregnancy and lactation affects neurogenesis and apoptosis in adult offspring: associated with DNA methylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chaonan; Fu, Huicong; Dong, Hua; Lu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yanfei; Qi, Kemin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency during pregnancy and lactation will make a lasting impact on brain neurogenesis and apoptosis of the adult offspring and that these harmful effects cannot be reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms may be attributable to the epigenetic changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). C57BL/6J female mice were fed with n-3 PUFA-deficient diet (n-3 def) or n-3 PUFA-adequate diet (n-3 adq) throughout pregnancy and lactation. At postnatal 21 days, equal numbers of male pups from both groups were fed the opposite diet, and the remaining male pups were fed with the same diets as their mothers until 3 months of age. Feeding the n-3 adq diet to pups from the maternal n-3 def group significantly increased the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not change expressions of calretinin, Bcl2, and Bax in the hippocampus. Feeding the n-3 def diet to pups from the maternal n-3 adq group significantly reduced the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not reduce expressions of calretinin and Bcl2. Similarly, BDNF levels, especially mRNA expressions of BDNF transcripts IV and IX, were also reduced by maternal n-3 def and not reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. The decrease in BDNF expression by maternal n-3 def diet was associated with greater DNA methylation at special CpG sites. These results suggested that the maternal n-3 PUFA deficiency during pregnancy and lactation imprints long-term changes of brain development in adult offspring. PMID:27632922

  17. Maternal n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation during pregnancy and lactation affects neurogenesis and apoptosis in adult offspring: associated with DNA methylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chaonan; Fu, Huicong; Dong, Hua; Lu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yanfei; Qi, Kemin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency during pregnancy and lactation will make a lasting impact on brain neurogenesis and apoptosis of the adult offspring and that these harmful effects cannot be reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms may be attributable to the epigenetic changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). C57BL/6J female mice were fed with n-3 PUFA-deficient diet (n-3 def) or n-3 PUFA-adequate diet (n-3 adq) throughout pregnancy and lactation. At postnatal 21 days, equal numbers of male pups from both groups were fed the opposite diet, and the remaining male pups were fed with the same diets as their mothers until 3 months of age. Feeding the n-3 adq diet to pups from the maternal n-3 def group significantly increased the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not change expressions of calretinin, Bcl2, and Bax in the hippocampus. Feeding the n-3 def diet to pups from the maternal n-3 adq group significantly reduced the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not reduce expressions of calretinin and Bcl2. Similarly, BDNF levels, especially mRNA expressions of BDNF transcripts IV and IX, were also reduced by maternal n-3 def and not reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. The decrease in BDNF expression by maternal n-3 def diet was associated with greater DNA methylation at special CpG sites. These results suggested that the maternal n-3 PUFA deficiency during pregnancy and lactation imprints long-term changes of brain development in adult offspring.

  18. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Forouhi, Nita G.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Riboli, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88–0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77–0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85–0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs. Conclusions These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they

  19. Adiponectin and marine n-3 fatty acids in patients referred for coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Schmidt, Erik Berg

    2009-06-26

    Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and have anti-inflammatory effects. We examined whether levels of serum adiponectin were related to the occurrence and extent of CHD, and whether intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated to high levels of adiponectin. Serum adiponectin and the content of n-3 PUFAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue, platelets and granulocytes were measured in 291 patients referred to elective coronary angiography. Significantly lower levels of serum adiponectin were observed in patients with coronary stenoses compared to patients without stenoses (7336+/-3598 ng/ml vs 10,203+/-8396 ng/ml; p=0.003), but no significant correlation was seen between serum adiponectin and the extent of CHD. In men, serum adiponectin correlated to levels of the content of EPA in platelets (r=0.26; p<0.01) and in granulocytes (r=0.23; p<0.01) and to the content of DHA in subcutaneous adipose tissue (r=0.15; p<0.05) and granulocytes (r=0.17; p<0.05). After regression analysis EPA in platelets (p=0.017) and granulocytes (p=0.030) remained an independent correlate of adiponectin levels, while DHA was no longer an independent correlate. In conclusion, serum levels of adiponectin were lower in patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. Also, intake of EPA may increase serum adiponectin and through this exert a protective effect on CHD.

  20. Effect of wheatgrass on membrane fatty acid composition during hepatotoxicity induced by alcohol and heated PUFA.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Varalakshmi; Shakya, Garima; Pajaniradje, Sankar; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism is a broad term used for problems related to alcohol, medically considered as disease, specifically an addictive illness, abuse, and dependence. It is the major cause of liver disease in western countries. Alcoholic liver disease encompasses the hepatic alterations leading to fatty liver, hepatitis, and fibrosis or cirrhosis. Fried food items prepared with repeatedly heated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) exacerbate the disturbances induced by alcohol. The use of herbs to treat diseases is almost universal. Wheatgrass (WG) is used as a supplemental nutrition because of its unique curative properties. As it has antioxidant property, it prevents cancer, diabetes, and acts as liver cleanser. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of WG on preserving membrane integrity in liver damage induced by alcohol and heated PUFAPUFA).The rats were divided into four groups. The animals in group 1 served as normal (standard diet), group 2 served as hepatotoxic (alcohol + ΔPUFA), group 3 served as treated (alcohol + ΔPUFA + WG), and group 4 served as WG control. The compositions of membrane fatty acid, total phospholipids, phospholipase A, C (PLA and PLC) were analyzed in liver to evaluate the effects of WG. Changes in fatty acid composition, decrease in phospholipids levels, and increase in PLA, PLC were observed in the diseased group. Restoration effect was seen in WG-treated rats. Histopathological observations were in correlation with the biochemical parameters. From the results obtained, we conclude that WG effectively protects the liver against alcohol and ΔPUFA-induced changes in fatty acid composition and preserves membrane integrity. PMID:24706101

  1. Positional specificity of gastric hydrolysis of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of seal milk triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Iverson, S J; Sampugna, J; Oftedal, O T

    1992-11-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) of marine oils are important dietary components for both infants and adults, and are incorporated into milks following maternal dietary intake. However, little is known about the hydrolysis of these PUFA from milk triglycerides (TG) by lipases in suckling young. Seals, like humans, possess gastric lipase; however, the milk lipids of seals and sea lions are almost devoid of the readily hydrolyzable medium-chain fatty acids, and are characterized by a large percentage (10-30%) of n-3 PUFA. Gastric hydrolysis of milk lipids was studied in vivo in suckling pups of three species (the California sea lion, the harp seal and the hooded seal) in order to elucidate the actions and specificity of gastric lipases on milk TG in relation to fatty acid composition and TG structure. Regardless of milk fat content (31-61% fat) or extent of gastric hydrolysis (10-56%), the same fatty acids were preferentially released in all three species, as determined by their relative enrichment in the free fatty acid (FFA) fraction. In addition to 16:1 and 18:0, these were the PUFA of 18 carbons and longer, except for 22:6n-3. Levels of 20:5n-3 were most notably enriched in FFA, at up to five times that found in the TG. Although 22:6n-3 was apparently also released from the TG (reduced in the diglyceride), it was also notably reduced in FFA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation together with early maternal separation increases anxiety and vulnerability to stress in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Géraldine; Oualian, Catherine; Denis, Isabelle; Lavialle, Monique; Gisquet-Verrier, Pascale; Vancassel, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Low concentrations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and chronic stress are implicated in susceptibility to mood disorders. We have investigated the combined effects of chronic n-3 PUFA dietary deficiency and early maternal separation (MS) stress on the reactivity to stressful situations of rats as adults. Pups fed a control or an n-3 PUFA deficient diet were daily separated for two weeks before weaning They were all tested at 3 month-old to determine their anxiety, and their ability to learn two aversive tasks differing in the control they could exert on the situation: auditory fear conditioning and brightness avoidance discrimination. Neither the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet nor MS alone significantly affected behavior. But n-3 PUFA-deficient rats that had been separated were more anxious and fearful in inescapable situations, while their ability to cope with an aversive avoidance task remained unaffected. These results support the notion that PUFA-unbalanced diet, together with stress, may be a determinant risk factor in emotional disorders.

  3. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Thifault, Elisabeth; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA). Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03) was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2) had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008). For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456). For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively). Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation. PMID:24705214

  4. Current evidence for the clinical use of long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids to prevent age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dacks, P A; Shineman, D W; Fillit, H M

    2013-03-01

    An NIH State of the Science Conference panel concluded in 2010 that insufficient evidence is available to recommend the use of any primary prevention therapy for Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline with age. Despite the insufficient evidence, candidate therapies with varying levels of evidence for safety and efficacy are taken by the public and discussed in the media. One example is the long-chain n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), DHA and EPA, found in some fish and dietary supplements. With this report, we seek to provide a practical overview and rating of the level and type of available evidence that n-3 LC-PUFA supplements are safe and protective against cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease, with additional discussion of the evidence for effects on quality of life, vascular aging, and the rate of aging. We discuss available sources, dose, bioavailability, and variables that may impact the response to n-3 LC-PUFA treatment such as baseline n-3 LC-PUFA status, APOE ε4 genotype, depression, and background diet. Lastly, we list ongoing clinical trials and propose next research steps to validate these fatty acids for primary prevention of cognitive aging and dementia. Of particular relevance, epidemiology indicates a higher risk of cognitive decline in people in the lower quartile of n-3 LC-PUFA intake or blood levels but these populations have not been specifically targeted by RCTs. PMID:23459977

  5. Current evidence for the clinical use of long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids to prevent age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dacks, P A; Shineman, D W; Fillit, H M

    2013-03-01

    An NIH State of the Science Conference panel concluded in 2010 that insufficient evidence is available to recommend the use of any primary prevention therapy for Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline with age. Despite the insufficient evidence, candidate therapies with varying levels of evidence for safety and efficacy are taken by the public and discussed in the media. One example is the long-chain n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), DHA and EPA, found in some fish and dietary supplements. With this report, we seek to provide a practical overview and rating of the level and type of available evidence that n-3 LC-PUFA supplements are safe and protective against cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease, with additional discussion of the evidence for effects on quality of life, vascular aging, and the rate of aging. We discuss available sources, dose, bioavailability, and variables that may impact the response to n-3 LC-PUFA treatment such as baseline n-3 LC-PUFA status, APOE ε4 genotype, depression, and background diet. Lastly, we list ongoing clinical trials and propose next research steps to validate these fatty acids for primary prevention of cognitive aging and dementia. Of particular relevance, epidemiology indicates a higher risk of cognitive decline in people in the lower quartile of n-3 LC-PUFA intake or blood levels but these populations have not been specifically targeted by RCTs.

  6. AMP-activated Protein Kinase α2 Subunit Is Required for the Preservation of Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity by n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Jelenik, Tomas; Rossmeisl, Martin; Kuda, Ondrej; Jilkova, Zuzana Macek; Medrikova, Dasa; Kus, Vladimir; Hensler, Michal; Janovska, Petra; Miksik, Ivan; Baranowski, Marcin; Gorski, Jan; Hébrard, Sophie; Jensen, Thomas E.; Flachs, Pavel; Hawley, Simon; Viollet, Benoit; Kopecky, Jan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The induction of obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance by high-fat diet in rodents can be prevented by n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). We tested a hypothesis whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a role in the beneficial effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mice with a whole-body deletion of the α2 catalytic subunit of AMPK (AMPKα2−/−) and their wild-type littermates were fed on either a low-fat chow, or a corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF), or a cHF diet with 15% lipids replaced by n-3 LC-PUFA concentrate (cHF+F). RESULTS Feeding a cHF diet induced obesity, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and whole-body insulin resistance in mice of both genotypes. Although cHF+F feeding increased hepatic AMPKα2 activity, the body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and the accumulation of hepatic triglycerides were prevented by the cHF+F diet to a similar degree in both AMPKα2−/− and wild-type mice in ad libitum-fed state. However, preservation of hepatic insulin sensitivity by n-3 LC-PUFAs required functional AMPKα2 and correlated with the induction of adiponectin and reduction in liver diacylglycerol content. Under hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic conditions, AMPKα2 was essential for preserving low levels of both hepatic and plasma triglycerides, as well as plasma free fatty acids, in response to the n-3 LC-PUFA treatment. CONCLUSIONS Our results show that n-3 LC-PUFAs prevent hepatic insulin resistance in an AMPKα2-dependent manner and support the role of adiponectin and hepatic diacylglycerols in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. AMPKα2 is also essential for hypolipidemic and antisteatotic effects of n-3 LC-PUFA under insulin-stimulated conditions. PMID:20693347

  7. Transgenic Increase in n-3/n-6 Fatty Acid Ratio Protects Against Cognitive Deficits Induced by an Immune Challenge through Decrease of Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Madore, Charlotte; Joffre, Corinne; Aubert, Agnès; Kang, Jing Xuan; Nadjar, Agnès; Layé, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) display immunomodulatory properties in the brain, n-3 PUFAs being able to reduce inflammation whereas n-6 PUFAs are more pro-inflammatory. It has been extensively demonstrated that exposure to a peripheral immune challenge leads to the production and release of inflammatory mediators in the brain in association with cognitive deficits. The question arises whether n-3 PUFA supplementation could downregulate the brain inflammatory response and subsequent cognitive alterations. In this study, we used a genetically modified mouse line carrying the fat-1 gene from the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, encoding an n-3 PUFA desaturase that catalyzes conversion of n-6 into n-3 PUFA. Consequently, these mice display endogenously elevated n-3 PUFA tissue contents. Fat-1 mice or wild-type (WT) littermates were injected peripherally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, to induce an inflammatory episode. Our results showed that LPS altered differently the phenotype of microglia and the expression of cytokines and chemokines in Fat-1 and WT mice. In Fat-1 mice, pro-inflammatory factors synthesis was lowered compared with WT mice, whereas anti-inflammatory mechanisms were favored 24 h after LPS treatment. Moreover, LPS injection impaired spatial memory in WT mice, whereas interestingly, the Fat-1 mice showed normal cognitive performances. All together, these data suggest that the central n-3 PUFA increase observed in Fat-1 mice modulated the brain innate immune system activity, leading to the protection of animals against LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and subsequent spatial memory alteration. PMID:25228141

  8. Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Regression of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Statin Treated Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jinhee; Park, Seo Kwang; Park, Tae Sik; Kim, Jin Hee; Yun, Eunyoung; Kim, Sang-Pil; Lee, Hye Won; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Lee, Sang Yeoup

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Statins remain the mainstay of secondary coronary artery disease (CAD) prevention, but n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) display biological effects that may also reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and CAD. However, data on the possible antiatherosclerotic benefits of adding ω-3 PUFA to statin therapy are limited. This study aimed to investigate the potential additive effects of ω-3 PUFA on regression of atherosclerosis in CAD patients receiving statin therapy and stent implantation. Subjects and Methods Seventy-four CAD patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation were enrolled, prescribed statins, and randomly assigned to two groups: n-3 group (ω-3 PUFA 3 g/day, n=38) or placebo group (placebo, n=36). All patients completed the study follow-up consisting of an intravascular ultrasound at baseline and at 12 months. Results There was no difference in the baseline characteristics and distribution of other medications. No significant differences were observed in primary endpoints, including changes in atheroma volume index (−12.65% vs. −8.51%, p=0.768) and percent atheroma volume (−4.36% vs. −9.98%, p=0.526), and in secondary endpoints including a change in neointimal volume index (7.84 vs. 4.94 mm3/mm, p=0.087). Conclusion ω-3 PUFA had no definite additional effect on the regression of coronary atherosclerosis when added to statin in CAD patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27482256

  9. Echium oil increased the expression of a Δ4 Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (Channa striata) muscle.

    PubMed

    Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Kuah, Meng-Kiat

    2016-08-01

    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species.

  10. Echium oil increased the expression of a Δ4 Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (Channa striata) muscle.

    PubMed

    Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Kuah, Meng-Kiat

    2016-08-01

    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species. PMID:26842427

  11. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a 16-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-design multicenter study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongsoon; Lee, AeRi; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Ahn, Hongyup; Choi, Chan Bum; Sung, Yoon Kyoung; Bae, Sang Cheol

    2013-07-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have anti-inflammatory effects and may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA).We examined the efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on RA on top of standard anti-inflammatory treatment. Patients with RA were randomized into two groups in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-design multicenter study. One hundred nine patients received five capsules of either n-3 PUFA (2.090 g of EPA and 1.165 g of DHA) or high-oleic-acid sunflower oil for 16 weeks. Eighty-one patients completed the study, and no adverse effects were reported. Dietary intake did not change significantly during the study. There were significant increases in n-3 PUFA and EPA levels in erythrocytes in the n-3 PUFA group versus the placebo group, but decreases in n-6 PUFA, 18:2n6, 20:4n6 and 18:1n9 levels in the n-3 PUFA group versus the placebo group. N-3 PUFA supplementation had no significant effects on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) requirements, clinical symptoms of RA or the concentration of cytokines, eicosanoids and bone turnover markers. However, n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly decreased NSAID requirements and leukotriene B4 levels in patients who weighed more than 55 kg. Our results suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation has no significant effect on RA but may decrease the requirement for NSAIDs in Korean patients with RA who weigh more than 55 kg. PMID:23333088

  12. Effect of dietary intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of human milk in North America.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R G; Lammi-Keefe, C J; Henderson, R A; Bush, V J; Ferris, A M

    1992-04-01

    To determine the effect of maternal dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the amounts of these fatty acids in human milk, two criteria must be met. These are assessment of the maternal diet and accurate analysis of the milk fatty acids. This type of analysis requires gas-liquid chromatography with capillary columns to resolve important n-6 and n-3 C20 and C22 fatty acid. This type of analytic equipment has only recently become available; thus the amount of complete data on human milk fatty acids is limited. To assess actual fatty acid intakes by the infant, the fat content and volume of milk received by the infant must be known. Alterations in maternal dietary intake of PUFA cause similar changes in milk PUFA. Several investigators have shown that maternal supplementation with fish oils increases the amounts of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in milk and maternal and infant erythrocyte lipids. A new mathematic index for assessment of essential fatty acid status, the mean melting point of plasma phospholipid fatty acids, has been proposed. We found in some mother-infant pairs that maternal supplementation with fish oil lowered the mean melting points of erythrocyte lipids to levels seen in nonpregnant women.

  13. Direct diet quantification indicates low intakes of (n-3) fatty acids in children 4 to 8 years old.

    PubMed

    Madden, Sarah M M; Garrioch, Colin F; Holub, Bruce J

    2009-03-01

    Estimates of essential fatty acid intakes, including (n-3) PUFA, are available in pediatric populations based on limited indirect approaches. Furthermore, recommended intakes for short- and long-chain (LC) (n-3) PUFA have emerged for this population. This study provides direct quantification of fatty acid intakes in children aged 4-8 y. Identical portions of all food and natural health products consumed over 3 d were collected. Duplicate samples were analyzed for energy, macronutrients, and fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by high performance capillary GLC. The results for 41 children [25 females, 16 males; 5.8 +/- 0.2 y (mean age +/- SEM)] showed daily energy intakes of 5879 +/- 211 kJ (mean +/- SEM) and (n-3) PUFA intakes in mg/d as follows: ALA, 1161 +/- 108; EPA, 38.4 +/- 9.3; DPA, 26.3 +/- 3.9; and DHA, 54.1 +/- 11.4. Based on the Dietary Reference Intakes from the Institute of Medicine, 61% of the children met the adequate intake for ALA and 22% met the suggested adequate intake for DHA+EPA (10% of the adequate intake for ALA). These intakes were also compared with the recent Australia/New Zealand recommendations for children, where only 51% met the recommended intake for EPA+DPA+DHA. These results demonstrate a moderate shortfall in ALA intake in Canadian children and a nutrient gap for the LC (n-3) PUFA, including DHA, when comparing intakes for this population to suggested and recommended intakes.

  14. Relationships between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D, food consumption, and nutritional status among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana P; Giudici, Kelly V; Marchioni, Dirce M; Fisberg, Regina M; Martini, Lígia A

    2015-08-01

    We have hypothesized that higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake is associated with better lipid profile, higher 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum concentrations, and healthy food consumption and nutritional status. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the relationships between n-3 PUFA intake, serum 25(OH)D, lipid profile, nutritional status, and food consumption among adolescents. A total of 198 Brazilian adolescents (51% male), with mean age of 16.3 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Blood was collected for 25(OH)D and lipid profile serum measurement. Weight and height were measured, and food consumption was accessed by a 24-hour food record (n = 69). Analysis of variance, the Student t test, and Pearson correlation were performed using SPSS software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy (25(OH)D, <30 ng/mL) was 71.7%. Serum 25(OH)D negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.294; P < .0001) and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.323; P < .0001). N-3 PUFA intake negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.286; P = .017), total cholesterol (r = -0.292; P = .015), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.333; P = .005) and positively correlated with the intake of fat meats and eggs (r = 0.391; P = .006), vegetable proteins (r = 0.297; P = .048), fats/oils (r = 0.574; P < .001), and refined cereals (r = 0.351; P = .006). Vitamin D status and n-3 PUFA intake were related with better nutritional status and favorable lipid profile. Food groups usually found in Brazilian traditional meals (characterized by rice, beans, meat, and vegetables) were associated with higher n-3 PUFA intake, which may contribute to prevent the development of noncommunicable diseases in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:26094211

  15. Relationships between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D, food consumption, and nutritional status among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana P; Giudici, Kelly V; Marchioni, Dirce M; Fisberg, Regina M; Martini, Lígia A

    2015-08-01

    We have hypothesized that higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake is associated with better lipid profile, higher 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum concentrations, and healthy food consumption and nutritional status. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the relationships between n-3 PUFA intake, serum 25(OH)D, lipid profile, nutritional status, and food consumption among adolescents. A total of 198 Brazilian adolescents (51% male), with mean age of 16.3 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Blood was collected for 25(OH)D and lipid profile serum measurement. Weight and height were measured, and food consumption was accessed by a 24-hour food record (n = 69). Analysis of variance, the Student t test, and Pearson correlation were performed using SPSS software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy (25(OH)D, <30 ng/mL) was 71.7%. Serum 25(OH)D negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.294; P < .0001) and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.323; P < .0001). N-3 PUFA intake negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.286; P = .017), total cholesterol (r = -0.292; P = .015), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.333; P = .005) and positively correlated with the intake of fat meats and eggs (r = 0.391; P = .006), vegetable proteins (r = 0.297; P = .048), fats/oils (r = 0.574; P < .001), and refined cereals (r = 0.351; P = .006). Vitamin D status and n-3 PUFA intake were related with better nutritional status and favorable lipid profile. Food groups usually found in Brazilian traditional meals (characterized by rice, beans, meat, and vegetables) were associated with higher n-3 PUFA intake, which may contribute to prevent the development of noncommunicable diseases in adolescence and adulthood.

  16. In vitro effects of vitamins C and E, n-3 and n-6 PUFA and n-9 MUFA on placental cell function and redox status in type 1 diabetic pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mezouar, Djamila; Merzouk, Hafida; Merzouk, Amel Saidi; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Belarbi, Boumediene; Narce, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the in vitro effects of vitamin C and E, n-3 and n-6 PUFA and n-9 MUFA on placental cell proliferation and function in type 1 diabetes. Placenta tissues were collected from 30 control healthy and 30 type 1 diabetic women at delivery. Placental cells were isolated and were cultured in RPMI medium supplemented with vitamin C (50 μM), vitamin E (50 μM), n-3 PUFA (100 μM), n-6 PUFA (100 μM) or n-9 MUFA (100 μM). Cell proliferation, cell glucose uptake and intracellular oxidative status were investigated. Our results showed that basal placental cell proliferation, glucose uptake, malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl proteins were higher while intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase activities were lower in placentas from diabetic women as compared to controls. Vitamins C and E induced a modulation of placental cell proliferation and glucose consumption without affecting intracellular redox status in both diabetic and control groups. N-3 and n-6 PUFA diminished placental cell proliferation and enhanced intracellular oxidative stress while n-9 MUFA had no effects in the two groups. Co-administration of n-3 or n-6 PUFA and vitamin C or E were capable of reversing back the PUFA-decreased cell proliferation and normalizing placental cell function and redox status especially in diabetes. In conclusion, PUFA and antioxidant vitamin combinations may be beneficial in improving placenta function and in reducing placental oxidative stress in type 1 diabetic pregnancy. PMID:27238721

  17. Mammary inflammation around parturition appeared to be attenuated by consumption of fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mastitis endangers the health of domestic animals and humans, and may cause problems concerning food safety. It is documented that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) play significant roles in attenuating saturated fatty acids (SFA)-induced inflammation. This study was therefore conducted to determine whether mammary inflammation could be affected by consumption of diets rich in n-3 PUFA. Methods Forty-eight rats after mating began to receive diets supplemented with 5% fish oil (FO) or 7% soybean oil (SO). Blood and mammary tissue samples (n = 6) at day 0 and 14 of gestation and day 3 postpartum were collected 9 hours after intramammary infusion of saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine free fatty acids (FFA) concentration and FA composition in plasma and inflammation mediators in mammary tissues. Results At day 14 of gestation and day 3 postpartum, the FO-fed rats had lower plasma concentrations of C18:2n6, C20:4n6, total n-6 PUFA and SFA, and higher plasma concentrations of C20:5n3 and total n-3 PUFA than the SO-fed rats. Plasma C22:6n3 concentration was also higher in the FO-fed than in the SO-fed rats at day 3 postpartum. Compared with the SO-fed rats, the FO-fed rats had lower mammary mRNA abundance of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and protein level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but had higher mammary mRNA abundances of interleukin (IL)-10 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ at day 14 of gestation. Following LPS infusion at day 3 postpartum, the SO-fed rats had increased plasma concentrations of FFA, C18:1n9, C18:3n3, C18:2n6 and total n-6 PUFA, higher mammary mRNA abundances of IL-1β, TNF-α and XOR but lower mammary mRNA abundance of IL-10 than the FO-fed rats. Conclusions Mammary inflammation around parturition appeared to be attenuated by consumption of a diet rich in n-3 PUFA, which was associated with up-regulated expression of IL-10 and PPAR-γ. PMID:24378112

  18. Hepatic transcriptome analysis of inter-family variability in flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic selection of Atlantic salmon families better adapted to alternative feed formulations containing high levels of vegetable ingredients has been suggested to ensure sustainable growth of aquaculture. The present study aimed to identify molecular pathways that could underlie phenotypic differences in flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels when fish are fed vegetable oil diets. Liver transcriptome was analyzed and compared in four families presenting higher or lower n-3 LC-PUFA contents at two contrasting flesh total lipid levels. Results The main effect of n-3 LC-PUFA contents was in the expression of immune response genes (38% of all significantly affected genes), broadly implicated in the modulation of inflammatory processes and innate immune response. Although genetic evaluations of traits used in the breeding program revealed that the chosen families were not balanced for viral disease resistance, this did not fully explain the preponderance of immune response genes in the transcriptomic analysis. Employing stringent statistical analysis no lipid metabolism genes were detected as being significantly altered in liver when comparing families with high and low n-3 LC-PUFA flesh contents. However, relaxing the statistical analysis enabled identification of potentially relevant effects, further studied by RT-qPCR, in cholesterol biosynthesis, lipoprotein metabolism and lipid transport, as well as eicosanoid metabolism particularly affecting the lipoxygenase pathway. Total lipid level in flesh also showed an important effect on immune response and 8% of significantly affected genes related to lipid metabolism, including a fatty acyl elongase (elovl2), an acyl carrier protein and stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Conclusions Inter-family differences in n-3 LC-PUFA content could not be related to effects on lipid metabolism, including transcriptional modulation of the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway. An association was found between flesh

  19. Metabolic and immunomodulatory effects of n-3 fatty acids are different in mesenteric and epididymal adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Tobias; Worsch, Stefanie; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Daniel, Hannelore; Hauner, Hans; Bader, Bernhard L

    2013-06-01

    In studies emphasizing antiobesogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n-3 PUFA), diets with very high fat content, not well-defined fat quality, and extreme n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios have been applied frequently. Additionally, comparative analyses of visceral adipose tissues (VAT) were neglected. Considering the link of visceral obesity to insulin resistance or inflammatory bowel diseases, we hypothesized that VAT, especially mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT), may exhibit differential responsiveness to diets through modulation of metabolic and inflammatory processes. Here, we aimed to assess dietary LC-n-3 PUFA effects on MAT and epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) and on MAT-adjacent liver and intestine in diet-induced obese mice fed defined soybean/palm oil-based diets. High-fat (HF) and LC-n-3 PUFA-enriched high-fat diet (HF/n-3) contained moderately high fat with unbalanced and balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios, respectively. Body composition/organ analyses, glucose tolerance test, measurements of insulin, lipids, mRNA and protein expression, and immunohistochemistry were applied. Compared with HF, HF/n-3 mice showed reduced fat mass, smaller adipocytes in MAT than EAT, improved insulin level, and lower hepatic triacylglycerol and plasma NEFA levels, consistent with liver and brown fat gene expression. Gene expression arrays pointed to immune cell activation in MAT and alleviation of intestinal endothelial cell activation. Validations demonstrated simultaneously upregulated pro- (TNFα, MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines and M1/M2-macrophage markers in VAT and reduced CD4/CD8α expression in MAT and spleen. Our data revealed differential responsiveness to diets for VAT through preferentially metabolic alterations in MAT and inflammatory processes in EAT. LC-n-3 PUFA effects were pro- and anti-inflammatory and disclose T cell-immunosuppressive potential.

  20. Fish oil supplements in New Zealand are highly oxidised and do not meet label content of n-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; Derraik, José G B; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Tumanov, Sergey; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Garg, Manohar L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the quality and content of fish oil supplements in New Zealand. All encapsulated fish oil supplements marketed in New Zealand were eligible for inclusion. Fatty acid content was measured by gas chromatography. Peroxide values (PV) and anisidine values (AV) were measured, and total oxidation values (Totox) calculated. Only 3 of 32 fish oil supplements contained quantities of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that were equal or higher than labelled content, with most products tested (69%) containing <67%. The vast majority of supplements exceeded recommended levels of oxidation markers. 83% products exceeded the recommended PV levels, 25% exceeded AV thresholds, and 50% exceeded recommended Totox levels. Only 8% met the international recommendations, not exceeding any of these indices. Almost all fish oil supplements available in the New Zealand market contain concentrations of EPA and DHA considerably lower than claimed by labels. Importantly, the majority of supplements tested exceeded the recommended indices of oxidative markers. Surprisingly, best-before date, cost, country of origin, and exclusivity were all poor markers of supplement quality. PMID:25604397

  1. Fish oil supplements in New Zealand are highly oxidised and do not meet label content of n-3 PUFA

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Benjamin B.; Derraik, José G. B.; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L.; Tumanov, Sergey; Villas-Boas, Silas G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the quality and content of fish oil supplements in New Zealand. All encapsulated fish oil supplements marketed in New Zealand were eligible for inclusion. Fatty acid content was measured by gas chromatography. Peroxide values (PV) and anisidine values (AV) were measured, and total oxidation values (Totox) calculated. Only 3 of 32 fish oil supplements contained quantities of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that were equal or higher than labelled content, with most products tested (69%) containing <67%. The vast majority of supplements exceeded recommended levels of oxidation markers. 83% products exceeded the recommended PV levels, 25% exceeded AV thresholds, and 50% exceeded recommended Totox levels. Only 8% met the international recommendations, not exceeding any of these indices. Almost all fish oil supplements available in the New Zealand market contain concentrations of EPA and DHA considerably lower than claimed by labels. Importantly, the majority of supplements tested exceeded the recommended indices of oxidative markers. Surprisingly, best-before date, cost, country of origin, and exclusivity were all poor markers of supplement quality. PMID:25604397

  2. Cognitive performance in older adults is inversely associated with fish consumption but not erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Hosking, Diane; Burns, Nicholas R; Wilson, Carlene; Nettelbeck, Ted; Calvaresi, Eva; Clifton, Peter; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    Higher n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fish intake may help maintain cognitive function in older age. However, evidence is inconsistent; few studies have examined the relation in cognitively healthy individuals across numerous cognitive domains, and none to our knowledge have considered lifetime fish intake. We examined associations between multiple domains of cognition and erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA proportions and historical and contemporary fish intake in 390 normal older adults, analyzing baseline data from the Older People, Omega-3, and Cognitive Health trial. We measured n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, and we assessed historical and contemporary fish intake by food-frequency questionnaires. We assessed cognitive performance on reasoning, working memory, short-term memory, retrieval fluency, perceptual speed, simple/choice reaction time, speed of memory-scanning, reasoning speed, inhibition, and psychomotor speed. Cognitive outcomes for each construct were factor scores from confirmatory factor analysis. Multiple linear regression models controlled for a number of potential confounding factors, including age, education, sex, apolipoprotein E-ε 4 allele, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, socioeconomic variables, and other health-related variables. Higher erythrocyte membrane eicosapaentonoic acid proportions predicted slower perceptual and reasoning speed in females, which was attenuated once current fish intake was controlled. No other associations were present between n-3 PUFA proportions and cognitive performance. Higher current fish consumption predicted worse performance on several cognitive speed constructs. Greater fish consumption in childhood predicted slower perceptual speed and simple/choice reaction time. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that higher proportions of long-chain n-3 fatty acids or fish intake benefits cognitive performance in normal older adults.

  3. Dietary (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent sucrose-induced insulin resistance in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghafoorunissa; Ibrahim, Ahamed; Rajkumar, Laxmi; Acharya, Vani

    2005-11-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of substituting (n-3) long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) for linoleic acid and hence decreasing the (n-6):(n-3) fatty acid ratio on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in rats. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed casein-based diets containing 100 g/kg fat for 12 wk. Insulin resistance was induced by replacing starch (ST) with sucrose (SU). The dietary fats were formulated with groundnut oil, palmolein, and fish oil to provide the following ratios of (n-6):(n-3) fatty acids: 210 (ST-210, SU-210), 50 (SU-50), 10 (SU-10), and 5 (SU-5). Compared with starch (ST-210), sucrose feeding (SU-210) significantly increased the plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations and the plasma insulin area under the curve (AUC) in response to an oral glucose load. Adipocytes isolated from rats fed SU-210 had greater lipolytic rate, lower insulin stimulated glucose transport, and lower insulin-mediated antilipolysis than those from rats fed ST-210. Decreasing the dietary (n-6):(n-3) ratio in sucrose-fed rats (SU-10 and SU-5) normalized the plasma insulin concentration and the AUC of insulin after a glucose load. The sucrose-induced increase in plasma triglyceride concentration was normalized in rats fed SU-50, SU-10 and SU-5. Further, sucrose-induced alterations in adipocyte lipolysis and antilipolysis were partially reversed and glucose transport improved in rats fed diets SU-5 and SU-10. In diaphragm phospholipids, decreasing the (n-6):(n-3) ratio in the diet increased the concentration of (n-3) LCPUFAs with concomitant decreases in the concentration of (n-6) LCPUFAs. These results suggest that (n-3) LCPUFAs at a level of 2.6 g/kg diet [0.56% energy (n-3) LCPUFAs, (n-6):(n-3) ratio = 10] may prevent sucrose-induced insulin resistance by improving peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  4. Endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids delay progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Altaf; Janakiram, Naveena B; Brewer, Misty; Duff, Ashley; Lightfoot, Stan; Brush, Richard S; Anderson, Robert E; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2012-12-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1) transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogenously, to determine the impact of n-3 PUFAs on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs) and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Six-week-old female p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) and compound Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice were fed (AIN-76A) diets containing 10% safflower oil for 35 weeks. Pancreata were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC. Results showed a dramatic reduction in incidence of PDAC (84%; P < .02) in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice compared to p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. Importantly, significant reductions of pancreatic ducts with carcinoma (90%; P < .0001) and PanIN 3 (~50%; P < .001) lesions were observed in the compound transgenic mice. The levels of n-3 PUFA were much higher (>85%; P < .05-0.01) in pancreas of compound transgenic mice than in those of p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. Molecular analysis of the pancreas showed a significant down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-LOX-activating protein, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1 expression levels in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice compared to p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. These data highlight the promise of dietary n-3 FAs for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals.

  5. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  6. Meta-Analysis of Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LCω-3PUFA) and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D.; Bassett, Julie K.; Weed, Douglas L.; Barrett, Erin Cernkovich; Watson, Heather; Harris, William

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the potential association between LCω-3PUFAs and prostate cancer (PC). A comprehensive literature search was performed through 2013 to identify prospective studies that examined dietary intakes of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCω-3PUFA) or blood biomarkers of LCω-3PUFA status and risk of PC. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRREs) for LCω-3PUFAs and total PC, and by stage and grade. Subgroup analyses were also conducted for specific fatty acids and other study characteristics. Twelve self-reported dietary intake and 9 biomarker studies from independent study populations were included in the analysis, with 446,243 and 14,897 total participants, respectively. No association between LCω-3PUFAs and total PC was observed (SRRE = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.93–1.09) for the dietary intake studies (high vs. low LCω-3PUFAs category comparison) or for the biomarker studies (SRRE of 1.07, 95% CI: 0.94–1.20). In general, most summary associations for the dietary intake studies were in the inverse direction, whereas the majority of summary associations for the biomarker studies were in the positive direction, but all were weak in magnitude. The results from this meta-analysis do not support an association between LCω-3PUFAs and PC. PMID:25826711

  7. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tomčala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different heat treatments (pan-frying, oven-baking, and grilling) on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish tissue. Four fish species were examined: pike, carp, cod, and herring. High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI/MS), was employed for determination of intact lipid molecules containing n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. Although mostly non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols, TGs) were present in the fish tissue, the PUFAs were present preferentially in the phospholipid fraction. Omnivorous fish species (carp, herring) contained more TGs than did predatory ones (pike, cod). Higher amounts of PUFAs were detected in the marine species than in the freshwater ones. The impact of heat treatments on the lipid composition in the fish tissue seems to be species-specific, as indicated by multivariate data analysis. Herring tissue is most heat-stable, and the mildest heat treatment for PUFA preservation was oven-baking.

  8. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs from fish oil enhance resting state brain glucose utilization and reduce anxiety in an adult nonhuman primate, the grey mouse lemur.

    PubMed

    Pifferi, Fabien; Dorieux, Olène; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Croteau, Etienne; Masson, Marie; Guillermier, Martine; Van Camp, Nadja; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Cunnane, Stephen; Dhenain, Marc; Aujard, Fabienne

    2015-08-01

    Decreased brain content of DHA, the most abundant long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) in the brain, is accompanied by severe neurosensorial impairments linked to impaired neurotransmission and impaired brain glucose utilization. In the present study, we hypothesized that increasing n-3 LCPUFA intake at an early age may help to prevent or correct the glucose hypometabolism observed during aging and age-related cognitive decline. The effects of 12 months' supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA on brain glucose utilization assessed by positron emission tomography was tested in young adult mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Cognitive function was tested in parallel in the same animals. Lemurs supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA had higher brain glucose uptake and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose compared with controls in all brain regions. The n-3 LCPUFA-supplemented animals also had higher exploratory activity in an open-field task and lower evidence of anxiety in the Barnes maze. Our results demonstrate for the first time in a nonhuman primate that n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increases brain glucose uptake and metabolism and concomitantly reduces anxiety. PMID:26063461

  9. Anthocyanins do not influence long-chain n-3 fatty acid status: studies in cells, rodents and humans☆

    PubMed Central

    Vauzour, David; Tejera, Noemi; O'Neill, Colette; Booz, Valeria; Jude, Baptiste; Wolf, Insa M.A.; Rigby, Neil; Silvan, Jose Manuel; Curtis, Peter J.; Cassidy, Aedin; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Rimbach, Gerald; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Increased tissue status of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with cardiovascular and cognitive benefits. Limited epidemiological and animal data suggest that flavonoids, and specifically anthocyanins, may increase EPA and DHA levels, potentially by increasing their synthesis from the shorter-chain n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid. Using complimentary cell, rodent and human studies we investigated the impact of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich foods/extracts on plasma and tissue EPA and DHA levels and on the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2), which represents the rate limiting enzymes in EPA and DHA synthesis. In experiment 1, rats were fed a standard diet containing either palm oil or rapeseed oil supplemented with pure anthocyanins for 8 weeks. Retrospective fatty acid analysis was conducted on plasma samples collected from a human randomized controlled trial where participants consumed an elderberry extract for 12 weeks (experiment 2). HepG2 cells were cultured with α-linolenic acid with or without select anthocyanins and their in vivo metabolites for 24 h and 48 h (experiment 3). The fatty acid composition of the cell membranes, plasma and liver tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich food intake had no significant impact on EPA or DHA status or FADS2 gene expression in any model system. These data indicate little impact of dietary anthocyanins on n-3 PUFA distribution and suggest that the increasingly recognized benefits of anthocyanins are unlikely to be the result of a beneficial impact on tissue fatty acid status. PMID:25573539

  10. Anthocyanins do not influence long-chain n-3 fatty acid status: studies in cells, rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Vauzour, David; Tejera, Noemi; O'Neill, Colette; Booz, Valeria; Jude, Baptiste; Wolf, Insa M A; Rigby, Neil; Silvan, Jose Manuel; Curtis, Peter J; Cassidy, Aedin; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Rimbach, Gerald; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2015-03-01

    Increased tissue status of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with cardiovascular and cognitive benefits. Limited epidemiological and animal data suggest that flavonoids, and specifically anthocyanins, may increase EPA and DHA levels, potentially by increasing their synthesis from the shorter-chain n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid. Using complimentary cell, rodent and human studies we investigated the impact of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich foods/extracts on plasma and tissue EPA and DHA levels and on the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2), which represents the rate limiting enzymes in EPA and DHA synthesis. In experiment 1, rats were fed a standard diet containing either palm oil or rapeseed oil supplemented with pure anthocyanins for 8 weeks. Retrospective fatty acid analysis was conducted on plasma samples collected from a human randomized controlled trial where participants consumed an elderberry extract for 12 weeks (experiment 2). HepG2 cells were cultured with α-linolenic acid with or without select anthocyanins and their in vivo metabolites for 24 h and 48 h (experiment 3). The fatty acid composition of the cell membranes, plasma and liver tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich food intake had no significant impact on EPA or DHA status or FADS2 gene expression in any model system. These data indicate little impact of dietary anthocyanins on n-3 PUFA distribution and suggest that the increasingly recognized benefits of anthocyanins are unlikely to be the result of a beneficial impact on tissue fatty acid status.

  11. Ingestion of a single serving of saury alters postprandial levels of plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in healthy human adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saury oil contains considerable amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) with long aliphatic tails (>18C atoms). Ingestion of saury oil reduces the risk of developing metabolic syndrome concomitant with increases in n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in plasma and organs of mice. We therefore evaluated changes in postprandial plasma fatty acid levels and plasma parameters in healthy human subjects after ingestion of a single meal of saury. Findings Five healthy human adults ingested 150 g of grilled saury. Blood was collected before the meal and at 2, 6, and 24 hr after the meal, and plasma was prepared. Plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and long-chain MUFA (C20:1 and C22:1 isomers combined) increased significantly throughout the postprandial period compared with the pre-meal baseline. Postprandial plasma insulin concentration increased notably, and plasma levels of glucose and free fatty acids decreased significantly and subsequently returned to the pre-meal levels. Conclusions Our study suggests that a single saury meal may alter the postprandial plasma levels of n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in healthy human subjects. PMID:22846384

  12. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress CD4(+) T cell proliferation by altering phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] organization.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tim Y; Barhoumi, Rola; Fan, Yang-Yi; Rivera, Gonzalo M; Hannoush, Rami N; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), abundant in fish oil, exert their anti-inflammatory effects have not been rigorously defined. We have previously demonstrated that n-3 PUFA decrease the amount of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate, [PI(4,5)P2], in CD4(+) T cells, leading to suppressed actin remodeling upon activation. Since discrete pools of PI(4,5)P2 exist in the plasma membrane, we determined whether n-3 PUFA modulate spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2 relative to raft and non-raft domains. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to demonstrate that lipid raft mesodomains in the plasma membrane of CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA display increased co-clustering of Lck(N10) and LAT(ΔCP), markers of lipid rafts. CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA also exhibited a depleted plasma membrane non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool as detected by decreased co-clustering of Src(N15), a non-raft marker, and PH(PLC-δ), a PI(4,5)P2 reporter. Incubation with exogenous PI(4,5)P2 rescued the effects on the non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool, and reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation in CD4(+) T cells enriched with n-3 PUFA. Furthermore, CD4(+) T cells isolated from mice fed a 4% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched diet exhibited a decrease in the non-raft pool of PI(4,5)P2, and exogenous PI(4,5)P2 reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation. Finally, these effects were not due to changes to post-translational lipidation, since n-3 PUFA did not alter the palmitoylation status of signaling proteins. These data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA suppress T cell proliferation by altering plasma membrane topography and the spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2.

  13. Immobilized MAS1 lipase showed high esterification activity in the production of triacylglycerols with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiumei; Li, Daoming; Qu, Man; Durrani, Rabia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-02-01

    Immobilization of lipase MAS1 from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 and its application in catalyzing esterification of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with glycerol were investigated. The resin XAD1180 was selected as a suitable support for the immobilization of lipase MAS1, and its absorption ability was 75mg/g (lipase/resin ratio) with initial buffer pH value of 8.0. The thermal stability of immobilized MAS1 was improved significantly compared with that of the free lipase. Immobilized MAS1 had no regiospecificity in the hydrolysis of triolein. The highest esterification degree (99.31%) and TAG content (92.26%) by immobilized MAS1-catalyzed esterification were achieved under the optimized conditions, which were significantly better than those (82.16% and 47.26%, respectively) by Novozym 435. More than 92% n-3 PUFA was incorporated into TAG that had similar fatty acids composition to the substrate (n-3 PUFA). The immobilized MAS1 exhibited 50% of its initial activity after being used for five cycles. PMID:27596418

  14. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids enhance neonatal insulin-regulated protein metabolism in piglets by differentially altering muscle lipid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the role of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) of muscle phospholipids in the regulation of neonatal metabolism. Twenty-eight piglets were weaned at 2 days of age and raised on one of two milk formulas that consisted of either a control formula supplying ...

  15. Endogenously elevated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alleviate acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiangyong; Kang, Jing X

    2015-01-01

    Effective means for the prevention of alcohol-induced liver disease, a global health problem, have yet to be developed. We evaluated whether the high endogenous levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA) in fat-1 transgenic mice could protect them against acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis. We induced alcoholic liver steatosis in 9-week-old male heterozygous fat-1 mice and their wild-type (WT) male littermates through three oral gavages of 60% ethanol at 4.7 g/kg body weight. Hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly increased in both alcohol treatment groups, but by much less in the fat-1 group compared with the WT group. Fat-1 mice exhibited significantly lower levels of total hepatic/plasma TG and plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Accordingly, hepatic expression of lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, FAS, and SCD-1) and plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1) were reduced in the fat-1 mice. Furthermore, decreased hepatic expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and increased hepatic levels of PPAR-α and HO-1 were observed in the fat-1 mice, compared to the WT mice. These findings show that elevated tissue n-3 PUFA protect against acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis in fat-1 mice, possibly through the down-regulation of hepatic lipogenesis, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress.

  16. Feeding laying hens stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil, as compared to flaxseed oil, more efficiently enriches eggs with very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Robert G; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2015-03-18

    The desaturation of α-linolenic acid (ALA) to stearidonic acid (SDA) is considered to be rate-limiting for the hepatic conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, rodents, and chickens. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding laying hens SDA, as a component of the oil derived from the genetic modification of the soybean, would bypass this inefficient metabolic step and result in the enrichment of eggs with EPA and DHA at amounts comparable to that achieved by direct supplementation of hens' diet with these very long-chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a 28-d study, laying hens incorporated 0.132 mg, 0.041 mg, or 0.075 mg of VLC n-3 PUFAs into egg yolk for each milligram of ingested dietary ALA derived primarily from conventional soybean oil (CON), dietary ALA derived primarily from flaxseed oil (FLAX), or dietary SDA derived from SDA-enriched soybean oil, respectively. Moreover, the amounts of total yolk VLC n-3 PUFAs in eggs from hens fed the CON (51 mg), FLAX (91 mg), or SDA (125 mg) oils were markedly less than the 305 mg found in eggs from fish oil-fed hens. Unexpectedly, SDA appeared to be more readily incorporated into adipose tissue than into egg yolk. Since egg yolk FAs typically reflect the hens' dietary pattern, these tissue-specific differences suggest the existence of an alternate pathway for the hepatic secretion and transport of SDA in the laying hen.

  17. Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying) which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA. The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123). Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Results Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply. Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %), however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4) but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Conclusions Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower n-3 PUFA portion in

  18. Effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, breed and dietary vitamin E on the fatty acids of lamb muscle, liver and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Demirel, G; Wachira, A M; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Wood, J D; Enser, M

    2004-04-01

    The effect of feeding n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of muscle, adipose tissue and liver of lambs was investigated. Groups of eight ram lambs per breed, SuffolkxLleyn (24 kg live weight) and Scottish Blackface (18 kg live weight), were each fed one of six diets containing one of three fat sources (50 g fatty acids/kg DM; Megalac((R)) (calcium soap of palm fatty acid distillate; Volac Ltd, Royston, Herts., UK) and formaldehyde-treated whole linseed (Trouw Nutrition UK, Northwich, Ches., UK) either alone or with fish oil (1:1, w/w) and either 100 or 500 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg DM. Feed was offered ad libitum until slaughter at approximately half breed mature live weight. The type of dietary fat had no effect on intake, growth rate or feed conversion ratio. The 3.0-fold higher concentration of 18 : 3n-3 in the linseed compared with the Megalac((R)) diet approximately doubled (P<0.001) the concentration in the neutral and polar lipid fractions of musculus semimembranosus and liver, and in adipose tissue it increased 2.5-fold. Feeding protected linseed also increased (P<0.001) concentrations of 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 5n-3 in muscle polar lipids and both lipid fractions of liver. The linseed-fish oil raised the 20 : 5n-3 concentrations above those for the linseed diet and also increased 22 : 6n-3. Scottish Blackface lambs had lower concentrations of 18 : 3n-3 in all lipids compared with Suffolk x Lleyn lambs, but more 20 : 5n-3 in the polar lipids of muscle and liver. High levels of dietary vitamin E were associated with small decreases in the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids and increases in PUFA. Linseed raised the PUFA : saturated fatty acid ratios in liver and adipose tissue but not in muscle, and improved the n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio, as did the linseed-fish oil. Different combinations of dietary fatty acids and better protection against rumen biohydrogenation are required to improve muscle PUFA : saturated fatty acids ratios.

  19. Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on antioxidant defense and sperm quality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under regular stripping conditions.

    PubMed

    Köprücü, Kenan; Yonar, Muhammet Enis; Özcan, Sinan

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels; semen and liver fatty acid compositions; and spermatological values (semen volume and pH, sperm density, percentage and duration of sperm motility) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under regular stripping conditions. For this purpose, one control and two experimental diets were prepared as isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The control diet did not contain n-3 PUFA. However, the D1 and D2 diets were supplemented with n-3 PUFA concentrated anchovy oil at a 1% and 2% level, respectively. The n-3 PUFA content in the semen and liver, semen volume, initial sperm motility, duration of 50% sperm motility, total duration of sperm motility and sperm density values of the control fish fed the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet were decreased and were accompanied by a reduction of the antioxidant defense (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and GSH) and an elevation of MDA in the blood, gonad, liver and kidney at all of the sampling periods (P<0.01 for each case). However, the effects of the sampling period on the MDA and antioxidant defense values in the blood, gonad, liver and kidney of the control diet fish (with the exception of the GSH and GSH-Px activities) and the D1 and D2 diet fish were not significant (P>0.01). However, supplementation with n-3 PUFA protected the fish from these adverse effects. The modulations were clearly observed in the fish fed the D2 diet because they were under lower oxidative stress, as indicated by MDA. The increased enzyme activity corresponds with the physiological mechanisms combating the elevation of free radicals under oxidative stress. The highest n-3 PUFA levels in the semen and liver and spermatological values were obtained from the fish fed the D2 diet at all of the sampling periods. On the other hand, the effects of the sampling stage on the

  20. Effect of Marine-Derived n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Major Eicosanoids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis from 18 Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiajing; Li, Kelei; Wang, Fenglei; Yang, Bo; Fu, Yuanqing; Zheng, Jusheng; Li, Duo

    2016-01-01

    Background Marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have a beneficial effect on inflammation via lowering pro-inflammatory eicosanoid concentrations. We aimed to assess the effect of marine-derived n-3 PUFA on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) through systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Method and Findings A structured search strategy on PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane up to November 2015 was undertaken in this meta-analysis. Standard mean difference was used to calculate the effect size of marine-derived n-3 PUFA on PGE2, TXB2 and LTB4 in a random-effect model. A total of 18 RCTs with 826 subjects were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Supplementation of marine-derived n-3 PUFA significantly decreased concentrations of TXB2 in serum/plasma in subjects with high risk of cardiovascular diseases (SMD:-1.26; 95% CI: -1.65, -0.86) and LTB4 in neutrophils in unhealthy subjects (subjects with non-autoimmune chronic diseases or auto-immune diseases) (SMD:-0.59: 95% CI: -1.02, -0.16). Subgroup analyses showed a significant reduction of LTB4 in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (SMD: -0.83; 95% CI: -1.37, -0.29), but not in non-autoimmune chronic disease patients (SMD: -0.33; 95% CI: -0.97, 0.31). No significant publication bias was shown in the meta-analysis. Conclusions Marine-derived n-3 PUFA had a beneficial effect on reducing the concentration of TXB2 in blood of subjects with high risk of CVD as well as LTB4 in neutrophils in unhealthy subjects, and that subjects with RA showed lower LTB4 content with supplementation of marine-derived n-3 PUFA. PMID:26808318

  1. Effects of n-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Plasma Phospholipids Fatty Acid Composition in Patients with Obstructive Jaundice- a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Tamara; Ranic, Marija; Bulajic, Predrag; Milicevic, Miroslav; Arsic, Aleksandra; Vucic, Vesna; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional and immunological status of patients with obstructive jaundice is usually severely altered, with high mortality rates. The n-3 polyunsaturate fatty acids (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), posess potent immunomodulatory activities. Thus, our aim was to compare the plasma phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition of these patients with healthy subjects, as well as before and after 7 days preoperative supplementation with high doses of EPA (0.9 g per day) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3, 0.6 g per day). We found impaired FA status in obstructive jaundice patients, especially EPA, DHA and PUFA, but significantly increased content of total n-3 FA, 22:5 n-3 FA and particularly EPA, which increased more than 3 fold, after 7 days supplementation. In addition, the n6/n3 ratio significantly decreased from 14.24 to 10.24, demonstrating severely improved plasma phospholipid profile in these patients after the intervention. PMID:19902030

  2. Mead acid (20:3n-9) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are not associated with risk of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification: results of a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, Kei; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Nakano, Masato; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Seki, Shoji; Hori, Takeshi; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2015-05-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) involves the replacement of ligamentous tissue with ectopic bone. Although genetics and heritability appear to be involved in the development of OPLL, its pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Given previous findings that 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid [20:3n-9, Mead acid (MA)] has depressive effects on osteoblastic activity and anti-angiogenic effects, and that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a preventive effect on heterotopic ossification, we hypothesized that both fatty acids would be involved in OPLL development. To examine the biological significance of these and other fatty acids in OPLL, we conducted this case-control study involving 106 patients with cervical OPLL and 109 age matched controls. Fatty acid composition was determined from plasma samples by gas chromatography. Associations between fatty acid levels and incident OPLL were evaluated by logistic regression. Contrary to our expectations, we found no significant differences between patients and controls in the levels of MA or n-3 PUFAs (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any associations with OPLL risk for MA or n-3 PUFAs. In conclusion, no potential role was found for MA or n-3 PUFAs in ectopic bone formation in the spinal canal.

  3. Changes in Fatty Acid Composition and Distribution of N-3 Fatty Acids in Goat Tissues Fed Different Levels of Whole Linseed

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Md. Zuki Abu Bakar; Meng, Goh Yong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding different levels of whole linseed on fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles and adipose tissues of goat were investigated. Twenty-four Crossed Boer bucks were assigned randomly into three treatment diets: L0, L10, or L20, containing 0%, 10%, or 20% whole linseed, respectively. The goats were slaughtered after 110 days of feeding. Samples from the longissimus dorsi, supraspinatus, semitendinosus, and subcutaneous fat (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) were taken for FA analyses. In muscles, the average increments in α-linolenic (ALA) and total n-3 PUFA were 6.48 and 3.4, and 11.48 and 4.78 for L10 and L20, respectively. In the adipose tissues, the increments in ALA and total n-3 PUFA were 3.07- and 6.92-fold and 3.00- and 7.54-fold in SF and PF for L10 and L20, respectively. The n-6 : n-3 ratio of the muscles was decreased from up to 8.86 in L0 to 2 or less in L10 and L20. The PUFA : SFA ratio was increased in all the tissues of L20 compared to L0. It is concluded that both inclusion levels (10% and 20%) of whole linseed in goat diets resulted in producing meat highly enriched with n-3 PUFA with desirable n-6 : n-3 ratio. PMID:25478601

  4. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids enhance neonatal insulin-regulated protein metabolism in piglets by differentially altering muscle lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Karen; Julien, Pierre; Davis, Teresa A; Myre, Alexandre; Thivierge, M Carole

    2007-11-01

    This study investigated the role of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) of muscle phospholipids in the regulation of neonatal metabolism. Twenty-eight piglets were weaned at 2 days of age and raised on one of two milk formulas that consisted of either a control formula supplying 0% or a formula containing 3.5% LCn-3PUFAs until 10 or 28 days of age. There was a developmental decline in the insulin sensitivity of amino acid disposal in control pigs during the first month of life, with a slope of -2.24 micromol.kg(-1).h(-1) (P = 0.01) per unit of insulin increment, as assessed using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps. LCn-3PUFA feeding blunted this developmental decline, resulting in differing insulin sensitivities (P < 0.001). When protein metabolism was assessed under parenteral feeding-induced hyperinsulinemia, LCn-3PUFAs reduced by 16% whole body oxidative losses of amino acids (from 238 to 231 micromol.kg(-1).h(-1); P = 0.06), allowing 41% more amino acids to accrete into body proteins (from 90 to 127 micromol.kg(-1).h(-1); P = 0.06). The fractional synthetic rate of muscle mixed proteins remained unaltered by the LCn-3PUFA feeding. However, LCn-3PUFAs retarded a developmental increase in the essential-to-nonessential amino acid ratio of the muscle intracellular free pool (P = 0.05). Overall, alterations in metabolism were concomitant with a preferential incorporation of LCn-3PUFAs into muscle total membrane phospholipids (P < 0.001), in contrast to intramuscular triglycerides. These results underscore the potential role of LCn-3PUFAs as regulators of different aspects of protein metabolism in the neonate. PMID:17673528

  5. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids enhance neonatal insulin-regulated protein metabolism in piglets by differentially altering muscle lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Karen; Julien, Pierre; Davis, Teresa A.; Myre, Alexandre; Thivierge, M. Carole

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) of muscle phospholipids in the regulation of neonatal metabolism. Twenty-eight piglets were weaned at 2 days of age and raised on one of two milk formulas that consisted of either a control formula supplying 0% or a formula containing 3.5% LCn-3PUFAs until 10 or 28 days of age. There was a developmental decline in the insulin sensitivity of amino acid disposal in control pigs during the first month of life, with a slope of −2.24 μmol·kg−1·h−1 (P = 0.01) per unit of insulin increment, as assessed using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps. LCn-3PUFA feeding blunted this developmental decline, resulting in differing insulin sensitivities (P < 0.001). When protein metabolism was assessed under parenteral feeding-induced hyperinsulinemia, LCn-3PUFAs reduced by 16% whole body oxidative losses of amino acids (from 238 to 231 μmol·kg−1·h−1; P = 0.06), allowing 41% more amino acids to accrete into body proteins (from 90 to 127 μmol·kg−1·h−1; P = 0.06). The fractional synthetic rate of muscle mixed proteins remained unaltered by the LCn-3PUFA feeding. However, LCn-3PUFAs retarded a developmental increase in the essential-to-nonessential amino acid ratio of the muscle intracellular free pool (P = 0.05). Overall, alterations in metabolism were concomitant with a preferential incorporation of LCn-3PUFAs into muscle total membrane phospholipids (P < 0.001), in contrast to intramuscular triglycerides. These results underscore the potential role of LCn-3PUFAs as regulators of different aspects of protein metabolism in the neonate. PMID:17673528

  6. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616

  7. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616

  8. n-3 Oil sources for use in aquaculture--alternatives to the unsustainable harvest of wild fish.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2008-12-01

    The present review examines renewable sources of oils with n-3 long-chain (> or = C20) PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA) as alternatives to oil from wild-caught fish in aquafeeds. Due to the increased demand for and price of wild-caught marine sources of n-3 LC-PUFA-rich oil, their effective and sustainable replacement in aquafeeds is an industry priority, especially because dietary n-3 LC-PUFA from eating fish are known to have health benefits in human beings. The benefits and challenges involved in changing dietary oil in aquaculture are highlighted and four major potential sources of n-3 LC-PUFA for aquafeeds, other than fish oil, are compared. These sources of oil, which contain n-3 LC-PUFA, specifically EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3) or precursors to these key essential fatty acids, are: (1) other marine sources of oil; (2) vegetable oils that contain biosynthetic precursors, such as stearidonic acid, which may be used by fish to produce n-3 LC-PUFA; (3) single-cell oil sources of n-3 LC-PUFA; (4) vegetable oils derived from oil-seed crops that have undergone genetic modification to contain n-3 LC-PUFA. The review focuses on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), because it is the main intensively cultured finfish species and it both uses and stores large amounts of oil, in particular n-3 LC-PUFA, in the flesh.

  9. High-Fat Diets Containing Different Amounts of n3 and n6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Bukowski, Michael R; Lie, Wen-Rong; Picklo, Matthew J; Yan, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different amounts of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on adiposity and adipokine production in mice. Mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet with 16 or 45 % of energy from corn oil (low n3 PUFA) in comparison with a high-fat diet containing soybean or high-oleic sunflower oil (adequate n3 PUFA) or flaxseed or fish oil (high n3 PUFA) for 11 weeks. High-fat diets, regardless of types of oils, significantly increased body fat mass and body weights compared to the low-fat diet. Adipose fatty acid composition and contents reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. The high-fat fish oil diet significantly increased adiponectin and reduced leptin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue; it did not elevate plasma insulin concentration compared to the high-fat corn oil diet. All high-fat diets elevated concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) but lowered resistin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue. In conclusion, fish oil may be beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity by upregulation of adiponectin and downregulation of leptin production; n3 and n6 PUFA do not play a role at the dietary levels tested in reducing adiposity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (leptin, PAI-1, MCP-1 and resistin) and anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin.

  10. High-Fat Diets Containing Different Amounts of n3 and n6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Bukowski, Michael R; Lie, Wen-Rong; Picklo, Matthew J; Yan, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different amounts of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on adiposity and adipokine production in mice. Mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet with 16 or 45 % of energy from corn oil (low n3 PUFA) in comparison with a high-fat diet containing soybean or high-oleic sunflower oil (adequate n3 PUFA) or flaxseed or fish oil (high n3 PUFA) for 11 weeks. High-fat diets, regardless of types of oils, significantly increased body fat mass and body weights compared to the low-fat diet. Adipose fatty acid composition and contents reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. The high-fat fish oil diet significantly increased adiponectin and reduced leptin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue; it did not elevate plasma insulin concentration compared to the high-fat corn oil diet. All high-fat diets elevated concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) but lowered resistin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue. In conclusion, fish oil may be beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity by upregulation of adiponectin and downregulation of leptin production; n3 and n6 PUFA do not play a role at the dietary levels tested in reducing adiposity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (leptin, PAI-1, MCP-1 and resistin) and anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin. PMID:26645280

  11. Endogenous conversion of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis in fat-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seong Ji; Lim, Kyu; Park, Su Yeon; Jung, Mun Yhung; Lim, Hye Song; Jeon, Min-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Il; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    It is suggested that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can be used in the preventive or therapeutic management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, controversial results have been reported. Here, we examined the effects of a decrease in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on RA using fat-1 transgenic mice. First, we tested whether fat-1 expression modulated signaling pathways in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) stimulated with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). TNF-α activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and increased phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in wild type (WT) FLSs but not in fat-1 FLSs. Arthritis was induced by injection of K/BxN serum. Based on clinical scores, ankle thickness and pathological severity, we showed that WT mice developed clinically overt arthritis, whereas fat-1 mice showed attenuated arthritis. Moreover, fat-1 mice exhibited down-regulated local and systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines. Lastly, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) of WT mice differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclasts, whereas the osteoclastogenenic process was suppressed in BMMs of fat-1 mice. The endogenous conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs via fat-1 plays a key role in attenuation of RA; therefore, dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFAs may have therapeutic potential for the management of RA. PMID:25910895

  12. Bioconversion of α-Linolenic Acid into n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in Hepatocytes and Ad Hoc Cell Culture Optimisation

    PubMed Central

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18∶3n-3 (ALA) bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO) as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20∶5n-3 (EPA) production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22∶5n-3 (DPA) and 22∶6n-3 (DHA) in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB) method on cell culture system (cells with medium) enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km) of the theoretical maximal (Vmax = 3654 µmol.g−1 of cell protein.hour−1) Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20∶5n-3 elongation) was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro

  13. Suppression of VLDL secretion by cultured hepatocytes incubated with chylomicron remnants enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is regulated by hepatic nuclear factor-4alpha.

    PubMed

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Avella, Michael; Botham, Kathleen M

    2009-12-01

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suppress the secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) directly when delivered to the liver in chylomicron remnants (CMR). The role of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and hepatic nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) in the regulation of this effect was investigated. Chylomicron remnant-like particles (CRLPs) containing triacylglycerol (TG) from palm (rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA)) or fish (rich in n-3 PUFA) oil were incubated with cultured rat hepatocytes (24h) and the expression of protein and mRNA for SREBP-1, SREBP-2 and HNF-4alpha, and levels of mRNA for their target genes were determined. SREBP-1 and -2 protein expression in the membrane and nuclear fractions was unaffected by either type of CRLPs. mRNA abundance for SREBP-1c and -2 was also unchanged by CRLP-treatment, as were levels of mRNA for target genes of SREBP-1, including steroyl CoA desaturase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase and ATP citrate lyase, and SREBP-2 (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase). In contrast, HNF-4alpha protein and mRNA levels were significantly decreased by CRLPs enriched in n-3 PUFA, but not SFA, and the expression of mRNA for HNF-4alpha target genes, including HNF-1alpha, apolipoprotein B and the microsomal TG transfer protein, was also lowered by n-3 PUFA-, but not SFA-enriched CRLPs. These findings suggest that the direct suppression of VLDL secretion by dietary n-3 PUFA delivered to the liver in CMR is mediated via decreased expression of HNF-4alpha.

  14. Liver microsomal mixed-function oxidases in response to polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios of dietary lipids in rats.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Yamaguchi, M

    1994-01-01

    The effects of various polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S; 0.29-2.74) and n-6/n-3 (0.49-11.21) ratios of dietary fatty acids and of phenobarbital (PB) stimulation on the activity of liver microsomal mixed-function oxidase (MFO) system were studied in rats using a combination of palm oil, safflower oil and fish oil concentrate. When the n-6/n-3 ratio was kept constant (4.6-4.9) without induction by PB, the highest P/S ratio (2.74) tended to increase the basal PB-uninduced MFO activities; while the PB-induced MFO activities were elevated as the dietary P/S ratio increased. This definitely indicates the role of both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the elevation of MFO activities with and without PB stimulation. Whereas the n-6/n-3 ratio was varied while maintaining a constant P/S ratio (1.3), the PB-induced MFO activities were significantly elevated by decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio although the MFO activities were not affected without PB stimulation. The MFO activities induced by PB were directly related to the n-3 PUFA content and inversely related to the n-6 PUFA content of the diets with n-6/n-3 ratios less than 4.55. These results obtained herein suggest that there are significant differences in the effects of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs on liver microsomal MFO activities, especially in relation to the induction of MFOs by PB.

  15. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems.

  16. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems. PMID:26468264

  17. Marine n-3 and saturated fatty acids in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in Singapore Chinese: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lesley M.; Wang, Renwei; Koh, Woon-Puay; Stern, Mariana C.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental data support multiple roles for fatty acids in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined dietary fatty acids and incidence of colorectal cancer, and evaluated effect modification by sex and stage of disease among a population-based cohort of 61,321 Singapore Chinese that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2005, 961 incident colorectal cancers were diagnosed. Presented hazard ratios (HRs) are for highest versus lowest quartiles with adjustment for potential confounders. Among women, we observed a dose-dependent, positive association between saturated fat and localized colorectal cancer (Dukes A or B) [(HR = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08–2.63, p for trend = 0.01)]. No such associations were noted in men (p for interaction by sex = 0.04). Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake was positively associated with advanced disease (Dukes C or D) (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.05–1.70, p for trend = 0.01), regardless of sex. The association with marine n-3 PUFAs was strongest among those with the shortest (≤5 years) duration of follow-up (HR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.00–2.21, p for trend = 0.04). In contrast, we observed a small, albeit imprecise, inverse association with marine n-3 PUFAs for localized colorectal cancer among those with the longest duration of follow-up (>10 years) (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.29–1.34, p for trend = 0.55). Our findings suggest that subtypes of fatty acids may differentially influence risk of colorectal cancer of a specified stage. PMID:18973226

  18. Modulation of systemic and aortic nitric oxide by melatonin and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in isoproterenol affected spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chaudagar, K K; Viczenczova, C; Szeiffova Bacova, B; Egan Benova, T; Barancik, M; Tribulova, N

    2016-09-19

    We aimed to explore the effects of melatonin and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation on plasma and aortic nitric oxide (NO) levels in isoproterenol (Iso) affected spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar rats. Untreated control rats were compared with Iso injected (118 mg/kg, s.c.) rats, and Iso injected plus supplemented with melatonin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or PUFA (1.68 g/kg, p.o.) for two months. Plasma and aortic basal, L-NAME inhibited, adrenaline and acetylcholine stimulated NO were determined using Griess method. Plasma NO levels were lower in SHR versus Wistar rats. Iso decreased NO in Wistar while not in SHR. PUFA but not melatonin intake of Iso treated SHR increased plasma NO along with a decrease in systolic blood pressure. Basal aortic NO level was higher in SHR than Wistar rats and not altered by Iso. Intake of melatonin increased but PUFA decreased basal NO levels in Wistar+Iso and did not affect in SHR+Iso rats. Acetylcholine and adrenaline induced aortic NO release was significantly increased in Wistar+Iso but not SHR+Iso group. Melatonin intake increased Ach induced aortic NO in Wistar+Iso and SHR+Iso groups, whereas there was no effect of PUFA intake. Findings suggest that PUFA modulates plasma and melatonin aortic NO levels of isoproterenol affected rats in a strain-dependent manner. PMID:27643932

  19. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    PubMed

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt.

  20. Effect of Marine-Derived n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin 6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor α: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kelei; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Jusheng; Wu, Kejian; Li, Duo

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies did not draw a consistent conclusion about the effects of marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on fasting blood level of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Methods and Findings A comprehensive search of Web of Science, PubMed, Embase and Medline (from 1950 to 2013) and bibliographies of relevant articles was undertaken. Sixty-eight RCTs with a total of 4601 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation showed a lowering effect on Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation had a significant lowering effect on TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP in three groups of subjects (subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease, subjects with chronic autoimmune disease and healthy subjects). A significant negative linear relationship between duration and effect size of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation on fasting blood levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease was observed, indicating that longer duration of supplementation could lead to a greater lowering effect. A similar linear relationship was also observed for IL-6 levels in healthy subjects. Restricted cubic spline analysis and subgroup analysis showed that the lowering effect of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs on CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease became weakened when body mass index was greater than 30 kg/m2. The effect of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs from dietary intake was only assessed in subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease, and a significant lowering effect was observed on IL-6, but not on CRP and TNF-α. Conclusions Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation had a significant lowering effect on CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α level. The lowering effect was most effective in non-obese subjects and consecutive long-term supplementation was recommended. PMID:24505395

  1. Erythrocyte stearidonic acid and other n-3 fatty acids and CHD in the Physicians’ Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of marine-based n-3 fatty acids (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA) is recommended to prevent CHD. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based n-3 fatty acid, is a precursor of EPA and may be more readily converted to EPA than a-linolenic acid (ALA). While transgenic soyabeans might supply SDA at ...

  2. The Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Androgen Status in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Hajishafiee, M; Askari, G; Iranj, B; Ghiasvand, R; Bellissimo, N; Totosy de Zepetnek, J; Salehi-Abargouei, A

    2016-05-01

    The anti-androgenic role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has recently been proposed. The present study aimed to systematically review clinical trials assessing the effects of n-3 PUFAs consumption on androgen status among adult females with PCOS. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus were searched up to December 2015. Clinical investigations assessing the effect of n-3 PUFAs on adult females with PCOS were included. Mean±standard deviation of change in serum total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and dehydroepiandrostrone sulfate (DHEAS) were extracted. Eight clinical trials with 298 participants were eligible. Meta-analysis showed that n-3 PUFAs supplementation marginally reduces total testosterone (mean difference [MD]: - 0.19 nmol/l; 95% CI: - 0.39 to 0.00; p=0.054), but not SHBG (MD: 1.75 nmol/l; 95% CI: -0.51 to 4.01; p=0.129) or serum DHEAS levels (Hedes' g: -0.11 nmol/l; 95% CI: -0.29 to 0.06; p=0.19) among adult females with PCOS. Subgroup analyses showed that only before-after studies (Hedges' g: 0.15; 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.04; p=0.01) and long-term interventions (>6 weeks) (Hedges' g: -0.17; 95% CI, -0.29 to -0.05; p=0.004) had reducing effects on serum DHEAS levels. The majority of long-term trials utilized a single group design (no control group). It does not appear that n-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly affects the androgenic profile of females with PCOS; however, some before-after and long-term intervention studies show reduced DHEAS levels. Future studies incorporating double blinded placebo controlled clinical trials with long follow-up periods are warranted. PMID:27077458

  3. Are all n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids created equal?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to have potential beneficial effects for chronic diseases including cancer, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in particular have been studied extensively, whereas substantive evidence for a biological role for the precursor, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), is lacking. It is not enough to assume that ALA exerts effects through conversion to EPA and DHA, as the process is highly inefficient in humans. Thus, clarification of ALA's involvement in health and disease is essential, as it is the principle n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumed in the North American diet and intakes of EPA and DHA are typically very low. There is evidence suggesting that ALA, EPA and DHA have specific and potentially independent effects on chronic disease. Therefore, this review will assess our current understanding of the differential effects of ALA, EPA and DHA on cancer, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. Potential mechanisms of action will also be reviewed. Overall, a better understanding of the individual role for ALA, EPA and DHA is needed in order to make appropriate dietary recommendations regarding n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption. PMID:19664246

  4. Omega-3 PUFAs Lower the Propensity for Arachidonic Acid Cascade Overreactions.

    PubMed

    Lands, Bill

    2015-01-01

    A productive view of the benefits from omega-3 (n-3) nutrients is that the dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) linoleic acid has a very narrow therapeutic window which is widened by n-3 nutrients. The benefit from moderate physiological actions of the arachidonic acid cascade can easily shift to harm from excessive pathophysiological actions. Recognizing the factors that predispose the cascade to an unwanted overactivity gives a rational approach for arranging beneficial interactions between the n-3 and n-6 essential nutrients that are initial components of the cascade. Much detailed evidence for harmful cascade actions was collected by pharmaceutical companies as they developed drugs to decrease those actions. A remaining challenge is to understand the factors that predispose the cascade toward unwanted outcomes and create the need for therapeutic interventions. Such understanding involves recognizing the similar dynamics for dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients in forming the immediate precursors of the cascade plus the more vigorous actions of the n-6 precursor, arachidonic acid, in forming potent mediators that amplify unwanted cascade outcomes. Tools have been developed to aid deliberate day-to-day quantitative management of the propensity for cascade overactivity in ways that can decrease the need for drug treatments.

  5. Omega-3 PUFAs Lower the Propensity for Arachidonic Acid Cascade Overreactions

    PubMed Central

    Lands, Bill

    2015-01-01

    A productive view of the benefits from omega-3 (n-3) nutrients is that the dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) linoleic acid has a very narrow therapeutic window which is widened by n-3 nutrients. The benefit from moderate physiological actions of the arachidonic acid cascade can easily shift to harm from excessive pathophysiological actions. Recognizing the factors that predispose the cascade to an unwanted overactivity gives a rational approach for arranging beneficial interactions between the n-3 and n-6 essential nutrients that are initial components of the cascade. Much detailed evidence for harmful cascade actions was collected by pharmaceutical companies as they developed drugs to decrease those actions. A remaining challenge is to understand the factors that predispose the cascade toward unwanted outcomes and create the need for therapeutic interventions. Such understanding involves recognizing the similar dynamics for dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients in forming the immediate precursors of the cascade plus the more vigorous actions of the n-6 precursor, arachidonic acid, in forming potent mediators that amplify unwanted cascade outcomes. Tools have been developed to aid deliberate day-to-day quantitative management of the propensity for cascade overactivity in ways that can decrease the need for drug treatments. PMID:26301244

  6. Endogenously synthesized n-3 fatty acids in fat-1 transgenic mice prevent melanoma progression by increasing E-cadherin expression and inhibiting β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xuan; Yu, Xiong-Wei; Zhu, Pan; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Jin-Jie; Yan, Wang; Xi, Yang; Wan, Jian-Bo; Kang, Jing-Xuan; Zou, Zu-Quan; Bu, Shi-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. Although preclinical studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are beneficial for prevention of melanoma, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of n‑3 PUFAs on melanoma remain largely unknown. In the present study, endogenously increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the tumor tissues of omega‑3 fatty acid desaturase (fat‑1) transgenic mice was associated with a reduction in the growth rate of melanoma xenografts. This reduction in tumor growth in fat‑1 mice compared with wild‑type controls may have been associated, in part, to the: i) Increased expression of E‑cadherin and the reduced expression of its transcriptional repressors, the zinc finger E‑box binding homeobox 1 and snail family transcriptional repressor 1; ii) significant repression of the epidermal growth factor receptor/Akt/β‑catenin signaling pathway; and iii) formation of significant levels of n‑3 PUFA‑derived lipid mediators, particularly resolvin D2 and E1, maresin 1 and 15‑hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid. In addition, vitamin E administration counteracted n‑3 PUFA‑induced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antitumor effect of n‑3 PUFAs, which suggests that the protective role of n‑3 PUFAs against melanoma is not mediated by n‑3 PUFAs‑induced lipid peroxidation. These results highlight a potential role of n‑3 PUFAs supplementation for the chemoprevention of melanoma in high‑risk individuals, and as a putative adjuvant agent in the treatment of malignant melanoma.

  7. Endogenously synthesized n-3 fatty acids in fat-1 transgenic mice prevent melanoma progression by increasing E-cadherin expression and inhibiting β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xuan; Yu, Xiong-Wei; Zhu, Pan; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Jin-Jie; Yan, Wang; Xi, Yang; Wan, Jian-Bo; Kang, Jing-Xuan; Zou, Zu-Quan; Bu, Shi-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. Although preclinical studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are beneficial for prevention of melanoma, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of n‑3 PUFAs on melanoma remain largely unknown. In the present study, endogenously increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the tumor tissues of omega‑3 fatty acid desaturase (fat‑1) transgenic mice was associated with a reduction in the growth rate of melanoma xenografts. This reduction in tumor growth in fat‑1 mice compared with wild‑type controls may have been associated, in part, to the: i) Increased expression of E‑cadherin and the reduced expression of its transcriptional repressors, the zinc finger E‑box binding homeobox 1 and snail family transcriptional repressor 1; ii) significant repression of the epidermal growth factor receptor/Akt/β‑catenin signaling pathway; and iii) formation of significant levels of n‑3 PUFA‑derived lipid mediators, particularly resolvin D2 and E1, maresin 1 and 15‑hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid. In addition, vitamin E administration counteracted n‑3 PUFA‑induced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antitumor effect of n‑3 PUFAs, which suggests that the protective role of n‑3 PUFAs against melanoma is not mediated by n‑3 PUFAs‑induced lipid peroxidation. These results highlight a potential role of n‑3 PUFAs supplementation for the chemoprevention of melanoma in high‑risk individuals, and as a putative adjuvant agent in the treatment of malignant melanoma. PMID:27573698

  8. Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from weaning limits brain biochemistry and behavioural changes elicited by prenatal exposure to maternal inflammation in the mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Q; Leung, Y O; Zhou, I; Ho, L C; Kong, W; Basil, P; Wei, R; Lam, S; Zhang, X; Law, A C K; Chua, S E; Sham, P C; Wu, E X; McAlonan, G M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) increases the risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. The MIA rodent model provides a valuable tool to directly test the postnatal consequences of exposure to an early inflammatory insult; and examine novel preventative strategies. Here we tested the hypotheses that behavioural differences in the MIA mouse model are accompanied by in vivo and ex vivo alterations in brain biochemistry; and that these can be prevented by a post-weaning diet enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The viral analogue PolyI:C (POL) or saline (SAL) was administered to pregnant mice on gestation day 9. Half the resulting male offspring (POL=21; SAL=17) were weaned onto a conventional lab diet (n-6 PUFA); half were weaned onto n-3 PUFA-enriched diet. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures were acquired prior to behavioural tests; glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels were measured ex vivo. The main findings were: (i) Adult MIA-exposed mice fed a standard diet had greater N-acetylaspartate/creatine (Cr) and lower myo-inositol/Cr levels in the cingulate cortex in vivo. (ii) The extent of these metabolite differences was correlated with impairment in prepulse inhibition. (iii) MIA-exposed mice on the control diet also had higher levels of anxiety and altered levels of GAD67 ex vivo. (iv) An n-3 PUFA diet prevented all the in vivo and ex vivo effects of MIA observed. Thus, n-3 PUFA dietary enrichment from early life may offer a relatively safe and non-toxic approach to limit the otherwise persistent behavioural and biochemical consequences of prenatal exposure to inflammation. This result may have translational importance. PMID:26393487

  9. Healthy yogurt fortified with n-3 fatty acids from vegetable sources.

    PubMed

    Dal Bello, B; Torri, L; Piochi, M; Zeppa, G

    2015-12-01

    The concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in yogurt was increased using 5 different vegetable oils obtained from flaxseed, Camelina sativa, raspberry, blackcurrant, and Echium plantagineum. The vegetable oils were added to partially skim milk before lactic fermentation at a concentration adequate enough to cover at least 10% of the recommended daily intake of 2 g/d of α-linolenic acid according to EC regulation no. 432/2012. Microbiological (lactobacilli and streptococci, yeast, and molds), chemical (pH, syneresis, proximate composition, fatty acids, oxidation stability), and sensory evaluations were assessed for all of the fortified yogurts after 0, 7, 14, and 21 d of storage at 4°C. Sensory evaluations were conducted at 21 d of storage at 4°C. Among the yogurts produced, those that were supplemented with flaxseed and blackcurrant oils exhibited the highest α-linolenic acid content (more than 200mg/100 g of yogurt) at the end of storage. The addition of oil did not influence the growth of lactic acid bacteria that were higher than 10(7) cfu/g at 21 d of storage. All of the yogurts were accepted by consumers, except for those supplemented with raspberry and E. plantagineum oils due to the presence of off flavors.

  10. Manipulating dietary PUFA in animal feed: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Butler, Gillian

    2014-02-01

    Milk, meat and eggs tend not to be regarded as an important source of PUFA. They are disproportionally high in SFA compared with their PUFA content, especially those from cattle and sheep, since their rumen microbes are responsible for the loss of over 90% of PUFA intake by livestock. This need not necessarily be the case since the relative proportion of PUFA in these foods is dictated by livestock management, especially feeding, and this can be manipulated to boost their content of crucial long-chain n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic fatty acids. The present paper considers the fatty acid composition in animal-derived foods and how these can be manipulated to be more conducive for consumers' health. The importance of recognising the effect of livestock production systems on fat composition is also highlighted along with the fact that we may have to compromise between intensive, high levels of production and this particular aspect of food quality.

  11. Adipose tissue n-3 fatty acids and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cespedes, Elizabeth; Baylin, Ana; Campos, Hannia

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the relationship of n-3 fatty acids (FA) to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome components (MetS) is inconsistent. Objective To examine associations of adipose tissue n-3 FA with MetS. Design We studied 1611 participants without prior history of diabetes or heart disease who were participants in a population-based case-control study of diet and heart disease (The Costa Rica Heart Study). We calculated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for MetS by quartile of n-3 FA in adipose tissue derived mainly from plants [α-Linolenic acid (ALA)], fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], or metabolism [docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), as well as the EPA:ALA ratio, a surrogate marker of delta-6 desaturase activity]. Results N-3 FA levels in adipose tissue were associated with MetS prevalence in opposite directions. The PR (95% CI) for the highest compared to the lowest quartile adjusted for age, sex, BMI, residence, lifestyle, diet and other fatty acids were 0.60 (0.44, 0.81) for ALA, 1.43 (1.12, 1.82) for EPA, 1.63 (1.22, 2.18) for DPA, and 1.47 (1.14, 1.88) for EPA:ALA, all p for trend <0.05. Although these associations were no longer significant (except DPA) after adjustment for BMI, ALA and DPA were associated with lower glucose and higher triglyceride levels, p<0.05 (respectively). Conclusions These results suggest that ALA could exert a modest protective benefit, while EPA and DHA are not implicated in MetS. The positive associations for DPA and MetS could reflect higher delta-6 desaturase activity caused by increased adiposity. PMID:25097001

  12. High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men) from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en%) was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en%) was high in SFA (63.8%) and low in PUFA (9.2%). Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group. PMID:21854590

  13. Metabolic Effects of n-3 PUFA as Phospholipids Are Superior to Triglycerides in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet: Possible Role of Endocannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Rossmeisl, Martin; Macek Jilkova, Zuzana; Kuda, Ondrej; Jelenik, Tomas; Medrikova, Dasa; Stankova, Barbora; Kristinsson, Björn; Haraldsson, Gudmundur G.; Svensen, Harald; Stoknes, Iren; Sjövall, Peter; Magnusson, Ylva; Balvers, Michiel G. J.; Verhoeckx, Kitty C. M.; Tvrzicka, Eva; Bryhn, Morten; Kopecky, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, namely docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and can ameliorate many of obesity-associated disorders. We hypothesised that the latter effect will be more pronounced when DHA/EPA is supplemented as phospholipids rather than as triglycerides. Methodology/Principal Findings In a ‘prevention study’, C57BL/6J mice were fed for 9 weeks on either a corn oil-based high-fat obesogenic diet (cHF; lipids ∼35% wt/wt), or cHF-based diets in which corn oil was partially replaced by DHA/EPA, admixed either as phospholipids or triglycerides from marine fish. The reversal of obesity was studied in mice subjected to the preceding cHF-feeding for 4 months. DHA/EPA administered as phospholipids prevented glucose intolerance and tended to reduce obesity better than triglycerides. Lipemia and hepatosteatosis were suppressed more in response to dietary phospholipids, in correlation with better bioavailability of DHA and EPA, and a higher DHA accumulation in the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), and muscle phospholipids. In dietary obese mice, both DHA/EPA concentrates prevented a further weight gain, reduced plasma lipid levels to a similar extent, and tended to improve glucose tolerance. Importantly, only the phospholipid form reduced plasma insulin and adipocyte hypertrophy, while being more effective in reducing hepatic steatosis and low-grade inflammation of WAT. These beneficial effects were correlated with changes of endocannabinoid metabolome in WAT, where phospholipids reduced 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and were more effective in increasing anti-inflammatory lipids such as N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine. Conclusions/Significance Compared with triglycerides, dietary DHA/EPA administered as phospholipids are superior in preserving a healthy metabolic profile under obesogenic conditions, possibly reflecting better bioavalability and improved modulation of the

  14. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation does not affect changes of lipid metabolism induced in rats by altered thyroid status.

    PubMed

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Behuliak, M; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia. It is well known that lipid metabolism is also influenced by thyroid hormones. The aim of our study was to test whether n-3 PUFA supplementation (200 mg/kg of body weight/day for 6 weeks given intragastrically) would affect lipid metabolism in Lewis male rats with altered thyroid status. Euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid status of experimental groups was well defined by plasma levels of triiodothyronine, the activity of liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and by relative heart weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid compared to the euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (5.0±0.2 vs. 3.7±0.4 and 4.4±0.2 mmol/l, respectively). In hyperthyroid animals, the concentration of plasma postprandial triglycerides was also increased compared to euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.5±0.1 and 0.4±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). On the other hand, hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid and hyperthyroid status was associated with elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (2.6±0.2 vs. 1.5±0.1 and 1.6±0.1 mmol/l, respectively), LDL cholesterol (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.4±0.1 and 0.2±0.1 mmol/l, respectively) as well as HDL cholesterol (1.6±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). Supplementation of n-3 PUFA in the present study did not significantly modify either relative heart weight or glucose and lipid levels in any thyroid status.

  15. Association of Fish Consumption-Derived Ratio of Serum n-3 to n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Risk With the Prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Tani, Shigemasa; Takahashi, Atsuhiko; Nagao, Ken; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2015-05-13

    We investigated the relationships between the ratio of serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs: eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) to n-6PUFA (arachidonic acid [AA]) and the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), and assessed the association of the ratio of serum n-3 to n-6 PUFAs with atherosclerosis-related markers.This study was designed as a hospital-based cross-sectional study of 649 consecutive outpatients who had undergone regular examinations between April 2009 and October 2009. We divided the patients into 5 groups based on the quintiles of the EPA/AA ratio or quintiles of the DHA/AA ratio to determine independent factors for the prevalence of CAD.In multivariate logistic regression analyses after adjustment for coronary risk factors and serum n-3PUFAs levels to minimize confounding factors to the extent possible because the serum levels of EPA and DHA showed a strong correlation (r = 0.812, P < 0.0001), the group with the highest EPA/AA ratio had a lower probability of CAD prevalence (odds ratio: 0.328, 95% confidence interval: 0.113 to 0.956, P = 0.041), but this was not true for the DHA/AA ratio. Multivariate analysis showed an increase in the EPA/AA ratio, but not in the DHA/AA ratio, was associated with effects on atherosclerosis-related markers, especially triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) containing apolipoprotein A-1, and leukocyte count in an anti-atherogenic direction.The results suggest a higher EPA/AA ratio, but not a higher DHA/AA ratio, might be associated with a lower prevalence of CAD and improvements of triglyceride metabolism and HDL metabolism, and systemic inflammation. PMID:25902881

  16. Endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protect against imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like inflammation via the IL-17/IL-23 axis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Si; Wen, Ju; Bai, Xiao-Chun; Chen, Tian-Yu; Zheng, Rong-Chang; Zhou, Gui-Bin; Ma, Jing; Feng, Jie-Ying; Zhong, Bi-Ling; Li, Yi-Ming

    2014-06-01

    The beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on psoriasis have been reported in rats, mice and humans, but the specific mechanisms involved have not been well defined. The present study utilized the fat-1 mouse, a transgenic model that can endogenously convert n-6 FAs into n-3 PUFAs, to directly determine if the outcomes of psoriasis were correlated with n-3 PUFAs. Wild-type (WT) and fat-1 mice, which were treated daily with imiquimod (IMQ) cream or control cream on the shaved right ear and dorsal skin, were fed the same diet. The severity of inflammation of the ear and dorsal skin was scored according to the clinical Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and epidermal hyperplasia was measured by H&E staining. The expression of inflammatory factors in the epidermis was analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis. Flow cytometry and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure the differences in the content of inflammatory factors in the blood serum and to determine which of CD4+ T cells were present in the spleen between IMQ-induced fat-1 mice and WT mice. Fat-1 IMQ-induced mice exhibited significantly lower levels of inflammatory cell-like T helper 17 cells (Th17 cells) and higher levels of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the spleen as compared with the WT IMQ-induced mice. n-3 fatty acids stimulated Th17 cells to produce lower levels of inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, IL-23 and stimulated Treg cells to produce higher anti-inflammatory factors, such as Foxp3. In conclusion, the present study provides further insight into the mechanisms involved in preventing inflammation in psoriasis-like mice by n-3 PUFAs using a fat-1 transgenic mouse model.

  17. Effect of 6 Weeks of n-3 fatty-acid supplementation on oxidative stress in Judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Massart, Alain; Portier, Hugues; Rouveix, Matthieu; Rosado, Fatima; Bage, Anne S; Gobert, Mylene; Durand, Denys

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the effects of 6 wk of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation on resting and exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in judoists. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or a capsule of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; 600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA). Blood samples were collected in preexercise and postexercise conditions (judo-training session), both before and after the supplementation period. The following parameters were analyzed: α-tocopherol, retinol, lag phase , maximum rate of oxidation (Rmax) during the propagating chain reaction, maximum amount of conjugated dienes (CDmax) accumulated after the propagation phase, nitric oxide (NO) and malondyaldehide (MDA) concentrations, salivary glutathione peroxidase activity, and the lipid profile. Dietary data were collected using a 7-day dietary record. A significant interaction effect between supplementation and time (p < .01) on triglycerides was noted, with values significantly lower in the n-3 long-chain-PUFA (LCPUFA) group after supplementation than in the placebo group. Significant interaction effects between supplementation and time on resting MDA concentrations and Rmax were found (p = .03 and p = .04, respectively), with elevated values in the n-3 LCPUFA group after supplementation and no change in the placebo group's levels. The authors observed a significantly greater NO and oxidative-stress increase with exercise (MDA, Rmax, CDmax, and NO) in the n-3 LCPUFA group than with placebo. No main or interaction effects were found for retinol and α-tocopherol. These results indicate that supplementation with n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased oxidative stress at rest and after a judo-training session.

  18. Serum lipoprotein composition, lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and tissue lipase activities in pregnant diabetic rats and their offspring receiving enriched n-3 PUFA diet.

    PubMed

    Soulimane-Mokhtari, N A; Guermouche, B; Saker, M; Merzouk, S; Merzouk, H; Hichami, A; Madani, S; Khan, N A; Prost, J

    2008-03-01

    The effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities were studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats during pregnancy and in their macrosomic offspring from birth to adulthood. Pregnant diabetic and control rats were fed Isio-4 diet (vegetable oil) or EPAX diet (concentrated marine omega-3 EPA/DHA oil), the same diets were consumed by pups at weaning. Compared with control rats, diabetic rats showed, during pregnancy, a significant elevation in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low and high density lipoprotein (LDL-HDL(1))-triglyceride, cholesterol and apoprotein B100 concentrations and a reduction in apoprotein A-I levels. HTGL activity was high while LPL and LCAT activities were low in these rats. The macrosomic pups of Isio-4-fed diabetic rats showed a significant enhancement in triglyceride and cholesterol levels at birth and during adulthood with a concomitant increase in lipase and LCAT activities. EPAX diet induces a significant diminution of VLDL and LDL-HDL(1) in mothers and in their macrosomic pups, accompanied by an increase in cholesterol and apoprotein A-I levels in HDL(2-3) fraction. It also restores LPL, HTGL and LCAT activities to normal range. EPAX diet ameliorates considerably lipoprotein disorders in diabetic mothers and in their macrosomic offspring. PMID:18436977

  19. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids) or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%). At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA) profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P < 0.0001) and brain glial cell PE (+18%, P = 0.0001) and PS (+15%, P = 0.0009) were significantly increased compared to the ALA group. The filtered correlation analysis (P < 0.05) underlined that levels of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), DHA and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were negatively correlated with arachidonic acid (ARA) and n-6 DPA in PE of brain glial cells. No significant correlation between n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA were found in the PS dataset. DMA level in PE was negatively correlated with n-6 DPA. DMA were found to occur in brain glial cell PS fraction; in this class DMA level was correlated negatively with DHA and positively with ARA. Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue

  20. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption produces neurobiological effects associated with prevention of depression in rats after the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongsoon; Moon, Hyoun-Jung; Kim, Seok-Hyeon

    2012-08-01

    Epidemiological data and clinical trials suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have preventive and therapeutic effects on depression; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The present study aimed to examine the behavioral effects and antidepressant mechanism of n-3 PUFA using a forced swimming test. Eleven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition-93M diet containing 0%, 0.5% or 1% EPA and DHA relative to the total energy intake in their diet for 12 weeks (n=8 per group). Total dietary intake, body weight and hippocampus weights were not significantly different among groups. The groups administered 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA diets had significantly higher levels of n-3 PUFA in their brain phospholipids compared to those in the control group. The immobility time was significantly decreased and the climbing time was significantly increased in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with those in the 0% EPA+DHA group. Plasma serotonin concentration and hippocampus c-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) expression were significantly increased in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with those in the 0% EPA+DHA group. Conversely, interleukin (IL)-6 expression was significantly reduced in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with that in the 0% EPA+DHA group. However, there were no dose-dependent effects of n-3 PUFA and no significant differences in expressions of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, brain-derived neurotrophic factor or phosphorylated CREB. In conclusion, long-term intake of EPA+DHA induced antidepressant-like effects in rats and overexpression of CREB via decreased IL-6 expression.

  1. The role of inflammation and macrophage accumulation in the development of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus and the possible therapeutic effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Elizabeth; McGillicuddy, Fiona; Phillips, Catherine; Toomey, Sinead; Roche, Helen M

    2010-05-01

    The WHO estimate that >1 x 10(6) deaths in Europe annually can be attributed to diseases related to excess body weight, and with the rising global obesity levels this death rate is set to drastically increase. Obesity plays a central role in the metabolic syndrome, a state of insulin resistance that predisposes patients to the development of CVD and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation characterised by inflamed adipose tissue with increased macrophage infiltration. This inflammation is now widely believed to be the key link between obesity and development of insulin resistance. In recent years it has been established that activation of pro-inflammatory pathways can cross talk with insulin signalling pathways via a number of mechanisms including (a) down-regulation of insulin signalling pathway proteins (e.g. GLUT4 and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1), (b) serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 blocking its tyrosine phosphorylation in response to insulin and (c) induction of cytokine signalling molecules that sterically hinder insulin signalling by blocking coupling of the insulin receptor to IRS-1. Long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression (a) through transcription factors such as PPAR and NF-kappaB and (b) via eicosanoid production, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production from many different cells including the macrophage. LC n-3 PUFA may therefore offer a useful anti-inflammatory strategy to decrease obesity-induced insulin resistance, which will be examined in the present review.

  2. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA.

  3. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA. PMID:26995676

  4. Long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation decreases physical activity during class time in iron-deficient South African school children.

    PubMed

    Smuts, Cornelius M; Greeff, Jani; Kvalsvig, Jane; Zimmermann, Michael B; Baumgartner, Jeannine

    2015-01-28

    Both Fe deficiency and poor n-3 fatty acid status have been associated with behavioural changes in children. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Fe and DHA+EPA supplementation, alone or in combination, on physical activity during school days and on teacher-rated behaviour in healthy Fe-deficient school children. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, children (n 98, 6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive (1) Fe (50 mg) plus DHA (420 mg)+EPA (80 mg), (2) Fe plus placebo, (3) placebo plus DHA+EPA or (4) placebo plus placebo as oral supplements (4 d/week) for 8.5 months. Physical activity was measured during four school days at baseline and endpoint using accelerometers, and data were stratified into morning class time (08.00-10.29 hours), break time (10.30-11.00 hours) and after-break class time (11.01-12.00 hours) for analysis. Classroom behaviour was assessed at endpoint using Conners' Teacher Rating Scales. DHA+EPA supplementation decreased physical activity counts during morning class time, increased sedentary physical activity, and decreased light- and moderate-intensity physical activities. Consistently, DHA+EPA supplementation increased sedentary physical activity and decreased light-intensity physical activity during after-break class time. Even though there were no treatment effects found on teacher-rated behaviour, lower physical activity during morning class time was associated with lower levels of teacher-rated hyperactivity and oppositional behaviour at endpoint. Despite a positive association between Fe status and physical activity during break time at baseline, Fe supplementation did not affect physical activity during break time and class time. Our findings suggest that DHA+EPA supplementation may decrease physical activity levels during class time, and further indicate that accelerometry might be a useful tool to assess classroom behaviour in healthy children.

  5. Differential effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on metabolic control and vascular reactivity in the type 2 diabetic ob/ob mouse.

    PubMed

    Mustad, Vikkie A; Demichele, Stephen; Huang, Yung-Sheng; Mika, Amanda; Lubbers, Nathan; Berthiaume, Nathalie; Polakowski, Jim; Zinker, Brad

    2006-10-01

    Diets rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are recommended for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The American Heart Association recommends increasing intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to reduce the risk of vascular disease in high-risk individuals; however, the long-term effects of these bioactive fatty acids on glucose metabolism in insulin resistance are controversial. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of diets rich in both MUFA and alpha linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA), or docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), on glycemic control and other parameters related to vascular health in a mouse model of T2DM and insulin resistance. Male ob/ob mice (n = 15 per treatment) were fed 1 of 4 lipid-modified formula diets (LFDs) for 4 weeks: (1) MUFA control, (2) ALA blend, (3) EPA blend, and (4) DHA blend. A portion of a MUFA-rich lipid blend in the control LFD was replaced with 11% to 14% energy as n-3 PUFA. After 4 weeks, plasma glucose response to a standard meal (1.5 g carbohydrate/kg body weight) and insulin challenge (2 U/kg body weight, IP) was assessed, and samples were collected for analysis of glucose, insulin, and lipids. Vascular reactivity of isolated aortic rings was assessed in an identical follow-up study. The results showed that insulin-resistant mice fed an LFD with EPA and/or DHA blends had significantly (P < .05) lower triglycerides and free fatty acids, but insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma glucose were not improved. However, mice fed with the ALA blend had significantly improved insulin sensitivity when compared to those fed with other LFD (P < .05). Animals fed an LFD with n-3 PUFA from marine or plant sources showed significantly improved vascular responses as compared with the MUFA-rich LFD (E(max), P < .05) and ob/ob reference mice consuming chow (E(max) and pEC(50), P < .05). In summary, long-term consumption of LFD with n-3 PUFAs improved blood

  6. [Importance of long chain omega-3 fatty acids in prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Küllenberg de Gaudry, D; Massing, U

    2014-11-01

    The benefits of long chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) from fish or administered as supplements remain controversial regarding prostate cancer (PCa). Based on the currently available evidence no clear benefit of n-3 PUFA intake to generally reduce PCa incidence has been found. On the other hand n-3 PUFAs have a clear influence on the development of already existing PCa. The intake of n-3-PUFAs considerably reduces the risk of metastasis and PCa-related mortality.

  7. Consumption of Buglossoides arvensis seed oil is safe and increases tissue long-chain n-3 fatty acid content more than flax seed oil - results of a phase I randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Natalie; LeBlanc, Rémi; Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Surette, Marc E

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment of tissues with ≥20-carbon n-3 PUFA like EPA is associated with positive cardiovascular outcomes. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18 : 4n-3) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) are plant-derived dietary n-3 PUFA; however, direct comparisons of their impact on tissue n-3 PUFA content are lacking. Ahiflower(®) oil extracted from Buglossoides arvensis seeds is the richest known non-genetically modified source of dietary SDA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of dietary Ahiflower oil, a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled phase I clinical trial was performed. Diets of healthy subjects (n 40) were supplemented for 28 d with 9·1 g/d of Ahiflower (46 % ALA, 20 % SDA) or flax seed oil (59 % ALA). Blood and urine chemistries, blood lipid profiles, hepatic and renal function tests and haematology were measured as safety parameters. The fatty acid composition of fasting plasma, erythrocytes, polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells were measured at baseline and after 14 and 28 d of supplementation. No clinically significant changes in safety parameters were measured in either group. Tissue ALA and EPA content increased in both groups compared with baseline, but EPA accrual in plasma and in all cell types was greater in the Ahiflower group (time × treatment interactions, P ≤ 0·01). Plasma and mononuclear cell eicosatetraenoic acid (20 : 4n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-3) content also increased significantly in the Ahiflower group compared with the flax group. In conclusion, the consumption of Ahiflower oil is safe and is more effective for the enrichment of tissues with 20- and 22-carbon n-3 PUFA than flax seed oil. PMID:26793308

  8. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  9. Supplementation with fish oil as a source of n-3 fatty acids does not downregulate mammary lipogenesis in lactating mice.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mahmoud; Harvatine, Kevin J; Boisclair, Yves R; Bauman, Dale E

    2013-12-01

    The very long chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCn3PUFAs) are potent regulators of hepatic lipid synthesis, but their effect on lipid synthesis in the lactating mammary gland is less well investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on mammary lipogenesis and the expression of lipogenic genes in mammary and hepatic tissues of lactating mice. Beginning on day 6 of lactation and continuing for 7 d, female C57BL/6J mice (n = 8/diet) were fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments: a 5%-fat diet containing mainly saturated fatty acids (FAs) (low-fat control) or 2 10%-fat diets, 1 enriched with FO as a source of VLCn3PUFAs and the other enriched with a safflower/palm oil mixture (high-fat control) as a source of oleic acid. Mammary lipogenic capacity, measured by (14)C-glucose incorporation into FAs by mammary explants, was similar among treatments, and there were no treatment effects on the proportion of de novo synthesized FAs in milk fat or on litter weight gain, a proxy for milk energy secretion. Also, there were no treatment effects on mammary mRNA abundance for key lipogenic enzymes and proteins involved in the regulation of milk lipid synthesis. In contrast, there was a treatment effect on hepatic lipogenesis, with FO resulting in a decrease of ~50% in hepatic lipid content and a similar downregulation of lipogenic gene expression compared with the 2 control diets. Overall, there were tissue-specific differences in dietary VLCn3PUFA effects on lipid synthesis with no observed effects for mammary lipogenic variables but marked reductions occurring in hepatic lipogenesis.

  10. Evaluation of maize grain and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) as energy sources for breeding rams based on hormonal, sperm functional parameters and fertility.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, Sellappan; Raju, Priyadarshini; Rao, Somu Bala Nageswara; Raghavendra, Subbarao; Nandi, Sumantha; Dineshkumar, Dhanasekaran; Thayakumar, Allen; Parthipan, Shivashanmugam; Ravindra, Janivara Parameswaraiah

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of different sources of dietary energy (maize vs polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on semen functional parameters and fertility of adult rams. Eighteen adult rams were divided into two groups (maize and PUFA, n=9). The main energy source for the rams in the maize group was coarsely ground maize grain, whereas in the PUFA group it was sunflower oil (rich in 18:2 linoleic acid, an omega-6 acid). The ration was fed for a minimum period of 60 days and thereafter semen was collected for evaluation. The proportion of progressive forward motility was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the PUFA group compared with the maize group. Sperm lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde formation (µM per 1×10(9) spermatozoa) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the PUFA group compared with the maize group. When the semen was diluted with Tris-egg yolk-citrate buffer and incubated for 24h at 4°C, the proportions of plasmalemma integrity, the sperm subpopulation positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities, and mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly (P<0.05) higher in PUFA-fed than in maize-fed animals. The different sources of energy did not influence the serum and seminal plasma IGF-I levels. The cleavage rate (percentage) did not differ significantly between PUFA- (45.4±4.91) and maize- (44.63±6.8) fed animals. In conclusion, PUFA feeding influenced sperm quality by altering or stabilising membrane integrity. The present study indicates that PUFA may improve semen quality but did not improve in vitro fertilisation. PMID:22697117

  11. Evaluation of maize grain and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) as energy sources for breeding rams based on hormonal, sperm functional parameters and fertility.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, Sellappan; Raju, Priyadarshini; Rao, Somu Bala Nageswara; Raghavendra, Subbarao; Nandi, Sumantha; Dineshkumar, Dhanasekaran; Thayakumar, Allen; Parthipan, Shivashanmugam; Ravindra, Janivara Parameswaraiah

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of different sources of dietary energy (maize vs polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on semen functional parameters and fertility of adult rams. Eighteen adult rams were divided into two groups (maize and PUFA, n=9). The main energy source for the rams in the maize group was coarsely ground maize grain, whereas in the PUFA group it was sunflower oil (rich in 18:2 linoleic acid, an omega-6 acid). The ration was fed for a minimum period of 60 days and thereafter semen was collected for evaluation. The proportion of progressive forward motility was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the PUFA group compared with the maize group. Sperm lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde formation (µM per 1×10(9) spermatozoa) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the PUFA group compared with the maize group. When the semen was diluted with Tris-egg yolk-citrate buffer and incubated for 24h at 4°C, the proportions of plasmalemma integrity, the sperm subpopulation positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities, and mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly (P<0.05) higher in PUFA-fed than in maize-fed animals. The different sources of energy did not influence the serum and seminal plasma IGF-I levels. The cleavage rate (percentage) did not differ significantly between PUFA- (45.4±4.91) and maize- (44.63±6.8) fed animals. In conclusion, PUFA feeding influenced sperm quality by altering or stabilising membrane integrity. The present study indicates that PUFA may improve semen quality but did not improve in vitro fertilisation.

  12. Unmasking Differential Effects of Rosiglitazone and Pioglitazone in the Combination Treatment with n-3 Fatty Acids in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kus, Vladimir; Flachs, Pavel; Kuda, Ondrej; Bardova, Kristina; Janovska, Petra; Svobodova, Michaela; Jilkova, Zuzana Macek; Rossmeisl, Martin; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Yu, Zhonghao; Illig, Thomas; Kopecky, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Combining pharmacological treatments and life style interventions is necessary for effective therapy of major diseases associated with obesity, which are clustered in the metabolic syndrome. Acting via multiple mechanisms, combination treatments may reduce dose requirements and, therefore, lower the risk of adverse side effects, which are usually associated with long-term pharmacological interventions. Our previous study in mice fed high-fat diet indicated additivity in preservation of insulin sensitivity and in amelioration of major metabolic syndrome phenotypes by the combination treatment using n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) and rosiglitazone, i.e. an anti-diabetic drug of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) family. We investigated here whether pioglitazone, a TZD-drug in clinical use, could elicit the additive beneficial effects when combined with n-3 LC-PUFA. Adult male mice (C57BL/6N) were fed an obesogenic corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF) for 8 weeks, or randomly assigned to various dietary treatments (i) cHF+F, cHF with n-3 LC-PUFA concentrate replacing 15% of dietary lipids; (ii) cHF+ROSI, cHF with 10 mg rosiglitazone/kg diet; (iii) cHF+F+ROSI; (iv) cHF+PIO, cHF with 50 mg pioglitazone/kg diet; and (v) cHF+F+PIO, or chow-fed. Plasma concentrations of 163 metabolites were evaluated using a targeted metabolomics approach. Both TZDs preserved glucose homeostasis and normal plasma lipid levels while inducing adiponectin, with pioglitazone showing better effectiveness. The beneficial effects of TZDs were further augmented by the combination treatments. cHF+F+ROSI but not cHF+F+PIO counteracted development of obesity, in correlation with inducibility of fatty acid β-oxidation, as revealed by the metabolomic analysis. By contrast, only cHF+F+PIO eliminated hepatic steatosis and this treatment also reversed insulin resistance in dietary obese mice. Our results reveal differential effects of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, unmasked in the

  13. Unmasking differential effects of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in the combination treatment with n-3 fatty acids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kus, Vladimir; Flachs, Pavel; Kuda, Ondrej; Bardova, Kristina; Janovska, Petra; Svobodova, Michaela; Jilkova, Zuzana Macek; Rossmeisl, Martin; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Yu, Zhonghao; Illig, Thomas; Kopecky, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Combining pharmacological treatments and life style interventions is necessary for effective therapy of major diseases associated with obesity, which are clustered in the metabolic syndrome. Acting via multiple mechanisms, combination treatments may reduce dose requirements and, therefore, lower the risk of adverse side effects, which are usually associated with long-term pharmacological interventions. Our previous study in mice fed high-fat diet indicated additivity in preservation of insulin sensitivity and in amelioration of major metabolic syndrome phenotypes by the combination treatment using n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) and rosiglitazone, i.e. an anti-diabetic drug of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) family. We investigated here whether pioglitazone, a TZD-drug in clinical use, could elicit the additive beneficial effects when combined with n-3 LC-PUFA. Adult male mice (C57BL/6N) were fed an obesogenic corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF) for 8 weeks, or randomly assigned to various dietary treatments (i) cHF+F, cHF with n-3 LC-PUFA concentrate replacing 15% of dietary lipids; (ii) cHF+ROSI, cHF with 10 mg rosiglitazone/kg diet; (iii) cHF+F+ROSI; (iv) cHF+PIO, cHF with 50 mg pioglitazone/kg diet; and (v) cHF+F+PIO, or chow-fed. Plasma concentrations of 163 metabolites were evaluated using a targeted metabolomics approach. Both TZDs preserved glucose homeostasis and normal plasma lipid levels while inducing adiponectin, with pioglitazone showing better effectiveness. The beneficial effects of TZDs were further augmented by the combination treatments. cHF+F+ROSI but not cHF+F+PIO counteracted development of obesity, in correlation with inducibility of fatty acid β-oxidation, as revealed by the metabolomic analysis. By contrast, only cHF+F+PIO eliminated hepatic steatosis and this treatment also reversed insulin resistance in dietary obese mice. Our results reveal differential effects of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, unmasked in the

  14. Investigation of long chain omega-3 PUFAs on arterial blood pressure, vascular reactivity and survival in angiotensin II-infused Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bürgin-Maunder, Corinna S; Nataatmadja, Maria; Vella, Rebecca K; Fenning, Andrew S; Brooks, Peter R; Russell, Fraser D

    2016-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory vascular disease. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) decrease inflammation and oxidative stress in an angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mouse model of AAA. This study investigated the effects of LC n-3 PUFAs on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in fourteen angiotensin II-infused ApoE(-/-) male mice. Blood pressure was obtained using a non-invasive tail cuff method and whole blood was collected by cardiac puncture. Vascular reactivity of the thoracic aorta was assessed using wire myography and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was determined by immunohistochemistry. A high LC n-3 PUFA diet increased the omega-3 index and reduced the n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio. At day 10 post-infusion with angiotensin II, there was no difference in systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure in mice fed the high or low n-3 PUFA diets. The high LC n-3 PUFA diet resulted in a non-significant trend for delay in time to death from abdominal aortic rupture. Vascular reactivity and eNOS activation remained unchanged in mice fed the high compared to the low LC n-3 PUFA diet. This study argues against direct improvement in vascular reactivity in ApoE(-/-) mice that were supplemented with n-3 PUFA for 8 weeks prior to infusion with angiotensin II.

  15. Spatial and visual discrimination reversals in adult and geriatric rats exposed during gestation to methylmercury and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Paletz, Elliott M.; Day, Jeremy J.; Craig-Schmidt, Margaret C.; Newland, M. Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Fish contain essential long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 (or n-3) PUFA, but are also the main source of exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), a potent developmental neurotoxicant. Since n-3 PUFAs support neural development and function, benefits deriving from a diet rich in n-3s have been hypothesized to protect against deleterious effects of gestational MeHg exposure. To determine whether protection occurs at the behavioral level, female Long-Evans rats were exposed, in utero, to 0, 0.5, or 5 ppm of Hg as MeHg via drinking water, approximating exposures of 0, 40, and 400 μg Hg/kg/day and producing 0, 0.29, and 5.50 ppm of total Hg in the brains of siblings at birth. They also received pre- and postnatal exposure to one of two diets, both based on the AIN-93 semipurified formulation. A “fish-oil” diet was high in, and a “coconut-oil” diet was devoid of, DHA. Diets were approximately equal in α-linolenic acid and n-6 PUFAs. As adults, the rats were first assessed with a spatial discrimination reversal (SDR) procedure and later with a visual (nonspatial) discrimination reversal (VDR) procedure. MeHg increased the number of errors to criterion for both SDR and VDR during the first reversal, but effects were smaller or nonexistent on the original discrimination and on later reversals. No such MeHg-related deficits were seen when the rats were retested on SDR after two years of age. These results are consistent with previous reports and hypotheses that gestational MeHg exposure produces perseverative responding. No interactions between Diet and MeHg were found, suggesting that n-3 PUFAs do not guard against these behavioral effects. Brain Hg concentrations did not differ between the diets, either. In geriatric rats, failures to respond were less common and response latencies were shorter for rats fed the fish oil diet, suggesting that exposure to a diet rich in n-3s may lessen the impact of age

  16. Low-n-6 and low-n-6 plus high-n-3 diets for use in clinical research

    PubMed Central

    MacIntosh, Beth A.; Ramsden, Christopher E.; Faurot, Keturah R.; Zamora, Daisy; Mangan, Margaret; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Mann, J. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Few trials have evaluated the metabolic effects and health outcomes of lowering dietary n-6 PUFA. The objectives of the present paper were (1) to report the methods employed to lower dietary n-6 PUFA, while either increasing or maintaining n-3 PUFA intake and (2) to validate our methods with 24 h recalls and erythrocyte fatty acid analyses. A total of sixty-seven subjects were randomised to either (1) an average-n-3 PUFA, low-n-6 PUFA (L6) intervention designed to lower linoleic acid (LA; ≤2·5 % of energy (en%)) and arachidonic acid (≤60 mg/d), while maintaining an average US intake of n-3 PUFA or (2) a high-n-3 PUFA, low-n-6 PUFA (H3-L6) intervention designed to lower n-6 LA, while increasing the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (ALA; ≥1·5 en%) and EPA + DHA (≥1000 mg/d). Pre- and intra-intervention nutrient intakes were estimated with six 24 h dietary recalls per subject. Both groups achieved the targeted reductions in dietary LA to ≤2·5 en% (median LA 2·45 (2·1, 3·1); P<0·001). Intakes of n-3 PUFA did not change for the L6 group. Target increases in n-3 ALA (median 1·6 en%, (1·3, 2·0), P<0·001) and EPA + DHA (1482 mg, (374, 2558), P<0·001) were achieved in the H3-L6 group. Dietary changes were validated by corresponding changes in erythrocyte n-6 and n-3 fatty acid composition. Dietary LA can be lowered to ≤2·5 en%, with or without concurrent increases in dietary n-3 PUFA, in an outpatient clinical trial setting using this integrated diet method. PMID:23328113

  17. Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.

    PubMed

    Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor α expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway.

  18. Paradoxical effect of n-3-containing vegetable oils on long-chain n-3 fatty acids in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Leslie G; Gibson, Robert A; Pedler, Janet; James, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Flaxseed, echium, and canola oils contain alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) in a range of concentrations. To examine their effect on elevating cardiac levels of long-chain n-3 FA, diets based on these n-3-containing vegetable oils were fed to rats for 4 wk. Sunflower oil, which contains little ALA, was a comparator. Despite canola oil having the lowest ALA content of the three n-3-containing vegetable oils, it was the most potent for elevating DHA (22:6n-3) levels in rat hearts and plasma. However, the relative potencies of the dietary oils for elevation of EPA (20:5n-3) in heart and plasma followed the same rank order as their ALA content, i.e., flaxseed > echium > canola > sunflower oil. This paradox may be explained by lower ALA intake leading to decreased competition for Delta6 desaturase activity between ALA and the 24:5n-3 FA precursor to DHA formation.

  19. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease: towards an omega-3 index for mental health?

    PubMed

    Milte, Catherine M; Sinn, Natalie; Howe, Peter R C

    2009-10-01

    Interest in the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs, in mental health is increasing. This review investigates whether n-3 PUFA levels are abnormal in people with three prevalent mental health problems - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and dementia. Data sources included PubMed, Web of Science, and bibliographies of papers published in English that describe PUFA levels in the circulation of individuals who have these mental health conditions. Although abnormal blood PUFA levels were reported in a number of studies, weighted comparisons of PUFA status showed no significant differences overall between people with mental health problems and controls. Whether those with low n-3 PUFA status are likely to be more responsive to n-3 PUFA supplementation is not yet resolved. Further studies assessing PUFA levels and mental status with greater uniformity are required in order to clarify the relationship between LC n-3 PUFA status and mental health.

  20. Evaluation of long-chain n3 fatty acid content in diploid and triploid rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of long chain n3 fatty acids (LCn3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n3), is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease. There is growing interest in farmed fish like rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, as sources of LCn3. The trout industry raises...

  1. The Fast Spiral-SelMQC Technique for In Vivo MR Spectroscopic Imaging of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) in Human Breast Tissue‡

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, He; Rubin, Denis; He, Qiuhong

    2011-01-01

    The Selective Multiple-Quantum Coherence Transfer (Sel-MQC) method has been applied to image polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) distributions in human breast tissues in vivo for cancer detection, with complete suppression of the unwanted lipid and water signals in a single scan. The Cartesian k-space mapping of PUFA in vivo using the Sel-MQC CSI technique, however, requires excessive MR scan time. In this article, we report a fast Spiral-SelMQC sequence employing a rapid spiral k-space sampling scheme. The Spiral-SelMQC images of PUFA distribution in human breast were acquired using two-interleaved spirals on a 3T GE Signa MRI scanner. Approximately 160-fold reduction of acquisition time was observed as compared to the corresponding Sel-MQC CSI method with an equivalent number of scans, permitting acquisition of high-resolution PUFA images in minutes. The reconstructed Spiral-SelMQC PUFA images of human breast tissues achieved a sub-millimeter resolution of 0.54×0.54 or 0.63×0.63mm2/pixel for FOV = 14 or 16cm, respectively. The Spiral-SelMQC parameters for PUFA detection were optimized in 2D Sel-MQC experiments to suppress monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and other lipid signals. The fast in vivo Spiral-SelMQC imaging method will be applied to study human breast cancer and other human diseases in extracranial organs. PMID:22028250

  2. Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids modify blood and cardiac phospholipids and reduce protein kinase-C-delta and protein kinase-C-epsilon translocation.

    PubMed

    Judé, Sébastien; Martel, Eric; Vincent, Fanny; Besson, Pierre; Couet, Charles; Ogilvie, Gregory K; Pinault, Michelle; De Chalendar, Catherine; Bougnoux, Philippe; Richard, Serge; Champeroux, Pascal; Crozatier, Bertrand; Le Guennec, Jean-Yves

    2007-12-01

    The effects of an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on cardiac cell membrane phospholipid fraction compositions and associated protein kinase-C (PKC) translocation modification have never been studied in higher mammals. This is of importance since membrane fatty acid composition has been shown to influence PKC signalling pathways. In the present study, we have tested whether the incorporation of n-3 PUFA in cardiac membrane phospholipids correlated with changes in the fatty acid composition of diacylglycerols (DAG) and led to a differential translocation of PKC isoforms. Two groups of five dogs were fed the standard diet supplemented with palm oil or fish oil for 8 weeks. Dogs fed a fish oil-enriched diet showed a preferential incorporation of EPA and, to a lesser extent, of DHA, at the expense of arachidonic acid, in the circulating TAG, plasma phospholipids, erythrocyte phospholipids and cardiomyocyte phospholipid fractions. Analysis of 1,2-DAG fatty acid composition also indicated a preferential enrichment of EPA compared with DHA. Associated with these results, a reduction in the expression of PKC-delta and PKC-epsilon isoforms in the particulate fractions was observed whereas no effect was seen for PKC-alpha and PKC-zeta. We conclude that a fish oil-enriched diet induces a modification in fatty acid composition of cardiac membrane phospholipids, associated with a differential translocation of PKC isoforms. These results can be explained by the production of structurally different DAG that may participate in some of the protective effects of n-3 PUFA against various chronic diseases.

  3. Comparative Effects of n-3, n-6 and n-9 Unsaturated Fatty Acid-Rich Diet Consumption on Lupus Nephritis, Autoantibody Production and CD4+ T Cell-Related Gene Responses in the Autoimmune NZBWF1 Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pestka, James J.; Vines, Laura L.; Bates, Melissa A.; He, Kaiyu; Langohr, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypical autoimmune disease, correlates with the onset and severity of kidney glomerulonephritis. There are both preclinical and clinical evidence that SLE patients may benefit from consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in fish oil, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we employed the NZBWF1 SLE mouse model to compare the effects of dietary lipids on the onset and severity of autoimmune glomerulonephritis after consuming: 1) n-3 PUFA-rich diet containing docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil (DFO), 2) n-6 PUFA-rich Western-type diet containing corn oil (CRN) or 3) n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich Mediterranean-type diet containing high oleic safflower oil (HOS). Elevated plasma autoantibodies, proteinuria and glomerulonephritis were evident in mice fed either the n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets, however, all three endpoints were markedly attenuated in mice that consumed the n-3 PUFA diet until 34 wk of age. A focused PCR array was used to relate these findings to the expression of 84 genes associated with CD4+ T cell function in the spleen and kidney both prior to and after the onset of the autoimmune nephritis. n-3 PUFA suppression of autoimmunity in NZBWF1 mice was found to co-occur with a generalized downregulation of CD4+ T cell-related genes in kidney and/or spleen at wk 34. These genes were associated with the inflammatory response, antigen presentation, T cell activation, B cell activation/differentiation and leukocyte recruitment. Quantitative RT-PCR of representative affected genes confirmed that n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with reduced expression of CD80, CTLA-4, IL-10, IL-18, CCL-5, CXCR3, IL-6, TNF-α and osteopontin mRNAs in kidney and/or spleens as compared to mice fed n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets. Remarkably, many of the genes identified in this study are currently under consideration as biomarkers and/or biotherapeutic targets for SLE and other autoimmune

  4. Atlantic salmon require long-chain n-3 fatty acids for optimal growth throughout the seawater period.

    PubMed

    Rosenlund, Grethe; Torstensen, Bente E; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Usman, Nafiha; Sissener, Nini H

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional requirement for n-3 long-chain PUFA in fast-growing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during grow out in the sea is not well documented. Diets were formulated with levels of EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) ranging from 1·3 to 7·4 % of fatty acids (4-24 g/kg feed). Two long-term trials were conducted through the seawater phase, the first at 6 and 12°C, and the second at 12°C. In the first trial, growth at both temperatures was significantly lower in fish fed 1·4 % EPA+DHA of total fatty acids compared with the 5·2 % EPA+DHA group. In the second trial, growth was significantly lower in fish fed 1·3 and 2·7 % compared with 4·4 and 7·4 % EPA + DHA. Fatty acid composition in the fish reflected diet composition, but only after a 7-fold increase in body weight did the fatty acid profile of the fish stabilise according to dietary fatty acids (shown for EPA and DHA). The retention efficiency of DHA increased with decreasing dietary levels, and was 120-190 and 120-200 % in trials 1 and 2, respectively. The retention efficiency of EPA was lower (60-200 %), and values >100 % were only achieved at the lowest dietary levels in both trials. Temperature did not affect fatty acid retention efficiency. These results suggest that Atlantic salmon have a specific requirement for EPA + DHA >2·7 % of fatty acids for optimal long-term growth in seawater, and that short-term growth trials with less weight increase would not show these effects. PMID:27293556

  5. Fish Oil-Derived Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Expression of M1-Associated Macrophage Markers in an ex vivo Adipose Tissue Culture Model, in Part through Adiponectin.

    PubMed

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil) n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil)-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM). We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute [18 h ACM plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the last 6 h] or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h) inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2, and Ccl5) compared with CON ACM (p ≤ 0.05); however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p > 0.05). Furthermore, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2, and Il1β) and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p ≤ 0.05); however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT

  6. Role of T-Cell Polarization and Inflammation and Their Modulation by n-3 Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes and Macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Hichami, A; Grissa, O; Mrizak, I; Benammar, C; Khan, N A

    2016-01-01

    Th (T helper) cells are differentiated into either Th1 or Th2 phenotype. It is generally considered that Th1 phenotype is proinflammatory, whereas Th2 phenotype exerts anti-inflammatory or protective effects. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype, whereas macrosomia is marked with high expression of Th1 cytokines. Besides, these two pathological situations are marked with high concentrations of inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), known to play a pivotal role in insulin resistance. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may exert a beneficial effect by shifting Th1/Th2 balance to a Th2 phenotype and increasing insulin sensitivity. In this paper, we shed light on the role of T-cell malfunction that leads to an inflammatory and pathophysiological state, related to insulin resistance in GDM and macrosomia. We will also discuss the nutritional management of these pathologies by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PMID:27313878

  7. Role of T-Cell Polarization and Inflammation and Their Modulation by n-3 Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes and Macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    Hichami, A.; Grissa, O.; Mrizak, I.; Benammar, C.; Khan, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Th (T helper) cells are differentiated into either Th1 or Th2 phenotype. It is generally considered that Th1 phenotype is proinflammatory, whereas Th2 phenotype exerts anti-inflammatory or protective effects. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype, whereas macrosomia is marked with high expression of Th1 cytokines. Besides, these two pathological situations are marked with high concentrations of inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), known to play a pivotal role in insulin resistance. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may exert a beneficial effect by shifting Th1/Th2 balance to a Th2 phenotype and increasing insulin sensitivity. In this paper, we shed light on the role of T-cell malfunction that leads to an inflammatory and pathophysiological state, related to insulin resistance in GDM and macrosomia. We will also discuss the nutritional management of these pathologies by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PMID:27313878

  8. Hematological and lipid changes in newborn piglets fed milk replacer diets containing vegetable oils with different levels of n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J K; Sauer, F D; Farnworth, E R; Wolynetz, M S; Jones, G; Rock, G A

    1994-12-01

    To test if linolenic acid (18:3n-3) from vegetable oils would affect bleeding times and platelet counts in newborns, piglets were used as a model fed milk replacer diets containing 25% (by wt) vegetable oils or oil mixtures for 28 d and compared to sow-reared piglets. The oils tested included soybean, canola, olive, high oleic sunflower (HOAS), a canola/coconut mixture and a mixture of oils mimicking canola in fatty acid composition. All piglets fed the milk replacer diets showed normal growth. Bleeding times increased after birth from 4-6 min to 7-10 min by week 4 (P < 0.001), and were higher in pigs fed diets containing 18:3n-3, as well as in sow-reared piglets receiving n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the milk, as compared to diets low in 18:3n-3. Platelet numbers increased within the first week in newborn piglets from 300 to 550 x 10(9)/L, and remained high thereafter. Milk replacer diets, containing vegetable oils, generally showed a transient delay in the rise of platelet numbers, which was partially associated with an increased platelet volume. The oils showed differences in the length of delay, but by the third week of age, all platelet counts were > 500 x 10(9)/L. The delay in rise in platelet counts appeared to be related to the fatty acid composition of the oil, as the effect was reproduced by a mixture of oils with a certain fatty acid profile, and disappeared upon the addition of saturated fatty acids to the vegetable oil. There were no alterations in the coagulation factors due to the dietary oils. Blood plasma, platelets and red blood cell membranes showed increased levels of 18:3n-3 and long-chain n-3 PUFA in response to dietary 18:3n-3. The level of saturated fatty acids in blood lipids was generally lower in canola and HOAS oil-fed piglets as compared to piglets fed soybean oil or reared with the sow. The results suggest that consumption of milk replacer diets containing vegetable oils rich in 18:3n-3 does not represent a bleeding risk

  9. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  10. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  11. The role of cyclooxygenase in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid mediated effects on cell proliferation, PGE(2) synthesis and cytotoxicity in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dommels, Yvonne E M; Haring, Merel M G; Keestra, Nynke G M; Alink, Gerrit M; van Bladeren, Peter J; van Ommen, Ben

    2003-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) and its prostaglandin product PGE(2) in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-mediated effects on cellular proliferation of two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The long chain PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) both inhibited cell proliferation of Caco-2 cells compared with the long chain fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6). Neither incubation with PGE(2) nor reduction in PGE(2) synthesis by EPA compared with AA led to differential effects on cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells. This suggests that n-6 and n-3 PUFA-mediated cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells is not regulated via PGE(2) levels. AA and EPA had no effect on growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells with a low COX activity. However, stimulation of COX-2 activity by IL-1 beta resulted in a decrease in cell proliferation and an induction of cytotoxicity by AA as well as by EPA. Both inhibition of the COX pathway by indomethacin as well as inhibition of direct lipid peroxidation by antioxidants such as vitamin E and C diminished the anti-proliferative effects of AA as well as EPA. Also, malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation and COX-activity was decreased by addition of vitamin E and partially decreased by indomethacin. These data support the hypothesis that growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of PUFAs with methylene-interrupted double bonds such as AA and EPA are due to peroxidation products that are generated during lipid peroxidation and COX activity. PMID:12663496

  12. Use of manufactured foods enriched with fish oils as a means of increasing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, J A; Brooks, C N; Murphy, M C; Gould, B J; Williams, C M

    1997-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the feasibility of using manufactured foods, enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a means of increasing the intake of these n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and to determine the effect of the consumption of these foods on postprandial lipaemia and other metabolic responses to a high-fat mixed test meal. Nine healthy, normotriacylglycerolaemic, free-living male volunteers (aged 35-60 years) completed the randomized, controlled, single-blind, crossover study. The study consisted of two periods (each of 22 d) of dietary intervention, separated by a 5-month washout period. During these two periods the subjects were provided with the manufactured foods enriched with EPA and DHA (n-3 enriched) or identical but unenriched foods (control). A mixed test meal containing 82 g fat was given to the fasted subjects on day 22 of each dietary intervention period. Two fasting, and thereafter hourly, blood samples were collected from the subjects for an 8 h period postprandially. Plasma triacylglycerol, total and HDL-cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels, post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (EC 3.1.1.34) activity and the plasma free fatty acid and phospholipid fatty acid compositions were measured. A mean daily intake of 1.4 g EPA+DHA (0.9 g EPA, 0.5 g DHA) was ingested during the n-3-enriched dietary period, which was significantly higher than the intake during the habitual and control periods (P < 0.001) assessed by a 3 d weighed food intake. A significantly higher level of EPA+DHA enrichment of the plasma fatty acids and phospholipids (P < 0.001) after the n-3-enriched compared with the control intervention periods was also found. The energy intake on both of the dietary intervention periods was found to be significantly higher than on the habitual diet (P < 0.001), with an increase in body weight of the subjects, which reached

  13. Evaluating the trans fatty acid, CLA, PUFA and erucic acid diversity in human milk from five regions in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Fan, Yawei; Zhang, Zhiwu; Yu, Hai; An, Yin; Kramer, John K G; Deng, Zeyuan

    2009-03-01

    Human milk was obtained from 97 healthy lactating women from five different regions in China. Twenty-four hour dietary questionnaire identified the foods consumed that showed distinct differences in food types between cities. The southern and central regions had higher levels of total trans fatty acids (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in human milk than the northern region. The major isomers in human milk from the northern region were vaccenic and rumenic acids, whereas the other regions had a random distribution of these isomers. This was consistent with the isomer distribution in the refined vegetable oils used and their increased formation during high temperature stir-frying. The human milk composition showed little evidence that partially hydrogenated fats were consumed, except eight mothers in Guangzhou who reported eating crackers, plus four other mothers. The TFA concentration in these human milk samples was higher (2.06-3.96%). The amount of n-6 (1.70-2.24%) and n-3 (0.60-1.47%) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in human milk and the resultant ratio (1.43-2.95) showed all mothers in China had an adequate supply of HUFA in their diet. Rapeseed oil was consumed evidenced by erucic acids in human milk. The levels of erucic acid were below internationally accepted limits for human consumption. The levels of undesirable TFA and CLA isomers in human milk are a concern. Efforts to decrease the practice of high temperature stir-frying using unsaturated oils, and a promotion to increase consumption of dairy and ruminant products should be considered in China.

  14. Plasma omega-3 PUFA and white matter mediated executive decline in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Gene L.; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Mattek, Nora; Barbey, Aron K.; Silbert, Lisa C.; Shinto, Lynne; Howieson, Diane B.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Joseph F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cross-sectional studies have identified long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6n-3 (O3PUFA) in association with fewer white matter lesions and better executive function in older adults. We hypothesized that O3PUFA are associated with less executive decline over time and that total white matter hyperintensity volume (WMH) mediates this association. Methods: Eighty-six non-demented older adults were followed over 4 years after measurement of plasma O3PUFA with annual evaluations of cognitive function. A subset of these participants also had brain MRI of total WMH available to conduct a formal mediation analysis of a putative relationship between O3PUFA and cognitive function. Results: Mean age at baseline was 86, 62% were female and 11% carried the APOE4 allele. Each 100 μg/ml increase in plasma O3PUFA associated with 4 s less change in executive decline per year of aging (p = 0.02, fully adjusted model). O3PUFA was not associated with verbal memory or global cognitive changes. The significance of the association between O3PUFA and better executive function was lost once WMH was added to the regression model. Conclusion: Executive decline with age appears to be a cognitive domain particularly sensitive to plasma O3PUFA in longitudinal examination. O3PUFA may modulate executive functioning by mechanisms underlying the development of WMH, a biologically plausible hypothesis that warrants further investigation. PMID:24379780

  15. n-3 Fatty acids uniquely affect anti-microbial resistance and immune cell plasma membrane organization

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, David N.; Bonilla, Diana L.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    It is now well established that dietary lipids are incorporated into macrophage and T-cell membrane microdomains, altering their structure and function. Within cell membranes, there are specific detergent-resistant domains in which key signal transduction proteins are localized. These regions are classified as “lipid rafts”. Rafts are composed mostly of cholesterol and sphingolipids and therefore do not integrate well into the fluid phospholipid bilayers causing them to form microdomains. Upon cell activation, rafts compartmentalize signal-transducing molecules, thus providing an environment conducive to signal transduction. In this review, we discuss recent novel data describing the effects of n-3 PUFA on alterations in the activation and functions of macrophages and T-cells. We believe that the modifications in these two disparate immune cell types are linked by fundamentally similar changes in membrane lipid composition and transmembrane signaling functions. We conclude that the outcomes of n-3 PUFA-mediated immune cell alterations may be beneficial (e.g., anti-inflammatory) or detrimental (e.g., loss of microbial immunity) depending upon the cell type interrogated. PMID:21798252

  16. Effect of fish oil (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Thusgaard, Marianne; Christensen, Jesper H; Mørn, Birgitte; Andersen, Tina S; Vige, Runar; Arildsen, Hanne; Schmidt, Erik B; Nielsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Patients on antiretroviral therapy are reported to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy. We randomized 51 patients in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to receive either 2 capsules of Omacor twice daily or 2 capsules of placebo. Compliance was measured by determining levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in neutrophils. Plasma triglycerides were reduced in the n-3 PUFA group by 0.14 mmol/l after 12 weeks of treatment (n=26), while plasma triglycerides increased by 0.36 mmol/l in the control group (n=25). The difference between groups was significant, p=0.03. No significant effect of treatment was found for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol or apolipoproteins. There was a significant increase in leukotriene B5 (LTB5) and LTB5/LTB4 ratio in the n-3 PUFA group compared to the control group. Baseline values for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were comparable at baseline, and the intervention did not change these parameters significantly. The present study showed that treatment with n-3 PUFA slightly decreased plasma triglycerides and induced anti-inflammatory effects by increasing formation of anti-inflammatory LTB5. PMID:19685375

  17. Interaction between Marine-Derived n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Uric Acid on Glucose Metabolism and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Kelei; Wu, Kejian; Zhao, Yimin; Huang, Tao; Lou, Dajun; Yu, Xiaomei; Li, Duo

    2015-08-26

    The present case-control study explored the interaction between marine-derived n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and uric acid (UA) on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred and eleven healthy subjects in control group and 268 T2DM subjects in case group were included. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids and biochemical parameters were detected by standard methods. Plasma PL C22:6n-3 was significantly lower in case group than in control group, and was negatively correlated with fasting glucose (r = -0.177, p < 0.001). Higher plasma PL C22:6n-3 was associated with lower risk of T2DM, and the OR was 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12 to 0.80; p = 0.016) for per unit increase of C22:6n-3. UA was significantly lower in case group than in control group. UA was positively correlated with fasting glucose in healthy subjects, but this correlation became negative in T2DM subjects. A significant interaction was observed between C22:6n-3 and UA on fasting glucose (p for interaction = 0.005): the lowering effect of C22:6n-3 was only significant in subjects with a lower level of UA. In conclusion, C22:6n-3 interacts with UA to modulate glucose metabolism.

  18. Modulation of norepinephrine-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in rat pinealocytes by n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Delton-Vandenbroucke, I; Sarda, N; Molière, P; Lagarde, M; Gharib, A

    1996-10-01

    This work showed that docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) acid supplementation for 48 h have opposite effects on the norepinephrine-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in rat pinealocytes. We found that 22:6n-3 supplementation of pineal cells, done by increasing specifically 22:6n-3 in phospholipid and triacylglycerol pools, led to inhibition of norepinephrine-stimulated cyclic AMP production whereas 20:5n-3 supplementation, by increasing 20:5n-3, and 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the same pools, stimulated it. In contrast, direct treatment of pinealocytes with each fatty acid (50 microM) did not affect cyclic AMP production in the presence of (0.1-10 microM) norepinephrine. The results indicate that, using pharmacological agents such as forskolin or prazosin: (a) neither basal nor forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP levels were modified in fatty acid-supplemented cells compared to control cells; (b) in the presence of 1 microM prazosin, the activation by 20:5n-3 was still effective whereas no additional inhibition of norepinephrine stimulation was observed in 22:6n-3-supplemented cells. Taken together our results suggest that 22:6n-3 or 20:5n-3 supplementation modulates specifically the alpha 1- or beta-adrenoceptors in the rat pineal gland.

  19. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P < 0.05). For DPAn-3 the higher level was also found in muscle and gonad of abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P < 0.05). Elongase 2 expression was markedly higher in the muscle of abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P < 0.05), followed by the diet containing 2% FO supplement. For ∆6 desaturase, significantly higher expression was observed in muscle of abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P < 0.05). Supplementation with FO in the normal commercial diet can significantly improve long chain n-3 PUFA level in cultured abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  20. Forms of n-3 (ALA, C18:3n-3 or DHA, C22:6n-3) Fatty Acids Affect Carcass Yield, Blood Lipids, Muscle n-3 Fatty Acids and Liver Gene Expression in Lambs.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Lewandowski, Paul A; Fahri, Fahri T; Burnett, Viv F; Dunshea, Frank R; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2015-11-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma metabolites, carcass yield, muscle n-3 fatty acids and liver messenger RNA (mRNA) in lambs were investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were stratified to 12 groups based on body weight (35 ± 3.1 kg), and within groups randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basal diet (BAS), BAS with 10.7 % flaxseed supplement (Flax), BAS with 1.8 % algae supplement (DHA), BAS with Flax and DHA (FlaxDHA). Lambs were fed for 56 days. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 56, and plasma analysed for insulin and lipids. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcass traits measured. At 30 min and 24 h, liver and muscle samples, respectively, were collected for determination of mRNA (FADS1, FADS2, CPT1A, ACOX1) and fatty acid composition. Lambs fed Flax had higher plasma triacylglycerol, body weight, body fat and carcass yield compared with the BAS group (P < 0.001). DHA supplementation increased carcass yield and muscle DHA while lowering plasma insulin compared with the BAS diet (P < 0.01). Flax treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle ALA concentration, while DHA treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle DHA concentration. Liver mRNA FADS2 was higher and CPT1A lower in the DHA group (P < 0.05). The FlaxDHA diet had additive effects, including higher FADS1 and ACOX1 mRNA than for the Flax or DHA diet. In summary, supplementation with ALA or DHA modulated plasma metabolites, muscle DHA, body fat and liver gene expression differently.

  1. Forms of n-3 (ALA, C18:3n-3 or DHA, C22:6n-3) Fatty Acids Affect Carcass Yield, Blood Lipids, Muscle n-3 Fatty Acids and Liver Gene Expression in Lambs.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Lewandowski, Paul A; Fahri, Fahri T; Burnett, Viv F; Dunshea, Frank R; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2015-11-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma metabolites, carcass yield, muscle n-3 fatty acids and liver messenger RNA (mRNA) in lambs were investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were stratified to 12 groups based on body weight (35 ± 3.1 kg), and within groups randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basal diet (BAS), BAS with 10.7 % flaxseed supplement (Flax), BAS with 1.8 % algae supplement (DHA), BAS with Flax and DHA (FlaxDHA). Lambs were fed for 56 days. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 56, and plasma analysed for insulin and lipids. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcass traits measured. At 30 min and 24 h, liver and muscle samples, respectively, were collected for determination of mRNA (FADS1, FADS2, CPT1A, ACOX1) and fatty acid composition. Lambs fed Flax had higher plasma triacylglycerol, body weight, body fat and carcass yield compared with the BAS group (P < 0.001). DHA supplementation increased carcass yield and muscle DHA while lowering plasma insulin compared with the BAS diet (P < 0.01). Flax treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle ALA concentration, while DHA treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle DHA concentration. Liver mRNA FADS2 was higher and CPT1A lower in the DHA group (P < 0.05). The FlaxDHA diet had additive effects, including higher FADS1 and ACOX1 mRNA than for the Flax or DHA diet. In summary, supplementation with ALA or DHA modulated plasma metabolites, muscle DHA, body fat and liver gene expression differently. PMID:26395388

  2. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio and vitamin E on semen quality, fatty acid composition and antioxidant status in boars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Zhou, Y F; Duan, R J; Wei, H K; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratio and vitamin E on the semen quality, FA composition and antioxidant status of boars. Forty-eight Landrace boars were randomly distributed in a 3×2 factorial design with three n-6:n-3 FA ratios (14.4, 6.6 and 2.2) by the inclusion of three oil sources (soybean, fish/soybean, fish) and two vitamin E levels (200 and 400mg/kg). During the 8 weeks of treatment, semen parameters were evaluated. Serum, sperm and seminal plasma samples were taken at 0 and 8 weeks to monitor the FA composition and antioxidant status. Results showed that the 6.6 and 2.2 dietary ratios very effectively increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and decreased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and n-6:n-3 ratio in spermatozoa. The 6.6 dietary ratio contributed to a greater progressive sperm motility (P<0.05) than the 14.4 and 2.2 dietary ratio, and this ratio also enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P<0.05) in seminal plasma more significantly than the other two ratios at week 8. Compared with 200mg/kg supplementation of vitamin E, 400mg/kg supplementation of vitamin E increased the progressive sperm motility, SOD of sperm, TAC and SOD of seminal plasma and serum, and decreased sperm malondialdehyde (MDA) (P<0.05). In conclusion, the 6.6 dietary ratio and 400mg/kg vitamin E supplementation improve progressive sperm motility by modifying the sperm FA composition and antioxidant status.

  3. The Association between Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Survival after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Trond; Hartmann, Anders; Diep, Lien M.; Dahle, Dag O.; Reisæter, Anna V.; Bjerve, Kristian S.; Christensen, Jeppe H.; Schmidt, Erik B.; Svensson, My

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Several studies have reported beneficial cardiovascular effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. To date, no large studies have investigated the potential benefits of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in recipients of renal transplants. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this observational cohort study of 1990 Norwegian recipients of renal transplants transplanted between 1999 and 2011, associations between marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and mortality were investigated by stratified analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis adjusting for traditional and transplant-specific mortality risk factors. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma phospholipids were measured by gas chromatography in a stable phase 10 weeks after transplantation. Results There were 406 deaths (20.4%) during a median follow-up period of 6.8 years. Mortality rates were lower in patients with high marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels (≥7.95 weight percentage) compared with low levels (<7.95 weight percentage) for all age categories (pooled mortality rate ratio estimate, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.85). When divided into quartiles according to marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels, patients in the upper quartile compared with the lower quartile had a 56% lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.75) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. There was a lower hazard ratio for death from cardiovascular disease with high levels of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and a lower hazard ratio for death from infectious disease with high levels of the marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid, whereas there was no association between total or individual marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and cancer mortality. Conclusions Higher plasma phospholipid marine n-3

  4. Effects of dietary n-3, n-6 and n-9 polyunsaturated fatty acids on benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in C57BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, R A; Muñoz, S E; Guzmán, C A; Eynard, A R; Evnard, A R

    1995-10-01

    The modulating effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach tumorigenesis was assayed in mice fed with corn oil (CO), olein (O), Zizyphus mistol seed oil (MO), cod liver oil (CLO), and mixed fat (Stock diet). The fatty acid composition of liver lipids correlated well with the fatty acid composition of each diet. Only mice fed the O diet showed biochemical and clinical evidences of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). Only 3 animals developed well-differentiated invading squamous cell carcinomas in the O group. The papilloma incidence was reduced in MO and CLO with respect to the O group. Forestomach papillomatosis was increased in mice fed an n-9 enriched diet in comparison to stock and CO groups. In comparison with stock mice, the frequency of multiple epidermoidal hyperplasia (MEH) was significantly decreased in the CLO group. Animals fed n-3 enriched diets (MO and CLO) showed significant antipromoting effect. These findings indicate that dietary fat can modulate tumorigenesis initiated in mouse forestomach by benzo(a)pyrene. In addition, the lack of action of an n-6 fatty acid-enriched diet in our experimental model suggests that the effect of PUFAs on tumorigenesis has target-tissue specificity. Mistol seed oil might be of potential value as a natural vegetable antipromoter nutrient.

  5. Requirement of hybrid striped bass for dietary (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Nematipour, G R; Gatlin, D M

    1993-04-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to quantify the requirement of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops female x M. saxatilis male) for dietary (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), specifically eicosapentaenoic [20:5(n-3)] and docosahexaenoic [22:6(n-3)] acids. Graded levels of (n-3) HUFA as ethyl esters were substituted for part or all of the 5 g olive oil/100 g diet in the semipurified basal diet. Total amount of 20:5(n-3) plus 22:6(n-3) in the experimental diets was 0.5, 1.1, 1.5, 2.0 or 3.2 g/100 g dry wt. Control fish received a diet containing menhaden fish oil at 5 g/100 g. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of hybrids (with an initial average weight of 13.0 g/fish) in aquaria for 10 wk. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher relative weight gain as well as more efficient food and protein utilization were observed for fish fed the diets with 0.5, 1.1, 1.5 or 2.0% (n-3) HUFA or 5% menhaden fish oil as compared with those fed the basal diet. These responses generally reached a plateau between 1.1 and 1.5% (n-3) HUFA, but the lowest values were observed for fish fed the diet with 3.2% (n-3) HUFA. Fatty acid composition of body lipids (total lipid of intraperitoneal fat and polar lipids of muscle and liver) was affected by diet and indicated some elongation and desaturation of octadecatetraenoic acid [18:4(n-3)] and 20:5 (n-3) to 22:6(n-3). These data indicated that 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) are essential for hybrid striped bass, and the minimum requirement is approximately 1% of diet or 20% of dietary lipid.

  6. The role of n-3 fatty acids in gestation and parturition.

    PubMed

    Allen, K G; Harris, M A

    2001-06-01

    Preterm birth is the most common cause of low infant birth weight and infant morbidity and mortality. Evidence from human and animal studies indicates that essential fatty acids of both the n-3 and n-6 series, and their eicosanoid metabolites, play important and modifiable roles in gestational duration and parturition, and n-3 fatty acid intake during pregnancy may be inadequate. Prostaglandins (PG) of the 2-series are involved in parturition and connective tissue remodeling associated with cervical maturation and rupture of membranes. In the absence of infections, preterm birth is characterized by lower reproductive tissue PG production and decreased inducible cyclooxygenase expression. Women who deliver prematurely have increased pools of n-6 fatty acid and decreased n-3 fatty acids, despite the lower PG production. Several human pregnancy supplementation trials with n-3 fatty acids have shown a significant reduction in the incidence of premature deliver and increased birth weight associated with increased gestational duration. Supplementation with long chain n-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid may be useful in prolonging the duration of gestation in some high-risk pregnancies. Evidence presented in this review is discussed in terms of the roles of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in gestation and parturition, mechanisms by which they may influence gestational duration and the human trials suggesting that increased dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids decrease the incidence of premature delivery.

  7. Inflammation in response to n3 fatty acids in a porcine obesity model.

    PubMed

    Faris, Richard J; Boddicker, Rebecca L; Walker-Daniels, Jennifer; Li, Jenny; Jones, Douglas E; Spurlock, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    Fatty acids have distinct cellular effects related to inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Dietary saturated fat activates toll-like receptor 4, which in turn can lead to chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration. Conversely, n3 fatty acids are generally antiinflammatory and promote insulin sensitivity, in part via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Ossabaw swine are a useful biomedical model of obesity. We fed Ossabaw pigs either a low-fat control diet or a diet containing high-fat palm oil with or without additional n3 fatty acids for 30 wk to investigate the effect of saturated fats and n3 fatty acids on obesity-linked inflammatory markers. The diet did not influence the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, TNFα, IL6, or IL12. In addition, n3 fatty acids attenuated the increase in inflammatory adipose tissue CD16(-)CD14(+) macrophages induced by high palm oil. High-fat diets with and without n3 fatty acids both induced hyperglycemia without hyperinsulinemia. The high-fat only group but not the high-fat group with n3 fatty acids showed reduced insulin sensitivity in response to insulin challenge. This effect was not mediated by decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B. Therefore, in obese Ossabaw swine, n3 fatty acids partially attenuate insulin resistance but only marginally change inflammatory status and macrophage phenotype in adipose tissue.

  8. DIETARY RATIOS OF N-6/N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS DURING MATERNAL PREGNANCY AFFECT HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AND APOPTOSIS IN MOUSE OFFSPRING.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chaonan; Sun, Wenfei; Fu, Huicong; Dong, Hua; Xia, Lulu; Lu, Yuanyuan; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Qi, Kemin

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: a pesar de que los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados n-3 (PUFAs por sus siglas en inglés) desempeñan un papel fundamental en el desarrollo y en las funciones cerebrales, aún no está bien definido el nivel óptimo de PUFAs n-3 ni la ratio óptima de PUFA n-6/n-3 en la dieta materna. En este estudio hemos investigado los efectos de las ratios nutricionales de PUFA n-6/n-3 durante la gestación sobre la neurogénesis y la apoptosis en el cerebro de crías de ratón. Métodos: se alimentó a hembras de ratón C57BL/6J con una de las tres dietas de estudio: ratio alta, media y baja de PUFA n-6/n-3 (15,7:1, 6,3:1, 1,6:1). También se añadió una dieta rica en aceite de pescado con una ratio n-6/n-3 de 1:5,7; como control se empleó una dieta deficitaria en PUFA n-3. Los regímenes alimenticios se iniciaron dos meses antes de la concepción de los ratones y continuó durante todo el embarazo. Se detectó la neurogénesis y apoptosis del área hipocampal CA3 en las crías. Resultados: en comparación con la dieta deficitaria en PUFA n-3, las dietas con PUFA que contienen n-3, particularmente aquellas con ratios PUFA n-6/n-3 de 6,3:1 y 1,6:1, aumentaron significativamente la fosforilación de histona H3 en la Ser10 (p-H3ser10) y las células calretinina positivas en el área hipocampal CA3 de las crías. Además, se detectó un aumento de la expresión de proteína Bcl2, una reducción de la expresión de proteína Bax, y una reducción de la actividad de caspasa 3, así como de las cifras de células apoptósicas TUNEL en las tres dietas, con ratios altas, medias y bajas de PUFA n-6/n-3. Sin embargo, no se observó diferencias en ninguno de estos parámetros entre el grupo de dieta rica en aceite de pescado y el grupo de dieta deficitaria en PUFA n-3. Conclusiones: estos datos sugieren que una ingesta más elevada de PUFA n-3 con una ratio más baja de PUFAs n-6/n-3 entre 6:1 y 1:1 aproximadamente, administrada a las madres durante la gestación, podría ser

  9. The PUFA-Enriched Fatty Acid Profiles of some Frozen Bison from the Early Holocene found in the Siberian Permafrost

    PubMed Central

    Guil-Guerrero, José L.; Rodríguez-García, Ignacio; Kirillova, Irina; Shidlovskiy, Fedor; Ramos-Bueno, Rebeca P.; Savvinov, Grigoryi; Tikhonov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the availability of n-3 fatty acids for humans in prehistoric times is highly relevant in order to draw useful conclusions on the healthy dietary habits for present-day humans. To this end, we have analysed fat from several frozen bison found in the permafrost of Siberia (Russia). A total of 3 bison were included in this study, all them very close to the early Holocene (8,000; 8,200; and 9,300 years BP). All samples were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS) and GLC flame-ionization detection (GLC-FID). Fat samples from two bison showed two well-differenced areas, i.e. brown and white, the latter being saturated fatty acid enriched, corresponding to an intermediate stage of adipocere formation, while the brown ones yielded α-linolenic acid in higher percentages than found in present-day bison. As demonstrated in this work, the subcutaneous fat of bison consumed by Mesolithic hunters contained amounts of n-3 fatty acids in higher quantities than those found in current bison; thus, the subcutaneous fat of bison could have contributed to meet today's recommended daily intake of essential fatty acids for good health in the Mesolithic to a greater extent than previously thought. PMID:25604079

  10. The PUFA-enriched fatty acid profiles of some frozen bison from the early Holocene found in the Siberian permafrost.

    PubMed

    Guil-Guerrero, José L; Rodríguez-García, Ignacio; Kirillova, Irina; Shidlovskiy, Fedor; Ramos-Bueno, Rebeca P; Savvinov, Grigoryi; Tikhonov, Alexei

    2015-01-21

    Knowledge concerning the availability of n-3 fatty acids for humans in prehistoric times is highly relevant in order to draw useful conclusions on the healthy dietary habits for present-day humans. To this end, we have analysed fat from several frozen bison found in the permafrost of Siberia (Russia). A total of 3 bison were included in this study, all them very close to the early Holocene (8,000; 8,200; and 9,300 years BP). All samples were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS) and GLC flame-ionization detection (GLC-FID). Fat samples from two bison showed two well-differenced areas, i.e. brown and white, the latter being saturated fatty acid enriched, corresponding to an intermediate stage of adipocere formation, while the brown ones yielded α-linolenic acid in higher percentages than found in present-day bison. As demonstrated in this work, the subcutaneous fat of bison consumed by Mesolithic hunters contained amounts of n-3 fatty acids in higher quantities than those found in current bison; thus, the subcutaneous fat of bison could have contributed to meet today's recommended daily intake of essential fatty acids for good health in the Mesolithic to a greater extent than previously thought.

  11. Intakes of PUFAs were inversely associated with plasma C-reactive protein 12 years later in a middle-aged population with vitamin E intake as an effect modifier.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Touvier, Mathilde; Meunier, Nathalie; Papet, Isabelle; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2013-11-01

    Although n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered anti-inflammatory components, the role of dietary n-6 PUFAs in inflammation remains controversial. Some mechanistic evidence suggests vitamin E as a potential effect modifier in the relationship between PUFAs and inflammation. Our objectives were to evaluate the long-term associations between dietary intakes of PUFAs and elevated plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and to investigate potential effect modification by vitamin E. Individuals in the placebo group of the SU.VI.MAX trial who had available CRP measurements in 2007-2009 were included in the study (n = 843). Dietary intakes of n-3 PUFAs, n-6 PUFAs, and vitamin E were assessed in 1994-1996 with at least 6 dietary records. The logistic regression OR for elevated CRP (>3 mg/L) and 95% CI were estimated for individual PUFAs and for total n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes. Models were adjusted for sociodemographical, lifestyle, anthropometric, and dietary variables. Interactions with vitamin E intakes were also assessed. Inverse associations were observed between intakes of total n-3 PUFAs [α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), ALA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), EPA + docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3), DPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3)] and n-6 PUFA [linoleic acid (18:2n-6) + arachidonic acid (20:4n-6)] and elevated CRP (OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 of intake: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.77; P-trend = 0.01; and OR 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.70; P-trend = 0.002, respectively). Stratification on vitamin E intakes showed that inverse associations between dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes and elevated CRP were substantial only in individuals with low intakes of vitamin E. Our results supported the contention that intakes of both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are inversely associated with plasma CRP concentrations. Vitamin E is a potential effect modifier and should therefore be taken into account in such investigations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  12. Effects of maternal dietary EPA and DHA supplementation and breeder age on embryonic and post-hatch performance of broiler offspring: age and n-3 pufa affect embryonic and post-hatch performance.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Willems, E; Ampe, B; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2015-04-01

    Breeder age and nutrition are amongst the most important factors affecting progeny growth and development. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (FA), with special emphasis on the ratio of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3) acid, provided to the diet of ageing broiler breeder hens at different ratios, on the incubation parameters and the performance of the offspring. Four hundred and eighty Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment), with an equal fat content. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FAs (CON). Blends of fish oil were used to enrich the three other diets in n-3 FA and to obtain different EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1 (EPA=DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). Every 5 weeks, incubation parameters were assessed. Every 15 weeks, offspring was reared until slaughter age on a standard diet. Breeder age affected almost all incubation and post-hatch parameters, whereas n-3 FA treatment only lowered egg weight (p < 0.0001) and consequently hatched chick weight (p < 0.0001). Supplementation of EPA resulted in a higher proportional liver weight (p = 0.0219) at hatch, a lower body weight up to 28 days post-hatch (p = 0.0418), a lower daily weight gain (p = 0.0498) and a higher feed conversion ratio (p = 0.0395) during the starter period (p = 0.0498), resulting in a higher overall offspring feed conversion ratio (p = 0.0317) compared to the control diet. DHA supplementation, on the other hand, resulted in a lower residual yolk weight (p = 0.0220) and a higher overall offspring mortality (p = 0.0125). In conclusion, supplementation of n-3 FA could not counter the adverse effect of breeder flock age, but did not harm incubation or improve post-hatch performance, either. EPA and DHA affected offspring development differently during early post-hatch life.

  13. Significant Enrichment of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) in the Lipids Extracted by Supercritical CO2 from the Livers of Australian Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trung T; Zhang, Wei; Barber, Andrew R; Su, Peng; He, Shan

    2015-05-13

    Australian rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) liver contains approximately 24.3% (w/w) lipids, which can contain a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, this material has been found to be contaminated with arsenic (240 mg/kg) and cadmium (8 mg/kg). The high level of contaminants in the raw material and the large amount of PUFAs in the lipids prove a significant challenge in the extraction of high-quality lipids from this byproduct by conventional methods. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a highly promising technology for lipid extraction with advantages including low contamination and low oxidation. The technique was optimized to achieve nearly 94% extraction of lipids relative to conventional Soxhlet extraction in Australian rock lobster liver at conditions of 35 MPa and 50 °C for 4 h. The extracted lipids are significantly enriched in PUFAs at 31.3% of total lipids, 4 times higher than those in the lipids recovered by Soxhlet extraction (7.8%). Specifically, the concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in SC-CO2 extraction are 7 times higher than those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, very small amounts of toxic heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids, 0.5-27 times lower than those in the Soxhlet-extracted lipids, which are 40-200 times lower than the regulatory limit maximum values. The low levels of contaminants and the high proportion of PUFAs (dominated by DHA and EPA) found in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids from Australian rock lobster liver suggest that the material could potentially be used as a valuable source of essential fatty acids for human consumption. PMID:25905456

  14. [Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the cardiovascular system. Should their use be recommended?].

    PubMed

    Lahoz, C; Mata, P

    1993-10-01

    The effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PFA) intake on lipoprotein metabolism, eicosanoid metabolism, coagulation and the fibrinolytic system, mediators of inflammation, and blood pressure are discussed. The possible role such effects may have on the process of atherogenesis is examined. Laboratory animal studies with n-3 PFA supplements are reviewed. Finally, a review of clinical and epidemiological studies in human subjects is made in order to evaluate whether the experimental findings have clinical relevance. The conclusion is that, at the present time, there is insufficient support for the use of n-3 PFA supplements either in prophylaxis or in treating ischemic cardiopathy.

  15. Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hopeman, Margaret M; Riley, Joan K; Frolova, Antonina I; Jiang, Hui; Jungheim, Emily S

    2015-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids containing 2 or more double bonds, and they are classified by the location of the last double bond. Omega 3 (n-3) and omega 6 (n-6) PUFAs are obtained through food sources including fatty fish and seed/vegetable oils, respectively, and they are important to a number of physiologic processes including inflammation. Previous work demonstrates suppressive effects of n-3 PUFAs on endometriotic lesions in animal models and decreased risk of endometriosis among women with high n-3 PUFA intake. Thus, we sought to determine the relationship between circulating levels of PUFAs and endometriosis in women. To do this, we performed a cross-sectional study of serum PUFAs and clinical data from 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Serum PUFAs were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy and included n-3 PUFAs such as α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 PUFAs such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine relationships between specific and total serum PUFAs and patient history of endometriosis. Women with high serum EPA levels were 82% less likely to have endometriosis compared to women with low EPA levels (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.78).

  16. Achieving optimal n-3 fatty acid status: the vegetarian's challenge... or not.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S

    2014-07-01

    The long chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), although originally synthesized by microorganisms in the oceans, are primarily obtained from the consumption of fish. Vegetarians, by definition, do not eat fish and thus consume virtually no EPA and DHA. Because conversion of the plant-derived n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA is very low, n-3 tissue concentrations in vegetarians are lower than in omnivores. This review asks 2 questions: what is the evidence that increased n-3 concentrations reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in vegetarians, and, if it does, how can vegetarians increase their blood and tissue concentrations of these animal-derived fatty acids? At present, both cardiovascular risk markers and cardiovascular events appear to be significantly reduced in vegetarians compared with those in omnivores. If so, and in the absence of data to show that risk in vegetarians could be even lower with higher n-3 concentrations, then the second question becomes moot. However, the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence; therefore, at our present state of knowledge, increasing n-3 concentrations is not an unreasonable goal for vegetarians. This can be accomplished by a variety of approaches, including increased intakes of ALA, consumption of stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil (if and when it comes to the market), and the use of supplements containing EPA, DHA, or both derived from nonanimal sources (microalgae, biotech yeast, and, in the future, biotech plant oils).

  17. The effect of dietary n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV-1) replication in tissues of experimentally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jimena, Benjamin; Lyons, Philip; Herath, Tharangani; Richards, Randolph H; Leaver, Michael; Bell, J Gordon; Adams, Alexandra; Thompson, Kim D

    2015-07-01

    Salmon pancreas disease (SPD) is one of the most commercially significant viral diseases of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Europe. In this study, the potential for dietary mitigation of the disease using different polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles was assessed in rainbow trout. We experimentally infected fish with salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV-1), the causative agent of SPD. These fish were fed two diets with different n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio (high omega 3, 3.08, and high omega 6, 0.87). We assessed the influence of the diets on the fatty acid composition of the heart at 0 days post infection (d.p.i.) (after 4 weeks of feeding the experimental diets prior to SAV-1 infection), and sampled infected and control fish at 5, 15 and 30d.p.i. Viral E1 and E2 glycoprotein genes were quantified by two absolute real-time PCRs in all the organs sampled, and significantly lower levels of the virus were evident in the organs of fish fed with high omega 6. Characteristic pathological lesions were identified in infected fish as early as 5d.p.i., with no significant differences in the pathology lesion scores between the two dietary regimes. This study shows that decreasing the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in experimental diets of rainbow trout changes the fatty acid content of the fish, and is associated with reduced SAV-1 replication in rainbow trout.

  18. Content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver of rats fed restricted diets supplemented with vitamins B2, B6 and folic acid.

    PubMed

    Bertrandt, Jerzy; Klos, Anna; Debski, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate an influence of nutritional deficiency and dietary addition of vit. B(2), B(6) and folic acid on PUFAs content in rats' serum and liver. Limitation of consumption full value diet to 50% of its previously determined daily consumption, enriched with m/a vitamins, significant decreased of linoleic (LA) and alpha-linolenic (ALA) acids as well as distinctly increased arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids content in serum in 30th day. In 60th day lower content of AA and DHA fatty acids was found. Nutrition with such diet, lasting 90 days caused decrease of LA content and increase of AA. Diet limitation to its 30% of daily consumption decreased of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA in the 30th day, while AA and DHA content was increased in the 60th day. Distinct decrease of AA content and increase of EPA content were found in the 90th day of experiment. Use of diets, with limited consumption to 50% caused increase of LA and ALA acids content while AA and DHA acids content were significantly decreased in the liver, in 90th day. Limited consumption supplemented diet to 30% caused in liver significant decrease of LA and increase of EPA acids content.

  19. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Mechanisms to Mitigate Inflammatory Paracrine Signaling in Obesity-Associated Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Jennifer M.; Turk, Harmony F.; Liddle, Danyelle M.; De Boer, Anna A.; Power, Krista A.; Ma, David W.L.; Robinson, Lindsay E.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, the prevalence of obesity is increasing which subsequently increases the risk of the development of obesity-related chronic diseases. Low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulated adipose tissue inflammatory mediator/adipokine secretion are well-established in obesity, and these factors increase the risk of developing inflammation-associated cancer. Breast cancer is of particular interest given that increased inflammation within the subcutaneous mammary adipose tissue depot can alter the local tissue inflammatory microenvironment such that it resembles that of obese visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, in obese women with breast cancer, increased inflammatory mediators both locally and systemically can perpetuate inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic signaling pathways, thereby increasing disease severity. Herein, we discuss some of these inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic mechanisms of the combined obese breast cancer phenotype and offer evidence that dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have utility in mitigating the severity of obesity-associated inflammation and breast cancer. PMID:25360510

  20. Hepatic lipid characteristics and histopathology of laying hens fed CLA or n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Gita; Goeger, Mary P

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary CLA and n-3 PUFA on hepatic TAG accumulation, histopathology, and FA incorporation in lipid classes by laying chickens was investigated. One hundred twenty 30-wk-old single comb white leghorn laying hens were distributed randomly to four treatments (3 replications of 10 birds) and were fed diets containing CLA and animal fat (Diet I), 18:3n-3 (Diet II), or long-chain n-3 FA (Diet III). A sunflower oil (n-6 FA)-based diet vvas the control. Feeding Diet I resulted in an increase in hepatic total lipids (P < 0.05). The liver TAG content was 32.2, 18.9, 29.4, and 18.7 mg/g for hens fed Diet I, Diet II, Diet III, and the control diet, respectively (P< 0.05). The serum TAG was lowest in birds fed Diet II (P < 0.05). Diet I resulted in an increase in the total number of fat vacuoles and lipid infiltration in hepatocytes (P < 0.05). The number of cells with 75% or higher lipid vacuolation was observed only in birds fed Diet I. Feeding diets containing CLA resulted in an increase in the content of the c9,t11 CLA isomer in liver TAG and PC (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the CLA concentration of hepatic PE fractions. The content of DHA (22:6n-3) was higher in the TAG, PC, and PE of hens fed Diet II and Diet III than Diet I and the control (P < 0.05). Feeding CLA resulted in an increase in total saturated FA in the TAG and PC fractions (P < 0.05). Long-term feeding of CLA in laying birds leads to an increase in liver TAG and may predispose birds to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome.

  1. Hind limb suspension and long-chain omega-3 PUFA increase mRNA endocannabinoid system levels in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L; Li, Yong; Hannon, Kevin; Watkins, Bruce A

    2012-08-01

    Muscle disuse has numerous physiological consequences that end up with significant catabolic metabolism and ultimately tissue atrophy. What is not known is how muscle atrophy affects the endocannabinoid (EC) system. Arachidonic acid (AA) is the substrate for anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylgycerol (2-AG), which act as agonists for cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 found in muscle. Diets with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to reduce tissue levels of AA, AEA and 2-AG. Therefore, we hypothesized that hind limb suspension (HS)-induced muscle atrophy and intake of n-3 PUFA will change mRNA levels of the EC system. Mice were randomized and assigned to a moderate n-3 PUFA [11.7 g/kg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], high n-3 PUFA (17.6 g/kg EPA+DHA) or control diets for 12 days and then subjected to HS or continued weight bearing (WB) for 14 days. HS resulted in body weight, epididymal fat pad and quadriceps muscle loss compared to WB. Compared to WB, HS had greater mRNA levels of AEA and 2-AG synthesis enzymes and CB2 in the atrophied quadriceps muscle. The high n-3 PUFA diet resulted in greater mRNA levels of EC synthesis enzymes, and CB1 and CB2. The higher mRNA levels for EC with HS and dietary n-3 PUFA suggest that muscle disuse and diet induce changes in the EC system to sensitize muscle in response to metabolic and physiological consequences of atrophy.

  2. Pharmacology and therapeutics of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Yates, Clara M; Calder, Philip C; Ed Rainger, G

    2014-03-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have well documented anti-inflammatory properties, and consequently therapeutic potential in chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we discuss the effects of n-3 PUFAs on various inflammatory pathways and how this leads to alterations in the function of inflammatory cells, most importantly endothelial cells and leukocytes. Strong evidence indicates n-3 PUFAs are beneficial as a dietary supplement in certain diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis; however for other conditions such as asthma, the data are less robust. A clearer understanding of the pharmacology of n-3 PUFAs will help to establish targets to modulate chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:24201219

  3. Studies on anti-inflammatory activity of spice principles and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A C; Lokesh, B R

    1994-01-01

    The antioxidant spice principles curcumin and eugenol when given by gavage lowered the carrageenan-induced edema in the foot pads of rats. This lowering effect was dependent on the concentration, the time gap between the administration of spice principles and the induction of inflammation by carrageenan. Dietary lipids also influenced the extent of inflammation. Animals fed 10% cod liver oil [containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)] for 10 weeks showed a significantly lower inflammation compared to that observed in animals fed diets supplemented with 10% groundnut oil (rich in n-6 PUFA) or 10% coconut oil (rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids). Supplementation of diets with 1 weight% of curcumin did not affect the inflammatory responses of animals to carrageenan injection. However, supplementation of diets with 0.17 weight% eugenol further lowered inflammation by 16, 32 and 30% in animals fed coconut oil, groundnut oil and cod liver oil, respectively. Therefore, combinations of dietary lipids with spice principles like eugenol can help in lowering inflammation.

  4. A new piece in the puzzling effect of n-3 fatty acids on atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Wilfried

    2014-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) FA are reported to be protective against cardiovascular disease (CVD), notably through their beneficial action on atherosclerosis development. In this context dietary intake of long-chain marine eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is recommended and randomised trials largely support that EPA and DHA intake is associated with a reduction of CVD. However, mechanisms governing the atheroprotective action of n-3 FA are still unclear and numerous studies using mouse models conducted so far do not allow to reach a precise view of the cellular and molecular effects of n-3 FA on atherosclerosis. In the current issue of Atherosclerosis, Chang et al. provide important new information on the anti-atherogenic properties of n-3 FA by analysing the incremental replacement of saturated FA by pure fish oil as a source of EPA and DHA in Ldlr(-/-) mice fed a high fat/high cholesterol diet.

  5. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  6. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka; Salobir, Janez; Pirman, Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive tree) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids. Forty-eight slovenska kunka (SIKA) rabbits were divided into four homogeneous groups. The control group (CONT-) received diet with 6% palm fat; other groups received diet with 6% linseed oil and were either unsupplemented (CONT+) or supplemented with 1% of G. lucidum (REISHI) or O. europaea leaves (OLIVE). Rabbits were slaughtered and fatty acid composition, concentration of vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in back muscle were analyzed. The results showed that linseed oil addition improved fatty acid composition by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportion, decreasing proportion of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and reducing n-6/n-3 ratio in rabbit meat. Groups that were supplemented with linseed oil had lower content of α-tocopherol and higher content of γ-tocopherol, compared to the CONT- group. The addition of potential antioxidants did not effectively prevent oxidation of rabbit meat.

  7. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka; Salobir, Janez; Pirman, Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive tree) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids. Forty-eight slovenska kunka (SIKA) rabbits were divided into four homogeneous groups. The control group (CONT-) received diet with 6% palm fat; other groups received diet with 6% linseed oil and were either unsupplemented (CONT+) or supplemented with 1% of G. lucidum (REISHI) or O. europaea leaves (OLIVE). Rabbits were slaughtered and fatty acid composition, concentration of vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in back muscle were analyzed. The results showed that linseed oil addition improved fatty acid composition by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportion, decreasing proportion of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and reducing n-6/n-3 ratio in rabbit meat. Groups that were supplemented with linseed oil had lower content of α-tocopherol and higher content of γ-tocopherol, compared to the CONT- group. The addition of potential antioxidants did not effectively prevent oxidation of rabbit meat. PMID:24334050

  8. Wheat aleurone fractions and plasma n-3 fatty acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Ounnas, Fayçal; Salen, Patricia; Demeilliers, Christine; Calani, Luca; Scazzina, Francesca; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Laporte, Francois; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the effects of two wheat aleurone (WA) fractions on circulating n-3 fatty acids in rats. We demonstrated that only the fraction able to induce the highest urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites (>1µmol) resulted in a significant increase in plasma level of Eicosapentanoic acid (+22%, p < 0.05). While other constituents of whole wheat can be involved in this response, our data suggest that cereals containing high levels of phenolic compounds can increase blood n-3 without affecting n-6 fatty acids. Further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis and explore the underlying biological mechanisms.

  9. New products from the agri-food industry: the return of n-3 fatty acids into the food supply.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    1999-01-01

    The meat from animals and fish in the wild, chicken eggs produced under complete natural conditions, and wild plants contain higher amounts of n-3 fatty acids compared to domesticated or cultivated ones. The composition of meats, fish, and eggs is dependent on animal feed. Fish-meal, flax, and n-3 from algae in animal feeds increase the n-3 fatty acid content of egg yolks and lead to the availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs in the marketplace. Research is ongoing for the production of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products from poultry, beef, lamb, pork, milk, bakery products, etc. In the case of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs, the egg under complete natural conditions (Greek or Ampelistra egg) can serve as a guide for proper composition. Otherwise, the amount of n-3 fatty acids is determined by the organoleptic properties of the products. It is essential in the process of returning the n-3 fatty acids into the food supply that the balance of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the diet that existed during evolution is maintained. Clinical investigations confirm the importance of n-3 fatty acids for normal function during growth and development and in the modulation of chronic diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products should lead to improvements in the food supply. Pregnant and lactating women and infants should benefit since their diet is deficient in n-3 fatty acids, especially for the vegetarians among them. Studies with n-3-enriched eggs lower cholesterol levels, platelet aggregation, and blood pressure. Since cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and autoimmune, allergic, and neurological disorders appear to respond to n-3 fatty acid supplementation, a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids consistent with the diet during human evolution should decrease or delay their manifestation. PMID:10419184

  10. New products from the agri-food industry: the return of n-3 fatty acids into the food supply.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    1999-01-01

    The meat from animals and fish in the wild, chicken eggs produced under complete natural conditions, and wild plants contain higher amounts of n-3 fatty acids compared to domesticated or cultivated ones. The composition of meats, fish, and eggs is dependent on animal feed. Fish-meal, flax, and n-3 from algae in animal feeds increase the n-3 fatty acid content of egg yolks and lead to the availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs in the marketplace. Research is ongoing for the production of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products from poultry, beef, lamb, pork, milk, bakery products, etc. In the case of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs, the egg under complete natural conditions (Greek or Ampelistra egg) can serve as a guide for proper composition. Otherwise, the amount of n-3 fatty acids is determined by the organoleptic properties of the products. It is essential in the process of returning the n-3 fatty acids into the food supply that the balance of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the diet that existed during evolution is maintained. Clinical investigations confirm the importance of n-3 fatty acids for normal function during growth and development and in the modulation of chronic diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products should lead to improvements in the food supply. Pregnant and lactating women and infants should benefit since their diet is deficient in n-3 fatty acids, especially for the vegetarians among them. Studies with n-3-enriched eggs lower cholesterol levels, platelet aggregation, and blood pressure. Since cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and autoimmune, allergic, and neurological disorders appear to respond to n-3 fatty acid supplementation, a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids consistent with the diet during human evolution should decrease or delay their manifestation.

  11. Bread enriched with microencapsulated tuna oil increases plasma docosahexaenoic acid and total omega-3 fatty acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Yep, Yolande L; Li, Duo; Mann, Neil J; Bode, Ortwin; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute and chronic effects of low doses of long chain (LC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (<100 mg per day) on plasma LC n-3 PUFA levels using a novel delivery form; bread containing microencapsulated tuna oil (MTO). Six omnivores (three men and three women) participated in the acute study, which involved ingesting a prototype MTO bread containing approximately 80 mg of LC n-3 PUFA/four slices. Plasma triacylglycerol fatty acid compositions were measured after an overnight fast and postprandially at 2 and 4 h. In the chronic study, 10 vegetarian subjects (nine men and one woman) consumed MTO bread at six to eight slices/day (comprising 60 mg of LC n-3 PUFA) as the only dietary source of these PUFA for three weeks. Fasting plasma total and phospholipid fatty acid compositions were measured at baseline and endpoint. In the acute study, the proportions of 22:6 n-3 and total n-3 PUFA in plasma triacylglycerol were significantly increased (P < 0.05). In the chronic study, the proportions of 20:5 n-3, 22:5 n-3, 22:6 n-3, total n-3 PUFA in plasma, and 22:6 n-3 and total n-3 PUFA in plasma phospholipid fractions were significantly increased (P < 0.05) at the endpoint compared with the baseline. This study showed that a low dose of LC n-3 PUFA, consumed as MTO-enriched bread, was bioavailable, as measured by an increase in LC n-3 PUFA levels in the plasma of human subjects.

  12. Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, E.; Wall, R.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Ross, R. P.; Stanton, C.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed “eicosanoids,” which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show striking increases in the (n-6) to (n-3) ratio (~15 : 1), which are associated with greater metabolism of the n-6 PUFA compared with n-3 PUFA. Coinciding with this increase in the ratio of (n-6) : (n-3) PUFA are increases in chronic inflammatory diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). By increasing the ratio of (n-3) : (n-6) PUFA in the Western diet, reductions may be achieved in the incidence of these chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:22570770

  13. A systemic review of the roles of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Natalie D; Othman, Rgia A; Suh, Miyoung; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2009-04-01

    Attention to the role of n-3 long-chain fatty acids in human health and disease has been continuously increased during recent decades. Many clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown positive roles for n-3 fatty acids in infant development; cancer; cardiovascular diseases; and more recently, in various mental illnesses, including depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dementia. These fatty acids are known to have pleiotropic effects, including effects against inflammation, platelet aggregation, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. These beneficial effects may be mediated through several distinct mechanisms, including alterations in cell membrane composition and function, gene expression, or eicosanoid production. A number of authorities have recently recommended increases in intakes of n-3 fatty acids by the general population. To comply with this recommendation a variety of food products, most notably eggs, yogurt, milk, and spreads have been enriched with these fatty acids. Ongoing research will further determine the tissue distribution, biological effects, cost-effectiveness, and consumer acceptability of such enriched products. Furthermore, additional controlled clinical trials are needed to document whether long-term consumption or supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid or the plant-derived counterpart (alpha-linolenic acid) results in better quality of life.

  14. Fatty acid composition of membrane bilayers: importance of diet polyunsaturated fat balance.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sarah K; Else, Paul L; Atkins, Taleitha A; Hulbert, A J

    2012-05-01

    In one of the most extensive analyses to date we show that the balance of diet n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is the most important determinant of membrane composition in the rat under 'normal' conditions. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of twelve moderate-fat diets (25% of total energy) for 8weeks. Diets differed only in fatty acid (FA) profiles, with saturate (SFA) content ranging 8-88% of total FAs, monounsaturate (MUFA) 6-65%, total PUFA 4-81%, n-6 PUFA 3-70% and n-3 PUFA 1-70%. Diet PUFA included only essential FAs 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA is defined as the PUFA balance (n-3 PUFA as % of total PUFA) and ranged 1-86% in the diets. FA composition was measured for brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids, as well as adipose tissue and plasma triglycerides. The conformer-regulator model was used (slope=1 indicates membrane composition completely conforming to diet). Extensive changes in diet SFA, MUFA and PUFA had minimal effect on membranes (average slopes 0.01, 0.07, 0.07 respectively), but considerable influence on adipose tissue and plasma triglycerides (average slopes 0.27, 0.53, 0.47 respectively). Diet balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA had a biphasic influence on membrane composition. When n-3 PUFA<10% of total PUFA, membrane composition completely conformed to diet (average slope 0.95), while diet PUFA balance>10% had little influence (average slope 0.19). The modern human diet has an average PUFA balance ~10% and this will likely have significant health implications.

  15. Genome-wide association study of the plasma triglyceride response to an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation[S

    PubMed Central

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Guénard, Frédéric; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Barbier, Olivier; Calder, Philip C.; Minihane, Anne Marie; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown a large interindividual variability in plasma TG response to long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation, which may likely be attributable to genetic variability within the populations studied. The objective is to compare the frequency of SNPs in a genome-wide association study between responders (reduction in plasma TG levels ≥0.01 mM) and nonresponders (increase in plasma TG of ≥0 mM) to supplementation. Genomic DNA from 141 subjects who completed a 2-week run-in period followed by 6-week supplementation with 5 g of fish oil daily (1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA daily) were genotyped on Illumina HumanOmni-5-QuadBeadChip. Thirteen loci had frequency differences between responders and nonresponders (P < 1 × 10−5), including SNPs in or near IQCJ-SCHIP1, MYB, NELL1, NXPH1, PHF17, and SLIT2 genes. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed by summing the number of risk alleles. This GRS explained 21.53% of the variation in TG response to n-3 PUFA supplementation when adjusted for age, sex, and BMI (P = 0.0002). Using Fish Oil Intervention and Genotype as a replication cohort, the GRS was able to explain 2% of variation in TG response when adjusted. In conclusion, subjects who decrease their plasma TG levels following n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a different genetic profile than individuals who do not respond. PMID:24847101

  16. Specific markers of lipid peroxidation issued from n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Guichardant, M; Chantegrel, B; Deshayes, C; Doutheau, A; Moliere, P; Lagarde, M

    2004-02-01

    Several markers of lipid peroxidation are available with different degrees of specificity, from malondialdehyde as a global marker, to F(2)-isoprostane, which is specifically produced from arachidonic acid. Among these, 4-hydroxynonenal is recognized as a breakdown product of fatty acid hydroperoxides, such as 15-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroperoxy-octade cadienoic acid from the n -6 fatty acids. Furthermore, 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) derives from n -3 fatty acid hydroperoxides. We have recently described the occurrence of 4-hydroxydodecadienal (4-HDDE) from the 12-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid 12-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid. These three hydroxy-alkenals may be measured in human plasma by GC-MS, but they may partly be generated in the course of sampling, and the relative volatility of 4-HHE makes its measurement quite unreliable. We have successfully characterized and measured the stable oxidized carboxylic acid products from the hydroxy-alkenals 4-HNA, 4-HHA and 4-HDDA in urine. The ratio between 4-HHA and 4-HNA found in the same urinary sample might provide useful information on the location of lipid peroxidation, accounting for the high enrichment of the cerebrovascular system with docosahexaenoic acid, the main n -3 fatty acid in humans.

  17. Apple flavonols and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich fish oil lowers blood C-reactive protein in rats with hypercholesterolemia and acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Catalli, Adriana; Kulka, Marianna; Wang, Yanwen; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-06-01

    Both quercetin glycosides and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are well established for their individual health benefits in ameliorating metabolic disease. However, their combined effects are not well documented. It was hypothesized that the beneficial properties of quercetin glycosides can be enhanced when provided in combination with n-3 PUFA. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of apple flavonols (AF) and fish oil (FO), alone and in combination, on proinflammatory biomarkers and lipid profiles in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 12) and fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. One of the 5 groups of rats was used as the high-fat control. The other 4 groups of rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally, 5 hours before euthanization. One of these 4 groups was used as the hypercholerolemic and inflammatory control (high-fat with lipopolysaccharide [HFL]), and the other 3 received AF (HFL + 25 mg/kg per day AF), FO (HFL + 1 g/kg per day FO), or the combination (HFL + AF + FO). Compared to the HFL group, the AF, FO, and AF + FO groups showed lower serum concentrations of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The AF, FO, and AF + FO also had lowered serum triacylglycerol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, but higher HDL-C levels relative to the HFL group. An additive effect was observed on serum CRP in the AF + FO group as compared with the AF or FO groups. The results demonstrated that AF and FO inhibited the production of proinflammatory mediators and showed an improved efficacy to lower serum CRP when administered in combination, and they significantly improved blood lipid profiles in rats with diet-induced hyperlipidemia and LPS-induced acute inflammation.

  18. Apple flavonols and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich fish oil lowers blood C-reactive protein in rats with hypercholesterolemia and acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Catalli, Adriana; Kulka, Marianna; Wang, Yanwen; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-06-01

    Both quercetin glycosides and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are well established for their individual health benefits in ameliorating metabolic disease. However, their combined effects are not well documented. It was hypothesized that the beneficial properties of quercetin glycosides can be enhanced when provided in combination with n-3 PUFA. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of apple flavonols (AF) and fish oil (FO), alone and in combination, on proinflammatory biomarkers and lipid profiles in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 12) and fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. One of the 5 groups of rats was used as the high-fat control. The other 4 groups of rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally, 5 hours before euthanization. One of these 4 groups was used as the hypercholerolemic and inflammatory control (high-fat with lipopolysaccharide [HFL]), and the other 3 received AF (HFL + 25 mg/kg per day AF), FO (HFL + 1 g/kg per day FO), or the combination (HFL + AF + FO). Compared to the HFL group, the AF, FO, and AF + FO groups showed lower serum concentrations of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The AF, FO, and AF + FO also had lowered serum triacylglycerol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, but higher HDL-C levels relative to the HFL group. An additive effect was observed on serum CRP in the AF + FO group as compared with the AF or FO groups. The results demonstrated that AF and FO inhibited the production of proinflammatory mediators and showed an improved efficacy to lower serum CRP when administered in combination, and they significantly improved blood lipid profiles in rats with diet-induced hyperlipidemia and LPS-induced acute inflammation. PMID:25026921

  19. Basal omega-3 fatty acid status affects fatty acid and oxylipin responses to high-dose n3-HUFA in healthy volunteers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Baseline concentrations of highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (n3-HUFA) may influence the ability of dietary n3-HUFA to affect changes in concentrations of esterified fatty acids and their metabolites. This study evaluates the influence of basal n3-HUFA and n3-HUFA metabolite status ...

  20. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  1. n-3 enrichment of chicken meat. 1. Use of very long-chain fatty acids in chicken diets and their influence on meat quality: fish oil.

    PubMed

    López-Ferrer, S; Baucells, M D; Barroeta, A C; Grashorn, M A

    2001-06-01

    We assessed the effect of a diet supplemented with fish oil (FO) on the performance, fatty acid (FA) composition, quality, and sensory traits of broiler meat. Diets enriched with 0, 2, or 4% FO plus tallow (T) up to 8% added fat (T1, T2, and T3, respectively) were given to the birds throughout a 38-d growth period. T3 was replaced by a mixture of FO, linseed oil (LO), and T (1, 3, and 4% respectively) for 1 wk (T4) or 2 wk (T5) before slaughter. Meat quality, taste, and FA profile were determined. Higher final weights were recorded for birds fed T3, although feed efficiency was not affected. Other performance or objective meat quality parameters did not show significant differences among treatments. High FO concentrations decreased the saturated and monoenoic FA contents in the thigh samples. The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased when added to the diet (FO diets), mainly as long-chain n-3 FA [eicosapentaenoic fatty acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic fatty acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic fatty acid (DHA)]. On the other hand, levels of total n-6 FA resulted in slight changes, mostly in linoleic acid (LA). By replacing the FO diet with the experimental mixture (T4, T5), the n-3 and n-6 FA contents increased, mainly in the form of linolenic acid and LA, respectively, only 1 wk later. After 1 wk of T4, the DHA levels in chicken decreased. Sensory panelists could not identify the meats from T4 and T5 as being different from the control diet (T1).

  2. Dietary supplementation with arachidonic acid but not eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acids alter lipids metabolism in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Magdeldin, Sameh; Elewa, Yaser; Ikeda, Takako; Ikei, Junko; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Bo; Nameta, Masaaki; Fujinaka, Hidehiko; Yoshida, Yutaka; Yaoita, Eishin; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2009-09-01

    In order to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation rich in omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, we set up an experiment of twenty four C57BL/6J male mice segregated into 3 groups: normal diet (ND), omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA,) and omega 6 (n-6 PUFA). At the end of the experiment that lasted for 1 month, food consumption of ND and n-3 PUFA were similar while it decreased in n-6 PUFA group. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids profiles were increased in n-6 PUFA. LDL decreased in n-3 PUFA while increased in n-6 PUFA fed mice comparing to control group. On the other hand, there was no difference between treatments in HDL and glucose levels. Expression of leptin (ob) gene transcripts in epididymal fat were significantly elevated in n-6 PUFA mice compared to ND and n-3 PUFA groups while hypothalamic ob receptor A (obRa) mRNA did not changed in response to diet regimes. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed different degrees in fatty changes in the liver of both PUFA groups including lipid droplet infiltration and Ito cells with over accumulated lipids. In conclusion, under PUFA dietary supplementation, the hyperlipidemic status and elevated ob expression of n-6 PUFA but not n-3 PUFA fed mice suggests altered lipid metabolism between PUFA groups and/or different endocrine involvement. Moreover, the coincidently structural changes observed in liver of this group direct us to call for further studies to investigate the anti-obesity effect and safety of these PUFA under high supplementation condition.

  3. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC) n-3 PUFA is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(...

  4. Effects of alpha-linolenic acid vs. docosahexaenoic acid supply on the distribution of fatty acids among the rat cardiac subcellular membranes after a short- or long-term dietary exposure

    PubMed Central

    Brochot, Amandine; Guinot, Marine; Auchere, Daniel; Macaire, Jean-Paul; Weill, Pierre; Grynberg, Alain; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous work showed that the functional cardiac effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in rats requires a long feeding period (6 months), although a docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid-supply affects cardiac adrenergic response after 2 months. However, the total cardiac membrane n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition remained unchanged after 2 months. This delay could be due to a specific reorganization of the different subcellular membrane PUFA profiles. This study was designed to investigate the evolution between 2 and 6 months of diet duration of the fatty acid profile in sarcolemmal (SL), mitochondrial (MI), nuclear (NU) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane fractions. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 dietary groups (n = 10/diet/period), either n-3 PUFA-free diet (CTL), or ALA or DHA-rich diets. After 2 or 6 months, the subcellular cardiac membrane fractions were separated by differential centrifugations and sucrose gradients. Each membrane profile was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) after lipid extraction. Results As expected the n-3 PUFA-rich diets incorporated n-3 PUFA instead of n-6 PUFA in all the subcellular fractions, which also exhibited individual specificities. The diet duration increased SFA and decreased PUFA in SL, whereas NU remained constant. The SR and MI enriched in n-3 PUFA exhibited a decreased DHA level with ageing in the DHA and CTL groups. Conversely, the n-3 PUFA level remained unchanged in the ALA group, due to a significant increase in docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). N-3 PUFA rich diets lead to a better PUFA profile in all the fractions and significantly prevent the profile modifications induced by ageing. Conclusion With the ALA diet the n-3 PUFA content, particularly in SR and SL kept increasing between 2 and 6 months, which may partly account for the delay to achieve the modification of adrenergic response. PMID:19320987

  5. Twice-weekly consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon increases plasma content of phospholipid n-3 fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated intake of the n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is related to risk reduction of cardiovascular and other diseases. Increased consumption of seafood such as farmed Atlantic salmon is an effective way to consume n-3 but there is a paucity of data as ...

  6. Interaction of exercise training and n-3 fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipemia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tom R; Liu, Ying; Linden, Melissa A; Rector, R Scott

    2007-06-01

    The effect of combining omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation and exercise training treatment on postprandial lipemia (PPL) has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of n-3 FA and exercise training in attenuating PPL after a high-fat meal. Previously sedentary, overweight, subjects (n=22; 12 women, 10 men, BMI 26.6+/-0.7 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: n-3 FA supplementation alone (FO, n=10) or n-3 FA supplementation plus exercise training (FO+ExTr, n=12). Both groups consumed 4 g/d n-3 FA, and one group also exercise trained for 45 min/d, 5d/week of brisk walking and (or) jogging at 60% VO2 max. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, subjects performed a baseline PPL and a PPL following a single session of exercise (ExPPL). PPL was assessed by triglyceride (TG) area under the curve (AUC) and peak TG response (TGpeak). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare results from treatments for baseline and exercise trials. FO alone reduced PPL and Ex PPL, and FO+ExTr attenuated the ExPPL response measured as total AUC and TGpeak. There was no significant main effect for group or group by time interaction for baseline PPL or ExPPL. Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C (i.e., subfraction 2) concentrations were significantly increased in the FO+ExTr group after the treatments. These results suggest that n-3 FA supplementation reduced PPL in sedentary subjects. Exercise training has no interference or additive effects with n-3 FA supplementation in attenuating PPL, but combined treatments may be additive in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:17510682

  7. The fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) gene product catalyzes Δ4 desaturation to yield n-3 docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hui Gyu; Park, Woo Jung; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a Δ4-desaturated C22 fatty acid and the limiting highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) in neural tissue. The biosynthesis of Δ4-desaturated docosanoid fatty acids 22:6n-3 and 22:5n-6 are believed to proceed via a circuitous biochemical pathway requiring repeated use of a fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) protein to perform Δ6 desaturation on C24 fatty acids in the endoplasmic reticulum followed by 1 round of β-oxidation in the peroxisomes. We demonstrate here that the FADS2 gene product can directly Δ4-desaturate 22:5n-3→22:6n-3 (DHA) and 22:4n-6→22:5n-6. Human MCF-7 cells lacking functional FADS2-mediated Δ6-desaturase were stably transformed with FADS2, FADS1, or empty vector. When incubated with 22:5n-3 or 22:4n-6, FADS2 stable cells produce 22:6n-3 or 22:5n-6, respectively. Similarly, FADS2 stable cells when incubated with d5-18:3n-3 show synthesis of d5-22:6n-3 with no labeling of 24:5n-3 or 24:6n-3 at 24 h. Further, both C24 fatty acids are shown to be products of the respective C22 fatty acids via elongation. Our results demonstrate that the FADS2 classical transcript mediates direct Δ4 desaturation to yield 22:6n-3 and 22:5n-6 in human cells, as has been widely shown previously for desaturation by fish and many other organisms.—Park, H. G., Park, W. J., Kothapalli, K. S. D., Brenna, J. T. The fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) gene product catalyzes Δ4 desaturation to yield n-3 docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid in human cells. PMID:26065859

  8. Mechanisms increasing n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the heart.

    PubMed

    Glück, Tobias; Rupp, Heinz; Alter, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Due to ambiguous findings on cardiovascular benefits of systemic omega-3 fatty acid therapy, endogenous mechanisms contributing to local organ-specific concentrations of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) were examined. Using gas chromatography, 43 fatty acids were analyzed in atrial and ventricular myocardium and in pericardial fluid of male Wistar rats. To examine the endogenous fatty acid metabolism, precursors were administered into the pericardial sac. Pro- and anti-inflammatory actions were induced by talc or fenofibrate, respectively. Physical exercise and a sedentary obese state were used for increased beta-oxidation. DHA (22:6n-3) was increased in ventricular when compared with atrial myocardium (9.0 ± 2.1% vs. 4.7 ± 1.0%, p < 0.001). Intrapericardial EPA (20:5n-3) application lead to an increase of the succeeding tetracosapentaenoic acid (24:5n-3) in atrial myocardium, which is a key precursor of DHA. In contrast, proinflammatory stimulation of the n-6 HUFA pathway did not influence the n-3 metabolism. Exercise- and obesity-induced increased beta-oxidation, the finalizing step of DHA synthesis, was associated with increased ventricular DHA concentrations (6.7 ± 1.0% vs. 8.4 ± 1.2%, p < 0.01). It is concluded that the endogenous metabolism contributes markedly to myocardial HUFA concentrations. The findings are supposed to influence the efficacy of oral HUFA treatment and provide a rationale for divergent findings of previous trials on omega-3 therapy. PMID:26780261

  9. Production and Dietary Uptake of PUFA by Piezophilic Bacteria, Implications for Marine Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Chan, O.; Agarkar, N.; Kato, C.; Sato, T.

    2003-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been used extensively as proxies for determining the source and preservation of organic matter in marine sediments. However, the origin of polyunsaturated fatty acids in deep-sea sediments is not well understood; the ultimate source of PUFAs is only partially constrained. At issue is whether PUFAs in deep-sea sediments are derived from the primary production of the photic zone or from the in situ piezophilic bacterial production in the deep-sea, or both. In this study, we tested three deep-sea piezophilic strains, Shewanella violacea DSS12, Shewanella benthica DB21MT-2, Moritella yayanosii DB21MT-5, in biosynthesis and dietary uptake of PUFAs. These piezophilic bacteria were characterized by high abundance of unsaturated fatty acids (62-73% of total fatty acids). In particularly, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were detected in all piezophiles examined, ranging from 8 to 27% of total fatty acids. M. japonica DSK1 produced 22:6n-3 (cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), whereas the three Shewanella strains produced 20:5n-3 (cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA) with trace amounts of DHA. The total concentrations of PLFA were higher in strains grown at low pressure (DSK1, 10 Megapascal or MPa, 26,983μ g/g dry wt cells; DSS12, 50 MPa, 23,986 μ g/g), and lower in strains grown at high pressure (DB6705, 85 MPa, 1,901μ g/g; DB21MT-2, 100 MPa, 3,014 μ g/g). When growth media were supplemented with arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4n-6), there was active uptake and cellular incorporation of AA in the hyperpiezophilic bacteria DB21MT-2 (14.7%) and DB21MT-5 (1.4%). No uptake was observed in DSS12. When cells were treated with antibiotic cerulenin, all three strains incorporated AA into cell membranes (13 to 19%). These results suggest that piezophilic bacteria can be an important contributor in producing and reworking of PUFAs in the deep sea, and that that caution must be exercised in using PUFAs in deducing sources

  10. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the behavioural effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 fatty acid supplementation in typically developing adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Jonathan D; Steinsaltz, David; Bester, D W; Semb-Andenaes, Turid; Stein, John F

    2016-01-28

    Nutrient deficiencies have been implicated in anti-social behaviour in schoolchildren; hence, correcting them may improve sociability. We therefore tested the effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 supplementation on behaviour in a 12-week double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in typically developing UK adolescents aged 13-16 years (n 196). Changes in erythrocyte n-3 and 6 fatty acids and some mineral and vitamin levels were measured and compared with behavioural changes, using Conners' teacher ratings and school disciplinary records. At baseline, the children's PUFA (n-3 and n-6), vitamin and mineral levels were low, but they improved significantly in the group treated with n-3, vitamins and minerals (P=0·0005). On the Conners disruptive behaviour scale, the group given the active supplements improved, whereas the placebo group worsened (F=5·555, d=0·35; P=0·02). The general level of disciplinary infringements was low, thus making it difficult to obtain improvements. However, throughout the school term school disciplinary infringements increased significantly (by 25 %; Bayes factor=115) in both the treated and untreated groups. However, when the subjects were split into high and low baseline infringements, the low subset increased their offences, whereas the high-misbehaviour subset appeared to improve after treatment. But it was not possible to determine whether this was merely a statistical artifact. Thus, when assessed using the validated and standardised Conners teacher tests (but less clearly when using school discipline records in a school where misbehaviour was infrequent), supplementary nutrition might have a protective effect against worsening behaviour. PMID:26573368

  11. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the behavioural effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 fatty acid supplementation in typically developing adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Jonathan D; Steinsaltz, David; Bester, D W; Semb-Andenaes, Turid; Stein, John F

    2016-01-28

    Nutrient deficiencies have been implicated in anti-social behaviour in schoolchildren; hence, correcting them may improve sociability. We therefore tested the effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 supplementation on behaviour in a 12-week double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in typically developing UK adolescents aged 13-16 years (n 196). Changes in erythrocyte n-3 and 6 fatty acids and some mineral and vitamin levels were measured and compared with behavioural changes, using Conners' teacher ratings and school disciplinary records. At baseline, the children's PUFA (n-3 and n-6), vitamin and mineral levels were low, but they improved significantly in the group treated with n-3, vitamins and minerals (P=0·0005). On the Conners disruptive behaviour scale, the group given the active supplements improved, whereas the placebo group worsened (F=5·555, d=0·35; P=0·02). The general level of disciplinary infringements was low, thus making it difficult to obtain improvements. However, throughout the school term school disciplinary infringements increased significantly (by 25 %; Bayes factor=115) in both the treated and untreated groups. However, when the subjects were split into high and low baseline infringements, the low subset increased their offences, whereas the high-misbehaviour subset appeared to improve after treatment. But it was not possible to determine whether this was merely a statistical artifact. Thus, when assessed using the validated and standardised Conners teacher tests (but less clearly when using school discipline records in a school where misbehaviour was infrequent), supplementary nutrition might have a protective effect against worsening behaviour.

  12. Role of CYP1A1 in modulating the vascular and blood pressure benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Larry N; Wiest, Elani F; Rothe, Michael; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen; Walker, Mary K

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms that mediate the cardiovascular protective effects of omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have not been fully elucidated. Cytochrome P450 1A1 efficiently metabolizes n-3 PUFAs to potent vasodilators. Thus, we hypothesized that dietary n-3 PUFAs increase nitric oxide (NO)-dependent blood pressure regulation and vasodilation in a CYP1A1-dependent manner. CYP1A1 wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were fed an n-3 or n-6 PUFA-enriched diet for 8 weeks and were analyzed for tissue fatty acids and metabolites, NO-dependent blood pressure regulation, NO-dependent vasodilation of acetylcholine (ACh) in mesenteric resistance arterioles, and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phospho-Ser1177-eNOS expression in the aorta. All mice fed the n-3 PUFA diet showed significantly higher levels of n-3 PUFAs and their metabolites, and significantly lower levels of n-6 PUFAs and their metabolites. In addition, KO mice on the n-3 PUFA diet accumulated significantly higher levels of n-3 PUFAs in the aorta and kidney without a parallel increase in the levels of their metabolites. Moreover, KO mice exhibited significantly less NO-dependent regulation of blood pressure on the n-3 PUFA diet and significantly less NO-dependent, ACh-mediated vasodilation in mesenteric arterioles on both diets. Finally, the n-3 PUFA diet significantly increased aortic phospho-Ser1177-eNOS/eNOS ratio in the WT compared with KO mice. These data demonstrate that CYP1A1 contributes to eNOS activation, NO bioavailability, and NO-dependent blood pressure regulation mediated by dietary n-3 PUFAs.

  13. The Effect of Marine Derived n-3 Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Function

    PubMed Central

    Todorčević, Marijana; Hodson, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue function is key determinant of metabolic health, with specific nutrients being suggested to play a role in tissue metabolism. One such group of nutrients are the n-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). Results from studies where human, animal and cellular models have been utilised to investigate the effects of EPA and/or DHA on white adipose tissue/adipocytes suggest anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects. We review here evidence for these effects, specifically focusing on studies that provide some insight into metabolic pathways or processes. Of note, limited work has been undertaken investigating the effects of EPA and DHA on white adipose tissue in humans whilst more work has been undertaken using animal and cellular models. Taken together it would appear that EPA and DHA have a positive effect on lowering lipogenesis, increasing lipolysis and decreasing inflammation, all of which would be beneficial for adipose tissue biology. What remains to be elucidated is the duration and dose required to see a favourable effect of EPA and DHA in vivo in humans, across a range of adiposity. PMID:26729182

  14. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature t...

  15. Microalgae as a Source for VLC-PUFA Production.

    PubMed

    Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Leu, Stefan; Boussiba, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae present a huge and still insufficiently tapped resource of very long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFA) for human nutrition and medicinal applications. This chapter describes the diversity of unicellular eukaryotic microalgae in respect to VLC-PUFA biosynthesis. Then, we outline the major biosynthetic pathways mediating the formation of VLC-PUFA by sequential desaturation and elongation of C18-PUFA acyl groups. We address the aspects of spatial localization of those pathways and elaborate on the role for VLC-PUFA in microalgal cells. Recent progress in microalgal genetic transformation and molecular engineering has opened the way to increased production efficiencies for VLC-PUFA. The perspectives of photobiotechnology and metabolic engineering of microalgae for altered or enhanced VLC-PUFA production are also discussed.

  16. Microalgae as a Source for VLC-PUFA Production.

    PubMed

    Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Leu, Stefan; Boussiba, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae present a huge and still insufficiently tapped resource of very long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFA) for human nutrition and medicinal applications. This chapter describes the diversity of unicellular eukaryotic microalgae in respect to VLC-PUFA biosynthesis. Then, we outline the major biosynthetic pathways mediating the formation of VLC-PUFA by sequential desaturation and elongation of C18-PUFA acyl groups. We address the aspects of spatial localization of those pathways and elaborate on the role for VLC-PUFA in microalgal cells. Recent progress in microalgal genetic transformation and molecular engineering has opened the way to increased production efficiencies for VLC-PUFA. The perspectives of photobiotechnology and metabolic engineering of microalgae for altered or enhanced VLC-PUFA production are also discussed. PMID:27023247

  17. Responses to n-3 fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of gestating gilts, and lactating and weaned sows.

    PubMed

    Smit, M N; Patterson, J L; Webel, S K; Spencer, J D; Cameron, A C; Dyck, M K; Dixon, W T; Foxcroft, G R

    2013-05-01

    Feeding n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to gilts or sows has shown different responses to litter growth, pre-weaning mortality and subsequent reproductive performance of the sow. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that feeding a marine oil-based supplement rich in protected n-3 LCPUFAs to gilts in established gestation would improve the growth performance of their litters; and (2) that continued feeding of the supplement during lactation and after weaning would offset the negative effects of lactational catabolism induced, using an established experimental model involving feed restriction of lactating primiparous sows. A total of 117 primiparous sows were pair-matched at day 60 of gestation by weight, and when possible, litter of origin, and were allocated to be either control sows (CON) fed standard gestation and lactation diets, or treated sows (LCPUFA) fed the standard diets supplemented with 84 g/day of a n-3 LCPUFA rich supplement, from day 60 of first gestation, through a 21-day lactation, and until euthanasia at day 30 of their second gestation. All sows were feed restricted during the last 7 days of lactation to induce catabolism, providing a background challenge against which to determine beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on subsequent reproduction. In the absence of an effect on litter size or birth weight, n-3 LCPUFA tended to improve piglet BW gain from birth until 34 days after weaning (P = 0.06), while increasing pre-weaning mortality (P = 0.05). It did not affect energy utilization by the sow during lactation, thus not improving the catabolic state of the sows. Supplementation from weaning until day 30 of second gestation did not have an effect on embryonic weight, ovulation rate or early embryonic survival, but did increase corpora lutea (CL) weight (P = 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were increased in sow serum and CL (P < 0.001), whereas only DHA levels increased in embryos (P

  18. Combined deficiency of iron and (n-3) fatty acids in male rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than iron deficiency or (n-3) fatty acid deficiency alone.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Smuts, Cornelius M; Malan, Linda; Arnold, Myrtha; Yee, Benjamin K; Bianco, Laura E; Boekschoten, Mark V; Müller, Michael; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hurrell, Richard F; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-08-01

    Deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids (FA) [(n-3)FAD] may impair brain development and function through shared mechanisms. However, little is known about the potential interactions between these 2 common deficiencies. We studied the effects of ID and (n-3)FAD, alone and in combination, on brain monoamine pathways (by measuring monoamines and related gene expression) and spatial working and reference memory (by Morris water maze testing). Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats were fed an ID, (n-3)FAD, ID+(n-3)FAD, or control diet for 5 wk postweaning (postnatal d 21-56) after (n-3)FAD had been induced over 2 generations. The (n-3)FAD and ID diets decreased brain (n-3) FA by 70-76% and Fe by 20-32%, respectively. ID and (n-3)FAD significantly increased dopamine (DA) concentrations in the olfactory bulb (OB) and striatum, with an additive 1- to 2-fold increase in ID+(n-3)FAD rats compared with controls (P < 0.05). ID decreased serotonin (5-HT) levels in OB, with a significant decrease in ID+(n-3)FAD rats. Furthermore, norepinephrine concentrations were increased 2-fold in the frontal cortex (FC) of (n-3)FAD rats (P < 0.05). Dopa decarboxylase was downregulated in the hippocampus of ID and ID+(n-3)FAD rats (fold-change = -1.33; P < 0.05). ID and (n-3)FAD significantly impaired working memory performance and the impairment positively correlated with DA concentrations in FC (r = 0.39; P = 0.026). Reference memory was impaired in the ID+(n-3)FAD rats (P < 0.05) and was negatively associated with 5-HT in FC (r = -0.42; P = 0.018). These results suggest that the combined deficiencies of Fe and (n-3) FA disrupt brain monoamine metabolism and produce greater deficits in reference memory than ID or (n-3)FAD alone.

  19. Artificial rearing of infant mice leads to n-3 fatty acid deficiency in cardiac, neural and peripheral tissues.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Nahed; Fedorova, Irina; Moriguchi, Toru; Hamazaki, Kei; Kim, Hee-Yong; Hoshiba, Junji; Salem, Norman

    2009-08-01

    The ability to control the fatty acid content of the diet during early development is a crucial requirement for a one-generation model of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) deficiency. A hand feeding method using artificial rearing (AR) together with sterile, artificial milk was employed for feeding mice from postnatal day 2-15. The pups were fed an n-3 fatty acid adequate (3% alpha-linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3n3) + 1% 22:6n3) or a deficient diet (0.06% 18:3n3) with linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) as the only dietary source of essential fatty acids by AR along with a dam-reared control group (3.1% 18:3n3). The results indicate that restriction of n-3 fatty acid intake during postnatal development leads to markedly lower levels of brain, retinal, liver, plasma and heart 22:6n3 at 20 weeks of age with replacement by docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn6; 22:5n6), arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n6) and docosatetraenoic acid (DTA; 22:4n6). A detailed analysis of phospholipid classes of heart tissue indicated that phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin were the major repositories of 22:6n3, reaching 40, 29 and 15%, respectively. A novel heart cardiolipin species containing four 22:6n3 moieties is described. This is the first report of the application of artificially rearing to mouse pup nutrition; this technique will facilitate dietary studies of knockout animals as well as the study of essential fatty acid (EFA) functions in the cardiovascular, neural and other organ systems.

  20. Fatty Acid and Lipid Profiles with Emphasis on n-3 Fatty Acids and Phospholipids from Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yadong; Wang, Miao; Lindström, Mikael E; Li, Jiebing

    2015-10-01

    In order to establish Ciona intestinalis as a new bioresource for n-3 fatty acids-rich marine lipids, the animal was fractionated into tunic and inner body tissues prior to lipid extraction. The lipids obtained were further classified into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis using GC-FID, GC-MS, (1)H NMR, 2D NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS methods. It was found that the tunic and inner body tissues contained 3.42-4.08% and 15.9-23.4% of lipids respectively. PL was the dominant lipid class (42-60%) irrespective of the anatomic fractions. From all lipid fractions and classes, the major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:1n-9, C20:1n-9, C20:5n-3 (EPA) and C22:6n-3 (DHA). The highest amounts of long chain n-3 fatty acids, mainly EPA and DHA, were located in PL from both body fractions. Cholestanol and cholesterol were the dominant sterols together with noticeable amounts of stellasterol, 22 (Z)-dehydrocholesterol and lathosterol. Several other identified and two yet unidentified sterols were observed for the first time from C. intestinalis. Different molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (34 species), sphingomyelin (2 species), phosphatidylethanolamine (2 species), phosphatidylserine (10 species), phosphatidylglycerol (9 species), ceramide (38 species) and lysophospholipid (5 species) were identified, representing the most systematic PL profiling knowledge so far for the animal. It could be concluded that C. intestinalis lipids should be a good alternative for fish oil with high contents of n-3 fatty acids. The lipids would be more bioavailable due to the presence of the fatty acids being mainly in the form of PL. PMID:26233815

  1. The influence of n-3 fatty acids on maternal behavior and brain monoamines in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Harauma, Akiko; Sagisaka, Takayuki; Horii, Taku; Watanabe, Yoshitake; Moriguchi, Toru

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to use n-3 fatty acid-deficient pregnant mice to assess maternal behavior in the perinatal period. Female mice were fed either an n-3 fatty acid-deficient (n-3 Def) or -adequate (n-3 Adq) diet for two generations. The nest score and volume of the n-3 Def dams were lower than those of the n-3 Adq dams. In the observation of the post-delivery conditions, 40% of the n-3 Def dams attacked their newborns or did not nurse them. The brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels of the n-3 Def dams were lower than those of the n-3 Adq dams. In the hippocampus, moreover, positive correlations were observed between the DHA and the 5-HT or 5-HIAA, and a negative correlation was observed between the DHA and the DA. These results suggest that dietary n-3 fatty acids may normalize the development of maternal behavior and prevent postpartum depression. PMID:27033419

  2. Feeding long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to obese leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA- cp rats modifies immune function and lipid-raft fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Megan R; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J

    2009-05-01

    Dietary EPA and DHA modulate immunity and thereby may improve the aberrant immune function in obese states. To determine the effects of feeding fish oil (FO) containing EPA and DHA on splenocyte phospholipid (PL) and lipid-raft fatty acid composition, phenotypes and cytokine production, 14-week-old obese, leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA-cp rats (cp/cp; n 10) were randomised to one of three nutritionally adequate diets for 3 weeks: control (Ctl, 0 % EPA+DHA); low FO (LFO, 0.8 % (w/w) EPA+DHA); high FO (HFO, 1.4 % (w/w) EPA+DHA). Lean JCR:LA-cp (+/ - or +/+) rats (n 5) were fed the Ctl diet. Obese Ctl rats had a higher proportion of n-3 PUFA in splenocyte PL than lean rats fed the same diet (P < 0.05). The lower n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of splenocyte PL was consistent with the lower mitogen-stimulated interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-1beta production by cells from obese rats (P < 0.05). Obese rats fed the FO diet had lower mitogen-stimulated Th1 (IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokine responses, but IL-2 production (concanavalin A; ConA) did not differ (P < 0.05). The HFO diet was more effective in lowering IL-1beta and increasing IL-10 production (ConA, P < 0.05). This lower IL-1beta production was accompanied by a lower proportion of major histocompatability complex class II-positive cells and a higher incorporation of DHA into lipid rafts. This is the first study to demonstrate impaired responses to mitogen stimulation and altered fatty acid incorporation into the membrane PL of JCR:LA-cp rats. Feeding FO lowered the ex vivo inflammatory response, without altering IL-2 production from ConA-stimulated splenocytes which may occur independent of leptin signalling.

  3. Linseed oil in the maternal diet increases long chain-PUFA status of the foetus and the newborn during the suckling period in pigs.

    PubMed

    de Quelen, Francine; Boudry, Gaëlle; Mourot, Jacques

    2010-08-01

    Linseed oil, being rich in 18 : 3n-3, represents an alternative source of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet. However, little is known about the effect of this oil on the long chain n-3 PUFA composition of offspring, which are required for normal growth and maturation of numerous organs. The main objective of the experiment was therefore to investigate fatty acid composition of tissues from sows at the end of gestation and from piglets during the first week of postnatal life in response to maternal dietary linseed oil intake. Sows received either a lard (LAR)-based diet or a linseed oil (LSO)-based diet during gestation and lactation. Fatty acid composition was evaluated in sow plasma, placenta and milk, and in different tissues of piglets on days 0, 3, 7, 21 and 32. The LSO diet increased the proportions of n-3 PUFA and especially 22 : 6n-3 in the placenta. The carcass of LSO piglets at birth contained greater proportions of 20 : 5n-3, 22 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3. The LSO sow milk exhibited greater proportions of 18 : 3n-3 compared with the LAR sow milk. The piglets suckling LSO sows had greater proportions of 18 : 3n-3, 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 5n-3 in plasma and carcass. The proportions of 22 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3 were greater in the brain of LSO piglets than in that of LAR piglets during the suckling period. In conclusion, LSO in the maternal diet during gestation and lactation increases 22 : 6n-3 concentrations in the placenta and in the foetus carcass, and it maintains 22 : 6n-3 concentrations in the brain during the first week of postnatal life.

  4. Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Sculley, D V

    2014-06-01

    Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease. PMID:23889472

  5. Basic mechanisms behind the effects of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiological association between high intakes of n-3 fatty acids (FA) and decreased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be explained by two main basic mechanisms: (a) an effect on atherothrombosis, and (b) an effect on cardiac arrhythmias. These mechanisms probably reflect different beneficial influences of n-3 FA on cardiovascular biology. Effects on atherothrombosis include the modulation of the expression of pro-atherogenic genes (e.g., endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules, inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2) and the hepatic synthesis of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), and are slow in onset, requiring incorporation into cell membrane phospholipids, and usually doses in humans in the order of 3g/day or higher. Effects on cardiac arrhythmias include complex interactions with ion channels (sodium, potassium and calcium channels), typically requiring the presence of free FA in extracellular fluids and usually occurring with lower doses (around 1g/day) of nutritional or pharmacological intake. We have focused most of our research effort in unraveling the pathophysiological background of protection by n-3 FA from atherothrombosis. As the result of incorporation of n-3 FA in the sn-2 position predominantly of the phosphatidyl ethanolamine pool in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, n-3 FA appear on the one hand to increase the production of bioactive lipid mediators (protectins and resolvins) affecting cytokine-induced signal transduction; and on the other hand to directly interfere with the generation of reactive oxygen species (mostly hydrogen peroxide), directly responsible for the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, which controls the expression of a variety of pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic genes, including those encoding for interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, and COX-2. The

  6. Cost implications of alternative sources of (n-3) fatty acid consumption in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen T; Luo, Hanqi; Ausman, Lynne M

    2012-03-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 provides authoritative advice on what Americans should eat to stay healthy. These guidelines provide a quantitative recommendation to consume 250 mg/d of (n-3) fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids). To achieve this goal, Americans would need to more than triple the amount of EPA and DHA currently consumed. This paper assessed the cost implications of increased levels of EPA and DHA from marine and nonmarine food sources using data from the 2007-2008 NHANES, USDA nutrient data base, and the USDA Center for the Nutrition Policy and Promotion food price data. Stearidonic acid (SDA)-enhanced soybean oil is a lower cost alternative to commonly consumed marine food as a source of EPA. In addition, given that SDA-enhanced soybean oil is intended to be used as an ingredient in a variety of products, this may enable consumers to increase consumption of EPA through commonly consumed foods.

  7. The combined effects on neuronal activation and blood-brain barrier permeability of time and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice, as measured in vivo using MEMRI.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Ting; So, Po-Wah; Parkinson, James R; Yu, Wei Sheng; Hankir, Mohammad; Herlihy, Amy H; Goldstone, Anthony P; Frost, Gary S; Wasserfall, Clive; Bell, Jimmy D

    2010-05-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are known to have cardiovascular and neuroprotective properties in both humans and rodents. Here, we use manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to compare the effects of these polyunsaturated fatty acids on the combined effects of neuronal activity and integrity of blood-brain barrier integrity with saturated fatty acids from buttermilk. C57BL/6 mice (4 weeks old) were fed isocaloric diets containing 3% fish oil (3% FO, n=5), 12% fish oil (FO, n=6), 3% buttermilk (3% BM, n=6) or 12% buttermilk (12% BM, n=6) for 6 months. Following metabolic cage analysis these mice were scanned using a standard MEMRI protocol at 28-32 weeks of age. Adult mice aged 28-32 weeks old (RM3, n=5) and 15-16 weeks old (YRM3, n=4) maintained on standard rodent chow were also studied to assess age-related changes in brain barrier systems and neuronal activity. Signal intensity (SI) in the anterior pituitary (AP), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (ARC), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) was significantly reduced in young compared to older mice fed standard chow. Furthermore, fish oil supplementation led to a decrease in SI within the ARC and PVN, reaching significance in the VMH in age-matched controls. Interestingly, both fish oil and buttermilk supplementation resulted in a significant increase in SI within the AP, a structure outside the BBB. We conclude that MEMRI is able to detect the combined effects of the integrity of neuronal activity and blood-brain barrier permeability in the hypothalamus associated with dietary manipulation and aging. PMID:20097292

  8. The combined effects on neuronal activation and blood-brain barrier permeability of time and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice, as measured in vivo using MEMRI.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Ting; So, Po-Wah; Parkinson, James R; Yu, Wei Sheng; Hankir, Mohammad; Herlihy, Amy H; Goldstone, Anthony P; Frost, Gary S; Wasserfall, Clive; Bell, Jimmy D

    2010-05-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are known to have cardiovascular and neuroprotective properties in both humans and rodents. Here, we use manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to compare the effects of these polyunsaturated fatty acids on the combined effects of neuronal activity and integrity of blood-brain barrier integrity with saturated fatty acids from buttermilk. C57BL/6 mice (4 weeks old) were fed isocaloric diets containing 3% fish oil (3% FO, n=5), 12% fish oil (FO, n=6), 3% buttermilk (3% BM, n=6) or 12% buttermilk (12% BM, n=6) for 6 months. Following metabolic cage analysis these mice were scanned using a standard MEMRI protocol at 28-32 weeks of age. Adult mice aged 28-32 weeks old (RM3, n=5) and 15-16 weeks old (YRM3, n=4) maintained on standard rodent chow were also studied to assess age-related changes in brain barrier systems and neuronal activity. Signal intensity (SI) in the anterior pituitary (AP), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (ARC), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) was significantly reduced in young compared to older mice fed standard chow. Furthermore, fish oil supplementation led to a decrease in SI within the ARC and PVN, reaching significance in the VMH in age-matched controls. Interestingly, both fish oil and buttermilk supplementation resulted in a significant increase in SI within the AP, a structure outside the BBB. We conclude that MEMRI is able to detect the combined effects of the integrity of neuronal activity and blood-brain barrier permeability in the hypothalamus associated with dietary manipulation and aging.

  9. Gene-PUFA interactions and obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, C; Kloiber, S; Nieters, A; Seiler, H; Himmerich, H; Kohli, M A; Lucae, S; Wolfram, G; Gieger, C; Wichmann, H-E; Linseisen, J

    2011-10-01

    Although there are indications for modulatory effects of PUFA on associations between SNP and obesity risk, scientific evidence in human subjects is still scarce. The present analyses investigated interaction effects between SNP in candidate genes for obesity and PUFA in erythrocyte membranes on obesity risk. Within the second Bavarian Food Consumption Survey (cross-sectional, population-based), 568 adults provided blood samples. Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes was analysed by means of GC. Genotyping was performed for twenty-one genes, including cytokines, adipokines, neurotransmitters and transcription factors. In addition, plasma IL-6 concentrations were analysed. For the statistical analysis, a logistic regression model assuming additive genetic effects was chosen. About 20 % of the study participants were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Several significant gene-PUFA interactions were found, indicating regulatory effects of PUFA by gene variants of IL-2, IL-6, IL-18, TNF receptor family member 1B and 21, leptin receptor and adiponectin on obesity risk. After stratification by genotype, the strongest effects were found for rs2069779 (IL-2) and all tested PUFA as well as for rs1800795 (IL-6) and linoleic or arachidonic acid. The obesity risk of minor allele carriers significantly decreased with increasing fatty acid content. The genetic PUFA-IL-6 interaction was also reflected in plasma IL-6 concentrations. If replicated in a prospective study with sufficient statistical power, the results would indicate a beneficial effect of high PUFA supply for a substantial proportion of the population with respect to obesity risk.

  10. Changes in whole-blood PUFA and their predictors during recovery from severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Mortensen, Charlotte G; Mupere, Ezekiel; Rytter, Maren J H; Namusoke, Hanifa; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André; Stark, Ken D; Friis, Henrik; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2016-05-28

    Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) with complications require in-patient management including therapeutic feeding. Little attention has been given to the effects of these feeds on the essential fatty acid status of children with SAM. The objective of this study was to describe changes in the PUFA composition in whole blood in children with SAM during treatment and to determine predictors of change. This prospective study took place in a paediatric nutrition rehabilitation unit in Kampala, Uganda, and assessed whole-blood fatty acid composition of children with SAM at admission, transition, discharge and follow-up (8 and 16 weeks). ANCOVA was used to identify predictors of change in whole-blood PUFA. The study included 120 children with SAM and twenty-nine healthy control children of similar age and sex. Among the SAM children, 38 % were female and 64 % had oedema. Whole-blood n-6 PUFA proportions increased from admission to follow-up, except for arachidonic acid, which decreased by 0·79 (95 % CI 0·46, 1·12) fatty acid percentage (FA%) from admission to transition and 0·10 (95 % CI 0·23, 0·44) FA% at discharge. n-3 Long-chain (LC) PUFA decreased by 0·21 (95 % CI 0·03, 0·40) FA% at discharge and 0·22 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·42) FA% at 8 weeks of follow-up. This decrease was greater in children from families with recent fish intake and those with nasogastric tube feeding. Current therapeutic feeds do not correct whole-blood levels of LCPUFA, particularly n-3 LCPUFA, in children with SAM. Increased attention is needed to the contents of n-3 LCPUFA in therapeutic feeds. PMID:26996197

  11. Changes in whole-blood PUFA and their predictors during recovery from severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Mortensen, Charlotte G; Mupere, Ezekiel; Rytter, Maren J H; Namusoke, Hanifa; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André; Stark, Ken D; Friis, Henrik; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2016-05-28

    Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) with complications require in-patient management including therapeutic feeding. Little attention has been given to the effects of these feeds on the essential fatty acid status of children with SAM. The objective of this study was to describe changes in the PUFA composition in whole blood in children with SAM during treatment and to determine predictors of change. This prospective study took place in a paediatric nutrition rehabilitation unit in Kampala, Uganda, and assessed whole-blood fatty acid composition of children with SAM at admission, transition, discharge and follow-up (8 and 16 weeks). ANCOVA was used to identify predictors of change in whole-blood PUFA. The study included 120 children with SAM and twenty-nine healthy control children of similar age and sex. Among the SAM children, 38 % were female and 64 % had oedema. Whole-blood n-6 PUFA proportions increased from admission to follow-up, except for arachidonic acid, which decreased by 0·79 (95 % CI 0·46, 1·12) fatty acid percentage (FA%) from admission to transition and 0·10 (95 % CI 0·23, 0·44) FA% at discharge. n-3 Long-chain (LC) PUFA decreased by 0·21 (95 % CI 0·03, 0·40) FA% at discharge and 0·22 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·42) FA% at 8 weeks of follow-up. This decrease was greater in children from families with recent fish intake and those with nasogastric tube feeding. Current therapeutic feeds do not correct whole-blood levels of LCPUFA, particularly n-3 LCPUFA, in children with SAM. Increased attention is needed to the contents of n-3 LCPUFA in therapeutic feeds.

  12. Medium-chain triglyceride and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing emulsions in intravenous nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chan, S; McCowen, K C; Bistrian, B

    1998-03-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid emulsions as a physical mixture have attracted increasing interest for use in parenteral nutrition and may play an important role in the development of structured triglycerides in a future generation of new lipids. Over the past two decades, the clinical use of intravenous emulsion for the nutritional support of hospitalized patients has relied exclusively on long-chain triglycerides providing both a safe, calorically dense alternative to dextrose and a source of essential fatty acids needed for biological membranes and maintenance of the immune function. During the past decade, the development of new triglycerides (medium- and long-chain triglyceride emulsions and structured triglyceride emulsions) for parenteral use have provided useful advances and opportunities to enhance nutritional and metabolic support. Medium-chain triglycerides and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid emulsions possess unique physical, chemical, and metabolic properties that make them theoretically advantageous over the conventional long-chain triglycerides. The physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides have been used clinically in patients with critical illness, liver disease, immunosuppression, pulmonary disease, and in premature infants, with good tolerance and the avoidance of some of the problems encountered with long-chain triglycerides alone. PMID:10565343

  13. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20–44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20–30 kg/m2, TG = 34–176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22–65 years, BMI 24–37 kg/m2, TG = 141–339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = −0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = −0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%–61% vs. 14%–26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study. PMID:26247967

  14. Effect of feeding system and breed on n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of lamb muscles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Katahdin (KK, n=6), Katahdin x Suffolk (KS, n=6), Suffolk x Katahdin (SK, n=6) and Suffolk (SS, n=6) wethers were used to evaluate omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 in muscles of these lambs, raised on concentrate or forage diets. Lambs ...

  15. Oral administration of docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaeinoic acids is not anticonvulsant in rats: implications for translational research.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Niccolo; Lecointe, Cécile; Bordet, Regis; Vallée, Louis; Galabert, Claude; Gressens, Pierre; Auvin, Stéphane

    2011-12-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are dietary fatty acids that are involved in a myriad of physiological processes in the brain. Although experimental data have shown that PUFAs have anticonvulsant properties, the outcomes of clinical trials have been controversial. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a PUFA which has been reported to exert anticonvulsant effects. Here we studied anticonvulsant potential of a mixture of enriched n-3 PUFA upon their oral administration in rats. We did not observe an anticonvulsant effect of n-3 PUFA in the i.v. pentylentetrazol threshold test. n-3 PUFA component was increased in the plasma of rats treated with the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/DHA mix (275 mg/kg/d/400 mg/kg/d) due to the increase of both DHA and EPA. We also found modification of PUFA composition in the brain. Despite PUFA profiles modified both in plasma and in the brain, we did not find any anticonvulsant effect of orally administered DHA. Further studies are needed to define the type and the amount of fatty acids that would possess anticonvulsant properties. As the existing literature suggests that the route of administration of PUFA may be crucial, future studies should involve oral administration to provide relevant clinical information.

  16. Independent and interactive effects of plant sterols and fish oil n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the plasma lipid profile of mildly hyperlipidaemic Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Shweta; Demonty, Isabelle; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mukherjee, Rajat; Gupta, Ruby; Snehi, Uma; Niveditha, Devasenapathy; Singh, Yogendra; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Passi, Santosh J; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath

    2009-09-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of a once-a-day yoghurt drink providing 2 g plant sterols/d and capsules providing 2 g fish oil n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA/d on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins and LDL particle size. Following a 2-week run-in period, 200 mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults aged 35-55 years were randomised into one of four groups of a 2 x 2 factorial, double-blind controlled trial. The 4-week treatments consisted of (1) control yoghurt drink and control capsules, (2) control yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules, (3) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and control capsules, or (4) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules. Blood was drawn before and after the 4-week intervention. Changes in health status, lifestyle and dietary habits, and daily compliance were recorded. The main effects of plant sterols were a 4.5 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol and a 15 % reduction in TAG without a significant change in HDL-cholesterol. Overall, fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA did not significantly affect cholesterol concentrations but reduced TAG by 15 % and increased HDL-cholesterol by 5.4 %. The combination significantly lowered TAG by 15 % v. control. No significant interaction between plant sterols and n-3 LC-PUFA was observed on plasma cholesterol concentrations. In conclusion, once-a-day intake of 2 g plant sterols/d in a yoghurt drink, 2 g fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA/d in capsules, and their combination had beneficial effects on the lipid profile of mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults. The potent hypotriacylglycerolaemic effect of plant sterols observed in the present study and this population warrants additional investigation. PMID:19296875

  17. Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) from Rosa canina, sacha inchi and chia oils may increase ALA accretion and its conversion into n-3 LCPUFA in diverse tissues of the rat.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela B, Rodrigo; Barrera R, Cynthia; González-Astorga, Marcela; Sanhueza C, Julio; Valenzuela B, Alfonso

    2014-07-25

    Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential n-3 PUFA; its n-3 LCPUFA derivatives EPA and DHA, which have diverse beneficial effects, are scarce in the human diet. In recent years nontraditional vegetable oils rich in ALA (up to 45%) have been developed as new alternatives to increase ALA consumption. This work evaluated the accretion of ALA, EPA and DHA into the phospholipids extracted from erythrocytes, liver, kidney, small intestine, heart, quadriceps and the brain in rats fed sunflower (SFO), canola (CO), Rosa canina (RCO), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, SIO) and chia (Salvia hispánica, ChO) oils. Five experimental groups (n = 12 per group) were fed for 21 days with SFO (1% ALA), CO (10% ALA), RCO (33% ALA), SIO (49% ALA), and ChO (64% ALA). SIO and ChO allowed higher ALA accretion in all tissues, except the brain, and a reduction in the content of arachidonic acid in all tissues except the brain. EPA was increased in erythrocytes, liver, kidney, small intestine, heart and quadriceps, but not in the brain. DHA was increased in the liver, small intestine and brain tissues. Our results demonstrate that ALA, when provided in significant amounts, can be converted into n-3 LCPUFA, mostly DHA in the liver and brain. It is suggested that oils rich in ALA, such as SIO and ChO, are good sources for obtaining higher tissue levels of ALA, also allowing its selective conversion into n-3 LCPUFA in some tissues of the rat.

  18. Effects of omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on ovine follicular cell steroidogenesis, embryo development and molecular markers of fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jaime; Kwong, Wing Yee; Li, Dongfang; Salter, Andrew M; Lea, Richard G; Sinclair, Kevin D

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported increased follicular fluid progesterone (P(4)) concentrations in ewes fed an n-3 compared to an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet, but detected no differential effect of n-3 and n-6 PUFA-enriched high-density lipoproteins (HDL) on granulosa cell (GC) steroidogenesis in vitro. Moreover, net n-6 PUFA-enriched HDL reduced early embryo development, but in the absence of a net uptake of FA. Consequently, we hypothesised that a) effects of n-3 PUFA on ovarian steroidogenesis are mediated by theca rather than GCs and b) during embryo culture lipids are acquired solely from the albumin fraction of serum, so that albumin-delivered n-3 and n-6 PUFA exert a greater differential effect on embryo development than either low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- or HDL-delivered PUFA. Data confirmed that n-3 PUFA increases P(4) production solely in theca cells and that this is associated with an increase in STAR transcript expression. Furthermore, LDL- and HDL-delivered n-3 PUFA are equally efficacious in this regard during the first 96 h of culture, but thereafter only HDL-delivered n-3 PUFA induces this effect in partially luteinised theca cells. We also demonstrate that albumin is the sole serum fraction that leads to a net uptake of FA during embryo culture. PUFA-enriched serum and albumin increased the yield of morphologically poorer quality blastocysts with increased transcript expression for the antioxidant enzyme SOD1. Important differential effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFA on ovarian steroidogenesis acting solely on theca cells are identified, but differential effects of PUFA on embryo development are less apparent. PMID:21045166

  19. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content.

    PubMed

    Schipper, L; Oosting, A; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; van der Beek, E M

    2016-07-01

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants. We investigated the effects of reducing maternal dietary LA, or increasing n-3 LCPUFA, during lactation on milk and offspring brain fatty acids in mice. Offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA was higher following both interventions, although effects were mediated by different mechanisms. Because of competitive interactions between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, lowering maternal LA intake may support neurodevelopment in breastfed infants. PMID:27255638

  20. Development of an n-3 fatty acid and α-tocopherol enriched dry fermented sausage.

    PubMed

    Hoz, L; D'Arrigo, M; Cambero, I; Ordóñez, J A

    2004-07-01

    Five batches of "salchichon", which is a dry fermented Spanish sausage, were manufactured using backfat and meat enriched in polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and α-tocopherol. Raw materials were obtained from animals fed on diets of the same ingredients with the exception of the oil source [sunflower oil (batch control, C), linseed oil (L and LE), 1/1 (w/w) linseed and olive oil (LO and LOE)] and α-tocopherol quantity [20 mg/kg diet of α-tocopherol (C, L and LO) or 200 mg/kg diet of α-tocopherol (LOE and LE)]. A final product with a healthier polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6:n-3 ratio (< 4) was obtained from all linseed oil-enriched batches as compared with the control (12). The batches of sausages manufactured with backfat and meat from animals fed on diets enriched in α-tocopherol and linseed, or linseed and olive oil with or without α-tocopherol supplementation show a higher lipid oxidative stability than those of diets enriched in linseed oil without α-tocopherol supplementation. Sausages of dietary treatment C, LE, LO and LOE did not show differences in water, protein, fat and ash contents, a(w), pH, texture profile analysis and sensory features (odour, colour, texture, juiciness and taste quality). Sausages manufactured with material from animals fed on linseed oil-enriched diets and no added α-tocopherol (L) showed an unfavourable rancidity degree detected by both 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) index and sensory panel.

  1. Enhanced level of n-3 fatty acid in membrane phospholipids induces lipid peroxidation in rats fed dietary docosahexaenoic acid oil.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Miyazawa, T

    2001-03-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) oil with different lipid types on lipid peroxidation was studied in rats. Each group of male Sprague-Dawley rats was pair fed 15% (w/w) of either DHA-triglycerides (DHA-TG), DHA-ethyl esters (DHA-EE) or DHA-phospholipids (DHA-PL) for up to 3 weeks. The palm oil (supplemented with 20% soybean oil) diet without DHA was fed as the control. Dietary DHA oils lowered plasma triglyceride concentrations in rats fed DHA-TG (by 30%), DHA-EE (by 45%) and DHA-PL (by 27%), compared to control. The incorporation of dietary DHA into plasma and liver phospholipids was more pronounced in the DHA-TG and DHA-EE group than in the DHA-PL group. However, DHA oil intake negatively influenced lipid peroxidation in both plasma and liver. Phospholipid peroxidation in plasma and liver was significantly higher than control in rats fed DHA-TG or DHA-EE, but not DHA-PL. These results are consistent with increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decreased alpha-tocopherol levels in plasma and liver. In addition, liver microsomes from rats of each group were exposed to a mixture of chelated iron (Fe(3+)/ADP) and NADPH to determine the rate of peroxidative damage. During NADPH-dependent peroxidation of microsomes, the accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides, as well as TBARS, were elevated and alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly exhausted in DHA-TG and DHA-EE groups. During microsomal lipid peroxidation, there was a greater loss of n-3 fatty acids (mainly DHA) than of n-6 fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). These results indicate that polyunsaturation of n-3 fatty acids is the most important target for lipid peroxidation. This suggests that the ingestion of large amounts of DHA oil enhances lipid peroxidation in the target membranes where greater amounts of n-3 fatty acids are incorporated, thereby increasing the peroxidizability and possibly accelerating the atherosclerotic process.

  2. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Origin and Multifocality in Human Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ouldamer, Lobna; Goupille, Caroline; Vildé, Anne; Arbion, Flavie; Body, Gilles; Chevalier, Stephan; Cottier, Jean Philippe; Bougnoux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objective The microenvironment of breast epithelial tissue may contribute to the clinical expression of breast cancer. Breast epithelial tissue, whether healthy or tumoral, is directly in contact with fat cells, which in turn could influence tumor multifocality. In this pilot study we investigated whether the fatty acid composition of breast adipose tissue differed according to breast cancer focality. Methods Twenty-three consecutive women presenting with non-metastatic breast cancer underwent breast-imaging procedures including Magnetic Resonance Imaging prior to treatment. Breast adipose tissue specimens were collected during breast surgery. We established a biochemical profile of adipose tissue fatty acids by gas chromatography. We assessed whether there were differences according to breast cancer focality. Results We found that decreased levels in breast adipose tissue of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, the two main polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids of marine origin, were associated with multifocality. Discussion These differences in lipid content may contribute to mechanisms through which peritumoral adipose tissue fuels breast cancer multifocality. PMID:26812254

  3. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and clinical outcomes in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Proudman, Susanna M; Cleland, Leslie G; Metcalf, Robert G; Sullivan, Thomas R; Spargo, Llewellyn D; James, Michael J

    2015-09-28

    A randomised controlled trial (RCT) of high-dose v. low-dose fish oil in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) demonstrated that the group allocated to high-dose fish oil had increased remission and decreased failure of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy. This study examines the relationships between plasma phospholipid levels of the n-3 fatty acids in fish oil, EPA and DHA, and remission and DMARD use in recent-onset RA. EPA and DHA were measured in blood samples from both groups of the RCT. The data were analysed as a single cohort, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine relationships between plasma phospholipid (PL) EPA and DHA and various outcome measures. When analysed as a single cohort, plasma PL EPA was related to time to remission, with a one unit increase in EPA (1% total fatty acids) associated with a 12% increase in the probability of remission at any time during the study period (hazard ratio (HR)=1.12; 95% CI 1.02, 1.23; P=0.02). Adjustment for smoking, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and 'shared epitope' HLA-DR allele status did not change the HR. Plasma PL EPA, adjusted for the same variables, was negatively related to time to DMARD failure (HR=0.85; 95% CI 0.72, 0.99; P=0.047). The HR for DHA and time to remission or DMARD failure were similar in magnitude to those for EPA, but not statistically significant. Biomarkers of n-3 status, such as plasma PL EPA, have the potential to predict clinical outcomes relevant to standard drug treatment of RA patients. PMID:26283657

  4. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and clinical outcomes in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Proudman, Susanna M; Cleland, Leslie G; Metcalf, Robert G; Sullivan, Thomas R; Spargo, Llewellyn D; James, Michael J

    2015-09-28

    A randomised controlled trial (RCT) of high-dose v. low-dose fish oil in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) demonstrated that the group allocated to high-dose fish oil had increased remission and decreased failure of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy. This study examines the relationships between plasma phospholipid levels of the n-3 fatty acids in fish oil, EPA and DHA, and remission and DMARD use in recent-onset RA. EPA and DHA were measured in blood samples from both groups of the RCT. The data were analysed as a single cohort, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine relationships between plasma phospholipid (PL) EPA and DHA and various outcome measures. When analysed as a single cohort, plasma PL EPA was related to time to remission, with a one unit increase in EPA (1% total fatty acids) associated with a 12% increase in the probability of remission at any time during the study period (hazard ratio (HR)=1.12; 95% CI 1.02, 1.23; P=0.02). Adjustment for smoking, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and 'shared epitope' HLA-DR allele status did not change the HR. Plasma PL EPA, adjusted for the same variables, was negatively related to time to DMARD failure (HR=0.85; 95% CI 0.72, 0.99; P=0.047). The HR for DHA and time to remission or DMARD failure were similar in magnitude to those for EPA, but not statistically significant. Biomarkers of n-3 status, such as plasma PL EPA, have the potential to predict clinical outcomes relevant to standard drug treatment of RA patients.

  5. Nutritional regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthetic genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Gregory, Melissa K; Collins, Robert O; Tocher, Douglas R; James, Michael J; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2016-05-28

    Most studies on dietary vegetable oil in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) have been conducted on a background of dietary EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) contained in the fishmeal used as a protein source in aquaculture feed. If dietary EPA and DHA repress their endogenous synthesis from α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 : 3n-3), then the potential of ALA-containing vegetable oils to maintain tissue EPA and DHA has been underestimated. We examined the effect of individual dietary n-3 PUFA on the expression of the biosynthetic genes required for metabolism of ALA to DHA in rainbow trout. A total of 720 juvenile rainbow trout were allocated to twenty-four experimental tanks and assigned one of eight diets. The effect of dietary ALA, EPA or DHA, in isolation or in combination, on hepatic expression of fatty acyl desaturase (FADS)2a(Δ6), FADS2b(Δ5), elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (ELOVL)5 and ELOVL2 was examined after 3 weeks of dietary intervention. The effect of these diets on liver and muscle phospholipid PUFA composition was also examined. The expression levels of FADS2a(Δ6), ELOVL5 and ELOVL2 were highest when diets were high in ALA, with no added EPA or DHA. Under these conditions ALA was readily converted to tissue DHA. Dietary DHA had the largest and most consistent effect in down-regulating the gene expression of all four genes. The ELOVL5 expression was the least responsive of the four genes to dietary n-3 PUFA changes. These findings should be considered when optimising aquaculture feeds containing vegetable oils and/or fish oil or fishmeal to achieve maximum DHA synthesis.

  6. Nutritional regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthetic genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Gregory, Melissa K; Collins, Robert O; Tocher, Douglas R; James, Michael J; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2016-05-28

    Most studies on dietary vegetable oil in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) have been conducted on a background of dietary EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) contained in the fishmeal used as a protein source in aquaculture feed. If dietary EPA and DHA repress their endogenous synthesis from α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 : 3n-3), then the potential of ALA-containing vegetable oils to maintain tissue EPA and DHA has been underestimated. We examined the effect of individual dietary n-3 PUFA on the expression of the biosynthetic genes required for metabolism of ALA to DHA in rainbow trout. A total of 720 juvenile rainbow trout were allocated to twenty-four experimental tanks and assigned one of eight diets. The effect of dietary ALA, EPA or DHA, in isolation or in combination, on hepatic expression of fatty acyl desaturase (FADS)2a(Δ6), FADS2b(Δ5), elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (ELOVL)5 and ELOVL2 was examined after 3 weeks of dietary intervention. The effect of these diets on liver and muscle phospholipid PUFA composition was also examined. The expression levels of FADS2a(Δ6), ELOVL5 and ELOVL2 were highest when diets were high in ALA, with no added EPA or DHA. Under these conditions ALA was readily converted to tissue DHA. Dietary DHA had the largest and most consistent effect in down-regulating the gene expression of all four genes. The ELOVL5 expression was the least responsive of the four genes to dietary n-3 PUFA changes. These findings should be considered when optimising aquaculture feeds containing vegetable oils and/or fish oil or fishmeal to achieve maximum DHA synthesis. PMID:26987422

  7. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Macroalgae: Potential for Nutritional and Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Hugo; Barreira, Luísa; Figueiredo, Filipe; Custódio, Luísa; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Polo, Cristina; Rešek, Eva; Engelen, Aschwin; Varela, João

    2012-01-01

    As mammals are unable to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), these compounds need to be taken in through diet. Nowadays, obtaining essential PUFA in diet is becoming increasingly difficult; therefore this work investigated the suitability of using macroalgae as novel dietary sources of PUFA. Hence, 17 macroalgal species from three different phyla (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta) were analyzed and their fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) profile was assessed. Each phylum presented a characteristic fatty acid signature as evidenced by clustering of PUFA profiles of algae belonging to the same phylum in a Principal Components Analysis. The major PUFA detected in all phyla were C18 and C20, namely linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The obtained data showed that rhodophytes and phaeophytes have higher concentrations of PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a better source of these compounds. Moreover, rhodophytes and phaeophytes presented “healthier” ∑n-6/∑n-3 and PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios than chlorophytes. Ulva was an exception within the Chlorophyta, as it presented high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid in particular. In conclusion, macroalgae can be considered as a potential source for large-scale production of essential PUFA with wide applications in the nutraceutical and pharmacological industries. PMID:23118712

  8. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  9. Fish-oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce NLRP3 inflammasome activity and obesity-related inflammatory cross-talk between adipocytes and CD11b(+) macrophages.

    PubMed

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Hutchinson, Amber L; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk propagates immune responses in obese adipose tissue (AT). Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) mitigate inflammation, partly through up-regulation of adiponectin; however, specific mechanisms are unclear. We determined if adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk could be mitigated by dietary LC n-3 PUFA and if this was dependent on adiponectin-mediated signaling. We utilized an in vitro co-culture model mimicking the ratio of adipocytes:macrophages in obese AT, whereby 3T3-L1 adipocytes were co-cultured with splenic CD11b(+) macrophages from C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat control (HF-CON; 34% w/w fat) or fish oil diets (HF-FO; 34% w/w fat containing 7.6% w/w FO), as well as mice fed low-fat control (LF-CON; 10% w/w fat) or FO diets (LF-FO; 10% w/w fat containing 3% w/w FO). Co-culture conditions tested effects of soluble mediator-driven mechanisms (trans-well system), cell contact and low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimicking acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. HF-FO macrophages from acute LPS-stimulated trans-well co-cultures had decreased mRNA expression of Casp1, Il1β and Il18, as well as cellular caspase-1 activity compared to HF-CON macrophages (P≤.05). Moreover, adipocytes from acute LPS-stimulated HF-FO co-cultures had decreased caspase-1 activity and decreased IL-1β/IL-18 levels following chronic LPS pretreatment compared to HF-CON co-cultures (P≤.05). Additionally, in contact co-cultures with adiponectin-neutralizing antibody, the FO-mediated modulation of NFκB activity and decrease in phosphorylated p65 NFκB, expression of NLRP3 inflammasome genes, M1 macrophage marker genes and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine secretion were controlled partly through adiponectin, while cellular caspase-1 activity and IL-1β/1L-18 levels were decreased independently of adiponectin (P≤.05). LC n-3 PUFA may decrease the intensity of adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk to mitigate obesity-associated pathologies. PMID

  10. Fish-oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce NLRP3 inflammasome activity and obesity-related inflammatory cross-talk between adipocytes and CD11b(+) macrophages.

    PubMed

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Hutchinson, Amber L; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk propagates immune responses in obese adipose tissue (AT). Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) mitigate inflammation, partly through up-regulation of adiponectin; however, specific mechanisms are unclear. We determined if adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk could be mitigated by dietary LC n-3 PUFA and if this was dependent on adiponectin-mediated signaling. We utilized an in vitro co-culture model mimicking the ratio of adipocytes:macrophages in obese AT, whereby 3T3-L1 adipocytes were co-cultured with splenic CD11b(+) macrophages from C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat control (HF-CON; 34% w/w fat) or fish oil diets (HF-FO; 34% w/w fat containing 7.6% w/w FO), as well as mice fed low-fat control (LF-CON; 10% w/w fat) or FO diets (LF-FO; 10% w/w fat containing 3% w/w FO). Co-culture conditions tested effects of soluble mediator-driven mechanisms (trans-well system), cell contact and low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimicking acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. HF-FO macrophages from acute LPS-stimulated trans-well co-cultures had decreased mRNA expression of Casp1, Il1β and Il18, as well as cellular caspase-1 activity compared to HF-CON macrophages (P≤.05). Moreover, adipocytes from acute LPS-stimulated HF-FO co-cultures had decreased caspase-1 activity and decreased IL-1β/IL-18 levels following chronic LPS pretreatment compared to HF-CON co-cultures (P≤.05). Additionally, in contact co-cultures with adiponectin-neutralizing antibody, the FO-mediated modulation of NFκB activity and decrease in phosphorylated p65 NFκB, expression of NLRP3 inflammasome genes, M1 macrophage marker genes and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine secretion were controlled partly through adiponectin, while cellular caspase-1 activity and IL-1β/1L-18 levels were decreased independently of adiponectin (P≤.05). LC n-3 PUFA may decrease the intensity of adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk to mitigate obesity-associated pathologies.

  11. Tetradecylthioacetic acid increases fat metabolism and improves cardiac function in experimental heart failure.

    PubMed

    Øie, Erik; Berge, Rolf K; Ueland, Thor; Dahl, Christen P; Edvardsen, Thor; Beitnes, Jan Otto; Bohov, Pavol; Aukrust, Pål; Yndestad, Arne

    2013-02-01

    Changes in myocardial metabolism, including a shift from fatty acid to glucose utilization and changes in fatty acid availability and composition are characteristics of heart failure development. Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a fatty acid analogue lacking the ability to undergo mitochondrial β-oxidation. TTA promotes hepatic proliferation of mitochondria and peroxisomes and also decreases serum triglycerides and cholesterol in animals. We investigated the effect of TTA, in combination with a high-fat or regular diet, in a rat model of post-myocardial infarction heart failure. TTA had a beneficial effect on cardiac function in post-myocardial infarction heart failure without affecting myocardial remodeling. These effects of TTA on myocardial function were accompanied by decreased free fatty acids in plasma, increased myocardial proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a decreased proportion of n-6 PUFA. Myocardial enzyme gene expression during TTA treatment suggested that the increase in n-3 PUFA could reflect increased n-3 PUFA synthesis and inadequately increased n-3 PUFA β-oxidation. Based on our data, it is unlikely that the changes are secondary to alterations in other tissues as plasma and liver showed an opposite pattern with decreased n-3 PUFA during TTA treatment. The present study suggests that TTA may improve myocardial function in heart failure, potentially involving its ability to decrease the availability of FFA and increase the myocardial proportion of n-3 PUFA. PMID:23266898

  12. Influence of a dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency on the cerebral catecholamine contents, EEG and learning ability in rat.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takashi; Fukumoto, Yutaka; Harada, Etsumori

    2002-04-01

    Female rats were fed on a diet deficient in (n-3) fatty acid or enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet from mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups fed on the same diet as their dams were used for experiments. The effects of dietary (n-3) fatty acid deficiency on cerebral catecholamine contents and electroencephalogram (EEG) in rat pups during the postnatal development were investigated. The (n-3) deficient rat pups showed significantly lower levels of noradrenaline (NA) in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum, compared with those in the DHA adequate rats. Dopamine (DA) contents were significantly lower in the (n-3) deficient rats until the 7th day of age. These results were consistent with observations in the EEG analysis, relative powers of fast activities in the EEG recorded from the (n-3) deficient rats were significantly lower than those in the DHA adequate rats. The effect of supplementation with DHA in (n-3) deficient rats on learning ability was also studied in a model of learning, active avoidance test and three-panel run way test, after weaning. Although the percentages of avoidance in the (n-3) deficient rats (saline group) were constantly 20% or less until the 3rd session, the percentage of avoidance in the DHA supplemented rats rapidly increased to 53% following the first administration. While in the three-panel runway test, there were no significant differences between two groups. These results suggest that chronic consumption of a (n-3) fatty acid deficient diet could modify the biosynthesis of catecholamine in the brain, and might induce the behavioral disturbances. Furthermore, the decreased learning ability induced by (n-3) deficiency in the active avoidance test is a reversible following a supplementing DHA after the weaning.

  13. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognitive Functions and Neural Substrates: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Debora; Pagani, Marco; Caporali, Paola; Galbusera, Alberto; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; Neri, Cristina; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Human and experimental studies have revealed putative neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in aging, evidencing positive correlations between peripheral n-3 PUFA levels and regional grey matter (GM) volume, as well as negative correlations between dietary n-3 PUFA levels and cognitive deficits. We recently showed that n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibit better hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions, along with enhanced cellular plasticity and reduced neurodegeneration, thus supporting a role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in preventing cognitive decline during aging. To corroborate these initial results and develop new evidence on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on brain substrates at macro-scale level, here we expanded behavioral analyses to the emotional domain (anxiety and coping skills), and carried out a fine-grained regional GM volumetric mapping by using high-resolution MRI-based voxel-based morphometry. The behavioral effects of 8 week n-3 PUFA supplementation were measured on cognitive (discriminative, spatial and social) and emotional (anxiety and coping) abilities of aged (19 month-old at the onset of study) C57B6/J mice. n-3 PUFA supplemented mice showed better mnesic performances as well as increased active coping skills. Importantly, these effects were associated with enlarged regional hippocampal, retrosplenial and prefrontal GM volumes, and with increased post mortem n-3 PUFA brain levels. These findings indicate that increased dietary n-3 PUFA intake in normal aging can improve fronto-hippocampal GM structure and function, an effect present also when the supplementation starts at late age. Our data are consistent with a protective role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in counteracting cognitive decline, emotional dysfunctions and brain atrophy. PMID:26973513

  14. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognitive Functions and Neural Substrates: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, Debora; Pagani, Marco; Caporali, Paola; Galbusera, Alberto; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; Neri, Cristina; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Human and experimental studies have revealed putative neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in aging, evidencing positive correlations between peripheral n-3 PUFA levels and regional grey matter (GM) volume, as well as negative correlations between dietary n-3 PUFA levels and cognitive deficits. We recently showed that n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibit better hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions, along with enhanced cellular plasticity and reduced neurodegeneration, thus supporting a role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in preventing cognitive decline during aging. To corroborate these initial results and develop new evidence on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on brain substrates at macro-scale level, here we expanded behavioral analyses to the emotional domain (anxiety and coping skills), and carried out a fine-grained regional GM volumetric mapping by using high-resolution MRI-based voxel-based morphometry. The behavioral effects of 8 week n-3 PUFA supplementation were measured on cognitive (discriminative, spatial and social) and emotional (anxiety and coping) abilities of aged (19 month-old at the onset of study) C57B6/J mice. n-3 PUFA supplemented mice showed better mnesic performances as well as increased active coping skills. Importantly, these effects were associated with enlarged regional hippocampal, retrosplenial and prefrontal GM volumes, and with increased post mortem n-3 PUFA brain levels. These findings indicate that increased dietary n-3 PUFA intake in normal aging can improve fronto-hippocampal GM structure and function, an effect present also when the supplementation starts at late age. Our data are consistent with a protective role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in counteracting cognitive decline, emotional dysfunctions and brain atrophy. PMID:26973513

  15. Rationale and use of n-3 fatty acids in artificial nutrition.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2010-11-01

    Lipids traditionally used in artificial nutrition are based on n-6 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils like soyabean oil. This may not be optimal because it may present an excessive supply of linoleic acid. One alternative to the use of soyabean oil is its partial replacement by fish oil, which contains n-3 fatty acids. These fatty acids influence inflammatory and immune responses and so may be useful in particular situations where those responses are not optimal. Fish oil-containing lipid emulsions have been used in parenteral nutrition in adult patients post-surgery (mainly gastrointestinal). This has been associated with alterations in patterns of inflammatory mediators and in immune function and, in some studies, a reduction in length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay. Perioperative administration of fish oil may be superior to post-operative. Parenteral fish oil has been used in critically ill adults. Here the influence on inflammatory processes, immune function and clinical endpoints is not clear, since there are too few studies and those that are available report contradictory findings. Fish oil is included in combination with other nutrients in various enteral formulas. In post-surgical patients and in those with mild sepsis or trauma, there is clinical benefit from a formula including fish oil and arginine. A formula including fish oil, borage oil and antioxidants has demonstrated marked benefits on gas exchange, ventilation requirement, new organ failures, ICU stay and mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute lung injury or severe sepsis. PMID:20441676

  16. Effect of stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil on fatty acid profile and metabolic parameters in lean and obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of marine-based oils high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is known to protect against obesity-related pathologies. It is less clear whether traditional vegetable oils with high omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n6PUFA) content exhibit similar therapeutic benefits. As such, this study examined the metabolic effects of a plant-based n3PUFA, stearidonic acid (SDA), in polygenic obese rodents. Methods Lean (LZR) and obese Zucker (OZR) rats were provided either a standard westernized control diet (CON) with a high n6PUFA to n3PUFA ratio (i.e., 16.2/1.0) or experimental diet modified with flaxseed (FLAX), menhaden (FISH), or SDA oil that resulted in n6PUFA to n3PUFA ratios of 1.7/1.0, 1.3/1.0, and 1.0/0.8, respectively. Results After 12 weeks, total adiposity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis were all greater, whereas n3PUFA content in liver, adipose, and muscle was lower in OZR vs. LZR rats. Obese rodents fed modified FISH or SDA diets had lower serum lipids and hepatic fat content vs. CON. The omega-3 index (i.e., ΣEPA + DHA in erythrocyte membrane) was 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0-fold greater in rodents provided FISH, SDA, and FLAX vs. CON diet, irrespective of genotype. Total hepatic n3PUFA and DHA was highest in rats fed FISH, whereas both hepatic and extra-hepatic EPA was higher with FISH and SDA groups. Conclusions These data indicate that SDA oil represents a viable plant-derived source of n3PUFA, which has therapeutic implications for several obesity-related pathologies. PMID:24139088

  17. Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in tilapia and human health: a review.

    PubMed

    Young, Kaolin

    2009-01-01

    A recent publication questions the nutritional value of tilapia in the human diet following the movement to eat fish for their omega fatty acid (FA) content. It suggests that tilapia have an elevated amount of omega-6 FAs (n-6) and a deficient amount of omega-3 FAs (n-3), a possibly unhealthy proportion for humans. A high n-6:n-3 ratio is problematic because too much arachidonic acid, an n-6 FA, promotes inflammation, which aggravates heart disease and other illnesses. This paper analyzes the numbers from different tilapia composition studies in an effort to understand the range of n-6 and n-3 totals and ratios present in both farmed and wild tilapia. Generally, wild tilapia have more n-3 FAs than farmed tilapia, but diet adjustments can alter the body composition of the domesticated variety. Consumers should consider fish as part of a balanced diet and evaluate their FA needs on an individual basis.

  18. Unusually high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in whale sharks and reef manta rays.

    PubMed

    Couturier, L I E; Rohner, C A; Richardson, A J; Pierce, S J; Marshall, A D; Jaine, F R A; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M B; Weeks, S J; Nichols, P D

    2013-10-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source.

  19. n-3 fatty acids increase postischemic blood flow but do not reduce myocardial necrosis.

    PubMed

    Force, T; Malis, C D; Guerrero, J L; Varadarajan, G S; Bonventre, J V; Weber, P C; Leaf, A

    1989-10-01

    The effects of a fish oil-supplemented diet on infarct size and regional myocardial blood flow were examined in a rat model of acute ischemia followed by reperfusion. Thirty-five rats were fed a diet containing 20% by weight: fish oil (FO), rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; corn oil (CO), with predominantly n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; or beef tallow (BT), containing large amounts of saturated fatty acids. After 6-12 wk on the diet, animals underwent 40 min of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Regional transmural myocardial blood flow was determined with radioactive microspheres at 30 min of occlusion and again 30 min after reperfusion. Infarct size was determined with triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Blood flow was virtually undetectable within the ischemic zone in all groups during occlusion. With reperfusion, however, ischemic zone absolute blood flow and relative flow (normalized to nonischemic zone flow) were significantly greater in the fish oil group [2.4 +/- 0.25 ml.min-1.g-1, 44 +/- 4% vs. 1.7 +/- 0.3, 29 +/- 5% for CO (P less than 0.05 vs. FO), and 1.4 +/- 0.3, 29 +/- 5% for BT (P less than 0.05 vs. FO)]. Despite differences in reperfusion blood flow, average percent transmural extent of infarction was nearly identical (68 +/- 4, 68 +/- 5, and 64 +/- 3%) and overall infarct size was similar (38 +/- 3, 36 +/- 4, and 29 +/- 3%) for FO, CO, and BT groups, respectively. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with fish oils increases postischemic blood flow but has no effect on extent of myocardial infarction in this ischemia-reperfusion model in rats.

  20. Association between very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland and dry eye resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideko; Harauma, Akiko; Takimoto, Mao; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-06-01

    In our previously study, we reported lower tear volume in with an n-3 fatty acid deficient mice and that the docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acid levels in these mice are significantly reduced in the meibomian gland, which secretes an oily tear product. Furthermore, we noted very long chain fatty acids (≥25 carbons) in the meibomian gland. To verify the detailed mechanism of the low tear volume in the n-3 fatty acid-deficient mice, we identified the very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland, measured the fatty acid composition in the tear product. Very long chain fatty acids were found to exist as monoesters. In particular, very long chain fatty acids with 25-29 carbons existed for the most part as iso or anteiso branched-chain fatty acids. n-3 fatty acid deficiency was decreased the amount of meibum secretion from meibomian gland without change of fatty acid composition. These results suggest that the n-3 fatty acid deficiency causes the enhancement of evaporation of tear film by reducing oily tear secretion along with the decrease of meibomian gland function.

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity: Implications for Multi-Targeted Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    D’Eliseo, Donatella; Velotti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major disease worldwide. Despite progress in cancer therapy, conventional cytotoxic therapies lead to unsatisfactory long-term survival, mainly related to development of drug resistance by tumor cells and toxicity towards normal cells. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), can exert anti-neoplastic activity by inducing apoptotic cell death in human cancer cells either alone or in combination with conventional therapies. Indeed, n-3 PUFAs potentially increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to conventional therapies, possibly improving their efficacy especially against cancers resistant to treatment. Moreover, in contrast to traditional therapies, n-3 PUFAs appear to cause selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells with little or no toxicity on normal cells. This review focuses on studies investigating the cytotoxic activity of n-3 PUFAs against cancer cells via apoptosis, analyzing the molecular mechanisms underlying this effective and selective activity. Here, we highlight the multiple molecules potentially targeted by n-3 PUFAs to trigger cancer cell apoptosis. This analysis can allow a better comprehension of the potential cytotoxic therapeutic role of n-3 PUFAs against cancer, providing specific information and support to design future pre-clinical and clinical studies for a better use of n-3 PUFAs in cancer therapy, mainly combinational therapy. PMID:26821053

  2. Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids intake and dietary sources in a representative sample of Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; Aparicio, Aránzazu; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Ortega, Rosa M

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the intake of omega 3 (n-3 PUFAs) and omega 6 (n-6 PUFAs) and dietary sources in a representative sample of Spanish adults. For this purpose 418 adults (18 - 60 y), from 15 Spanish provinces were studied. The intake of energy and nutrients [specifical