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Sample records for acid n-terminal extension

  1. New Compstatin Peptides Containing N-Terminal Extensions and Non-Natural Amino Acids Exhibit Potent Complement Inhibition and Improved Solubility Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Compstatin peptides are complement inhibitors that bind and inhibit cleavage of complement C3. Peptide binding is enhanced by hydrophobic interactions; however, poor solubility promotes aggregation in aqueous environments. We have designed new compstatin peptides derived from the W4A9 sequence (Ac-ICVWQDWGAHRCT-NH2, cyclized between C2 and C12), based on structural, computational, and experimental studies. Furthermore, we developed and utilized a computational framework for the design of peptides containing non-natural amino acids. These new compstatin peptides contain polar N-terminal extensions and non-natural amino acid substitutions at positions 4 and 9. Peptides with α-modified non-natural alanine analogs at position 9, as well as peptides containing only N-terminal polar extensions, exhibited similar activity compared to W4A9, as quantified via ELISA, hemolytic, and cell-based assays, and showed improved solubility, as measured by UV absorbance and reverse-phase HPLC experiments. Because of their potency and solubility, these peptides are promising candidates for therapeutic development in numerous complement-mediated diseases. PMID:25494040

  2. The 5-amino acid N-terminal extension of non-sulfated drosulfakinin II is a unique target to generate novel agonists.

    PubMed

    Leander, M; Heimonen, J; Brocke, T; Rasmussen, M; Bass, C; Palmer, G; Egle, J; Mispelon, M; Berry, K; Nichols, R

    2016-09-01

    The ability to design agonists that target peptide signaling is a strategy to delineate underlying mechanisms and influence biology. A sequence that uniquely characterizes a peptide provides a distinct site to generate novel agonists. Drosophila melanogaster sulfakinin encodes non-sulfated drosulfakinin I (nsDSK I; FDDYGHMRF-NH2) and nsDSK II (GGDDQFDDYGHMRF-NH2). Drosulfakinin is typical of sulfakinin precursors, which are conserved throughout invertebrates. Non-sulfated DSK II is structurally related to DSK I, however, it contains a unique 5-residue N-terminal extension; drosulfakinins signal through G-protein coupled receptors, DSK-R1 and DSK-R2. Drosulfakinin II distinctly influences adult and larval gut motility and larval locomotion; yet, its structure-activity relationship was unreported. We hypothesized substitution of an N-terminal extension residue may alter nsDSK II activity. By targeting the extension we identified, not unexpectedly, analogs mimicking nsDSK II, yet, surprisingly, we also discovered novel agonists with increased (super) and opposite (protean) effects. We determined [A3] nsDSK II increased larval gut contractility rather than, like nsDSK II, decrease it. [N4] nsDSK II impacted larval locomotion, although nsDSK II was inactive. In adult gut, [A1] nsDSK II, [A2] nsDSKII, and [A3] nsDSK II mimicked nsDSK II, and [A4] nsDSK II and [A5] nsDSK II were more potent; [N3] nsDSK II and [N4] nsDSK II mimicked nsDSK II. This study reports nsDSK II signals through DSK-R2 to influence gut motility and locomotion, identifying a novel role for the N-terminal extension in sulfakinin biology and receptor activation; it also led to the discovery of nsDSK II structural analogs that act as super and protean agonists. PMID:27397853

  3. Molecular properties of the N-terminal extension of the fission yeast kinesin-5, Cut7.

    PubMed

    Edamatsu, M

    2016-01-01

    Kinesin-5 plays an essential role in spindle formation and function, and serves as a potential target for anti-cancer drugs. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular properties of the N-terminal extension of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe kinesin-5, Cut7. This extension is rich in charged amino acids and predicted to be intrinsically disordered. In S. pombe cells, a Cut7 construct lacking half the N-terminal extension failed to localize along the spindle microtubules and formed a monopolar spindle. However, a construct lacking the entire N-terminal extension exhibited normal localization and formed a typical bipolar spindle. In addition, in vitro analyses revealed that the truncated Cut7 constructs demonstrated similar motile velocities and directionalities as the wild-type motor protein, but the microtubule landing rates were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that the N-terminal extension is not required for normal Cut7 intracellular localization or function, but alters the microtubule-binding properties of this protein in vitro. PMID:26909973

  4. Site directed spin labeling studies of Escherichia coli dihydroorotate dehydrogenase N-terminal extension

    SciTech Connect

    Couto, Sheila G.; Cristina Nonato, M.

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EcDHODH is a membrane-associated enzyme and a promising target for drug design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzyme's N-terminal extension is responsible for membrane association. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-terminal works as a molecular lid regulating access to the protein interior. -- Abstract: Dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODHs) are enzymes that catalyze the fourth step of the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. In this reaction, DHODH converts dihydroorotate to orotate, using a flavine mononucleotide as a cofactor. Since the synthesis of nucleotides has different pathways in mammals as compared to parasites, DHODH has gained much attention as a promising target for drug design. Escherichia coli DHODH (EcDHODH) is a family 2 DHODH that interacts with cell membranes in order to promote catalysis. The membrane association is supposedly made via an extension found in the enzyme's N-terminal. In the present work, we used site directed spin labeling (SDSL) to specifically place a magnetic probe at positions 2, 5, 19, and 21 within the N-terminal and thus monitor, by using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), dynamics and structural changes in this region in the presence of a membrane model system. Overall, our ESR spectra show that the N-terminal indeed binds to membranes and that it experiences a somewhat high flexibility that could be related to the role of this region as a molecular lid controlling the entrance of the enzyme's active site and thus allowing the enzyme to give access to quinones that are dispersed in the membrane and that are necessary for the catalysis.

  5. Molecular evolution of troponin I and a role of its N-terminal extension in nematode locomotion.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Dawn E; Hwang, Hyundoo; Ono, Kanako; Lu, Hang; Ono, Shoichiro

    2016-03-01

    The troponin complex, composed of troponin T (TnT), troponin I (TnI), and troponin C (TnC), is the major calcium-dependent regulator of muscle contraction, which is present widely in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Little is known about evolutionary aspects of troponin in the animal kingdom. Using a combination of data mining and functional analysis of TnI, we report evidence that an N-terminal extension of TnI is present in most of bilaterian animals as a functionally important domain. Troponin components have been reported in species in most of representative bilaterian phyla. Comparison of TnI sequences shows that the core domains are conserved in all examined TnIs, and that N- and C-terminal extensions are variable among isoforms and species. In particular, N-terminal extensions are present in all protostome TnIs and chordate cardiac TnIs but lost in a subset of chordate TnIs including vertebrate skeletal-muscle isoforms. Transgenic rescue experiments in Caenorhabditis elegans striated muscle show that the N-terminal extension of TnI (UNC-27) is required for coordinated worm locomotion but not in sarcomere assembly and single muscle-contractility kinetics. These results suggest that N-terminal extensions of TnIs are retained from a TnI ancestor as a functional domain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26849746

  6. Role of N-terminal extension of Bacillus stearothermophilus RNase H2 and C-terminal extension of Thermotoga maritima RNase H2.

    PubMed

    Permanasari, Etin-Diah; Angkawidjaja, Clement; Koga, Yuichi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2013-10-01

    Bacillus stearothermophilus RNase H2 (BstRNH2) and Thermotoga maritima RNase H2 (TmaRNH2) have N-terminal and C-terminal extensions, respectively, as compared with Aquifex aeolicus RNase H2 (AaeRNH2). To analyze the role of these extensions, BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2 without these extensions were constructed, and their biochemical properties were compared with those of their intact partners and AaeRNH2. The far-UV CD spectra of all proteins were similar, suggesting that the protein structure is not significantly altered by removal of these extensions. However, both the junction ribonuclease and RNase H activities of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2, as well as their substrate-binding affinities, were considerably decreased by removal of these extensions. The stability of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2 was also decreased by removal of these extensions. The activity, substrate binding affinity and stability of TmaRNH2 without the C-terminal 46 residues were partly restored by the attachment of the N-terminal extension of BstRNH2. These results suggest that the N-terminal extension of BstRNH2 functions as a substrate-binding domain and stabilizes the RNase H domain. Because the C-terminal extension of TmaRNH2 assumes a helix hairpin structure and does not make direct contact with the substrate, this extension is probably required to make the conformation of the substrate-binding site functional. AaeRNH2 showed comparable junction ribonuclease activity to those of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2, and was more stable than these proteins, indicating that bacterial RNases H2 do not always require an N-terminal or C-terminal extension to increase activity, substrate-binding affinity, and/or stability. PMID:23937561

  7. N-Terminal Extensions Retard Aβ42 Fibril Formation but Allow Cross-Seeding and Coaggregation with Aβ42.

    PubMed

    Szczepankiewicz, Olga; Linse, Björn; Meisl, Georg; Thulin, Eva; Frohm, Birgitta; Sala Frigerio, Carlo; Colvin, Michael T; Jacavone, Angela C; Griffin, Robert G; Knowles, Tuomas; Walsh, Dominic M; Linse, Sara

    2015-11-25

    Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) sequence length variants with varying aggregation propensity coexist in vivo, where coaggregation and cross-catalysis phenomena may affect the aggregation process. Until recently, naturally occurring amyloid β-protein (Aβ) variants were believed to begin at or after the canonical β-secretase cleavage site within the amyloid β-protein precursor. However, N-terminally extended forms of Aβ (NTE-Aβ) were recently discovered and may contribute to Alzheimer's disease. Here, we have used thioflavin T fluorescence to study the aggregation kinetics of Aβ42 variants with N-terminal extensions of 5-40 residues, and transmission electron microscopy to analyze the end states. We find that all variants form amyloid fibrils of similar morphology as Aβ42, but the half-time of aggregation (t1/2) increases exponentially with extension length. Monte Carlo simulations of model peptides suggest that the retardation is due to an underlying general physicochemical effect involving reduced frequency of productive molecular encounters. Indeed, global kinetic analyses reveal that NTE-Aβ42s form fibrils via the same mechanism as Aβ42, but all microscopic rate constants (primary and secondary nucleation, elongation) are reduced for the N-terminally extended variants. Still, Aβ42 and NTE-Aβ42 coaggregate to form mixed fibrils and fibrils of either Aβ42 or NTE-Aβ42 catalyze aggregation of all monomers. NTE-Aβ42 monomers display reduced aggregation rate with all kinds of seeds implying that extended termini interfere with the ability of monomers to nucleate or elongate. Cross-seeding or coaggregation may therefore represent an important contribution in the in vivo formation of assemblies believed to be important in disease. PMID:26535489

  8. N-Terminal Amino Acid Sequence Determination of Proteins by N-Terminal Dimethyl Labeling: Pitfalls and Advantages When Compared with Edman Degradation Sequence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Elizabeth; Pourmal, Sergei; Zhou, Chun; Kumar, Rupesh; Teplova, Marianna; Pavletich, Nikola P; Marians, Kenneth J; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye

    2016-07-01

    In recent history, alternative approaches to Edman sequencing have been investigated, and to this end, the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Protein Sequencing Research Group (PSRG) initiated studies in 2014 and 2015, looking into bottom-up and top-down N-terminal (Nt) dimethyl derivatization of standard quantities of intact proteins with the aim to determine Nt sequence information. We have expanded this initiative and used low picomole amounts of myoglobin to determine the efficiency of Nt-dimethylation. Application of this approach on protein domains, generated by limited proteolysis of overexpressed proteins, confirms that it is a universal labeling technique and is very sensitive when compared with Edman sequencing. Finally, we compared Edman sequencing and Nt-dimethylation of the same polypeptide fragments; results confirm that there is agreement in the identity of the Nt amino acid sequence between these 2 methods. PMID:27006647

  9. N-Terminal Amino Acid Sequence Determination of Proteins by N-Terminal Dimethyl Labeling: Pitfalls and Advantages When Compared with Edman Degradation Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Elizabeth; Pourmal, Sergei; Zhou, Chun; Kumar, Rupesh; Teplova, Marianna; Pavletich, Nikola P.; Marians, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, alternative approaches to Edman sequencing have been investigated, and to this end, the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Protein Sequencing Research Group (PSRG) initiated studies in 2014 and 2015, looking into bottom-up and top-down N-terminal (Nt) dimethyl derivatization of standard quantities of intact proteins with the aim to determine Nt sequence information. We have expanded this initiative and used low picomole amounts of myoglobin to determine the efficiency of Nt-dimethylation. Application of this approach on protein domains, generated by limited proteolysis of overexpressed proteins, confirms that it is a universal labeling technique and is very sensitive when compared with Edman sequencing. Finally, we compared Edman sequencing and Nt-dimethylation of the same polypeptide fragments; results confirm that there is agreement in the identity of the Nt amino acid sequence between these 2 methods. PMID:27006647

  10. N-terminal extension of the yeast IA3 aspartic proteinase inhibitor relaxes the strict intrinsic selectivity.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Phylip, Lowri H; Bur, Daniel; Wyatt, David M; Berry, Colin; Kay, John

    2007-07-01

    Yeast IA(3) aspartic proteinase inhibitor operates through an unprecedented mechanism and exhibits a remarkable specificity for one target enzyme, saccharopepsin. Even aspartic proteinases that are very closely similar to saccharopepsin (e.g. the vacuolar enzyme from Pichia pastoris) are not susceptible to significant inhibition. The Pichia proteinase was selected as the target for initial attempts to engineer IA(3) to re-design the specificity. The IA(3) polypeptides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces castellii differ considerably in sequence. Alterations made by deletion or exchange of the residues in the C-terminal segment of these polypeptides had only minor effects. By contrast, extension of each of these wild-type and chimaeric polypeptides at its N-terminus by an MK(H)(7)MQ sequence generated inhibitors that displayed subnanomolar potency towards the Pichia enzyme. This gain-in-function was completely reversed upon removal of the extension sequence by exopeptidase trimming. Capture of the potentially positively charged aromatic histidine residues of the extension by remote, negatively charged side-chains, which were identified in the Pichia enzyme by modelling, may increase the local IA(3) concentration and create an anchor that enables the N-terminal segment residues to be harboured in closer proximity to the enzyme active site, thus promoting their interaction. In saccharopepsin, some of the counterpart residues are different and, consistent with this, the N-terminal extension of each IA(3) polypeptide was without major effect on the potency of interaction with saccharopepsin. In this way, it is possible to convert IA(3) polypeptides that display little affinity for the Pichia enzyme into potent inhibitors of this proteinase and thus broaden the target selectivity of this remarkable small protein. PMID:17608726

  11. The cytoplasmic domain of Vamp4 and Vamp5 is responsible for their correct subcellular targeting: the N-terminal extenSion of VAMP4 contains a dominant autonomous targeting signal for the trans-Golgi network.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qi; Tran, Thi Ton Hoai; Tan, Hui-Xian; Hong, Wanjin

    2003-06-20

    SNAREs represent a superfamily of proteins responsible for the last stage of docking and subsequent fusion in diverse intracellular membrane transport events. The Vamp subfamily of SNAREs contains 7 members (Vamp1, Vamp2, Vamp3/cellubrevin, Vamp4, Vamp5, Vamp7/Ti-Vamp, and Vamp8/endobrevin) that are distributed in various post-Golgi structures. Vamp4 and Vamp5 are distributed predominantly in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane, respectively. When C-terminally tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein, the majority of Vamp4 and Vamp5 is correctly targeted to the TGN and plasma membrane, respectively. Swapping the N-terminal cytoplasmic region and the C-terminal membrane anchor domain between Vamp4 and Vamp5 demonstrates that the N-terminal cytoplasmic region of these two SNAREs contains the correct subcellular targeting information. As compared with Vamp5, Vamp4 contains an N-terminal extension of 51 residues. Appending this 51-residue N-terminal extension onto the N terminus of Vamp5 results in targeting of the chimeric protein to the TGN, suggesting that this N-terminal extension of Vamp4 contains a dominant and autonomous targeting signal for the TGN. Analysis of deletion mutants of this N-terminal region suggests that this TGN-targeting signal is encompassed within a smaller region consisting of a di-Leu motif followed by two acidic clusters. The essential role of the di-Leu motif and the second acidic cluster was then established by site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:12682051

  12. A modification of the N-terminal amino acid in the eremomycin aglycone.

    PubMed

    Miroshnikova, O V; Berdnikova, T F; Olsufyeva, E N; Pavlov, A Y; Reznikova, M I; Preobrazhenskaya, M N; Ciabatti, R; Malabarba, A; Colombo, L

    1996-11-01

    An Edman degradation of the antibiotic eremomycin aglycone produced the corresponding hexapeptide, which was aminoacylated with D-lysine, D-histidine or D-tryptophan derivatives to give new heptapeptide analogs of the eremomycin aglycone. The aminoacylation of the eremomycin aglycone produced an octapeptide analog. The substitution of D-lysine for the N-terminal N-methyl-D-leucine does not seriously affect the in vitro antibacterial properties of the eremomycin aglycone whereas the heptapeptides with the N-terminal D-tryptophan or D-histidine moieties and the octapeptide with the N-terminal D-lysine are practically devoid of the antibacterial properties. PMID:8982345

  13. The N-terminal extension of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L20 is important for ribosome assembly, but dispensable for translational feedback control

    PubMed Central

    GUILLIER, MAUDE; ALLEMAND, FRÉDÉRIC; GRAFFE, MONIQUE; RAIBAUD, SOPHIE; DARDEL, FRÉDÉRIC; SPRINGER, MATHIAS; CHIARUTTINI, CLAUDE

    2005-01-01

    The Escherichia coli autoregulatory ribosomal protein L20 consists of two structurally distinct domains. The C-terminal domain is globular and sits on the surface of the large ribosomal subunit whereas the N-terminal domain has an extended shape and penetrates deep into the RNA-rich core of the subunit. Many other ribosomal proteins have analogous internal or terminal extensions. However, the biological functions of these extended domains remain obscure. Here we show that the N-terminal tail of L20 is important for ribosome assembly in vivo. Indeed, a truncated version of L20 without its N-terminal tail is unable to complement the deletion of rplT, the gene encoding L20. In addition, this L20 truncation confers a lethal-dominant phenotype, suggesting that the N-terminal domain is essential for cell growth because it could be required for ribosome assembly. Supporting this hypothesis, partial deletions of the N-terminal tail of the protein are shown to cause a slow-growth phenotype due to altered ribosome assembly in vivo as large amounts of intermediate 40S ribosomal particles accumulate. In addition to being a ribosomal protein, L20 also acts as an autogenous repressor. Using L20 truncations, we also show that the N-terminal tail of L20 is dispensable for autogenous control. PMID:15840820

  14. Tarantula myosin free head regulatory light chain phosphorylation stiffens N-terminal extension, releasing it and blocking its docking back.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Lorenzo; Li, Xiaochuan Edward; Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel; Pinto, Antonio; Thomas, David D; Lehman, William; Padrón, Raúl

    2015-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of smooth and striated muscle myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) N-terminal extension (NTE) showed that diphosphorylation induces a disorder-to-order transition. Our goal here was to further explore the effects of mono- and diphosphorylation on the straightening and rigidification of the tarantula myosin RLC NTE. For that we used MD simulations followed by persistence length analysis to explore the consequences of secondary and tertiary structure changes occurring on RLC NTE following phosphorylation. Static and dynamic persistence length analysis of tarantula RLC NTE peptides suggest that diphosphorylation produces an important 24-fold straightening and a 16-fold rigidification of the RLC NTE, while monophosphorylation has a less profound effect. This new information on myosin structural mechanics, not fully revealed by previous EM and MD studies, add support to a cooperative phosphorylation-dependent activation mechanism as proposed for the tarantula thick filament. Our results suggest that the RLC NTE straightening and rigidification after Ser45 phosphorylation leads to a release of the constitutively Ser35 monophosphorylated free head swaying away from the thick filament shaft. This is so because the stiffened diphosphorylated RLC NTE would hinder the docking back of the free head after swaying away, becoming released and mobile and unable to recover its original interacting position on activation. PMID:26038302

  15. Selective heterogeneous acid catalyzed esterification of N-terminal sulfyhdryl fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our interest in thiol fatty acids lies in their antioxidative, free radical scavenging, and metal ion scavenging capabilities as applied to cosmeceutical and skin care formulations. The retail market is filled with products containing the disulfide-containing free fatty acid, lipoic acid. These pr...

  16. The non-catalytic N-terminal extension of formylglycine-generating enzyme is required for its biological activity and retention in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Malaiyalam; Gande, Santosh Lakshmi; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Dierks, Thomas; von Figura, Kurt

    2008-04-25

    Formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE) catalyzes the oxidation of a specific cysteine residue in nascent sulfatase polypeptides to formylglycine (FGly). This FGly is part of the active site of all sulfatases and is required for their catalytic activity. Here we demonstrate that residues 34-68 constitute an N-terminal extension of the FGE catalytic core that is dispensable for in vitro enzymatic activity of FGE but is required for its in vivo activity in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), i.e. for generation of FGly residues in nascent sulfatases. In addition, this extension is needed for the retention of FGE in the ER. Fusing a KDEL retention signal to the C terminus of FGE is sufficient to mediate retention of an N-terminally truncated FGE but not sufficient to restore its biological activity. Fusion of FGE residues 1-88 to secretory proteins resulted in ER retention of the fusion protein. Moreover, when fused to the paralog of FGE (pFGE), which itself lacks FGly-generating activity, the FGE extension (residues 34-88) of this hybrid construct led to partial restoration of the biological activity of co-expressed N-terminally truncated FGE. Within the FGE N-terminal extension cysteine 52 is critical for the biological activity. We postulate that this N-terminal region of FGE mediates the interaction with an ER component to be identified and that this interaction is required for both the generation of FGly residues in nascent sulfatase polypeptides and for retention of FGE in the ER. PMID:18305113

  17. Murine erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase: Truncation of a disordered N-terminal extension is not detrimental for catalysis.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Bosko M; Breydo, Leonid; Uversky, Vladimir N; Ferreira, Gloria C

    2016-05-01

    5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent homodimeric enzyme, catalyzes the initial step of heme biosynthesis in non-plant eukaryotes. The precursor form of the enzyme is translated in the cytosol, and upon mitochondrial import, the N-terminal targeting presequence is proteolytically cleaved to generate mature ALAS. In bone marrow-derived erythroid cells, a mitochondrial- and site-specific endoprotease of yet unknown primary structure, produces a protein shorter than mature erythroid ALAS (ALAS2) found in peripheral blood erythroid cells. This truncated ALAS2 lacks the presequence and the N-terminal sequence (corresponding to ~7 KDa molecular mass) present in ALAS2 from peripheral blood erythroid cells. How the truncation affects the structural topology and catalytic properties of ALAS2 is presently not known. To address this question, we created a recombinant, truncated, murine ALAS2 (ΔmALAS2) devoid of the cleavable N-terminal region and examined its catalytic and biophysical properties. The N-terminal truncation of mALAS2 did not significantly affect the organization of the secondary structure, but a subtle reduction in the rigidity of the tertiary structure was noted. Furthermore, thermal denaturation studies revealed a decrease of 4.3°C in the Tm value of ΔmALAS2, implicating lower thermal stability. While the kcat of ΔmALAS2 is slightly increased over that of the wild-type enzyme, the slowest step in the ΔmALAS2-catalyzed reaction remains dominated by ALA release. Importantly, intrinsic disorder algorithms imply that the N-terminal region of mALAS2 is highly disordered, and thus susceptible to proteolysis. We propose that the N-terminal truncation offers a cell-specific ALAS2 regulatory mechanism without hindering heme synthesis. PMID:26854603

  18. N-terminal sequence of amino acids and some properties of an acid-stable alpha-amylase from citric acid-koji (Aspergillus usamii var.).

    PubMed

    Suganuma, T; Tahara, N; Kitahara, K; Nagahama, T; Inuzuka, K

    1996-01-01

    An acid-stable alpha-amylase (AA) was purified from an acidic extract of citric acid-koji (A. usamii var.). The N-terminal sequence of the first 20 amino acids of the enzyme was identical with that of AA from A. niger, but the two enzymes differed in molecular weight. HPLC analysis for identifying the anomers of products indicated that the AA hydrolyzed maltopentaose (G5) at the third glycoside bond predominantly, which differed from Taka-amylase A and the neutral alpha-amylase (NA) from the citric acid-koji. PMID:8824843

  19. Phosphorylation and the N-terminal extension of the regulatory light chain help orient and align the myosin heads in Drosophila flight muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, Gerrie P.; Miller, Mark S.; Reedy, Mary C.; Soto-Adames, Felipe N.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.; Maughan, David W.; Irving, Thomas C.

    2010-02-02

    X-ray diffraction of the indirect flight muscle (IFM) in living Drosophila at rest and electron microscopy of intact and glycerinated IFM was used to compare the effects of mutations in the regulatory light chain (RLC) on sarcomeric structure. Truncation of the RLC N-terminal extension (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}) or disruption of the phosphorylation sites by substituting alanines (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) decreased the equatorial intensity ratio (I{sub 20}/I{sub 10}), indicating decreased myosin mass associated with the thin filaments. Phosphorylation site disruption (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}), but not N-terminal extension truncation (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}), decreased the 14.5 nm reflection intensity, indicating a spread of the axial distribution of the myosin heads. The arrangement of thick filaments and myosin heads in electron micrographs of the phosphorylation mutant (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) appeared normal in the relaxed and rigor states, but when calcium activated, fewer myosin heads formed cross-bridges. In transgenic flies with both alterations to the RLC (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46; S66A, S67A}), the effects of the dual mutation were additive. The results suggest that the RLC N-terminal extension serves as a 'tether' to help pre-position the myosin heads for attachment to actin, while phosphorylation of the RLC promotes head orientations that allow optimal interactions with the thin filament.

  20. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization

    SciTech Connect

    Shiheido, Hirokazu Shimizu, Jun

    2015-02-20

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND3{sub 56–58}, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3. - Highlights: • BEND3 localizes to the nucleus. • The N-terminal 60 amino acids region of BEND3 contains NLS. • Amino acids located between 56 and 58 of BEND3 (KRK) are part of NLS. • KRK motif is highly conserved among BEND3 homologs.

  1. Impact of the N-terminal amino acid on the formation of pyrazines from peptides in Maillard model systems.

    PubMed

    Van Lancker, Fien; Adams, An; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2012-05-01

    Only a minor part of Maillard reaction studies in the literature focused on the reaction between carbohydrates and peptides. Therefore, in continuation of a previous study in which the influence of the peptide C-terminal amino acid was investigated, this study focused on the influence of the peptide N-terminal amino acid on the production of pyrazines in model reactions of glucose, methylglyoxal, or glyoxal. Nine different dipeptides and three tripeptides were selected. It was shown that the structure of the N-terminal amino acid is determinative for the overall pyrazine production. Especially, the production of 2,5(6)-dimethylpyrazine and trimethylpyrazine was low in the case of proline, valine, or leucine at the N-terminus, whereas it was very high for glycine, alanine, or serine. In contrast to the alkyl-substituted pyrazines, unsubstituted pyrazine was always produced more in the case of experiments with free amino acids. It is clear that different mechanisms must be responsible for this observation. This study clearly illustrates the capability of peptides to produce flavor compounds such as pyrazines. PMID:22463717

  2. Engineering a thermostable fungal GH10 xylanase, importance of N-terminal amino acids.

    PubMed

    Song, Letian; Tsang, Adrian; Sylvestre, Michel

    2015-06-01

    Xylanases are used in many industrial processes including pulp bleaching, baking, detergent, and the hydrolysis of plant cell wall in biofuels production. In this work we have evolved a single domain GH10 xylanase, Xyn10A_ASPNG, from Aspergillus niger to improve its thermostability. We introduced a rational approach involving as the first step a computational analysis to guide the design of a mutagenesis library in targeted regions which identified thermal important residues that were subsequently randomly mutagenized through rounds of iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM). Focusing on five residues, four rounds of ISM had generated a quintuple mutant 4S1 (R25W/V29A/I31L/L43F/T58I) which exhibited thermal inactivation half-life (t1/2 ) at 60°C that was prolonged by 30 folds in comparison with wild-type enzyme. Whereas the wild-type enzyme retained 0.2% of its initial activity after a heat treatment of 10 min at 60°C and was completely inactivated after 2 min at 65°C, 4S1 mutant retained 30% of its initial activity after 15 min heating at 65°C. Furthermore, the mutant melting temperature (Tm ) increased by 17.4°C compared to the wild type. Each of the five mutations in 4S1 was found to contribute to thermoresistance, but the dramatic improvement of enzyme thermoresistance of 4S1 was attributed to the synergistic effects of the five mutations. Comparison of biochemical data and model structure between 4S1 and the wild-type enzyme suggested that the N-terminal coil of the enzyme is important in stabilizing GH10 xylanase structure. Based on model structure analyses, we propose that enforced hydrophobic interactions within N-terminal elements and between N- and C-terminal ends are responsible for the improved thermostability of Xyn10A_ASPNG. PMID:25640404

  3. Ferredoxin:NADP oxidoreductase of Cyanophora paradoxa: purification, partial characterization, and N-terminal amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Gebhart, U B; Maier, T L; Stevanović, S; Bayer, M G; Schenk, H E

    1992-06-01

    The ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase of the protist Cyanophora paradoxa, as a descendant of a former symbiotic consortium, an important model organism in view of the Endosymbiosis Theory, is the first enzyme purified from a formerly original endocytobiont (cyanelle) that is found to be encoded in the nucleus of the host. This cyanoplast enzyme was isolated by FPLC (19% yield) and characterized with respect to the uv-vis spectrum, pH optimum (pH 9), molecular mass of 34 kDa, and an N-terminal amino acid sequence (24 residues). The enzyme shows, as known from other organisms, molecular heterogeneity. The N-terminus of a further ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase polypeptide represents a shorter sequence missing the first four amino acids of the mature enzyme. PMID:1392619

  4. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Shiheido, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Jun

    2015-02-20

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND356-58, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3. PMID:25600804

  5. Control of Polarized Growth by the Rho Family GTPase Rho4 in Budding Yeast: Requirement of the N-Terminal Extension of Rho4 and Regulation by the Rho GTPase-Activating Protein Bem2

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ting; Liao, Yuan; He, Fei; Yang, Yang; Yang, Dan-Dan; Chen, Xiang-Dong

    2013-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rho4 GTPase partially plays a redundant role with Rho3 in the control of polarized growth, as deletion of RHO4 and RHO3 together, but not RHO4 alone, caused lethality and a loss of cell polarity at 30°C. Here, we show that overexpression of the constitutively active rho4Q131L mutant in an rdi1Δ strain caused a severe growth defect and generated large, round, unbudded cells, suggesting that an excess of Rho4 activity could block bud emergence. We also generated four temperature-sensitive rho4-Ts alleles in a rho3Δ rho4Δ strain. These mutants showed growth and morphological defects at 37°C. Interestingly, two rho4-Ts alleles contain mutations that cause amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Rho4. Rho4 possesses a long N-terminal extension that is unique among the six Rho GTPases in the budding yeast but is common in Rho4 homologs in other yeasts and filamentous fungi. We show that the N-terminal extension plays an important role in Rho4 function since rho3Δ rho4Δ61 cells expressing truncated Rho4 lacking amino acids (aa) 1 to 61 exhibited morphological defects at 24°C and a growth defect at 37°C. Furthermore, we show that Rho4 interacts with Bem2, a Rho GTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP) for Cdc42 and Rho1, by yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays. Bem2 specifically interacts with the GTP-bound form of Rho4, and the interaction is mediated by its RhoGAP domain. Overexpression of BEM2 aggravates the defects of rho3Δ rho4 mutants. These results suggest that Bem2 might be a novel GAP for Rho4. PMID:23264647

  6. A domain in the N-terminal extension of class IIb eukaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases is important for tRNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Frugier, Magali; Moulinier, Luc; Giegé, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Cytoplasmic aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (AspRS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a homodimer of 64 kDa subunits. Previous studies have emphasized the high sensitivity of the N-terminal region to proteolytic cleavage, leading to truncated species that have lost the first 20–70 residues but that retain enzymatic activity and dimeric structure. In this work, we demonstrate that the N-terminal extension in yeast AspRS participates in tRNA binding and we generalize this finding to eukaryotic class IIb aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. By gel retardation studies and footprinting experiments on yeast tRNAAsp, we show that the extension, connected to the anticodon-binding module of the synthetase, contacts tRNA on the minor groove side of its anticodon stem. Sequence comparison of eukaryotic class IIb synthetases identifies a lysine-rich 11 residue sequence (29LSKKALKKLQK39 in yeast AspRS with the consensus xSKxxLKKxxK in class IIb synthetases) that is important for this binding. Direct proof of the role of this sequence comes from a mutagenesis analysis and from binding studies using the isolated peptide. PMID:10811628

  7. Crystallization and X-ray analysis of the T = 4 particle of hepatitis B capsid protein with an N-terminal extension

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Wen Siang; McNae, Iain W.; Ho, Kok Lian; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.

    2007-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus capsids have significant potential as carriers for immunogenic peptides. The crystal structure of the T = 4 particle of hepatitis B core protein containing an N-terminal extension reveals that the fusion peptide is exposed on the exterior of the particle. Hepatitis B core (HBc) particles have been extensively exploited as carriers for foreign immunological epitopes in the development of multicomponent vaccines and diagnostic reagents. Crystals of the T = 4 HBc particle were grown in PEG 20 000, ammonium sulfate and various types of alcohols. A temperature jump from 277 or 283 to 290 K was found to enhance crystal growth. A crystal grown using MPD as a cryoprotectant diffracted X-rays to 7.7 Å resolution and data were collected to 99.6% completeness at 8.9 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 352.3, b = 465.5, c = 645.0 Å. The electron-density map reveals a protrusion that is consistent with the N-terminus extending out from the surface of the capsid. The structure presented here supports the idea that N-terminal insertions can be exploited in the development of diagnostic reagents, multicomponent vaccines and delivery vehicles into mammalian cells.

  8. Sequence dependent N-terminal rearrangement and degradation of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in aqueous solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksson, M.; Christensen, L.; Schmidt, J.; Haaima, G.; Orgel, L.; Nielsen, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    The stability of the PNA (peptide nucleic acid) thymine monomer inverted question markN-[2-(thymin-1-ylacetyl)]-N-(2-aminoaminoethyl)glycine inverted question mark and those of various PNA oligomers (5-8-mers) have been measured at room temperature (20 degrees C) as a function of pH. The thymine monomer undergoes N-acyl transfer rearrangement with a half-life of 34 days at pH 11 as analyzed by 1H NMR; and two reactions, the N-acyl transfer and a sequential degradation, are found by HPLC analysis to occur at measurable rates for the oligomers at pH 9 or above. Dependent on the amino-terminal sequence, half-lives of 350 h to 163 days were found at pH 9. At pH 12 the half-lives ranged from 1.5 h to 21 days. The results are discussed in terms of PNA as a gene therapeutic drug as well as a possible prebiotic genetic material.

  9. The Aquaporin Splice Variant NbXIP1;1α Is Permeable to Boric Acid and Is Phosphorylated in the N-terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Ampah-Korsah, Henry; Anderberg, Hanna I.; Engfors, Angelica; Kirscht, Andreas; Norden, Kristina; Kjellstrom, Sven; Kjellbom, Per; Johanson, Urban

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channel proteins that transport water and uncharged solutes across different membranes in organisms in all kingdoms of life. In plants, the AQPs can be divided into seven different subfamilies and five of these are present in higher plants. The most recently characterized of these subfamilies is the XIP subfamily, which is found in most dicots but not in monocots. In this article, we present data on two different splice variants (α and β) of NbXIP1;1 from Nicotiana benthamiana. We describe the heterologous expression of NbXIP1;1α and β in the yeast Pichia pastoris, the subcellular localization of the protein in this system and the purification of the NbXIP1;1α protein. Furthermore, we investigated the functionality and the substrate specificity of the protein by stopped-flow spectrometry in P. pastoris spheroplasts and with the protein reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The phosphorylation status of the protein and localization of the phosphorylated amino acids were verified by mass spectrometry. Our results show that NbXIP1;1α is located in the plasma membrane when expressed in P. pastoris, that it is not permeable to water but to boric acid and that the protein is phosphorylated at several amino acids in the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein. A growth assay showed that the yeast cells expressing the N-terminally His-tagged NbXIP1;1α were more sensitive to boric acid as compared to the cells expressing the C-terminally His-tagged isoform. This might suggest that the N-terminal His-tag functionally mimics the phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain and that the N-terminal domain is involved in gating of the channel. PMID:27379142

  10. The Aquaporin Splice Variant NbXIP1;1α Is Permeable to Boric Acid and Is Phosphorylated in the N-terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Ampah-Korsah, Henry; Anderberg, Hanna I; Engfors, Angelica; Kirscht, Andreas; Norden, Kristina; Kjellstrom, Sven; Kjellbom, Per; Johanson, Urban

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channel proteins that transport water and uncharged solutes across different membranes in organisms in all kingdoms of life. In plants, the AQPs can be divided into seven different subfamilies and five of these are present in higher plants. The most recently characterized of these subfamilies is the XIP subfamily, which is found in most dicots but not in monocots. In this article, we present data on two different splice variants (α and β) of NbXIP1;1 from Nicotiana benthamiana. We describe the heterologous expression of NbXIP1;1α and β in the yeast Pichia pastoris, the subcellular localization of the protein in this system and the purification of the NbXIP1;1α protein. Furthermore, we investigated the functionality and the substrate specificity of the protein by stopped-flow spectrometry in P. pastoris spheroplasts and with the protein reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The phosphorylation status of the protein and localization of the phosphorylated amino acids were verified by mass spectrometry. Our results show that NbXIP1;1α is located in the plasma membrane when expressed in P. pastoris, that it is not permeable to water but to boric acid and that the protein is phosphorylated at several amino acids in the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein. A growth assay showed that the yeast cells expressing the N-terminally His-tagged NbXIP1;1α were more sensitive to boric acid as compared to the cells expressing the C-terminally His-tagged isoform. This might suggest that the N-terminal His-tag functionally mimics the phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain and that the N-terminal domain is involved in gating of the channel. PMID:27379142

  11. The N-terminal extension of yeast ribosomal protein L8 is involved in two major remodeling events during late nuclear stages of 60S ribosomal subunit assembly.

    PubMed

    Tutuncuoglu, Beril; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Wu, Shan; Gao, Ning; Woolford, John L

    2016-09-01

    Assaying effects on pre-rRNA processing and ribosome assembly upon depleting individual ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) provided an initial paradigm for assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes in vivo-that each structural domain of ribosomal subunits assembles in a hierarchical fashion. However, two features suggest that a more complex pathway may exist: (i) Some r-proteins contain extensions that reach long distances across ribosomes to interact with multiple rRNA domains as well as with other r-proteins. (ii) Individual r-proteins may assemble in a stepwise fashion. For example, the globular domain of an r-protein might assemble separately from its extensions. Thus, these extensions might play roles in assembly that could not be revealed by depleting the entire protein. Here, we show that deleting or mutating extensions of r-proteins L7 (uL30) and L35 (uL29) from yeast reveal important roles in early and middle steps during 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. Detailed analysis of the N-terminal terminal extension of L8 (eL8) showed that it is necessary for late nuclear stages of 60S subunit assembly involving two major remodeling events: removal of the ITS2 spacer; and reorganization of the central protuberance (CP) containing 5S rRNA and r-proteins L5 (uL18) and L11 (uL5). Mutations in the L8 extension block processing of 7S pre-rRNA, prevent release of assembly factors Rpf2 and Rrs1 from pre-ribosomes, which is required for rotation of the CP, and block association of Sda1, the Rix1 complex, and the Rea1 ATPase involved in late steps of remodeling. PMID:27390266

  12. Comparative studies on tree pollen allergens. X. Further purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses of the major allergen of birch pollen (Betula verrucosa).

    PubMed

    Vik, H; Elsayed, S

    1986-01-01

    The previously isolated major allergen of birch pollen (fraction BV45), Int. Archs Allergy appl. Immun. 68: 70-78 (1982), was further purified by recycling chromatography. The purified preparation was run on a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) TSK-G-2000 gel filtration chromatography column and, finally, on paper high-volt electrophoresis. The protein recovered met the homogeneity criteria required for performing the N-terminal sequence analysis. The allergenic and antigenic reactivities of the HPLC-purified protein, designated BV45B, was examined. A single homogeneous precipitation line in crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) was shown. Specific IgE-inhibition tests and immuno-autoradiographic prints indicated that this allergen could bind reaginic IgE specificially and with good affinity. The homogeneity of BV45B was examined by isoelectric focusing (IEF). Several minor bands of pI differences of less than 0.1 units were visible, demonstrating the existence of some molecular variants of this protein. The N-terminal sequence analysis of the molecule was performed, and the following four amino acids were tentatively shown by sequential cleavage: NH2-Ala-Gly-Ile-Val-. The demonstration of one dominant N-terminal 1-dimethyl-amino-5-naphthalene sulphonyl (DNS)-amino acid by polyamide thin-layer chromatography at each sequence step confirmed that the N-terminal residue of the protein was not blocked; the heterogeneity shown by the IEF system was merely due to the presence of several homologous polymorphic proteins with identical N-terminal amino acid, the adequacy of the purification repertoire used. PMID:3957444

  13. Two Distinctive Binding Modes of Endonuclease Inhibitors to the N-Terminal Region of Influenza Virus Polymerase Acidic Subunit.

    PubMed

    Fudo, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Norio; Nukaga, Michiyoshi; Odagiri, Takato; Tashiro, Masato; Hoshino, Tyuji

    2016-05-10

    Influenza viruses are global threat to humans, and the development of new antiviral agents are still demanded to prepare for pandemics and to overcome the emerging resistance to the current drugs. Influenza polymerase acidic protein N-terminal domain (PAN) has endonuclease activity and is one of the appropriate targets for novel antiviral agents. First, we performed X-ray cocrystal analysis on the complex structures of PAN with two endonuclease inhibitors. The protein crystallization and the inhibitor soaking were done at pH 5.8. The binding modes of the two inhibitors were different from a common binding mode previously reported for the other influenza virus endonuclease inhibitors. We additionally clarified the complex structures of PAN with the same two endonuclease inhibitors at pH 7.0. In one of the crystal structures, an additional inhibitor molecule, which chelated to the two metal ions in the active site, was observed. On the basis of the crystal structures at pH 7.0, we carried out 100 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for both of the complexes. The analysis of simulation results suggested that the binding mode of each inhibitor to PAN was stable in spite of the partial deviation of the simulation structure from the crystal one. Furthermore, crystal structure analysis and MD simulation were performed for PAN in complex with an inhibitor, which was already reported to have a high compound potency for comparison. The findings on the presence of multiple binding sites at around the PAN substrate-binding pocket will provide a hint for enhancing the binding affinity of inhibitors. PMID:27088785

  14. N-terminal domains of DELLA proteins are intrinsically unstructured in the absence of interaction with GID1/gibberellic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolin; Jones, William T; Harvey, Dawn; Edwards, Patrick J B; Pascal, Steven M; Kirk, Christopher; Considine, Thérèse; Sheerin, David J; Rakonjac, Jasna; Oldfield, Christopher J; Xue, Bin; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2010-04-01

    The plant growth-repressing DELLA proteins (DELLAs) are known to represent a convergence point in integration of multiple developmental and environmental signals in planta, one of which is hormone gibberellic acid (GA). Binding of the liganded GA receptor (GID1/GA) to the N-terminal domain of DELLAs is required for GA-induced degradation of DELLAs via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, thus derepressing plant growth. However, the conformational changes of DELLAs upon binding to GID1/GA, which are the key to understanding the precise mechanism of GID1/GA-mediated degradation of DELLAs, remain unclear. Using biophysical, biochemical, and bioinformatics approaches, we demonstrated for the first time that the unbound N-terminal domains of DELLAs are intrinsically unstructured proteins under physiological conditions. Within the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of DELLAs, we have identified several molecular recognition features, sequences known to undergo disorder-to-order transitions upon binding to interacting proteins in intrinsically unstructured proteins. In accordance with the molecular recognition feature analyses, we have observed the binding-induced folding of N-terminal domains of DELLAs upon interaction with AtGID1/GA. Our results also indicate that DELLA proteins can be divided into two subgroups in terms of their molecular compactness and their interactions with monoclonal antibodies. PMID:20103592

  15. Bile acid sulfotransferase I from rat liver sulfates bile acids and 3-hydroxy steroids: purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and kinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Barnes, S; Buchina, E S; King, R J; McBurnett, T; Taylor, K B

    1989-04-01

    A bile acid:3'phosphoadenosine-5'phosphosulfate:sulfotransferase (BAST I) from adult female rat liver cytosol has been purified 157-fold by a two-step isolation procedure. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 30,000 subunit has been determined for the first 35 residues. The Vmax of purified BAST I is 18.7 nmol/min per mg protein with N-(3-hydroxy-5 beta-cholanoyl)glycine (glycolithocholic acid) as substrate, comparable to that of the corresponding purified human BAST (Chen, L-J., and I. H. Segel, 1985. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 241: 371-379). BAST I activity has a broad pH optimum from 5.5-7.5. Although maximum activity occurs with 5 mM MgCl2, Mg2+ is not essential for BAST I activity. The greatest sulfotransferase activity and the highest substrate affinity is observed with bile acids or steroids that have a steroid nucleus containing a 3 beta-hydroxy group and a 5-6 double bond or a trans A-B ring junction. These substrates have normal hyperbolic initial velocity curves with substrate inhibition occurring above 5 microM. Of the saturated 5 beta-bile acids, those with a single 3-hydroxy group are the most active. The addition of a second hydroxy group at the 6- or 7-position eliminates more than 99% of the activity. In contrast, 3 alpha,12 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid (deoxycholic acid) is an excellent substrate. The initial velocity curves for glycolithocholic and deoxycholic acid conjugates are sigmoidal rather than hyperbolic, suggestive of an allosteric effect. Maximum activity is observed at 80 microM for glycolithocholic acid. All substrates, bile acids and steroids, are inhibited by the 5 beta-bile acid, 3-keto-5 beta-cholanoic acid. The data suggest that BAST I is the same protein as hydrosteroid sulfotransferase 2 (Marcus, C. J., et al. 1980. Anal. Biochem. 107: 296-304). PMID:2754334

  16. Purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and some properties of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) hepato-pancreas.

    PubMed

    Osatomi, K; Masuda, Y; Hara, K; Ishihara, T

    2001-04-01

    Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been purified to homogeneity from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus hepato-pancreas. The purification of the enzyme was carried out by an ethanol/chloroform treatment and acetone precipitation, and then followed by column chromatographies on Q-Sepharose, S-Sepharose and Ultrogel AcA 54. On SDS-PAGE, the purified enzyme gave a single protein band with molecular mass of 17.8 kDa under reducing conditions, and showed approximately equal proportions of 17.8 and 36 kDa molecular mass under non-reducing conditions. Three bands were obtained when the purified enzyme was subjected to native-PAGE, both on protein and activity staining, but the electrophoretic mobility of the purified enzyme differed from that of bovine erythrocyte Cu, Zn-SOD. Isoelectric point values of 5.9, 6.0 and 6.2, respectively, were obtained for the three components. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was determined for 25 amino acid residues, and the sequence was compared with other Cu, Zn-SODs. The N-terminal alanine residue was unacetylated, as in the case of swordfish SOD. Above 60 degrees C, the thermostability of the enzyme was much lower than that of bovine Cu, Zn-SOD. PMID:11290457

  17. An N-terminal extension to the hepatitis B virus core protein forms a poorly ordered trimeric spike in assembled virus-like particles

    PubMed Central

    McGonigle, Richard; Yap, Wei Boon; Ong, Swee Tin; Gatherer, Derek; Bakker, Saskia E.; Tan, Wen Siang; Bhella, David

    2015-01-01

    Virus-like particles composed of the core antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBcAg) have been shown to be an effective platform for the display of foreign epitopes in vaccine development. Heterologous sequences have been successfully inserted at both amino and carboxy termini as well as internally at the major immunodominant epitope. We used cryogenic electron microscopy (CryoEM) and three-dimensional image reconstruction to investigate the structure of VLPs assembled from an N-terminal extended HBcAg that contained a polyhistidine tag. The insert was seen to form a trimeric spike on the capsid surface that was poorly resolved, most likely owing to it being flexible. We hypothesise that the capacity of N-terminal inserts to form trimers may have application in the development of multivalent vaccines to trimeric antigens. Our analysis also highlights the value of tools for local resolution assessment in studies of partially disordered macromolecular assemblies by cryoEM. PMID:25557498

  18. High-level expression of human dihydropteridine reductase (EC 1.6.99.7), without N-terminal amino acid protection, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Armarego, W L; Cotton, R G; Dahl, H H; Dixon, N E

    1989-01-01

    The cDNA coding for human dihydropteridine reductase [Dahl, Hutchinson, McAdam, Wake, Morgan & Cotton (1987) Nucleic Acids Res. 15, 1921-1936] was inserted downstream of tandem bacteriophage lambda PR and PL promoters in Escherichia coli vector pCE30. Since pCE30 also expresses the lambda c1857ts gene, transcription may be controlled by variation of temperature. The recombinant plasmid in an E. coli K12 strain grown at 30 degrees C, then at 45 degrees C, directed the synthesis of dihydropteridine reductase to very high levels. The protein was soluble, at least as active as the authentic human enzyme, and lacked the N-terminal amino acid protection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2673215

  19. Hypochlorous acid reacts with the N-terminal methionines of proteins to give dehydromethionine, a potential biomarker for neutrophil-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Beal, Jennifer L; Foster, Steven B; Ashby, Michael T

    2009-11-24

    Electrophilic halogenating agents, including hypohalous acids and haloamines, oxidize free methionine and the N-terminal methionines of peptides and proteins (e.g., Met-1 of anti-inflammatory peptide 1 and ubiquitin) to produce dehydromethionine (a five-membered isothiazolidinium heterocycle). Amide derivatives of methionine are oxidized to the corresponding sulfoxide derivatives under the same reaction conditions (e.g., Met-3 of anti-inflammatory peptide 1). Other biological oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite, also produce only the corresponding sulfoxides. Hypothiocyanite does not react with methionine residues. We suggest that dehydromethionine may be a useful biomarker for the myeloperoxidase-induced oxidative stress associated with many inflammatory diseases. PMID:19839600

  20. Characterization of amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of Ubc9 that play a role in Ubc9 nuclear localization

    SciTech Connect

    Sekhri, Palak; Tao, Tao; Kaplan, Feige; Zhang, Xiang-Dong

    2015-02-27

    As the sole E2 enzyme for SUMOylation, Ubc9 is predominantly nuclear. However, the underlying mechanisms of Ubc9 nuclear localization are still not well understood. Here we show that RNAi-depletion of Imp13, an importin known to mediate Ubc9 nuclear import, reduces both Ubc9 nuclear accumulation and global SUMOylation. Furthermore, Ubc9-R13A or Ubc9-H20D mutation previously shown to interrupt the interaction of Ubc9 with nucleus-enriched SUMOs reduces the nuclear enrichment of Ubc9, suggesting that the interaction of Ubc9 with the nuclear SUMOs may enhance Ubc9 nuclear retention. Moreover, Ubc9-R17E mutation, which is known to disrupt the interaction of Ubc9 with both SUMOs and Imp13, causes a greater decrease in Ubc9 nuclear accumulation than Ubc9-R13A or Ubc9-H20D mutation. Lastly, Ubc9-K74A/S89D mutations that perturb the interaction of Ubc9 with nucleus-enriched SUMOylation-consensus motifs has no effect on Ubc9 nuclear localization. Altogether, our results have elucidated that the amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of Ubc9 play a pivotal role in regulation of Ubc9 nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Imp13-mediated nuclear import of Ubc9 is critical for global SUMOylation. • Ubc9 mutations disrupting Ubc9-SUMO interaction decrease Ubc9 nuclear accumulation. • N-terminal amino acid residues of Ubc9 are critical for Ubc9 nuclear enrichment.

  1. N-terminal basic amino acid residues of Beet black scorch virus capsid protein play a critical role in virion assembly and systemic movement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Beet black scorch virus (BBSV) is a small single-stranded, positive-sense RNA plant virus belonging to the genus Necrovirus, family Tombusviridae. Its capsid protein (CP) contains a 13 amino acid long basic region at the N-terminus, rich in arginine and lysine residues, which is thought to interact with viral RNA to initiate virion assembly. Results In the current study, a series of BBSV mutants containing amino acid substitutions as well as deletions within the N-terminal region were generated and examined for their effects on viral RNA replication, virion assembly, and long distance spread in protoplasts and whole host plants of BBSV. The RNA-binding activities of the mutated CPs were also evaluated in vitro. These experiments allowed us to identify two key basic amino acid residues in this region that are responsible for initiating virus assembly through RNA-binding. Proper assembly of BBSV particles is in turn needed for efficient viral systemic movement. Conclusions We have identified two basic amino acid residues near the N-terminus of the BBSV CP that bind viral RNA with high affinity to initiate virion assembly. We further provide evidence showing that systemic spread of BBSV in infected plants requires intact virions. This study represents the first in-depth investigation of the role of basic amino acid residues within the N-terminus of a necroviral CP. PMID:23786675

  2. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A prevents fatty acid-induced adipocyte dysfunction through suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuefei; Li, Kuai; Hui, Xiaoyan; Kong, Xiangping; Sweeney, Gary; Wang, Yu; Xu, Aimin; Teng, Maikun; Liu, Pentao; Wu, Donghai

    2011-05-01

    The adipocyte is the principal cell type for fat storage. CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acid β-oxidation, but the physiological role of CPT1 in adipocytes remains unclear. In the present study, we focused on the specific role of CPT1A in the normal functioning of adipocytes. Three 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell lines stably expressing hCPT1A (human CPT1A) cDNA, mouse CPT1A shRNA (short-hairpin RNA) or GFP (green fluorescent protein) were generated and the biological functions of these cell lines were characterized. Alteration in CPT1 activity, either by ectopic overexpression or pharmacological inhibition using etomoxir, did not affect adipocyte differentiation. However, overexpression of hCPT1A significantly reduced the content of intracellular NEFAs (non-esterified fatty acids) compared with the control cells when adipocytes were challenged with fatty acids. The changes were accompanied by an increase in fatty acid uptake and a decrease in fatty acid release. Interestingly, CPT1A protected against fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines such as TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-α) and IL-6 (interleukin-6) in adipocytes. Further studies demonstrated that JNK (c-Jun N terminal kinase) activity was substantially suppressed upon CPT1A overexpression, whereas knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of CPT1 caused a significant enhancement of JNK activity. The specific inhibitor of JNK SP600125 largely abolished the changes caused by the shRNA- and etomoxir-mediated decrease in CPT1 activity. Moreover, C2C12 myocytes co-cultured with adipocytes pre-treated with fatty acids displayed altered insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our findings have identified a favourable role for CPT1A in adipocytes to attenuate fatty acid-evoked insulin resistance and inflammation via suppression of JNK. PMID:21348853

  3. Secondary structure and membrane topology of dengue virus NS4B N-terminal 125 amino acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Kim, Young Mee; Zou, Jing; Wang, Qing-Yin; Gayen, Shovanlal; Wong, Ying Lei; Lee, Le Tian; Xie, Xuping; Huang, Qiwei; Lescar, Julien; Shi, Pei-Yong; Kang, CongBao

    2015-12-01

    The transmembrane NS4B protein of dengue virus (DENV) is a validated antiviral target that plays important roles in viral replication and invasion of innate immune response. The first 125 amino acids of DENV NS4B are sufficient for inhibition of alpha/beta interferon signaling. Resistance mutations to NS4B inhibitors are all mapped to the first 125 amino acids. In this study, we expressed and purified a protein representing the first 125 amino acids of NS4B (NS4B(1-125)). This recombinant NS4B(1-125) protein was reconstituted into detergent micelles. Solution NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that there are five helices (α1 to α5) present in NS4B(1-125). Dynamic studies, together with a paramagnetic relaxation enhancement experiment demonstrated that four helices, α2, α3, α4, and α5 are embedded in the detergent micelles. Comparison of wild type and V63I mutant (a mutation that confers resistance to NS4B inhibitor) NS4B(1-125) proteins demonstrated that V63I mutation did not cause significant conformational changes, however, V63 may have a molecular interaction with residues in the α5 transmembrane domain under certain conditions. The structural and dynamic information obtained in study is helpful to understand the structure and function of NS4B. PMID:26403837

  4. Definition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate proteins by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, M G; Belisle, J T

    1997-01-01

    A number of the culture filtrate proteins secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are known to contribute to the immunology of tuberculosis and to possess enzymatic activities associated with pathogenicity. However, a complete analysis of the protein composition of this fraction has been lacking. By using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detailed maps of the culture filtrate proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv were generated. In total, 205 protein spots were observed. The coupling of this electrophoretic technique with Western blot analysis allowed the identification and mapping of 32 proteins. Further molecular characterization of abundant proteins within this fraction was achieved by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighteen proteins were subjected to N-group analysis; of these, only 10 could be sequenced by Edman degradation. Among the most interesting were a novel 52-kDa protein demonstrating significant homology to an alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708, a 25-kDa protein corresponding to open reading frame 28 of the M. tuberculosis cosmid MTCY1A11, and a 31-kDa protein exhibiting an amino acid sequence identical to that of antigen 85A and 85B. This latter product migrated with an isoelectric point between those of antigen 85A and 85C but did not react with the antibody specific for this complex, suggesting that there is a fourth member of the antigen 85 complex. Novel N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for three additional culture filtrate proteins; however, these did not yield significant homology to known protein sequences. A protein cluster of 85 to 88 kDa, recognized by the monoclonal antibodies IT-57 and IT-42 and known to react with sera from a large proportion of tuberculosis patients, was refractory to N-group analysis. Nevertheless, mass spectrometry of peptides obtained from one member of this complex identified it as the M. tuberculosis Kat

  5. Isolation of key amino acid residues at the N-terminal end of the core region Streptococcus downei glucansucrase, GTF-I.

    PubMed

    Monchois, V; Vignon, M; Russell, R R

    1999-11-01

    Related streptococcal and Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucansucrases are enzymes of medical and biotechnological interest. Molecular modelling has suggested that the catalytic domain contains a circularly permuted version of the (beta/alpha)8 barrel structure found in the amylase superfamily, and site-directed mutagenesis has identified critical amino acids in this region. In this study, sequential N-terminal truncations of Streptococcus downei GTF-I showed that key amino acids are also present in the first one-third of the core domain. Mutations were introduced at Trp-344, Glu-349 and His-355, residues that are conserved in all glucansucrases and lie within a region which is a target for inhibitory antibodies. W344L, E349L and H355V substitutions were assayed for their effect on mutan synthesis and also on oligosaccharide synthesis with various acceptors. It appeared that Trp-344 and His-355 are involved in the action mechanism of GTF-I; His-355 may also play a role in a binding subsite necessary for oligosaccharide and glucan elongation. PMID:10570812

  6. A Conserved Acidic Motif in the N-Terminal Domain of Nitrate Reductase Is Necessary for the Inactivation of the Enzyme in the Dark by Phosphorylation and 14-3-3 Binding1

    PubMed Central

    Pigaglio, Emmanuelle; Durand, Nathalie; Meyer, Christian

    1999-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the N-terminal domain of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) nitrate reductase (NR) is involved in the inactivation of the enzyme by phosphorylation, which occurs in the dark (L. Nussaume, M. Vincentz, C. Meyer, J.P. Boutin, and M. Caboche [1995] Plant Cell 7: 611–621). The activity of a mutant NR protein lacking this N-terminal domain was no longer regulated by light-dark transitions. In this study smaller deletions were performed in the N-terminal domain of tobacco NR that removed protein motifs conserved among higher plant NRs. The resulting truncated NR-coding sequences were then fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter and introduced in NR-deficient mutants of the closely related species Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. We found that the deletion of a conserved stretch of acidic residues led to an active NR protein that was more thermosensitive than the wild-type enzyme, but it was relatively insensitive to the inactivation by phosphorylation in the dark. Therefore, the removal of this acidic stretch seems to have the same effects on NR activation state as the deletion of the N-terminal domain. A hypothetical explanation for these observations is that a specific factor that impedes inactivation remains bound to the truncated enzyme. A synthetic peptide derived from this acidic protein motif was also found to be a good substrate for casein kinase II. PMID:9880364

  7. Francisella tularensis IglG Belongs to a Novel Family of PAAR-Like T6SS Proteins and Harbors a Unique N-terminal Extension Required for Virulence.

    PubMed

    Rigard, Mélanie; Bröms, Jeanette E; Mosnier, Amandine; Hologne, Maggy; Martin, Amandine; Lindgren, Lena; Punginelli, Claire; Lays, Claire; Walker, Olivier; Charbit, Alain; Telouk, Philippe; Conlan, Wayne; Terradot, Laurent; Sjöstedt, Anders; Henry, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The virulence of Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, relies on an atypical type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded by a genomic island termed the Francisella Pathogenicity Island (FPI). While the importance of the FPI in F. tularensis virulence is clearly established, the precise role of most of the FPI-encoded proteins remains to be deciphered. In this study, using highly virulent F. tularensis strains and the closely related species F. novicida, IglG was characterized as a protein featuring a unique α-helical N-terminal extension and a domain of unknown function (DUF4280), present in more than 250 bacterial species. Three dimensional modeling of IglG and of the DUF4280 consensus protein sequence indicates that these proteins adopt a PAAR-like fold, suggesting they could cap the T6SS in a similar way as the recently described PAAR proteins. The newly identified PAAR-like motif is characterized by four conserved cysteine residues, also present in IglG, which may bind a metal atom. We demonstrate that IglG binds metal ions and that each individual cysteine is required for T6SS-dependent secretion of IglG and of the Hcp homologue, IglC and for the F. novicida intracellular life cycle. In contrast, the Francisella-specific N-terminal α-helical extension is not required for IglG secretion, but is critical for F. novicida virulence and for the interaction of IglG with another FPI-encoded protein, IglF. Altogether, our data suggest that IglG is a PAAR-like protein acting as a bi-modal protein that may connect the tip of the Francisella T6SS with a putative T6SS effector, IglF. PMID:27602570

  8. Blood-brain barrier permeability to leucine-enkephalin, D-alanine2-D-leucine5-enkephalin and their N-terminal amino acid (tyrosine).

    PubMed

    Zlokovic, B V; Begley, D J; Chain-Eliash, D G

    1985-06-10

    The permeability of the blood-brain barrier to [tyrosyl-3,5-3H]enkephalin-(5-L-leucine) (abbreviated to Leu-Enk) and of its synthetic analogue D-alanine2-[tyrosyl-3,5-3H]enkephalin-(5-D-leucine) (abbreviated to D-Ala2-D-Leu5-Enk) was studied, in the adult rat, by means of Oldendorf's27 intracarotid injection technique. The brain uptake index (BUI) corrected for residual vascular radioactivity was about the same for both peptides, indicating a low extraction from the blood during a 5- or 15-s period of exposure to the peptides. Transport of Leu-Enk was not saturated by unlabelled Enk at a concentration as high as 5 mM but was completely abolished by 5mM tyrosine and by the inhibitor of aminopeptidase activity, bacitracin (2 mM). Also the typical L-transport system substrate, 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)heptane-2 carboxylic acid (BCH)9 at 10 mM concentration markedly reduced (by 80%) Leu-Enk uptake by the brain. In contrast, brain uptake of D-Ala2-D-Leu5-Enk was reduced only to about one-half of its control value by bacitracin or by 25% by BCH. Brain uptake for L-tyrosine was typically large and markedly inhibited by BCH but not inhibited by 5 mM unlabelled Leu-Enk. These results show that the measurable but low first-pass extractions for enkephalins are not representative of the uptake of these peptides into the brain, but rather reflect their extreme sensitivity to enzymatic degradation with a release of the N-terminal tyrosine residue. The results also suggest that small amounts of D-Ala2-D-Leu5-Enk might cross the blood-brain barrier in an intact form.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3891014

  9. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate proteoglycan isolated from intima/media preparations of human aorta.

    PubMed

    Stöcker, G; Meyer, H E; Wagener, C; Greiling, H

    1991-03-01

    A proteoglycan (PG) was purified to homogeneity from intima/media preparations of human aorta specimens by the following chromatographic steps: Sepharose Q anion exchange, Sepharose CL-4B size exclusion, hydroxyapatite, MonoQ anion exchange and TSK G 4000 SW size exclusion. The purity of the preparation was established by SDS/PAGE using direct staining by silver or Dimethylmethylene Blue, as well as by Western blots of biotin-labelled samples. The electrophoretic mobility of the native PG was less than that of a 200,000-Mr standard protein. After treatment with chondroitin sulphate lyase ABC, a core protein of Mr 15,000 was revealed. The Mr of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) peptides was less than 24,000, by comparison with a keratan sulphate peptide. The composition of the GAG chains was determined by differential digestion of the PG by chondroitin sulphate lyases AC/ABC or chondroitin sulphate lyase AC alone followed by anion-exchange chromatography of the resulting disaccharides. The GAG chains are composed of approximately one-third of dermatan sulphate and two-thirds chondroitin sulphate disaccharide units. The sequence of the 20 N-terminal amino acids is identical with the sequence previously reported for PG I isolated from human developing bone [Fisher, Termine & Young (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 4571-4576]. The assignment of glycosylation sites to the serine residues in positions 5 and 10 was confirmed. The findings indicate that the chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate PG is a major PG in intima/media preparations of human aorta and represents a biglycan-type PG. PMID:1848758

  10. Identification of N-terminal methionine in the precursor of immunoglobulin light chain. Initiation of translation of messenger ribonucleic acid in plants and animals.

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, I; Burstein, Y

    1976-01-01

    The proteins programmed in the wheat-germ cell-free system by the mRNA coding for the MOPC-321 mouse myeloma L (light) chain were labelled with [35S]methionine, [4,5-3H]leucine or [3-3H]serine, and were subjected to amino acid-sequence analyses. Over 95% of the total cell-free product was sequenced as one homogeneous protein, which corresponds to the precursor of the L-chain protein. In the precursor, 20 amino acid residues precede the N-terminus of the mature protein. This extra piece contains one methionine residue at the N-terminus, one serine residue at position 18, and six leucine residues, which are clustered in two triplets at positions 6, 7, 8 and 11, 12, 13. The identification of methionine at the N-terminus of the precursor is in agreement with the evidence showing that unblocked methionine is the initiator residue for protein synthesis in eukaryotes. The absence of methionine at position 20, which precedes the N-terminal residue of the mature protein, suggests that myeloma cells synthesize the precursor. However, within the cell the precursor should be rapidly processed to the mature L chain, since precursor molecules have not yet been found in the intact animal. The abundance (30%) of leucine residues indicates that the extra-piece moiety is quite hydrophobic. The extra piece of the MOPC-321 L-chain precursor synthesized with the aid of the Krebs II ascites cell-free system is of identical size and it has the same leucine sequence [Schechter et al. (1975) Science 188, 160-162]. This indicates that cell-free systems derived from the plant and animal kingdom initiate mRNA translation from the same point. It is shown that the amino acid sequence of minute amounts of a highly labelled protein (0.1 pmol) can be faithfully determined in the presence of a large excess (over 2000 000-fold) of unrelated non-radioactive proteins. Images PLATE 2 PLATE 1 PMID:821467

  11. DNA sequence of the control region of phage D108: the N-terminal amino acid sequences of repressor and transposase are similar both in phage D108 and in its relative, phage Mu.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuuchi, M; Weisberg, R A; Mizuuchi, K

    1986-01-01

    We have determined the DNA sequence of the control region of phage D108 up to position 1419 at the left end of the phage genome. Open reading frames for the repressor gene, ner gene, and the 5' part of the A gene (which codes for transposase) are found in the sequence. The genetic organization of this region of phage D108 is quite similar to that of phage Mu in spite of considerable divergence, both in the nucleotide sequence and in the amino acid sequences of the regulatory proteins of the two phages. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the transposases of the two phages also share only limited homology. On the other hand, a significant amino acid sequence homology was found within each phage between the N-terminal parts of the repressor and transposase. We propose that the N-terminal domains of the repressor and transposase of each phage interact functionally in the process of making the decision between the lytic and the lysogenic mode of growth. PMID:3012481

  12. The N-Terminal Extension Domain of the C. elegans Half-Molecule ABC Transporter, HMT-1, Is Required for Protein-Protein Interactions and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungjin; Selote, Devarshi S.; Vatamaniuk, Olena K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Members of the HMT-1 (heavy metal tolerance factor 1) subfamily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily detoxify heavy metals and have unique topology: they are half-molecule ABC transporters that, in addition to a single transmembrane domain (TMD1) and a single nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1), possess a hydrophobic NH2-terminal extension (NTE). These structural features distinguish HMTs from other ABC transporters in different species including Drosophila and humans. Functional ABC transporters, however, are comprised of at least four-domains (two TMDs and two NDBs) formed from either a single polypeptide or by the association of two or four separate subunits. Whether HMTs act as oligomers and what role the NTE domain plays in their function have not been determined. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we examined the oligomeric status of Caenorhabditis elegans HMT-1 and the functional significance of its NTE using gel-filtration chromatography in combination with the mating-based split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid system (mbSUS) and functional in vivo assays. We found that HMT-1 exists in a protein complex in C. elegans. Studies in S. cerevisiae showed that HMT-1 at a minimum homodimerizes and that oligomerization is essential for HMT-1 to confer cadmium tolerance. We also established that the NTE domain plays an important structural and functional role: it is essential for HMT-1 oligomerization and Cd-detoxification function. However, the NTE itself was not sufficient for oligomerization suggesting that multiple structural features of HMT-1 must associate to form a functional transporter. Conclusions The prominence of heavy metals as environmental toxins and the remarkable conservation of HMT-1 structural architecture and function in different species reinforce the value of continued studies of HMT-1 in model systems for identifying functional domains in HMT1 of humans. PMID:20886084

  13. Removal of 14 N-terminal amino acids of lactoferrin enhances its affinity for parenchymal liver cells and potentiates the inhibition of beta- very low density lipoprotein binding.

    PubMed

    Ziere, G J; Bijsterbosch, M K; van Berkel, T J

    1993-12-25

    Lactoferrin inhibits the hepatic uptake of lipoprotein remnants, and we showed earlier that arginine residues of lactoferrin are involved. In this study, lactoferrin was treated with aminopeptidase M (APM), which resulted in removal of 14 N-terminal amino acids, including 4 clustered arginine residues at positions 2-5 (APM-lactoferrin). After intravenous injection into rats, 125I-labeled APM-lactoferrin was cleared within 10 min by the liver parenchymal cells (74.7% of the dose). In contrast to native lactoferrin, APM-lactoferrin was rapidly internalized after liver association (> 80% of the liver-associated radioactivity was internalized within 10 min). Binding of APM-lactoferrin to isolated parenchymal liver cells was saturable with a Kd of 186 nM (750,000 sites/cell). This is in striking contrast to the binding of native lactoferrin (Kd 10 microM; 20 x 10(6) sites/cell). Preinjection of rats with 20 mg of APM-lactoferrin/kg of body weight reduced the liver association of beta-very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) by 50%, whereas lactoferrin had no effect at this dose. With isolated parenchymal liver cells, APM-lactoferrin was a more effective competitor for beta-VLDL binding than native lactoferrin (50% inhibition at 0.5 mg/ml versus 8.0 mg/ml). Selective modification of the arginines of APM-lactoferrin with 1,2-cyclohexanedione reduced the liver association by approximately 60% and abolished the capacity of APM-lactoferrin to inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled beta-VLDL in vitro. In conclusion, our data indicate that the four-arginine cluster of lactoferrin at positions 2-5 is involved in its massive, low affinity association of lactoferrin with the liver, possibly to proteoglycans, but is not essential for the inhibition of lipoprotein remnant uptake. The Arg-Lys sequence at positions 25-31, which resembles the binding site of apolipoprotein E, may mediate the high affinity binding of lactoferrin and block the binding of beta-VLDL to the remnant receptor

  14. Roles of N-Terminal Fatty Acid Acylations in Membrane Compartment Partitioning: Arabidopsis h-Type Thioredoxins as a Case Study[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Traverso, José A.; Micalella, Chiara; Martinez, Aude; Brown, Spencer C.; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice; Meinnel, Thierry; Giglione, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    N-terminal fatty acylations (N-myristoylation [MYR] and S-palmitoylation [PAL]) are crucial modifications affecting 2 to 4% of eukaryotic proteins. The role of these modifications is to target proteins to membranes. Predictive tools have revealed unexpected targets of these acylations in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants. However, little is known about how N-terminal lipidation governs membrane compartmentalization of proteins in plants. We show here that h-type thioredoxins (h-TRXs) cluster in four evolutionary subgroups displaying strictly conserved N-terminal modifications. It was predicted that one subgroup undergoes only MYR and another undergoes both MYR and PAL. We used plant TRXs as a model protein family to explore the effect of MYR alone or MYR and PAL in the same family of proteins. We used a high-throughput biochemical strategy to assess MYR of specific TRXs. Moreover, various TRX–green fluorescent protein fusions revealed that MYR localized protein to the endomembrane system and that partitioning between this membrane compartment and the cytosol correlated with the catalytic efficiency of the N-myristoyltransferase acting at the N terminus of the TRXs. Generalization of these results was obtained using several randomly selected Arabidopsis proteins displaying a MYR site only. Finally, we demonstrated that a palmitoylatable Cys residue flanking the MYR site is crucial to localize proteins to micropatching zones of the plasma membrane. PMID:23543785

  15. The red clover necrotic mosaic virus capsid protein N-terminal amino acids possess specific RNA binding activity and are required for stable virion assembly.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ho; Sit, Tim L; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Lommel, Steven A

    2013-09-01

    The red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) bipartite RNA genome is packaged into two virion populations containing either RNA-1 and RNA-2 or multiple copies of RNA-2 only. To understand this distinctive packaging scheme, we investigated the RNA-binding properties of the RCNMV capsid protein (CP). Maltose binding protein-CP fusions exhibited the highest binding affinities for RNA probes containing the RNA-2 trans-activator or the 3' non-coding region from RNA-1. Other viral and non-viral RNA probes displayed CP binding but to a much lower degree. Deletion of the highly basic N-terminal 50 residues abolished CP binding to viral RNA transcripts. In planta studies of select CP deletion mutants within this N-terminal region revealed that it was indispensable for stable virion formation and the region spanning CP residues 5-15 is required for systemic movement. Thus, the N-terminal region of the CP is involved in both producing two virion populations due to its RNA binding properties and virion stability. PMID:23747688

  16. Isolation of a novel cold-active family 11 Xylanase from the filamentous fungus Bispora antennata and deletion of its N-terminal amino acids on thermostability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiong; Wang, Yaru; Luo, Huiying; Wang, Liwen; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we first reported a cold-active xylanase of glycosyl hydrolase family 11, Xyn11, from the filamentous fungus Bispora antennata. The coding gene (xyn11) was cloned and successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. Deduced Xyn11 exhibited the highest identity of 65 % with a family 11 endo-β-1,4-xylanase from Alternaria sp. HB186. Recombinant Xyn11 exhibited maximal activity at 35 °C and remained 21 % of the activity at 0 °C. Sequence alignment showed that the N-terminal sequence of Xyn11 is distinct from those of thermophilic xylanases of family 11. To determine its effect on enzyme properties, the Xyn11 mutant without the N-terminal sequence, t-Xyn11, was then constructed, expressed in P. pastoris, and compared with Xyn11. Both enzymes showed optimal activities at 35 °C and pH 5.5 and were stable at pH 2.0-12.0. Compared with truncated mutant t-Xyn11, Xyn11 retained more activity after 20-min incubation at 40 °C (Xyn11:28 % vs. t-Xyn11:4 %) and degraded xylan substrates more completely. Thus, a new factor affecting the thermostability of cold-active xylanase of family 11 was identified. PMID:25351632

  17. N-terminal Huntingtin Knock-In Mice: Implications of Removing the N-terminal Region of Huntingtin for Therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Chuan-En; Hong, Yan; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Guohao; Gaertig, Marta A; Sun, Miao; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2016-05-01

    The Huntington's disease (HD) protein, huntingtin (HTT), is a large protein consisting of 3144 amino acids and has conserved N-terminal sequences that are followed by a polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat. Loss of Htt is known to cause embryonic lethality in mice, whereas polyQ expansion leads to adult neuronal degeneration. Whether N-terminal HTT is essential for neuronal development or contributes only to late-onset neurodegeneration remains unknown. We established HTT knock-in mice (N160Q-KI) expressing the first 208 amino acids of HTT with 160Q, and they show age-dependent HTT aggregates in the brain and neurological phenotypes. Importantly, the N-terminal mutant HTT also preferentially accumulates in the striatum, the brain region most affected in HD, indicating the importance of N-terminal HTT in selective neuropathology. That said, homozygous N160Q-KI mice are also embryonic lethal, suggesting that N-terminal HTT alone is unable to support embryonic development. Using Htt knockout neurons, we found that loss of Htt selectively affects the survival of developing neuronal cells, but not astrocytes, in culture. This neuronal degeneration could be rescued by a truncated HTT lacking the first 237 amino acids, but not by N-terminal HTT (1-208 amino acids). Also, the rescue effect depends on the region in HTT known to be involved in intracellular trafficking. Thus, the N-terminal HTT region may not be essential for the survival of developing neurons, but when carrying a large polyQ repeat, can cause selective neuropathology. These findings imply a possible therapeutic benefit of removing the N-terminal region of HTT containing the polyQ repeat to treat the neurodegeneration in HD. PMID:27203582

  18. N-terminal Huntingtin Knock-In Mice: Implications of Removing the N-terminal Region of Huntingtin for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Chuan-En; Hong, Yan; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Guohao; Gaertig, Marta A.; Sun, Miao; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The Huntington’s disease (HD) protein, huntingtin (HTT), is a large protein consisting of 3144 amino acids and has conserved N-terminal sequences that are followed by a polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat. Loss of Htt is known to cause embryonic lethality in mice, whereas polyQ expansion leads to adult neuronal degeneration. Whether N-terminal HTT is essential for neuronal development or contributes only to late-onset neurodegeneration remains unknown. We established HTT knock-in mice (N160Q-KI) expressing the first 208 amino acids of HTT with 160Q, and they show age-dependent HTT aggregates in the brain and neurological phenotypes. Importantly, the N-terminal mutant HTT also preferentially accumulates in the striatum, the brain region most affected in HD, indicating the importance of N-terminal HTT in selective neuropathology. That said, homozygous N160Q-KI mice are also embryonic lethal, suggesting that N-terminal HTT alone is unable to support embryonic development. Using Htt knockout neurons, we found that loss of Htt selectively affects the survival of developing neuronal cells, but not astrocytes, in culture. This neuronal degeneration could be rescued by a truncated HTT lacking the first 237 amino acids, but not by N-terminal HTT (1–208 amino acids). Also, the rescue effect depends on the region in HTT known to be involved in intracellular trafficking. Thus, the N-terminal HTT region may not be essential for the survival of developing neurons, but when carrying a large polyQ repeat, can cause selective neuropathology. These findings imply a possible therapeutic benefit of removing the N-terminal region of HTT containing the polyQ repeat to treat the neurodegeneration in HD. PMID:27203582

  19. The 7-amino-acid site in the proline-rich region of the N-terminal domain of p53 is involved in the interaction with FAK and is critical for p53 functioning.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Finch, Richard; Zheng, Min; Kurenova, Elena V; Cance, William G

    2008-04-01

    It is known that p53 alterations are commonly found in tumour cells. Another marker of tumorigenesis is FAK (focal adhesion kinase), a non-receptor kinase that is overexpressed in many types of tumours. Previously we determined that the N-terminal domain of FAK physically interacted with the N-terminal domain of p53. In the present study, using phage display, sitedirected mutagenesis, pulldown and immunoprecipitation assays we localized the site of FAK binding to a 7-amino-acid region(amino acids 65-71) in the N-terminal proline-rich domain of human p53. Mutation of the binding site in p53 reversed the suppressive effect of FAK on p53-mediated transactivation ofp21, BAX (Bcl-2-associated X protein) and Mdm2 (murine double minute 2) promoters. In addition, to functionally test this p53 site, we conjugated p53 peptides [wild-type (containing the wild-type binding site) and mutant (with a mutated 7-aminoacid binding site)] to a TAT peptide sequence to penetrate the cells, and demonstrated that the wild-type p53 peptide disrupted binding of FAK and p53 proteins and significantly inhibited cell viability of HCT116 p53+/+ cells compared with the control mutant peptide and HCT116 p53-/- cells. Furthermore, the TAT-p53 peptide decreased the viability of MCF-7 cells, whereas the mutant peptide did not cause this effect. Normal fibroblast p53+/+ and p53-/- MEF (murine embryonic fibroblast) cells and breast MCF10A cells were not sensitive to p53 peptide. Thus, for the first time, we have identified the binding site of the p53 andFAK interaction and have demonstrated that mutating this site and targeting the site with peptides affects p53 functioning and viability in the cells. PMID:18215142

  20. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor Subunits Play a Direct Structural Role in Synaptic Contact Formation via Their N-terminal Extracellular Domains.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura E; Nicholson, Martin W; Arama, Jessica E; Mercer, Audrey; Thomson, Alex M; Jovanovic, Jasmina N

    2016-07-01

    The establishment of cell-cell contacts between presynaptic GABAergic neurons and their postsynaptic targets initiates the process of GABAergic synapse formation. GABAA receptors (GABAARs), the main postsynaptic receptors for GABA, have been recently demonstrated to act as synaptogenic proteins that can single-handedly induce the formation and functional maturation of inhibitory synapses. To establish how the subunit composition of GABAARs influences their ability to induce synaptogenesis, a co-culture model system incorporating GABAergic medium spiny neurons and the HEK293 cells, stably expressing different combinations of receptor subunits, was developed. Analyses of HEK293 cell innervation by medium spiny neuron axons using immunocytochemistry, activity-dependent labeling, and electrophysiology have indicated that the γ2 subunit is required for the formation of active synapses and that its effects are influenced by the type of α/β subunits incorporated into the functional receptor. To further characterize this process, the large N-terminal extracellular domains (ECDs) of α1, α2, β2, and γ2 subunits were purified using the baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. When these proteins were applied to the co-cultures of MSNs and α1/β2/γ2-expressing HEK293 cells, the α1, β2, or γ2 ECD each caused a significant reduction in contact formation, in contrast to the α2 ECD, which had no effect. Together, our experiments indicate that the structural role of GABAARs in synaptic contact formation is determined by their subunit composition, with the N-terminal ECDs of each of the subunits directly participating in interactions between the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements, suggesting the these interactions are multivalent and specific. PMID:27129275

  1. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor Subunits Play a Direct Structural Role in Synaptic Contact Formation via Their N-terminal Extracellular Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Laura E.; Nicholson, Martin W.; Arama, Jessica E.; Thomson, Alex M.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of cell-cell contacts between presynaptic GABAergic neurons and their postsynaptic targets initiates the process of GABAergic synapse formation. GABAA receptors (GABAARs), the main postsynaptic receptors for GABA, have been recently demonstrated to act as synaptogenic proteins that can single-handedly induce the formation and functional maturation of inhibitory synapses. To establish how the subunit composition of GABAARs influences their ability to induce synaptogenesis, a co-culture model system incorporating GABAergic medium spiny neurons and the HEK293 cells, stably expressing different combinations of receptor subunits, was developed. Analyses of HEK293 cell innervation by medium spiny neuron axons using immunocytochemistry, activity-dependent labeling, and electrophysiology have indicated that the γ2 subunit is required for the formation of active synapses and that its effects are influenced by the type of α/β subunits incorporated into the functional receptor. To further characterize this process, the large N-terminal extracellular domains (ECDs) of α1, α2, β2, and γ2 subunits were purified using the baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. When these proteins were applied to the co-cultures of MSNs and α1/β2/γ2-expressing HEK293 cells, the α1, β2, or γ2 ECD each caused a significant reduction in contact formation, in contrast to the α2 ECD, which had no effect. Together, our experiments indicate that the structural role of GABAARs in synaptic contact formation is determined by their subunit composition, with the N-terminal ECDs of each of the subunits directly participating in interactions between the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements, suggesting the these interactions are multivalent and specific. PMID:27129275

  2. The 18-kilodalton Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) contains a potential N-terminal dimerization site and a C-terminal nucleic acid-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L B; Birkelund, S; Holm, A; Ostergaard, S; Christiansen, G

    1996-02-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) is a DNA-binding protein specific for the metabolically inactive chlamydial developmental form, the elementary body. Hc1 induces DNA condensation in Escherichia coli and is a strong inhibitor of transcription and translation. These effects may, in part, be due to Hc1-mediated alterations of DNA topology. To locate putative functional domains within Hc1, polypeptides Hc1(2-57) and Hc1(53-125), corresponding to the N- and C-terminal parts of Hc1, respectively, were generated. By chemical cross-linking with ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester), purified recombinant Hc1 was found to form dimers. The dimerization site was located in the N-terminal part of Hc1 (Hc1(2-57)). Moreover, circular dichroism measurements indicated an overall alpha-helical structure of this region. By using limited proteolysis, Southwestern blotting, and gel retardation assays, Hc1(53-125) was shown to contain a domain capable of binding both DNA and RNA. Under the same conditions, Hc1(2-57) had no nucleic acid-binding activity. Electron microscopy of Hc1-DNA and Hc1(53-125)-DNA complexes revealed differences suggesting that the N-terminal part of Hc1 may affect the DNA-binding properties of Hc1. PMID:8576073

  3. Mammalian Bcnt/Cfdp1, a potential epigenetic factor characterized by an acidic stretch in the disordered N-terminal and Ser250 phosphorylation in the conserved C-terminal regions

    PubMed Central

    Iwashita, Shintaro; Suzuki, Takehiro; Yasuda, Takeshi; Nakashima, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takayasu; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Song, Si-Young; Dohmae, Naoshi

    2015-01-01

    The BCNT (Bucentaur) superfamily is classified by an uncharacteristic conserved sequence of ∼80 amino acids (aa) at the C-terminus, BCNT-C (the conserved C-terminal region of Bcnt/Cfdp1). Whereas the yeast Swc5 and Drosophila Yeti homologues play crucial roles in chromatin remodelling organization, mammalian Bcnt/Cfdp1 (craniofacial developmental protein 1) remains poorly understood. The protein, which lacks cysteine, is largely disordered and comprises an acidic N-terminal region, a lysine/glutamic acid/proline-rich 40 aa sequence and BCNT-C. It shows complex mobility on SDS/PAGE at ∼50 kDa, whereas its calculated molecular mass is ∼33 kDa. To characterize this mobility discrepancy and the effects of post-translational modifications (PTMs), we expressed various deleted His–Bcnt in E. coli and HEK cells and found that an acidic stretch in the N-terminal region is a main cause of the gel shift. Exogenous BCNT/CFDP1 constitutively expressed in HEK clones appears as a doublet at 49 and 47 kDa, slower than the protein expressed in Escherichia coli but faster than the endogenous protein on SDS/PAGE. Among seven in vivo phosphorylation sites, Ser250, which resides in a region between disordered and ordered regions in BCNT-C, is heavily phosphorylated and detected predominantly in the 49 kDa band. Together with experiments involving treatment with phosphatases and Ser250 substitutions, the results indicate that the complex behaviour of Bcnt/Cfdp1 on SDS/PAGE is caused mainly by an acidic stretch in the N-terminal region and Ser250 phosphorylation in BCNT-C. Furthermore, Bcnt/Cfdp1 is acetylated in vitro by CREB-binding protein (CBP) and four lysine residues including Lys268 in BCNT-C are also acetylated in vivo, revealing a protein regulated at multiple levels. PMID:26182435

  4. Mammalian Bcnt/Cfdp1, a potential epigenetic factor characterized by an acidic stretch in the disordered N-terminal and Ser250 phosphorylation in the conserved C-terminal regions.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Shintaro; Suzuki, Takehiro; Yasuda, Takeshi; Nakashima, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takayasu; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Song, Si-Young; Dohmae, Naoshi

    2015-01-01

    The BCNT (Bucentaur) superfamily is classified by an uncharacteristic conserved sequence of ∼80 amino acids (aa) at the C-terminus, BCNT-C (the conserved C-terminal region of Bcnt/Cfdp1). Whereas the yeast Swc5 and Drosophila Yeti homologues play crucial roles in chromatin remodelling organization, mammalian Bcnt/Cfdp1 (craniofacial developmental protein 1) remains poorly understood. The protein, which lacks cysteine, is largely disordered and comprises an acidic N-terminal region, a lysine/glutamic acid/proline-rich 40 aa sequence and BCNT-C. It shows complex mobility on SDS/PAGE at ∼50 kDa, whereas its calculated molecular mass is ∼33 kDa. To characterize this mobility discrepancy and the effects of post-translational modifications (PTMs), we expressed various deleted His-Bcnt in E. coli and HEK cells and found that an acidic stretch in the N-terminal region is a main cause of the gel shift. Exogenous BCNT/CFDP1 constitutively expressed in HEK clones appears as a doublet at 49 and 47 kDa, slower than the protein expressed in Escherichia coli but faster than the endogenous protein on SDS/PAGE. Among seven in vivo phosphorylation sites, Ser(250), which resides in a region between disordered and ordered regions in BCNT-C, is heavily phosphorylated and detected predominantly in the 49 kDa band. Together with experiments involving treatment with phosphatases and Ser(250) substitutions, the results indicate that the complex behaviour of Bcnt/Cfdp1 on SDS/PAGE is caused mainly by an acidic stretch in the N-terminal region and Ser(250) phosphorylation in BCNT-C. Furthermore, Bcnt/Cfdp1 is acetylated in vitro by CREB-binding protein (CBP) and four lysine residues including Lys(268) in BCNT-C are also acetylated in vivo, revealing a protein regulated at multiple levels. PMID:26182435

  5. Spatial structure of oligopeptide PAP(248-261), the N-terminal fragment of the HIV enhancer prostatic acid phosphatase peptide PAP(248-286), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokhin, Dmitriy S.; Filippov, Andrei V.; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Karataeva, Farida Kh.; Klochkov, Vladimir V.

    2014-07-01

    Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is an enzyme that facilitates infection of cells by HIV. Its peptide fragment PAP(248-286) forms amyloid fibrils known as SEVI, which enhance attachment of the virus by viral adhesion to the host cell prior to receptor-specific binding via reducing the electrostatic repulsion between the membranes of the virus and the target cell. The secondary structure of PAP(248-286) in aqueous and SDS solutions can be divided into an N-terminal disordered region, an α-helical central part and an α/310-helical C-terminal region (Nanga et al., 2009). In this work, we used NMR spectroscopy to study the spatial structure of the isolated N-terminal fragment of PAP(248-286), PAP(248-261) (GIHKQKEKSRLQGG), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions. Formation of a PAP(248-261)-SDS complex was confirmed by chemical shift alterations in the 1H NMR spectra of the peptide, as well as by the signs and values of Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE). In addition, the PAP(248-261) peptide does not form any specified secondary structure in either aqueous or SDS solutions.

  6. c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-Dependent Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway is Critically Involved in Arjunic Acid Induced Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Joo, HyeEun; Lee, Hyun Joo; Shin, Eun Ah; Kim, Hangil; Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Though arjunic acid, a triterpene isolated from Terminalia arjuna, was known to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and cytotoxic effects, its underlying antitumor mechanism still remains unclear so far. Thus, in the present study, the molecular antitumor mechanism of arjunic acid was examined in A549 and H460 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Arjunic acid exerted cytotoxicity by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and significantly increased sub-G1 population in A549 and H460 cells by cell cycle analysis. Consistently, arjunic acid cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), activated Bax, and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and also attenuated the expression of pro-caspase-3 and Bcl-2 in A549 and H460 cells. Furthermore, arjunic acid upregulated the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins such as IRE1 α, ATF4, p-eIF2α, and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in A549 and H460 cells. Conversely, CHOP depletion attenuated the increase of sub-G1 population by arjunic acid, and also JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the cytotoxicity and upregulation of IRE1 α and CHOP induced by arjunic acid in A549 and H460 cells. Overall, our findings suggest that arjunic acid induces apoptosis in NSCLC cells via JNK mediated ER stress pathway as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for NSCLC. PMID:26787261

  7. UNIT 11.10 N-Terminal Sequence Analysis of Proteins and Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Speicher, Kaye D.; Gorman, Nicole; Speicher, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Automated N-terminal sequence analysis involves a series of chemical reactions that derivatize and remove one amino acid at a time from the N-terminal of purified peptides or intact proteins. At least several pmoles of a purified protein or 10 to 20 pmoles of a purified peptide with an unmodified N-terminal is required in order to obtain useful sequence information. In recent years the demand for N-terminal sequencing has decreased substantially as some applications for protein identification and characterization can now be more effectively performed using mass spectrometry. However, N-terminal sequencing remains the method of choice for verifying the N-terminal boundary of recombinant proteins, determining the N-terminal of protease-resistant domains, identifying proteins isolated from species where most of the genome has not yet been sequenced, and mapping modified or crosslinked sites in proteins that prove to be refractory to analysis by mass spectrometry. PMID:18429102

  8. pH-sensitive Self-associations of the N-terminal Domain of NBCe1-A Suggest a Compact Conformation under Acidic Intracellular Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Harindarpal S

    2012-01-01

    NBCe1-A is an integral membrane protein that cotransports Na+ and HCO3- ions across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. It is essential for maintaining a homeostatic balance of cellular and blood pH. In X-ray diffraction studies, we reported that the cytoplasmic, N-terminal domain of NBCe1-A (NtNBCe1-A) is a dimer. Here, biophysical measurements show that the dimer is in a concentration-dependent dynamic equilibrium among three additional states in solution that are characterized by its hydrodynamic properties, molar masses, emission spectra, binding properties, and stabilities as a function of pH. Under physiological conditions, dimers are in equilibrium with monomers that are pronounced at low concentration and clusters of molecular masses up to 3-5 times that of a dimer that are pronounced at high concentration. The equilibrium can be influenced so that individual dimers predominate in a taut conformation by lowering the pH. Conversely, dimers begin to relax and disassociate into an increasing population of monomers by elevating the pH. A mechanistic diagram for the inter-conversion of these states is given. The self-associations are further supported by surface plasmon resonance (SPR-Biacore) techniques that illustrate NtNBCe1-A molecules transiently bind with one another. Bicarbonate and bicarbonate-analog bisulfite appear to enhance dimerization and induce a small amount of tetramers. A model is proposed, where the Nt responds to pH or bicarbonate fluctuations inside the cell and plays a role in self-association of entire NBCe1-A molecules in the membrane. PMID:22316307

  9. pH-sensitive self-associations of the N-terminal domain of NBCe1-A suggest a compact conformation under acidic intracellular conditions.

    PubMed

    Gill, Harindarpal S

    2012-10-01

    NBCe1-A is an integral membrane protein that cotransports Na+ and HCO3 - ions across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. It is essential for maintaining a homeostatic balance of cellular and blood pH. In X-ray diffraction studies, we reported that the cytoplasmic, N-terminal domain of NBCe1-A (NtNBCe1-A) is a dimer. Here, biophysical measurements show that the dimer is in a concentration-dependent dynamic equilibrium among three additional states in solution that are characterized by its hydrodynamic properties, molar masses, emission spectra, binding properties, and stabilities as a function of pH. Under physiological conditions, dimers are in equilibrium with monomers that are pronounced at low concentration and clusters of molecular masses up to 3-5 times that of a dimer that are pronounced at high concentration. The equilibrium can be influenced so that individual dimers predominate in a taut conformation by lowering the pH. Conversely, dimers begin to relax and disassociate into an increasing population of monomers by elevating the pH. A mechanistic diagram for the inter-conversion of these states is given. The self-associations are further supported by surface plasmon resonance (SPR-Biacore) techniques that illustrate NtNBCe1-A molecules transiently bind with one another. Bicarbonate and bicarbonate-analog bisulfite appear to enhance dimerization and induce a small amount of tetramers. A model is proposed, where the Nt responds to pH or bicarbonate fluctuations inside the cell and plays a role in self-association of entire NBCe1-A molecules in the membrane. PMID:22316307

  10. Protein N-terminal acetyltransferases in cancer.

    PubMed

    Kalvik, T V; Arnesen, T

    2013-01-17

    The human N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) catalyze the transfer of acetyl moieties to the N-termini of 80-90% of all human proteins. Six NAT types are present in humans, NatA-NatF, each is composed of specific subunits and each acetylates a set of substrates defined by the N-terminal amino-acid sequence. NATs have been suggested to act as oncoproteins as well as tumor suppressors in human cancers, and NAT expression may be both elevated and decreased in cancer versus non-cancer tissues. Manipulation of NATs in cancer cells induced cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis or autophagy, implying that these enzymes target a variety of pathways. Of particular interest is hNaa10p (human ARD1), the catalytic subunit of the NatA complex, which was coupled to a number of signaling molecules including hypoxia inducible factor-1α, β-catenin/cyclin D1, TSC2/mammalian target of rapamycin, myosin light chain kinase , DNA methyltransferase1/E-cadherin and p21-activated kinase-interacting exchange factors (PIX)/Cdc42/Rac1. The variety of mechanistic links where hNaa10p acts as a NAT, a lysine acetyltransferase or displaying a non-catalytic role, provide insights to how hNaa10p may act as both a tumor suppressor and oncoprotein. PMID:22391571

  11. Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) CYP102 Protein, a Novel Fatty Acid Hydroxylase Encoded as a Heme Domain without an N-Terminal Redox Partner▿

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, David C.; Lei, Li; Zhao, Bin; Yuan, Hang; Jackson, Colin J.; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Skaug, Tove; Dyson, Paul J.; Dawson, Eric S.; Kelly, Steven L.; Hachey, David L.; Waterman, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The gene from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) encoding CYP102B1, a recently discovered CYP102 subfamily which exists solely as a single P450 heme domain, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, characterized, and compared to its fusion protein family members. Purified reconstitution metabolism experiments with spinach ferredoxin, ferredoxin reductase, and NADPH revealed differences in the regio- and stereoselective metabolism of arachidonic acid compared to that of CYP102A1, exclusively producing 11,12-epoxyeicosa-5,8,14-trienoic acid in addition to the shared metabolites 18-hydroxy arachidonic acid and 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5,8,11-trienoic acid. Consequently, in order to elucidate the physiological function of CYP102B1, transposon mutagenesis was used to generate an S. coelicolor A3(2) strain lacking CYP102B1 activity and the phenotype was assessed. PMID:20097805

  12. Expression of Ceramide Synthase 6 Transcriptionally Activates Acid Ceramidase in a c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)-dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Tirodkar, Tejas S; Lu, Ping; Bai, Aiping; Scheffel, Matthew J; Gencer, Salih; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Bielawska, Alicja; Ogretmen, Besim; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

    2015-05-22

    A family of six ceramide synthases with distinct but overlapping substrate specificities is responsible for generation of ceramides with acyl chains ranging from ∼14-26 carbons. Ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6) preferentially generates C14- and C16-ceramides, and we have previously shown that down-regulation of this enzyme decreases apoptotic susceptibility. In this study, we further evaluated how increased CerS6 expression impacts sphingolipid composition and metabolism. Overexpression of CerS6 in HT29 colon cancer cells resulted in increased apoptotic susceptibility and preferential generation of C16-ceramide, which occurred at the expense of very long chain, saturated ceramides. These changes were also reflected in sphingomyelin composition. HT-CerS6 cells had increased intracellular levels of sphingosine, which is generated by ceramidases upon hydrolysis of ceramide. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that only expression of acid ceramidase (ASAH1) was increased. The increase in acid ceramidase was confirmed by expression and activity analyses. Pharmacological inhibition of JNK (SP600125) or curcumin reduced transcriptional up-regulation of acid ceramidase. Using an acid ceramidase promoter driven luciferase reporter plasmid, we demonstrated that CerS1 has no effect on transcriptional activation of acid ceramidase and that CerS2 slightly but significantly decreased the luciferase signal. Similar to CerS6, overexpression of CerS3-5 resulted in an ∼2-fold increase in luciferase reporter gene activity. Exogenous ceramide failed to induce reporter activity, while a CerS inhibitor and a catalytically inactive mutant of CerS6 failed to reduce it. Taken together, these results suggest that increased expression of CerS6 can mediate transcriptional activation of acid ceramidase in a JNK-dependent manner that is independent of CerS6 activity. PMID:25839235

  13. Acquisition of a novel eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site confers intracellular cleavage of an H7N7 influenza virus hemagglutinin

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Sun, Xiangjie; Chung, Changik; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2012-12-05

    A critical feature of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1 and H7N7) is the efficient intracellular cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. H7N7 viruses also exist in equine species, and a unique feature of the equine H7N7 HA is the presence of an eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site. Here, we show that three histidine residues within the unique insertion of the equine H7N7 HA are essential for intracellular cleavage. An asparagine residue within the insertion-derived glycosylation site was also found to be essential for intracellular cleavage. The presence of the histidine residues also appear to be involved in triggering fusion, since mutation of the histidine residues resulted in a destabilizing effect. Importantly, the addition of a tetrabasic site and the eleven amino acid insertion conferred efficient intracellular cleavage to the HA of an H7N3 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Our studies show that acquisition of the eleven amino acid insertion offers an alternative mechanism for intracellular cleavage of influenza HA.

  14. Enhancement of Ganoderic Acid Accumulation by Overexpression of an N-Terminally Truncated 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Gene in the Basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun-Wei; Xu, Yi-Ning

    2012-01-01

    Ganoderic acids produced by Ganoderma lucidum, a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom, exhibit antitumor and antimetastasis activities. Genetic modification of G. lucidum is difficult but critical for the enhancement of cellular accumulation of ganoderic acids. In this study, a homologous genetic transformation system for G. lucidum was developed for the first time using mutated sdhB, encoding the iron-sulfur protein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase, as a selection marker. The truncated G. lucidum gene encoding the catalytic domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) was overexpressed by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system. The results showed that the mutated sdhB successfully conferred carboxin resistance upon transformation. Most of the integrated transfer DNA (T-DNA) appeared as a single copy in the genome. Moreover, deregulated constitutive overexpression of the HMGR gene led to a 2-fold increase in ganoderic acid content. It also increased the accumulation of intermediates (squalene and lanosterol) and the upregulation of downstream genes such as those of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and lanosterol synthase. This study demonstrates that transgenic basidiomycete G. lucidum is a promising system to achieve metabolic engineering of the ganoderic acid pathway. PMID:22941092

  15. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared towards the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically-expressed enzymes. Here we show that the addit...

  16. Replacement of the N-terminal tyrosine residue in opioid peptides with 3-(2,6-dimethyl-4-carbamoylphenyl)propanoic acid (Dcp) results in novel opioid antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yixin; Lum, Tze Keong; Leow Augustine, Yoon Wui; Weltrowska, Grazyna; Nguyen, Thi M-D; Lemieux, Carole; Chung, Nga N; Schiller, Peter W

    2006-08-24

    3-(2,6-Dimethyl-4-carbamoylphenyl)propanoic acid (Dcp), a 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine analogue containing a carbamoyl group in place of the hydroxyl function and lacking the amino group, was synthesized. The replacement of Tyr1 in an enkephalin analogue and in dynorphin A(1-11)-NH2 with Dcp resulted in the first opioid peptide-derived antagonists that do not contain a phenolic hydroxyl group at the 1-position residue. The cyclic peptide Dcp-c[D-Cys-Gly-Phe(pNO2)-D-Cys]NH2 represents a novel, potent mu opioid antagonist. PMID:16913729

  17. Oxidative Folding and N-terminal Cyclization of Onconase+

    PubMed Central

    Welker, Ervin; Hathaway, Laura; Xu, Guoqiang; Narayan, Mahesh; Pradeep, Lovy; Shin, Hang-Cheol; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2008-01-01

    Cyclization of the N-terminal glutamine residue to pyroglutamic acid in onconase, an anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent, increases the activity and stability of the protein. Here, we examine the correlated effects of the folding/unfolding process and the formation of this N-terminal pyroglutamic acid. The results in this study indicate that cyclization of the N-terminal glutamine has no significant effect on the rate of either reductive unfolding or oxidative folding of the protein. Both the cyclized and uncyclized proteins seem to follow the same oxidative folding pathways; however, cyclization altered the relative flux of the protein in these two pathways by increasing the rate of formation of a kinetically trapped intermediate. Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) catalyzed the cyclization of the unfolded, reduced protein, but had no effect on the disulfide-intact, uncyclized, folded protein. The structured intermediates of uncyclized onconase were also resistant to QC-catalysis, consistent with their having a native-like fold. These observations suggest that, in vivo, cyclization takes place during the initial stages of oxidative folding, specifically, before the formation of structured intermediates. The competition between oxidative folding and QC-mediated cyclization suggests that QC-catalyzed cyclization of the N-terminal glutamine in onconase occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum, probably co-translationally. PMID:17439243

  18. The preparation and application of N-terminal 57 amino acid protein of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor as a candidate male contraceptive vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cheng; Li, Ying-Chun; Yang, Hua; Long, Yan; Chen, Min-Jian; Qin, Yu-Feng; Xia, Yan-Kai; Song, Ling; Gu, Ai-Hua; Wang, Xin-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), which is expressed only on Sertoli cells and plays a key role in spermatogenesis, has been paid attention for its potential in male contraception vaccine research and development. This study introduces a method for the preparation and purification of human FSHR 57-amino acid protein (FSHR-57aa) as well as determination of its immunogenicity and antifertility effect. A recombinant pET-28a(+)-FSHR-57aa plasmid was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 Star™ (DE3) and the FSHR-57aa protein was separated and collected by cutting the gel and recovering activity by efficient refolding dialysis. The protein was identified by Western blot and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with a band of nearly 7 kDa and a purity of 97.4%. Male monkeys were immunized with rhFSHR-57aa protein and a gradual rising of specific serum IgG antibody was found which reached a plateau on day 112 (16 weeks) after the first immunization. After mating of one male with three female monkeys, the pregnancy rate of those mated with males immunized against FSHR-57aa was significantly decreased while the serum hormone levels of testosterone and estradiol were not disturbed in the control or the FSHR-57aa groups. By evaluating pathological changes in testicular histology, we found that the blood-testis barrier remained intact, in spite of some small damage to Sertoli cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the rhFSHR-57aa protein might be a feasible male contraceptive which could affect sperm production without disturbing hormone levels. PMID:24713829

  19. The preparation and application of N-terminal 57 amino acid protein of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor as a candidate male contraceptive vaccine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Li, Ying-Chun; Yang, Hua; Long, Yan; Chen, Min-Jian; Qin, Yu-Feng; Xia, Yan-Kai; Song, Ling; Gu, Ai-Hua; Wang, Xin-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), which is expressed only on Sertoli cells and plays a key role in spermatogenesis, has been paid attention for its potential in male contraception vaccine research and development. This study introduces a method for the preparation and purification of human FSHR 57-amino acid protein (FSHR-57aa) as well as determination of its immunogenicity and antifertility effect. A recombinant pET-28a(+)-FSHR-57aa plasmid was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 Star TM (DE3) and the FSHR-57aa protein was separated and collected by cutting the gel and recovering activity by efficient refolding dialysis. The protein was identified by Western blot and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with a band of nearly 7 kDa and a purity of 97.4%. Male monkeys were immunized with rhFSHR-57aa protein and a gradual rising of specific serum IgG antibody was found which reached a plateau on day 112 (16 weeks) after the first immunization. After mating of one male with three female monkeys, the pregnancy rate of those mated with males immunized against FSHR-57aa was significantly decreased while the serum hormone levels of testosterone and estradiol were not disturbed in the control or the FSHR-57aa groups. By evaluating pathological changes in testicular histology, we found that the blood-testis barrier remained intact, in spite of some small damage to Sertoli cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the rhFSHR-57aa protein might be a feasible male contraceptive which could affect sperm production without disturbing hormone levels. PMID:24713829

  20. β-Amyloid Oligomers Induce Phosphorylation of Tau and Inactivation of Insulin Receptor Substrate via c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Signaling: Suppression by Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiu-Lan; Yang, Fusheng; Rosario, Emily R.; Ubeda, Oliver J.; Beech, Walter; Gant, Dana J.; Chen, Ping Ping; Hudspeth, Beverly; Chen, Cory; Zhao, Yongle; Vinters, Harry V.; Frautschy, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    Both insulin resistance (type II diabetes) and β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers are implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigate the role of Aβ oligomer-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation leading to phosphorylation and degradation of the adaptor protein insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). IRS-1 couples insulin and other trophic factor receptors to downstream kinases and neuroprotective signaling. Increased phospho-IRS-1 is found in AD brain and insulin-resistant tissues from diabetics. Here, we report Aβ oligomers significantly increased active JNK and phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Ser616) and tau (Ser422) in cultured hippocampal neurons, whereas JNK inhibition blocked these responses. The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) similarly inhibited JNK and the phosphorylation of IRS-1 and tau in cultured hippocampal neurons. Feeding 3xTg-AD transgenic mice a diet high in saturated and omega-6 fat increased active JNK and phosphorylated IRS-1 and tau. Treatment of the 3xTg-AD mice on high-fat diet with fish oil or curcumin or a combination of both for 4 months reduced phosphorylated JNK, IRS-1, and tau and prevented the degradation of total IRS-1. This was accompanied by improvement in Y-maze performance. Mice fed with fish oil and curcumin for 1 month had more significant effects on Y-maze, and the combination showed more significant inhibition of JNK, IRS-1, and tau phosphorylation. These data indicate JNK mediates Aβ oligomer inactivation of IRS-1 and phospho-tau pathology and that dietary treatment with fish oil/DHA, curcumin, or a combination of both has the potential to improve insulin/trophic signaling and cognitive deficits in AD. PMID:19605645

  1. Glycyrrhetinic acid induces cytoprotective autophagy via the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α-c-Jun N-terminal kinase cascade in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zheng-Hai; Zhang, Le-Le; Li, Ting; Lu, Jia-Hong; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Wang, Yi-Tao; Lu, Jin-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Glycerrhetinic acid (GA), one of the main bioactive constituents of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, exerts anti-cancer effects on various cancer cells. We confirmed that GA inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer A549 and NCI-H1299 cells. GA also induced expression of autophagy marker phosphatidylethanolamine-modified microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 (LC3-II) and punta formation of green fluorescent protein microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3. We further proved that expression of GA-increased autophagy marker was attributed to activation instead of suppression of autophagic flux. The c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway was activated after incubation with GA. Pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 or silencing of the JNK pathway by siRNA of JNK or c-jun decreased GA-induced autophagy. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses were also apparently stimulated by GA by triggering the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) pathway. The GA-induced JNK pathway activation and autophagy were decreased by IRE1α knockdown, and inhibition of autophagy or the JNK cascade increased GA-stimulated IRE1α expression. In addition, GA-induced cell proliferative inhibition and apoptosis were increased by inhibition of autophagy or the JNK pathway. Our study was the first to demonstrate that GA induces cytoprotective autophagy in non-small cell lung cancer cells by activating the IRE1α-JNK/c-jun pathway. The combined treatment of autophagy inhibitors markedly enhances the anti-neoplasmic activity of GA. Such combination shows potential as a strategy for GA or GA-contained prescriptions in cancer therapy. PMID:26549806

  2. All-trans retinoic acid diminishes collagen production in a hepatic stellate cell line via suppression of active protein-1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signal.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuan; Dan, Zili

    2010-12-01

    Following acute and chronic liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) become activated to undergo a phenotypic transformation into myofibroblast-like cells and lose their retinol content, but the mechanisms of retinoid loss and its potential roles in HSCs activation and liver fibrosis are not understood. The influence of retinoids on HSCs and hepatic fibrosis remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) on cell proliferation, mRNA expression of collagen genes [procollagen α1 (I), procollagen α1 (III)], profibrogenic genes (TGF-β(1), CTGF, MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, PAI-1), fibrolytic genes (MMP-3, MMP-13) and the upstream element (JNK and AP-1) in the rat hepatic stellate cell line (CFSC-2G). Cell proliferation was evaluated by measuring BrdU incorporation. The mRNA expression levels of collagen genes [procollagen α1 (I), procollagen α1 (III)], profibrogenic genes (TGF-β(1), CTGF, MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, PAI-1), and fibrolytic genes (MMP-3, MMP-13) were quantitatively detected by using real-time PCR. The mRNA expression of JNK and AP-1 was quantified by RT-PCR. The results showed that ATRA inhibited HSCs proliferation and diminished the mRNA expression of collagen genes [procollagen α1 (I), procollagen α1 (III)] and profibrogenic genes (TGF-β(1), CTGF, MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, PAI-1), and significantly stimulated the mRNA expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in HSCs by suppressing the mRNA expression of JNK and AP-1. These findings suggested that ATRA could inhibit proliferation and collagen production of HSCs via the suppression of active protein-1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signal, then decrease the mRNAs expression of profibrogenic genes (TGF-β(1), CTGF, MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, PAI-1), and significantly induce the mRNA expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13. PMID:21181362

  3. N-terminal processing of proteins exported by malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Henry H.; Falick, Arnold M.; Carlton, Peter M.; Sedat, John W.; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Marletta, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Malaria parasites utilize a short N-terminal amino acid motif termed the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL) to export an array of proteins to the host erythrocyte during blood stage infection. Using immunoaffinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, insight into this signal-mediated trafficking mechanism was gained by discovering that the PEXEL motif is cleaved and N-acetylated. PfHRPII and PfEMP2 are two soluble proteins exported by Plasmodium falciparum that were demonstrated to undergo PEXEL cleavage and N-acetylation, thus indicating that this N-terminal processing may be general to many exported soluble proteins. It was established that PEXEL processing occurs upstream of the brefeldin A-sensitive trafficking step in the P. falciparum secretory pathway, therefore cleavage and N-acetylation of the PEXEL motif occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the parasite. Furthermore, it was shown that the recognition of the processed N-terminus of exported proteins within the parasitophorous vacuole may be crucial for protein transport to the host erythrocyte. It appears that the PEXEL may be defined as a novel ER peptidase cleavage site and a classical N-acetyltransferase substrate sequence. PMID:18534695

  4. N-terminal modifications of cellular proteins: The enzymes involved, their substrate specificities and biological effects

    PubMed Central

    Varland, Sylvia; Osberg, Camilla; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of eukaryotic proteins are N-terminally modified by one or more processing enzymes. Enzymes acting on the very first amino acid of a polypeptide include different peptidases, transferases, and ligases. Methionine aminopeptidases excise the initiator methionine leaving the nascent polypeptide with a newly exposed amino acid that may be further modified. N-terminal acetyl-, methyl-, myristoyl-, and palmitoyltransferases may attach an acetyl, methyl, myristoyl, or palmitoyl group, respectively, to the α-amino group of the target protein N-terminus. With the action of ubiquitin ligases, one or several ubiquitin molecules are transferred, and hence, constitute the N-terminal modification. Modifications at protein N-termini represent an important contribution to proteomic diversity and complexity, and are essential for protein regulation and cellular signaling. Consequently, dysregulation of the N-terminal modifying enzymes is implicated in human diseases. We here review the different protein N-terminal modifications occurring co- or post-translationally with emphasis on the responsible enzymes and their substrate specificities. PMID:25914051

  5. N-Terminal Region of the Catalytic Domain of Human N-Myristoyltransferase 1 Acts as an Inhibitory Module

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sujeet; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    2015-01-01

    N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) plays critical roles in the modulation of various signaling molecules, however, the regulation of this enzyme in diverse cellular states remains poorly understood. We provide experimental evidence to show for the first time that for the isoform 1 of human NMT (hNMT1), the regulatory roles extend into the catalytic core. In our present study, we expressed, purified, and characterized a truncation mutant devoid of 28 N-terminal amino acids from the catalytic module (Δ28-hNMT1s) and compared its properties to the full-length catalytic domain of hNMT1. The deletion of the N-terminal peptide had no effect on the enzyme stability. Our findings suggest that the N-terminal region in the catalytic module of hNMT1 functions serves as a regulatory control element. The observations of an ~3 fold increase in enzymatic efficiency following removal of the N-terminal peptide of hNMT1s indicates that N-terminal amino acids acts as an inhibitory segment and negatively regulate the enzyme activity. Our findings that the N-terminal region confers control over activity, taken together with the earlier observations that the N-terminal of hNMT1 is differentially processed in diverse cellular states, suggests that the proteolytic processing of the peptide segment containing the inhibitory region provides a molecular mechanism for physiological up-regulation of myristoyltransferase activity. PMID:26000639

  6. Effect of amino acid substitution in the hydrophobic face of amphiphilic peptides on membrane curvature and perturbation: N-terminal helix derived from adenovirus internal protein VI as a model.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Tomo; Pujals, Sílvia; Hirose, Hisaaki; Nakase, Ikuhiko; Futaki, Shiroh

    2016-11-01

    The N-terminal amphipathic helical segment of adenovirus internal protein VI (AdVpVI) plays a critical role in viral infection. Here, we report that the peptide segment corresponding to AdVpVI (positions 33-55) can induce positive membrane curvature together with membrane perturbation. The enhanced perturbation ability of the peptide was observed for membranes containing negatively charged phospholipids. Based on the liposome leakage assay, substitution of leucine at position 40 to other aliphatic (isoleucine) and aromatic (phenylalanine and tryptophan) residues yielded a similar degree of membrane perturbation by the peptides, which was considerably diminished by the substitution to glutamine. Further studies using the wild-type AdVpVI (33-55) (WT) and phenylalanine-substituted peptides (L40F) demonstrated that both peptides have positive membrane-curvature-inducing ability. These peptides showed higher binding affinity to 50-nm large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) than to 200-nm LUVs. However, no enhanced perturbation by these peptides was observed for 50-nm LUVs compared to 200-nm LUVs, suggesting that both the original membrane curvature and the additional strain due to peptide insertion affect the membrane perturbation ability of these peptides. In the case of L40F, this peptide rather had a lower membrane perturbation ability for 50-nm LUVs than for 200-nm LUVs, which can be attributed to possible shallower binding of L40F on membranes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 430-439, 2016. PMID:27271816

  7. Oxidation of the N-terminal methionine of lens alpha-A crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Horwitz, J.; Emmons, T.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Antiserum against the N-terminal peptide of bovine alpha-A crystallin has been used to monitor purification of two different seropositive peptides (i.e. T1a and T1b) from a tryptic digest of bovine lens proteins. Both these peptides have similar amino acid compositions, but peptide T1b has a molecular weight 16 atomic mass units larger than T1a, suggesting posttranslational modification. Analysis of ionization fragments of the T1b peptide by mass spectrometry demonstrates that this difference in molecular weight is due to the in vivo oxidation of the N-terminal met residue of the alpha-A crystallin molecule.

  8. Expression of active streptolysin O in Escherichia coli as a maltose-binding-protein--streptolysin-O fusion protein. The N-terminal 70 amino acids are not required for hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Weller, U; Müller, L; Messner, M; Palmer, M; Valeva, A; Tranum-Jensen, J; Agrawal, P; Biermann, C; Döbereiner, A; Kehoe, M A; Bhakdi, S

    1996-02-15

    Streptolysin 0 (SLO) is the prototype of a family of cytolysins that consists of proteins which bind to cholesterol and form very large transmembrane pores. Structure/function studies on the pore-forming cytolysin SLO have been complicated by the proteolytic inactivation of a substantial portion of recombinant SLO (rSLO) expressed in Escherichia coli. To overcome this problem, translational fusions between the E. coli maltose-binding protein (MBP) gene and SLO were constructed, using the vectors pMAL-p2 and pMAL-c2. MBP-SLO fusion proteins were degraded if secreted into the E. coli periplasm, but intact, soluble MBP-SLO fusion proteins were produced at high levels in the cytoplasm. Active SLO with the expected N-terminus was separated from the MBP carrier by cleavage with factor Xa. Cleavage with plasmin or trypsin also yielded active, but slightly smaller forms of SLO. Surprisingly, uncleaved MBP-SLO was also hemolytic and cytotoxic to human fibroblasts and keratinocytes. The MBP-SLO fusion protein displayed equal activities to SLO. Sucrose density gradient analyses showed that the fusion protein assembled into polymers, and no difference in structure was discerned compared with polymers formed by native SLO. These studies show that the N-terminal 70 residues of mature (secreted) SLO are not required for pore formation and that the N-terminus of the molecule is probably not inserted into the bilayer. In addition, they provide a simple means for producing mutants for structure/function studies and highly purified SLO for use as a permeabilising reagent in cell biology research. PMID:8617283

  9. Trypanosome Alternative Oxidase Possesses both an N-Terminal and Internal Mitochondrial Targeting Signal

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, VaNae; Singha, Ujjal K.; Smith, Joseph T.; Weems, Ebony

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of mitochondrial targeting signals (MTS) by receptor translocases of outer and inner membranes of mitochondria is one of the prerequisites for import of nucleus-encoded proteins into this organelle. The MTS for a majority of trypanosomatid mitochondrial proteins have not been well defined. Here we analyzed the targeting signal for trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO), which functions as the sole terminal oxidase in the infective form of Trypanosoma brucei. Deleting the first 10 of 24 amino acids predicted to be the classical N-terminal MTS of TAO did not affect its import into mitochondria in vitro. Furthermore, ectopically expressed TAO was targeted to mitochondria in both forms of the parasite even after deletion of first 40 amino acid residues. However, deletion of more than 20 amino acid residues from the N terminus reduced the efficiency of import. These data suggest that besides an N-terminal MTS, TAO possesses an internal mitochondrial targeting signal. In addition, both the N-terminal MTS and the mature TAO protein were able to target a cytosolic protein, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), to a T. brucei mitochondrion. Further analysis identified a cryptic internal MTS of TAO, located within amino acid residues 115 to 146, which was fully capable of targeting DHFR to mitochondria. The internal signal was more efficient than the N-terminal MTS for import of this heterologous protein. Together, these results show that TAO possesses a cleavable N-terminal MTS as well as an internal MTS and that these signals act together for efficient import of TAO into mitochondria. PMID:24562910

  10. The N-terminal acetyltransferase Naa10 is essential for zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Ree, Rasmus; Myklebust, Line M.; Thiel, Puja; Foyn, Håvard; Fladmark, Kari E.; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation, catalysed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes and involves the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the α-amino group of the first amino acid. Functions of N-terminal acetylation include protein degradation and sub-cellular targeting. Recent findings in humans indicate that a dysfunctional Nα-acetyltransferase (Naa) 10, the catalytic subunit of NatA, the major NAT, is associated with lethality during infancy. In the present study, we identified the Danio rerio orthologue zebrafish Naa 10 (zNaa10). In vitro N-terminal acetylation assays revealed that zNaa10 has NAT activity with substrate specificity highly similar to that of human Naa10. Spatiotemporal expression pattern was determined by in situ hybridization, showing ubiquitous expression with especially strong staining in brain and eye. By morpholino-mediated knockdown, we demonstrated that naa10 morphants displayed increased lethality, growth retardation and developmental abnormalities like bent axis, abnormal eyes and bent tails. In conclusion, we identified the zebrafish Naa10 orthologue and revealed that it is essential for normal development and viability of zebrafish. PMID:26251455

  11. Data from extension trials: denosumab and zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Dore, Robin K

    2012-03-01

    Osteoporosis and fractures that occur as a result of this condition pose a huge public health problem to society and result in morbidity and mortality to individuals. Because osteoporosis is often a result of aging, many people are not aware that therapies exist to reduce the risk of fracture. Until recently, the most common therapies used to treat osteoporosis, the oral bisphosphonates, had an inconvenient and cumbersome mode of administration. Within the last 4 years, two new parenteral antiresorptive drugs to treat osteoporosis were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. As treatment of osteoporosis may extend for many years, the collection of long-term efficacy and safety data is warranted. This paper discusses data from the extension trials of denosumab and zoledronic acid. PMID:22086442

  12. Top-down N-terminal sequencing of Immunoglobulin subunits with electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ren, Da; Pipes, Gary D; Hambly, David; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Treuheit, Michael J; Gadgil, Himanshu S

    2009-01-01

    An N-terminal top-down sequencing approach was developed for IgG characterization, using high-resolution HPLC separation and collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) on a single-stage LCT Premier time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Fragmentation of the IgG chains on the LCT Premier was optimized by varying the ion guide voltage values. Ion guide 1 voltage had the most significant effect on the fragmentation of the IgG chains. An ion guide 1 voltage value of 100 V was found to be optimum for the N-terminal fragmentation of IgG heavy and light chains, which are approximately 50 and 25 kDa, respectively. The most prominent ion series in this CAD experiment was the terminal b-ion series which allows N-terminal sequencing. Using this technique, we were able to confirm the sequence of up to seven N-terminal residues. Applications of this method for the identification of N-terminal pyroglutamic acid formation will be discussed. The method described could be used as a high-throughput method for the rapid N-terminal sequencing of IgG chains and for the detection of chemical modifications in the terminal residues. PMID:18834850

  13. N-terminal protein processing: A comparative proteogenomic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bonissone, Stefano; Gupta, Nitin; Romine, Margaret F.; Bradshaw, Ralph A.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2013-01-01

    N-Terminal Methionine Excision (NME) is a universally conserved mechanism with the same specificity across all life forms that removes the first Methionine in proteins when the second residue is Gly, Ala, Ser, Cys, Thr, Pro, or Val. In spite of its necessity for proper cell functioning, the functional role of NME remains unclear. In 1988, Arfin and Bradshaw connected NME with the N-end protein degradation rule and postulated that the role of NME is to expose the stabilizing residues with the goal to resist protein degradation. While this explanation (that treats 7 stabilizing residues in the same manner) has become the de facto dogma of NME, comparative proteogenomics analysis of NME tells a different story. We suggest that the primary role of NME is to expose only two (rather than seven) amino acids Ala and Ser for post-translational modifications (e.g., acetylation) rather than to regulate protein degradation. We argue that, contrary to the existing view, NME is not crucially important for proteins with 5 other stabilizing residue at the 2nd positions that are merely bystanders (their function is not affected by NME) that become exposed to NME because their sizes are comparable or smaller than the size of Ala and Ser.

  14. Downregulation of N-terminal acetylation triggers ABA-mediated drought responses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Linster, Eric; Stephan, Iwona; Bienvenut, Willy V.; Maple-Grødem, Jodi; Myklebust, Line M.; Huber, Monika; Reichelt, Michael; Sticht, Carsten; Geir Møller, Simon; Meinnel, Thierry; Arnesen, Thomas; Giglione, Carmela; Hell, Rüdiger; Wirtz, Markus

    2015-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation (NTA) catalysed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (Nats) is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes, but its significance is still enigmatic. Here we characterize the plant NatA complex and reveal evolutionary conservation of NatA biochemical properties in higher eukaryotes and uncover specific and essential functions of NatA for development, biosynthetic pathways and stress responses in plants. We show that NTA decreases significantly after drought stress, and NatA abundance is rapidly downregulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid. Accordingly, transgenic downregulation of NatA induces the drought stress response and results in strikingly drought resistant plants. Thus, we propose that NTA by the NatA complex acts as a cellular surveillance mechanism during stress and that imprinting of the proteome by NatA is an important switch for the control of metabolism, development and cellular stress responses downstream of abscisic acid. PMID:26184543

  15. The N-terminal half of membrane CD14 is a functional cellular lipopolysaccharide receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Viriyakosol, S; Kirkland, T N

    1996-01-01

    CD14, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein on the surface of monocytes, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, is a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It was recently reported that an N-terminal 152-amino-acid fragment of soluble CD14 was an active soluble lipopolysaccharide receptor (T. S. -C. Juan, M. J. Kelley, D. A. Johnson, L. A. Busse, E. Hailman, S. D. Wright, and H. S. Lichenstein, J. Biol. Chem. 270:1382-1387, 1995). To determine whether the N-terminal half of the membrane CD14 was a functional LPS receptor on the cell membrane, we engineered a chimeric gene coding for amino acids 1 to 151 of CD14 fused to the C-terminal region of decay-accelerating factor and expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary cells and 70Z/3 cells. We found that the chimeric, truncated CD14 is a fully functional LPS receptor in both cell lines. PMID:8550221

  16. Antiepileptic Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla and Rhynchophylline Involved in the Initiation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation of MAPK Signal Pathways in Acute Seizures of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Seizures cause inflammation of the central nervous system. The extent of the inflammation is related to the severity and recurrence of the seizures. Cell surface receptors are stimulated by stimulators such as kainic acid (KA), which causes intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway transmission to coordinate a response. It is known that Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and rhynchophylline (RP) have anticonvulsive effects, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy for treating epilepsy by investigating how UR and RP initiate their anticonvulsive mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered KA (12 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce seizure before being sacrificed. The brain was removed 3 h after KA administration. The results indicate that pretreatment with UR (1.0 g/kg), RP (0.25 mg/kg), and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg) for 3 d could reduce epileptic seizures and could also reduce the expression of c-Jun aminoterminal kinase phosphorylation (JNKp) of MAPK signal pathways in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus brain tissues. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 β , IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- α remain unchanged, indicating that the anticonvulsive effect of UR and RP is initially involved in the JNKp MAPK signal pathway during the KA-induced acute seizure period. PMID:24381640

  17. HIGHLY CONSERVED N-TERMINAL SEQUENCE FOR TELEOST VITELLOGENIN WITH POTENTIAL VALUE TO THE BIOCHEMISTRY, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY OF VITELLOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    N-terminal amino acid sequences for vitellogenin (Vtg) from six species of teleost fish: striped bass, Morone saxatillus; mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus; pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides; brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosus; medaka, Oryzias latipes; yellow perch, Percaflavescens and ...

  18. Correlation between spina bifida manifesta in fetal rats and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling★

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yinghuan; Bao, Yongxin; Li, Chenghao; Jiao, Fubin; Xin, Hongjie; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2012-01-01

    Fetal rat models with neural tube defects were established by injection with retinoic acid at 10 days after conception. The immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis showed that the number of caspase-3 positive cells in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta was increased. There was also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase family. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation level was positively correlated with caspase-3 expression in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta. Experimental findings indicate that abnormal apoptosis is involved in retinoic acid-induced dominant spina bifida formation in fetal rats, and may be associated with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signal transduction pathway. PMID:25337099

  19. N-Terminal signal sequence is required for cellular trafficking and hyaluronan-depolymerization of KIAA1199.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nagaoka, Aya; Nakamura, Sachiko; Tobiishi, Megumi; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Inoue, Shintaro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we disclosed that KIAA1199-mediated hyaluronan (HA) depolymerization requires an acidic cellular microenvironment (e.g. clathrin-coated vesicles or early endosomes), but no information about the structural basis underlying the cellular targeting and functional modification of KIAA1199 was available. Here, we show that the cleavage of N-terminal 30 amino acids occurs in functionally matured KIAA1199, and the deletion of the N-terminal portion results in altered intracellular trafficking of the molecule and loss of cellular HA depolymerization. These results suggest that the N-terminal portion of KIAA1199 functions as a cleavable signal sequence required for proper KIAA1199 translocation and KIAA1199-mediated HA depolymerization. PMID:24269685

  20. Structure of the human histone chaperone FACT Spt16 N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Marcianò, G; Huang, D T

    2016-02-01

    The histone chaperone FACT plays an important role in facilitating nucleosome assembly and disassembly during transcription. FACT is a heterodimeric complex consisting of Spt16 and SSRP1. The N-terminal domain of Spt16 resembles an inactive aminopeptidase. How this domain contributes to the histone chaperone activity of FACT remains elusive. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of human Spt16 is reported at a resolution of 1.84 Å. The structure adopts an aminopeptidase-like fold similar to those of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Spt16 NTDs. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyses show that human Spt16 NTD binds histones H3/H4 with low-micromolar affinity, suggesting that Spt16 NTD may contribute to histone binding in the FACT complex. Surface-residue conservation and electrostatic analysis reveal a conserved acidic patch that may be involved in histone binding. PMID:26841762

  1. The N-terminal strand modulates immunoglobulin light chain fibrillogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pozo-Yauner, Luis del; Wall, Jonathan S.; González Andrade, Martín; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Rodríguez-Ambriz, Sandra L.; Pérez Carreón, Julio I.; and others

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •We evaluated the impact of mutations in the N-terminal strand of 6aJL2 protein. •Mutations destabilized the protein in a position-dependent manner. •Destabilizing mutations accelerated the fibrillogenesis by shortening the lag time. •The effect on the kinetic of fibril elongation by seeding was of different nature. •The N-terminal strand is buried in the fibrillar state of 6aJL2 protein. -- Abstract: It has been suggested that the N-terminal strand of the light chain variable domain (V{sub L}) protects the molecule from aggregation by hindering spurious intermolecular contacts. We evaluated the impact of mutations in the N-terminal strand on the thermodynamic stability and kinetic of fibrillogenesis of the V{sub L} protein 6aJL2. Mutations in this strand destabilized the protein in a position-dependent manner, accelerating the fibrillogenesis by shortening the lag time; an effect that correlated with the extent of destabilization. In contrast, the effect on the kinetics of fibril elongation, as assessed in seeding experiments was of different nature, as it was not directly dependant on the degree of destabilization. This finding suggests different factors drive the nucleation-dependent and elongation phases of light chain fibrillogenesis. Finally, taking advantage of the dependence of the Trp fluorescence upon environment, four single Trp substitutions were made in the N-terminal strand, and changes in solvent exposure during aggregation were evaluated by acrylamide-quenching. The results suggest that the N-terminal strand is buried in the fibrillar state of 6aJL2 protein. This finding suggest a possible explanation for the modulating effect exerted by the mutations in this strand on the aggregation behavior of 6aJL2 protein.

  2. The N-terminal region of mature mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase can direct cytosolic dihydrofolate reductase into mitochondria in vitro.

    PubMed

    Giannattasio, S; Azzariti, A; Marra, E; Quagliariello, E

    1994-06-30

    Two fused genes were constructed which encode for two chimeric proteins in which either 10 or 191 N-terminal amino acids of mature mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase had been attached to the entire polypeptide chain of cytosolic dihydrofolate reductase. The precursor and mature form of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, dihydrofolate reductase and both chimeric proteins were synthesized in vitro and their import into isolated mitochondria was studied. Both chimeric proteins were taken up by isolated organelles, where they became protease resistant, thus indicating the ability of the N-terminal portion of the mature moiety of the precursor of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase to direct cytosolic dihydrofolate reductase into mitochondria. PMID:8024546

  3. Testing the Role of the N-Terminal Tail of D1 in the Maintenance of Photosystem II in Tobacco Chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Michoux, Franck; Ahmad, Niaz; Wei, Zheng-Yi; Belgio, Erica; Ruban, Alexander V; Nixon, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    A key step in the repair of photoinactivated oxygen-evolving photosystem II (PSII) complexes is the selective recognition and degradation of the damaged PSII subunit, usually the D1 reaction center subunit. FtsH proteases play a major role in D1 degradation in both cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. In the case of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, analysis of an N-terminal truncation mutant of D1 lacking 20 amino-acid residues has provided evidence that FtsH complexes can remove damaged D1 in a processive reaction initiated at the exposed N-terminal tail. To test the importance of the N-terminal D1 tail in higher plants, we have constructed the equivalent truncation mutant in tobacco using chloroplast transformation techniques. The resulting mutant grew poorly and only accumulated about 25% of wild-type levels of PSII in young leaves which declined as the leaves grew so that there was little PSII activity in mature leaves. Truncating D1 led to the loss of PSII supercomplexes and dimeric complexes in the membrane. Extensive and rapid non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was still induced in the mutant, supporting the conclusion that PSII complexes are not required for NPQ. Analysis of leaves exposed to high light indicated that PSII repair in the truncation mutant was impaired at the level of synthesis and/or assembly of PSII but that D1 could still be degraded. These data support the idea that tobacco plants possess a number of back-up and compensatory pathways for removal of damaged D1 upon severe light stress. PMID:27446098

  4. Testing the Role of the N-Terminal Tail of D1 in the Maintenance of Photosystem II in Tobacco Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Michoux, Franck; Ahmad, Niaz; Wei, Zheng-Yi; Belgio, Erica; Ruban, Alexander V.; Nixon, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    A key step in the repair of photoinactivated oxygen-evolving photosystem II (PSII) complexes is the selective recognition and degradation of the damaged PSII subunit, usually the D1 reaction center subunit. FtsH proteases play a major role in D1 degradation in both cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. In the case of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, analysis of an N-terminal truncation mutant of D1 lacking 20 amino-acid residues has provided evidence that FtsH complexes can remove damaged D1 in a processive reaction initiated at the exposed N-terminal tail. To test the importance of the N-terminal D1 tail in higher plants, we have constructed the equivalent truncation mutant in tobacco using chloroplast transformation techniques. The resulting mutant grew poorly and only accumulated about 25% of wild-type levels of PSII in young leaves which declined as the leaves grew so that there was little PSII activity in mature leaves. Truncating D1 led to the loss of PSII supercomplexes and dimeric complexes in the membrane. Extensive and rapid non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was still induced in the mutant, supporting the conclusion that PSII complexes are not required for NPQ. Analysis of leaves exposed to high light indicated that PSII repair in the truncation mutant was impaired at the level of synthesis and/or assembly of PSII but that D1 could still be degraded. These data support the idea that tobacco plants possess a number of back-up and compensatory pathways for removal of damaged D1 upon severe light stress. PMID:27446098

  5. Identification and Analysis of the Acetylated Status of Poplar Proteins Reveals Analogous N-Terminal Protein Processing Mechanisms with Other Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Cai; Zhu, Hang-Yong; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Ning, De-Li; Wang, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei-Hua; Yang, Chuan-Ping; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Background The N-terminal protein processing mechanism (NPM) including N-terminal Met excision (NME) and N-terminal acetylation (Nα-acetylation) represents a common protein co-translational process of some eukaryotes. However, this NPM occurred in woody plants yet remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To reveal the NPM in poplar, we investigated the Nα-acetylation status of poplar proteins during dormancy by combining tandem mass spectrometry with TiO2 enrichment of acetylated peptides. We identified 58 N-terminally acetylated (Nα-acetylated) proteins. Most proteins (47, >81%) are subjected to Nα-acetylation following the N-terminal removal of Met, indicating that Nα-acetylation and NME represent a common NPM of poplar proteins. Furthermore, we confirm that poplar shares the analogous NME and Nα-acetylation (NPM) to other eukaryotes according to analysis of N-terminal features of these acetylated proteins combined with genome-wide identification of the involving methionine aminopeptidases (MAPs) and N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nat) enzymes in poplar. The Nα-acetylated reactions and the involving enzymes of these poplar proteins are also identified based on those of yeast and human, as well as the subcellular location information of these poplar proteins. Conclusions/Significance This study represents the first extensive investigation of Nα-acetylation events in woody plants, the results of which will provide useful resources for future unraveling the regulatory mechanisms of Nα-acetylation of proteins in poplar. PMID:23536812

  6. Emerging Functions for N-Terminal Protein Acetylation in Plants.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    N-terminal (Nt-) acetylation is a widespread but poorly understood co-translational protein modification. Two reports now shed light onto the proteome-wide dynamics and protein-specific consequences of Nt-acetylation in relation to plant development, stress-response, and protein stability, identifying this modification as a key regulator of diverse aspects of plant growth and behaviour. PMID:26319188

  7. N-terminal sequence of some ribosome-inactivating proteins.

    PubMed

    Montecucchi, P C; Lazzarini, A M; Barbieri, L; Stirpe, F; Soria, M; Lappi, D

    1989-04-01

    The N-terminal portion of some type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) isolated from the seeds of Gelonium multiflorum, Momordica charantia, Bryonia dioica, Saponaria officinalis and from the leaves of Saponaria officinalis are reported in the present paper. Their relationship with other RIPs is discussed. PMID:2753596

  8. Structure and Function of the Sterol Carrier Protein-2 N-Terminal Presequence†

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gregory G.; Hostetler, Heather A.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Tichy, Shane E.; Williams, Brad J.; Russell, David H.; Berg, Jeremy M.; Spencer, Thomas A.; Ball, Judith; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Although sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) is encoded as a precursor protein (proSCP-2), little is known regarding the structure and function of the 20-amino acid N-terminal presequence. As shown herein, the presequence contains significant secondary structure and alters SCP-2: (i) secondary structure (CD), (ii) tertiary structure (aqueous exposure of Trp shown by UV absorbance, fluorescence, fluorescence quenching), (iii) ligand binding site [Trp response to ligands, peptide cross-linked by photoactivatable free cholesterol (FCBP)], (iv) selectivity for interaction with anionic phospholipid-rich membranes, (v) interaction with a peroxisomal import protein [FRET studies of Pex5p(C) binding], the N-terminal presequence increased SCP-2’s affinity for Pex5p(C) by 10-fold, and (vi) intracellular targeting in living and fixed cells (confocal microscopy). Nearly 5-fold more SCP-2 than proSCP-2 colocalized with plasma membrane lipid rafts/caveolae (AF488-CTB), 2.8-fold more SCP-2 than proSCP-2 colocalized with a mitochondrial marker (Mitotracker), but nearly 2-fold less SCP-2 than proSCP-2 colocalized with peroxisomes (AF488-antibody to PMP70). These data indicate the importance of the N-terminal presequence in regulating SCP-2 structure, cholesterol localization within the ligand binding site, membrane association, and, potentially, intracellular targeting. PMID:18465878

  9. Intrinsic disorder and multiple phosphorylations constrain the evolution of the flightin N-terminal region.

    PubMed

    Lemas, Dominick; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Ballif, Bryan A; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2016-03-01

    Flightin is a myosin binding phosphoprotein that originated in the ancestor to Pancrustacea ~500 MYA. In Drosophila melanogaster, flightin is essential for length determination and flexural rigidity of thick filaments. Here, we show that among 12 Drosophila species, the N-terminal region is characterized by low sequence conservation, low pI, a cluster of phosphorylation sites, and a high propensity to intrinsic disorder (ID) that is augmented by phosphorylation. Using mass spectrometry, we identified eight phosphorylation sites within a 29 amino acid segment in the N-terminal region of D. melanogaster flightin. We show that phosphorylation of D. melanogaster flightin is modulated during flight and, through a comparative analysis to orthologs from other Drosophila species, we found phosphorylation sites that remain invariant, sites that retain the charge character, and sites that are clade-specific. While the number of predicted phosphorylation sites differs across species, we uncovered a conserved pattern that relates the number of phosphorylation sites to pI and ID. Extending the analysis to orthologs of other insects, we found additional conserved features in flightin despite the near absence of sequence identity. Collectively, our results demonstrate that structural constraints demarcate the evolution of the highly variable N-terminal region. PMID:26691840

  10. Immune challenge induces N-terminal cleavage of the Drosophila serpin Necrotic

    PubMed Central

    Pelte, Nadège; Robertson, Andrew S.; Zou, Zhen; Belorgey, Didier; Dafforn, Timothy R.; Jiang, Haobo; Lomas, David; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Gubb, David

    2007-01-01

    The Drosophila Necrotic protein is a serine proteinase inhibitor, which regulates the Toll-mediated innate immune response. Necrotic specifically inhibits an extracellular serine proteinase cascade leading to activation of the Toll ligand, Spätzle. Necrotic carries a polyglutamine extension amino-terminal to the core serpin structure. We show here that cleavage of this N-terminal extension occurs following immune challenge. This modification is blocked in PGRP-SAsemmelweiss mutants after Gram-positive bacterial challenge and in persephone mutants after fungal or Gram-positive bacterial challenge, indicating that activation of either of the Toll pathway upstream branches induces N-terminal cleavage of the serpin. The absolute requirement of persephone gene product for this cleavage indicates that Gram-positive bacteria activate a redundant set of proteinases upstream of Toll. Both full-length Necrotic and the core serpin are active inhibitors of a range of serine proteinases: the highest affinity being for cathepsin G and elastases. We found a 13-fold increase in the specificity of the core serpin over that of full-length Necrotic for one of the tested proteinases (porcine pancreatic elastase). This finding indicates that cleavage of the Necrotic amino-terminal extension might modulate Toll activation following the initial immune response. PMID:16360948

  11. Properties of Rab5 N-terminal domain dictate prenylation of C-terminal cysteines.

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, J C; Pan, Y; Wessling-Resnick, M

    1995-01-01

    Rab5 is a Ras-related GTP-binding protein that is post-translationally modified by prenylation. We report here that an N-terminal domain contained within the first 22 amino acids of Rab5 is critical for efficient geranylgeranylation of the protein's C-terminal cysteines. This domain is immediately upstream from the "phosphate binding loop" common to all GTP-binding proteins and contains a highly conserved sequence recognized among members of the Rab family, referred to here as the YXYLFK motif. A truncation mutant that lacks this domain (Rab5(23-215) fails to become prenylated. However, a chimeric peptide with the conserved motif replacing cognate Rab5 sequence (MAYDYLFKRab5(23-215) does become post-translationally modified, demonstrating that the presence of this simple six amino acid N-terminal element enables prenylation at Rab5's C-terminus. H-Ras/Rab5 chimeras that include the conserved YXYLFK motif at the N-terminus do not become prenylated, indicating that, while this element may be necessary for prenylation of Rab proteins, it alone is not sufficient to confer properties to a heterologous protein to enable substrate recognition by the Rab geranylgeranyl transferase. Deletion analysis and studies of point mutants further reveal that the lysine residue of the YXYLFK motif is an absolute requirement to enable geranylgeranylation of Rab proteins. Functional studies support the idea that this domain is not required for guanine nucleotide binding since prenylation-defective mutants still bind GDP and are protected from protease digestion in the presence of GTP gamma S. We conclude that the mechanism of Rab geranylgeranylation involves key elements of the protein's tertiary structure including a conserved N-terminal amino acid motif (YXYLFK) that incorporates a critical lysine residue. Images PMID:7749197

  12. Structural characterization of the N-terminal part of the MERS-CoV nucleocapsid by X-ray diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Lichière, Julie; Baklouti, Amal; Ferron, François; Sévajol, Marion; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    The N protein of coronaviruses is a multifunctional protein that is organized into several domains. The N-terminal part is composed of an intrinsically disordered region (IDR) followed by a structured domain called the N-terminal domain (NTD). In this study, the structure determination of the N-terminal region of the MERS-CoV N protein via X-ray diffraction measurements is reported at a resolution of 2.4 Å. Since the first 30 amino acids were not resolved by X-ray diffraction, the structural study was completed by a SAXS experiment to propose a structural model including the IDR. This model presents the N-terminal region of the MERS-CoV as a monomer that displays structural features in common with other coronavirus NTDs. PMID:26894667

  13. Extended string-like binding of the phosphorylated HP1α N-terminal tail to the lysine 9-methylated histone H3 tail

    PubMed Central

    Shimojo, Hideaki; Kawaguchi, Ayumi; Oda, Takashi; Hashiguchi, Nobuto; Omori, Satoshi; Moritsugu, Kei; Kidera, Akinori; Hiragami-Hamada, Kyoko; Nakayama, Jun-ichi; Sato, Mamoru; Nishimura, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The chromodomain of HP1α binds directly to lysine 9-methylated histone H3 (H3K9me). This interaction is enhanced by phosphorylation of serine residues in the N-terminal tail of HP1α by unknown mechanism. Here we show that phosphorylation modulates flexibility of HP1α’s N-terminal tail, which strengthens the interaction with H3. NMR analysis of HP1α’s chromodomain with N-terminal tail reveals that phosphorylation does not change the overall tertiary structure, but apparently reduces the tail dynamics. Small angle X-ray scattering confirms that phosphorylation contributes to extending HP1α’s N-terminal tail. Systematic analysis using deletion mutants and replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the phosphorylated serines and following acidic segment behave like an extended string and dynamically bind to H3 basic residues; without phosphorylation, the most N-terminal basic segment of HP1α inhibits interaction of the acidic segment with H3. Thus, the dynamic string-like behavior of HP1α’s N-terminal tail underlies the enhancement in H3 binding due to phosphorylation. PMID:26934956

  14. Specific N-terminal cleavage of ribosomal protein L27 in Staphylococcus aureus and related bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Erin A.; Caufield, J. Harry; Lyons, Charles E.; Manning, Keith A.; Dokland, Terje; Christie, Gail E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ribosomal protein L27 is a component of the eubacterial large ribosomal subunit that has been shown to play a critical role in substrate stabilization during protein synthesis. This function is mediated by the L27 N-terminus, which protrudes into the peptidyl transferase center. In this report we demonstrate that L27 in Staphylococcus aureus and other Firmicutes is encoded with an N-terminal extension that is not present in most Gram-negative organisms, and is absent from mature ribosomes. We have identified a cysteine protease, conserved among bacteria containing the L27 N-terminal extension, which performs post-translational cleavage of L27. Ribosomal biology in eubacteria has largely been studied in the Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli; our findings indicate that there are aspects of the basic biology of the ribosome in S. aureus and other related bacteria that differ substantially from that of the E. coli ribosome. This research lays the foundation for the development of new therapeutic approaches that target this novel pathway. PMID:25388641

  15. The N-terminal domains of TRF1 and TRF2 regulate their ability to condense telomeric DNA

    PubMed Central

    Poulet, Anaïs; Pisano, Sabrina; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Pei, Bei; Tauran, Yannick; Haftek-Terreau, Zofia; Brunet, Frédéric; Le Bihan, Yann-Vaï; Ledu, Marie-Hélène; Montel, Fabien; Hugo, Nicolas; Amiard, Simon; Argoul, Françoise; Chaboud, Annie; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe

    2012-01-01

    TRF1 and TRF2 are key proteins in human telomeres, which, despite their similarities, have different behaviors upon DNA binding. Previous work has shown that unlike TRF1, TRF2 condenses telomeric, thus creating consequential negative torsion on the adjacent DNA, a property that is thought to lead to the stimulation of single-strand invasion and was proposed to favor telomeric DNA looping. In this report, we show that these activities, originating from the central TRFH domain of TRF2, are also displayed by the TRFH domain of TRF1 but are repressed in the full-length protein by the presence of an acidic domain at the N-terminus. Strikingly, a similar repression is observed on TRF2 through the binding of a TERRA-like RNA molecule to the N-terminus of TRF2. Phylogenetic and biochemical studies suggest that the N-terminal domains of TRF proteins originate from a gradual extension of the coding sequences of a duplicated ancestral gene with a consequential progressive alteration of the biochemical properties of these proteins. Overall, these data suggest that the N-termini of TRF1 and TRF2 have evolved to finely regulate their ability to condense DNA. PMID:22139926

  16. Structural insights into the human RyR2 N-terminal region involved in cardiac arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Borko, Ľubomír; Bauerová-Hlinková, Vladena Hostinová, Eva; Gašperík, Juraj; Beck, Konrad; Lai, F. Anthony; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Ševčík, Jozef

    2014-11-01

    X-ray and solution structures of the human RyR2 N-terminal region were obtained under near-physiological conditions. The structure exhibits a unique network of interactions between its three domains, revealing an important stabilizing role of the central helix. Human ryanodine receptor 2 (hRyR2) mediates calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, enabling cardiomyocyte contraction. The N-terminal region of hRyR2 (amino acids 1–606) is the target of >30 arrhythmogenic mutations and contains a binding site for phosphoprotein phosphatase 1. Here, the solution and crystal structures determined under near-physiological conditions, as well as a homology model of the hRyR2 N-terminal region, are presented. The N-terminus is held together by a unique network of interactions among its three domains, A, B and C, in which the central helix (amino acids 410–437) plays a prominent stabilizing role. Importantly, the anion-binding site reported for the mouse RyR2 N-terminal region is notably absent from the human RyR2. The structure concurs with the differential stability of arrhythmogenic mutations in the central helix (R420W, I419F and I419F/R420W) which are owing to disparities in the propensity of mutated residues to form energetically favourable or unfavourable contacts. In solution, the N-terminus adopts a globular shape with a prominent tail that is likely to involve residues 545–606, which are unresolved in the crystal structure. Docking the N-terminal domains into cryo-electron microscopy maps of the closed and open RyR1 conformations reveals C{sup α} atom movements of up to 8 Å upon channel gating, and predicts the location of the leucine–isoleucine zipper segment and the interaction site for spinophilin and phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 on the RyR surface.

  17. The N-Terminal of Aquareovirus NS80 Is Required for Interacting with Viral Proteins and Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Chen, Qingxiu; Zhang, Fuxian; Fang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Reovirus replication and assembly occurs within viral inclusion bodies that formed in specific intracellular compartments of cytoplasm in infected cells. Previous study indicated that aquareovirus NS80 is able to form inclusion bodies, and also can retain viral proteins within its inclusions. To better understand how NS80 performed in viral replication and assembly, the functional regions of NS80 associated with other viral proteins in aquareovirus replication were investigated in this study. Deletion mutational analysis and rotavirus NSP5-based protein association platform were used to detect association regions. Immunofluorescence images indicated that different N-terminal regions of NS80 could associate with viral proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 and NS38. Further co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the interaction between VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 with different regions covering the N-terminal amino acid (aa, 1–471) of NS80, respectively. Moreover, removal of NS80 N-terminal sequences required for interaction with proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 not only prevented the capacity of NS80 to support viral replication in NS80 shRNA-based replication complementation assays, but also inhibited the expression of aquareovirus proteins, suggesting that N-terminal regions of NS80 are necessary for viral replication. These results provided a foundational basis for further understanding the role of NS80 in viral replication and assembly during aquareovirus infection. PMID:26871941

  18. Hexameric ring structure of the N-terminal domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DnaB helicase

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Tapan; Tsodikov, Oleg V.

    2009-01-15

    Hexameric DnaB helicase unwinds the DNA double helix during replication of genetic material in bacteria. DnaB is an essential bacterial protein; therefore, it is an important potential target for antibacterial drug discovery. We report a crystal structure of the N-terminal region of DnaB from the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtDnaBn), determined at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution. This structure provides atomic resolution details of formation of the hexameric ring of DnaB by two distinct interfaces. An extensive hydrophobic interface stabilizes a dimer of MtDnaBn by forming a four-helix bundle. The other, less extensive, interface is formed between the dimers, connecting three of them into a hexameric ring. On the basis of crystal packing interactions between MtDnaBn rings, we suggest a model of a helicase-primase complex that explains previously observed effects of DnaB mutations on DNA priming.

  19. An unusual peptide deformylase features in the human mitochondrial N-terminal methionine excision pathway.

    PubMed

    Serero, Alexandre; Giglione, Carmela; Sardini, Alessandro; Martinez-Sanz, Juan; Meinnel, Thierry

    2003-12-26

    Dedicated machinery for N-terminal methionine excision (NME) was recently identified in plant organelles and shown to be essential in plastids. We report here the existence of mitochondrial NME in mammals, as shown by the identification of cDNAs encoding specific peptide deformylases (PDFs) and new methionine aminopeptidases (MAP1D). We cloned the two full-length human cDNAs and showed that the N-terminal domains of the encoded enzymes were specifically involved in targeting to mitochondria. In contrast to mitochondrial MAP1D, the human PDF sequence differed from that of known PDFs in several key features. We characterized the human PDF fully in vivo and in vitro. Comparison of the processed human enzyme with the plant mitochondrial PDF1A, to which it is phylogenetically related, showed that the human enzyme had an extra N-terminal domain involved in both mitochondrial targeting and enzyme stability. Mammalian PDFs also display non-random substitutions in the conserved motifs important for activity. Human PDF site-directed mutagenesis variants were studied and compared with the corresponding plant PDF1A variants. We found that amino acid substitutions in human PDF specifically altered its catalytic site, resulting in an enzyme intermediate between bacterial PDF1Bs and plant PDF1As. Because (i) human PDF was found to be active both in vitro and in vivo, (ii) the entire machinery is conserved and expressed in most animals, (iii) the mitochondrial genome expresses substrates for these enzymes, and (iv) mRNA synthesis is regulated, we conclude that animal mitochondria have a functional NME machinery that can be regulated. PMID:14532271

  20. N-terminal domains of human DNA polymerase lambda promote primer realignment during translesion DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, David J.; Dayeh, Daniel M.; Fredrickson, Saul W.; Suo, Zucai

    2014-01-01

    The X-family DNA polymerases λ (Polλ) and β (Polβ) possess similar 5′-2-deoxyribose-5-phosphatelyase (dRPase) and polymerase domains. Besides these domains, Polλ also possesses a BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain and a proline-rich domain at its N terminus. However, it is unclear how these non-enzymatic domains contribute to the unique biological functions of Polλ. Here, we used primer extension assays and a newly developed high-throughput short oligonucleotide sequencing assay (HT-SOSA) to compare the efficiency of lesion bypass and fidelity of human Polβ, Polλ and two N-terminal deletion constructs of Polλ during the bypass of either an abasic site or a 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) lesion. We demonstrate that the BRCT domain of Polλ enhances the efficiency of abasic site bypass by approximately 1.6-fold. In contrast, deletion of the N-terminal domains of Polλ did not affect the efficiency of 8-oxodG bypass relative to nucleotide incorporations opposite undamaged dG. HT-SOSA analysis demonstrated that Polλ and Polβ preferentially generated −1 or −2 frameshift mutations when bypassing an abasic site and the single or double base deletion frequency was highly sequence dependent. Interestingly, the BRCT and proline-rich domains of Polλ cooperatively promoted the generation of −2 frameshift mutations when the abasic site was situated within a sequence context that was susceptible to homology-driven primer realignment. Furthermore, both N-terminal domains of Polλ increased the generation of −1 frameshift mutations during 8-oxodG bypass and influenced the frequency of substitution mutations produced by Polλ opposite the 8-oxodG lesion. Overall, our data support a model wherein the BRCT and proline-rich domains of Polλ act cooperatively to promote primer/template realignment between DNA strands of limited sequence homology. This function of the N-terminal domains may facilitate the role of Polλ as a gap-filling polymerase

  1. Long-term acid-induced wall extension in an in-vitro system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.; Cosgrove, D.; Tepfer, M.

    1987-01-01

    When frozen-thawed Avena sativa L. coleoptile and Cucumis sativa L. hypocotyl sections, under tension, are acid-treated, they undergo rapid elongation (acid-extension). The acid-extension response consists of two concurrent phases: a burst of extension which decays exponentially over 1-2 h (ExE), and a constant rate of extension (CE) which can persist for at least 6h. The extension (delta L) is closely represented by the equation: delta L = a-a e(-kt) + C t where a is the total extension of the exponential phase, k is the rate constant for ExE, and c is the rate of linear extension (CE). Low pH and high tension increased a and c, whereas temperature influenced k. The magnitude of the CE (over 50% extension/10 h), the similarity in its time course to auxin-induced growth, and the apparent yield threshold for CE indicate that CE is more likely than ExE to be the type of extension which cell walls undergo during normal auxin-induced growth.

  2. Membrane Binding and Self-Association of the Epsin N-Terminal Homology Domain

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chun-Liang; Jao, Christine C.; Lyman, Edward; Gallop, Jennifer L.; Peter, Brian J.; McMahon, Harvey T.; Langen, Ralf; Voth, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Epsin possesses a conserved epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domain that acts as a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate‐lipid‐targeting and membrane‐curvature‐generating element. Upon binding phosphatidylinositol 4,5‐bisphosphate, the N-terminal helix (H0) of the ENTH domain becomes structured and aids in the aggregation of ENTH domains, which results in extensive membrane remodeling. In this article, atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the structure and the stability of ENTH domain aggregates on lipid bilayers. EPR experiments are also reported for systems composed of different ENTH-bound membrane morphologies, including membrane vesicles as well as preformed membrane tubules. The EPR data are used to help develop a molecular model of ENTH domain aggregates on preformed lipid tubules that are then studied by CG MD simulation. The combined computational and experimental approach suggests that ENTH domains exist predominantly as monomers on vesiculated structures, while ENTH domains self-associate into dimeric structures and even higher‐order oligomers on the membrane tubes. The results emphasize that the arrangement of ENTH domain aggregates depends strongly on whether the local membrane curvature is isotropic or anisotropic. The molecular mechanism of ENTH‐domain-induced membrane vesiculation and tubulation and the implications of the epsin's role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis resulting from the interplay between ENTH domain membrane binding and ENTH domain self-association are also discussed. PMID:22922484

  3. The N-terminal basolateral targeting signal unlikely acts alone in the differential trafficking of membrane transporters in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shiu-Ming; Wang, Li-Yuan; Yu, Siyuan; Campbell, Christine E; Valiyaparambil, Sujith A; Rance, Mark; Blumenthal, Kenneth M

    2013-07-30

    We have shown previously, using confocal imaging and transport assays, that the N-terminus of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) can redirect apical SVCT1 to the basolateral membrane. Here, the SVCT model was used to further characterize the basolateral targeting peptide signal. Both the length (31 amino acids) and sequence accuracy of the N-terminus of SVCT2 were found to be important in basolateral targeting activity, suggesting a structural requirement. However, the N-terminal basolateral targeting sequence did not appear to act alone, based on analyses of heterologous chimeras. Although diverse N-terminal basolateral targeting signals from multipass membrane proteins can all redirect apical protein from the same gene family to the basolateral membrane, none of the N-terminal basolateral targeting signals can redirect the transmembrane and C-terminal regions from a different gene family. Instead, the presence of these heterologous N-terminal basolateral targeting signals affected the trafficking of otherwise apical protein, causing their accumulation in a stable tubulin-like non-actin structure. Nontargeting N-terminal sequences had no effect. Similar protein retention was observed previously and in this study when the C-terminus of apical or basolateral protein was mutated. These results suggest that the N- and C-termini interact, directly or indirectly, within each gene family for basolateral targeting. Circular dichroism and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analyses both found a lack of regular secondary structure in the conserved N-terminus of SVCT2, consistent with the presence of partner(s) in the targeting unit. Our finding, a departure from the prevailing single-peptide motif model, is consistent with the evolution of basolateral transporters from the corresponding apical genes. The interaction among the N-terminus, its partner(s), and the cellular basolateral targeting machinery needs to be further elucidated. PMID:23837633

  4. Retroviral retargeting by envelopes expressing an N-terminal binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Cosset, F L; Morling, F J; Takeuchi, Y; Weiss, R A; Collins, M K; Russell, S J

    1995-01-01

    We have engineered ecotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived envelopes targeted to cell surface molecules expressed on human cells by the N-terminal insertion of polypeptides able to bind either Ram-1 phosphate transporter (the first 208 amino acids of amphotropic murine leukemia virus surface protein) or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (the 53 amino acids of EGF). Both envelopes were correctly processed and incorporated into viral particles. Virions carrying these envelopes could specifically bind the new cell surface receptors. Virions targeted to Ram-1 could infect human cells, although the efficiency was reduced compared with that of virions carrying wild-type amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelopes. The infectivity of virions targeted to EGFR was blocked at a postbinding step, and our results suggest that EGFR-bound virions were rapidly trafficked to lysosomes. These data suggest that retroviruses require specific properties of cell surface molecules to allow the release of viral cores into the correct cell compartment. PMID:7666532

  5. Partial N-terminal sequence analysis of human class II molecules expressing the DQw3 determinant.

    PubMed

    Obata, F; Endo, T; Yoshii, M; Otani, F; Igarashi, M; Takenouchi, T; Ikeda, H; Ogasawara, K; Kasahara, M; Wakisaka, A

    1985-09-01

    HLA-DQ molecules were isolated from DRw9-homozygous and DR4-homozygous cell lines by using a monoclonal antibody HU-18, which recognizes class II molecules carrying the conventional DQw3 determinant. The partial N-terminal sequence analysis of the DQw3 molecules revealed that they have sequences homologous to those of murine I-A molecules. Within the limits of our sequence analysis, the DQw3 molecules from the two cell lines are identical to each other in both the alpha and beta chains. The DQ alpha as well as DQ beta chains were found to have amino acid substitutions when compared to other I-A-like molecules whose sequences have been reported. These differences may contribute to the DQw supertypic specificity. The polymorphic nature of DQ molecules is in marked contrast to that of DR molecules where DR alpha chains are highly conserved while DR beta chains have easily detectable amino acid substitutions. PMID:2411700

  6. Effect of N-Terminal Acylation on the Activity of Myostatin Inhibitory Peptides.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kentaro; Nakamura, Akari; Rentier, Cédric; Mino, Yusaku; Asari, Tomo; Saga, Yusuke; Taguchi, Akihiro; Yakushiji, Fumika; Hayashi, Yoshio

    2016-04-19

    Inhibition of myostatin, which negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth, is a promising strategy for the treatment of muscle atrophic disorders, such as muscular dystrophy, cachexia and sarcopenia. Recently, we identified peptide A (H-WRQNTRYSRIEAIKIQILSKLRL-NH2 ), the 23-amino-acid minimum myostatin inhibitory peptide derived from mouse myostatin prodomain, and highlighted the importance of its N-terminal tryptophan residue for the effective inhibition. In this study, we synthesized a series of acylated peptide derivatives focused on the tryptophan residue to develop potent myostatin inhibitors. As a result of the investigation, a more potent derivative of peptide A was successfully identified in which the N-terminal tryptophan residue is replaced with a 2-naphthyloxyacetyl moiety to give an inhibitory peptide three times (1.19±0.11 μm) more potent than parent peptide A (3.53±0.25 μm). This peptide could prove useful as a new starting point for the development of improved inhibitory peptides. PMID:26954624

  7. Evidence for N-Terminal Myristoylation of Tetrahymena Arginine Kinase Using Peptide Mass Fingerprinting Analysis.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Shou; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we confirmed N-terminal myristoylation of Tetrahymena pyriformis arginine kinase (AK1) by identifying a myristoylation signal sequence at the N-terminus. A sufficient amount of modified enzyme was synthesized using an insect cell-free protein synthesis system that contains all of the elements necessary for post-transcriptional modification by fatty acids. Subsequent peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analyses were performed after digestion with trypsin. The PMF data covered 39 % (143 residues) of internal peptides. The target N-myristoylated peptide had a theoretical mass of 832.4477 and was clearly observed with an experimental mass (m/z-H(+)) of 832.4747. The difference between the two masses was 0.0271, supporting the accuracy of identification and indicating that the synthesized T. pyriformis AK1 is myristoylated. The fixed specimens of T. pyriformis were reacted with an anti-AK1 peptide antibody followed by a secondary antibody with a fluorescent chromophore and were observed using immunofluorescence microscope. In agreement with previous western blotting analyses, microscopic observations suggested that AK1 is localized in the cilia. The present PMF and microscopic analyses indicate that T. pyriformis AK1 may be localized and anchored to ciliary membranes via N-terminal myristoyl groups. PMID:27129461

  8. X-ray crystal structure of the trimeric N-terminal domain of gephyrin.

    PubMed

    Sola, M; Kneussel, M; Heck, I S; Betz, H; Weissenhorn, W

    2001-07-01

    Gephyrin is a ubiquitously expressed protein that, in the central nervous system, forms a submembraneous scaffold for anchoring inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the postsynaptic membrane. The N- and C-terminal domains of gephyrin are homologous to the Escherichia coli enzymes MogA and MoeA, respectively, both of which are involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis. This enzymatic pathway is highly conserved from bacteria to mammals, as underlined by the ability of gephyrin to rescue molybdenum cofactor deficiencies in different organisms. Here we report the x-ray crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (amino acids 2-188) of rat gephyrin at 1.9-A resolution. Gephyrin-(2-188) forms trimers in solution, and a sequence motif thought to be involved in molybdopterin binding is highly conserved between gephyrin and the E. coli protein. The atomic structure of gephyrin-(2-188) resembles MogA, albeit with two major differences. The path of the C-terminal ends of gephyrin-(2-188) indicates that the central and C-terminal domains, absent in this structure, should follow a similar 3-fold arrangement as the N-terminal region. In addition, a central beta-hairpin loop found in MogA is lacking in gephyrin-(2-188). Despite these differences, both structures show a high degree of surface charge conservation, which is consistent with their common catalytic function. PMID:11325967

  9. Identification of an N-terminal formylated, two-peptide bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis 710C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoji; Vederas, John C; Whittal, Randy M; Zheng, Jing; Stiles, Michael E; Carlson, Denise; Franz, Charles M A P; McMullen, Lynn M; van Belkum, Marco J

    2011-05-25

    Enterococcus faecalis 710C, isolated from beef product, has a broad antimicrobial activity spectrum against foodborne pathogens. Two bacteriocins, enterocin 7A (Ent7A) and enterocin 7B (Ent7B), were purified from the culture supernatant of E. faecalis 710C and characterized using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and electrospray infusion tandem mass spectrometry analyses. These data and subsequent genetic analysis showed that Ent7A and Ent7B are produced without N-terminal leader sequences and have amino acid sequences that are identical to those of enterocins MR10A and MR10B, respectively. However, the observed masses for Ent7A and Ent7B are 5200.80 and 5206.65 Da (monoisotopic mass), respectively, which are higher than the theoretical molecular masses of MR10A and MR10B, respectively. This study provides evidence that both Ent7A and Ent7B are formylated on the N-terminal methionine residue. Purified Ent7A and Ent7B are active against spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens, including Clostridium sporogenes , Listeria monocytogenes , and Staphylococcus aureus as well as Brevundimonas diminuta , which has been associated with infections among immune-suppressed cancer patients. PMID:21469734

  10. N-terminal galanin-(1-16) fragment is an agonist at the hippocampal galanin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisone, G.; Berthold, M.; Bedecs, K.; Unden, A.; Bartfai, T.; Bertorelli, R.; Consolo, S.; Crawley, J.; Martin, B.; Nilsson, S.; )

    1989-12-01

    The galanin N-terminal fragment (galanin-(1-16)) has been prepared by solid-phase synthesis and by enzymic cleavage of galanin by endoproteinase Asp-N. This peptide fragment displaced {sup 125}I-labeled galanin in receptor autoradiography experiments on rat forebrain and spinal cord and in equilibrium binding experiments from high-affinity binding sites in the ventral hippocampus with an IC50 of approximately 3 nM. In tissue slices of the same brain area, galanin-(1-16), similarly to galanin, inhibited the muscarinic agonist-stimulated breakdown of inositol phospholipids. Upon intracerebroventricular administration, galanin-(1-16) (10 micrograms/15 microliters) also inhibited the scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg, s.c.)-evoked release of acetylcholine, as studied in vivo by microdialysis. Substitution of (L-Trp2) for (D-Trp2) resulted in a 500-fold loss in affinity as compared with galanin-(1-16). It is concluded that, in the ventral hippocampus, the N-terminal galanin fragment (galanin-(1-16)) is recognized by the galanin receptors controlling acetylcholine release and muscarinic agonist-stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown as a high-affinity agonist and that amino acid residue (Trp2) plays an important role in the receptor-ligand interactions.

  11. Identification of a mitochondrial-binding site on the N-terminal end of hexokinase II

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Nadezda; Raisch, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase II (HKII) is responsible for the first step in the glycolysis pathway by adding a phosphate on to the glucose molecule so it can proceed down the pathway to produce the energy for continuous cancer cell growth. Tumour cells overexpress the HKII enzyme. In fact, it is the overexpression of the HKII enzyme that makes the diagnosis of cancer possible when imaged by positron emission tomography (PET). HKII binds to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) located on the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). When bound to the MOM, HKII is blocking a major cell death pathway. Thus, HKII is responsible for two characteristics of cancer cells, rapid tumour growth and inability of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. One method to identify novel compounds that may interfere with the HKII–VDAC-binding site is to create a molecular model using the crystal structure of HKII. However, the amino acid(s) responsible for HKII binding to VDAC are not known. Therefore, a series of truncations and point mutations were made to the N-terminal end of HKII to identify the binding site to VDAC. Deletions of the first 10 and 20 amino acids indicated that important amino acid(s) for binding were located within the first 10 amino acids. Next, a series of point mutations were made within the first 10 amino acids. It is clear from the immunofluorescence images and immunoblot results that mutating the fifth amino acid from histidine to proline completely abolished binding to the MOM. PMID:26182367

  12. N-terminal additions to the WE14 peptide of chromogranin A create strong autoantigen agonists in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Niyun; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; White, Janice; Marrack, Philippa; Dai, Shaodong; Kappler, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Chromogranin A (ChgA) is an autoantigen for CD4+ T cells in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The natural ChgA-processed peptide, WE14, is a weak agonist for the prototypical T cell, BDC-2.5, and other ChgA-specific T-cell clones. Mimotope peptides with much higher activity share a C-terminal motif, WXRM(D/E), that is predicted to lie in the p5 to p9 position in the mouse MHC class II, IAg7 binding groove. This motif is also present in WE14 (WSRMD), but at its N terminus. Therefore, to place the WE14 motif into the same position as seen in the mimotopes, we added the amino acids RLGL to its N terminus. Like the other mimotopes, RLGL-WE14, is much more potent than WE14 in T-cell stimulation and activates a diverse population of CD4+ T cells, which also respond to WE14 as well as islets from WT, but not ChgA−/− mice. The crystal structure of the IAg7–RLGL–WE14 complex confirmed the predicted placement of the peptide within the IAg7 groove. Fluorescent IAg7–RLGL–WE14 tetramers bind to ChgA-specific T-cell clones and easily detect ChgA-specific T cells in the pancreas and pancreatic lymph nodes of NOD mice. The prediction that many different N-terminal amino acid extensions to the WXRM(D/E) motif are sufficient to greatly improve T-cell stimulation leads us to propose that such a posttranslational modification may occur uniquely in the pancreas or pancreatic lymph nodes, perhaps via the mechanism of transpeptidation. This modification could account for the escape of these T cells from thymic negative selection. PMID:26453556

  13. N-terminal additions to the WE14 peptide of chromogranin A create strong autoantigen agonists in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Niyun; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; White, Janice; Marrack, Philippa; Dai, Shaodong; Kappler, John W

    2015-10-27

    Chromogranin A (ChgA) is an autoantigen for CD4(+) T cells in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The natural ChgA-processed peptide, WE14, is a weak agonist for the prototypical T cell, BDC-2.5, and other ChgA-specific T-cell clones. Mimotope peptides with much higher activity share a C-terminal motif, WXRM(D/E), that is predicted to lie in the p5 to p9 position in the mouse MHC class II, IA(g7) binding groove. This motif is also present in WE14 (WSRMD), but at its N terminus. Therefore, to place the WE14 motif into the same position as seen in the mimotopes, we added the amino acids RLGL to its N terminus. Like the other mimotopes, RLGL-WE14, is much more potent than WE14 in T-cell stimulation and activates a diverse population of CD4(+) T cells, which also respond to WE14 as well as islets from WT, but not ChgA(-/-) mice. The crystal structure of the IA(g7)-RLGL-WE14 complex confirmed the predicted placement of the peptide within the IA(g7) groove. Fluorescent IA(g7)-RLGL-WE14 tetramers bind to ChgA-specific T-cell clones and easily detect ChgA-specific T cells in the pancreas and pancreatic lymph nodes of NOD mice. The prediction that many different N-terminal amino acid extensions to the WXRM(D/E) motif are sufficient to greatly improve T-cell stimulation leads us to propose that such a posttranslational modification may occur uniquely in the pancreas or pancreatic lymph nodes, perhaps via the mechanism of transpeptidation. This modification could account for the escape of these T cells from thymic negative selection. PMID:26453556

  14. Assembly, trafficking and function of α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors are regulated by N-terminal regions, in a subunit-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lik-Wei; Tae, Han-Shen; Cromer, Brett A

    2015-09-01

    GABAA receptors are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels that mediate inhibitory fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Consistent with recent pentameric ligand-gated ion channels structures, sequence analysis predicts an α-helix near the N-terminus of each GABAA receptor subunit. Preceding each α-helix are 8-36 additional residues, which we term the N-terminal extension. In homomeric GABAC receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the N-terminal α-helix is functionally essential. Here, we determined the role of the N-terminal extension and putative α-helix in heteromeric α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors. This role was most prominent in the α1 subunit, with deletion of the N-terminal extension or further deletion of the putative α-helix both dramatically reduced the number of functional receptors at the cell surface. Conversely, deletion of the β2 or γ2 N-terminal extension had little effect on the number of functional cell surface receptors. Additional deletion of the putative α-helix in the β2 or γ2 subunits did, however, decrease both functional cell surface receptors and incorporation of the γ2 subunit into mature receptors. In the β2 subunit only, α-helix deletions affected GABA sensitivity and desensitization. Our findings demonstrate that N-terminal extensions and α-helices make key subunit-specific contributions to assembly, consistent with both regions being involved in inter-subunit interactions. N-terminal α-helices and preceding sequences of eukaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channels are absent in prokaryotic homologues, suggesting they may not be functionally essential. Here, we show that in heteropentameric α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors, the role of these segments is highly subunit dependent. The extension preceding the α-helix in the α subunit is crucial for assembly and trafficking, but is of little importance in β and γ subunits. Indeed, robust receptor levels remain when the extension and α-helix are

  15. The first N-terminal unprotected (Gly-Aib)n peptide: H-Gly-Aib-Gly-Aib-OtBu.

    PubMed

    Gessmann, Renate; Brückner, Hans; Petratos, Kyriacos

    2015-12-01

    Glycine (Gly) is incorporated in roughly half of all known peptaibiotic (nonribosomally biosynthesized antibiotic peptides of fungal origin) sequences and is the residue with the greatest conformational flexibility. The conformational space of Aib (α-aminoisobutyric acid) is severely restricted by the second methyl group attached to the Cα atom. Most of the crystal structures containing Aib are N-terminal protected. Deprotection of the N- or C-terminus of peptides may alter the hydrogen-bonding scheme and/or the structure and may facilitate crystallization. The structure reported here for glycyl-α-aminoisobutyrylglycyl-α-aminoisobutyric acid tert-butyl ester, C16H30N4O5, describes the first N-terminal-unprotected (Gly-Aib)n peptide. The achiral peptide could form an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the C=O group of Gly1 and the N-H group of Aib4. This hydrogen bond is found in all tetrapeptides and N-terminal-protected tripeptides containing Aib, apart from one exception. In the present work, this hydrogen bond is not observed (N...O = 5.88 Å). Instead, every molecule is hydrogen bonded to six other symmetry-related molecules with a total of eight hydrogen bonds per molecule. The backbone conformation starts in the right-handed helical region (and the left-handed helical region for the inverted molecule) and reverses the screw sense in the last two residues. PMID:26632841

  16. N-terminal region of Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin serves as a mitochondrial targeting signal in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kisiela, Dagmara I; Aulik, Nicole A; Atapattu, Dhammika N; Czuprynski, Charles J

    2010-07-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin (LktA) is a member of the RTX toxin family that specifically kills ruminant leukocytes. Previous studies have shown that LktA induces apoptosis in susceptible cells via a caspase-9-dependent pathway that involves binding of LktA to mitochondria. In this study, using the bioinformatics tool MitoProt II we identified an N-terminal amino acid sequence of LktA that represents a mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS). We show that expression of this sequence, as a GFP fusion protein within mammalian cells, directs GFP to mitochondria. By immunoprecipitation we demonstrate that LktA interacts with the Tom22 and Tom40 components of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM), which suggests that import of this toxin into mitochondria involves a classical import pathway for endogenous proteins. We also analysed the amino acid sequences of other RTX toxins and found a MTS in the N-terminal region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxII and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli EhxA, but not in A. pleuropneumoniae ApxI, ApxIII, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans LtxA or the haemolysin (HlyA) from uropathogenic strains of E. coli. These findings provide a new evidence for the importance of the N-terminal region in addressing certain RTX toxins to mitochondria. PMID:20109159

  17. Seryl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli: implication of its N-terminal domain in aminoacylation activity and specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Borel, F; Vincent, C; Leberman, R; Härtlein, M

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) a dimeric class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase with two structural domains charges specifically the five iso-acceptor tRNA(ser) as well as the tRNA(sec) (selC product) of E. coli. The N-terminal domain is a 60 A long arm-like coiled coil structure built of 2 long antiparallel a-h helices, whereas the C-terminal domain is a alpha-beta structure. A deletion of the N-terminal arm of the enzyme does not affect the amino acid activation step of the reaction, but reduces dramatically amino-acylation activity. The Kcat/Km value for the mutant enzyme is reduced by more than 4 orders of magnitude, with a nearly 30 fold increased Km value for tRNA(ser). An only slightly truncated mutant form (16 amino acids of the tip of the arm replaced by a glycine) has an intermediate aminoacylation activity. Both mutant synthetases have lost their specificity for tRNA(ser) and charge also non-cognate type 1 tRNA(s). Our results support the hypothesis that class II synthetases have evolved from an ancestral catalytic core enzyme by adding non-catalytic N-terminal or C-terminal tRNA binding (specificity) domains which act as determinants for cognate and anti-determinants for non-cognate tRNAs. Images PMID:8065908

  18. The nuclear localization of SOCS6 requires the N-terminal region and negatively regulates Stat3 protein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Mi-Na; Min, Chan-Hee; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Ho; Yoon, Kyong-Ah; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Eun Sook; Yoon, Sungpil . E-mail: yoons@ncc.re.kr

    2007-08-24

    We determined that endogenous- and overexpressed- SOCS6 was localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. The localization of SOCS6 depended on amino acids 1-210 in the N-terminal region of the protein, which contains an unidentified domain. GFP-tagged SOCS6 or the N-terminal region, was exclusively localized and widely distributed throughout the entire nucleus, whereas the C-terminal region displayed a nuclear omission pattern. We also demonstrated that the SOCS6 protein could decrease the levels of the Stat3 protein in the nucleus, and that its negative regulation of the Stat3 protein level was dependent on its C-terminal region. These observations suggest that SOCS6 is composed of at least two functional domains required for its biological role in localizing and degrading Stat3 in the nucleus.

  19. Secondary structure, stability and tetramerisation of recombinant K(V)1.1 potassium channel cytoplasmic N-terminal fragment.

    PubMed

    Abbott, G W; Bloemendal, M; Van Stokkum, I H; Mercer, E A; Miller, R T; Sewing, S; Wolters, M; Pongs, O; Srai, S K

    1997-08-15

    The recombinant N-terminal fragment (amino acids 14-162) of a tetrameric voltage-gated potassium channel (K(V)1.1) has been studied using spectroscopic techniques. Evidence is presented that it forms a tetramer in aqueous solution, whereas when solubilised in 1% Triton X-100 it remains monomeric. The secondary structure content of both monomeric and tetrameric K(V)1.1 N-terminal fragment has been estimated from FTIR and CD spectroscopy to be 20-25% alpha-helix, 20-25% beta-sheet, 20% turns and 30-40% random coil. Solubilisation of the protein in detergent is shown by hydrogen-deuterium exchange analysis to alter tertiary structure rather than secondary structure and this may be the determining factor in tetramerisation ability. Using molecular modelling we propose a supersecondary structure consisting of two structural domains. PMID:9300810

  20. Importin α1 Mediates Yorkie Nuclear Import via an N-terminal Non-canonical Nuclear Localization Signal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shimin; Lu, Yi; Yin, Meng-Xin; Wang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Li, Jinhui; Wu, Wenqing; Ge, Ling; Hu, Lianxin; Zhao, Yun; Zhang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size by orchestrating cell proliferation and apoptosis. When the Hippo pathway was inactivated, the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie translocates into the nucleus and forms a complex with transcription factor Scalloped to promote the expression of Hippo pathway target genes. Therefore, the nuclear translocation of Yorkie is a critical step in Hippo signaling. Here, we provide evidence that the N-terminal 1-55 amino acids of Yorkie, especially Arg-15, were essential for its nuclear localization. By mass spectrometry and biochemical analyses, we found that Importin α1 can directly interact with the Yorkie N terminus and drive Yorkie into the nucleus. Further experiments show that the upstream component Hippo can inhibit Importin α1-mediated Yorkie nuclear import. Taken together, we identified a potential nuclear localization signal at the N-terminal end of Yorkie as well as a critical role for Importin α1 in Yorkie nuclear import. PMID:26887950

  1. Structure of the Tropomyosin Overlap Complex from Chicken Smooth Muscle: Insight into the Diversity of N-Terminal Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Jeremiah; Klenchin, Vadim A.; Rayment, Ivan

    2010-09-08

    Tropomyosin is a stereotypical {alpha}-helical coiled coil that polymerizes to form a filamentous macromolecular assembly that lies on the surface of F-actin. The interaction between the C-terminal and N-terminal segments on adjacent molecules is known as the overlap region. We report here two X-ray structures of the chicken smooth muscle tropomyosin overlap complex. A novel approach was used to stabilize the C-terminal and N-terminal fragments. Globular domains from both the human DNA ligase binding protein XRCC4 and bacteriophage {phi}29 scaffolding protein Gp7 were fused to 37 and 28 C-terminal amino acid residues of tropomyosin, respectively, whereas the 29 N-terminal amino acids of tropomyosin were fused to the C-terminal helix bundle of microtubule binding protein EB1. The structures of both the XRCC4 and Gp7 fusion proteins complexed with the N-terminal EB1 fusion contain a very similar helix bundle in the overlap region that encompasses {approx}15 residues. The C-terminal coiled coil opens to allow formation of the helix bundle, which is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. These structures are similar to that observed in the NMR structure of the rat skeletal overlap complex [Greenfield, N. J., et al. (2006) J. Mol. Biol. 364, 80-96]. The interactions between the N- and C-terminal coiled coils of smooth muscle tropomyosin show significant curvature, which differs somewhat between the two structures and implies flexibility in the overlap complex, at least in solution. This is likely an important attribute that allows tropomyosin to assemble around the actin filaments. These structures provide a molecular explanation for the role of N-acetylation in the assembly of native tropomyosin.

  2. N-Terminal methionine processing by the zinc-activated Plasmodium falciparum methionine aminopeptidase 1b.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, Sarah; Klein, Christian D

    2016-08-01

    The methionine aminopeptidase 1b from Plasmodium falciparum (PfMetAP 1b) was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) that require heavy-metal cofactors such as cobalt, the enzyme is reliably activated by zinc ions. Immobilization of the enzyme is possible by His-tag metal chelation to iminodiacetic acid-agarose and by covalent binding to chloroacetamido-hexyl-agarose. The covalently immobilized enzyme shows long-term stability, allowing a continuous, heterogenous processing of N-terminal methionines, for example, in recombinant proteins. Activation by zinc, instead of cobalt as for other MetAPs, avoids the introduction of heavy metals with toxicological liabilities and oxidative potential into biotechnological processes. The PfMetAP 1b therefore represents a useful tool for the enzymatic, posttranslational processing of recombinant proteins. PMID:27023914

  3. Membrane insertion of the N-terminal α-helix of equinatoxin II, a sea anemone cytolytic toxin

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Equinatoxin II (Eqt-II) is a member of the actinoporins, a unique family of cytotoxins comprising 20 kDa pore-forming proteins isolated from sea anemones. Actinoporins bind preferentially to lipid membranes containing sphingomyelin, and create cation-selective pores by oligomerization of three to four monomers. Previous studies have shown that regions of Eqt-II crucial for its cytolytic mechanism are an exposed aromatic cluster and the N-terminal region containing an amphipathic α-helix. In the present study, we have investigated the transfer of the N-terminal α-helix into the lipid membrane by the use of three mutants containing an additional tryptophan residue in different positions within the amphipathic α-helix (Ile18→Trp, Val22→Trp and Ala25→Trp). The interaction of the mutants with different model systems, such as lipid monolayers, erythrocytes and ghost membranes, was extensively characterized. Intrinsic fluorescence measurements and the use of vesicles containing brominated phospholipids indicated a deep localization of the N-terminal amphipathic helix in the lipid bilayer, except for the case of Val22→Trp. This mutant is stabilized in a state immediately prior to final pore formation. The introduction of additional tryptophan residues in the sequence of Eqt-II has proved to be a suitable approach to monitor the new environments that surround defined regions of the molecule upon membrane interaction. PMID:15317486

  4. The preparation and partial characterization of N-terminal and C-terminal iron-binding fragments from rabbit serum transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Heaphy, S; Williams, J

    1982-01-01

    Two iron-binding fragments of Mr 36 000 and 33 000 corresponding to the N-terminal domain of rabbit serum transferrin were prepared. One iron-binding fragment of Mr 39 000 corresponding to the C-terminal domain was prepared. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of rabbit serum transferrin is: Val-Thr-Glu-Lys-Thr-Val-Asn-Trp-?-Ala-Val-Ser. One glycan unit is presented in rabbit serum transferrin and it is located in the C-terminal domain. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6816218

  5. N-Terminal Presequence-Independent Import of Phosphofructokinase into Hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Rada, Petr; Makki, Abhijith Radhakrishna; Zimorski, Verena; Garg, Sriram; Hampl, Vladimír; Hrdý, Ivan; Gould, Sven B; Tachezy, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondrial evolution entailed the origin of protein import machinery that allows nuclear-encoded proteins to be targeted to the organelle, as well as the origin of cleavable N-terminal targeting sequences (NTS) that allow efficient sorting and import of matrix proteins. In hydrogenosomes and mitosomes, reduced forms of mitochondria with reduced proteomes, NTS-independent targeting of matrix proteins is known. Here, we studied the cellular localization of two glycolytic enzymes in the anaerobic pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis: PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase (TvPPi-PFK), which is the main glycolytic PFK activity of the protist, and ATP-dependent PFK (TvATP-PFK), the function of which is less clear. TvPPi-PFK was detected predominantly in the cytosol, as expected, while all four TvATP-PFK paralogues were imported into T. vaginalis hydrogenosomes, although none of them possesses an NTS. The heterologous expression of TvATP-PFK in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed an intrinsic capability of the protein to be recognized and imported into yeast mitochondria, whereas yeast ATP-PFK resides in the cytosol. TvATP-PFK consists of only a catalytic domain, similarly to "short" bacterial enzymes, while ScATP-PFK includes an N-terminal extension, a catalytic domain, and a C-terminal regulatory domain. Expression of the catalytic domain of ScATP-PFK and short Escherichia coli ATP-PFK in T. vaginalis resulted in their partial delivery to hydrogenosomes. These results indicate that TvATP-PFK and the homologous ATP-PFKs possess internal structural targeting information that is recognized by the hydrogenosomal import machinery. From an evolutionary perspective, the predisposition of ancient ATP-PFK to be recognized and imported into hydrogenosomes might be a relict from the early phases of organelle evolution. PMID:26475173

  6. N-Terminal Presequence-Independent Import of Phosphofructokinase into Hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Rada, Petr; Makki, Abhijith Radhakrishna; Zimorski, Verena; Garg, Sriram; Hampl, Vladimír; Hrdý, Ivan; Gould, Sven B.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial evolution entailed the origin of protein import machinery that allows nuclear-encoded proteins to be targeted to the organelle, as well as the origin of cleavable N-terminal targeting sequences (NTS) that allow efficient sorting and import of matrix proteins. In hydrogenosomes and mitosomes, reduced forms of mitochondria with reduced proteomes, NTS-independent targeting of matrix proteins is known. Here, we studied the cellular localization of two glycolytic enzymes in the anaerobic pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis: PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase (TvPPi-PFK), which is the main glycolytic PFK activity of the protist, and ATP-dependent PFK (TvATP-PFK), the function of which is less clear. TvPPi-PFK was detected predominantly in the cytosol, as expected, while all four TvATP-PFK paralogues were imported into T. vaginalis hydrogenosomes, although none of them possesses an NTS. The heterologous expression of TvATP-PFK in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed an intrinsic capability of the protein to be recognized and imported into yeast mitochondria, whereas yeast ATP-PFK resides in the cytosol. TvATP-PFK consists of only a catalytic domain, similarly to “short” bacterial enzymes, while ScATP-PFK includes an N-terminal extension, a catalytic domain, and a C-terminal regulatory domain. Expression of the catalytic domain of ScATP-PFK and short Escherichia coli ATP-PFK in T. vaginalis resulted in their partial delivery to hydrogenosomes. These results indicate that TvATP-PFK and the homologous ATP-PFKs possess internal structural targeting information that is recognized by the hydrogenosomal import machinery. From an evolutionary perspective, the predisposition of ancient ATP-PFK to be recognized and imported into hydrogenosomes might be a relict from the early phases of organelle evolution. PMID:26475173

  7. Insights into the Functional Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains of Helicobacter pylori DprA

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Gajendradhar R.; Srikanth, Kolluru D.; Anand, Praveen; Naikoo, Javed; Srilatha, N. S.; Rao, Desirazu N.

    2015-01-01

    DNA processing protein A (DprA) plays a crucial role in the process of natural transformation. This is accomplished through binding and subsequent protection of incoming foreign DNA during the process of internalization. DprA along with Single stranded DNA binding protein A (SsbA) acts as an accessory factor for RecA mediated DNA strand exchange. H. pylori DprA (HpDprA) is divided into an N-terminal domain and a C- terminal domain. In the present study, individual domains of HpDprA have been characterized for their ability to bind single stranded (ssDNA) and double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Oligomeric studies revealed that HpDprA possesses two sites for dimerization which enables HpDprA to form large and tightly packed complexes with ss and dsDNA. While the N-terminal domain was found to be sufficient for binding with ss or ds DNA, C-terminal domain has an important role in the assembly of poly-nucleoprotein complex. Using site directed mutagenesis approach, we show that a pocket comprising positively charged amino acids in the N-terminal domain has an important role in the binding of ss and dsDNA. Together, a functional cross talk between the two domains of HpDprA facilitating the binding and formation of higher order complex with DNA is discussed. PMID:26135134

  8. N-terminal determinants of human cytomegalovirus IE1 protein in nuclear targeting and disrupting PML-associated subnuclear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hye-Ra; Huh, Yong Ho; Kim, Young-Eui; Lee, Karim; Kim, Sunyoung; Ahn, Jin-Hyun . E-mail: jahn@med.skku.ac.kr

    2007-05-04

    The 72-kDa IE1 protein of human cytomegalovirus disrupts PML-associated subnuclear structures (PODs) by inducing PML desumoylation. This process correlates with the functions of IE1 in transcriptional regulation and efficient viral replication. Here, we defined the N-terminal regions of IE1 required for nuclear targeting and POD-disrupting activity. Although the 24 N-terminal amino acids encoded by exon 2, which were previously shown to be essential for nuclear targeting, did not appear to contain typical basic nuclear localization signals, these residues were able to efficiently convey the GFP protein into the nucleus, suggesting a role in promoting nuclear translocation. In assays using a series of N-terminal truncation IE1 mutants, which were forced to enter the nucleus, exon 2 was completely dispensable for POD disruption. However, the predicted two {alpha}-helix regions in exon 3 were identified as important structural determinants for protein stability and for the correlating activities in POD disruption and PML desumoylation.

  9. The Pitx2c N-terminal domain is a critical interaction domain required for asymmetric morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Simard, Annie; Di Giorgio, Luciano; Amen, Melanie; Westwood, Ashley; Amendt, Brad A.; Ryan, Aimee K.

    2010-01-01

    The paired-like homeodomain transcription factor Pitx2c has an essential role in patterning the left-right axis. However, neither its transcriptional targets nor the molecular mechanisms through which it exerts its patterning function are known. Here we provide evidence that the N-terminal domain of Pitx2c is important for this activity. Overexpression of the Pitx2c N-terminus in ovo randomizes the direction of heart looping, the first morphological asymmetry conserved in vertebrate embryos. In addition, the Pitx2c N-terminal domain blocks the ability of Pitx2c to synergize with Nkx2.5 to transactivate the procollagen lysyl hydroxylase (Plod-1) promoter in transient transfection assays. A five amino acid region containing leucine-41 is required for both of these effects. Our data suggest that the Pitx2c N-terminal domain competes with endogenous Pitx2c for binding to a protein interaction partner that is required for the activation of genes that direct asymmetric morphogenesis along the left-right axis. PMID:19681163

  10. The role of the N-terminal leucine residue in snake venom cardiotoxin II (Naja naja atra).

    PubMed

    Wu, C Y; Chen, W C; Ho, C L; Chen, S T; Wang, K T

    1997-04-28

    The N-terminal leucine residue of snake venom cardiotoxin II (CTX II) (Naja naja atra) was systematically replaced with D-leucine (CTXII-L1-D-L), glycine (CTXII-L1G) or deleted [CTXII-(2-60)] to study the role of leucine residue in CTX II molecule. CTX II, CTXL1-D-L, CTXL1G and CTX(2-60) were produced by chemical synthesis method and purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Owing to folding problem in CTXII-(2-60), only CTX II, CTXII-L1-D-L and CTXII-L1G were produced in a pure form and characterized by amino acid analysis, mass spectrometry and peptide mapping. In the structural aspect, changing the Leu-1 by D-Leu or Gly causes a drastic alteration in the whole CTX II structure as detected by circular dichroism, 1-anilino-naphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) fluorescence assay. In the functional aspect, both CTXII-L1-D-L and CTXII-L1G are still retained substantial biological activity of CTX II. Therefore, the results indicate that both the chirality and the side-chain of the N-terminal leucine residue of CTX II are important elements in maintaining the whole CTX II structure. In addition, this study is the first report in elucidating the reason why the first N-terminal residue of most CTXs (90.3%) is leucine residue. PMID:9168920

  11. Insights into the Functional Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains of Helicobacter pylori DprA.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Gajendradhar R; Srikanth, Kolluru D; Anand, Praveen; Naikoo, Javed; Srilatha, N S; Rao, Desirazu N

    2015-01-01

    DNA processing protein A (DprA) plays a crucial role in the process of natural transformation. This is accomplished through binding and subsequent protection of incoming foreign DNA during the process of internalization. DprA along with Single stranded DNA binding protein A (SsbA) acts as an accessory factor for RecA mediated DNA strand exchange. H. pylori DprA (HpDprA) is divided into an N-terminal domain and a C- terminal domain. In the present study, individual domains of HpDprA have been characterized for their ability to bind single stranded (ssDNA) and double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Oligomeric studies revealed that HpDprA possesses two sites for dimerization which enables HpDprA to form large and tightly packed complexes with ss and dsDNA. While the N-terminal domain was found to be sufficient for binding with ss or ds DNA, C-terminal domain has an important role in the assembly of poly-nucleoprotein complex. Using site directed mutagenesis approach, we show that a pocket comprising positively charged amino acids in the N-terminal domain has an important role in the binding of ss and dsDNA. Together, a functional cross talk between the two domains of HpDprA facilitating the binding and formation of higher order complex with DNA is discussed. PMID:26135134

  12. Kinetic Mechanism of Protein N-terminal Methyltransferase 1*

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stacie L.; Mao, Yunfei; Zhang, Gang; Hanjra, Pahul; Peterson, Darrell L.; Huang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1 (NTMT1) catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from the S-adenosyl-l-methionine to the protein α-amine, resulting in formation of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and α-N-methylated proteins. NTMT1 is an interesting potential anticancer target because it is overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancers and plays an important role in cell mitosis. To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism of NTMT1, we have characterized the kinetic mechanism of recombinant NTMT1 using a fluorescence assay and mass spectrometry. The results of initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies indicate that methylation by NTMT1 proceeds via a random sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In addition, our processivity studies demonstrate that NTMT1 proceeds via a distributive mechanism for multiple methylations. Together, our studies provide new knowledge about the kinetic mechanism of NTMT1 and lay the foundation for the development of mechanism-based inhibitors. PMID:25771539

  13. Kinetic mechanism of protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Stacie L; Mao, Yunfei; Zhang, Gang; Hanjra, Pahul; Peterson, Darrell L; Huang, Rong

    2015-05-01

    The protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1 (NTMT1) catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from the S-adenosyl-l-methionine to the protein α-amine, resulting in formation of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and α-N-methylated proteins. NTMT1 is an interesting potential anticancer target because it is overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancers and plays an important role in cell mitosis. To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism of NTMT1, we have characterized the kinetic mechanism of recombinant NTMT1 using a fluorescence assay and mass spectrometry. The results of initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies indicate that methylation by NTMT1 proceeds via a random sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In addition, our processivity studies demonstrate that NTMT1 proceeds via a distributive mechanism for multiple methylations. Together, our studies provide new knowledge about the kinetic mechanism of NTMT1 and lay the foundation for the development of mechanism-based inhibitors. PMID:25771539

  14. Gibberellic Acid Regulates Cell Wall Extensibility in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Geoff; Sorrells, Mark E.; Setter, Tim L.

    1990-01-01

    Mutations (Rht genes) blocking sensitivity to gibberellic acid (GA) were used to examine phytohormone mediated cell wall expansion in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Irreversible extensibility of immature leaf segments, as determined by stress/strain (instron) measurements, declined with Rht gene dose. Exogenous GA3 significantly increased wall extensibility in the nonmutant controls but had no effect on the near-isogenic GA-insensitive genotypes. Furthermore, ancymidol, an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis, diminished wall extensibility in the nonmutant control. Extensibility of immature segments was highly correlated with mature leaf sheath length (R = +0.95). The results indicate that wall yielding properties of expanding wheat leaves are associated with leaf cell expansion potential and that GA is involved in the determination of those properties. PMID:16667254

  15. Three determinants in ezrin are responsible for cell extension activity.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, M; Roy, C; Montcourrier, P; Sahuquet, A; Mangeat, P

    1997-01-01

    The ERM proteins--ezrin, radixin, and moesin--are key players in membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. In insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses, amino acids 1-115 of ezrin were shown to inhibit an actin- and tubulin-dependent cell-extension activity located in ezrin C-terminal domain (ezrin310-586), whereas full-length ezrin1-586 did not induce any morphological change. To refine the mapping of functional domains of ezrin, 30 additional constructs were overexpressed in Sf9 cells, and the resulting effect of each was qualitatively and semiquantitatively compared. The removal of amino acids 13-30 was sufficient to release a cell-extension phenotype. This effect was abrogated if the 21 distal-most C-terminal amino acids were subsequently deleted (ezrin31-565), confirming the existence of a head-to-tail regulation in the whole molecule. Surprisingly, the deletion in full-length ezrin of the same 21 amino acids provided strong cell-extension competence to ezrin1-565, and this property was recovered in N-terminal constructs as short as ezrin1-310. Within ezrin1-310, amino acid sequences 13-30 and 281-310 were important determinants and acted in cooperation to induce cytoskeleton mobilization. In addition, these same residues are part of a new actin-binding site characterized in vitro in ezrin N-terminal domain. Images PMID:9285824

  16. Structure of the N-terminal fragment of Escherichia coli Lon protease

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Rasulova, Fatima S.; Melnikov, Edward E.; Maurizi, Michael R.; Rotanova, Tatyana V.; Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-08-01

    The medium-resolution structure of the N-terminal fragment of E. coli Lon protease shows that this part of the enzyme consists of two compact domains and a very long α-helix. The structure of a recombinant construct consisting of residues 1–245 of Escherichia coli Lon protease, the prototypical member of the A-type Lon family, is reported. This construct encompasses all or most of the N-terminal domain of the enzyme. The structure was solved by SeMet SAD to 2.6 Å resolution utilizing trigonal crystals that contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The molecule consists of two compact subdomains and a very long C-terminal α-helix. The structure of the first subdomain (residues 1–117), which consists mostly of β-strands, is similar to that of the shorter fragment previously expressed and crystallized, whereas the second subdomain is almost entirely helical. The fold and spatial relationship of the two subdomains, with the exception of the C-terminal helix, closely resemble the structure of BPP1347, a 203-amino-acid protein of unknown function from Bordetella parapertussis, and more distantly several other proteins. It was not possible to refine the structure to satisfactory convergence; however, since almost all of the Se atoms could be located on the basis of their anomalous scattering the correctness of the overall structure is not in question. The structure reported here was also compared with the structures of the putative substrate-binding domains of several proteins, showing topological similarities that should help in defining the binding sites used by Lon substrates.

  17. Bioinformatic mapping and production of recombinant N-terminal domains of human cardiac ryanodine receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Bauerová-Hlinková, Vladena; Hostinová, Eva; Gašperík, Juraj; Beck, Konrad; Borko, Ľubomír; Lai, F. Anthony; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Ševčík, Jozef

    2010-01-01

    We report the domain analysis of the N-terminal region (residues 1–759) of the human cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) that encompasses one of the discrete RyR2 mutation clusters associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT1) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD2). Our strategy utilizes a bioinformatics approach complemented by protein expression, solubility analysis and limited proteolytic digestion. Based on the bioinformatics analysis, we designed a series of specific RyR2 N-terminal fragments for cloning and overexpression in Escherichia coli. High yields of soluble proteins were achieved for fragments RyR21–606·His6, RyR2391–606·His6, RyR2409–606·His6, Trx·RyR2384–606·His6, Trx·RyR2391-606·His6 and Trx·RyR2409–606·His6. The folding of RyR21–606·His6 was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy resulting in α-helix and β-sheet content of ∼23% and ∼29%, respectively, at temperatures up to 35 °C, which is in agreement with sequence based secondary structure predictions. Tryptic digestion of the largest recombinant protein, RyR21–606·His6, resulted in the appearance of two specific subfragments of ∼40 and 25 kDa. The 25 kDa fragment exhibited greater stability. Hybridization with anti-His6·Tag antibody indicated that RyR21–606·His6 is cleaved from the N-terminus and amino acid sequencing of the proteolytic fragments revealed that digestion occurred after residues 259 and 384, respectively. PMID:20045464

  18. Role of N-Terminal Domain and Accessory Subunits in Controlling Deactivation-Inactivation Coupling of Kv4.2 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Barghaan, Jan; Tozakidou, Magdalini; Ehmke, Heimo; Bähring, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between deactivation and inactivation in Kv4.2 channels. In particular, we were interested in the role of a Kv4.2 N-terminal domain and accessory subunits in controlling macroscopic gating kinetics and asked if the effects of N-terminal deletion and accessory subunit coexpression conform to a kinetic coupling of deactivation and inactivation. We expressed Kv4.2 wild-type channels and N-terminal deletion mutants in the absence and presence of Kv channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like proteins (DPPs) in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Kv4.2-mediated A-type currents at positive and deactivation tail currents at negative membrane potentials were recorded under whole-cell voltage-clamp and analyzed by multi-exponential fitting. The observed changes in Kv4.2 macroscopic inactivation kinetics caused by N-terminal deletion, accessory subunit coexpression, or a combination of the two maneuvers were compared with respective changes in deactivation kinetics. Extensive correlation analyses indicated that modulatory effects on deactivation closely parallel respective effects on inactivation, including both onset and recovery kinetics. Searching for the structural determinants, which control deactivation and inactivation, we found that in a Kv4.2Δ2–10 N-terminal deletion mutant both the initial rapid phase of macroscopic inactivation and tail current deactivation were slowed. On the other hand, the intermediate and slow phase of A-type current decay, recovery from inactivation, and tail current decay kinetics were accelerated in Kv4.2Δ2–10 by KChIP2 and DPPX. Thus, a Kv4.2 N-terminal domain, which may control both inactivation and deactivation, is not necessary for active modulation of current kinetics by accessory subunits. Our results further suggest distinct mechanisms for Kv4.2 gating modulation by KChIPs and DPPs. PMID:17981906

  19. The effect of N-terminal acetylation on the structure of an N-terminal tropomyosin peptide and alpha alpha-tropomyosin.

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, N. J.; Stafford, W. F.; Hitchcock-DeGregori, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used a synthetic peptide consisting of the first 30 residues of striated muscle alpha-tropomyosin, with GlyCys added to the C-terminus, to investigate the effect of N-terminal acetylation on the conformation and stability of the N-terminal domain of the coiled-coil protein. In aqueous buffers at low ionic strength, the reduced, unacetylated 32mer had a very low alpha-helical content (approximately 20%) that was only slightly increased by disulfide crosslinking or N-terminal acetylation. Addition of salt (> 1 M) greatly increased the helical content of the peptide. The CD spectrum, the cooperativity of folding of the peptide, and sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation studies showed that it formed a 2-chained coiled coil at high ionic strength. Disulfide crosslinking and N-terminal acetylation both greatly stabilized the coiled-coil alpha-helical conformation in high salt. Addition of ethanol or trifluoroethanol to solutions of the peptide also increased its alpha-helical content. However, the CD spectra and unfolding behavior of the peptide showed no evidence of coiled-coil formation. In the presence of the organic solvents, N-terminal acetylation had very little effect on the conformation or stability of the peptide. Our results indicate that N-terminal acetylation stabilizes coiled-coil formation in the peptide. The effect cannot be explained by interactions with the "helix-dipole" because the stabilization is observed at very high salt concentrations and is independent of pH. In contrast to the results with the peptide, N-terminal acetylation has only small effects on the overall stability of tropomyosin. PMID:8019411

  20. N-Terminally extended analogues of the K⁺ channel toxin from Stichodactyla helianthus as potent and selective blockers of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih C; Huq, Redwan; Chhabra, Sandeep; Beeton, Christine; Pennington, Michael W; Smith, Brian J; Norton, Raymond S

    2015-06-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 is an important target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and asthma. Blockade of Kv1.3 by the sea anemone peptide K⁺-channel toxin from Stichodactyla helianthus (ShK) inhibits the proliferation of effector memory T lymphocytes and ameliorates autoimmune diseases in animal models. However, the lack of selectivity of ShK for Kv1.3 over the Kv1.1 subtype has driven a search for Kv1.3-selective analogues. In the present study, we describe N-terminally extended analogues of ShK that contain a negatively-charged Glu, designed to mimic the phosphonate adduct in earlier Kv1.3-selective analogues, and consist entirely of common protein amino acids. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that a Trp residue at position [-3] of the tetrapeptide extension could form stable interactions with Pro377 of Kv1.3 and best discriminates between Kv1.3 and Kv1.1. This led to the development of ShK with an N-terminal Glu-Trp-Ser-Ser extension ([EWSS]ShK), which inhibits Kv1.3 with an IC₅₀ of 34 pm and is 158-fold selective for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. In addition, [EWSS]ShK is more than 2900-fold more selective for Kv1.3 over Kv1.2 and KCa3.1 channels. As a highly Kv1.3-selective analogue of ShK based entirely on protein amino acids, which can be produced by recombinant expression, this peptide is a valuable addition to the complement of therapeutic candidates for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25864722

  1. N-terminal domain of complexin independently activates calcium-triggered fusion.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying; Choi, Ucheor B; Zhang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Minglei; Pfuetzner, Richard A; Wang, Austin L; Diao, Jiajie; Brunger, Axel T

    2016-08-01

    Complexin activates Ca(2+)-triggered neurotransmitter release and regulates spontaneous release in the presynaptic terminal by cooperating with the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and the Ca(2+)-sensor synaptotagmin. The N-terminal domain of complexin is important for activation, but its molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. Here, we observed that a split pair of N-terminal and central domain fragments of complexin is sufficient to activate Ca(2+)-triggered release using a reconstituted single-vesicle fusion assay, suggesting that the N-terminal domain acts as an independent module within the synaptic fusion machinery. The N-terminal domain can also interact independently with membranes, which is enhanced by a cooperative interaction with the neuronal SNARE complex. We show by mutagenesis that membrane binding of the N-terminal domain is essential for activation of Ca(2+)-triggered fusion. Consistent with the membrane-binding property, the N-terminal domain can be substituted by the influenza virus hemagglutinin fusion peptide, and this chimera also activates Ca(2+)-triggered fusion. Membrane binding of the N-terminal domain of complexin therefore cooperates with the other fusogenic elements of the synaptic fusion machinery during Ca(2+)-triggered release. PMID:27444020

  2. N-terminal domain of complexin independently activates calcium-triggered fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ying; Choi, Ucheor B.; Zhang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Minglei; Pfuetzner, Richard A.; Wang, Austin L.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2016-01-01

    Complexin activates Ca2+-triggered neurotransmitter release and regulates spontaneous release in the presynaptic terminal by cooperating with the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and the Ca2+-sensor synaptotagmin. The N-terminal domain of complexin is important for activation, but its molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. Here, we observed that a split pair of N-terminal and central domain fragments of complexin is sufficient to activate Ca2+-triggered release using a reconstituted single-vesicle fusion assay, suggesting that the N-terminal domain acts as an independent module within the synaptic fusion machinery. The N-terminal domain can also interact independently with membranes, which is enhanced by a cooperative interaction with the neuronal SNARE complex. We show by mutagenesis that membrane binding of the N-terminal domain is essential for activation of Ca2+-triggered fusion. Consistent with the membrane-binding property, the N-terminal domain can be substituted by the influenza virus hemagglutinin fusion peptide, and this chimera also activates Ca2+-triggered fusion. Membrane binding of the N-terminal domain of complexin therefore cooperates with the other fusogenic elements of the synaptic fusion machinery during Ca2+-triggered release. PMID:27444020

  3. The N-terminal Arg Residue Is Essential for Autocatalytic Activation of a Lipopolysaccharide-responsive Protease Zymogen*

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Shiga, Takafumi; Shibata, Toshio; Sako, Miyuki; Maenaka, Katsumi; Koshiba, Takumi; Mizumura, Hikaru; Oda, Toshio; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Factor C, a serine protease zymogen involved in innate immune responses in horseshoe crabs, is known to be autocatalytically activated on the surface of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, but the molecular mechanism of this activation remains unknown. In this study, we show that wild-type factor C expressed in HEK293S cells exhibits a lipopolysaccharide-induced activity equivalent to that of native factor C. Analysis of the N-terminal addition, deletion, or substitution mutants shows that the N-terminal Arg residue and the distance between the N terminus and the tripartite of lipopolysaccharide-binding site are essential factors for autocatalytic activation, and that the positive charge of the N terminus may interact with an acidic amino acid(s) of the molecule to convert the zymogen into an active form. Chemical cross-linking experiments indicate that the N terminus is required to form a complex of the factor C molecules in a sufficiently close vicinity to be chemically cross-linked on the surface of lipopolysaccharides. We propose a molecular mechanism of the autocatalytic activation of the protease zymogen on lipopolysaccharides functioning as a platform to induce specific protein-protein interaction between the factor C molecules. PMID:25077965

  4. The N-terminal Arg residue is essential for autocatalytic activation of a lipopolysaccharide-responsive protease zymogen.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Shiga, Takafumi; Shibata, Toshio; Sako, Miyuki; Maenaka, Katsumi; Koshiba, Takumi; Mizumura, Hikaru; Oda, Toshio; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2014-09-12

    Factor C, a serine protease zymogen involved in innate immune responses in horseshoe crabs, is known to be autocatalytically activated on the surface of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, but the molecular mechanism of this activation remains unknown. In this study, we show that wild-type factor C expressed in HEK293S cells exhibits a lipopolysaccharide-induced activity equivalent to that of native factor C. Analysis of the N-terminal addition, deletion, or substitution mutants shows that the N-terminal Arg residue and the distance between the N terminus and the tripartite of lipopolysaccharide-binding site are essential factors for autocatalytic activation, and that the positive charge of the N terminus may interact with an acidic amino acid(s) of the molecule to convert the zymogen into an active form. Chemical cross-linking experiments indicate that the N terminus is required to form a complex of the factor C molecules in a sufficiently close vicinity to be chemically cross-linked on the surface of lipopolysaccharides. We propose a molecular mechanism of the autocatalytic activation of the protease zymogen on lipopolysaccharides functioning as a platform to induce specific protein-protein interaction between the factor C molecules. PMID:25077965

  5. Structure and Dynamics of the N-terminal Domain of the Cu(I) Binding Protein CusB

    PubMed Central

    Ucisik, Melek N.; Chakravorty, Dhruva K.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    CusCFBA is one of the metal efflux systems in Escherichia coli, which is highly specific for its substrates Cu(I) and Ag(I). It serves to protect the bacteria in environments that have lethal concentrations of these metals. The membrane fusion protein CusB is the periplasmic piece of CusCFBA, which has not been fully characterized by crystallography due to its extremely disordered N-terminal region. This region has both structural and functional importance as it has been experimentally proven to transfer the metal by itself from the metallochaperone CusF and to induce a structural change in the rest of CusB to increase Cu(I)/Ag(I) resistance. Understanding metal uptake from the periplasm is critical to gain an insight to the mechanism of the whole CusCFBA pump, which makes resolving a structure for the N-terminal region necessary as it contains the metal binding site. We ran extensive molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the structural and dynamic properties of both apo and Cu(I)-bound versions of the CusB N-terminal region. In contrast to its functional companion CusF, Cu(I)-binding to the N-terminal of CusB causes only a slight, local stabilization around the metal site. The trajectories were analyzed in detail revealing extensive structural disorder in both the apo and holo forms of the protein. CusB was further analyzed by breaking the protein up into three subdomains according to the extent of the observed disorder: the N- and C-terminal tails, the central beta strand motif, and the M21–M36 loop connecting the two metal-coordinating methionine residues. Most of the observed disorder was traced back to the tail regions leading us to hypothesize that the latter two subdomains (residues 13–45) may form a functionally competent metal binding domain as the tail regions appear to play no role in metal binding. PMID:23988152

  6. Nuclear Import of Adenovirus DNA Involves Direct Interaction of Hexon with an N-Terminal Domain of the Nucleoporin Nup214

    PubMed Central

    Ragues, Jessica; Guan, Tinglu; Bégu, Dominique; Wodrich, Harald; Kann, Michael; Nemerow, Glen R.; Gerace, Larry

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we characterized the molecular basis for binding of adenovirus (AdV) to the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), a key step during delivery of the viral genome into the nucleus. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to deplete cells of either Nup214 or Nup358, the two major Phe-Gly (FG) repeat nucleoporins localized on the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, and evaluated the impact on hexon binding and AdV infection. The accumulation of purified hexon trimers or partially disassembled AdV at the nuclear envelope (NE) was observed in digitonin-permeabilized cells in the absence of cytosolic factors. Both in vitro hexon binding and in vivo nuclear import of the AdV genome were strongly reduced in Nup214-depleted cells but still occurred in Nup358-depleted cells, suggesting that Nup214 is a major binding site of AdV during infection. The expression of an NPC-targeted N-terminal domain of Nup214 in Nup214-depleted cells restored the binding of hexon at the NE and the nuclear import of protein VII (pVII), indicating that this region is sufficient to allow AdV binding. We further narrowed the binding site to a 137-amino-acid segment in the N-terminal domain of Nup214. Together, our results have identified a specific region within the N terminus of Nup214 that acts as a direct NPC binding site for AdV. IMPORTANCE AdVs, which have the largest genome of nonenveloped DNA viruses, are being extensively explored for use in gene therapy, especially in alternative treatments for cancers that are refractory to traditional therapies. In this study, we characterized the molecular basis for binding of AdV to the cytoplasmic face of the NPC, a key step for delivery of the viral genome into the nucleus. Our data indicate that a 137-amino-acid region of the nucleoporin Nup214 is a binding site for the major AdV capsid protein, hexon, and that this interaction is required for viral DNA import. These findings provide additional insight on how AdV exploits the

  7. The trappin gene family: proteins defined by an N-terminal transglutaminase substrate domain and a C-terminal four-disulphide core.

    PubMed Central

    Schalkwijk, J; Wiedow, O; Hirose, S

    1999-01-01

    Recently, several new genes have been discovered in various species which are homologous to the well-characterized human epithelial proteinase inhibitor elafin/SKALP (skin-derived anti-leukoproteinase). Because of the high degree of conservation and the similarities in genomic organization, we propose that these genes belong to a novel gene family. At the protein level, the family members are defined by: (1) an N-terminal domain consisting of a variable number of repeats with the consensus sequence Gly-Gln-Asp-Pro-Val-Lys that can act as an anchoring motif by transglutaminase cross-linking, and (2) a C-terminal four-disulphide core or whey acidic protein (WAP) domain, which harbours a functional motif involved in binding of proteinases and possibly other proteins. We have proposed the name trappin gene family as a unifying nomenclature for this group of proteins (trappin is an acronym for TRansglutaminase substrate and wAP domain containing ProteIN, and refers to its functional property of 'getting trapped' in tissues by covalent cross-linking). Analysis of the trappin family members shows extensive diversification in bovidae and suidae, whereas the number of primate trappins is probably limited. Recent biochemical and cell biological data on the human trappin family member elafin/SKALP suggest that this molecule is induced in epidermis by cellular stress. We hypothesize that trappins play an important role in the regulation of inflammation and in protection against tissue damage in stratified epithelia. PMID:10359639

  8. Homodimerization propensity of the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of Ultraspiracle from Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Pieprzyk, Joanna; Zbela, Agnieszka; Jakób, Michał; Ożyhar, Andrzej; Orłowski, Marek

    2014-06-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue, one of the most devastating arthropod-borne viral infections in humans. The isoform specific A/B region, called the N-terminal domain (NTD), is hypervariable in sequence and length and is poorly conserved within the Ultraspiracle (Usp) family. The Usp protein together with ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) forms a heterodimeric complex. Up until now, there has been little data on the molecular properties of the isolated Usp-NTD. Here, we describe the biochemical and biophysical properties of the recombinant NTD of the Usp isoform B (aaUsp-NTD) from A. aegypti. These results, in combination with in silico bioinformatics approaches, indicate that aaUsp-NTD exhibits properties of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). We also present the first experimental evidence describing the dimerization propensity of the isolated NTD of Usp. These characteristics also appear for other members of the Usp family in different species, for example, in the Usp-NTD from Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori. However, aaUsp-NTD exhibits the strongest homodimerization potential. We postulate that the unique dimerization of the NTD might be important for Usp function by providing an additional platform for interactions, in addition to the nuclear receptor superfamily dimerization via DNA binding domains and ligand binding domains that has already been extensively documented. Furthermore, the unique NTD-NTD interaction that was observed might contribute new insight into the dimerization propensities of nuclear receptors. PMID:24704038

  9. Cdc13 N-Terminal Dimerization DNA Binding and Telomere Length Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    M Mitchell; J Smith; M Mason; S Harper; D Speicher; F Johnson; E Skordalakes

    2011-12-31

    The essential yeast protein Cdc13 facilitates chromosome end replication by recruiting telomerase to telomeres, and together with its interacting partners Stn1 and Ten1, it protects chromosome ends from nucleolytic attack, thus contributing to genome integrity. Although Cdc13 has been studied extensively, the precise role of its N-terminal domain (Cdc13N) in telomere length regulation remains unclear. Here we present a structural, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cdc13N. The structure reveals that this domain comprises an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB) fold and is involved in Cdc13 dimerization. Biochemical data show that Cdc13N weakly binds long, single-stranded, telomeric DNA in a fashion that is directly dependent on domain oligomerization. When introduced into full-length Cdc13 in vivo, point mutations that prevented Cdc13N dimerization or DNA binding caused telomere shortening or lengthening, respectively. The multiple DNA binding domains and dimeric nature of Cdc13 offer unique insights into how it coordinates the recruitment and regulation of telomerase access to the telomeres.

  10. Activation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1 Involves Interactions between Its N-Terminal Region and Its Kinase Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chih-chin; Orban, Tivadar; Jastrzebska, Beata; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2012-03-16

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to initiate receptor desensitization. In addition to the canonical phosphoacceptor site of the kinase domain, activated receptors bind to a distinct docking site that confers higher affinity and activates GRKs allosterically. Recent mutagenesis and structural studies support a model in which receptor docking activates a GRK by stabilizing the interaction of its 20-amino acid N-terminal region with the kinase domain. This interaction in turn stabilizes a closed, more active conformation of the enzyme. To investigate the importance of this interaction for the process of GRK activation, we first validated the functionality of the N-terminal region in rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) by site-directed mutagenesis and then introduced a disulfide bond to cross-link the N-terminal region of GRK1 with its specific binding site on the kinase domain. Characterization of the kinetic and biophysical properties of the cross-linked protein showed that disulfide bond formation greatly enhances the catalytic efficiency of the peptide phosphorylation, but receptor-dependent phosphorylation, Meta II stabilization, and inhibition of transducin activation were unaffected. These data indicate that the interaction of the N-terminal region with the kinase domain is important for GRK activation but does not dictate the affinity of GRKs for activated receptors.

  11. Activation of Histidine Kinase SpaK Is Mediated by the N-Terminal Portion of Subtilin-Like Lantibiotics and Is Independent of Lipid II.

    PubMed

    Spieß, Tobias; Korn, Sophie Marianne; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2015-08-15

    The biosynthesis of the lantibiotic subtilin is autoinduced in a quorum-sensing mechanism via histidine kinase SpaK. Subtilin-like lantibiotics, such as entianin, ericin S, and subtilin, specifically activated SpaK in a comparable manner, whereas the structurally similar nisin did not provide the signal for SpaK activation at nontoxic concentrations. Surprisingly, nevertheless, nisin if applied together with entianin partly quenched SpaK activation. The N-terminal entianin1-20 fragment (comprising N-terminal amino acids 1 to 20) was sufficient for SpaK activation, although higher concentrations were needed. The N-terminal nisin1-20 fragment also interfered with entianin-mediated activation of SpaK and, remarkably, at extremely high concentrations also activated SpaK. Our data show that the N-terminal entianin1-20 fragment is sufficient for SpaK activation. However, if present, the C-terminal part of the molecule further strongly enhances the activation, possibly by its interference with the cellular membrane. As shown by using lipid II-interfering substances and a lipid II-deficient mutant strain, lipid II is not needed for the sensing mechanism. PMID:26025904

  12. Activation of Histidine Kinase SpaK Is Mediated by the N-Terminal Portion of Subtilin-Like Lantibiotics and Is Independent of Lipid II

    PubMed Central

    Spieß, Tobias; Korn, Sophie Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the lantibiotic subtilin is autoinduced in a quorum-sensing mechanism via histidine kinase SpaK. Subtilin-like lantibiotics, such as entianin, ericin S, and subtilin, specifically activated SpaK in a comparable manner, whereas the structurally similar nisin did not provide the signal for SpaK activation at nontoxic concentrations. Surprisingly, nevertheless, nisin if applied together with entianin partly quenched SpaK activation. The N-terminal entianin1–20 fragment (comprising N-terminal amino acids 1 to 20) was sufficient for SpaK activation, although higher concentrations were needed. The N-terminal nisin1–20 fragment also interfered with entianin-mediated activation of SpaK and, remarkably, at extremely high concentrations also activated SpaK. Our data show that the N-terminal entianin1–20 fragment is sufficient for SpaK activation. However, if present, the C-terminal part of the molecule further strongly enhances the activation, possibly by its interference with the cellular membrane. As shown by using lipid II-interfering substances and a lipid II-deficient mutant strain, lipid II is not needed for the sensing mechanism. PMID:26025904

  13. Differential Contributions of Tacaribe Arenavirus Nucleoprotein N-Terminal and C-Terminal Residues to Nucleocapsid Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    D'Antuono, Alejandra; Loureiro, Maria Eugenia; Foscaldi, Sabrina; Marino-Buslje, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) is the main protein component of viral nucleocapsids and is strictly required for viral genome replication mediated by the L polymerase. Homo-oligomerization of NP is presumed to play an important role in nucleocapsid assembly, albeit the underlying mechanism and the relevance of NP-NP interaction in nucleocapsid activity are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the contribution of the New World Tacaribe virus (TCRV) NP self-interaction to nucleocapsid functional activity. We show that alanine substitution of N-terminal residues predicted to be available for NP-NP interaction strongly affected NP self-association, as determined by coimmunoprecipitation assays, produced a drastic inhibition of transcription and replication of a TCRV minigenome RNA, and impaired NP binding to RNA. Mutagenesis and functional analysis also revealed that, while dispensable for NP self-interaction, key amino acids at the C-terminal domain were essential for RNA synthesis. Furthermore, mutations at these C-terminal residues rendered NP unable to bind RNA both in vivo and in vitro but had no effect on the interaction with the L polymerase. In addition, while all oligomerization-defective variants tested exhibited unaltered capacities to sustain NP-L interaction, NP deletion mutants were fully incompetent to bind L, suggesting that, whereas NP self-association is dispensable, the integrity of both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains is required for binding the L polymerase. Overall, our results suggest that NP self-interaction mediated by the N-terminal domain may play a critical role in TCRV nucleocapsid assembly and activity and that the C-terminal domain of NP is implicated in RNA binding. IMPORTANCE The mechanism of arenavirus functional nucleocapsid assembly is still poorly understood. No detailed information is available on the nucleocapsid structure, and the regions of full-length NP involved in binding to viral RNA remain to be

  14. N-terminal peptide sequence repetition influences the kinetics of backbone fragmentation: a manifestation of the Jahn-Teller effect?

    PubMed

    Good, David M; Yang, Hongqian; Zubarev, Roman A

    2013-11-01

    Analysis of large (>10,000 entries) databases consisting of high-resolution tandem mass spectra of peptide dications revealed with high statistical significance (P < 1[Symbol: see text]10(-3)) that peptides with non-identical first two N-terminal amino acids undergo cleavages of the second peptide bond at higher rates than repetitive sequences composed of the same amino acids (i.e., in general AB- and BA- bonds cleave more often than AA- and BB- bonds). This effect seems to depend upon the collisional energy, being stronger at lower energies. The phenomenon is likely to indicate the presence of the diketopiperazine structure for at least some b2 (+) ions. When consisting of two identical amino acids, these species should form through intermediates that have a symmetric geometry and, thus, must be subject to the Jahn-Teller effect that reduces the stability of such systems. PMID:23633015

  15. Structure of the N-terminal oligomerization domain of DnaD reveals a unique tetramerization motif and provides insights into scaffold formation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Zhang, W; Soultanas, P; Paoli, M

    2008-03-01

    DnaD is a primosomal protein that remodels supercoiled plasmids. It binds to supercoiled forms and converts them to open forms without nicking. During this remodeling process, all the writhe is converted to twist and the plasmids are held around the periphery of large scaffolds made up of DnaD molecules. This DNA-remodeling function is the sum of a scaffold-forming activity on the N-terminal domain and a DNA-dependent oligomerization activity on the C-terminal domain. We have determined the crystal structure of the scaffold-forming N-terminal domain, which reveals a winged-helix architecture, with additional structural elements extending from both N- and C-termini. Four monomers form dimers that join into a tetramer. The N-terminal extension mediates dimerization and tetramerization, with extensive interactions and distinct interfaces. The wings and helices of the winged-helix domains remain exposed on the surface of the tetramer. Structure-guided mutagenesis and atomic force microscopy imaging indicate that these elements, together with the C-terminal extension, are involved in scaffold formation. Based upon our data, we propose a model for the DnaD-mediated scaffold formation. PMID:18206906

  16. Allosteric stabilization of the amyloid-β peptide hairpin by the fluctuating N-terminal.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2016-01-28

    Immobilized ions modulate nearby hydrophobic interactions and influence molecular recognition and self-assembly. We simulated disulfide bond-locked double mutants (L17C/L34C) and observed allosteric modulation of the peptide's intra-molecular interactions by the N-terminal tail. We revealed that the non-contacting charged N-terminal residues help the transfer of entropy to the surrounding solvation shell and stabilizing β-hairpin. PMID:26666686

  17. Amyloidogenic Mutation Promotes Fibril Formation of the N-terminal Apolipoprotein A-I on Lipid Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Ogata, Fuka; Mikawa, Shiho; Tsuji, Kohei; Baba, Teruhiko; Shigenaga, Akira; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Otaka, Akira; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The N-terminal amino acid 1–83 fragment of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has a strong propensity to form amyloid fibrils at physiological neutral pH. Because apoA-I has an ability to bind to lipid membranes, we examined the effects of the lipid environment on fibril-forming properties of the N-terminal fragment of apoA-I variants. Thioflavin T fluorescence assay as well as fluorescence and transmission microscopies revealed that upon lipid binding, fibril formation by apoA-I 1–83 is strongly inhibited, whereas the G26R mutant still retains the ability to form fibrils. Such distinct effects of lipid binding on fibril formation were also observed for the amyloidogenic prone region-containing peptides, apoA-I 8–33 and 8–33/G26R. This amyloidogenic region shifts from random coil to α-helical structure upon lipid binding. The G26R mutation appears to prevent this helix transition because lower helical propensity and more solvent-exposed conformation of the G26R variant upon lipid binding were observed in the apoA-I 1–83 fragment and 8–33 peptide. With a partially α-helical conformation induced by the presence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, fibril formation by apoA-I 1–83 was strongly inhibited, whereas the G26R variant can form amyloid fibrils. These findings suggest a new possible pathway for amyloid fibril formation by the N-terminal fragment of apoA-I variants: the amyloidogenic mutations partially destabilize the α-helical structure formed upon association with lipid membranes, resulting in physiologically relevant conformations that allow fibril formation. PMID:26175149

  18. Identification of the WW domain-interaction sites in the unstructured N-terminal domain of EBV LMP 2A.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Duk; Park, Sung Jean; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Bong Jin

    2007-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus latency is maintained by the latent membrane protein (LMP) 2A, which mimics the B-cell receptor (BCR) and perturbs BCR signaling. The cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of LMP2A is composed of 119 amino acids. The N-terminal domain of LMP2A (LMP2A NTD) contains two PY motifs (PPPPY) that interact with the WW domains of Nedd4 family ubiquitin-protein ligases. Based on our analysis of NMR data, we found that the LMP2A NTD adopts an overall random-coil structure in its native state. However, the region between residues 60 and 90 was relatively ordered, and seemed to form the hydrophobic core of the LMP2A NTD. This region resides between two PY motifs and is important for WW domain binding. Mapping of the residues involved in the interaction between the LMP2A NTD and WW domains was achieved by chemical shift perturbation, by the addition of WW2 and WW3 peptides. Interestingly, the binding of the WW domains mainly occurred in the hydrophobic core of the LMP2A NTD. In addition, we detected a difference in the binding modes of the two PY motifs against the two WW peptides. The binding of the WW3 peptide caused the resonances of five residues (Tyr(60), Glu(61), Asp(62), Trp(65), and Gly(66)) just behind the N-terminal PY motif of the LMP2A NTD to disappear. A similar result was obtained with WW2 binding. However, near the C-terminal PY motif, the chemical shift perturbation caused by WW2 binding was different from that due to WW3 binding, indicating that the residues near the PY motifs are involved in selective binding of WW domains. The present work represents the first structural study of the LMP2A NTD and provides fundamental structural information about its interaction with ubiquitin-protein ligase. PMID:17174309

  19. Amyloidogenic Mutation Promotes Fibril Formation of the N-terminal Apolipoprotein A-I on Lipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Ogata, Fuka; Mikawa, Shiho; Tsuji, Kohei; Baba, Teruhiko; Shigenaga, Akira; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Otaka, Akira; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-21

    The N-terminal amino acid 1-83 fragment of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has a strong propensity to form amyloid fibrils at physiological neutral pH. Because apoA-I has an ability to bind to lipid membranes, we examined the effects of the lipid environment on fibril-forming properties of the N-terminal fragment of apoA-I variants. Thioflavin T fluorescence assay as well as fluorescence and transmission microscopies revealed that upon lipid binding, fibril formation by apoA-I 1-83 is strongly inhibited, whereas the G26R mutant still retains the ability to form fibrils. Such distinct effects of lipid binding on fibril formation were also observed for the amyloidogenic prone region-containing peptides, apoA-I 8-33 and 8-33/G26R. This amyloidogenic region shifts from random coil to α-helical structure upon lipid binding. The G26R mutation appears to prevent this helix transition because lower helical propensity and more solvent-exposed conformation of the G26R variant upon lipid binding were observed in the apoA-I 1-83 fragment and 8-33 peptide. With a partially α-helical conformation induced by the presence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, fibril formation by apoA-I 1-83 was strongly inhibited, whereas the G26R variant can form amyloid fibrils. These findings suggest a new possible pathway for amyloid fibril formation by the N-terminal fragment of apoA-I variants: the amyloidogenic mutations partially destabilize the α-helical structure formed upon association with lipid membranes, resulting in physiologically relevant conformations that allow fibril formation. PMID:26175149

  20. Structure and Function of the N-Terminal Domain of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shihong; Ogino, Minako; Luo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses have various mechanisms to duplicate their genomes and produce virus-specific mRNAs. Negative-strand RNA viruses encode their own polymerases to perform each of these processes. For the nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, the polymerase is comprised of the large polymerase subunit (L) and the phosphoprotein (P). L proteins from members of the Rhabdoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Filoviridae share sequence and predicted secondary structure homology. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal domain (conserved region I) of the L protein from a rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, at 1.8-Å resolution. The strictly and strongly conserved residues in this domain cluster in a single area of the protein. Serial mutation of these residues shows that many of the amino acids are essential for viral transcription but not for mRNA capping. Three-dimensional alignments show that this domain shares structural homology with polymerases from other viral families, including segmented negative-strand RNA and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. IMPORTANCE Negative-strand RNA viruses include a diverse set of viral families that infect animals and plants, causing serious illness and economic impact. The members of this group of viruses share a set of functionally conserved proteins that are essential to their replication cycle. Among this set of proteins is the viral polymerase, which performs a unique set of reactions to produce genome- and subgenome-length RNA transcripts. In this article, we study the polymerase of vesicular stomatitis virus, a member of the rhabdoviruses, which has served in the past as a model to study negative-strand RNA virus replication. We have identified a site in the N-terminal domain of the polymerase that is essential to viral transcription and that shares sequence homology with members of the paramyxoviruses and the filoviruses. Newly identified sites such as that described here could prove to be useful targets in the

  1. N-terminal nesprin-2 variants regulate β-catenin signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuping; Minaisah, Rose-Marie; Ferraro, Elisa; Li, Chen; Porter, Lauren J; Zhou, Can; Gao, Fang; Zhang, Junyi; Rajgor, Dipen; Autore, Flavia; Shanahan, Catherine M; Warren, Derek T

    2016-07-15

    The spatial compartmentalisation of biochemical signalling pathways is essential for cell function. Nesprins are a multi-isomeric family of proteins that have emerged as signalling scaffolds, herein, we investigate the localisation and function of novel nesprin-2 N-terminal variants. We show that these nesprin-2 variants display cell specific distribution and reside in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that nesprin-2 N-terminal variants colocalised with β-catenin at cell-cell junctions in U2OS cells. Calcium switch assays demonstrated that nesprin-2 and β-catenin are lost from cell-cell junctions in low calcium conditions whereas emerin localisation at the NE remained unaltered, furthermore, an N-terminal fragment of nesprin-2 was sufficient for cell-cell junction localisation and interacted with β-catenin. Disruption of these N-terminal nesprin-2 variants, using siRNA depletion resulted in loss of β-catenin from cell-cell junctions, nuclear accumulation of active β-catenin and augmented β-catenin transcriptional activity. Importantly, we show that U2OS cells lack nesprin-2 giant, suggesting that the N-terminal nesprin-2 variants regulate β-catenin signalling independently of the NE. Together, these data identify N-terminal nesprin-2 variants as novel regulators of β-catenin signalling that tether β-catenin to cell-cell contacts to inhibit β-catenin transcriptional activity. PMID:27321956

  2. Transcription-dependent nuclear localization of DAZAP1 requires an N-terminal signal

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yi-Tzu; Wen, Wan-Ching; Yen, Pauline H.

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DAZAP1 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DAZAP1 accumulates in the cytoplasm when the nuclear transcription is inhibited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DAZAP1's transcription-dependent nuclear localization requires N-terminal N42. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SLIRP binds to N42 and may be involved in the process. -- Abstract: Deleted in Azoospermia Associated Protein 1 (DAZAP1) is a ubiquitous hnRNP protein required for normal development and spermatogenesis. It resides predominantly in the nucleus and moves between the nucleus and the cytoplasm via a ZNS shuttling signal at its C-terminus. DAZAP1 accumulates in the cytoplasm when RNA polymerase II activity is inhibited by actinomycin D. Here we report the mapping of a 42-amino acid segment (N42) at the N-terminus of DAZAP1 that is both necessary and sufficient for its transcription-dependent nuclear localization. In addition, using a yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified SLIRP as a N42-binding protein which may regulate DAZAP1 subcellular localization.

  3. Hormone affinity and fibril formation of piscine transthyretin: the role of the N-terminal.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Isabel; Melo, Eduardo P; Lundberg, Erik; Estrela, Nídia L; Sauer-Eriksson, A Elisabeth; Power, Deborah M

    2008-11-25

    Transthyretin (TTR) transports thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the blood of vertebrates. TH-binding sites are highly conserved in vertebrate TTR, however, piscine TTR has a longer N-terminus which is thought to influence TH-binding affinity and may influence TTR stability. We produced recombinant wild type sea bream TTR (sbTTRWT) plus two mutants in which 6 (sbTTRM6) and 12 (sbTTRM12) N-terminal residues were removed. Ligand-binding studies revealed similar affinities for T3 (Kd=10.6+/-1.7nM) and T4 (Kd=9.8+/-0.97nM) binding to sbTTRWT. Affinity for THs was unaltered in sbTTRM12 but sbTTRM6 had poorer affinity for T4 (Kd=252.3+/-15.8nM) implying that some residues in the N-terminus can influence T4 binding. sbTTRM6 inhibited acid-mediated fibril formation in vitro as shown by fluorometric measurements using thioflavine T. In contrast, fibril formation by sbTTRM12 was significant, probably due to decreased stability of the tetramer. Such studies also suggested that sbTTRWT is more resistant to fibril formation than human TTR. PMID:18620020

  4. Ozone exposure triggers insulin resistance through muscle c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Vella, Roxane E; Pillon, Nicolas J; Zarrouki, Bader; Croze, Marine L; Koppe, Laetitia; Guichardant, Michel; Pesenti, Sandra; Chauvin, Marie-Agnès; Rieusset, Jennifer; Géloën, Alain; Soulage, Christophe O

    2015-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to traffic-related air pollution is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Ozone, a major photochemical pollutant in urban areas, is negatively associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels, but most aspects of this association remain to be elucidated. Using an environmentally realistic concentration (0.8 parts per million), we demonstrated that exposure of rats to ozone induced whole-body insulin resistance and oxidative stress, with associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, and disruption of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from ozone-treated rats reproduced this effect in C2C12 myotubes, suggesting that toxic lung mediators were responsible for the phenotype. Pretreatment with the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid, the JNK inhibitor SP600125, or the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine alleviated insulin resistance, demonstrating that ozone sequentially triggered oxidative stress, ER stress, and JNK activation to impair insulin signaling in muscle. This study is the first to report that ozone plays a causative role in the development of insulin resistance, suggesting that it could boost the development of diabetes. We therefore provide a potential mechanism linking pollutant exposure and the increased incidence of metabolic diseases. PMID:25277399

  5. Structure of the EMMPRIN N-terminal domain 1: Dimerization via [beta]-strand swapping

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Jinquan; Teplyakov, Alexey; Obmolova, Galina; Malia, Thomas; Wu, Sheng-Jiun; Beil, Eric; Baker, Audrey; Swencki-Underwood, Bethany; Zhao, Yonghong; Sprenkle, Justin; Dixon, Ken; Sweet, Raymond; Gilliland, Gary L.

    2010-09-27

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), also known as Hab18G, CD147, Basigin, M6, and neurothelin, is a membrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of various cell types and many cancer cells. EMMPRIN stimulates adjacent fibroblasts and tumor cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases and plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, spermatogensis and fertilization, cell-cell adhesion and communication, and other biological processes (reviewed in Ref. 1 and references therein). It was demonstrated that the EMMPRIN extracellular domain (ECD), which structurally belongs to the IgG superfamily, can form homo-oligomers in a cis dependent manner and the N-terminal domain 1 (residues 22-101) was necessary and sufficient to mediate this interaction. The crystal structure of the ECD of recombinant human EMMPRIN (Hab18G/CD147) expressed in E. coli was reported at 2.8 {angstrom} resolution (Yu et al. 2008). The construct consists of residues 22-205 of the mature protein and has both an N-terminal IgC2 domain (ND1, residues 22-101) and a C-terminal IgC2 domain (ND2, residues 107-205). The two domains are joined by a five amino acid residue linker that constitutes a flexible hinge between the two domains. The crystal form has four copies of the molecule in the asymmetric unit, each of which has a different inter-domain angle that varies from 121{sup o} to 144{sup o}. The two domains each have a conserved disulfide bridge and both are comprised of two {beta}-sheets formed by strands EBA and GFCC, and DEBA and AGFCC for ND1 and ND2, respectively. Based on the crystal packing in this structure, the authors proposed that lateral packing between the two IgG domains of EMMPRIN ECD represents a potential mechanism for cell adhesion. Here we report the 2.0-{angstrom} crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of EMMPRIN ECD (ND1) expressed in mammalian cells. The overall structure of the domain is very similar to that in the full length

  6. A highly conserved N-terminal sequence for teleost vitellogenin with potential value to the biochemistry, molecular biology and pathology of vitellogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Folmar, L.D.; Denslow, N.D.; Wallace, R.A.; LaFleur, G.; Gross, T.S.; Bonomelli, S.; Sullivan, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    N-terminal amino acid sequences for vitellogenin (Vtg) from six species of teleost fish (striped bass, mummichog, pinfish, brown bullhead, medaka, yellow perch and the sturgeon) are compared with published N-terminal Vtg sequences for the lamprey, clawed frog and domestic chicken. Striped bass and mummichog had 100% identical amino acids between positions 7 and 21, while pinfish, brown bullhead, sturgeon, lamprey, Xenopus and chicken had 87%, 93%, 60%, 47%, 47-60%) for four transcripts and had 40% identical, respectively, with striped bass for the same positions. Partial sequences obtained for medaka and yellow perch were 100% identical between positions 5 to 10. The potential utility of this conserved sequence for studies on the biochemistry, molecular biology and pathology of vitellogenesis is discussed.

  7. N-terminal stretch Arg2, Arg3, Arg4 and Arg5 of human lactoferrin is essential for binding to heparin, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, human lysozyme and DNA.

    PubMed Central

    van Berkel, P H; Geerts, M E; van Veen, H A; Mericskay, M; de Boer, H A; Nuijens, J H

    1997-01-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLF), a protein involved in host defence against infection and excessive inflammation, interacts with heparin, the lipid A moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, human lysozyme (hLZ) and DNA. To determine which region of the molecule is important in these interactions, solid-phase ligand binding assays were performed with hLF from human milk (natural hLF) and N-terminally deleted hLF variants. Iron-saturated and natural hLF bound equally well to heparin, lipid A, hLZ and DNA. Natural hLF lacking the first two N-terminal amino acids (Gly1-Arg2) showed reactivities of one-half, two-thirds, one-third and one-third towards heparin, lipid A, hLZ and DNA respectively compared with N-terminally intact hLF. A lack of the first three residues (Gly1-Arg2-Arg3) decreased binding to the same ligands to one-eighth, one-quarter, one-twentieth and one-seventeenth respectively. No binding occurred with a mutant lacking the first five residues (Gly1-Arg2-Arg3-Arg4-Arg5). An anti-hLF monoclonal antibody (E11) that reacts to an N-lobe epitope including Arg5 completely blocked hLF-ligand interaction. These results show that the N-terminal stretch of four consecutive arginine residues, Arg2-Arg3-Arg4-Arg5, has a decisive role in the interaction of hLF with heparin, lipid A, hLZ and DNA. The role of limited N-terminal proteolysis of hLF in its anti-infective and anti-inflammatory properties is discussed. PMID:9359845

  8. Antinociceptive effects of spinally administered nociceptin/orphanin FQ and its N-terminal fragments on capsaicin-induced nociception.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Soh; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Komatsu, Takaaki; Sakurada, Chikai; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa

    2011-07-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous ligand for the N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptors, has been shown to be metabolized into some fragments. We examined to determine whether intrathecal (i.t.) N/OFQ (1-13), (1-11) and (1-7) have antinociceptive activity in the pain-related behavior after intraplantar injection of capsaicin. The i.t. administration of N/OFQ (0.3-1.2 nmol) produced an appreciable and dose-dependent inhibition of capsaicin-induced paw-licking/biting response. The N-terminal fragments of N/OFQ, (1-13) and (1-11), were antinociceptive with a potency lower than N/OFQ. Calculated ID₅₀ values (nmol, i.t.) were 0.83 for N/OFQ, 2.5 for N/OFQ (1-13) and 4.75 for N/OFQ (1-11), respectively. The time-course effect revealed that the antinociceptive effects of these N-terminal fragments lasted longer than those of N/OFQ. Removal of amino acids down to N/OFQ (1-7) led to be less potent than N/OFQ and its fragments, (1-13) and (1-11). Antinociception induced by N/OFQ or N/OFQ (1-13) was reversed significantly by i.t. co-injection of [Nphe¹]N/OFQ (1-13)NH₂, a peptidergic antagonist for NOP receptors, whereas i.t. injection of the antagonist did not interfere with the action of N/OFQ (1-11) and (1-7). Pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone hydrochloride did not affect the antinociception induced by N/OFQ and its N-terminal fragments. These results suggest that N-terminal fragments of N/OFQ are active metabolites and may modulate the antinociceptive effect of N/OFQ in the spinal cord. The results also indicate that N/OFQ (1-13) still possess antinociceptive activity through NOP receptors. PMID:21672568

  9. Intracellular membrane association of the N-terminal domain of classical swine fever virus NS4B determines viral genome replication and virulence.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomokazu; Ruggli, Nicolas; Nagashima, Naofumi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Igarashi, Manabu; Mine, Junki; Hofmann, Martin A; Liniger, Matthias; Summerfield, Artur; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly contagious disease in pigs that can range from a severe haemorrhagic fever to a nearly unapparent disease, depending on the virulence of the virus strain. Little is known about the viral molecular determinants of CSFV virulence. The nonstructural protein NS4B is essential for viral replication. However, the roles of CSFV NS4B in viral genome replication and pathogenesis have not yet been elucidated. NS4B of the GPE-  vaccine strain and of the highly virulent Eystrup strain differ by a total of seven amino acid residues, two of which are located in the predicted trans-membrane domains of NS4B and were described previously to relate to virulence, and five residues clustering in the N-terminal part. In the present study, we examined the potential role of these five amino acids in modulating genome replication and determining pathogenicity in pigs. A chimeric low virulent GPE- -derived virus carrying the complete Eystrup NS4B showed enhanced pathogenicity in pigs. The in vitro replication efficiency of the NS4B chimeric GPE-  replicon was significantly higher than that of the replicon carrying only the two Eystrup-specific amino acids in NS4B. In silico and in vitro data suggest that the N-terminal part of NS4B forms an amphipathic α-helix structure. The N-terminal NS4B with these five amino acid residues is associated with the intracellular membranes. Taken together, this is the first gain-of-function study showing that the N-terminal domain of NS4B can determine CSFV genome replication in cell culture and viral pathogenicity in pigs. PMID:26018962

  10. Microheterogeneity of odorant-binding proteins in the porcupine revealed by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ganni, M; Garibotti, M; Scaloni, A; Pucci, P; Pelosi, P

    1997-06-01

    Several odorant-binding proteins (OBP) have been previously purified from the nasal mucosa of the old world porcupine Hystrix cristata. In this paper, we report their N-terminal amino-acid sequences and accurate molecular weights, as measured by electrospray mass spectrometry. The partial amino acid sequences reveal significant similarity with OBPs of other mammalian species and segregate the eight proteins purified into two subclasses. Mass spectrometry has revealed microheterogeneity among the proteins belonging to each of these two groups, suggesting a total number of OBPs of at least nine. The molecular weight differences between OBPs cannot be readily accounted for by common post-translation modifications and indicate different gene products. Such a large number of different OBPs may represent further support to an odour discriminating role for these proteins. PMID:9226887

  11. Structural transitions in full-length human prion protein detected by xenon as probe and spin labeling of the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sunilkumar Puthenpurackal; Nair, Divya Gopalakrishnan; Schaal, Daniel; Barbosa de Aguiar, Marisa; Wenzel, Sabine; Kremer, Werner; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2016-01-01

    Fatal neurodegenerative disorders termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are associated with the accumulation of fibrils of misfolded prion protein PrP. The noble gas xenon accommodates into four transiently enlarged hydrophobic cavities located in the well-folded core of human PrP(23-230) as detected by [(1)H, (15)N]-HSQC spectroscopy. In thermal equilibrium a fifth xenon binding site is formed transiently by amino acids A120 to L125 of the presumably disordered N-terminal domain and by amino acids K185 to T193 of the well-folded domain. Xenon bound PrP was modelled by restraint molecular dynamics. The individual microscopic and macroscopic dissociation constants could be derived by fitting the data to a model including a dynamic opening and closing of the cavities. As observed earlier by high pressure NMR spectroscopy xenon binding influences also other amino acids all over the N-terminal domain including residues of the AGAAAAGA motif indicating a structural coupling between the N-terminal domain and the core domain. This is in agreement with spin labelling experiments at positions 93 or 107 that show a transient interaction between the N-terminus and the start of helix 2 and the end of helix 3 of the core domain similar to that observed earlier by Zn(2+)-binding to the octarepeat motif. PMID:27341298

  12. Structural transitions in full-length human prion protein detected by xenon as probe and spin labeling of the N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sunilkumar Puthenpurackal; Nair, Divya Gopalakrishnan; Schaal, Daniel; Barbosa de Aguiar, Marisa; Wenzel, Sabine; Kremer, Werner; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2016-01-01

    Fatal neurodegenerative disorders termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are associated with the accumulation of fibrils of misfolded prion protein PrP. The noble gas xenon accommodates into four transiently enlarged hydrophobic cavities located in the well-folded core of human PrP(23–230) as detected by [1H, 15N]-HSQC spectroscopy. In thermal equilibrium a fifth xenon binding site is formed transiently by amino acids A120 to L125 of the presumably disordered N-terminal domain and by amino acids K185 to T193 of the well-folded domain. Xenon bound PrP was modelled by restraint molecular dynamics. The individual microscopic and macroscopic dissociation constants could be derived by fitting the data to a model including a dynamic opening and closing of the cavities. As observed earlier by high pressure NMR spectroscopy xenon binding influences also other amino acids all over the N-terminal domain including residues of the AGAAAAGA motif indicating a structural coupling between the N-terminal domain and the core domain. This is in agreement with spin labelling experiments at positions 93 or 107 that show a transient interaction between the N-terminus and the start of helix 2 and the end of helix 3 of the core domain similar to that observed earlier by Zn2+-binding to the octarepeat motif. PMID:27341298

  13. N-terminally myristoylated feline foamy virus Gag allows Env-independent budding of sub-viral particles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Kim, Yong-Boum; Löchelt, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Foamy viruses (FVs) are distinct retroviruses classified as Spumaretrovirinae in contrast to the other retroviruses, the Orthoretrovirinae. As a unique feature of FVs, Gag is not sufficient for sub-viral particle (SVP) release. In primate and feline FVs (PFV and FFV), particle budding completely depends on the cognate FV Env glycoproteins. It was recently shown that an artificially added N-terminal Gag myristoylation signal (myr-signal) overcomes this restriction in PFV inducing an Orthoretrovirus-like budding phenotype. Here we show that engineered, heterologous N-terminal myr-signals also induce budding of the distantly related FFV Gag. The budding efficiency depends on the myr-signal and its location relative to the N-terminus of Gag. When the first nine amino acid residues of FFV Gag were replaced by known myr-signals, the budding efficiency as determined by the detection of extracellular SVPs was low. In contrast, adding myr-signals to the intact N-terminus of FFV Gag resulted in a more efficient SVP release. Importantly, budding of myr-Gag proteins was sensitive towards inhibition of cellular N-myristoyltransferases. As expected, the addition or insertion of myr-signals that allowed Env-independent budding of FFV SVPs also retargeted Gag to plasma membrane-proximal sites and other intracellular membrane compartments. The data confirm that membrane-targeted FV Gag has the capacity of SVP formation. PMID:22163342

  14. The N-Terminal Intrinsically Disordered Domain of Mgm101p Is Localized to the Mitochondrial Nucleoid

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, David C.; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Clark-Walker, George Desmond

    2013-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome maintenance gene, MGM101, is essential for yeasts that depend on mitochondrial DNA replication. Previously, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it has been found that the carboxy-terminal two-thirds of Mgm101p has a functional core. Furthermore, there is a high level of amino acid sequence conservation in this region from widely diverse species. By contrast, the amino-terminal region, that is also essential for function, does not have recognizable conservation. Using a bioinformatic approach we find that the functional core from yeast and a corresponding region of Mgm101p from the coral Acropora millepora have an ordered structure, while the N-terminal domains of sequences from yeast and coral are predicted to be disordered. To examine whether ordered and disordered domains of Mgm101p have specific or general functions we made chimeric proteins from yeast and coral by swapping the two regions. We find, by an in vivo assay in S.cerevisiae, that the ordered domain of A.millepora can functionally replace the yeast core region but the disordered domain of the coral protein cannot substitute for its yeast counterpart. Mgm101p is found in the mitochondrial nucleoid along with enzymes and proteins involved in mtDNA replication. By attaching green fluorescent protein to the N-terminal disordered domain of yeast Mgm101p we find that GFP is still directed to the mitochondrial nucleoid where full-length Mgm101p-GFP is targeted. PMID:23418572

  15. N-Terminally Myristoylated Feline Foamy Virus Gag Allows Env-Independent Budding of Sub-Viral Particles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Kim, Yong-Boum; Löchelt, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Foamy viruses (FVs) are distinct retroviruses classified as Spumaretrovirinae in contrast to the other retroviruses, the Orthoretrovirinae. As a unique feature of FVs, Gag is not sufficient for sub-viral particle (SVP) release. In primate and feline FVs (PFV and FFV), particle budding completely depends on the cognate FV Env glycoproteins. It was recently shown that an artificially added N-terminal Gag myristoylation signal (myr-signal) overcomes this restriction in PFV inducing an Orthoretrovirus-like budding phenotype. Here we show that engineered, heterologous N-terminal myr-signals also induce budding of the distantly related FFV Gag. The budding efficiency depends on the myr-signal and its location relative to the N-terminus of Gag. When the first nine amino acid residues of FFV Gag were replaced by known myr-signals, the budding efficiency as determined by the detection of extracellular SVPs was low. In contrast, adding myr-signals to the intact N-terminus of FFV Gag resulted in a more efficient SVP release. Importantly, budding of myr-Gag proteins was sensitive towards inhibition of cellular N-myristoyltransferases. As expected, the addition or insertion of myr-signals that allowed Env-independent budding of FFV SVPs also retargeted Gag to plasma membrane-proximal sites and other intracellular membrane compartments. The data confirm that membrane-targeted FV Gag has the capacity of SVP formation. PMID:22163342

  16. Multiple organelle-targeting signals in the N-terminal portion of peroxisomal membrane protein PMP70.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Shohei; Tsuchida, Masashi; Tsukuda, Miwa; Yamashita, Yukari; Emi, Yoshikazu; Kida, Yuichiro; Komori, Masayuki; Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2010-04-01

    Most membrane proteins are recognized by a signal recognition particle and are cotranslationally targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, whereas almost all peroxisomal membrane proteins are posttranslationally targeted to the destination. Here we examined organelle-targeting properties of the N-terminal portions of the peroxisomal isoform of the ABC transporter PMP70 (ABCD3) using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion. When the N-terminal 80 amino acid residue (N80)-segment preceding transmembrane segment (TM) 1 was deleted and the TM1-TM2 region was fused to EGFP, the TM1 segment induced ER-targeting and integration in COS cells. When the N80-segment was fused to EGFP, the fusion protein was targeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane. When both the N80-segment and the following TM1-TM2 region were present, the fusion located exclusively to the peroxisome. The full-length PMP70 molecule was clearly located in the ER in the absence of the N80-segment, even when multiple peroxisome-targeting signals were retained. We concluded that the TM1 segment possesses a sufficient ER-targeting function and that the N80-segment is critical for suppressing the ER-targeting function to allow the TM1-TM2 region to localize to the peroxisome. Cooperation of the organelle-targeting signals enables PMP70 to correctly target to peroxisomal membranes. PMID:20007743

  17. Characterization of regions within the N-terminal 6-kilodalton domain of phytochrome A that modulate its biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, E T; Marita, J M; Clough, R C; Vierstra, R D

    1997-01-01

    Phytochrome A (phyA) is a red/far-red (FR) light photoreceptor responsible for initiating numerous light-mediated plant growth and developmental responses, especially in FR light-enriched environments. We previously showed that the first 70 amino acids of the polypeptide contain at least two regions with potentially opposite functions (E.T. Jordan, J.R. Cherry, J.M. Walker, R.D. Vierstra [1996] Plant J 9: 243-257). One region is required for activity and correct apoprotein/chromophore interactions, whereas the second appears to regulate phytochrome activity. We have further resolved these functional regions by analysis of N-terminal deletion and alanine-scanning mutants of oat (Avena sativa) phyA in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The results indicate that the region involved in chromophore/apoprotein interactions contains two separate segments (residues 25-33 and 50-62) also required for biological activity. The region that regulates phyA activity requires only five adjacent serines (Sers) (residues 8-12). Removal or alteration of these Sers generates a photoreceptor that increases the sensitivity of transgenic seedlings to red and FR light more than intact phyA. Taken together, these data identify three distinct regions in the N-terminal domain necessary for photoreceptor activity, and further define the Ser-rich region as an important site for phyA regulation. PMID:9342873

  18. N-terminal sequences direct the autophosphorylation states of the FER tyrosine kinases in vivo.

    PubMed

    Orlovsky, K; Ben-Dor, I; Priel-Halachmi, S; Malovany, H; Nir, U

    2000-09-12

    p94(fer) and p51(ferT) are two tyrosine kinases which share identical SH2 and kinase domains but differ in their N-terminal regions. While p94(fer) is expressed in most mammalian cells, the accumulation of p51(ferT) is restricted to meiotic spermatocytes. Here we show that the different N-terminal tails of p94(fer) and p51(ferT) direct different autophosphorylation states of these two kinases in vivo. N-terminal coiled-coil domains cooperated to drive the oligomerization and autophosphorylation in trans of p94(fer). Moreover, the ectopically expressed N-terminal tail of p94(fer) could act as a dominant negative mutant and associated with the endogenous p94(fer) protein in CHO cells. This increased significantly the percentage of cells residing in the G0/G1 phase, thus suggesting a role for p94(fer) in the regulation of G1 progression. Unlike p94(fer), overexpressed p51(ferT) was not autophosphorylated in COS1 cells. However, removal of the unique N-terminal 43 aa of p51(ferT) or the replacement of this region by a parallel segment from p94(fer) endowed the modified p51(ferT) with the ability to autophosphorylate. The unique N-terminal sequences of p51(ferT) thus interfere with its ability to autophosphorylate in vivo. These experiments indicate that the N-terminal sequences of the FER tyrosine kinases direct their different cellular autophosphorylation states, thereby dictating their different cellular functions. PMID:10998246

  19. Autocatalytic activity and substrate specificity of the pestivirus N-terminal protease N{sup pro}

    SciTech Connect

    Gottipati, Keerthi; Acholi, Sudheer; Ruggli, Nicolas; Choi, Kyung H.

    2014-03-15

    Pestivirus N{sup pro} is the first protein translated in the viral polypeptide, and cleaves itself off co-translationally generating the N-terminus of the core protein. Once released, N{sup pro} blocks the host's interferon response by inducing degradation of interferon regulatory factor-3. N{sup pro'}s intracellular autocatalytic activity and lack of trans-activity have hampered in vitro cleavage studies to establish its substrate specificity and the roles of individual residues. We constructed N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins that carry the authentic cleavage site and determined the autoproteolytic activities of N{sup pro} proteins containing substitutions at the predicted catalytic sites Glu22 and Cys69, at Arg100 that forms a salt bridge with Glu22, and at the cleavage site Cys168. Contrary to previous reports, we show that N{sup pro'}s catalytic activity does not involve Glu22, which may instead be involved in protein stability. Furthermore, N{sup pro} does not have specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site even though this residue is conserved throughout the pestivirus genus. - Highlights: • N{sup pro'}s autoproteolysis is studied using N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins. • N-terminal 17 amino acids are dispensable without loss of protease activity. • The putative catalytic residue Glu22 is not involved in protease catalysis. • No specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site despite evolutionary conservation. • N{sup pro} prefers small amino acids with non-branched beta carbons at the P1 position.

  20. Endogenous N-terminal Domain Cleavage Modulates α1D-Adrenergic Receptor Pharmacodynamics.

    PubMed

    Kountz, Timothy S; Lee, Kyung-Soon; Aggarwal-Howarth, Stacey; Curran, Elizabeth; Park, Ji-Min; Harris, Dorathy-Ann; Stewart, Aaron; Hendrickson, Joseph; Camp, Nathan D; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Wang, Edith H; Scott, John D; Hague, Chris

    2016-08-26

    The α1D-adrenergic receptor (ADRA1D) is a key regulator of cardiovascular, prostate, and central nervous system functions. This clinically relevant G protein-coupled receptor has proven difficult to study, as it must form an obligate modular homodimer containing the PDZ proteins scribble and syntrophin or become retained in the endoplasmic reticulum as non-functional protein. We previously determined that targeted removal of the N-terminal (NT) 79 amino acids facilitates ADRA1D plasma membrane expression and agonist-stimulated functional responses. However, whether such an event occurs in physiological contexts was unknown. Herein, we report the ADRA1D is subjected to innate NT processing in cultured human cells. SNAP near-infrared imaging and tandem-affinity purification revealed the ADRA1D is expressed as both full-length and NT truncated forms in multiple human cell lines. Serial truncation mapping identified the cleavage site as Leu(90)/Val(91) in the 95-amino acid ADRA1D NT domain, suggesting human cells express a Δ1-91 ADRA1D species. Tandem-affinity purification MS/MS and co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicate NT processing of ADRA1D is not required to form scribble-syntrophin macromolecular complexes. Yet, label-free dynamic mass redistribution signaling assays demonstrate that Δ1-91 ADRA1D agonist responses were greater than WT ADRA1D. Mutagenesis of the cleavage site nullified the processing event, resulting in ADRA1D agonist responses less than the WT receptor. Thus, we propose that processing of the ADRA1D NT domain is a physiological mechanism employed by cells to generate a functional ADRA1D isoform with optimal pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:27382054

  1. Determination of statherin N-terminal peptide conformation on hydroxyapatite crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, W.J.; Long, J.R.; Dindot, J.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Stayton, P.S.; Drobny, G.P.

    2000-03-01

    Proteins play an important role in inorganic crystal engineering during the development and growth of hard tissues such as bone and teeth. Although many of these proteins have been studied in the liquid state, there is little direct information describing molecular recognition at the protein-crystal interface. The authors have used {sup 13}C solid-state NMR (SSNMR) techniques to investigate the conformation of an N-terminal peptide of salivary statherin both free and adsorbed on hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals. The torsion angle {var{underscore}phi} was determined at three positions along the backbone of the phosphorylated N-terminal 15 amino acid peptide fragment (DpSpSEEKFLRRIGRFG) by measuring distances between the backbone carbonyls carbons in the indicated adjacent amino acids using dipolar recoupling with a windowless sequence (DRAWS). Global secondary structure was determined by measuring the dipolar coupling between the {sup 13}C backbone carbonyl and the backbone {sup 15}N in the i {r{underscore}arrow} i + 4 residues (DpSpSEEKFLRRIGRFG) using rotational echo double resonance (REDOR). Peptides singly labeled at amino acids pS{sub 3}, L{sub 8}, and G{sub 12} were used for relaxation and line width measurements. The peptides adsorbed to the HAP surface have an average {var{underscore}phi} of {minus}85{degree} at the N-terminus (pSpS), {minus}60{degree} in the middle (FL) and {minus}73{degree} near the C-terminus (IG). The average {var{underscore}phi} angle measured at the pSpS position and the observed high conformational dispersion suggest a random coil conformation at this position. However, the FL position displays an average {var{underscore}phi} that indicates significant {alpha}-helical content, and the long time points in the DRAWS experiment fit best to a relatively narrow distribution of {var{underscore}phi} that falls within the protein data bank {alpha}-helical conformational space. REDOR measurements confirm the presence of helical content, where the

  2. Loss of N-terminal Acetylation Suppresses A Prion Phenotype By Modulating Global Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, William M.; Mannakee, Brian K.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Serio, Tricia R.

    2014-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation is among the most ubiquitous of protein modifications in eukaryotes. While loss of N-terminal acetylation is associated with many abnormalities, the molecular basis of these effects is known for only a few cases, where acetylation of single factors has been linked to binding avidity or metabolic stability. In contrast, the impact of N-terminal acetylation for the majority of the proteome, and its combinatorial contributions to phenotypes, are unknown. Here, by studying the yeast prion [PSI+], an amyloid of the Sup35 protein, we show that loss of N-terminal acetylation promotes general protein misfolding, a redeployment of chaperones to these substrates, and a corresponding stress response. These proteostasis changes, combined with the decreased stability of unacetylated Sup35 amyloid, reduce the size of prion aggregates and reverse their phenotypic consequences. Thus, loss of N-terminal acetylation, and its previously unanticipated role in protein biogenesis, globally resculpts the proteome to create a unique phenotype. PMID:25023910

  3. The charged region of Hsp90 modulates the function of the N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Scheibel, Thomas; Siegmund, Heiko Ingo; Jaenicke, Rainer; Ganz, Peter; Lilie, Hauke; Buchner, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    Hsp90, an abundant heat shock protein that is highly expressed even under physiological conditions, is involved in the folding of key molecules of the cellular signal transduction system such as kinases and steroid receptors. It seems to contain two chaperone sites differing in substrate specificity. Binding of ATP or the antitumor drug geldanamycin alters the substrate affinity of the N-terminal chaperone site, whereas both substances show no influence on the C-terminal one. In wild-type Hsp90 the fragments containing the chaperone sites are connected by a highly charged linker of various lengths in different organisms. As this linker region represents the most striking difference between bacterial and eukaryotic Hsp90s, it may be involved in a gain of function of eukaryotic Hsp90s. Here, we have analyzed a fragment of yeast Hsp90 consisting of the N-terminal domain and the charged region (N272) in comparison with the isolated N-terminal domain (N210). We show that the charged region causes an increase in the affinity of the N-terminal domain for nonnative protein and establishes a crosstalk between peptide and ATP binding. Thus, the binding of peptide to N272 decreases its affinity for ATP and geldanamycin, whereas the ATP-binding properties of the monomeric N-terminal domain N210 are not influenced by peptide binding. We propose that the charged region connecting the two chaperone domains plays an important role in regulating chaperone function of Hsp90. PMID:9990018

  4. Molecular insights into the recognition of N-terminal histone modifications by the BRPF1 bromodomain.

    PubMed

    Poplawski, Amanda; Hu, Kaifeng; Lee, Woonghee; Natesan, Senthil; Peng, Danni; Carlson, Samuel; Shi, Xiaobing; Balaz, Stefan; Markley, John L; Glass, Karen C

    2014-04-17

    The monocytic leukemic zinc finger (MOZ) histone acetyltransferase (HAT) acetylates free histones H3, H4, H2A, and H2B in vitro and is associated with up-regulation of gene transcription. The MOZ HAT functions as a quaternary complex with the bromodomain-PHD finger protein 1 (BRPF1), inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5), and hEaf6 subunits. BRPF1 links the MOZ catalytic subunit to the ING5 and hEaf6 subunits, thereby promoting MOZ HAT activity. Human BRPF1 contains multiple effector domains with known roles in gene transcription, as well as chromatin binding and remodeling. However, the biological function of the BRPF1 bromodomain remains unknown. Our findings reveal novel interactions of the BRPF1 bromodomain with multiple acetyllysine residues on the N-terminus of histones and show that it preferentially selects for H2AK5ac, H4K12ac, and H3K14ac. We used chemical shift perturbation data from NMR titration experiments to map the BRPF1 bromodomain ligand binding pocket and identified key residues responsible for coordination of the post-translationally modified histones. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations were used to generate structural models of bromodomain-histone ligand complexes, to analyze hydrogen bonding and other interactions, and to calculate the binding free energies. Our results outline the molecular mechanism driving binding specificity of the BRPF1 bromodomain for discrete acetyllysine residues on the N-terminal histone tails. Together, these data provide insights into how histone recognition by the bromodomain directs the biological function of BRPF1, ultimately targeting the MOZ HAT complex to chromatin substrates. PMID:24333487

  5. Molecular insights into the recognition of N-terminal histone modifications by the BRPF1 bromodomain

    PubMed Central

    Poplawski, Amanda; Hu, Kaifeng; Lee, Woonghee; Natesan, Senthil; Peng, Danni; Carlson, Samuel; Shi, Xiaobing; Balaz, Stefan; Markley, John L.; Glass, Karen C.

    2014-01-01

    The monocytic leukemic zinc-finger (MOZ) histone acetyltransferase (HAT) acetylates free histones H3, H4, H2A, and H2B in vitro and is associated with up-regulation of gene transcription. The MOZ HAT functions as a quaternary complex with the bromodomain-PHD finger protein 1 (BRPF1), inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5), and hEaf6 subunits. BRPF1 links the MOZ catalytic subunit to the ING5 and hEaf6 subunits, thereby promoting MOZ HAT activity. Human BRPF1 contains multiple effector domains with known roles in gene transcription, and chromatin binding and remodeling. However, the biological function of the BRPF1 bromodomain remains unknown. Our findings reveal novel interactions of the BRPF1 bromodomain with multiple acetyllysine residues on the N-terminus of histones, and show it preferentially selects for H2AK5ac, H4K12ac and H3K14ac. We used chemical shift perturbation data from NMR titration experiments to map the BRPF1 bromodomain ligand binding pocket and identified key residues responsible for coordination of the post-translationally modified histones. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations were used to generate structural models of bromodomain-histone ligand complexes, to analyze H-bonding and other interactions, and to calculate the binding free energies. Our results outline the molecular mechanism driving binding specificity of the BRPF1 bromodomain for discrete acetyllysine residues on the N-terminal histone tails. Together these data provide insights on how histone recognition by the bromodomain directs the biological function of BRPF1, ultimately targeting the MOZ HAT complex to chromatin substrates. PMID:24333487

  6. Structure and dynamics of the N-terminal domain of the Cu(I) binding protein CusB.

    PubMed

    Ucisik, Melek N; Chakravorty, Dhruva K; Merz, Kenneth M

    2013-10-01

    CusCFBA is one of the metal efflux systems in Escherichia coli that is highly specific for its substrates, Cu(I) and Ag(I). It serves to protect the bacteria in environments that have lethal concentrations of these metals. The membrane fusion protein CusB is the periplasmic piece of CusCFBA, which has not been fully characterized by crystallography because of its extremely disordered N-terminal region. This region has both structural and functional importance because it has been experimentally proven to transfer the metal by itself from the metallochaperone CusF and to induce a structural change in the rest of CusB to increase Cu(I)/Ag(I) resistance. Understanding metal uptake from the periplasm is critical to gain insight into the mechanism of the whole CusCFBA pump, which makes resolving a structure for the N-terminal region necessary because it contains the metal binding site. We ran extensive molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the structural and dynamic properties of both the apo and Cu(I)-bound versions of the CusB N-terminal region. In contrast to its functional companion CusF, Cu(I) binding to the N-terminus of CusB causes only a slight, local stabilization around the metal site. The trajectories were analyzed in detail, revealing extensive structural disorder in both the apo and holo forms of the protein. CusB was further analyzed by breaking the protein up into three subdomains according to the extent of the observed disorder: the N- and C-terminal tails, the central beta strand motif, and the M21-M36 loop connecting the two metal-coordinating methionine residues. Most of the observed disorder was traced back to the tail regions, leading us to hypothesize that the latter two subdomains (residues 13-45) may form a functionally competent metal-binding domain because the tail regions appear to play no role in metal binding. PMID:23988152

  7. Purification and N-terminal analysis of urease from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Hu, L T; Mobley, H L

    1990-04-01

    Urease of Helicobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pylori) is believed to represent a critical virulence determinant for this species. Ammonia generated by hydrolysis of urea may protect the acid-sensitive bacterium as it colonizes human gastric mucosa. An H. pylori strain, cultured from a gastric biopsy of a patient with complaints of abdominal pain and a history of peptic ulcer disease, was isolated on selective medium and cultured in Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with 4% fetal calf serum. Whole cells were ruptured by French pressure cell lysis, and soluble protein was chromatographed on DEAE-Sepharose, phenyl-Sepharose, Mono-Q, and Superose 6 resins. Purified urease represented 6% of the soluble protein of crude extract, was estimated to have a native molecular size of 550 kilodaltons (kDa), and was composed of two distinct subunits of apparent molecular sizes of 66 and 29.5 kDa. On the basis of subunit size, a 1:1 subunit ratio as measured by scanning densitometry of Coomassie blue-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, and estimated native molecular size, the data are consistent with a stoichiometry of (29.5 kDa-66 kDa)6 for the structure of the native enzyme. Km for urea was estimated at 0.2 mM. By N-terminal analysis, the 29.5-kDa subunit of H. pylori urease was found to share significant amino acid sequence similarity with the smallest of three subunits of the Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii ureases, as well as to the amino terminus of the unique jack bean subunit. The 66-kDa subunit also shared up to 80% similarity with the largest of three subunits of P. mirabilis, M. morganii, and Klebsiella aerogenes ureases and to internal sequences (amino acids 271 to 285) of the jack bean urease subunit. Thus, the amino acid sequence is conserved among ureases with one, two, and three distinct subunits, suggesting a common ancestral urease gene. Also, urease subunits of M. morganii and jack bean were specifically recognized by antisera

  8. The Pilin N-terminal Domain Maintains Neisseria gonorrhoeae Transformation Competence during Pilus Phase Variation.

    PubMed

    Obergfell, Kyle P; Seifert, H Steven

    2016-05-01

    The obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the sole aetiologic agent of the sexually transmitted infection, gonorrhea. Required for gonococcal infection, Type IV pili (Tfp) mediate many functions including adherence, twitching motility, defense against neutrophil killing, and natural transformation. Critical for immune escape, the gonococcal Tfp undergoes antigenic variation, a recombination event at the pilE locus that varies the surface exposed residues of the major pilus subunit PilE (pilin) in the pilus fiber. This programmed recombination system has the potential to produce thousands of pilin variants and can produce strains with unproductive pilin molecules that are completely unable to form Tfp. Saturating mutagenesis of the 3' third of the pilE gene identified 68 unique single nucleotide mutations that each resulted in an underpiliated colony morphology. Notably, all isolates, including those with undetectable levels of pilin protein and no observable surface-exposed pili, retained an intermediate level of transformation competence not exhibited in ΔpilE strains. Site-directed, nonsense mutations revealed that only the first 38 amino acids of the mature pilin N-terminus (the N-terminal domain or Ntd) are required for transformation competence, and microscopy, ELISAs and pilus purification demonstrate that extended Tfp are not required for competence. Transformation in strains producing only the pilin Ntd has the same genetic determinants as wild-type transformation. The Ntd corresponds to the alternative product of S-pilin cleavage, a specific proteolysis unique to pathogenic Neisseria. Mutation of the S-pilin cleavage site demonstrated that S-pilin cleavage mediated release of the Ntd is required for competence when a strain produces unproductive pilin molecules that cannot assemble into a Tfp through mutation or antigenic variation. We conclude that S-pilin cleavage evolved as a mechanism to maintain competence in nonpiliated antigenic variants

  9. The Pilin N-terminal Domain Maintains Neisseria gonorrhoeae Transformation Competence during Pilus Phase Variation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the sole aetiologic agent of the sexually transmitted infection, gonorrhea. Required for gonococcal infection, Type IV pili (Tfp) mediate many functions including adherence, twitching motility, defense against neutrophil killing, and natural transformation. Critical for immune escape, the gonococcal Tfp undergoes antigenic variation, a recombination event at the pilE locus that varies the surface exposed residues of the major pilus subunit PilE (pilin) in the pilus fiber. This programmed recombination system has the potential to produce thousands of pilin variants and can produce strains with unproductive pilin molecules that are completely unable to form Tfp. Saturating mutagenesis of the 3’ third of the pilE gene identified 68 unique single nucleotide mutations that each resulted in an underpiliated colony morphology. Notably, all isolates, including those with undetectable levels of pilin protein and no observable surface-exposed pili, retained an intermediate level of transformation competence not exhibited in ΔpilE strains. Site-directed, nonsense mutations revealed that only the first 38 amino acids of the mature pilin N-terminus (the N-terminal domain or Ntd) are required for transformation competence, and microscopy, ELISAs and pilus purification demonstrate that extended Tfp are not required for competence. Transformation in strains producing only the pilin Ntd has the same genetic determinants as wild-type transformation. The Ntd corresponds to the alternative product of S-pilin cleavage, a specific proteolysis unique to pathogenic Neisseria. Mutation of the S-pilin cleavage site demonstrated that S-pilin cleavage mediated release of the Ntd is required for competence when a strain produces unproductive pilin molecules that cannot assemble into a Tfp through mutation or antigenic variation. We conclude that S-pilin cleavage evolved as a mechanism to maintain competence in nonpiliated antigenic

  10. Stability Enhancing N-Terminal PEGylation of Oxytocin Exploiting Different Polymer Architectures and Conjugation Approaches.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer; Kempe, Kristian; Wilson, Paul; Blindauer, Claudia A; McIntosh, Michelle P; Davis, Thomas P; Whittaker, Michael R; Haddleton, David M

    2016-08-01

    Oxytocin, a cyclic nine amino acid neurohypophyseal hormone therapeutic, is effectively used in the control of postpartum hemorrhaging (PPH) and is on the WHO List of Essential Medicines. However, oxytocin has limited shelf life stability in aqueous solutions, particularly at temperatures in excess of 25 °C and injectable aqueous oxytocin formulations require refrigeration (<8 °C). This is particularly problematic in the hot climates often found in many developing countries where daytime temperatures can exceed 40 °C and where reliable cold-chain storage is not always achievable. The purpose of this study was to develop N-terminal amine targeted PEGylation strategies utilizing both linear PEG and polyPEG "comb" polymers as an effective method for stabilizing solution formulations of this peptide for prolonged storage in the absence of efficient cold-chain storage. The conjugation chemistries investigated herein include irreversible amine targeted conjugation methods utilizing NHS ester and aldehyde reductive amination chemistry. Additionally, one reversible conjugation method using a Schiff base approach was explored to allow for the release of the native peptide, thus, ensuring that biological activity remains unaffected. The reversibility of this approach was investigated for the different polymer architectures, alongside a nonpolymer oxytocin analogue to monitor how pH can tune native peptide release. Elevated temperature degradation studies of the polymer conjugates were evaluated to assess the stability of the PEGylated analogues in comparison to the native peptide in aqueous formulations to mimic storage conditions in developing nations and regions where storage under appropriate conditions is challenging. PMID:27419537

  11. The N-terminal peptide of mammalian GTP cyclohydrolase I is an autoinhibitory control element and contributes to binding the allosteric regulatory protein GFRP.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Christina E; Gross, Steven S

    2011-04-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an obligate cofactor for NO synthases and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. BH4 can limit its own synthesis by triggering decameric GTPCH to assemble in an inhibitory complex with two GTPCH feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) pentamers. Subsequent phenylalanine binding to the GTPCH·GFRP inhibitory complex converts it to a stimulatory complex. An N-terminal inhibitory peptide in GTPCH may also contribute to autoregulation of GTPCH activity, but mechanisms are undefined. To characterize potential regulatory actions of the N-terminal peptide in rat GTPCH, we expressed, purified, and characterized a truncation mutant, devoid of 45 N-terminal amino acids (Δ45-GTPCH) and contrasted its catalytic and GFRP binding properties to wild type GTPCH (wt-GTPCH). Contrary to prior reports, we show that GFRP binds wt-GTPCH in the absence of any small molecule effector, resulting in allosteric stimulation of GTPCH activity: a 20% increase in Vmax, 50% decrease in KmGTP, and increase in Hill coefficient to 1.6, from 1.0. These features of GFRP-stimulated wt-GTPCH activity were phenocopied by Δ45-GTPCH in the absence of bound GFRP. Addition of GFRP to Δ45-GTPCH failed to elicit complex formation or a substantial further increase in GTPCH catalytic activity. Expression of Δ45-GTPCH in HEK-293 cells elicited 3-fold greater BH4 accumulation than an equivalent of wt-GTPCH. Together, results indicate that the N-terminal peptide exerts autoinhibitory control over rat GTPCH and is required for GFRP binding on its own. Displacement of the autoinhibitory peptide provides a molecular mechanism for physiological up-regulation of GTPCH activity. PMID:21163945

  12. The N-terminal Peptide of Mammalian GTP Cyclohydrolase I Is an Autoinhibitory Control Element and Contributes to Binding the Allosteric Regulatory Protein GFRP*

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Christina E.; Gross, Steven S.

    2011-01-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an obligate cofactor for NO synthases and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. BH4 can limit its own synthesis by triggering decameric GTPCH to assemble in an inhibitory complex with two GTPCH feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) pentamers. Subsequent phenylalanine binding to the GTPCH·GFRP inhibitory complex converts it to a stimulatory complex. An N-terminal inhibitory peptide in GTPCH may also contribute to autoregulation of GTPCH activity, but mechanisms are undefined. To characterize potential regulatory actions of the N-terminal peptide in rat GTPCH, we expressed, purified, and characterized a truncation mutant, devoid of 45 N-terminal amino acids (Δ45-GTPCH) and contrasted its catalytic and GFRP binding properties to wild type GTPCH (wt-GTPCH). Contrary to prior reports, we show that GFRP binds wt-GTPCH in the absence of any small molecule effector, resulting in allosteric stimulation of GTPCH activity: a 20% increase in Vmax, 50% decrease in KmGTP, and increase in Hill coefficient to 1.6, from 1.0. These features of GFRP-stimulated wt-GTPCH activity were phenocopied by Δ45-GTPCH in the absence of bound GFRP. Addition of GFRP to Δ45-GTPCH failed to elicit complex formation or a substantial further increase in GTPCH catalytic activity. Expression of Δ45-GTPCH in HEK-293 cells elicited 3-fold greater BH4 accumulation than an equivalent of wt-GTPCH. Together, results indicate that the N-terminal peptide exerts autoinhibitory control over rat GTPCH and is required for GFRP binding on its own. Displacement of the autoinhibitory peptide provides a molecular mechanism for physiological up-regulation of GTPCH activity. PMID:21163945

  13. Structure of a double hexamer of the Pyrococcus furiosus minichromosome maintenance protein N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Martin; Enemark, Eric J

    2016-07-01

    The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the Pyrococcus furiosus minichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein as a double hexamer is described. The MCM complex is a ring-shaped helicase that unwinds DNA at the replication fork of eukaryotes and archaea. Prior to replication initiation, the MCM complex assembles as an inactive double hexamer at specific sites of DNA. The presented structure is highly consistent with previous MCM double-hexamer structures and shows two MCM hexamers with a head-to-head interaction mediated by the N-terminal domain. Minor differences include a diminished head-to-head interaction and a slightly reduced inter-hexamer rotation. PMID:27380371

  14. Pyrazole derivatives as potent inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinase: synthesis and SAR studies.

    PubMed

    Doma, Anuradha; Kulkarni, Ravindra; Palakodety, Radhakrishna; Sastry, G Narahari; Sridhara, Janardhan; Garlapati, Achaiah

    2014-11-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinases including c-Jun N-terminal kinase play an indispensable role in inflammatory diseases. Investigation of reported JNK-1 inhibitors indicated that diverse heterocyclic compounds bearing an amide group rendered potent JNK-1 inhibitory activity which prompted us to synthesize new JNK-1 inhibitors containing a pyrazole heterocyclic group. A DABCO mediated 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction in neat resulted in pyrazole carboxylic acid which was converted to desired amides. Upon confirmation of the structures, all the compounds were screened for JNK-1 inhibitory activity and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Several synthesized analogues have exhibited JNK-1 inhibitory activity less than 10 μM, in particular compounds 9 c, 10 a and 10 d were found to be potent among all the compounds. PMID:25261929

  15. The mechanism of vault opening from the high resolution structure of the N-terminal repeats of MVP.

    PubMed

    Querol-Audí, Jordi; Casañas, Arnau; Usón, Isabel; Luque, Daniel; Castón, José R; Fita, Ignasi; Verdaguer, Nuria

    2009-11-01

    Vaults are ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein complexes involved in a diversity of cellular processes, including multidrug resistance, transport mechanisms and signal transmission. The vault particle shows a barrel-shaped structure organized in two identical moieties, each consisting of 39 copies of the major vault protein MVP. Earlier data indicated that vault halves can dissociate at acidic pH. The crystal structure of the vault particle solved at 8 A resolution, together with the 2.1-A structure of the seven N-terminal domains (R1-R7) of MVP, reveal the interactions governing vault association and provide an explanation for a reversible dissociation induced by low pH. The structural comparison with the recently published 3.5 A model shows major discrepancies, both in the main chain tracing and in the side chain assignment of the two terminal domains R1 and R2. PMID:19779459

  16. Coupled motions during dynamics reveal a tunnel toward the active site regulated by the N-terminal α-helix in an acylaminoacyl peptidase.

    PubMed

    Papaleo, Elena; Renzetti, Giulia

    2012-09-01

    Acylaminoacyl peptidase (AAP) subfamily belongs to the prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) family of serine-proteases. There is a great interest in the definition of molecular mechanisms related to the activity and substrate recognition of these complex multi-domain enzymes. The active site relies at the interface between the C-terminal catalytic domain and the β-propeller domain, whose N-terminal region acts as a bridge to the hydrolase domain. In AAP, the N-terminal extension is characterized by a structurally conserved α1-helix, which is known to affect thermal stability and thermal dependence of the catalytic activity. In the present contribution, results from hundreds nanosecond all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, along with analyses of the networks of cross-correlated motions of a member of the AAP subfamily are discussed. The MD investigation identifies a tunnel that from the surrounding of the N-terminal α1-helix bring to the catalytic site. This cavity seems to be regulated by conformational changes of the α1-helix itself during the dynamics. The evidence here provided can be a useful guide for a better understanding of the mechanistic aspects related to AAP activity, but also for drug design purposes. PMID:23085164

  17. The N-terminal Helical Region of the Hepatitis C Virus p7 Ion Channel Protein Is Critical for Infectious Virus Production

    PubMed Central

    Scull, Margaret A.; Schneider, William M.; Fung, Canny; Jones, Christopher T.; van de Belt, Marieke; Penin, François; Rice, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) p7 protein is required for infectious virus production via its role in assembly and ion channel activity. Although NMR structures of p7 have been reported, the location of secondary structural elements and orientation of the p7 transmembrane domains differ among models. Furthermore, the p7 structure-function relationship remains unclear. Here, extensive mutagenesis, coupled with infectious virus production phenotyping and molecular modeling, demonstrates that the N-terminal helical region plays a previously underappreciated yet critical functional role, especially with respect to E2/p7 cleavage efficiency. Interrogation of specific N-terminal helix residues identified as having p7-specific defects and predicted to point toward the channel pore, in a context of independent E2/p7 cleavage, further supports p7 as a structurally plastic, minimalist ion channel. Together, our findings indicate that the p7 N-terminal helical region is critical for E2/p7 processing, protein-protein interactions, ion channel activity, and infectious HCV production. PMID:26588073

  18. N-terminal cleavage of the mitochondrial fusion GTPase OPA1 occurs via a caspase-independent mechanism in cerebellar granule neurons exposed to oxidative or nitrosative stress

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Josie J.; Zommer, Amelia E.; Bouchard, Ron J.; Duval, Nathan; Blackstone, Craig; Linseman, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal cell death via apoptosis or necrosis underlies several devastating neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. Mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from oxidative or nitrosative stress often acts as an initiating stimulus for intrinsic apoptosis or necrosis. These events frequently occur in conjunction with imbalances in the mitochondrial fission and fusion equilibrium, although the cause and effect relationships remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate in primary rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) that oxidative or nitrosative stress induces an N-terminal cleavage of optic atrophy-1 (OPA1), a dynamin-like GTPase that regulates mitochondrial fusion and maintenance of cristae architecture. This cleavage event is indistinguishable from the N-terminal cleavage of OPA1 observed in CGNs undergoing caspase-mediated apoptosis (Loucks et al., 2009) and results in removal of a key lysine residue (K301) within the GTPase domain. OPA1 cleavage in CGNs occurs coincident with extensive mitochondrial fragmentation, disruption of the microtubule network, and cell death. In contrast to OPA1 cleavage induced in CGNs by removing depolarizing extracellular potassium (5K apoptotic conditions), oxidative or nitrosative stress-induced OPA1 cleavage caused by complex I inhibition or nitric oxide, respectively, is caspase-independent. N-terminal cleavage of OPA1 is also observed in vivo in aged rat and mouse midbrain and hippocampal tissues. We conclude that N-terminal cleavage and subsequent inactivation of OPA1 may be a contributing factor in the neuronal cell death processes underlying neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those associated with aging. Furthermore, these data suggest that OPA1 cleavage is a likely convergence point for mitochondrial dysfunction and imbalances in mitochondrial fission and fusion induced by oxidative or nitrosative stress. PMID:23220553

  19. N-terminal cleavage of the mitochondrial fusion GTPase OPA1 occurs via a caspase-independent mechanism in cerebellar granule neurons exposed to oxidative or nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Gray, Josie J; Zommer, Amelia E; Bouchard, Ron J; Duval, Nathan; Blackstone, Craig; Linseman, Daniel A

    2013-02-01

    Neuronal cell death via apoptosis or necrosis underlies several devastating neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. Mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from oxidative or nitrosative stress often acts as an initiating stimulus for intrinsic apoptosis or necrosis. These events frequently occur in conjunction with imbalances in the mitochondrial fission and fusion equilibrium, although the cause and effect relationships remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate in primary rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) that oxidative or nitrosative stress induces an N-terminal cleavage of optic atrophy-1 (OPA1), a dynamin-like GTPase that regulates mitochondrial fusion and maintenance of cristae architecture. This cleavage event is indistinguishable from the N-terminal cleavage of OPA1 observed in CGNs undergoing caspase-mediated apoptosis (Loucks et al., 2009) and results in removal of a key lysine residue (K301) within the GTPase domain. OPA1 cleavage in CGNs occurs coincident with extensive mitochondrial fragmentation, disruption of the microtubule network, and cell death. In contrast to OPA1 cleavage induced in CGNs by removing depolarizing extracellular potassium (5K apoptotic conditions), oxidative or nitrosative stress-induced OPA1 cleavage caused by complex I inhibition or nitric oxide, respectively, is caspase-independent. N-terminal cleavage of OPA1 is also observed in vivo in aged rat and mouse midbrain and hippocampal tissues. We conclude that N-terminal cleavage and subsequent inactivation of OPA1 may be a contributing factor in the neuronal cell death processes underlying neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those associated with aging. Furthermore, these data suggest that OPA1 cleavage is a likely convergence point for mitochondrial dysfunction and imbalances in mitochondrial fission and fusion induced by oxidative or nitrosative stress. PMID:23220553

  20. N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and bone mineral density for early diagnosis of nonunion: An experimental study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-Ping; Shi, Zhan-Jun; Shen, Ning-Jiang; Wang, Jian; Li, Zao-Min; Xiao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis and treatment of bone nonunion have been studied extensively. Diagnosis and treatment of nonunion are mainly performed based on the interpretation of clinico-radiographic findings, which depend on the clinician's experience and the degree of bone callus formation during the fracture-healing process. However, resolution may be compromised when the bone mineral content is <25%. A feasible method of monitoring bone-healing is therefore needed. We monitored a rabbit model of bone nonunion by regular radiographic examinations, QCT detection, and biomarker concentrations. Materials and Methods: Twenty purebred New Zealand rabbits (10 male and 10 female, 5–6 months of age, 2.5–3.0 kg) were divided into bone defect Group (I) that 10 left radius bones underwent resection of 1.5 cm of mid-radius bone and bone fracture Group (II) that another 10 left radius bones underwent only mid-radius fracture. Quantitative computed tomography detection of bone mineral density (BMD) and serum markers of bone formation (osteocalcin [OC], bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) and bone resorption (C- and N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b) were assayed. There are twenty rabbits (10 male and 10 females). The age was 5–6 months weighing 2.5–3.0 kg). The defect was created in middle 1/3 radius in 10 rabbits and fracture was created in middle 1/3 radius of 10 rabbits. Results: BMD and NTX concentrations were significantly lower at 5 weeks postoperatively compared to the preoperative values and were significantly different between the two groups. OC showed no significant difference before and after surgery. Conclusions: BMD and NTX concentrations may be useful for early detection of bone nonunion in rabbits. PMID:27512225

  1. Structurally Conserved Nop56/58 N-terminal Domain Facilitates Archaeal Box C/D Ribonucleoprotein-guided Methyltransferase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Keith T.; Biswas, Shyamasri; Zhang, Xinxin; Brown, Bernard A.; Wollenzien, Paul; Mattos, Carla; Maxwell, E. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Box C/D RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) guide the 2′-O-methylation of nucleotides in both archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs. The archaeal box C/D and C′/D′ RNP subcomplexes are each assembled with three sRNP core proteins. The archaeal Nop56/58 core protein mediates crucial protein-protein interactions required for both sRNP assembly and the methyltransferase reaction by bridging the L7Ae and fibrillarin core proteins. The interaction of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mj) Nop56/58 with the methyltransferase fibrillarin has been investigated using site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids in the N-terminal domain of Nop56/58 that interacts with fibrillarin. Extensive mutagenesis revealed an unusually strong Nop56/58-fibrillarin interaction. Only deletion of the NTD itself prevented dimerization with fibrillarin. The extreme stability of the Nop56/58-fibrillarin heterodimer was confirmed in both chemical and thermal denaturation analyses. However, mutations that did not affect Nop56/58 binding to fibrillarin or sRNP assembly nevertheless disrupted sRNP-guided nucleotide modification, revealing a role for Nop56/58 in methyltransferase activity. This conclusion was supported with the cross-linking of Nop56/58 to the target RNA substrate. The Mj Nop56/58 NTD was further characterized by solving its three-dimensional crystal structure to a resolution of 1.7 Å. Despite low primary sequence conservation among the archaeal Nop56/58 homologs, the overall structure of the archaeal NTD domain is very well conserved. In conclusion, the archaeal Nop56/58 NTD exhibits a conserved domain structure whose exceptionally stable interaction with fibrillarin plays a role in both RNP assembly and methyltransferase activity. PMID:22496443

  2. Supramolecular hydrogelators of N-terminated dipeptides selectively inhibit cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Yi; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Bing

    2011-01-01

    Consisting of N-terminated diphenylalanine, a new type of supramolecular hydrogelators forms hydrogels within a narrow pH window (pH 5.0 to 6.0) and selectively inhibits growth of HeLa cells, which provides important and useful insights for designing molecular nanofibers as potential nanomedicines. PMID:22037699

  3. Supramolecular hydrogelators of N-terminated dipeptides selectively inhibit cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yi; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Bing

    2011-12-21

    Consisting of N-terminated diphenylalanine, a new type of supramolecular hydrogelators forms hydrogels within a narrow pH window (pH 5.0 to 6.0) and selectively inhibits growth of HeLa cells, which provides important and useful insights for designing molecular nanofibers as potential nanomedicines. PMID:22037699

  4. Crystal structure of the Sec18p N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Babor, S. Mariana; Fass, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Yeast Sec18p and its mammalian orthologue N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) are hexameric ATPases with a central role in vesicle trafficking. Aided by soluble adapter factors (SNAPs), Sec18p/NSF induces ATP-dependent disassembly of a complex of integral membrane proteins from the vesicle and target membranes (SNAP receptors). During the ATP hydrolysis cycle, the Sec18p/NSF homohexamer undergoes a large-scale conformational change involving repositioning of the most N terminal of the three domains of each protomer, a domain that is required for SNAP-mediated interaction with SNAP receptors. Whether an internal conformational change in the N-terminal domains accompanies their reorientation with respect to the rest of the hexamer remains to be addressed. We have determined the structure of the N-terminal domain from Sec18p by x-ray crystallography. The Sec18p N-terminal domain consists of two β-sheet-rich subdomains connected by a short linker. A conserved basic cleft opposite the linker may constitute a SNAP-binding site. Despite structural variability in the linker region and in an adjacent loop, all three independent molecules in the crystal asymmetric unit have the identical subdomain interface, supporting the notion that this interface is a preferred packing arrangement. However, the linker flexibility allows for the possibility that other subdomain orientations may be sampled. PMID:10611286

  5. Characterisation of the conformational preference and dynamics of the intrinsically disordered N-terminal region of Beclin 1 by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shenggen; Lee, Erinna F; Pettikiriarachchi, Anne; Evangelista, Marco; Keizer, David W; Fairlie, W Douglas

    2016-09-01

    Beclin 1 is a 450 amino acid protein that plays critical roles in the early stages of autophagosome formation. We recently reported the successful expression, purification and structural characterisation of the entire N-terminal region of Beclin 1 (residues 1-150), including its backbone NMR chemical shift assignments. Based on assigned backbone NMR chemical shifts, it has been established that the N-terminal region of Beclin 1 (1-150), including the BH3 domain (112-123), is intrinsically disordered in the absence of its interaction partners. Here, a detailed study of its conformational preference and backbone dynamics obtained from an analysis of its secondary structure populations using the δ2D method, and the measurements of effective hydrodynamic radius as well as (1)H temperature coefficients, (1)H solvent exchange rates, and (15)N relaxation parameters of backbone amides using NMR spectroscopy is reported. These data provide further evidence for the intrinsically disordered nature of the N-terminal region of Beclin 1 and support the view that the helical conformation adopted by the Beclin 1 BH3 domain upon interaction with binding partners such as BCL-2 pro-survival proteins is likely induced rather than pre-existing. PMID:27288992

  6. Functional analysis of the N-terminal basic motif of a eukaryotic satellite RNA virus capsid protein in replication and packaging.

    PubMed

    Sivanandam, Venkatesh; Mathews, Deborah; Garmann, Rees; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Zandi, Roya; Rao, A L N

    2016-01-01

    Efficient replication and assembly of virus particles are integral to the establishment of infection. In addition to the primary role of the capsid protein (CP) in encapsidating the RNA progeny, experimental evidence on positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses suggests that the CP also regulates RNA synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that replication of Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) is controlled by the cooperative interaction between STMV CP and the helper virus (HV) Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) replicase. We identified that the STMV CP-HV replicase interaction requires a positively charged residue at the third position (3R) in the N-terminal 13 amino acid (aa) motif. Far-Northwestern blotting showed that STMV CP promotes binding between HV-replicase and STMV RNA. An STMV CP variant having an arginine to alanine substitution at position 3 in the N-terminal 13aa motif abolished replicase-CP binding. The N-terminal 13aa motif of the CP bearing alanine substitutions for positively charged residues located at positions 5, 7, 10 and 11 are defective in packaging full-length STMV, but can package a truncated STMV RNA lacking the 3' terminal 150 nt region. These findings provide insights into the mechanism underlying the regulation of STMV replication and packaging. PMID:27193742

  7. Lysozyme Mutants Accumulate in Cells while Associated at their N-terminal Alpha-domain with the Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone GRP78/BiP

    PubMed Central

    Kamada, Yoshiki; Nawata, Yusuke; Sugimoto, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidogenic human lysozyme variants deposit in cells and cause systemic amyloidosis. We recently observed that such lysozymes accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with the ER chaperone GRP78/BiP, accompanying the ER stress response. Here we investigated the region of lysozyme that is critical to its association with GRP78/BiP. In addition to the above-mentioned variants of lysozyme, we constructed lysozyme truncation or substitution mutants. These were co-expressed with GRP78/BiP (tagged with FLAG) in cultured human embryonic kidney cells, which were analyzed by western blotting and immunocytochemistry using anti-lysozyme and anti-FLAG antibodies. The amyloidogenic variants were confirmed to be strongly associated with GRP78/BiP as revealed by the co-immunoprecipitation assay, whereas N-terminal mutants pruned of 1-41 or 1-51 residues were found not to be associated with the chaperone. Single amino acid substitutions for the leucine array along the α-helices in the N-terminal region resulted in wild-type lysozyme remaining attached to GRP78/BiP. These mutations also tended to show lowered secretion ability. We conclude that the N-terminal α-helices region of the lysozyme is pivotal for its strong adhesion to GRP78/BiP. We suspect that wild-type lysozyme interacts with the GRP at this region as a step in the proper folding monitored by the ER chaperone. PMID:26884716

  8. Lys39-Lysophosphatidate Carbonyl Oxygen Interaction Locks LPA1 N-terminal Cap to the Orthosteric Site and partners Arg124 During Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Omotuyi, Olaposi I.; Nagai, Jun; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor 1 (LPA1) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptors mediating the biological response to LPA species. Lack of detailed mechanism underlying LPA/LPA1 interaction has hampered the development of specific antagonists. Here, novel N-terminal Lys39 has been identified as a key residue during LPA-type agonist binding and LPA1 activation. Analysis of the molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories showed that LPA-type agonist but not VPC-32183 (antagonist) evolved structures with classical GPCR activation signatures such as reduced cytoplasmic transmembrane (TM) 3/TM6 dynamic network, ruptured ionic lock, and formation of a continuous and highly ordered internal water pathway was also observed. In activated state, LPA-type agonists interact with Arg124 (R3.28), Gln125 (Q3.29), Lys294 (K7.36) and a novel N-terminal Lys39. Site-directed mutagenesis showed complete loss of intracellular calcium mobilization in B103 cells expressing R3.28A and Lys39Ala when treated with LPA-type agonists. Structurally, LPA-type agonist via Carbonyl-oxygen/Lys39 interaction facilitated the formation of a hypothetical N-terminal cap tightly packed over LPA1 heptahelical bundle. This packing may represent a key mechanism to distinguish an apo-receptor from bound LPA1. PMID:26268898

  9. Lys39-Lysophosphatidate Carbonyl Oxygen Interaction Locks LPA1 N-terminal Cap to the Orthosteric Site and partners Arg124 During Receptor Activation.

    PubMed

    Omotuyi, Olaposi I; Nagai, Jun; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor 1 (LPA1) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptors mediating the biological response to LPA species. Lack of detailed mechanism underlying LPA/LPA1 interaction has hampered the development of specific antagonists. Here, novel N-terminal Lys39 has been identified as a key residue during LPA-type agonist binding and LPA1 activation. Analysis of the molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories showed that LPA-type agonist but not VPC-32183 (antagonist) evolved structures with classical GPCR activation signatures such as reduced cytoplasmic transmembrane (TM) 3/TM6 dynamic network, ruptured ionic lock, and formation of a continuous and highly ordered internal water pathway was also observed. In activated state, LPA-type agonists interact with Arg124 (R3.28), Gln125 (Q3.29), Lys294 (K7.36) and a novel N-terminal Lys39. Site-directed mutagenesis showed complete loss of intracellular calcium mobilization in B103 cells expressing R3.28A and Lys39Ala when treated with LPA-type agonists. Structurally, LPA-type agonist via Carbonyl-oxygen/Lys39 interaction facilitated the formation of a hypothetical N-terminal cap tightly packed over LPA1 heptahelical bundle. This packing may represent a key mechanism to distinguish an apo-receptor from bound LPA1. PMID:26268898

  10. Functional analysis of the N-terminal basic motif of a eukaryotic satellite RNA virus capsid protein in replication and packaging

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandam, Venkatesh; Mathews, Deborah; Garmann, Rees; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Zandi, Roya; Rao, A. L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient replication and assembly of virus particles are integral to the establishment of infection. In addition to the primary role of the capsid protein (CP) in encapsidating the RNA progeny, experimental evidence on positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses suggests that the CP also regulates RNA synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that replication of Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) is controlled by the cooperative interaction between STMV CP and the helper virus (HV) Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) replicase. We identified that the STMV CP-HV replicase interaction requires a positively charged residue at the third position (3R) in the N-terminal 13 amino acid (aa) motif. Far-Northwestern blotting showed that STMV CP promotes binding between HV-replicase and STMV RNA. An STMV CP variant having an arginine to alanine substitution at position 3 in the N-terminal 13aa motif abolished replicase-CP binding. The N-terminal 13aa motif of the CP bearing alanine substitutions for positively charged residues located at positions 5, 7, 10 and 11 are defective in packaging full-length STMV, but can package a truncated STMV RNA lacking the 3′ terminal 150 nt region. These findings provide insights into the mechanism underlying the regulation of STMV replication and packaging. PMID:27193742

  11. NMR solution structure of the N-terminal domain of hERG and its interaction with the S4-S5 linker

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qingxin; Gayen, Shovanlal; Chen, Angela Shuyi; Huang, Qiwei; Raida, Manfred; Kang, CongBao

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} The N-terminal domain (NTD, eag domain) containing 135 residues of hERG was expressed and purified from E. coli cells. {yields} Solution structure of NTD was determined with NMR spectroscopy. {yields} The alpha-helical region (residues 13-23) was demonstrated to possess the characteristics of an amphipathic helix. {yields} NMR titration confirmed the interaction between NTD and the peptide from the S4-S5 linker. -- Abstract: The human Ether-a-go-go Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel mediates the rapid delayed rectifier current (IKr) in the cardiac action potential. Mutations in the 135 amino acid residue N-terminal domain (NTD) cause channel dysfunction or mis-translocation. To study the structure of NTD, it was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells using affinity purification and gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein behaved as a monomer under purification conditions. Far- and near-UV, circular dichroism (CD) and solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies showed that the purified protein was well-folded. The solution structure of NTD was obtained and the N-terminal residues 13-23 forming an amphipathic helix which may be important for the protein-protein or protein-membrane interactions. NMR titration experiment also demonstrated that residues from 88 to 94 in NTD are important for the molecular interaction with the peptide derived from the S4-S5 linker.

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of the N-terminal region of the human formin-homology protein FHOD1

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Antje Rak, Alexey; Pylypenko, Olena; Ludwig, Diana; Geyer, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    The N-terminal region (1–339) of the human FHOD1 protein has been crystallized in two different crystal forms. A crystal of the (C31S,C71S) mutant diffracted to around 2.3 Å resolution. Formins are key regulators of actin cytoskeletal dynamics that constitute a diverse protein family that is present in all eukaryotes examined. They typically consist of more than 1000 amino acids and are defined by the presence of two conserved regions, namely the formin homology 1 and 2 domains. Additional conserved domains comprise a GTPase-binding domain for activation, a C-terminal autoregulation motif and an N-terminal recognition domain. In this study, the N-terminal region (residues 1–339) of the human formin homology domain-containing protein 1 (FHOD1) was purified and crystallized from 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 10%(v/v) glycerol, 0.3 M magnesium chloride and 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.0. Native crystals belong to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.4, b = 73.9, c = 78.7 Å, α = 78.2, β = 86.2, γ = 89.7°. They contain two monomers of FHOD1 in the asymmetric unit and diffract to a resolution of 2.3 Å using a synchrotron-radiation source.

  13. Three-amino-acid-loop-extension homeodomain factor Meis3 regulates cell survival via PDK1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangying; Wang, You; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Stoffers, Doris A.

    2010-01-01

    Three-amino-acid-loop-extension (TALE) homeodomain proteins including Meis and Pbx families are generally recognized for their roles in growth and differentiation during vertebrate embryogenesis and tumorigenesis. Whereas genetic studies indicate that Pbx1 regulates the development and function of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells, the role of Meis family members in β-cells is still unknown. Here we show that Meis3 is abundantly expressed in pancreatic islets and β-cells and that it regulates β-cell survival. We further identify the 3-phosphoinositide–dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), a well-known kinase involved in the PI3K–Akt signaling pathway, as a direct Meis3 target, which mediates its role in β-cell survival. This regulatory module appears to function broadly as we also identify Meis3 regulation of cell survival and PDK1 expression in ovarian carcinoma cells, suggesting a unique function for Meis3 beyond the traditional roles for TALE homeodomain factors during embryogenesis. PMID:21059917

  14. N-Terminal deletions modify the Cu2+ binding site in amyloid-beta.

    PubMed

    Karr, Jesse W; Akintoye, Henrietta; Kaupp, Lauren J; Szalai, Veronika A

    2005-04-12

    Copper is implicated in the in vitro formation and toxicity of Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques containing the beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide (Bush, A. I., et al. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 11934). By low temperature electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the importance of the N-terminus in creating the Cu(2+) binding site in native Abeta has been examined. Peptides that contain the proposed binding site for Cu(2+)-three histidines (H6, H13, and H14) and a tyrosine (Y10)-but lack one to three N-terminal amino acids, do not bind Cu(2+) in the same coordination environment as the native peptide. EPR spectra of soluble Abeta with stoichiometric amounts of Cu(2+) show type 2 Cu(2+) EPR spectra for all peptides. The ligand donor atoms to Cu(2+) are 3N1O when Cu(2+) is bound to any of the Abetapeptides (Abeta16, Abeta28, Abeta40, and Abeta42) that contain the first 16 amino acids of full-length Abeta. When a Y10F mutant of Abeta is used, the coordination environment for Cu(2+) remains 3N1O and Cu(2+) EPR spectra of this mutant are identical to the wild-type spectra. Isotopic labeling experiments show that water is not the O-atom donor to Cu(2+) in Abeta fibrils or in the Y10F mutant. Further, we find that Cu(2+) cannot be removed from Cu(2+)-containing fibrils by washing with buffer, but that Cu(2+) binds to fibrils initially assembled without Cu(2+) in the same coordination environment as in fibrils assembled with Cu(2+). Together, these results indicate (1) that the O-atom donor ligand to Cu(2+) in Abeta is not tyrosine, (2) that the native Cu(2+) binding site in Abeta is sensitive to small changes at the N-terminus, and (3) that Cu(2+) binds to Abetafibrils in a manner that permits exchange of Cu(2+) into and out of the fibrillar architecture. PMID:15807541

  15. Widespread occurrence of N-terminal acylation in animal globins and possible origin of respiratory globins from a membrane-bound ancestor.

    PubMed

    Blank, Miriam; Burmester, Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    Proteins of the (hemo-)globin superfamily have been identified in many different animals but also occur in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Globins are renowned for their ability to store and to transport oxygen, but additional globin functions such as sensing, signaling, and detoxification have been proposed. Recently, we found that the zebrafish globin X protein is myristoylated and palmitoylated at its N-terminus. The addition of fatty acids results in an association with the cellular membranes, suggesting a previously unrecognized globin function. In this study, we show that N-terminal acylation likely occurs in globin proteins from a broad range of phyla. An N-terminal myristoylation site was identified in 90 nonredundant globins from Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata (including Cephalochordata), of which 66 proteins carry an additional palmitoylation site. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses identified five major globin families, which may mirror the ancient globin diversity of the Metazoa. Globin X-like proteins form two related clades, which diverged before the radiation of the Eumetazoa. Vertebrate hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin, cytoglobin, globin E, and globin Y form a strongly supported common clade, which is the sister group of a clade consisting of invertebrate Hbs and relatives. The N-terminally acylated globins do not form a single monophyletic group but are distributed to four distinct clades. This pattern may be either explained by multiple introduction of an N-terminal acylation site into distinct globin lineages or by the origin of animal respiratory globins from a membrane-bound ancestor. Similarly, respiratory globins were not monophyletic. This suggests that respiratory globins might have emerged independently several times and that the early metazoan globins might have been associated with a membrane and carried out a function that was related to lipid protection or

  16. Passive immunization targeting the N-terminal projection domain of tau decreases tau pathology and improves cognition in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease and tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chun-ling; Chen, Xia; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-04-01

    Intraneuronal accumulation of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain is a histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and a family of related neurodegenerative disorders collectively called tauopathies. At present there is no effective treatment available for these progressive neurodegenerative diseases which are clinically characterized by dementia in mid to old-age. Here we report the treatment of 14-17-months-old 3xTg-AD mice with tau antibodies 43D (tau 6-18) and 77E9 (tau 184-195) to the N-terminal projection domain of tau or mouse IgG as a control by intraperitoneal injection once a week for 4 weeks, and the effects of the passive immunization on reduction of hyperphosphorylated tau, Aβ accumulation and cognitive performance in these animals. We found that treatment with tau antibodies 43D and 77E9 reduced total tau level, decreased tau hyperphosphorylated at Ser199, Ser202/Thr205 (AT8), Thr205, Ser262/356 (12E8), and Ser396/404 (PHF-1) sites, and a trend to reduce Aβ pathology. Most importantly, targeting N-terminal tau especially by 43D (tau 6-18) improved reference memory in the Morris water maze task in 3xTg-AD mice. We did not observe any abnormality in general physical characteristics of the treated animals with either of the two antibodies during the course of this study. Taken together, our studies demonstrate for the first time (1) that passive immunization targeting normal tau can effectively clear the hyperphosphorylated protein and possibly reduce Aβ pathology from the brain and (2) that targeting N-terminal projection domain of tau containing amino acid 6-18 is especially beneficial. Thus, targeting selective epitopes of N-terminal domain of tau may present a novel effective therapeutic opportunity for Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies. PMID:25233799

  17. Localization of the N-terminal and C-terminal ends of triadin with respect to the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane of rabbit skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Marty, I; Robert, M; Ronjat, M; Bally, I; Arlaud, G; Villaz, M

    1995-01-01

    Antibodies were raised against synthetic peptides corresponding to the N-terminal (residues 2-17) and C-terminal (residues 691-706) ends of rabbit skeletal muscle triadin, a 95 kDa protein located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane at the triad junction. The specificity of the antibodies generated was tested by ELISA and Western blot analysis. These tests demonstrated the ability of the antibodies to react specifically with the proteins. The anti-N-terminus antibodies bound to sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, indicating that the N-terminal end of the membrane-embedded triadin is exposed on the cytoplasmic side of the vesicles. In contrast, the anti-C-terminus antibodies were able to react with sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles only after permeabilization of the vesicles with a detergent, indicating that the C-terminal end is exposed on the luminal side of the vesicles. These immunological data were complemented by proteolysis experiments using carboxypeptidases and endoproteinase Arg C. A mixture of carboxypeptidases A, B and Y was used to induce degradation of the C-terminal end of triadin in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. This degradation, and a concomitant loss of reactivity of the anti-C-terminus antibodies in Western blots, was observed only when the vesicles were permeabilized, providing further evidence for the luminal localization of the C-terminal end of triadin. Treatment of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles with endoproteinase Arg C resulted in the removal of the N-terminal end of triadin, probably due to cleavage after Arg-34. This is a further indication of the cytoplasmic localization of the N-terminal end of triadin (and of its first 34 amino acids). When the proteolysis with endoproteinase Arg C was carried out with permeabilized vesicles, the cleavage occurred after Arg-141 or Arg-157, indicating that at least one of these residues is luminal. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7741707

  18. The functional integrity of the serpin domain of C1-inhibitor depends on the unique N-terminal domain, as revealed by a pathological mutant.

    PubMed

    Bos, Ineke G A; Lubbers, Yvonne T P; Roem, Dorina; Abrahams, Jan Pieter; Hack, C Erik; Eldering, Eric

    2003-08-01

    C1-inhibitor (C1-Inh) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) with a unique, non-conserved N-terminal domain of unknown function. Genetic deficiency of C1-Inh causes hereditary angioedema. A novel type of mutation (Delta 3) in exon 3 of the C1-Inh gene, resulting in deletion of Asp62-Thr116 in this unique domain, was encountered in a hereditary angioedema pedigree. Because the domain is supposedly not essential for inhibitory activity, the unexpected loss-of-function of this deletion mutant was further investigated. The Delta 3 mutant and three additional mutants starting at Pro76, Gly98, and Ser115, lacking increasing parts of the N-terminal domain, were produced recombinantly. C1-Inh76 and C1-Inh98 retained normal conformation and interaction kinetics with target proteases. In contrast, C1-Inh115 and Delta 3, which both lack the connection between the serpin and the non-serpin domain via two disulfide bridges, were completely non-functional because of a complex-like and multimeric conformation, as demonstrated by several criteria. The Delta 3 mutant also circulated in multimeric form in plasma from affected family members. The C1-Inh mutant reported here is unique in that deletion of an entire amino acid stretch from a domain not shared by other serpins leads to a loss-of-function. The deletion in the unique N-terminal domain results in a "multimerization phenotype" of C1-Inh, because of diminished stability of the central beta-sheet. This phenotype, as well as the location of the disulfide bridges between the serpin and the non-serpin domain of C1-Inh, suggests that the function of the N-terminal region may be similar to one of the effects of heparin in antithrombin III, maintenance of the metastable serpin conformation. PMID:12773530

  19. The predicted N-terminal signal sequence of the human α₂C-adrenoceptor does not act as a functional cleavable signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Jahnsen, Jan Anker; Uhlén, Staffan

    2012-06-01

    The N-terminal region of the human α(2C)-adrenoceptor has a 22 amino acid sequence MASPALAAALAVAAAAGPNASG. This stretch is predicted to be a cleavable signal peptide. Signal peptides facilitate the translocation of membrane proteins from ribosomes into the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) for further transport to the plasma membrane. However, recently it has been suggested that the hydrophobic stretch ALAAALAAAAA in the N-tail of the rat α(2C)-adrenoceptor, rather than being part of a signal peptide, is an ER retention signal (Angelotti, 2010). Here, we have investigated the functionality of the N-terminal region of the human α(2C)-adrenoceptor further. The predicted signal peptide was found to be non-cleavable, as shown for a modified α(2C)-adrenoceptor construct equipped with a FLAG epitope. The influence of the N-terminal region on receptor translocation to the plasma membrane was investigated by rebuilding the N-tail and then by analyzing the expression level of binding-competent receptors in transfected COS-7 cell membranes. Truncated α(2C)-adrenoceptor constructs showed decreased expression levels as compared to the wild type α(2C)-adrenoceptor. Addition of, or exchange for, the influenza virus hemagglutinin signal peptide to the α(2C)-adrenoceptor had no effect, respectively decreased, the expression level of binding-competent receptor in the membranes. Our analysis supports the conclusions that the predicted signal peptide in the N-terminal tail of the α(2C)-adrenoceptor does not act as a cleavable signal peptide. In addition, the results indicate that the presence of an intact N-tail is augmenting the amount of binding-competent α(2C)-adrenoceptors at the cell surface. PMID:22503931

  20. Astrocytes and microglia but not neurons preferentially generate N-terminally truncated Aβ peptides.

    PubMed

    Oberstein, Timo Jan; Spitzer, Philipp; Klafki, Hans-Wolfgang; Linning, Philipp; Neff, Florian; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Lewczuk, Piotr; Wiltfang, Jens; Kornhuber, Johannes; Maler, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease include extracellular neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The neuritic plaques contain β-amyloid peptides (Aβ peptides) as the major proteinaceous constituent and are surrounded by activated microglia and astrocytes as well as dystrophic neurites. N-terminally truncated forms of Aβ peptides are highly prevalent in neuritic plaques, including Aβ 3-x beginning at Glu eventually modified to pyroglutamate (Aβ N3pE-x), Aβ 2-x, Aβ 4-x, and Aβ 5-x. The precise origin of the different N-terminally modified Aβ peptides currently remains unknown. To assess the contribution of specific cell types to the formation of different N-terminally truncated Aβ peptides, supernatants from serum-free primary cell cultures of chicken neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, as well as human astrocytes, were analyzed by Aβ-ELISA and one- and two-dimensional SDS-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblot analysis. To evaluate the contribution of β- and γ-secretase to the generation of N-terminally modified Aβ, cultured astrocytes were treated with membrane-anchored "tripartite β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors" and the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Neurons, astrocytes, and microglia each exhibited cell type-specific patterns of secreted Aβ peptides. Neurons predominantly secreted Aβ peptides that begin at Asp1, whereas those released from astrocytes and microglia included high proportions of N-terminally modified Aβ peptides, presumably including Aβ 2/3-x and 4/5-x. The inhibition of BACE1 reduced the amount of Aβ 1-x in cell culture supernatants but not the amount of Aβ 2-x. PMID:25204716

  1. N-terminal modifications contribute to flowering time and immune response regulations

    PubMed Central

    Kapos, Paul; Xu, Fang; Meinnel, Thierry; Giglione, Carmela; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    A variety of N-terminal co-translational modifications play crucial roles in many cellular processes across eukaryotic organisms. Recently, N-terminal acetylation has been proposed as a regulatory mechanism for the control of plant immunity. Analysis of an N-terminal acetyltransferase complex A (NatA) mutant, naa15–1, revealed that NatA controls the stability of immune receptor Suppressor of NPR1, Constitutive 1 (SNC1) in an antagonistic fashion with NatB. Here, we further report on an antagonistic regulation of flowering time by NatA and NatB, where naa15–1 plants exhibit late flowering, opposite of the early flowering phenotype previously observed in natB mutants. In addition, we provide evidence for the involvement of another N-terminal modification, N-myristoylation, in controlling pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered immunity (PTI) through the characterization of N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT1) defective mutants, which express a low level of NMT1 protein. The mutant line lacks induced production of reactive oxygen species and MAP kinase phosphorylation in response to treatment with the known immune elicitor flg22. NMT1 deficient plants also exhibit increased susceptibility to Pst hrcC, a non-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae tomato strain lacking a functional type-III secretion system. The potential for the NatA-NatB antagonistic relationship to exist outside of the regulation of SNC1 as well as the disclosing of NMT1s role in PTI further supports the significant contribution of N-terminal co-translational modifications in the regulation of biological processes in plants, and present interesting areas for further exploration. PMID:26361095

  2. The N-terminal 209-aa domain of high molecular- weight 4.1R isoforms abrogates 4.1R targeting to the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Carlos M.; Lallena, María-José; Pérez-Ferreiro, Carmen M.; de Isidro, Yolanda; De Cárcer, Guillermo; Alonso, Miguel A.; Correas, Isabel

    1999-01-01

    An extensive repertoire of protein 4.1R isoforms is predominantly generated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing and differential usage of two translation initiation sites. The usage of the most upstream ATG (ATG-1) generates isoforms containing N-terminal extensions of up to 209 aa compared with those translated from the downstream ATG (ATG-2). To characterize nonerythroid 4.1R proteins translated from ATG-1 and analyze their intracellular localization, we cloned 4.1R cDNAs containing this translation initiation site. Six different clones were isolated from the nucleated human MOLT-4 T-cell line by reverse transcriptase–PCR techniques. Transient expression of the six ATG-1-translated 4.1R isoforms tagged with a c-Myc epitope revealed that all of them predominantly distributed to the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. Staining of MOLT-4 cell plasma membranes but not nuclei was also observed by immunofluorescence microscopy by using an antibody specific to the N-terminal extension. Consistent with this, the antibody reacted with a major endogenous protein of ≈145 kDa present in nonnuclear but absent from nuclear fractions prepared from MOLT-4 cells. Because these data suggested that ATG-1-translated 4.1R isoforms were predominantly excluded from the nucleus, we fused the 209-aa domain to nuclear 4.1R isoforms encoded from ATG-2 and observed that this domain inhibited their nuclear targeting. All these results indicate that the N-terminal domain of ATG-1-translated 4.1R isoforms plays a pivotal role in differential targeting of proteins 4.1R. PMID:10611314

  3. The proline-rich N-terminal sequence of calcineurin Abeta determines substrate binding.

    PubMed

    Kilka, Susann; Erdmann, Frank; Migdoll, Alexander; Fischer, Gunter; Weiwad, Matthias

    2009-03-10

    Three different genes of catalytic subunit A of the Ca(2+)-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) are encoded in the human genome forming heterodimers with regulatory subunit B. Even though physiological roles of CaN have been investigated extensively, less is known about the specific functions of the different catalytic isoforms. In this study, all human CaN holoenzymes containing either the alpha, beta, or gamma isoform of the catalytic subunit (CaN alpha, beta, or gamma, respectively) were expressed for the first time. Comparative kinetic analysis of the dephosphorylation of five specific CaN substrates provided evidence that the distinct isoforms of the catalytic subunit confer substrate specificities to the holoenzymes. CaN alpha dephosphorylates the transcription factor Elk-1 with 7- and 2-fold higher catalytic efficiencies than the beta and gamma isoforms, respectively. CaN gamma exhibits the highest k(cat)/K(m) value for DARPP-32, whereas the catalytic efficiencies for the dephosphorylation of NFAT and RII peptide were 3- and 5-fold lower, respectively, when compared with the other isoforms. Elk-1 and NFAT reporter gene activity measurements revealed even more pronounced substrate preferences of CaNA isoforms. Moreover, kinetic analysis demonstrated that CaN beta exhibits for all tested protein substrates the lowest K(m) values. Enzymatic characterization of the CaN beta(P14G/P18G) variant as well as the N-terminal truncated form CaN beta(22-524) revealed that the proline-rich sequence of CaN beta is involved in substrate recognition. CaN beta(22-524) exhibits an at least 4-fold decreased substrate affinity and a 5-fold increased turnover number. Since this study demonstrates that all CaN isoforms display the same cytoplasmic subcellular distribution and are expressed in each tested cell line, differences in substrate specificities may determine specific physiological functions of the distinct isoforms. PMID:19154138

  4. 76 FR 17835 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). On January 25, 2011, the Department published the extension... Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 4288... International Trade Administration A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's...

  5. The N-terminal domain determines the affinity and specificity of H1 binding to chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Oeberg, Christine; Belikov, Sergey

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer wt Human histone H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of N-terminal domain, {Delta}N-hH1.4, were compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both histones bind to chromatin, however, {Delta}N-hH1.4 displays lower binding affinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of {Delta}N-hH1.4 with chromatin includes a significant unspecific component. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-terminal domain is a determinant of specificity of histone H1 binding to chromatin. -- Abstract: Linker histone H1, one of the most abundant nuclear proteins in multicellular eukaryotes, is a key component of the chromatin structure mainly due to its role in the formation and maintenance of the 30 nm chromatin fiber. It has a three-domain structure; a central globular domain flanked by a short N-terminal domain and a long, highly basic C-terminal domain. Previous studies have shown that the binding abilities of H1 are at large determined by the properties of the C-terminal domain; much less attention has been paid to role of the N-terminal domain. We have previously shown that H1 can be reconstituted via cytoplasmic mRNA injection in Xenopus oocytes, cells that lack somatic H1. The heterologously expressed H1 proteins are incorporated into in vivo assembled chromatin at specific sites and the binding event is monitored as an increase in nucleosomal repeat length (NRL). Using this setup we have here compared the binding properties of wt-H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of its N-terminal domain ({Delta}N-hH1.4). The {Delta}N-hH1.4 displays a drastically lower affinity for chromatin binding as compared to the wild type hH1.4. Our data also indicates that {Delta}N-hH1.4 is more prone to unspecific chromatin binding than the wild type. We conclude that the N-terminal domain of H1 is an important determinant of affinity and specificity of H1-chromatin interactions.

  6. The N-Terminal Region of IFITM3 Modulates Its Antiviral Activity by Regulating IFITM3 Cellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Rui; Pan, Qinghua; Ding, Shilei; Rong, Liwei; Liu, Shan-Lu; Geng, Yunqi

    2012-01-01

    Interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) protein family members IFITM1, -2, and -3 restrict the infection of multiple enveloped viruses. Significant enrichment of a minor IFITM3 allele was recently reported for patients who were hospitalized for seasonal and 2009 H1N1 pandemic flu. This IFITM3 allele lacks the region corresponding to the first amino-terminal 21 amino acids and is unable to inhibit influenza A virus. In this study, we found that deleting this 21-amino-acid region relocates IFITM3 from the endosomal compartments to the cell periphery. This finding likely underlies the lost inhibition of influenza A virus that completes its entry exclusively within endosomes at low pH. Yet, wild-type IFITM3 and the mutant with the 21-amino-acid deletion inhibit HIV-1 replication equally well. Given the pH-independent nature of HIV-1 entry, our results suggest that IFITM3 can inhibit viruses that enter cells via different routes and that its N-terminal region is specifically required for controlling pH-dependent viruses. PMID:23055554

  7. PRINT: A Protein Bioconjugation Method with Exquisite N-terminal Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Surojit; Qiao, Yuan; Fries, Anja; O’Meally, Robert N.; Cole, Robert N.; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Zhou, Shibin

    2015-01-01

    Chemical conjugation is commonly used to enhance the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and potency of protein therapeutics, but often leads to non-specific modification or loss of bioactivity. Here, we present a simple, versatile and widely applicable method that allows exquisite N-terminal specific modification of proteins. Combining reversible side-chain blocking and protease mediated cleavage of a commonly used HIS tag appended to a protein, we generate with high yield and purity exquisitely site specific and selective bio-conjugates of TNF-α by using amine reactive NHS ester chemistry. We confirm the N terminal selectivity and specificity using mass spectral analyses and show near complete retention of the biological activity of our model protein both in vitro and in vivo murine models. We believe that this methodology would be applicable to a variety of potentially therapeutic proteins and the specificity afforded by this technique would allow for rapid generation of novel biologics. PMID:26678960

  8. PRINT: A Protein Bioconjugation Method with Exquisite N-terminal Specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Surojit; Qiao, Yuan; Fries, Anja; O'Meally, Robert N.; Cole, Robert N.; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Zhou, Shibin

    2015-12-01

    Chemical conjugation is commonly used to enhance the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and potency of protein therapeutics, but often leads to non-specific modification or loss of bioactivity. Here, we present a simple, versatile and widely applicable method that allows exquisite N-terminal specific modification of proteins. Combining reversible side-chain blocking and protease mediated cleavage of a commonly used HIS tag appended to a protein, we generate with high yield and purity exquisitely site specific and selective bio-conjugates of TNF-α by using amine reactive NHS ester chemistry. We confirm the N terminal selectivity and specificity using mass spectral analyses and show near complete retention of the biological activity of our model protein both in vitro and in vivo murine models. We believe that this methodology would be applicable to a variety of potentially therapeutic proteins and the specificity afforded by this technique would allow for rapid generation of novel biologics.

  9. The basic N-terminal domain of TRF2 limits recombination endonuclease action at human telomeres.

    PubMed

    Saint-Léger, Adélaïde; Koelblen, Melanie; Civitelli, Livia; Bah, Amadou; Djerbi, Nadir; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Gilson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The stability of mammalian telomeres depends upon TRF2, which prevents inappropriate repair and checkpoint activation. By using a plasmid integration assay in yeasts carrying humanized telomeres, we demonstrated that TRF2 possesses the intrinsic property to both stimulate initial homologous recombination events and to prevent their resolution via its basic N-terminal domain. In human cells, we further showed that this TRF2 domain prevents telomere shortening mediated by the resolvase-associated protein SLX4 as well as GEN1 and MUS81, 2 different types of endonucleases with resolvase activities. We propose that various types of resolvase activities are kept in check by the basic N-terminal domain of TRF2 in order to favor an accurate repair of the stalled forks that occur during telomere replication. PMID:25483196

  10. Involvement of the N-terminal region in alpha-crystallin-lens membrane recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifeanyi, F.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that alpha-crystallin binds specifically, in a saturable manner, to lens membrane. To determine the region of the alpha-crystallin molecule that might be involved in this binding, native alpha-crystallin from the bovine lens has been treated by limited digestion with trypsin, to produce alpha-A molecules with an intact C-terminal region, and a nicked N-terminal region. Compared to intact alpha-crystallin, trypsin-treated alpha-crystallin binds less avidly to lens membrane, suggesting that the N-terminal region of the alpha-A molecule may play a key role in the recognition between lens membrane and crystallin.

  11. First Things First: Vital Protein Marks by N-Terminal Acetyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Aksnes, Henriette; Drazic, Adrian; Marie, Michaël; Arnesen, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    N-terminal (Nt) acetylation is known to be a highly abundant co-translational protein modification, but the recent discovery of Golgi- and chloroplast-resident N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) revealed that it can also be added post-translationally. Nt-acetylation may act as a degradation signal in a novel branch of the N-end rule pathway, whose functions include the regulation of human blood pressure. Nt-acetylation also modulates protein interactions, targeting, and folding. In plants, Nt-acetylation plays a role in the control of resistance to drought and in regulation of immune responses. Mutations of specific human NATs that decrease their activity can cause either the lethal Ogden syndrome or severe intellectual disability and cardiovascular defects. In sum, recent advances highlight Nt-acetylation as a key factor in many biological pathways. PMID:27498224

  12. Absence of N-terminal acetyltransferase diversification during evolution of eukaryotic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Om Singh; Faustino, Alexandra; Prudêncio, Pedro; Van Damme, Petra; Cox, Cymon J.; Martinho, Rui Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    Protein N-terminal acetylation is an ancient and ubiquitous co-translational modification catalyzed by a highly conserved family of N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). Prokaryotes have at least 3 NATs, whereas humans have six distinct but highly conserved NATs, suggesting an increase in regulatory complexity of this modification during eukaryotic evolution. Despite this, and against our initial expectations, we determined that NAT diversification did not occur in the eukaryotes, as all six major human NATs were most likely present in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA). Furthermore, we also observed that some NATs were actually secondarily lost during evolution of major eukaryotic lineages; therefore, the increased complexity of the higher eukaryotic proteome occurred without a concomitant diversification of NAT complexes. PMID:26861501

  13. In vitro phosphorylation of the N-terminal half of hordeivirus movement protein.

    PubMed

    Makarov, V V; Iconnikova, A Y; Guseinov, M A; Vishnichenko, V K; Kalinina, N O

    2012-09-01

    The N-terminal half of TGB1 movement protein of poa semilatent hordeivirus, which forms a ribonucleoprotein complex involved in movement of the viral genome in the plant, and its two domains, NTD and ID, are phosphorylated in vitro by a fraction enriched in cell walls from Nicotiana benthamiana. Using a set of protein kinase inhibitors with different specificities, it was found that enzymes possessing activities of casein kinase 1, protein kinase A, and protein kinase C are involved in phosphorylation. Commercial preparations of protein kinases A and C are able to phosphorylate in vitro recombinant proteins corresponding to the N-terminal half of the protein and its domains NTD and ID. Phosphorylation of the NTD has no effect on the efficiency and character of its binding to RNA. However, phosphorylation of the ID leads to a decrease in its RNA-binding activity and in the ability for homological protein-protein interactions. PMID:23157268

  14. Resin-assisted Enrichment of N-terminal Peptides for Characterizing Proteolytic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong Seo; Dai, Ziyu; Aryal, Uma K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Baker, Scott E.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2013-06-17

    Proteolytic processing is a ubiquitous, irreversible posttranslational modification that plays an important role in cellular regulation in all living organisms. Herein we report a resin-assisted positive selection method for specifically enriching protein N-terminal peptides to facilitate the characterization of proteolytic processing events by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In this approach, proteins are initially reduced and alkylated and their lysine residues are converted to homoarginines. Then, protein N-termini are selectively converted to reactive thiol groups. We demonstrate that these sequential reactions were achieved with nearly quantitative efficiencies. Thiol-containing N-terminal peptides are then captured (>98% efficiency) by a thiol-affinity resin, a significant improvement over the traditional avidin/biotin enrichment. Application to cell lysates of Aspergillus niger, a filamentous fungus of interest for biomass degradation, enabled the identification of 1672 unique protein N-termini and proteolytic cleavage sites from 690 unique proteins.

  15. The large N-terminal region of the Brr2 RNA helicase guides productive spliceosome activation.

    PubMed

    Absmeier, Eva; Wollenhaupt, Jan; Mozaffari-Jovin, Sina; Becke, Christian; Lee, Chung-Tien; Preussner, Marco; Heyd, Florian; Urlaub, Henning; Lührmann, Reinhard; Santos, Karine F; Wahl, Markus C

    2015-12-15

    The Brr2 helicase provides the key remodeling activity for spliceosome catalytic activation, during which it disrupts the U4/U6 di-snRNP (small nuclear RNA protein), and its activity has to be tightly regulated. Brr2 exhibits an unusual architecture, including an ∼ 500-residue N-terminal region, whose functions and molecular mechanisms are presently unknown, followed by a tandem array of structurally similar helicase units (cassettes), only the first of which is catalytically active. Here, we show by crystal structure analysis of full-length Brr2 in complex with a regulatory Jab1/MPN domain of the Prp8 protein and by cross-linking/mass spectrometry of isolated Brr2 that the Brr2 N-terminal region encompasses two folded domains and adjacent linear elements that clamp and interconnect the helicase cassettes. Stepwise N-terminal truncations led to yeast growth and splicing defects, reduced Brr2 association with U4/U6•U5 tri-snRNPs, and increased ATP-dependent disruption of the tri-snRNP, yielding U4/U6 di-snRNP and U5 snRNP. Trends in the RNA-binding, ATPase, and helicase activities of the Brr2 truncation variants are fully rationalized by the crystal structure, demonstrating that the N-terminal region autoinhibits Brr2 via substrate competition and conformational clamping. Our results reveal molecular mechanisms that prevent premature and unproductive tri-snRNP disruption and suggest novel principles of Brr2-dependent splicing regulation. PMID:26637280

  16. The large N-terminal region of the Brr2 RNA helicase guides productive spliceosome activation

    PubMed Central

    Absmeier, Eva; Wollenhaupt, Jan; Mozaffari-Jovin, Sina; Becke, Christian; Lee, Chung-Tien; Preussner, Marco; Heyd, Florian; Urlaub, Henning; Lührmann, Reinhard; Santos, Karine F.; Wahl, Markus C.

    2015-01-01

    The Brr2 helicase provides the key remodeling activity for spliceosome catalytic activation, during which it disrupts the U4/U6 di-snRNP (small nuclear RNA protein), and its activity has to be tightly regulated. Brr2 exhibits an unusual architecture, including an ∼500-residue N-terminal region, whose functions and molecular mechanisms are presently unknown, followed by a tandem array of structurally similar helicase units (cassettes), only the first of which is catalytically active. Here, we show by crystal structure analysis of full-length Brr2 in complex with a regulatory Jab1/MPN domain of the Prp8 protein and by cross-linking/mass spectrometry of isolated Brr2 that the Brr2 N-terminal region encompasses two folded domains and adjacent linear elements that clamp and interconnect the helicase cassettes. Stepwise N-terminal truncations led to yeast growth and splicing defects, reduced Brr2 association with U4/U6•U5 tri-snRNPs, and increased ATP-dependent disruption of the tri-snRNP, yielding U4/U6 di-snRNP and U5 snRNP. Trends in the RNA-binding, ATPase, and helicase activities of the Brr2 truncation variants are fully rationalized by the crystal structure, demonstrating that the N-terminal region autoinhibits Brr2 via substrate competition and conformational clamping. Our results reveal molecular mechanisms that prevent premature and unproductive tri-snRNP disruption and suggest novel principles of Brr2-dependent splicing regulation. PMID:26637280

  17. Divergent N-Terminal Sequences Target an Inducible Testis Deubiquitinating Enzyme to Distinct Subcellular Structures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Haijiang; Keriel, Anne; Morales, Carlos R.; Bedard, Nathalie; Zhao, Qing; Hingamp, Pascal; Lefrançois, Stephane; Combaret, Lydie; Wing, Simon S.

    2000-01-01

    Ubiquitin-specific processing proteases (UBPs) presently form the largest enzyme family in the ubiquitin system, characterized by a core region containing conserved motifs surrounded by divergent sequences, most commonly at the N-terminal end. The functions of these divergent sequences remain unclear. We identified two isoforms of a novel testis-specific UBP, UBP-t1 and UBP-t2, which contain identical core regions but distinct N termini, thereby permitting dissection of the functions of these two regions. Both isoforms were germ cell specific and developmentally regulated. Immunocytochemistry revealed that UBP-t1 was induced in step 16 to 19 spermatids while UBP-t2 was expressed in step 18 to 19 spermatids. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that UBP-t1 was found in the nucleus while UBP-t2 was extranuclear and was found in residual bodies. For the first time, we show that the differential subcellular localization was due to the distinct N-terminal sequences. When transfected into COS-7 cells, the core region was expressed throughout the cell but the UBP-t1 and UBP-t2 isoforms were concentrated in the nucleus and the perinuclear region, respectively. Fusions of each N-terminal end with green fluorescent protein yielded the same subcellular localization as the native proteins, indicating that the N-terminal ends were sufficient for determining differential localization. Interestingly, UBP-t2 colocalized with anti-γ-tubulin immunoreactivity, indicating that like several other components of the ubiquitin system, a deubiquitinating enzyme is associated with the centrosome. Regulated expression and alternative N termini can confer specificity of UBP function by restricting its temporal and spatial loci of action. PMID:10938131

  18. Protein N-terminal acetylation is required for embryogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinlin; Li, Ruiqi; Yu, Junya; Ma, Shuangshuang; Wu, Chunyan; Li, Yan; Cao, Ying; Ma, Ligeng

    2016-08-01

    Early embryonic development generates precursors of all major cell types in Arabidopsis. Among these precursors, the hypophysis divides asymmetrically to form the progenitors of the quiescent center and columella stem cells. A great deal has been learnt about the mechanisms that control the asymmetric division of the hypophysis and embryogenesis at the transcriptional level; however, no evidence of regulation at the co- or post-translational level has been reported. Here, we show that mutation of the catalytic subunit (Naa10) or auxiliary subunit (Naa15) of NatA, an N-terminal acetyltransferase that catalyzes protein N-terminal acetylation, produces an embryo-lethal phenotype. In addition, Naa10 and Naa15 were found to interact physically in planta Further analysis revealed that the observed embryonic patterning defects started at the early globular stage and that the asymmetric division of the hypophysis was irregular; thus, no quiescent center progenitor cells were generated in naa10 and naa15 embryos. We further observed that the polar distributions of auxin and its efflux carrier PIN1 were disturbed in naa10 embryos. Our results suggest that NatA is required for asymmetric division of the hypophysis and early embryonic patterning in Arabidopsis, and provides a link between protein N-terminal acetylation and embryogenesis in plants. PMID:27385766

  19. Disease mutations in the ryanodine receptor N-terminal region couple to a mobile intersubunit interface

    PubMed Central

    Kimlicka, Lynn; Lau, Kelvin; Tung, Ching-Chieh; Van Petegem, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors are large channels that release Ca2+ from the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Hundreds of RyR mutations can cause cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders, yet detailed mechanisms explaining their effects have been lacking. Here we compare pseudo-atomic models and propose that channel opening coincides with widening of a cytoplasmic vestibule formed by the N-terminal region, thus altering an interface targeted by 20 disease mutations. We solve crystal structures of several disease mutants that affect intrasubunit domain–domain interfaces. Mutations affecting intrasubunit ionic pairs alter relative domain orientations, and thus couple to surrounding interfaces. Buried disease mutations cause structural changes that also connect to the intersubunit contact area. These results suggest that the intersubunit contact region between N-terminal domains is a prime target for disease mutations, direct or indirect, and we present a model whereby ryanodine receptors and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are activated by altering domain arrangements in the N-terminal region. PMID:23422674

  20. Solid-Phase Synthesis and Characterization of N-Terminally Elongated Aβ-3-x -Peptides.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Isaak; Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Klafki, Hans-Wolfgang; Jahn, Olaf; Haußmann, Ute; Wiltfang, Jens; Zweckstetter, Markus; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-13

    In addition to the prototypic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 , several Aβ variants differing in their amino and carboxy termini have been described. Synthetic availability of an Aβ variant is often the key to study its role under physiological or pathological conditions. Herein, we report a protocol for the efficient solid-phase peptide synthesis of the N-terminally elongated Aβ-peptides Aβ-3-38 , Aβ-3-40 , and Aβ-3-42 . Biophysical characterization by NMR spectroscopy, CD spectroscopy, an aggregation assay, and electron microscopy revealed that all three peptides were prone to aggregation into amyloid fibrils. Immunoprecipitation, followed by mass spectrometry, indicated that Aβ-3-38 and Aβ-3-40 are generated by transfected cells even in the presence of a tripartite β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitor. The elongated Aβ peptides starting at Val(-3) can be separated from N-terminally-truncated Aβ forms by high-resolution isoelectric-focusing techniques, despite virtually identical isoelectric points. The synthetic Aβ variants and the methods presented here are providing tools to advance our understanding of the potential roles of N-terminally elongated Aβ variants in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27167300

  1. Protein N-terminal acetylation is required for embryogenesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jinlin; Li, Ruiqi; Yu, Junya; Ma, Shuangshuang; Wu, Chunyan; Li, Yan; Cao, Ying; Ma, Ligeng

    2016-01-01

    Early embryonic development generates precursors of all major cell types in Arabidopsis. Among these precursors, the hypophysis divides asymmetrically to form the progenitors of the quiescent center and columella stem cells. A great deal has been learnt about the mechanisms that control the asymmetric division of the hypophysis and embryogenesis at the transcriptional level; however, no evidence of regulation at the co- or post-translational level has been reported. Here, we show that mutation of the catalytic subunit (Naa10) or auxiliary subunit (Naa15) of NatA, an N-terminal acetyltransferase that catalyzes protein N-terminal acetylation, produces an embryo-lethal phenotype. In addition, Naa10 and Naa15 were found to interact physically in planta. Further analysis revealed that the observed embryonic patterning defects started at the early globular stage and that the asymmetric division of the hypophysis was irregular; thus, no quiescent center progenitor cells were generated in naa10 and naa15 embryos. We further observed that the polar distributions of auxin and its efflux carrier PIN1 were disturbed in naa10 embryos. Our results suggest that NatA is required for asymmetric division of the hypophysis and early embryonic patterning in Arabidopsis, and provides a link between protein N-terminal acetylation and embryogenesis in plants. PMID:27385766

  2. Expanding the Phenotype Associated with NAA10-Related N-Terminal Acetylation Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saunier, Chloé; Støve, Svein Isungset; Popp, Bernt; Gérard, Bénédicte; Blenski, Marina; AhMew, Nicholas; de Bie, Charlotte; Goldenberg, Paula; Isidor, Bertrand; Keren, Boris; Leheup, Bruno; Lampert, Laetitia; Mignot, Cyril; Tezcan, Kamer; Mancini, Grazia M S; Nava, Caroline; Wasserstein, Melissa; Bruel, Ange-Line; Thevenon, Julien; Masurel, Alice; Duffourd, Yannis; Kuentz, Paul; Huet, Frédéric; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon; Faivre, Laurence; Piton, Amélie; Reis, André; Arnesen, Thomas; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Zweier, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a common protein modification in eukaryotes associated with numerous cellular processes. Inherited mutations in NAA10, encoding the catalytic subunit of the major N-terminal acetylation complex NatA have been associated with diverse, syndromic X-linked recessive disorders, whereas de novo missense mutations have been reported in one male and one female individual with severe intellectual disability but otherwise unspecific phenotypes. Thus, the full genetic and clinical spectrum of NAA10 deficiency is yet to be delineated. We identified three different novel and one known missense mutation in NAA10, de novo in 11 females, and due to maternal germ line mosaicism in another girl and her more severely affected and deceased brother. In vitro enzymatic assays for the novel, recurrent mutations p.(Arg83Cys) and p.(Phe128Leu) revealed reduced catalytic activity. X-inactivation was random in five females. The core phenotype of X-linked NAA10-related N-terminal-acetyltransferase deficiency in both males and females includes developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, postnatal growth failure with severe microcephaly, and skeletal or cardiac anomalies. Genotype-phenotype correlations within and between both genders are complex and may include various factors such as location and nature of mutations, enzymatic stability and activity, and X-inactivation in females. PMID:27094817

  3. Expression and Biochemical Characterization of the Human Enzyme N-Terminal Asparagine Amidohydrolase (hNTAN1)

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Jason R.; Stone, Everett M.; Georgiou, George

    2011-01-01

    The enzymatic deamidation of N-terminal L-Asn by N-terminal asparagine amidohydrolase (NTAN1) is a feature of the ubiquitin-dependent N-end rule pathway of protein degradation, which relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. Herein we report the bacterial expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of the human NTAN1 (hNTAN1). We show here that hNTAN1 is highly selective for the hydrolysis of N-terminal peptidyl L-Asn, but fails to deamidate free L-Asn or L-Gln, N-terminal peptidyl L-Gln, or acetylated N-terminal peptidyl L-Asn. Similar to other N-terminal deamidases, hNTAN1 is shown to possess a critical Cys residue that is absolutely required for catalysis, corroborated in part by abolishment of activity through the point mutation Cys75Ala. We also present evidence that the exposure of a conserved L-Pro at the N-terminus of hNTAN1 following removal of the initiating L-Met is important for function of the enzyme. The results presented here should assist in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the neurological defects of NTAN1-deficient mice observed in other studies, and in the discovery of potential physiological substrates targeted by the enzyme in the modulation of protein turnover via the N-end rule pathway. PMID:21375249

  4. Two N-Terminal Acetyltransferases Antagonistically Regulate the Stability of a Nod-Like Receptor in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Gannon, Patrick; Linster, Eric; Huber, Monika; Kapos, Paul; Bienvenut, Willy; Giglione, Carmela; Zhang, Yuelin; Chen, She

    2015-01-01

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) serve as immune receptors in plants and animals. The stability of NLRs is tightly regulated, though its mechanism is not well understood. Here, we show the crucial impact of N-terminal acetylation on the turnover of one plant NLR, Suppressor of NPR1, Constitutive 1 (SNC1), in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic and biochemical analyses of SNC1 uncovered its multilayered regulation by different N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nat) complexes. SNC1 exhibits a few distinct N-terminal isoforms generated through alternative initiation and N-terminal acetylation. Its first Met is acetylated by N-terminal acetyltransferase complex A (NatA), while the second Met is acetylated by N-terminal acetyltransferase complex B (NatB). Unexpectedly, the NatA-mediated acetylation serves as a degradation signal, while NatB-mediated acetylation stabilizes the NLR protein, thus revealing antagonistic N-terminal acetylation of a single protein substrate. Moreover, NatA also contributes to the turnover of another NLR, RESISTANCE TO P. syringae pv maculicola 1. The intricate regulation of protein stability by Nats is speculated to provide flexibility for the target protein in maintaining its homeostasis. PMID:25966763

  5. Regulation of Telomere Length Requires a Conserved N-Terminal Domain of Rif2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kaizer, Hannah; Connelly, Carla J.; Bettridge, Kelsey; Viggiani, Christopher; Greider, Carol W.

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of telomere length equilibrium is essential for cell growth and survival since critically short telomeres signal DNA damage and cell cycle arrest. While the broad principles of length regulation are well established, the molecular mechanism of how these steps occur is not fully understood. We mutagenized the RIF2 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to understand how this protein blocks excess telomere elongation. We identified an N-terminal domain in Rif2 that is essential for length regulation, which we have termed BAT domain for Blocks Addition of Telomeres. Tethering this BAT domain to Rap1 blocked telomere elongation not only in rif2Δ mutants but also in rif1Δ and rap1C-terminal deletion mutants. Mutation of a single amino acid in the BAT domain, phenylalanine at position 8 to alanine, recapitulated the rif2Δ mutant phenotype. Substitution of F8 with tryptophan mimicked the wild-type phenylalanine, suggesting the aromatic amino acid represents a protein interaction site that is essential for telomere length regulation. PMID:26294668

  6. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analyses of two N-terminal acetyltransferase-related proteins from Thermoplasma acidophilum

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Sang Hee; Ha, Jun Yong; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Oh, Sung Jin; Kim, Do Jin; Kang, Ji Yong; Yoon, Hye Jin; Kim, Se-Hee; Seo, Ji Hae; Kim, Kyu-Won; Suh, Se Won

    2006-11-01

    An N-terminal acetyltransferase ARD1 subunit-related protein (Ta0058) and an N-terminal acetyltransferase-related protein (Ta1140) from T. acidophilum were crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.17 and 2.40 Å, respectively. N-terminal acetylation is one of the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes, occurring in approximately 80–90% of cytosolic mammalian proteins and about 50% of yeast proteins. ARD1 (arrest-defective protein 1), together with NAT1 (N-acetyltransferase protein 1) and possibly NAT5, is responsible for the NatA activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In mammals, ARD1 is involved in cell proliferation, neuronal development and cancer. Interestingly, it has been reported that mouse ARD1 (mARD1{sup 225}) mediates ∊-acetylation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and thereby enhances HIF-1α ubiquitination and degradation. Here, the preliminary X-ray crystallographic analyses of two N-terminal acetyltransferase-related proteins encoded by the Ta0058 and Ta1140 genes of Thermoplasma acidophilum are reported. The Ta0058 protein is related to an N-terminal acetyltransferase complex ARD1 subunit, while Ta1140 is a putative N-terminal acetyltransferase-related protein. Ta0058 shows 26% amino-acid sequence identity to both mARD1{sup 225} and human ARD1{sup 235}.The sequence identity between Ta0058 and Ta1140 is 28%. Ta0058 and Ta1140 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli fused with an N-terminal purification tag. Ta0058 was crystallized at 297 K using a reservoir solution consisting of 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6, 8%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 4000 and 35%(v/v) glycerol. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.17 Å. The Ta0058 crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.334, c = 70.384 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The asymmetric unit contains a monomer, giving a calculated crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 2.13 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 42

  7. N-terminal-mediated oligomerization of DnaA drives the occupancy-dependent rejuvenation of the protein on the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Aranovich, Alexander; Braier-Marcovitz, Shani; Ansbacher, Esti; Granek, Rony; Parola, Abraham H.; Fishov, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    DnaA, the initiator of chromosome replication in most known eubacteria species, is activated once per cell division cycle. Its overall activity cycle is driven by ATP hydrolysis and ADP–ATP exchange. The latter can be promoted by binding to specific sequences on the chromosome and/or to acidic phospholipids in the membrane. We have previously shown that the transition into an active form (rejuvenation) is strongly co-operative with respect to DnaA membrane occupancy. Only at low membrane occupancy is DnaA reactivation efficiently catalysed by the acidic phospholipids. The present study was aimed at unravelling the molecular mechanism underlying the occupancy-dependent DnaA rejuvenation. We found that truncation of the DnaA N-terminal completely abolishes the co-operative transformation between the high and low occupancy states (I and II respectively) without affecting the membrane binding. The environmentally sensitive fluorophore specifically attached to the N-terminal cysteines of DnaA reported on occupancy-correlated changes in its vicinity. Cross-linking of DnaA with a short homobifunctional reagent revealed that state II of the protein on the membrane corresponds to a distinct oligomeric form of DnaA. The kinetic transition of DnaA on the membrane surface is described in the present study by a generalized 2D condensation phase transition model, confirming the existence of two states of DnaA on the membrane and pointing to the possibility that membrane protein density serves as an on-off switch in vivo. We conclude that the DnaA conformation attained at low surface density drives its N-terminal-mediated oligomerization, which is presumably a pre-requisite for facilitated nt exchange. PMID:26272946

  8. Extra N-Terminal Residues Have a Profound Effect on the Aggregation Properties of the Potential Yeast Prion Protein Mca1

    PubMed Central

    Erhardt, Marc; Wegrzyn, Renee D.; Deuerling, Elke

    2010-01-01

    The metacaspase Mca1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays a Q/N-rich region at its N-terminus reminiscent of yeast prion proteins. In this study, we show that the ability of Mca1 to form insoluble aggregates is modulated by a peptide stretch preceding its putative prion-forming domain. Based on its genomic locus, three potential translational start sites of Mca1 can give rise to two slightly different long Mca1 proteins or a short version, Mca1451/453 and Mca1432, respectively, although under normal physiological conditions Mca1432 is the predominant form expressed. All Mca1 variants exhibit the Q/N-rich regions, while only the long variants Mca1451/453 share an extra stretch of 19 amino acids at their N-terminal end. Strikingly, only long versions of Mca1 but not Mca1432 revealed pronounced aggregation in vivo and displayed prion-like properties when fused to the C-terminal domain of Sup35 suggesting that the N-terminal peptide element promotes the conformational switch of Mca1 protein into an insoluble state. Transfer of the 19 N-terminal amino acid stretch of Mca1451 to the N-terminus of firefly luciferase resulted in increased aggregation of luciferase, suggesting a protein destabilizing function of the peptide element. We conclude that the aggregation propensity of the potential yeast prion protein Mca1 in vivo is strongly accelerated by a short peptide segment preceding its Q/N-rich region and we speculate that such a conformational switch might occur in vivo via the usage of alternative translational start sites. PMID:20360952

  9. Monomer DJ-1 and its N-terminal sequence are necessary for mitochondrial localization of DJ-1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Maita, Chinatsu; Maita, Hiroshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2013-01-01

    DJ-1 is a novel oncogene and also a causative gene for familial Parkinson's disease (park7). DJ-1 has multiple functions that include transcriptional regulation, anti-oxidative reaction and chaperone and mitochondrial regulation. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in DJ-1-knockout mice and fry, and mitochondrial DJ-1 is more protective against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Although translocation of DJ-1 into mitochondria is enhanced by oxidative stress that leads to oxidation of cysteine 106 (C106) of DJ-1, the characteristics of mitochondrial DJ-1 and the mechanism by which DJ-1 is translocated into mitochondria are poorly understood. In this study, immunostaining, co-immunoprecipitation, cell fractionation and pull-down experiments showed that mutants of glutamine 18 (E18) DJ-1 are localized in mitochondria and do not make homodimers. Likewise, DJ-1 with mutations of two cysteines located in the dimer interface, C46S and C53A, and pathogenic mutants, M26I and L166P DJ-1, were found to be localized in mitochondria and not to make homodimers. Mutant DJ-1 harboring both E18A and C106S, in which C106 is not oxidized, was also localized in mitochondria, indicating that oxidation of C106 is important but not essential for mitochondrial localization of DJ-1. It should be noted that E18A DJ-1 was translocated from mitochondria to the cytoplasm when mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced by treatment of cells with CCCP, an uncoupler of the oxidative phosphorylation system in mitochondria. Furthermore, deletion or substitution of the N-terminal 12 amino acids in DJ-1 resulted in re-localization of E18A, M26I and L166P DJ-1 from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that a monomer and the N-terminal 12 amino acids are necessary for mitochondrial localization of DJ-1 mutants and that conformation change induced by C106 oxidation or by E18 mutation leads to translocation of DJ-1 into mitochondria. PMID:23326576

  10. Mitochondrial localization of CNP2 is regulated by phosphorylation of the N-terminal targeting signal by PKC: implications of a mitochondrial function for CNP2 in glial and non-glial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, John; O'Neill, Ryan C; Park, Min Woo; Gravel, Michel; Braun, Peter E

    2006-03-01

    Both 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) isoforms are abundantly expressed in myelinating cells. CNP2 differs from CNP1 by a 20 amino acid N-terminal extension and is also expressed at much lower levels in non-myelinating tissues. The functional role of CNP2, apart from CNP1, and the significance for CNP2 expression in non-myelinating tissues are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CNP2 is translocated to mitochondria by virtue of a mitochondrial targeting signal at the N-terminus. PKC-mediated phosphorylation of the targeting signal inhibits CNP2 translocation to mitochondria, thus retaining it in the cytoplasm. CNP2 is imported into mitochondria and the targeting signal cleaved, yielding a mature, truncated form similar in size to CNP1. CNP2 is entirely processed in adult liver and embryonic brain, indicating that it is localized specifically to mitochondria in non-myelinating cells. Our results point to a broader biological role for CNP2 in mitochondria that is likely to be different from its specific role in the cytoplasm, along with CNP1, during myelination. PMID:16343930

  11. Structural Insight into the Critical Role of the N-Terminal Region in the Catalytic Activity of Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 26.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Young; Lee, Sang-Ok; Lee, Dong-Hwa; Lee, Daeyoup; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Seung Jun; Chi, Seung-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Human dual-specificity phosphatase 26 (DUSP26) is a novel target for anticancer therapy because its dephosphorylation of the p53 tumor suppressor regulates the apoptosis of cancer cells. DUSP26 inhibition results in neuroblastoma cell cytotoxicity through p53-mediated apoptosis. Despite the previous structural studies of DUSP26 catalytic domain (residues 61-211, DUSP26-C), the high-resolution structure of its catalytically active form has not been resolved. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of a catalytically active form of DUSP26 (residues 39-211, DUSP26-N) with an additional N-terminal region at 2.0 Å resolution. Unlike the C-terminal domain-swapped dimeric structure of DUSP26-C, the DUSP26-N (C152S) monomer adopts a fold-back conformation of the C-terminal α8-helix and has an additional α1-helix in the N-terminal region. Consistent with the canonically active conformation of its protein tyrosine phosphate-binding loop (PTP loop) observed in the structure, the phosphatase assay results demonstrated that DUSP26-N has significantly higher catalytic activity than DUSP26-C. Furthermore, size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser scattering (SEC-MALS) measurements showed that DUSP26-N (C152S) exists as a monomer in solution. Notably, the crystal structure of DUSP26-N (C152S) revealed that the N-terminal region of DUSP26-N (C152S) serves a scaffolding role by positioning the surrounding α7-α8 loop for interaction with the PTP-loop through formation of an extensive hydrogen bond network, which seems to be critical in making the PTP-loop conformation competent for phosphatase activity. Our study provides the first high-resolution structure of a catalytically active form of DUSP26, which will contribute to the structure-based rational design of novel DUSP26-targeting anticancer therapeutics. PMID:27583453

  12. The N-terminal unstructured domain of yeast ODC functions as a transplantable and replaceable ubiquitin-independent degron.

    PubMed

    Gödderz, Daniela; Schäfer, Ekaterine; Palanimurugan, R; Dohmen, R Jürgen

    2011-04-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a homodimeric enzyme with a rate-limiting function in polyamine biosynthesis, is subject to a feedback control involving its selective proteolysis. Targeting of ODC monomers to the proteasome is mediated by ODC antizyme (OAZ), the expression of which is induced by high levels of polyamines. Here, we report our analysis of the N-terminal degron in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ODC and the mechanism of its antizyme-dependent targeting. This ∼45-residue domain of ODC [termed ODC degradation signal (ODS)] is essential for degradation of ODC. Extensive mutagenesis indicated that it is not a specific sequence within ODS that is important but, rather, its unstructured nature. Consistent with this conclusion, ODS could be functionally replaced by an unrelated unstructured domain. We show that increasing the distance of ODS to the rest of the ODC protein reduced the dependence on Oaz1 for targeting, indicating that exposure of ODS is critical for its function. Disruption of ODC dimers by introducing interface mutations, in contrast, was insufficient for targeting. Binding of Oaz1 to ODC monomers is thus required to activate ODS. Fusion of ODS to the N terminus of Ura3 was sufficient to convert it into a ubiquitin-independent substrate of the proteasome. By contrast, ODS failed to destabilize maltose-binding protein or dihydrofolate reductase, indicating that this degron only operates in an appropriate structural context that enables rapid unfolding. PMID:21295581

  13. The Structures of the Thrombospondin-1 N-Terminal Domain and Its Complex with a Synthetic Pentameric Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kemin; Duquette, Mark; Liu, Jin-huan; Zhang, Rongguang; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Wang, Jia-huai; Lawler, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Summary The N-terminal domain of thrombospondin-1 (TSPN-1) mediates the protein’s interaction with (1) glycosaminoglycans, calreticulin, and integrins during cellular adhesion, (2) low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein during uptake and clearance, and (3) fibrinogen during platelet aggregation. The crystal structure of TSPN-1 to 1.8 Å resolution is a β sandwich with 13 antiparallel β strands and 1 irregular strand-like segment. Unique structural features of the N- and C-terminal regions, and the disulfide bond location, distinguish TSPN-1 from the laminin G domain and other concanavalin A-like lectins/glucanases superfamily members. The crystal structure of the complex of TSPN-1 with heparin indicates that residues R29, R42, and R77 in an extensive positively charged patch at the bottom of the domain specifically associate with the sulfate groups of heparin. The TSPN-1 structure and identified adjacent linker region provide a structural framework for the analysis of the TSPN domain of various molecules, including TSPs, NELLs, many collagens, TSPEAR, and kielin. PMID:16407063

  14. Small N-terminal mutant huntingtin fragments, but not wild type, are mainly present in monomeric form: Implications for pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cong, Shu-Yan; Pepers, Barry A; Roos, Raymund A C; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Dorsman, Josephine C

    2006-06-01

    N-terminal fragments of huntingtin containing an expanded polyglutamine stretch play an important role in the molecular pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. Their ultimate accumulation in insoluble protein aggregates constitutes an important pathological hallmark of Huntington's disease. We report on systematic biochemical comparison studies of soluble wild type and mutant N-terminal huntingtin fragments. The results show that soluble wild type exon 1 fragments are predominantly present in higher molecular weight complexes with a molecular size of approximately 300 kDa, while their mutant counterparts are mainly present in their monomeric form. In contrast, longer N-terminal fragments corresponding to peptides produced by caspase cleavage do not display these differential properties. These findings suggest that especially an increased amount of monomeric form of small N-terminal mutant huntingtin fragments may facilitate aberrant interactions both with itself via the polyglutamine stretch and with other proteins and thereby contribute to molecular pathogenesis. PMID:16380118

  15. Analytical cation-exchange chromatography to assess the identity, purity, and N-terminal integrity of human lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    van Veen, Harrie A; Geerts, Marlieke E J; van Berkel, Patrick H C; Nuijens, Jan H

    2002-10-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein involved in the innate host defense. The positively charged N-terminal domain of hLF mediates several of its activities by interacting with ligands such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), specific receptors, and other proteins. This cationic domain is highly susceptible to limited proteolysis, which impacts on the affinity of hLF for the ligand. An analytical method, employing cation-exchange chromatography on Mono S, was developed to assess the N-terminal integrity of hLF preparations. The method, which separates N-terminally intact hLF from hLF species lacking two (Gly(1)-Arg(2)) or three (Gly(1)-Arg(2)-Arg(3)) residues, showed that 5-58% of total hLF in commercially obtained preparations was N-terminally degraded. The elution profile of hLF on Mono S unequivocally differed from lactoferrins from other species as well as homologous and other whey proteins. Analysis of fresh human whey samples revealed two variants of N-terminally intact hLF, but not limitedly proteolyzed hLF. Mono S chromatography of 2 out of 26 individual human whey samples showed a rare polymorphic hLF variant with three N-terminal arginines (Gly(1)-Arg(2)-Arg(3)-Arg(4)-Ser(5)-) instead of the usual variant with four N-terminal arginines (Gly(1)-Arg(2)-Arg(3)-Arg(4)-Arg(5)-Ser(6)-). In conclusion, Mono S cation-exchange chromatography appeared a robust method to assess the identity, purity, N-terminal integrity, and the presence of polymorphic and intact hLF variants. PMID:12381362

  16. N-terminal region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eRF3 is essential for the functioning of the eRF1/eRF3 complex beyond translation termination

    PubMed Central

    Urakov, Valery N; Valouev, Igor A; Kochneva-Pervukhova, Natalia V; Packeiser, Anna N; Vishnevsky, Alexander Yu; Glebov, Oleg O; Smirnov, Vladimir N; Ter-Avanesyan, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    Background Termination of translation in eukaryotes requires two release factors, eRF1, which recognizes all three nonsense codons and facilitates release of the nascent polypeptide chain, and eRF3 stimulating translation termination in a GTP-depended manner. eRF3 from different organisms possess a highly conservative C region (eRF3C), which is responsible for the function in translation termination, and almost always contain the N-terminal extension, which is inessential and vary both in structure and length. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the N-terminal region of eRF3 is responsible for conversion of this protein into the aggregated and functionally inactive prion form. Results Here, we examined functional importance of the N-terminal region of a non-prion form of yeast eRF3. The screen for mutations which are lethal in combination with the SUP35-C allele encoding eRF3C revealed the sup45 mutations which alter the N-terminal domain of eRF1 and increase nonsense codon readthrough. However, further analysis showed that synthetic lethality was not caused by the increased levels of nonsense codon readthrough. Dominant mutations in SUP35-C were obtained and characterized, which remove its synthetic lethality with the identified sup45 mutations, thus indicating that synthetic lethality was not due to a disruption of interaction with proteins that bind to this eRF3 region. Conclusion These and other data demonstrate that the N-terminal region of eRF3 is involved both in modulation of the efficiency of translation termination and functioning of the eRF1/eRF3 complex outside of translation termination. PMID:17034622

  17. Enhanced Fibril Fragmentation of N-Terminally Truncated and Pyroglutamyl-Modified Aβ Peptides.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Melanie; Baumann, Monika; Thümmler, Anka; Yadav, Jay K; Heinrich, Liesa; Knüpfer, Uwe; Schlenzig, Dagmar; Schierhorn, Angelika; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Horn, Uwe; Balbach, Jochen; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Fändrich, Marcus

    2016-04-11

    N-terminal truncation and pyroglutamyl (pE) formation are naturally occurring chemical modifications of the Aβ peptide in Alzheimer's disease. We show herein that these two modifications significantly reduce the fibril length and the transition midpoint of thermal unfolding of the fibrils, but they do not substantially perturb the fibrillary peptide conformation. This observation implies that the N terminus of the unmodified peptide protects Aβ fibrils against mechanical stress and fragmentation and explains the high propensity of pE-modified peptides to form small and particularly toxic aggregates. PMID:26970534

  18. The Functional Study of the N-Terminal Region of Influenza B Virus Nucleoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Lam, Mandy Ka-Han; Zhang, Qinfen; Elderfield, Ruth; Barclay, Wendy S.; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2015-01-01

    Influenza nucleoprotein (NP) is a major component of the ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) in influenza virus, which functions for the transcription and replication of viral genome. Compared to the nucleoprotein of influenza A (ANP), the N-terminal region of influenza B nucleoprotein (BNP) is much extended. By virus reconstitution, we found that the first 38 residues are essential for viral growth. We further illustrated the function of BNP by mini-genome reconstitution, fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy, light scattering and gel shift. Results show that the N terminus is involved in the formation of both higher homo-oligomers of BNP and BNP-RNA complex. PMID:26368391

  19. Crystal Structure of the Measles Virus Nucleoprotein Core in Complex with an N-Terminal Region of Phosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Guryanov, Sergey G.; Liljeroos, Lassi; Kasaragod, Prasad; Kajander, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The enveloped negative-stranded RNA virus measles virus (MeV) is an important human pathogen. The nucleoprotein (N0) assembles with the viral RNA into helical ribonucleocapsids (NC) which are, in turn, coated by a helical layer of the matrix protein. The viral polymerase complex uses the NC as its template. The N0 assembly onto the NC and the activity of the polymerase are regulated by the viral phosphoprotein (P). In this study, we pulled down an N01-408 fragment lacking most of its C-terminal tail domain by several affinity-tagged, N-terminal P fragments to map the N0-binding region of P to the first 48 amino acids. We showed biochemically and using P mutants the importance of the hydrophobic interactions for the binding. We fused an N0 binding peptide, P1-48, to the C terminus of an N021-408 fragment lacking both the N-terminal peptide and the C-terminal tail of N protein to reconstitute and crystallize the N0-P complex. We solved the X-ray structure of the resulting N0-P chimeric protein at a resolution of 2.7 Å. The structure reveals the molecular details of the conserved N0-P interface and explains how P chaperones N0, preventing both self-assembly of N0 and its binding to RNA. Finally, we propose a model for a preinitiation complex for RNA polymerization. IMPORTANCE Measles virus is an important, highly contagious human pathogen. The nucleoprotein N binds only to viral genomic RNA and forms the helical ribonucleocapsid that serves as a template for viral replication. We address how N is regulated by another protein, the phosphoprotein (P), to prevent newly synthesized N from binding to cellular RNA. We describe the atomic model of an N-P complex and compare it to helical ribonucleocapsid. We thus provide insight into how P chaperones N and helps to start viral RNA synthesis. Our results provide a new insight into mechanisms of paramyxovirus replication. New data on the mechanisms of phosphoprotein chaperone action allows better understanding of

  20. Rescue and Stabilization of Acetylcholinesterase in Skeletal Muscle by N-terminal Peptides Derived from the Noncatalytic Subunits.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Carlos A; Rossi, Susana G; Rotundo, Richard L

    2015-08-21

    The vast majority of newly synthesized acetylcholinesterase (AChE) molecules do not assemble into catalytically active oligomeric forms and are rapidly degraded intracellularly by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway. We have previously shown that AChE in skeletal muscle is regulated in part post-translationally by the availability of the noncatalytic subunit collagen Q, and others have shown that expression of a 17-amino acid N-terminal proline-rich attachment domain of collagen Q is sufficient to promote AChE tetramerization in cells producing AChE. In this study we show that muscle cells, or cell lines expressing AChE catalytic subunits, incubated with synthetic proline-rich attachment domain peptides containing the endoplasmic reticulum retrieval sequence KDEL take up and retrogradely transport them to the endoplasmic reticulum network where they induce assembly of AChE tetramers. The peptides act to enhance AChE folding thereby rescuing them from reticulum degradation. This enhanced folding efficiency occurs in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis and in turn increases total cell-associated AChE activity and active tetramer secretion. Pulse-chase studies of isotopically labeled AChE molecules show that the enzyme is rescued from intracellular degradation. These studies provide a mechanistic explanation for the large scale intracellular degradation of AChE previously observed and indicate that simple peptides alone can increase the production and secretion of this critical synaptic enzyme in muscle tissue. PMID:26139603

  1. Functional insights from the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the prototypical toll receptor.

    PubMed

    Gangloff, Monique; Arnot, Christopher J; Lewis, Miranda; Gay, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Toll is the founding member of an important family of pathogen-recognition receptors in humans, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. In contrast, the prototypical receptor is a cytokine-like receptor for Spätzle (Spz) protein and plays a dual role in both development and immunity. Here, we present the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the receptor that encompasses the first 201 amino acids at 2.4 Å resolution. To our knowledge, the cysteine-rich cap adopts a novel fold unique to Toll-1 orthologs in insects and that is not critical for ligand binding. However, we observed that an antibody directed against the first ten LRRs blocks Spz signaling in a Drosophila cell-based assay. Supplemented by point mutagenesis and deletion analysis, our data suggests that the region up to LRR 14 is involved in Spz binding. Comparison with mammalian TLRs reconciles previous contradictory findings about the mechanism of Toll activation. PMID:23245851

  2. Functional Insights from the Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal Domain of the Prototypical Toll Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Gangloff, Monique; Arnot, Christopher J.; Lewis, Miranda; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Drosophila melanogaster Toll is the founding member of an important family of pathogen-recognition receptors in humans, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. In contrast, the prototypical receptor is a cytokine-like receptor for Spätzle (Spz) protein and plays a dual role in both development and immunity. Here, we present the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the receptor that encompasses the first 201 amino acids at 2.4 Å resolution. To our knowledge, the cysteine-rich cap adopts a novel fold unique to Toll-1 orthologs in insects and that is not critical for ligand binding. However, we observed that an antibody directed against the first ten LRRs blocks Spz signaling in a Drosophila cell-based assay. Supplemented by point mutagenesis and deletion analysis, our data suggests that the region up to LRR 14 is involved in Spz binding. Comparison with mammalian TLRs reconciles previous contradictory findings about the mechanism of Toll activation. PMID:23245851

  3. Wld S protein requires Nmnat activity and a short N-terminal sequence to protect axons in mice.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Laura; Wilbrey, Anna; Morreale, Giacomo; Janeckova, Lucie; Beirowski, Bogdan; Adalbert, Robert; Mazzola, Francesca; Di Stefano, Michele; Hartley, Robert; Babetto, Elisabetta; Smith, Trevor; Gilley, Jonathan; Billington, Richard A; Genazzani, Armando A; Ribchester, Richard R; Magni, Giulio; Coleman, Michael

    2009-02-23

    The slow Wallerian degeneration (Wld(S)) protein protects injured axons from degeneration. This unusual chimeric protein fuses a 70-amino acid N-terminal sequence from the Ube4b multiubiquitination factor with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-synthesizing enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 1. The requirement for these components and the mechanism of Wld(S)-mediated neuroprotection remain highly controversial. The Ube4b domain is necessary for the protective phenotype in mice, but precisely which sequence is essential and why are unclear. Binding to the AAA adenosine triphosphatase valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 is the only known biochemical property of the Ube4b domain. Using an in vivo approach, we show that removing the VCP-binding sequence abolishes axon protection. Replacing the Wld(S) VCP-binding domain with an alternative ataxin-3-derived VCP-binding sequence restores its protective function. Enzyme-dead Wld(S) is unable to delay Wallerian degeneration in mice. Thus, neither domain is effective without the function of the other. Wld(S) requires both of its components to protect axons from degeneration. PMID:19237596

  4. WldS protein requires Nmnat activity and a short N-terminal sequence to protect axons in mice

    PubMed Central

    Conforti, Laura; Wilbrey, Anna; Morreale, Giacomo; Janeckova, Lucie; Beirowski, Bogdan; Adalbert, Robert; Mazzola, Francesca; Di Stefano, Michele; Hartley, Robert; Babetto, Elisabetta; Smith, Trevor; Gilley, Jonathan; Billington, Richard A.; Genazzani, Armando A.; Ribchester, Richard R.; Magni, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    The slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) protein protects injured axons from degeneration. This unusual chimeric protein fuses a 70–amino acid N-terminal sequence from the Ube4b multiubiquitination factor with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–synthesizing enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 1. The requirement for these components and the mechanism of WldS-mediated neuroprotection remain highly controversial. The Ube4b domain is necessary for the protective phenotype in mice, but precisely which sequence is essential and why are unclear. Binding to the AAA adenosine triphosphatase valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 is the only known biochemical property of the Ube4b domain. Using an in vivo approach, we show that removing the VCP-binding sequence abolishes axon protection. Replacing the WldS VCP-binding domain with an alternative ataxin-3–derived VCP-binding sequence restores its protective function. Enzyme-dead WldS is unable to delay Wallerian degeneration in mice. Thus, neither domain is effective without the function of the other. WldS requires both of its components to protect axons from degeneration. PMID:19237596

  5. On the structure of the N-terminal domain of the MscL channel: helical bundle or membrane interface.

    PubMed

    Iscla, Irene; Wray, Robin; Blount, Paul

    2008-09-01

    The mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, MscL, serves as a biological emergency release valve protecting bacteria from acute osmotic downshock and is to date the best characterized mechanosensitive channel. A well-recognized and supported model for Escherichia coli MscL gating proposes that the N-terminal 11 amino acids of this protein form a bundle of amphipathic helices in the closed state that functionally serves as a cytoplasmic second gate. However, a recently reexamined crystal structure of a closed state of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis MscL shows these helices running along the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane. Thus, it is unclear if one structural model is correct or if they both reflect valid closed states. Here, we have systematically reevaluated this region utilizing cysteine-scanning, in vivo functional characterization, in vivo SCAM, electrophysiological studies, and disulfide-trapping experiments. The disulfide-trapping pattern and functional studies do not support the helical bundle and second-gate hypothesis but correlate well with the proposed structure for M. tuberculosis MscL. We propose a functional model that is consistent with the collective data. PMID:18515388

  6. Clostridium thermocellum thermostable lichenase with circular permutations and modifications in the N-terminal region retains its activity and thermostability.

    PubMed

    Tyurin, A А; Sadovskaya, N S; Nikiforova, Kh R; Mustafaev, O N; Komakhin, R A; Fadeev, V S; Goldenkova-Pavlova, I V

    2015-01-01

    The Clostridium thermocellum lichenase (endo-β-1,3;1,4-glucan-D-glycosyl hydrolase) displays a high thermostability and specific activity and has a compact protein molecule, which makes it attractive, in particular, for protein engineering. We have utilized in silico analysis to construct circularly permuted (CP) variants and estimated the retained activity and thermostability. New open termini in the region of residues 53 or 99 in two lichenase CP variants (CN-53 and CN-99) had no effect on their activity and thermal tolerance versus another variant CP variant, CN-140 (cut in the region of residue 140), which displayed a dramatic decrease in the activity and thermostability. Construction and further activity and thermostability testing of the modified lichenase variants (M variants) and CP variants with peptides integrated via insertion fusion have demonstrated that the N-terminal regions in the lichenase catalytic domain (53 and 99 amino acid residues) that permit circular permutations with retention of activity and thermostability of the enzyme as well as the region between the C and N termini of the native lichenase in thermostable and active lichenase variants (CN-53 and CN-99) may be used for integrating small peptides without the loss of activity and thermostability. These findings not only suggest that CP predictions can be used in search for internal integration sites within protein molecule, but also form the background for further enzymatic engineering of the C. thermocellum thermostable lichenase aiming to create new fusion proteins. PMID:25448724

  7. BacM, an N-terminally processed bactofilin of Myxococcus xanthus, is crucial for proper cell shape

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Matthias K.; McHugh, Colleen A.; Hoiczyk, Egbert

    2011-01-01

    Summary Bactofilins are fibre-forming bacterial cytoskeletal proteins. Here, we report the structural and biochemical characterization of MXAN_7475 (BacM), one of the four bactofilins of Myxococcus xanthus. Absence of BacM leads to a characteristic ‘crooked’ cell morphology and an increased sensitivity to antibiotics targeting cell wall biosynthesis. The absence of the other three bactofilins MXAN_4637–4635 (BacN-P) has no obvious phenotype. In M. xanthus, BacM exists as a 150-amino-acid full-length version and as a version cleaved before Ser28. In the cell, native BacM forms 3 nm wide fibres, which assemble into bundles forming helix-like cytoplasmic cables throughout the cell, and in a subset of cells additionally a polarly arranged lateral rod-like structure. Isolated fibres consist almost completely of the N-terminally truncated version, suggesting that the proteolytic cleavage occurs before or during fibre formation. Fusion of BacM to mCherry perturbs BacM function and cellular fibre arrangement, resulting for example in the formation of one prominent polar corkscrew-like structure per cell. Immunofluorescence staining of BacM and MreB shows that their cellular distributions are not matching. Taken together, these data suggest that rod-shaped bacteria like M. xanthus use bactofilin fibres to achieve and maintain their characteristic cell morphology and cell wall stability. PMID:21414039

  8. BacM, an N-terminally processed bactofilin of Myxococcus xanthus, is crucial for proper cell shape.

    PubMed

    Koch, Matthias K; McHugh, Colleen A; Hoiczyk, Egbert

    2011-05-01

    Bactofilins are fibre-forming bacterial cytoskeletal proteins. Here, we report the structural and biochemical characterization of MXAN_7475 (BacM), one of the four bactofilins of Myxococcus xanthus. Absence of BacM leads to a characteristic 'crooked' cell morphology and an increased sensitivity to antibiotics targeting cell wall biosynthesis. The absence of the other three bactofilins MXAN_4637-4635 (BacN-P) has no obvious phenotype. In M. xanthus, BacM exists as a 150-amino-acid full-length version and as a version cleaved before Ser28. In the cell, native BacM forms 3 nm wide fibres, which assemble into bundles forming helix-like cytoplasmic cables throughout the cell, and in a subset of cells additionally a polarly arranged lateral rod-like structure. Isolated fibres consist almost completely of the N-terminally truncated version, suggesting that the proteolytic cleavage occurs before or during fibre formation. Fusion of BacM to mCherry perturbs BacM function and cellular fibre arrangement, resulting for example in the formation of one prominent polar corkscrew-like structure per cell. Immunofluorescence staining of BacM and MreB shows that their cellular distributions are not matching. Taken together, these data suggest that rod-shaped bacteria like M. xanthus use bactofilin fibres to achieve and maintain their characteristic cell morphology and cell wall stability. PMID:21414039

  9. The Unique Branching Patterns of Deinococcus Glycogen Branching Enzymes Are Determined by Their N-Terminal Domains▿

    PubMed Central

    Palomo, M.; Kralj, S.; van der Maarel, M. J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen branching enzymes (GBE) or 1,4-α-glucan branching enzymes (EC 2.4.1.18) introduce α-1,6 branching points in α-glucans, e.g., glycogen. To identify structural features in GBEs that determine their branching pattern specificity, the Deinococcus geothermalis and Deinococcus radiodurans GBE (GBEDg and GBEDr, respectively) were characterized. Compared to other GBEs described to date, these Deinococcus GBEs display unique branching patterns, both transferring relatively short side chains. In spite of their high amino acid sequence similarity (88%) the D. geothermalis enzyme had highest activity on amylose while the D. radiodurans enzyme preferred amylopectin. The side chain distributions of the products were clearly different: GBEDg transferred a larger number of smaller side chains; specifically, DP5 chains corresponded to 10% of the total amount of transferred chains, versus 6.5% for GBEDr. GH13-type GBEs are composed of a central (β/α) barrel catalytic domain and an N-terminal and a C-terminal domain. Characterization of hybrid Deinococcus GBEs revealed that the N2 modules of the N domains largely determined substrate specificity and the product branching pattern. The N2 module has recently been annotated as a carbohydrate binding module (CBM48). It appears likely that the distance between the sugar binding subsites in the active site and the CBM48 subdomain determines the average lengths of side chains transferred. PMID:19139240

  10. N-terminal {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms do not correlate with bronchodilator response in asthma families

    SciTech Connect

    Holyroyd, K.J.; Dragwa, C.; Xu, J.

    1994-09-01

    Family and twin studies have suggested that susceptibility to asthma is inherited. One clinically relevant phenotype in asthma is the bronchodilator response to beta adrenergic therapy (reversibility) which may also be inherited and vary among asthmatics. Two polymorphisms of the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor common to both asthmatic and normal individuals have been reported. One polymorphism, an amino acid polymorphism at position 16, correlated in one study with the need for long-term corticosteriod use in a population of asthmatics. It is conceivable that the increased use of corticosteroids needed to control symptoms in these patients may be explained by a decreased responsiveness to brochodilators mediated through this amino acid polymorphism in the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor. However, the response to {beta}{sub 2} bronchodilators was not tested in these patients. In our Dutch asthma families, DNA sequencing of the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor has been performed for N-terminal polymorphisms at amino acid positions 16 and 27 in over 100 individuals, and no correlation was found with the increase of FEV{sub 1} in response to bronchodilator. Linkage analysis between bronchodilator response and marker D5S412 near the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor gene was performed in 286 sibpairs from these families. Using a bronchodilator response of >10% in FEV{sub 1} as a qualitative definition of affected individuals, there were 145 unaffected sibpairs, 121 sibpairs where one was affected, and 20 in which both were affected. Linear regression analysis of these sibpair data suggested possible linkage (p=0.007). This supports further examination of the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor and its regulatory regions for polymorphisms that correlate with the bronchodilator response in asthma families.

  11. The N-terminal domain of EspF induces host cell apoptosis after infection with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suhui; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Chunhui; Yang, Yu; Wu, Xianbo; Wei, Yao; Zhu, Li; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Qiwei; Wan, Chengsong

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) employs a type III secretion system (TTSS) to export the translocator and effector proteins required for mucosal colonization. As an important bacterial effector protein in locus of enterocyte effacement four, the EspF protein causes F-actin filament aggregations to form attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions, and induces the destruction of brush-border microvilli and cytoskeletal rearrangements to form pedestals. However, the molecular pathogenesis of A/E lesions due to EHEC O157:H7 infection is unclear. In this study, we constructed an espF-deficient mutant (ΔespF) with a 162-bp deletion in the N-terminal domain by using overlap extension PCR. The results showed that EHEC EspF translocated into intestinal epithelial cells, targeted mitochondria and induced apoptosis. The ΔespF mutant, compared to EHEC prototype Guangzhou strain, had lower cell attachment and effacement abilities, lower caspase-9/3 and lactate dehydrogenase levels, lower bacterial adhesion, weaker mitochondria apoptosis, and a higher mouse survival rate. Our results demonstrate the probable function of the EspF N-terminal domain, which targets mitochondria and binds mitochondria heat shock protein 70 to induce cell apoptosis via A/E lesions. These findings may be invaluable in clarifying the molecular pathogenesis of EspF of EHEC O157:H7. PMID:23372831

  12. N-terminal Proteomics and Ribosome Profiling Provide a Comprehensive View of the Alternative Translation Initiation Landscape in Mice and Men*

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Petra; Gawron, Daria; Van Criekinge, Wim; Menschaert, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    Usage of presumed 5′UTR or downstream in-frame AUG codons, next to non-AUG codons as translation start codons contributes to the diversity of a proteome as protein isoforms harboring different N-terminal extensions or truncations can serve different functions. Recent ribosome profiling data revealed a highly underestimated occurrence of database nonannotated, and thus alternative translation initiation sites (aTIS), at the mRNA level. N-terminomics data in addition showed that in higher eukaryotes around 20% of all identified protein N termini point to such aTIS, to incorrect assignments of the translation start codon, translation initiation at near-cognate start codons, or to alternative splicing. We here report on more than 1700 unique alternative protein N termini identified at the proteome level in human and murine cellular proteomes. Customized databases, created using the translation initiation mapping obtained from ribosome profiling data, additionally demonstrate the use of initiator methionine decoded near-cognate start codons besides the existence of N-terminal extended protein variants at the level of the proteome. Various newly identified aTIS were confirmed by mutagenesis, and meta-analyses demonstrated that aTIS reside in strong Kozak-like motifs and are conserved among eukaryotes, hinting to a possible biological impact. Finally, TargetP analysis predicted that the usage of aTIS often results in altered subcellular localization patterns, providing a mechanism for functional diversification. PMID:24623590

  13. Pushing the limits of sulfur SAD phasing: de novo structure solution of the N-terminal domain of the ectodomain of HCV E1

    SciTech Connect

    El Omari, Kamel; Iourin, Oleg; Kadlec, Jan; Fearn, Richard; Hall, David R.; Harlos, Karl; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Stuart, David I.

    2014-08-01

    The sulfur SAD phasing method was successfully used to determine the structure of the N-terminal domain of HCV E1 from low-resolution diffracting crystals by combining data from 32 crystals. Single-wavelength anomalous dispersion of S atoms (S-SAD) is an elegant phasing method to determine crystal structures that does not require heavy-atom incorporation or selenomethionine derivatization. Nevertheless, this technique has been limited by the paucity of the signal at the usual X-ray wavelengths, requiring very accurate measurement of the anomalous differences. Here, the data collection and structure solution of the N-terminal domain of the ectodomain of HCV E1 from crystals that diffracted very weakly is reported. By combining the data from 32 crystals, it was possible to solve the sulfur substructure and calculate initial maps at 7 Å resolution, and after density modication and phase extension using a higher resolution native data set to 3.5 Å resolution model building was achievable.

  14. BtcA, A Class IA Type III Chaperone, Interacts with the BteA N-Terminal Domain through a Globular/Non-Globular Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Chen; Davidov, Geula; Yahalom, Adi; Shaked, Hadassa; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Bitton, Ronit; Barber-Zucker, Shiran; Chill, Jordan H.; Zarivach, Raz

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of “whooping cough” disease, utilizes the type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver a 69 kDa cytotoxic effector protein, BteA, directly into the host cells. As with other T3SS effectors, prior to its secretion BteA binds BtcA, a 13.9 kDa protein predicted to act as a T3SS class IA chaperone. While this interaction had been characterized for such effector-chaperone pairs in other pathogens, it has yet to be fully investigated in Bordetella. Here we provide the first biochemical proof that BtcA is indeed a class IA chaperone, responsible for the binding of BteA's N-terminal domain. We bring forth extensive evidence that BtcA binds its substrate effector through a dual-interface binding mechanism comprising of non-globular and bi-globular interactions at a moderate micromolar level binding affinity. We demonstrate that the non-globular interactions involve the first 31 N-terminal residues of BteA287 and their removal leads to destabilization of the effector-chaperone complex and lower binding affinities to BtcA. These findings represent an important first step towards a molecular understanding of BteA secretion and cell entry. PMID:24312558

  15. Glial high-affinity binding site with specificity for angiotensin II not angiotensin III: a possible N-terminal-specific converting enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Printz, M.P.; Jennings, C.; Healy, D.P.; Kalter, V.

    1986-01-01

    Anomalous binding properties of angiotensin II to fetal rat brain primary cultures suggested a possible contribution from contaminating glia. To investigate this possibility, cultures of C6 glioma, a clonal rat cell line, were examined for the presence of angiotensin II receptors. A specific high-affinity site for (/sup 125/I)angiotensin II was measured both by traditional methodology using whole cells and by autoradiography. This site shared properties similar to that found with the brain cells, namely low ligand internalization and markedly decreased affinity for N-terminal sarcosine or arginine-angiotensin analogs. The competition rank order was angiotensin II much greater than (Sar1,Ile8)angiotensin II greater than or equal to des(Asp1,Arg2)angiotensin II. Angiotensin III did not compete for binding to the site. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the ligand either in the incubation or bound to the site was stable at 15 degrees C, but there was very rapid and extensive degradation by the C6 glioma cells at 37 degrees C. It is concluded that the site exhibits unusual N-terminal specificity for angiotensin with nanomolar affinity for angiotensin II. If angiotensin III is an active ligand in the brain, the site may have a converting enzyme function. Alternatively, it may form the des-Asp derivatives of angiotensin for subsequent degradation by other enzymatic pathways. Either way, it is proposed that the site may modulate the brain-angiotensin system.

  16. Metal binding to the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the PIB ATPase HMA4 is required for metal transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Clémentine; Lekeux, Gilles; Ukuwela, Ashwinie A; Xiao, Zhiguang; Charlier, Jean-Benoit; Bosman, Bernard; Carnol, Monique; Motte, Patrick; Damblon, Christian; Galleni, Moreno; Hanikenne, Marc

    2016-03-01

    PIB ATPases are metal cation pumps that transport metals across membranes. These proteins possess N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic extensions that contain Cys- and His-rich high affinity metal binding domains, which may be involved in metal sensing, metal ion selectivity and/or in regulation of the pump activity. The PIB ATPase HMA4 (Heavy Metal ATPase 4) plays a central role in metal homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana and has a key function in zinc and cadmium hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation in the extremophile plant species Arabidopsis halleri. Here, we examined the function and structure of the N-terminal cytoplasmic metal-binding domain of HMA4. We mutagenized a conserved CCTSE metal-binding motif in the domain and assessed the impact of the mutations on protein function and localization in planta, on metal-binding properties in vitro and on protein structure by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. The two Cys residues of the motif are essential for the function, but not for localization, of HMA4 in planta, whereas the Glu residue is important but not essential. These residues also determine zinc coordination and affinity. Zinc binding to the N-terminal domain is thus crucial for HMA4 protein function, whereas it is not required to maintain the protein structure. Altogether, combining in vivo and in vitro approaches in our study provides insights towards the molecular understanding of metal transport and specificity of metal P-type ATPases. PMID:26797794

  17. A novel N-terminal region of the membrane β-hexosyltransferase: its role in secretion of soluble protein by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Suzanne F; Bruno-Bárcena, José M

    2016-01-01

    The β-hexosyltransferase (BHT) from Sporobolomyces singularis is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyses transgalactosylation reactions to synthesize galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs). To increase the secretion of the active soluble version of this protein, we examined the uncharacterized novel N-terminal region (amino acids 1-110), which included two predicted endogenous structural domains. The first domain (amino acids 1-22) may act as a classical leader while a non-classical signal was located within the remaining region (amino acids 23-110). A functional analysis of these domains was performed by evaluating the amounts of the rBHT forms secreted by recombinant P. pastoris strains carrying combinations of the predicted structural domains and the α mating factor (MFα) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as positive control. Upon replacement of the leader domain (amino acids 1-22) by MFα (MFα-rBht(23-594)), protein secretion increased and activity of both soluble and membrane-bound enzymes was improved 53- and 14-fold, respectively. Leader interference was demonstrated when MFα preceded the putative classical rBHT(1-22) leader (amino acids 1-22), explaining the limited secretion of soluble protein by P. pastoris (GS115 : : MFα-rBht(1-594)). To validate the role of the N-terminal domains in promoting protein secretion, we tested the domains using a non-secreted protein, the anti-β-galactosidase single-chain variable antibody fragment scFv13R4. The recombinants carrying chimeras of the N-terminal 1-110 regions of rBHT preceding scFv13R4 correlated with the secretion strength of soluble protein observed with the rBHT recombinants. Finally, soluble bioactive HIS-tagged and non-tagged rBHT (purified to homogeneity) obtained from the most efficient recombinants (GS115 : : MFα-rBht(23-594)-HIS and GS115 : : MFα-rBht(23-594)) showed comparable activity rates of GOS generation. PMID:26552922

  18. The calmodulin-like proteins AtCML4 and AtCML5 are single-pass membrane proteins targeted to the endomembrane system by an N-terminal signal anchor sequence

    PubMed Central

    Ruge, Henning; Flosdorff, Sandra; Ebersberger, Ingo; Chigri, Fatima; Vothknecht, Ute C.

    2016-01-01

    Calmodulins (CaMs) are important mediators of Ca2+ signals that are found ubiquitously in all eukaryotic organisms. Plants contain a unique family of calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) that exhibit greater sequence variance compared to canonical CaMs. The Arabidopsis thaliana proteins AtCML4 and AtCML5 are members of CML subfamily VII and possess a CaM domain comprising the characteristic double pair of EF-hands, but they are distinguished from other members of this subfamily and from canonical CaMs by an N-terminal extension of their amino acid sequence. Transient expression of yellow fluorescent protein-tagged AtCML4 and AtCML5 under a 35S-promoter in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells revealed a spherical fluorescence pattern. This pattern was confirmed by transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts under the native promoter. Co-localization analyses with various endomembrane marker proteins suggest that AtCML4 and AtCML5 are localized to vesicular structures in the interphase between Golgi and the endosomal system. Further studies revealed AtCML5 to be a single-pass membrane protein that is targeted into the endomembrane system by an N-terminal signal anchor sequence. Self-assembly green fluorescent protein and protease protection assays support a topology with the CaM domain exposed to the cytosolic surface and not the lumen of the vesicles, indicating that AtCML5 could sense Ca2+ signals in the cytosol. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that AtCML4 and AtCML5 are closely related paralogues originating from a duplication event within the Brassicaceae family. CML4/5-like proteins seem to be universally present in eudicots but are absent in some monocots. Together these results show that CML4/5-like proteins represent a flowering plant-specific subfamily of CMLs with a potential function in vesicle transport within the plant endomembrane system. PMID:27029353

  19. The calmodulin-like proteins AtCML4 and AtCML5 are single-pass membrane proteins targeted to the endomembrane system by an N-terminal signal anchor sequence.

    PubMed

    Ruge, Henning; Flosdorff, Sandra; Ebersberger, Ingo; Chigri, Fatima; Vothknecht, Ute C

    2016-06-01

    Calmodulins (CaMs) are important mediators of Ca(2+) signals that are found ubiquitously in all eukaryotic organisms. Plants contain a unique family of calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) that exhibit greater sequence variance compared to canonical CaMs. The Arabidopsis thaliana proteins AtCML4 and AtCML5 are members of CML subfamily VII and possess a CaM domain comprising the characteristic double pair of EF-hands, but they are distinguished from other members of this subfamily and from canonical CaMs by an N-terminal extension of their amino acid sequence. Transient expression of yellow fluorescent protein-tagged AtCML4 and AtCML5 under a 35S-promoter in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells revealed a spherical fluorescence pattern. This pattern was confirmed by transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts under the native promoter. Co-localization analyses with various endomembrane marker proteins suggest that AtCML4 and AtCML5 are localized to vesicular structures in the interphase between Golgi and the endosomal system. Further studies revealed AtCML5 to be a single-pass membrane protein that is targeted into the endomembrane system by an N-terminal signal anchor sequence. Self-assembly green fluorescent protein and protease protection assays support a topology with the CaM domain exposed to the cytosolic surface and not the lumen of the vesicles, indicating that AtCML5 could sense Ca(2+) signals in the cytosol. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that AtCML4 and AtCML5 are closely related paralogues originating from a duplication event within the Brassicaceae family. CML4/5-like proteins seem to be universally present in eudicots but are absent in some monocots. Together these results show that CML4/5-like proteins represent a flowering plant-specific subfamily of CMLs with a potential function in vesicle transport within the plant endomembrane system. PMID:27029353

  20. Functional Roles of the Non-Catalytic Calcium-Binding Sites in the N-Terminal Domain of Human Peptidylarginine Deiminase 4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Liang; Tsai, I-Chen; Chang, Chia-Wei; Liao, Ya-Fan; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the functional roles of the N-terminal Ca2+ ion-binding sites, in terms of enzyme catalysis and stability, of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4). Amino acid residues located in the N-terminal Ca2+-binding site of PAD4 were mutated to disrupt the binding of Ca2+ ions. Kinetic data suggest that Asp155, Asp157 and Asp179, which directly coordinate Ca3 and Ca4, are essential for catalysis in PAD4. For D155A, D157A and D179A, the kcat/Km,BAEE values were 0.02, 0.63 and 0.01 s−1mM−1 (20.8 s−1mM−1 for WT), respectively. Asn153 and Asp176 are directly coordinated with Ca3 and indirectly coordinated with Ca5 via a water molecule. However, N153A displayed low enzymatic activity with a kcat value of 0.3 s−1 (13.3 s−1 for wild-type), whereas D176A retained some catalytic power with a kcat of 9.7 s−1. Asp168 is the direct ligand for Ca5, and Ca5 coordination by Glu252 is mediated by two water molecules. However, mutation of these two residues to Ala did not cause a reduction in the kcat/Km,BAEE values, which indicates that the binding of Ca5 may not be required for PAD4 enzymatic activity. The possible conformational changes of these PAD4 mutants were examined. Thermal stability analysis of the PAD4 mutants in the absence or presence of Ca2+ indicated that the conformational stability of the enzyme is highly dependent on Ca2+ ions. In addition, the results of urea-induced denaturation for the N153, D155, D157 and D179 series mutants further suggest that the binding of Ca2+ ions in the N-terminal Ca2+-binding site stabilizes the overall conformational stability of PAD4. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that the N-terminal Ca2+ ions play critical roles in the full activation of the PAD4 enzyme. PMID:23382808

  1. N-terminal domain-mediated homodimerization is required for photoreceptor activity of Arabidopsis CRYPTOCHROME 1.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yi; Li, Qing-Hua; Rubio, Vicente; Zhang, Yan-Chun; Mao, Jian; Deng, Xing-Wang; Yang, Hong-Quan

    2005-05-01

    Cryptochromes (CRY) are blue light receptors that share sequence similarity with photolyases, flavoproteins that catalyze the repair of UV light-damaged DNA. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings expressing the C-terminal domains of the Arabidopsis CRY fused to beta-glucuronidase (GUS) display a constitutive photomorphogenic (COP) phenotype, indicating that the signaling mechanism of Arabidopsis CRY is mediated through the C-terminal domain. The role of the Arabidopsis CRY N-terminal photolyase-like domain in CRY action remains poorly understood. Here, we report the essential role of the Arabidopsis CRY1 N-terminal domain (CNT1) in the light activation of CRY1 photoreceptor activity. Yeast two-hybrid assay, in vitro binding, in vivo chemical cross-linking, gel filtration, and coimmunoprecipitation studies indicate that CRY1 homodimerizes in a light-independent manner. Mutagenesis and transgenic studies demonstrate that CNT1-mediated dimerization is required for light activation of the C-terminal domain of CRY1 (CCT1). Transgenic data and native gel electrophoresis studies suggest that multimerization of GUS is both responsible and required for mediating a COP phenotype on fusion to CCT1. These results indicate that the properties of the GUS multimer are analogous to those of the light-modified CNT1 dimer. Irradiation with blue light modifies the properties of the CNT1 dimer, resulting in a change in CCT1, activating CCT1, and eventually triggering the CRY1 signaling pathway. PMID:15805487

  2. An N-terminal glycine-rich sequence contributes to retrovirus trimer of hairpins stability

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Kirilee A.; Maerz, Anne L.; Baer, Severine; Drummer, Heidi E.; Poumbourios, Pantelis . E-mail: apoumbourios@burnet.edu.au

    2007-08-10

    Retroviral transmembrane proteins (TMs) contain a glycine-rich segment linking the N-terminal fusion peptide and coiled coil core. Previously, we reported that the glycine-rich segment (Met-326-Ser-337) of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) TM, gp21, is a determinant of membrane fusion function [K.A. Wilson, S. Baer, A.L. Maerz, M. Alizon, P. Poumbourios, The conserved glycine-rich segment linking the N-terminal fusion peptide to the coiled coil of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein gp21 is a determinant of membrane fusion function, J. Virol. 79 (2005) 4533-4539]. Here we show that the reduced fusion activity of an I334A mutant correlated with a decrease in stability of the gp21 trimer of hairpins conformation, in the context of a maltose-binding protein-gp21 chimera. The stabilizing influence of Ile-334 required the C-terminal membrane-proximal sequence Trp-431-Ser-436. Proline substitution of four of five Gly residues altered gp21 trimer of hairpins stability. Our data indicate that flexibility within and hydrophobic interactions mediated by this region are determinants of gp21 stability and membrane fusion function.

  3. Preparation and characterization of a truncated caricain lacking 41 residues from the N-terminal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ye, Wanhui; Wang, Zhangming; Chao, Honglin; Lian, Juyu

    2005-05-01

    We purified an 18.8 kD protease from caricain solution. This protease was derived from caricain. It does not have the first 41 residues of the N-terminal sequence of caricain, and its N-terminal residue is Thr. Also, one of the disulfide bonds of caricain (cys22-cys63) was opened during the formation of the protease. We named this 18.8 kD protease caricain II. Caricain II has a wide pH range, and it is more sensitive to temperature changes than caricain. The proteolytic activity of caricain II is twice as much as that of caricain using casein as a substrate. However, caricain II has a low hydrolytic activity with N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE) that is one of the special substrates of caricain. Our results indicate that caricain II is remarkably different from caricain and it can provide an improvement over caricain on the proteolytic activity. PMID:16283547

  4. Selection and characterization of llama single domain antibodies against N-terminal huntingtin.

    PubMed

    Schut, Menno H; Pepers, Barry A; Klooster, Rinse; van der Maarel, Silvère M; El Khatabi, Mohamed; Verrips, Theo; den Dunnen, Johan T; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M C

    2015-03-01

    Huntington disease is caused by expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene that is translated into an elongated polyglutamine stretch within the N-terminal domain of the huntingtin protein. The mutation is thought to introduce a gain-of-toxic function in the mutant huntingtin protein, and blocking this toxicity by antibody binding could alleviate Huntington disease pathology. Llama single domain antibodies (VHH) directed against mutant huntingtin are interesting candidates as therapeutic agents or research tools in Huntington disease because of their small size, high thermostability, low cost of production, possibility of intracellular expression, and potency of blood-brain barrier passage. We have selected VHH from llama phage display libraries that specifically target the N-terminal domain of the huntingtin protein. Our VHH are capable of binding wild-type and mutant human huntingtin under native and denatured conditions and can be used in Huntington disease studies as a novel antibody that is easy to produce and manipulate. PMID:25294428

  5. Identification of eukaryotic peptide deformylases reveals universality of N-terminal protein processing mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Giglione, Carmela; Serero, Alexandre; Pierre, Michèle; Boisson, Bertrand; Meinnel, Thierry

    2000-01-01

    The N-terminal protein processing pathway is an essential mechanism found in all organisms. However, it is widely believed that deformylase, a key enzyme involved in this process in bacteria, does not exist in eukaryotes, thus making it a target for antibacterial agents such as actinonin. In an attempt to define this process in higher eukaryotes we have used Arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism. Two deformylase cDNAs, the first identified in any eukaryotic system, and six distinct methionine aminopeptidase cDNAs were cloned. The corresponding proteins were characterized in vivo and in vitro. Methionine aminopeptidases were found in the cytoplasm and in the organelles, while deformylases were localized in the organelles only. Our work shows that higher plants have a much more complex machinery for methionine removal than previously suspected. We were also able to identify deformylase homologues from several animals and clone the corresponding cDNA from human cells. Our data provide the first evidence that lower and higher eukaryotes, as well as bacteria, share a similar N-terminal protein processing machinery, indicating universality of this system. PMID:11060042

  6. Plasmodium vivax: N-terminal diversity in the blood stage SERA genes from Indian isolates.

    PubMed

    Rahul, C N; Shiva Krishna, K; Meera, M; Phadke, Sandhya; Rajesh, Vidya

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide malaria risk due to Plasmodium vivax makes development of vaccine against P. vivax, a high priority. Serine Repeat Antigen of P. vivax (PvSERA) is a multigene family of blood stage proteins with 12 homologues. Sequence diversity studies are important for understanding them as potential vaccine candidates. No information on N-terminal diversity of these genes is available in literature. In this paper, we evaluate the genetic polymorphism of N-terminal regions of the highly expressed member PvSERA4 and PvSERA5 genes from Indian field isolates. Our results show that PvSERA4 has deletions and insertions in Glutamine rich tetrameric repeat units contributing to its diversity. PvSERA5 also exhibits high genetic diversity with non-synonymous substitutions leading to identification of novel haplotypes from India. Our first report helps in elucidating the allelic variants of PvSERA genes in this region and contributes to evaluating their efficacy as vaccine candidates. PMID:25976464

  7. A peptide N-terminal protection strategy for comprehensive glycoproteome analysis using hydrazide chemistry based method

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Junfeng; Qin, Hongqiang; Sun, Zhen; Huang, Guang; Mao, Jiawei; Cheng, Kai; Zhang, Zhang; Wan, Hao; Yao, Yating; Dong, Jing; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Fangjun; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2015-01-01

    Enrichment of glycopeptides by hydrazide chemistry (HC) is a popular method for glycoproteomics analysis. However, possible side reactions of peptide backbones during the glycan oxidation in this method have not been comprehensively studied. Here, we developed a proteomics approach to locate such side reactions and found several types of the side reactions that could seriously compromise the performance of glycoproteomics analysis. Particularly, the HC method failed to identify N-terminal Ser/Thr glycopeptides because the oxidation of vicinal amino alcohol on these peptides generates aldehyde groups and after they are covalently coupled to HC beads, these peptides cannot be released by PNGase F for identification. To overcome this drawback, we apply a peptide N-terminal protection strategy in which primary amine groups on peptides are chemically blocked via dimethyl labeling, thus the vicinal amino alcohols on peptide N-termini are eliminated. Our results showed that this strategy successfully prevented the oxidation of peptide N-termini and significantly improved the coverage of glycoproteome. PMID:25959593

  8. Design, synthesis and aphicidal activity of N-terminal modified insect kinin analogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanliang; Qu, Yanyan; Wu, Xiaoqing; Song, Dunlun; Ling, Yun; Yang, Xinling

    2015-06-01

    The insect kinins are a class of multifunctional insect neuropeptides present in a diverse variety of insects. Insect kinin analogs showed multiple bioactivities, especially, the aphicidal activity. To find a biostable and bioactive insecticide candidate with simplified structure, a series of N-terminal modified insect kinin analogs was designed and synthesized based on the lead compound [Aib]-Phe-Phe-[Aib]-Trp-Gly-NH2. Their aphicidal activity against the soybean aphid Aphis glycines was evaluated. The results showed that all the analogs maintained the aphicidal activity. In particular, the aphicidal activity of the pentapeptide analog X Phe-Phe-[Aib]-Trp-Gly-NH2 (LC50=0.045mmol/L) was similar to the lead compound (LC50=0.048mmol/L). This indicated that the N-terminal protective group may not play an important role in the activity and the analogs structure could be simplified to pentapeptide analogs while retaining good aphicidal activity. The core pentapeptide analog X can be used as the lead compound for further chemical modifications to discover potential insecticides. PMID:25116632

  9. An N-terminal glycine-rich sequence contributes to retrovirus trimer of hairpins stability.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kirilee A; Maerz, Anne L; Bär, Séverine; Drummer, Heidi E; Poumbourios, Pantelis

    2007-08-10

    Retroviral transmembrane proteins (TMs) contain a glycine-rich segment linking the N-terminal fusion peptide and coiled coil core. Previously, we reported that the glycine-rich segment (Met-326-Ser-337) of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) TM, gp21, is a determinant of membrane fusion function [K.A. Wilson, S. Bär, A.L. Maerz, M. Alizon, P. Poumbourios, The conserved glycine-rich segment linking the N-terminal fusion peptide to the coiled coil of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein gp21 is a determinant of membrane fusion function, J. Virol. 79 (2005) 4533-4539]. Here we show that the reduced fusion activity of an I334A mutant correlated with a decrease in stability of the gp21 trimer of hairpins conformation, in the context of a maltose-binding protein-gp21 chimera. The stabilizing influence of Ile-334 required the C-terminal membrane-proximal sequence Trp-431-Ser-436. Proline substitution of four of five Gly residues altered gp21 trimer of hairpins stability. Our data indicate that flexibility within and hydrophobic interactions mediated by this region are determinants of gp21 stability and membrane fusion function. PMID:17577584

  10. Isolation of a trypsin inhibitor with deletion of N-terminal pentapeptide from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis, the Chinese drug mubiezhi.

    PubMed

    Huang, B; Ng, T B; Fong, W P; Wan, C C; Yeung, H W

    1999-06-01

    A trypsin inhibitor, MCCTI-1, with a molecular weight of 3479 Da as determined by mass spectrometry, was isolated from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds with a procedure involving extraction with 5% acetic acid, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The sequence of its first 13 N-terminal amino acid residues was ILKKCRRDSDCPG which was about 85% identical with the sequence of trypsin inhibitor MCTI-1 from Momordica charantia Linn. When compared with the sequences of most other squash family trypsin inhibitors, the sequence of MCCTI-1 was characterized by the deletion of a pentapeptide from the N-terminus. Trypsin inhibitors also existed in seeds of some hitherto uninvestigated Cucurbitaceae species. PMID:10404643

  11. The N-terminal SH4 region of the Src family kinase Fyn is modified by methylation and heterogeneous fatty acylation: role in membrane targeting, cell adhesion, and spreading.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiquan; Lu, Yun; Wilkes, Meredith; Neubert, Thomas A; Resh, Marilyn D

    2004-02-27

    The N-terminal SH4 domain of Src family kinases is responsible for promoting membrane binding and plasma membrane targeting. Most Src family kinases contain an N-terminal Met-Gly-Cys consensus sequence that undergoes dual acylation with myristate and palmitate after removal of methionine. Previous studies of Src family kinase fatty acylation have relied on radiolabeling of cells with radioactive fatty acids. Although this method is useful for verifying that a given fatty acid is attached to a protein, it does not reveal whether other fatty acids or other modifying groups are attached to the protein. Here we use matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to identify fatty acylated species of the Src family kinase Fyn. Our results reveal that Fyn is efficiently myristoylated and that some of the myristoylated proteins are also heterogeneously S-acylated with palmitate, palmitoleate, stearate, or oleate. Furthermore, we show for the first time that Fyn is trimethylated at lysine residues 7 and/or 9 within its N-terminal region. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation were required for methylation of Fyn. However, a general methylation inhibitor had no inhibitory effect on myristoylation and palmitoylation of Fyn, suggesting that methylation occurs after myristoylation and palmitoylation. Lysine mutants of Fyn that could not be methylated failed to promote cell adhesion and spreading, suggesting that methylation is important for Fyn function. PMID:14660555

  12. N-terminal sequence tagging using reliably determined b2 ions: a useful approach to deconvolute tandem mass spectra of co-fragmented peptides in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Kryuchkov, Fedor; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2014-05-30

    With the recent introduction of higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) in Orbitrap mass spectrometry, the popularity of that technique has grown tremendously in the proteomics society. HCD spectra, however, are characterized by a limited distribution of bn-type ions, which permit the generation of reliable sequence tags based on complementary b,y pairs both for de novo sequencing and sequence tagging strategies. Instead, most peptide HCD spectra (~95%) are dominated with b2 ions. In this work, we analyzed positive predictive values of b2 ions in HCD, and found that b2 ions can be determined with >97% certainty in the presence of a2 and its complementary yn-2 ions. Analytically, b2 ions provide information on the composition of the first two N-terminal amino acids in peptides. Their utilization in N-terminal sequence tagging leads to a significant decrease in false discovery rate by filtering out false positives while retaining true positive identifications. As a consequence, the number of peptide spectrum matches (PSMs) increased by 4.8% at fixed FDR (1%). This approach allows for deconvolution of mixture spectra and increased the number of PSM to 9.2% in a complex human sample and to 24% in a complex sample of synthetic peptides at 1% FDR. PMID:24726481

  13. Using VAAST to Identify an X-Linked Disorder Resulting in Lethality in Male Infants Due to N-Terminal Acetyltransferase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rope, Alan F.; Wang, Kai; Evjenth, Rune; Xing, Jinchuan; Johnston, Jennifer J.; Swensen, Jeffrey J.; Johnson, W. Evan; Moore, Barry; Huff, Chad D.; Bird, Lynne M.; Carey, John C.; Opitz, John M.; Stevens, Cathy A.; Jiang, Tao; Schank, Christa; Fain, Heidi Deborah; Robison, Reid; Dalley, Brian; Chin, Steven; South, Sarah T.; Pysher, Theodore J.; Jorde, Lynn B.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Lillehaug, Johan R.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Yandell, Mark; Arnesen, Thomas; Lyon, Gholson J.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified two families with a previously undescribed lethal X-linked disorder of infancy; the disorder comprises a distinct combination of an aged appearance, craniofacial anomalies, hypotonia, global developmental delays, cryptorchidism, and cardiac arrhythmias. Using X chromosome exon sequencing and a recently developed probabilistic algorithm aimed at discovering disease-causing variants, we identified in one family a c.109T>C (p.Ser37Pro) variant in NAA10, a gene encoding the catalytic subunit of the major human N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT). A parallel effort on a second unrelated family converged on the same variant. The absence of this variant in controls, the amino acid conservation of this region of the protein, the predicted disruptive change, and the co-occurrence in two unrelated families with the same rare disorder suggest that this is the pathogenic mutation. We confirmed this by demonstrating a significantly impaired biochemical activity of the mutant hNaa10p, and from this we conclude that a reduction in acetylation by hNaa10p causes this disease. Here we provide evidence of a human genetic disorder resulting from direct impairment of N-terminal acetylation, one of the most common protein modifications in humans. PMID:21700266

  14. The N-terminal side of the origin-binding domain of simian virus 40 large T antigen is involved in A/T untwisting.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Joo, W S; Bullock, P A; Simmons, D T

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the role of the N-terminal side of simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen's origin-binding domain in the initiation of virus DNA replication by analyzing the biochemical activities of mutants containing single point substitutions or deletions in this region. Four mutants with substitutions at residues between 121 and 135 were partially defective in untwisting the A/T-rich track on the late side of the origin but were normal in melting the imperfect palindrome (IP) region on the early side. Deletion of the N-terminal 109 amino acids had no effect on either activity, whereas a longer deletion, up to residue 123, greatly reduced A/T untwisting but not IP melting. These results indicate that the region from residue 121 to 135 is important for A/T untwisting but not for IP melting and demonstrate that these activities are separable. Two point substitution mutants (126PS and 135PL) were characterized further by testing them for origin DNA binding, origin unwinding, oligomerization, and helicase activity. These two mutants were completely defective in origin (form U(R)) unwinding but normal in the other activities. Our results demonstrate that a failure to normally untwist the A/T track is correlated with a defect in origin unwinding. Further, they indicate that some mutants with substitutions in the region from residue 121 to 135 interact with origin DNA incorrectly, perhaps by failing to make appropriate contacts with the A/T-rich DNA. PMID:9343233

  15. Design, synthesis and biological activity of new neurohypophyseal hormones analogues conformationally restricted in the N-terminal part of the molecule. Highly potent OT receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Anna; Ptach, Monika; Borovičková, Lenka; Slaninová, Jiřina; Lammek, Bernard; Prahl, Adam

    2012-08-01

    In this study we present the synthesis and some pharmacological properties of fourteen new analogues of neurohypophyseal hormones conformationally restricted in the N-terminal part of the molecule. All new peptides were substituted at position 2 with cis-1-amino-4-phenylcyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid (cis-Apc). Moreover, one of the new analogues: [cis-Apc(2), Val(4)]AVP was also prepared in N-acylated forms with various bulky acyl groups. All the peptides were tested for pressor, antidiuretic, and in vitro uterotonic activities. We also determined the binding affinity of the selected compounds to human OT receptor. Our results showed that introduction of cis -Apc(2) in position 2 of either AVP or OT resulted in analogues with high antioxytocin potency. Two of the new compounds, [Mpa(1),cis-Apc(2)]AVP and [Mpa(1),cis-Apc(2),Val(4)]AVP, were exceptionally potent antiuterotonic agents (pA(2) = 8.46 and 8.40, respectively) and exhibited higher affinities for the human OT receptor than Atosiban (K (i) values 5.4 and 9.1 nM). Moreover, we have demonstrated for the first time that N -terminal acylation of AVP analogue can improve its selectivity. Using this approach, we obtained compound Aba[cis-Apc(2),Val(4)]AVP (XI) which turned out to be a moderately potent and exceptionally selective OT antagonist (pA(2) = 7.26). PMID:22038179

  16. Nuclear import of influenza B virus nucleoprotein: Involvement of an N-terminal nuclear localization signal and a cleavage-protection motif

    SciTech Connect

    Wanitchang, Asawin; Narkpuk, Jaraspim; Jongkaewwattana, Anan

    2013-08-15

    The nucleoprotein of influenza B virus (BNP) shares several characteristics with its influenza A virus counterpart (ANP), including localization in the host's nucleus. However, while the nuclear localization signal(s) (NLS) of ANP are well characterized, little is known about those of BNP. In this study, we showed that the fusion protein bearing the BNP N-terminus fused with GFP (N70–GFP) is exclusively nuclear, and identified a highly conserved KRXR motif spanning residues 44–47 as a putative NLS. In addition, we demonstrated that residues 3–15 of BNP, though not an NLS, are also crucial for nuclear import. Results from mutational analyses of N70–GFP and the full-length BNP suggest that this region may be required for protection of the N-terminus from proteolytic cleavage. Altogether, we propose that the N-terminal region of BNP contains the NLS and cleavage-protection motif, which together drive its nuclear localization. - Highlights: • The N-terminal region of BNP is required for nuclear accumulation. • The conserved motif at position 44–47 is a putative nuclear localization signal. • The first 15 amino acids of BNP may function as a cleavage-protection motif. • BNP may get access to the nucleus via a mechanism distinct from ANP.

  17. N-terminal guanidinylation of TIPP (Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe) peptides results in major changes of the opioid activity profile.

    PubMed

    Weltrowska, Grazyna; Nguyen, Thi M-D; Chung, Nga N; Wilkes, Brian C; Schiller, Peter W

    2013-09-15

    Derivatives of peptides of the TIPP (Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe; Tic=1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) family containing a guanidino (Guan) function in place of the N-terminal amino group were synthesized in an effort to improve their blood-brain barrier permeability. Unexpectedly, N-terminal amidination significantly altered the in vitro opioid activity profiles. Guan-analogues of TIPP-related δ opioid antagonists showed δ partial agonist or mixed δ partial agonist/μ partial agonist activity. Guanidinylation of the mixed μ agonist/δ antagonists H-Dmt-Tic-Phe-Phe-NH2 (DIPP-NH2) and H-Dmt-TicΨ[CH2NH]Phe-Phe-NH2 (DIPP-NH2[Ψ]) converted them to mixed μ agonist/δ agonists. A docking study revealed distinct positioning of DIPP-NH2 and Guan-DIPP-NH2 in the δ receptor binding site. Lys(3)-analogues of DIPP-NH2 and DIPP-NH2[Ψ] (guanidinylated or non-guanidinylated) turned out to be mixed μ/κ agonists with δ antagonist-, δ partial agonist- or δ full agonist activity. Compounds with some of the observed mixed opioid activity profiles have therapeutic potential as analgesics with reduced side effects or for treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:23932788

  18. Analysis of the N-terminal region of human MLKL, as well as two distinct MLKL isoforms, reveals new insights into necroptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Arnež, Katja Hrovat; Kindlova, Michaela; Bokil, Nilesh J.; Murphy, James M.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Gunčar, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) is an essential effector of necroptotic cell death. Two distinct human MLKL isoforms have previously been reported, but their capacities to trigger cell death have not been compared directly. Herein, we examine these two MLKL isoforms, and further probe the features of the human MLKL N-terminal domain that are required for cell death. Expression in HEK293T cells of the N-terminal 201 amino acids (aa) of human MLKL is sufficient to cause cell death, whereas expression of the first 154 aa is not. Given that aa 1–125 are able to initiate necroptosis, our findings indicate that the helix that follows this region restrains necroptotic activity, which is again restored in longer constructs. Furthermore, MLKL isoform 2 (MLKL2), which lacks much of the regulatory pseudokinase domain, is a much more potent inducer of cell death than MLKL isoform 1 (MLKL1) in ectopic expression studies in HEK293T cells. Modelling predicts that a C-terminal helix constrains the activity of MLKL1, but not MLKL2. Although both isoforms are expressed by human monocyte-derived macrophages at the mRNA level, MLKL2 is expressed at much lower levels. We propose that it may have a regulatory role in controlling macrophage survival, either in the steady state or in response to specific stimuli. PMID:26704887

  19. Dual Role of Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activity in Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Mediated Drosophila Ventral Head Development.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Yeon; Stultz, Brian G; Hursh, Deborah A

    2015-12-01

    The Drosophila bone morphogenetic protein encoded by decapentaplegic (dpp) controls ventral head morphogenesis by expression in the head primordia, eye-antennal imaginal discs. These are epithelial sacs made of two layers: columnar disc proper cells and squamous cells of the peripodial epithelium. dpp expression related to head formation occurs in the peripodial epithelium; cis-regulatory mutations disrupting this expression display defects in sensory vibrissae, rostral membrane, gena, and maxillary palps. Here we document that disruption of this dpp expression causes apoptosis in peripodial cells and underlying disc proper cells. We further show that peripodial Dpp acts directly on the disc proper, indicating that Dpp must cross the disc lumen to act. We demonstrate that palp defects are mechanistically separable from the other mutant phenotypes; both are affected by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway but in opposite ways. Slight reduction of both Jun N-terminal kinase and Dpp activity in peripodial cells causes stronger vibrissae, rostral membrane, and gena defects than Dpp alone; additionally, strong reduction of Jun N-terminal kinase activity alone causes identical defects. A more severe reduction of dpp results in similar vibrissae, rostral membrane, and gena defects, but also causes mutant maxillary palps. This latter defect is correlated with increased peripodial Jun N-terminal kinase activity and can be caused solely by ectopic activation of Jun N-terminal kinase. We conclude that formation of sensory vibrissae, rostral membrane, and gena tissue in head morphogenesis requires the action of Jun N-terminal kinase in peripodial cells, while excessive Jun N-terminal kinase signaling in these same cells inhibits the formation of maxillary palps. PMID:26500262

  20. Human TRPA1 is intrinsically cold- and chemosensitive with and without its N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain

    PubMed Central

    Moparthi, Lavanya; Survery, Sabeen; Kreir, Mohamed; Simonsen, Charlotte; Kjellbom, Per; Högestätt, Edward D.; Johanson, Urban; Zygmunt, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    We have purified and reconstituted human transient receptor potential (TRP) subtype A1 (hTRPA1) into lipid bilayers and recorded single-channel currents to understand its inherent thermo- and chemosensory properties as well as the role of the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) of the N terminus in channel behavior. We report that hTRPA1 with and without its N-terminal ARD (Δ1–688 hTRPA1) is intrinsically cold-sensitive, and thus, cold-sensing properties of hTRPA1 reside outside the N-terminal ARD. We show activation of hTRPA1 by the thiol oxidant 2-((biotinoyl)amino)ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSEA-biotin) and that electrophilic compounds activate hTRPA1 in the presence and absence of the N-terminal ARD. The nonelectrophilic compounds menthol and the cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabiorcol (C16) directly activate hTRPA1 at different sites independent of the N-terminal ARD. The TRPA1 antagonist HC030031 inhibited cold and chemical activation of hTRPA1 and Δ1–688 hTRPA1, supporting a direct interaction with hTRPA1 outside the N-terminal ARD. These findings show that hTRPA1 is an intrinsically cold- and chemosensitive ion channel. Thus, second messengers, including Ca2+, or accessory proteins are not needed for hTRPA1 responses to cold or chemical activators. We suggest that conformational changes outside the N-terminal ARD by cold, electrophiles, and nonelectrophiles are important in hTRPA1 channel gating and that targeting chemical interaction sites outside the N-terminal ARD provides possibilities to fine tune TRPA1-based drug therapies (e.g., for treatment of pain associated with cold hypersensitivity and cardiovascular disease). PMID:25389312

  1. Truncated N-terminal mutants of SV40 large T antigen as minimal immortalizing agents for CNS cells

    PubMed Central

    Freed, William J.; Zhang, Peisu; Sanchez, Joseph F.; Dillon-Carter, Ora; Coggiano, Mark; Errico, Stacie L.; Lewis, Brian D.; Truckenmiller, Mary Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Immortalized central nervous system (CNS) cell lines are useful as in vitro models for innumerable purposes such as elucidating biochemical pathways, studies of effects of drugs, and ultimately, such cells may also be useful for neural transplantation. The SV40 large T (LT) oncoprotein, commonly used for immortalization, interacts with several cell cycle regulatory factors, including binding and inactivating p53 and retinoblastoma family cell-cycle regulators. In an attempt to define the minimal requirements of SV40 T antigen for immortalizing cells of CNS origin, we constructed T155c, encoding the N-terminal 155 amino acids of LT. The p53 binding region is known to reside in the C-terminal region of LT. An additional series of mutants was produced to further narrow the molecular targets for immortalization, and plasmid vectors were constructed for each. In a p53 temperature sensitive cell line model, T64-7B, expression of T155c and all constructs having mutations outside of the first 82 amino acids were capable of overriding cell-cycle block at the non-permissive growth temperature. Several cell lines were produced from fetal rat mesencephalic and cerebral cortical cultures using the T155c construct. The E107K construct contained a mutation in the Rb binding region, but was nonetheless capable of overcoming cell cycle block in T64-7B cell and immortalizing primary cultured cells. Cells immortalized with T155c were often highly dependent on the presence of bFGF for growth. Telomerase activity, telomere length, growth rates, and integrity of the p53 gene in cells immortalized with T155c did not change over 100 population doublings in culture, indicating that cells immortalized with T155c were generally stable during long periods of continuous culture. PMID:15629761

  2. Activation of c-Jun transcription factor by substitution of a charged residue in its N-terminal domain.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeffler, W K; Levinson, A D; Bauer, E A

    1994-01-01

    C-Jun is a cellular transcription factor that can control gene expression in response to treatment of cells with phorbol esters, growth factors, and expression of some oncogenes. The ability of c-Jun to catalyze the transcription of certain genes is controlled, in part, by changes in the phosphorylation state of specific amino acids in c-Jun. One of the major sites that is phosphorylated during signal response is Ser73. Here we show that substitution of a negatively charged aspartic acid residue at 73 constitutively increased transcriptional activity of c-Jun. The Asp73 substitution also enhanced its availability to bind to DNA in a whole cell extract without altering its intrinsic DNA binding activity since the intrinsic activity was unaltered for the c-Jun mutant proteins expressed in a bacterial system. The negatively charged Asp substitution may mimic the negative charge of a phosphorylated serine at 73. The substitution of an uncharged alanine at 73 resulted in lowered activities. The N-terminal end of c-Jun containing these substitutions was fused to the DNA-binding region of the bovine papilloma virus E2 protein, and was able to confer the same activation properties to the fusion protein at the heterologous E2 DNA-binding site. Ser73 lies in a region of c-Jun previously proposed to bind an uncharacterized inhibitor, perhaps related to a protein of approximately 17.5 kD that coprecipitates along with our c-Jun or the JunE2 fusion products. Images PMID:8165146

  3. Hereditary angioedema in a Jordanian family with a novel missense mutation in the C1-inhibitor N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Saied A; Caccia, Sonia; Rawashdeh, Rifaat; Melhem, Motasem; Al-Hawamdeh, Ali; Carzaniga, Thomas; Haddad, Hazem

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the SERPING1 gene. A Jordanian family, including 14 individuals with C1-INH-HAE clinical symptoms, was studied. In the propositus and his parents, SERPING1 had four mutations leading to amino acid substitutions. Two are known polymorphic variants (c.167T>C; p.Val34Ala and c.1438G>A; p.Val458Met), the others are newly described. One (c.203C>T; p.Thr46Ile) is located in the N-terminal domain of the C1-inhibitor protein and segregates with angioedema symptoms in the family. The other (c.800C>T; p.Ala245Val) belongs to the serpin domain, and derives from the unaffected father. DNA from additional 24 family members were screened for c.203C>T mutation in the target gene. All individuals heterozygous for the c.203C>T mutation had antigenic and functional plasma levels of C1-inhibitor below 50% of normal, confirming the diagnosis of type I C1-INH-HAE. Angioedema symptoms were present in 14 of 16 subjects carrier for the c.203T allele. Among these subjects, those carrying the c.800T variation had more severe and frequent symptoms than subjects without this mutation. This family-based study provides the first evidence that multiple amino acid substitutions in SERPING1 could influence C1-INH-HAE phenotype. PMID:26895475

  4. The N-terminal fingers of chicken GATA-2 and GATA-3 are independent sequence-specific DNA binding domains.

    PubMed

    Pedone, P V; Omichinski, J G; Nony, P; Trainor, C; Gronenborn, A M; Clore, G M; Felsenfeld, G

    1997-05-15

    The GATA family of vertebrate DNA binding regulatory proteins are expressed in diverse tissues and at different times of development. However, the DNA binding regions of these proteins possess considerable homology and recognize a rather similar range of DNA sequence motifs. DNA binding is mediated through two domains, each containing a zinc finger. Previous results have led to the conclusion that although in some cases the N-terminal finger can contribute to specificity and strength of binding, it does not bind independently, whereas the C-terminal finger is both necessary and sufficient for binding. Here we show that although this is true for the N-terminal finger of GATA-1, those of GATA-2 and GATA-3 are capable of strong independent binding with a preference for the motif GATC. Binding requires the presence of two basic regions located on either side of the N-terminal finger. The absence of one of these near the GATA-1 N-terminal finger probably accounts for its inability to bind. The combination of a single finger and two basic regions is a new variant of a motif that has been previously found in the binding domains of other finger proteins. Our results suggest that the DNA binding properties of the N-terminal finger may help distinguish GATA-2 and GATA-3 from GATA-1 and the other GATA family members in their selective regulatory roles in vivo. PMID:9184231

  5. Thermodynamic Characterization of Binding Oxytricha nova Single Strand Telomere DNA with the Alpha Protein N-terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Buczek, Pawel; Horvath, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    The Oxytricha nova telomere binding protein alpha subunit binds single strand DNA and participates in a nucleoprotein complex that protects the very ends of chromosomes. To understand how the N-terminal, DNA binding domain of alpha interacts with DNA we measured the stoichiometry, enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), and dissociation constant (KD-DNA) for binding telomere DNA fragments at different temperatures and salt concentrations using native gel electrophoresis and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). About 85% of the total free energy of binding corresponded with non-electrostatic interactions for all DNAs. Telomere DNA fragments d(T2G4), d(T4G4), d(G3T4G4), and d(G4T4G4) each formed monovalent protein complexes. In the case of d(T4G4T4G4), which has two tandemly repeated d(TTTTTGGGG) telomere motifs, two binding sites were observed. The high-affinity “A site” has a dissociation constant, KD-DNA(A)=13(±4) nM, while the low-affinity “B site” is characterized by KD-DNA(B)=5600(±600) nM at 25 °C. Nucleotide substitution variants verified that the A site corresponds principally with the 3′-terminal portion of d(T4G4T4G4). The relative contributions of entropy (ΔS) and enthalpy (ΔH) for binding reactions were DNA length-dependent as was heat capacity (ΔCp). These trends with respect to DNA length likely reflect structural transitions in the DNA molecule that are coupled with DNA–protein association. Results presented here are important for understanding early intermediates and subsequent stages in the assembly of the full telomere nucleoprotein complex and how binding events can prepare the telomere DNA for extension by telomerase, a critical event in telomere biology. PMID:16678852

  6. Analysis of human follistatin structure: identification of two discontinuous N-terminal sequences coding for activin A binding and structural consequences of activin binding to native proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Keutmann, H T; Schneyer, A L; Sluss, P M

    2000-09-01

    A primary physiological function of follistatin is the binding and neutralization of activin, a transforming growth factor-beta family growth factor, and loss of function mutations are lethal. Despite the critical biological importance of follistatin's neutralization of activin, the structural basis of activin's binding to follistatin is poorly understood. The purposes of these studies were 1) to identify the primary sequence(s) within the N-terminal domain of the follistatin coding for activin binding, and 2) to determine whether activin binding to the native protein causes changes in other structural domains of follistatin. Synthetic peptide mimotopes identified within a 63-residue N-terminal domain two discontinuous sequences capable of binding labeled activin A. The first is located in a region (amino acids 3-26) of follistatin, a site previously identified by directed mutagenesis as important for activin binding. The second epitope, predicted to be located between amino acids 46 and 59, is newly identified. Although the sequences 3-26 and 46-59 code for activin binding, native follistatin only binds activin if disulfide bonding is intact. Furthermore, pyridylethylation of Cys residues followed by N-terminal sequencing and amino acid analysis revealed that all of the Cys residues in follistatin are involved in disulfide bonds and lack reactive free sulfhydryl groups. Specific ligands were used to probe the structural effects of activin binding on the other domains of the full-length molecule, comprised largely of the three 10-Cys follistatin module domains. No effects on ligand binding to follistatin-like module I or II were observed after the binding of activin A to native protein. In contrast, activin binding diminished recognition of domain III and enhanced that of the C domain by their respective monoclonal antibody probes, indicating an alteration of the antigenic structures of these regions. Thus, subsequent to activin binding, interactions are likely to

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and crystallographic analysis of the N-terminal domain of translocated intimin receptor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing Yang; Gu, Jiang; Zhang, Yan Fang; Zhou, Jun Jun; Song, Xiao Yong; Lin, Yi; Li, Xin Min; Li, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Translocated intimin receptor (Tir) is an Escherichia coli-encoded protein that is transported into the host cell through a sophisticated bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS). Tir anchors the infected cell membrane twice using both its N- and C-termini from inside the host cytoplasm for signalling. It plays a key role in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection, attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions and intracellular signal transduction. Here, the overexpression, purification and crystallization of its N-terminal intracellular domain are reported. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group I4122, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 59.79, c = 183.11 Å. The asymmetric unit contained one molecule, with a solvent content of 51% and a VM of 2.55 Å(3) Da(-1). PMID:26750484

  8. Oxidation State of the XRCC1 N-terminal Domain Regulates DNA Polymerase Beta Binding Affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, M.; London, R

    2010-01-01

    Formation of a complex between the XRCC1 N-terminal domain (NTD) and DNA polymerase {beta} (Pol {beta}) is central to base excision repair of damaged DNA. Two crystal forms of XRCC1-NTD complexed with Pol {beta} have been solved, revealing that the XRCC1-NTD is able to adopt a redox-dependent alternate fold, characterized by a disulfide bond, and substantial variations of secondary structure, folding topology, and electrostatic surface. Although most of these structural changes occur distal to the interface, the oxidized XRCC1-NTD forms additional interactions with Pol {beta}, enhancing affinity by an order of magnitude. Transient disulfide bond formation is increasingly recognized as an important molecular regulatory mechanism. The results presented here suggest a paradigm in DNA repair in which the redox state of a scaffolding protein plays an active role in organizing the repair complex.

  9. Structure of the N-terminal fragment of topoisomerase V reveals a new family of topoisomerases

    SciTech Connect

    Taneja, Bhupesh; Patel, Asmita; Slesarev, Alexei; Mondragon, Alfonso

    2010-09-02

    Topoisomerases are involved in controlling and maintaining the topology of DNA and are present in all kingdoms of life. Unlike all other types of topoisomerases, similar type IB enzymes have only been identified in bacteria and eukarya. The only putative type IB topoisomerase in archaea is represented by Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V. Despite several common functional characteristics, topoisomerase V shows no sequence similarity to other members of the same type. The structure of the 61 kDa N-terminal fragment of topoisomerase V reveals no structural similarity to other topoisomerases. Furthermore, the structure of the active site region is different, suggesting no conservation in the cleavage and religation mechanism. Additionally, the active site is buried, indicating the need of a conformational change for activity. The presence of a topoisomerase in archaea with a unique structure suggests the evolution of a separate mechanism to alter DNA.

  10. Membrane effects of N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I: a fluorescent probe study.

    PubMed

    Trusova, Valeriya; Gorbenko, Galyna; Girych, Mykhailo; Adachi, Emi; Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Sood, Rohit; Kinnunen, Paavo; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The binding of monomeric and aggregated variants of 1-83 N-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I with substitution mutations G26R, G26R/W@8, G26R/W@50 and G26R/W@72 to the model lipid membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and its mixture with cholesterol has been investigated using fluorescent probes pyrene and Laurdan. Examination of pyrene spectral behavior did not reveal any marked influence of apoA-I mutants on the hydrocarbon region of lipid bilayer. In contrast, probing the membrane effects by Laurdan revealed decrease in the probe generalized polarization in the presence of aggregated proteins. suggesting that oligomeric and fibrillar apoA-I species induce increase in hydration degree and reduction of lipid packing density in the membrane interfacial region. These findings may shed light on molecular details of amyloid cytotoxicity. PMID:25595057

  11. Chloride transporter KCC2-dependent neuroprotection depends on the N-terminal protein domain

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, A; Semtner, M; Meier, J C

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is a serious issue of neurodegenerative diseases including epilepsy. Downregulation of the chloride transporter KCC2 in the epileptic tissue may not only affect regulation of the polarity of GABAergic synaptic transmission but also neuronal survival. Here, we addressed the mechanisms of KCC2-dependent neuroprotection by assessing truncated and mutated KCC2 variants in different neurotoxicity models. The results identify a threonine- and tyrosine-phosphorylation-resistant KCC2 variant with increased chloride transport activity, but they also identify the KCC2 N-terminal domain (NTD) as the relevant minimal KCC2 protein domain that is sufficient for neuroprotection. As ectopic expression of the KCC2-NTD works independently of full-length KCC2-dependent regulation of Cl− transport or structural KCC2 C-terminus-dependent regulation of synaptogenesis, our study may pave the way for a selective neuroprotective therapeutic strategy that will be applicable to a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26043076

  12. Chloride transporter KCC2-dependent neuroprotection depends on the N-terminal protein domain.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, A; Semtner, M; Meier, J C

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is a serious issue of neurodegenerative diseases including epilepsy. Downregulation of the chloride transporter KCC2 in the epileptic tissue may not only affect regulation of the polarity of GABAergic synaptic transmission but also neuronal survival. Here, we addressed the mechanisms of KCC2-dependent neuroprotection by assessing truncated and mutated KCC2 variants in different neurotoxicity models. The results identify a threonine- and tyrosine-phosphorylation-resistant KCC2 variant with increased chloride transport activity, but they also identify the KCC2 N-terminal domain (NTD) as the relevant minimal KCC2 protein domain that is sufficient for neuroprotection. As ectopic expression of the KCC2-NTD works independently of full-length KCC2-dependent regulation of Cl(-) transport or structural KCC2 C-terminus-dependent regulation of synaptogenesis, our study may pave the way for a selective neuroprotective therapeutic strategy that will be applicable to a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26043076

  13. Site-Specific N-Terminal Labeling of Peptides and Proteins using Butelase 1 and Thiodepsipeptide.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Giang K T; Cao, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Chuan Fa; Tam, James P

    2015-12-21

    An efficient ligase with exquisite site-specificity is highly desirable for protein modification. Recently, we discovered the fastest known ligase called butelase 1 from Clitoria ternatea for intramolecular cyclization. For intermolecular ligation, butelase 1 requires an excess amount of a substrate to suppress the reverse reaction, a feature similar to other ligases. Herein, we describe the use of thiodepsipeptide substrates with a thiol as a leaving group and an unacceptable nucleophile to render the butelase-mediated ligation reactions irreversible and in high yields. Butelase 1 also accepted depsipeptides as substrates, but unlike a thiodesipeptide, the desipeptide ligation was partially reversible as butelase 1 can tolerate an alcohol group as a poor nucleophile. The thiodesipeptide method was successfully applied in N-terminal labeling of ubiquitin and green fluorescent protein using substrates with or without a biotin group in high yields. PMID:26563575

  14. Cyclic N-Terminal Loop of Amylin Forms Non Amyloid Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Stephanie M.; Shinde, Sandip; Best, Robert B.; Ghirlanda, Giovanna; Vaiana, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    We report for the first time, to our knowledge, that the N-terminal loop (N_loop) of amylin (islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) residues 1–8) forms extremely long and stable non-β-sheet fibers in solution under the same conditions in which human amylin (hIAPP) forms amyloid fibers. This observation applies to the cyclic, oxidized form of the N_loop but not to the linear, reduced form, which does not form fibers. Our findings indicate a potential role of direct N_loop-N_loop interactions in hIAPP aggregation, which has not been previously explored, with important implications for the mechanism of hIAPP amyloid fiber formation, the inhibitory action of IAPP variants, and the competition between ordered and disordered aggregation in peptides of the calcitonin peptide family. PMID:24094407

  15. 60 YEARS OF POMC: N-terminal POMC peptides and adrenal growth.

    PubMed

    Bicknell, Andrew B

    2016-05-01

    The peptide hormones contained within the sequence of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have diverse roles ranging from pigmentation to regulation of adrenal function to control of our appetite. It is generally acknowledged to be the archetypal hormone precursor, and as its biology has been unravelled, so too have many of the basic principles of hormone biosynthesis and processing. This short review focuses on one group of its peptide products, namely, those derived from the N-terminal of POMC and their role in the regulation of adrenal growth. From a historical and a personal perspective, it describes how their role in regulating proliferation of the adrenal cortex was identified and also highlights the key questions that remain to be answered. PMID:26759392

  16. Molecular basis for histone N-terminal methylation by NRMT1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ruoxi; Yue, Yuan; Zheng, Xiangdong; Li, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    NRMT1 is an N-terminal methyltransferase that methylates histone CENP-A as well as nonhistone substrates. Here, we report the crystal structure of human NRMT1 bound to CENP-A peptide at 1.3 Å. NRMT1 adopts a core methyltransferase fold that resembles DOT1L and PRMT but not SET domain family histone methyltransferases. Key substrate recognition and catalytic residues were identified by mutagenesis studies. Histone peptide profiling revealed that human NRMT1 is highly selective to human CENP-A and fruit fly H2B, which share a common “Xaa-Pro–Lys/Arg” motif. These results, along with a 1.5 Å costructure of human NRMT1 bound to the fruit fly H2B peptide, underscore the importance of the NRMT1 recognition motif. PMID:26543159

  17. Presynaptic c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 2 regulates NMDA receptor-dependent glutamate release

    PubMed Central

    Nisticò, Robert; Florenzano, Fulvio; Mango, Dalila; Ferraina, Caterina; Grilli, Massimo; Di Prisco, Silvia; Nobili, Annalisa; Saccucci, Stefania; D'Amelio, Marcello; Morbin, Michela; Marchi, Mario; Mercuri, Nicola B.; Davis, Roger J.; Pittaluga, Anna; Feligioni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is a critical step for neuronal death occurring in several neurological conditions. JNKs can be activated via receptor tyrosine kinases, cytokine receptors, G-protein coupled receptors and ligand-gated ion channels, including the NMDA glutamate receptors. While JNK has been generally associated with postsynaptic NMDA receptors, its presynaptic role remains largely unexplored. Here, by means of biochemical, morphological and functional approaches, we demonstrate that JNK and its scaffold protein JIP1 are also expressed at the presynaptic level and that the NMDA-evoked glutamate release is controlled by presynaptic JNK-JIP1 interaction. Moreover, using knockout mice for single JNK isoforms, we proved that JNK2 is the essential isoform in mediating this presynaptic event. Overall the present findings unveil a novel JNK2 localization and function, which is likely to play a role in different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25762148

  18. Neutron Reflectometry Studies Define Prion Protein N-terminal Peptide Membrane Binding

    PubMed Central

    Le Brun, Anton P.; Haigh, Cathryn L.; Drew, Simon C.; James, Michael; Boland, Martin P.; Collins, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP), widely recognized to misfold into the causative agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, has previously been shown to bind to lipid membranes with binding influenced by both membrane composition and pH. Aside from the misfolding events associated with prion pathogenesis, PrP can undergo various posttranslational modifications, including internal cleavage events. Alpha- and beta-cleavage of PrP produces two N-terminal fragments, N1 and N2, respectively, which interact specifically with negatively charged phospholipids at low pH. Our previous work probing N1 and N2 interactions with supported bilayers raised the possibility that the peptides could insert deeply with minimal disruption. In the current study we aimed to refine the binding parameters of these peptides with lipid bilayers. To this end, we used neutron reflectometry to define the structural details of this interaction in combination with quartz crystal microbalance interrogation. Neutron reflectometry confirmed that peptides equivalent to N1 and N2 insert into the interstitial space between the phospholipid headgroups but do not penetrate into the acyl tail region. In accord with our previous studies, interaction was stronger for the N1 fragment than for the N2, with more peptide bound per lipid. Neutron reflectometry analysis also detected lengthening of the lipid acyl tails, with a concurrent decrease in lipid area. This was most evident for the N1 peptide and suggests an induction of increased lipid order in the absence of phase transition. These observations stand in clear contrast to the findings of analogous studies of Ab and α-synuclein and thereby support the possibility of a functional role for such N-terminal fragment-membrane interactions. PMID:25418300

  19. Role of the N-Terminal Seven Residues of Surfactant Protein B (SP-B)

    PubMed Central

    Sharifahmadian, Mahzad; Sarker, Muzaddid; Palleboina, Dharamaraju; Waring, Alan J.; Walther, Frans J.; Morrow, Michael R.; Booth, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Breathing is enabled by lung surfactant, a mixture of proteins and lipids that forms a surface-active layer and reduces surface tension at the air-water interface in lungs. Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential component of lung surfactant. In this study we probe the mechanism underlying the important functional contributions made by the N-terminal 7 residues of SP-B, a region sometimes called the “insertion sequence”. These studies employed a construct of SP-B, SP-B (1–25,63–78), also called Super Mini-B, which is a 41-residue peptide with internal disulfide bonds comprising the N-terminal 7-residue insertion sequence and the N- and C-terminal helices of SP-B. Circular dichroism, solution NMR, and solid state 2H NMR were used to study the structure of SP-B (1–25,63–78) and its interactions with phospholipid bilayers. Comparison of results for SP-B (8–25,63–78) and SP-B (1–25,63–78) demonstrates that the presence of the 7-residue insertion sequence induces substantial disorder near the centre of the lipid bilayer, but without a major disruption of the overall mechanical orientation of the bilayers. This observation suggests the insertion sequence is unlikely to penetrate deeply into the bilayer. The 7-residue insertion sequence substantially increases the solution NMR linewidths, most likely due to an increase in global dynamics. PMID:24023779

  20. N-terminal tagging of the dopamine transporter impairs protein expression and trafficking in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, Laura M.; Bermejo, M. Kristel; Beerepoot, Pieter; Ramsey, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is the primary protein responsible for the uptake of dopamine from the extracellular space back into presynaptic neurons. As such, it plays an important role in the cessation of dopaminergic neurotransmission and in the maintenance of extracellular dopamine homeostasis. Here, we report the development of a new BAC transgenic mouse line that expresses DAT with an N-terminal HA-epitope (HAD-Tg). In this line, two copies of the HA-DAT BAC are incorporated into the genome, increasing DAT mRNA levels by 47%. Despite the increase in mRNA levels, HAD-Tg mice show no significant increase in the level of DAT protein in the striatum, indicating a defect in protein trafficking or stability. By crossing HAD-Tg mice with DAT knockout mice (DAT-KO), we engineered mice that exclusively express HA-tagged DAT in the absence of endogenous DAT (DAT-KO/HAD-Tg). We show that DAT-KO/HAD-Tg mice express only 8.5% of WT DAT levels in the striatum. Importantly, the HA-tagged DAT that is present in DAT-KO/HAD-Tg mice is functional, as it is able to partially rescue the DAT-KO hyperactive phenotype. Finally, we provide evidence that the HA-tagged DAT is retained in the cell body based on a reduction in the striatum:midbrain protein ratio. These results demonstrate that the presence of the N-terminal tag leads to impaired DAT protein expression in vivo due in part to improper trafficking of the tagged transporter, and highlight the importance of the N-terminus in the transport of DAT to striatal terminals. PMID:24886986

  1. N-Terminal Enrichment: Developing a Protocol to Detect Specific Proteolytic Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhang, Qibin; Petritis, Brianne O.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Proteolytic processing events are essential to physiological processes such as reproduction, development, and host responses, as well as regulating proteins in cancer; therefore, there is a significant need to develop robust approaches for characterizing such events. The current mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics techniques employs a “bottom-up” strategy, which does not allow for identification of different proteolytic proteins since the strategy measures all the small peptides from any given protein. The aim of this development is to enable the effective identification of specific proteolytic fragments. The protocol utilizes an acetylation reaction to block the N-termini of a protein, as well as any lysine residues. Following digestion, N-terminal peptides are enriched by removing peptides that contain free amines, using amine-reactive silica-bond succinic anhydride beads. The resulting enriched sample has one N-terminal peptide per protein, which reduces sample complexity and allows for increased analytical sensitivity compared to global proteomics.1 We initially compared the peptide identification and efficiency of blocking lysine using acetic anhydride (a 42 Da modification) or propionic anhydride (a 56 Da modification) in our protocol. Both chemical reactions resulted in comparable peptide identifications and ∼95 percent efficiency for blocking lysine residues. However, the use of propionic anhydride allowed us to distinguish in vivo acetylated peptides from chemically-tagged peptides.2 In an initial experiment using mouse plasma, we were able to identify >300 unique N-termini peptides, as well as many known cleavage sites. This protocol holds potential for uncovering new information related to proteolytic pathways, which will assist our understanding about cancer biology and efforts to identify potential biomarkers for various diseases. PMID:19949699

  2. Crystal Structure of the N-terminal Domain of the Group B Streptococcus Alpha C Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Auperin,T.; Bolduc, G.; Baron, M.; Heroux, A.; Filman, D.; Madoff, L.; Hogle, J.

    2005-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis among neonates and an important cause of morbidity among pregnant women and immunocompromised adults. Invasive diseases due to GBS are attributed to the ability of the pathogen to translocate across human epithelial surfaces. The alpha C protein (ACP) has been identified as an invasin that plays a role in internalization and translocation of GBS across epithelial cells. The soluble N-terminal domain of ACP (NtACP) blocks the internalization of GBS. We determined the 1.86-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of NtACP comprising residues Ser{sup 52} through Leu{sup 225} of the full-length ACP. NtACP has two domains, an N-terminal {beta}-sandwich and a C-terminal three-helix bundle. Structural and topological alignments reveal that the {beta}-sandwich shares structural elements with the type III fibronectin fold (FnIII), but includes structural elaborations that make it unique. We have identified a potential integrin-binding motif consisting of Lys-Thr-Asp{sup 146}, Arg{sup 110}, and Asp{sup 118}. A similar arrangement of charged residues has been described in other invasins. ACP shows a heparin binding activity that requires NtACP. We propose a possible heparin-binding site, including one surface of the three-helix bundle, and nearby portions of the sandwich and repeat domains. We have validated this prediction using assays of the heparin binding and cell-adhesion properties of engineered fragments of ACP. This is the first crystal structure of a member of the highly conserved Gram-positive surface alpha-like protein family, and it will enable the internalization mechanism of GBS to be dissected at the atomic level.

  3. Immobilization of the N-terminal helix stabilizes prefusion paramyxovirus fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Song, Albert S; Poor, Taylor A; Abriata, Luciano A; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Lamb, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family. PIV5 fusion and entry are mediated by the coordinated action of the receptor-binding protein, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), and the fusion protein (F). Upon triggering by HN, F undergoes an irreversible ATP- and pH-independent conformational change, going down an energy gradient from a metastable prefusion state to a highly stable postfusion state. Previous studies have highlighted key conformational changes in the F-protein refolding pathway, but a detailed understanding of prefusion F-protein metastability remains elusive. Here, using two previously described F-protein mutations (S443D or P22L), we examine the capacity to modulate PIV5 F stability and the mechanisms by which these point mutants act. The S443D mutation destabilizes prefusion F proteins by disrupting a hydrogen bond network at the base of the F-protein globular head. The introduction of a P22L mutation robustly rescues destabilized F proteins through a local hydrophobic interaction between the N-terminal helix and a hydrophobic pocket. Prefusion stabilization conferred by a P22L-homologous mutation is demonstrated in the F protein of Newcastle disease virus, a paramyxovirus of a different genus, suggesting a conserved stabilizing structural element within the paramyxovirus family. Taken together, the available data suggest that movement of the N-terminal helix is a necessary early step for paramyxovirus F-protein refolding and presents a novel target for structure-based drug design. PMID:27335462

  4. PACSIN 1 forms tetramers via its N-terminal F-BAR domain.

    PubMed

    Halbach, Arndt; Mörgelin, Matthias; Baumgarten, Maria; Milbrandt, Mark; Paulsson, Mats; Plomann, Markus

    2007-02-01

    The ability of protein kinase C and casein kinase 2 substrate in neurons (PACSIN)/syndapin proteins to self-polymerize is crucial for the simultaneous interactions with more than one Src homology 3 domain-binding partner or with lipid membranes. The assembly of this network has profound effects on the neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-mediated attachment of the actin polymerization machinery to vesicle membranes as well as on the movement of the corresponding vesicles. Also, the sensing of vesicle membranes and/or the induction of membrane curvature are more easily facilitated in the presence of larger PACSIN complexes. The N-terminal Fes-CIP homology and Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (F-BAR) domains of several PACSIN-related proteins have been shown to mediate self-interactions, whereas studies using deletion mutants derived from closely related proteins led to the view that oligomerization depends on the formation of a trimeric complex via a coiled-coil region present in these molecules. To address whether the model of trimeric complex formation is applicable to PACSIN 1, the protein was recombinantly expressed and tested in four different assays for homologous interactions. The results showed that PACSIN 1 forms tetramers of about 240 kDa, with the self-interaction having a K(D) of 6.4 x 10(-8) M. Ultrastructural analysis of these oligomers after negative staining showed that laterally arranged PACSIN molecules bind to each other via a large globular domain and form a barrel-like structure. Together, these results demonstrate that the N-terminal F-BAR domain of PACSIN 1 forms the contact site for a tetrameric structure, which is able to simultaneously interact with multiple Src homology 3 binding partners. PMID:17288557

  5. N-Terminal Enrichment: Developing a Protocol to Detect Specific Proteolytic Fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhang, Qibin; Petritis, Brianne O.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-12-01

    Proteolytic processing events are essential to physiological processes such as reproduction, development, and host responses, as well as regulating proteins in cancer; therefore, there is a significant need to develop robust approaches for characterizing such events. The current mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics techniques employs a “bottom-up” strategy, which does not allow for identification of different proteolytic proteins since the strategy measures all the small peptides from any given protein. The aim of this development is to enable the effective identification of specific proteolytic fragments. The protocol utilizes an acetylation reaction to block the N-termini of a protein, as well as any lysine residues. Following digestion, N-terminal peptides are enriched by removing peptides that contain free amines, using amine-reactive silica-bond succinic anhydride beads. The resulting enriched sample has one N-terminal peptide per protein, which reduces sample complexity and allows for increased analytical sensitivity compared to global proteomics.1 We initially compared the peptide identification and efficiency of blocking lysine using acetic anhydride (a 42 Da modification) or propionic anhydride (a 56 Da modification) in our protocol. Both chemical reactions resulted in comparable peptide identifications and *95 percent efficiency for blocking lysine residues. However, the use of propionic anhydride allowed us to distinguish in vivo acetylated peptides from chemically-tagged peptides.2 In an initial experiment using mouse plasma, we were able to identify *300 unique N-termini peptides, as well as many known cleavage sites. This protocol holds potential for uncovering new information related to proteolytic pathways, which will assist our understanding about cancer biology and efforts to identify potential biomarkers for various diseases.

  6. The N-terminal region of GAP regulates cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    McGlade, J; Brunkhorst, B; Anderson, D; Mbamalu, G; Settleman, J; Dedhar, S; Rozakis-Adcock, M; Chen, L B; Pawson, T

    1993-01-01

    Ras GTPase activating protein (GAP) possesses a C-terminal domain that interacts with GTP-bound Ras, and an N-terminal region containing two SH2 domains and an SH3 domain. In addition to its association with Ras, GAP binds stably to autophosphorylated beta PDGF receptors, and to two cytoplasmic phosphoproteins: p62, an RNA binding protein, and p190, which possesses GAP activity towards small guanine nucleotide binding proteins in the Rho/Rac family. To define the region of GAP that mediates these interactions with cellular phosphoproteins, and to investigate the biological significance of these complexes, a truncated GAP polypeptide (GAP-N) containing residues 1-445 was stably expressed in Rat-2 fibroblasts. GAP-N contains the SH2 and SH3 domains, but lacks the Ras GTPase activating domain. Stimulation of cells expressing GAP-N with PDGF induced association of GAP-N with the beta PDGF receptor, and phosphorylation of GAP-N on tyrosine, consistent with the notion that GAP SH2 domains direct binding to the autophosphorylated beta PDGF receptor in vivo. GAP-N bound constitutively to p190 in both serum-deprived and growth factor-stimulated cells. This GAP-N-p190 complex had Rho GAP activity in vitro. The expression of GAP-N in Rat-2 cells correlated with changes in the cytoskeleton and in cell adhesion, typified by the disruption of action stress fibres, a reduction in focal contacts, and an impaired ability to adhere to fibronectin. These results suggest that the N-terminal domain of GAP can direct interactions with cellular phosphoproteins in vivo, and thereby exert an effector function which modulates the cytoskeleton and cell adhesion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:8344248

  7. The N-terminal domain of Npro of classical swine fever virus determines its stability and regulates type I IFN production.

    PubMed

    Mine, Junki; Tamura, Tomokazu; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Pinyochon, Wasana; Ruggli, Nicolas; Tratschin, Jon-Duri; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-01

    The viral protein Npro is unique to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. After autocatalytic cleavage from the nascent polyprotein, Npro suppresses type I IFN (IFN-α/β) induction by mediating proteasomal degradation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3). Previous studies found that the Npro-mediated IRF-3 degradation was dependent of a TRASH domain in the C-terminal half of Npro coordinating zinc by means of the amino acid residues C112, C134, D136 and C138. Interestingly, four classical swine fever virus (CSFV) isolates obtained from diseased pigs in Thailand in 1993 and 1998 did not suppress IFN-α/β induction despite the presence of an intact TRASH domain. Through systematic analyses, it was found that an amino acid mutation at position 40 or mutations at positions 17 and 61 in the N-terminal half of Npro of these four isolates were related to the lack of IRF-3-degrading activity. Restoring a histidine at position 40 or both a proline at position 17 and a lysine at position 61 based on the sequence of a functional Npro contributed to higher stability of the reconstructed Npro compared with the Npro from the Thai isolate. This led to enhanced interaction of Npro with IRF-3 along with its degradation by the proteasome. The results of the present study revealed that amino acid residues in the N-terminal domain of Npro are involved in the stability of Npro, in interaction of Npro with IRF-3 and subsequent degradation of IRF-3, leading to downregulation of IFN-α/β production. PMID:25809915

  8. Modifications in the purification protocol of Celosia cristata antiviral proteins lead to protein that can be N-terminally sequenced.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Ashraf; Kapoor, H C

    2004-12-01

    Plants antiviral proteins are being used as anticancer agents and inhibit other viral diseases in humans. We modified the purification protocol of the two N-terminally blocked antiviral glycoproteins, CCP-25 and CCP-27, purified from the leaves of Celosia cristata. This not only gave rise to single pure samples with few steps of purification but also resulted in N-terminally free proteins. The extra purity of the samples was analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. Deglycosylation studies of CCP-25 with PNGase F enzyme revealed that its asparagine or asparagine-linked glycon contents are negligible. Partial N-terminal sequence of the CCP-25 showed the sequence (ANDIS), which seems to be conserved among plant antiviral proteins. PMID:15579125

  9. Role of N-terminal region of Escherichia coli maltodextrin glucosidase in folding and function of the protein.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Ashutosh; Singh, Amit K; Shukla, Prakash K; Equbal, Md Javed; Malik, Shikha T; Singh, Tej P; Chaudhuri, Tapan K

    2016-09-01

    Maltodextrin glucosidase (MalZ) hydrolyses short malto-oligosaccharides from the reducing end releasing glucose and maltose in Escherichia coli. MalZ is a highly aggregation prone protein and molecular chaperonins GroEL and GroES assist in the folding of this protein to a substantial level. The N-terminal region of this enzyme appears to be a unique domain as seen in sequence comparison studies with other amylases as well as through homology modelling. The sequence and homology model analysis show a probability of disorder in the N-Terminal region of MalZ. The crystal structure of this enzyme has been reported in the present communication. Based on the crystallographic structure, it has been interpreted that the N-terminal region of the enzyme (Met1-Phe131) might be unstructured or flexible. To understand the role of the N-terminal region of MalZ in its enzymatic activity, and overall stability, a truncated version (Ala111-His616) of MalZ was created. The truncated version failed to fold into an active enzyme both in E. coli cytosol and in vitro even with the assistance of chaperonins GroEL and GroES. Furthermore, the refolding effort of N-truncated MalZ in the presence of isolated N-terminal domain didn't succeed. Our studies suggest that while the structural rigidity or orientation of the N-terminal region of the MalZ protein may not be essential for its stability and function, but the said domain is likely to play an important role in the formation of the native structure of the protein when present as an integral part of the protein. PMID:27317979

  10. The N-Terminal Domain of Bcl-xL Reversibly Binds Membranes in a pH-Dependent Manner†

    PubMed Central

    Thuduppathy, Guruvasuthevan R.; Terrones, Oihana; Craig, Jeffrey W.; Basañez, Gorka; Hill, R. Blake

    2006-01-01

    Bcl-xL regulates apoptosis by maintaining the integrity of the mitochondrial outer membrane by adopting both soluble and membrane-associated forms. The membrane-associated conformation does not require a conserved, C-terminal transmembrane domain and appears to be inserted into the bilayer of synthetic membranes as assessed by membrane permeabilization and critical surface pressure measurements. Membrane association is reversible and is regulated by the cooperative binding of approximately two protons to the protein. Two acidic residues, Glu153 and Asp156, that lie in a conserved hairpin of Bcl-xLΔTM appear to be important in this process on the basis of a 16% increase in the level of membrane association of the double mutant E153Q/D156N. Contrary to that for the wild type, membrane permeabilization for the mutant is not correlated with membrane association. Monolayer surface pressure measurements suggest that this effect is primarily due to less membrane penetration. These results suggest that E153 and D156 are important for the Bcl-xLΔTM conformational change and that membrane binding can be distinct from membrane permeabilization. Taken together, these studies support a model in which Bcl-xL activity is controlled by reversible insertion of its N-terminal domain into the mitochondrial outer membrane. Future studies with Bcl-xL mutants such as E153Q/D156N should allow determination of the relative contributions of membrane binding, insertion, and permeabilization to the regulation of apoptosis. PMID:17128992

  11. N-terminal mutations in the anti-estradiol Fab 57-2 modify its hapten binding properties.

    PubMed Central

    Saviranta PJauria, P.; Lamminmäki, U.; Hellman, J.; Eriksson, S.; Lövgren, T.

    2000-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies often contain N-terminal mutations arising from the use of degenerate cloning primer sets and/or the introduction of restriction sites in the framework 1 regions. We studied the effects of such mutations in a recombinant anti-estradiol Fab fragment derived from the hybridoma cell line 57-2. The 5' ends of the heavy and light chain genes were originally modified to introduce the restriction sites XhoI and SacI, respectively, for cloning purposes. However, the affinity and specificity of the recombinant Fab were lowered compared to the proteolytic Fab' fragment of the parental hybridoma IgG. Replacing the mutated sites with authentic amino acid coding sequences restored the binding properties as well as increased the bacterial production levels fivefold and 10-fold at 30 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Local changes in the antigen binding site were probed by determining the affinity constants (Kd) for estradiol and four related steroids. It was found that the mutated heavy chain amino terminus specifically increased the Kd for testosterone whereas the mutated light chain amino terminus decreased the Kd for all of the steroids to the same extent; the heavy and light chain effects were additive. Analysis of a newly determined crystal structure of the authentic Fab 57-2 in complex with estradiol suggests that mutations in the residue 2 in V(H), and 2 and 4 in the V(L) domain were those responsible for the observed effects. Their general roles as structure-determining residues for the CDR3 loops imply that similar effects can occur with other recombinant antibodies as well. PMID:11206076

  12. Role of N-terminal methionine residues in the redox activity of copper bound to alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Esaú E; Arcos-López, Trinidad; Trujano-Ortiz, Lidia G; Fernández, Claudio O; González, Felipe J; Vela, Alberto; Quintanar, Liliana

    2016-09-01

    Amyloid aggregation of α-synuclein (AS) is one of the hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. The interaction of copper ions with the N-terminal region of AS promotes its amyloid aggregation and metal-catalyzed oxidation has been proposed as a plausible mechanism. The AS(1-6) fragment represents the minimal sequence that models copper coordination to this intrinsically disordered protein. In this study, we evaluated the role of methionine residues Met1 and Met5 in Cu(II) coordination to the AS(1-6) fragment, and in the redox activity of the Cu-AS(1-6) complex. Spectroscopic and electronic structure calculations show that Met1 may play a role as an axial ligand in the Cu(II)-AS(1-6) complex, while Met5 does not participate in metal coordination. Cyclic voltammetry and reactivity studies demonstrate that Met residues play an important role in the reduction and reoxidation processes of this complex. However, Met1 plays a more important role than Met5, as substitution of Met1 by Ile decreases the reduction potential of the Cu-AS(1-6) complex by ~80 mV, causing a significant decrease in its rate of reduction. Reoxidation of the complex by oxygen results in oxidation of the Met residues to sulfoxide, being Met1 more susceptible to copper-catalyzed oxidation than Met5. The sulfoxide species can suffer elimination of methanesulfenic acid, rendering a peptide with no thioether moiety, which would impair the ability of AS to bind Cu(I) ions. Overall, our study underscores the important roles that Met1 plays in copper coordination and the reactivity of the Cu-AS complex. PMID:27422629

  13. Atomistic mechanisms of huntingtin N-terminal fragment insertion on a phospholipid bilayer revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Côté, Sébastien; Wei, Guanghong; Mousseau, Normand

    2014-07-01

    The huntingtin protein is characterized by a segment of consecutive glutamines (Q(N)) that is responsible for its fibrillation. As with other amyloid proteins, misfolding of huntingtin is related to Huntington's disease through pathways that can involve interactions with phospholipid membranes. Experimental results suggest that the N-terminal 17-amino-acid sequence (htt(NT)) positioned just before the Q(N) region is important for the binding of huntingtin to membranes. Through all-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations, we unveil the structure and dynamics of the htt(NT)Q(N) fragment on a phospholipid membrane at the atomic level. We observe that the insertion dynamics of this peptide can be described by four main steps-approach, reorganization, anchoring, and insertion-that are very diverse at the atomic level. On the membrane, the htt(NT) peptide forms a stable α-helix essentially parallel to the membrane with its nonpolar side-chains-mainly Leu-4, Leu-7, Phe-11 and Leu-14-positioned in the hydrophobic core of the membrane. Salt-bridges involving Glu-5, Glu-12, Lys-6, and Lys-15, as well as hydrogen bonds involving Thr-3 and Ser-13 with the phospholipids also stabilize the structure and orientation of the htt(NT) peptide. These observations do not significantly change upon adding the Q(N) region whose role is rather to provide, through its hydrogen bonds with the phospholipids' head group, a stable scaffold facilitating the partitioning of the htt(NT) region in the membrane. Moreover, by staying accessible to the solvent, the amyloidogenic Q(N) region could also play a key role for the oligomerization of htt(NT)Q(N) on phospholipid membranes. PMID:24415136

  14. Critical role of c-jun N-terminal protein kinase in promoting mitochondrial dysfunction and acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sehwan; Yu, Li-Rong; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Gao, Yuan; Banerjee, Atrayee; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) promotes tissue injury is poorly understood. Thus we aimed at studying the roles of JNK and its phospho-target proteins in mouse models of acute liver injury. Young male mice were exposed to a single dose of CCl4 (50 mg/kg, IP) and euthanized at different time points. Liver histology, blood alanine aminotransferase, and other enzyme activities were measured in CCl4-exposed mice without or with the highly-specific JNK inhibitors. Phosphoproteins were purified from control or CCl4-exposed mice and analyzed by differential mass-spectrometry followed by further characterizations of immunoprecipitation and activity measurements. JNK was activated within 1 h while liver damage was maximal at 24 h post-CCl4 injection. Markedly increased phosphorylation of many mitochondrial proteins was observed between 1 and 8 h following CCl4 exposure. Pretreatment with the selective JNK inhibitor SU3327 or the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mito-TEMPO markedly reduced the levels of p-JNK, mitochondrial phosphoproteins and liver damage in CCl4-exposed mice. Differential proteomic analysis identified many phosphorylated mitochondrial proteins involved in anti-oxidant defense, electron transfer, energy supply, fatty acid oxidation, etc. Aldehyde dehydrogenase, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase were phosphorylated in CCl4-exposed mice but dephosphorylated after SU3327 pretreatment. Consistently, the suppressed activities of these enzymes were restored by SU3327 pretreatment in CCl4-exposed mice. These data provide a novel mechanism by which JNK, rapidly activated by CCl4, promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and acute hepatotoxicity through robust phosphorylation of numerous mitochondrial proteins. PMID:26491845

  15. N-Terminal Domain of Feline Calicivirus (FCV) Proteinase-Polymerase Contributes to the Inhibition of Host Cell Transcription.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongxia; Zu, Shaopo; Sun, Xue; Liu, Yongxiang; Tian, Jin; Qu, Liandong

    2016-01-01

    Feline Calicivirus (FCV) infection results in the inhibition of host protein synthesis, known as "shut-off". However, the precise mechanism of shut-off remains unknown. Here, we found that the FCV strain 2280 proteinase-polymerase (PP) protein can suppress luciferase reporter gene expression driven by endogenous and exogenous promoters. Furthermore, we found that the N-terminal 263 aa of PP (PPN-263) determined its shut-off activity using the expression of truncated proteins. However, the same domain of the FCV strain F9 PP protein failed to inhibit gene expression. A comparison between strains 2280 and F9 indicated that Val27, Ala96 and Ala98 were key sites for the inhibition of host gene expression by strain 2280 PPN-263, and PPN-263 exhibited the ability to shut off host gene expression as long as it contained any two of the three amino acids. Because the N-terminus of the PP protein is required for its proteinase and shut-off activities, we investigated the ability of norovirus 3C-like proteins (3CLP) from the GII.4-1987 and -2012 isolates to interfere with host gene expression. The results showed that 3CLP from both isolates was able to shut off host gene expression, but 3CLP from GII.4-2012 had a stronger inhibitory activity than that from GII.4-1987. Finally, we found that 2280 PP and 3CLP significantly repressed reporter gene transcription but did not affect mRNA translation. Our results provide new insight into the mechanism of the FCV-mediated inhibition of host gene expression. PMID:27447663

  16. N-Terminal Domain of Feline Calicivirus (FCV) Proteinase-Polymerase Contributes to the Inhibition of Host Cell Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongxia; Zu, Shaopo; Sun, Xue; Liu, Yongxiang; Tian, Jin; Qu, Liandong

    2016-01-01

    Feline Calicivirus (FCV) infection results in the inhibition of host protein synthesis, known as “shut-off”. However, the precise mechanism of shut-off remains unknown. Here, we found that the FCV strain 2280 proteinase-polymerase (PP) protein can suppress luciferase reporter gene expression driven by endogenous and exogenous promoters. Furthermore, we found that the N-terminal 263 aa of PP (PPN-263) determined its shut-off activity using the expression of truncated proteins. However, the same domain of the FCV strain F9 PP protein failed to inhibit gene expression. A comparison between strains 2280 and F9 indicated that Val27, Ala96 and Ala98 were key sites for the inhibition of host gene expression by strain 2280 PPN-263, and PPN-263 exhibited the ability to shut off host gene expression as long as it contained any two of the three amino acids. Because the N-terminus of the PP protein is required for its proteinase and shut-off activities, we investigated the ability of norovirus 3C-like proteins (3CLP) from the GII.4-1987 and -2012 isolates to interfere with host gene expression. The results showed that 3CLP from both isolates was able to shut off host gene expression, but 3CLP from GII.4-2012 had a stronger inhibitory activity than that from GII.4-1987. Finally, we found that 2280 PP and 3CLP significantly repressed reporter gene transcription but did not affect mRNA translation. Our results provide new insight into the mechanism of the FCV-mediated inhibition of host gene expression. PMID:27447663

  17. Sigma-1 receptor regulates Tau phosphorylation and axon extension by shaping p35 turnover via myristic acid

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shang-Yi A.; Pokrass, Michael J.; Klauer, Neal R.; Nohara, Hiroshi; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) per relative concentrations of its activators p35 and p25 is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. P35 has a short t½ and undergoes rapid proteasomal degradation in its membrane-bound myristoylated form. P35 is converted by calpain to p25, which, along with an extended t½, promotes aberrant activation of cdk5 and causes abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau, thus leading to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone that is implicated in neuronal survival. However, the specific role of the Sig-1R in neurodegeneration is unclear. Here we found that Sig-1Rs regulate proper tau phosphorylation and axon extension by promoting p35 turnover through the receptor’s interaction with myristic acid. In Sig-1R–KO neurons, a greater accumulation of p35 is seen, which results from neither elevated transcription of p35 nor disrupted calpain activity, but rather to the slower degradation of p35. In contrast, Sig-1R overexpression causes a decrease of p35. Sig-1R–KO neurons exhibit shorter axons with lower densities. Myristic acid is found here to bind Sig-1R as an agonist that causes the dissociation of Sig-1R from its cognate partner binding immunoglobulin protein. Remarkably, treatment of Sig-1R–KO neurons with exogenous myristic acid mitigates p35 accumulation, diminishes tau phosphorylation, and restores axon elongation. Our results define the involvement of Sig-1Rs in neurodegeneration and provide a mechanistic explanation that Sig-1Rs help maintain proper tau phosphorylation by potentially carrying and providing myristic acid to p35 for enhanced p35 degradation to circumvent the formation of overreactive cdk5/p25. PMID:25964330

  18. Inhibition of non-templated nucleotide addition by DNA polymerases in primer extension using twisted intercalating nucleic acid modified templates.

    PubMed

    Güixens-Gallardo, Pedro; Hocek, Michal; Perlíková, Pavla

    2016-01-15

    A simple and elegant method for inhibition of non-templated nucleotide addition by DNA polymerases and for following DNA 3'-heterogeneity in enzymatic DNA synthesis by primer extension (PEX) is described. When template bearing ortho-twisted intercalating nucleic acid (ortho-TINA) at the 5'-end is used, non-templated nucleotide addition is reduced in both the A- and B-family DNA polymerases (KOD XL, KOD (exo-), Bst 2.0, Therminator, Deep Vent (exo-) and Taq). Formation of a single oligonucleotide product was observed with ortho-TINA modified template and KOD XL, KOD (exo-), Bst 2.0, Deep Vent (exo-) and Taq DNA polymerases. This approach can be applied to the synthesis of both unmodified and base-modified oligonucleotides. PMID:26707394

  19. Purification and N-terminal sequence of a serine proteinase-like protein (BMK-CBP) from the venom of the Chinese scorpion (Buthus martensii Karsch).

    PubMed

    Gao, Rong; Zhang, Yong; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam

    2008-08-01

    A serine proteinase-like protein was isolated from the venom of Chinese red scorpion (Buthus martensii Karsch) by combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange and reveres-phase chromatography and named BMK-CBP. The apparent molecular weight of BMK-CBP was identified as 33 kDa by SDS-PAGE under non-reducing condition. The sequence of N-terminal 40 amino acids was obtained by Edman degradation. The sequence shows highest similarity to proteinase from insect source. When tested with commonly used substrates of proteinase, no significant hydrolytic activity was observed for BMK-CBP. The purified BMK-CBP was found to bind to the cancer cell line MCF-7 and the cell binding ability was dose-dependent. PMID:18625260

  20. The Effect of Surface Modification of Aligned Poly-L-Lactic Acid Electrospun Fibers on Fiber Degradation and Neurite Extension

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Nicholas J.; Le Beux, Clémentine; Miao, Jianjun; Linhardt, Robert J.; Alauzun, Johan G.; Laurencin, Danielle; Gilbert, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    The surface of aligned, electrospun poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) fibers was chemically modified to determine if surface chemistry and hydrophilicity could improve neurite extension from chick dorsal root ganglia. Specifically, diethylenetriamine (DTA, for amine functionalization), 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol (AEO, for alcohol functionalization), or GRGDS (cell adhesion peptide) were covalently attached to the surface of electrospun fibers. Water contact angle measurements revealed that surface modification of electrospun fibers significantly improved fiber hydrophilicity compared to unmodified fibers (p < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of fibers revealed that surface modification changed fiber topography modestly, with DTA modified fibers displaying the roughest surface structure. Degradation of chemically modified fibers revealed no change in fiber diameter in any group over a period of seven days. Unexpectedly, neurites from chick DRG were longest on fibers without surface modification (1651 ± 488 μm) and fibers containing GRGDS (1560 ± 107 μm). Fibers modified with oxygen plasma (1240 ± 143 μm) or DTA (1118 ± 82 μm) produced shorter neurites than the GRGDS or unmodified fibers, but were not statistically shorter than unmodified and GRGDS modified fibers. Fibers modified with AEO (844 ± 151 μm) were significantly shorter than unmodified and GRGDS modified fibers (p<0.05). Based on these results, we conclude that fiber hydrophilic enhancement alone on electrospun PLLA fibers does not enhance neurite outgrowth. Further work must be conducted to better understand why neurite extension was not improved on more hydrophilic fibers, but the results presented here do not recommend hydrophilic surface modification for the purpose of improving neurite extension unless a bioactive ligand is used. PMID:26340351

  1. The Relaxin Receptor (RXFP1) Utilizes Hydrophobic Moieties on a Signaling Surface of Its N-terminal Low Density Lipoprotein Class A Module to Mediate Receptor Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Roy C. K.; Petrie, Emma J.; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Ling, Jason; Lee, Jeremy C. Y.; Gooley, Paul R.; Bathgate, Ross A. D.

    2013-01-01

    The peptide hormone relaxin is showing potential as a treatment for acute heart failure. Although it is known that relaxin mediates its actions through the G protein-coupled receptor relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which relaxin binding results in receptor activation. Previous studies have highlighted that the unique N-terminal low density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) module of RXFP1 is essential for receptor activation, and it has been hypothesized that this module is the true “ligand” of the receptor that directs the conformational changes necessary for G protein coupling. In this study, we confirmed that an RXFP1 receptor lacking the LDLa module binds ligand normally but cannot signal through any characterized G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, we comprehensively examined the contributions of amino acids in the LDLa module to RXFP1 activity using both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutational analysis together with NMR structural analysis of recombinant LDLa modules. Gain-of-function studies with an inactive RXFP1 chimera containing the LDLa module of the human LDL receptor (LB2) demonstrated two key N-terminal regions of the module that were able to rescue receptor signaling. Loss-of-function mutations of residues in these regions demonstrated that Leu-7, Tyr-9, and Lys-17 all contributed to the ability of the LDLa module to drive receptor activation, and judicious amino acid substitutions suggested this involves hydrophobic interactions. Our results demonstrate that these key residues contribute to interactions driving the active receptor conformation, providing further evidence of a unique mode of G protein-coupled receptor activation. PMID:23926099

  2. The relaxin receptor (RXFP1) utilizes hydrophobic moieties on a signaling surface of its N-terminal low density lipoprotein class A module to mediate receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Roy C K; Petrie, Emma J; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Ling, Jason; Lee, Jeremy C Y; Gooley, Paul R; Bathgate, Ross A D

    2013-09-27

    The peptide hormone relaxin is showing potential as a treatment for acute heart failure. Although it is known that relaxin mediates its actions through the G protein-coupled receptor relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which relaxin binding results in receptor activation. Previous studies have highlighted that the unique N-terminal low density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) module of RXFP1 is essential for receptor activation, and it has been hypothesized that this module is the true "ligand" of the receptor that directs the conformational changes necessary for G protein coupling. In this study, we confirmed that an RXFP1 receptor lacking the LDLa module binds ligand normally but cannot signal through any characterized G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, we comprehensively examined the contributions of amino acids in the LDLa module to RXFP1 activity using both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutational analysis together with NMR structural analysis of recombinant LDLa modules. Gain-of-function studies with an inactive RXFP1 chimera containing the LDLa module of the human LDL receptor (LB2) demonstrated two key N-terminal regions of the module that were able to rescue receptor signaling. Loss-of-function mutations of residues in these regions demonstrated that Leu-7, Tyr-9, and Lys-17 all contributed to the ability of the LDLa module to drive receptor activation, and judicious amino acid substitutions suggested this involves hydrophobic interactions. Our results demonstrate that these key residues contribute to interactions driving the active receptor conformation, providing further evidence of a unique mode of G protein-coupled receptor activation. PMID:23926099

  3. The Tip of the Four N-Terminal α-Helices of Clostridium sordellii Lethal Toxin Contains the Interaction Site with Membrane Phosphatidylserine Facilitating Small GTPases Glucosylation

    PubMed Central

    Varela Chavez, Carolina; Haustant, Georges Michel; Baron, Bruno; England, Patrick; Chenal, Alexandre; Pauillac, Serge; Blondel, Arnaud; Popoff, Michel-Robert

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) is a powerful virulence factor responsible for severe toxic shock in man and animals. TcsL belongs to the large clostridial glucosylating toxin (LCGT) family which inactivates small GTPases by glucosylation with uridine-diphosphate (UDP)-glucose as a cofactor. Notably, TcsL modifies Rac and Ras GTPases, leading to drastic alteration of the actin cytoskeleton and cell viability. TcsL enters cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and delivers the N-terminal glucosylating domain (TcsL-cat) into the cytosol. TcsL-cat was found to preferentially bind to phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing membranes and to increase the glucosylation of Rac anchored to the lipid membrane. We have previously reported that the N-terminal four helical bundle structure (1–93 domain) recognizes a broad range of lipids, but that TcsL-cat specifically binds to PS and phosphatidic acid. Here, we show using mutagenesis that the PS binding site is localized on the tip of the four-helix bundle which is rich in positively-charged amino acids. Residues Y14, V15, F17, and R18 on loop 1, between helices 1 and 2, in coordination with R68 from loop 3, between helices 3 and 4, form a pocket which accommodates L-serine. The functional PS-binding site is required for TcsL-cat binding to the plasma membrane and subsequent cytotoxicity. TcsL-cat binding to PS facilitates a high enzymatic activity towards membrane-anchored Ras by about three orders of magnitude as compared to Ras in solution. The PS-binding site is conserved in LCGTs, which likely retain a common mechanism of binding to the membrane for their full activity towards membrane-bound GTPases. PMID:27023605

  4. Ezrin self-association involves binding of an N-terminal domain to a normally masked C-terminal domain that includes the F-actin binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Gary, R; Bretscher, A

    1995-01-01

    Ezrin is a membrane-cytoskeletal linking protein that is concentrated in actin-rich surface structures. It is closely related to the microvillar proteins radixin and moesin and to the tumor suppressor merlin/schwannomin. Cell extracts contain ezrin dimers and ezrin-moesin heterodimers in addition to monomers. Truncated ezrin fusion proteins were assayed by blot overlay to determine which regions mediate self-association. Here we report that ezrin self-association occurs by head-to-tail joining of distinct N-terminal and C-terminal domains. It is likely that these domains, termed N- and C-ERMADs (ezrin-radixin-moesin association domain), are responsible for homotypic and heterotypic associations among ERM family members. The N-ERMAD of ezrin resided within amino acids 1-296; deletion of 10 additional residues resulted in loss of activity. The C-ERMAD was mapped to the last 107 amino acids of ezrin, residues 479-585. The two residues at the C-terminus were required for activity, and the region from 530-585 was insufficient. The C-ERMAD was masked in the native monomer. Exposure of this domain required unfolding ezrin with sodium dodecyl sulfate or expressing the domain as part of a truncated protein. Intermolecular association could not occur unless the C-ERMAD had been made accessible to its N-terminal partner. It can be inferred that dimerization in vivo requires an activation step that exposes this masked domain. The conformationally inaccessible C-terminal region included the F-actin binding site, suggesting that this activity is likewise regulated by masking. Images PMID:7579708

  5. Phage display-mediated discovery of novel tyrosinase-targeting tetrapeptide inhibitors reveals the significance of N-terminal preference of cysteine residues and their functional sulfur atom.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Ching; Hsiao, Nai-Wan; Tseng, Tien-Sheng; Chen, Wang-Chuan; Lin, Hui-Hsiung; Leu, Sy-Jye; Yang, Ei-Wen; Tsai, Keng-Chang

    2015-02-01

    Tyrosinase, a key copper-containing enzyme involved in melanin biosynthesis, is closely associated with hyperpigmentation disorders, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, and as such, it is an essential target in medicine and cosmetics. Known tyrosinase inhibitors possess adverse side effects, and there are no safety regulations; therefore, it is necessary to develop new inhibitors with fewer side effects and less toxicity. Peptides are exquisitely specific to their in vivo targets, with high potencies and relatively few off-target side effects. Thus, we systematically and comprehensively investigated the tyrosinase-inhibitory abilities of N- and C-terminal cysteine/tyrosine-containing tetrapeptides by constructing a phage-display random tetrapeptide library and conducting computational molecular docking studies on novel tyrosinase tetrapeptide inhibitors. We found that N-terminal cysteine-containing tetrapeptides exhibited the most potent tyrosinase-inhibitory abilities. The positional preference of cysteine residues at the N terminus in the tetrapeptides significantly contributed to their tyrosinase-inhibitory function. The sulfur atom in cysteine moieties of N- and C-terminal cysteine-containing tetrapeptides coordinated with copper ions, which then tightly blocked substrate-binding sites. N- and C-terminal tyrosine-containing tetrapeptides functioned as competitive inhibitors against mushroom tyrosinase by using the phenol ring of tyrosine to stack with the imidazole ring of His263, thus competing for the substrate-binding site. The N-terminal cysteine-containing tetrapeptide CRVI exhibited the strongest tyrosinase-inhibitory potency (with an IC50 of 2.7 ± 0.5 μM), which was superior to those of the known tyrosinase inhibitors (arbutin and kojic acid) and outperformed kojic acid-tripeptides, mimosine-FFY, and short-sequence oligopeptides at inhibiting mushroom tyrosinase. PMID:25403678

  6. The Mediator complex subunit MED25 is targeted by the N-terminal transactivation domain of the PEA3 group members

    PubMed Central

    Verger, Alexis; Baert, Jean-Luc; Verreman, Kathye; Dewitte, Frédérique; Ferreira, Elisabeth; Lens, Zoé; de Launoit, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Monté, Didier

    2013-01-01

    PEA3, ERM and ER81 belong to the PEA3 subfamily of Ets transcription factors and play important roles in a number of tissue-specific processes. Transcriptional activation by PEA3 subfamily factors requires their characteristic amino-terminal acidic transactivation domain (TAD). However, the cellular targets of this domain remain largely unknown. Using ERM as a prototype, we show that the minimal N-terminal TAD activates transcription by contacting the activator interacting domain (ACID)/Prostate tumor overexpressed protein 1 (PTOV) domain of the Mediator complex subunit MED25. We further show that depletion of MED25 disrupts the association of ERM with the Mediator in vitro. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of MED25 as well as the overexpression of MED25-ACID and MED25-VWA domains efficiently inhibit the transcriptional activity of ERM. Moreover, mutations of amino acid residues that prevent binding of MED25 to ERM strongly reduce transactivation by ERM. Finally we show that siRNA depletion of MED25 diminishes PEA3-driven expression of MMP-1 and Mediator recruitment. In conclusion, this study identifies the PEA3 group members as the first human transcriptional factors that interact with the MED25 ACID/PTOV domain and establishes MED25 as a crucial transducer of their transactivation potential. PMID:23531547

  7. Identification of Two Binding Domains, One for Peptidoglycan and Another for a Secondary Cell Wall Polymer, on the N-Terminal Part of the S-Layer Protein SbsB from Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2

    PubMed Central

    Sára, Margit; Egelseer, Eva M.; Dekitsch, Christine; Sleytr, Uwe B.

    1998-01-01

    First studies on the structure-function relationship of the S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus PV72/p2 revealed the coexistence of two binding domains on its N-terminal part, one for peptidoglycan and another for a secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP). The peptidoglycan binding domain is located between amino acids 1 to 138 of the mature S-layer protein comprising a typical S-layer homologous domain. The SCWP binding domain lies between amino acids 240 to 331 and possesses a high serine plus glycine content. PMID:9852032

  8. An N-terminally acetylated Arf-like GTPase is localised to lysosomes and affects their motility.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Irmgard; Munro, Sean

    2006-04-15

    Small GTPases of the Arf and Rab families play key roles in the function of subcellular organelles. Each GTPase is usually found on only one compartment and, hence, they confer organelle specificity to many intracellular processes. However, there has so far been little evidence for specific GTPases present on lysosomes. Here, we report that two closely related human Arf-like GTPases, Arl8a and Arl8b (also known as Arl10b/c and Gie1/2), localise to lysosomes in mammalian cells, with the single homologue in Drosophila cells having a similar location. Conventionally, membrane binding of Arf and Arl proteins is mediated by both an N-terminal myristoyl group and an N-terminal amphipathic helix that is inserted into the lipid bilayer upon activation of the GTPase. Arl8a and Arl8b do not have N-terminal myristoylation sites, and we find that Arl8b is instead N-terminally acetylated, and an acetylated methionine is necessary for its lysosomal localization. Overexpression of Arl8a or Arl8b results in a microtubule-dependent redistribution of lysosomes towards the cell periphery. Live cell imaging shows that lysosomes move more frequently both toward and away from the cell periphery, suggesting a role for Arl8a and Arl8b as positive regulators of lysosomal transport. PMID:16537643

  9. Non-native, N-terminal Hsp70 Molecular Motor Recognition Elements in Transit Peptides Support Plastid Protein Translocation*

    PubMed Central

    Chotewutmontri, Prakitchai; Bruce, Barry D.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we identified the N-terminal domain of transit peptides (TPs) as a major determinant for the translocation step in plastid protein import. Analysis of Arabidopsis TP dataset revealed that this domain has two overlapping characteristics, highly uncharged and Hsp70-interacting. To investigate these two properties, we replaced the N-terminal domains of the TP of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and its reverse peptide with a series of unrelated peptides whose affinities to the chloroplast stromal Hsp70 have been determined. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that eight out of nine peptides in this series are not similar to the TP N terminus. Using in vivo and in vitro protein import assays, the majority of the precursors containing Hsp70-binding elements were targeted to plastids, whereas none of the chimeric precursors lacking an N-terminal Hsp70-binding element were targeted to the plastids. Moreover, a pulse-chase assay showed that two chimeric precursors with the most uncharged peptides failed to translocate into the stroma. The ability of multiple unrelated Hsp70-binding elements to support protein import verified that the majority of TPs utilize an N-terminal Hsp70-binding domain during translocation and expand the mechanistic view of the import process. This work also indicates that synthetic biology may be utilized to create de novo TPs that exceed the targeting activity of naturally occurring sequences. PMID:25645915

  10. Molecular Insights into the Dynamics of Pharmacogenetically Important N-Terminal Variants of the Human β2-Adrenergic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Durba; Joshi, Manali

    2014-01-01

    The human β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), a member of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family, is expressed in bronchial smooth muscle cells. Upon activation by agonists, β2AR causes bronchodilation and relief in asthma patients. The N-terminal polymorphism of β2AR at the 16th position, Arg16Gly, has warranted a lot of attention since it is linked to variations in response to albuterol (agonist) treatment. Although the β2AR is one of the well-studied GPCRs, the N-terminus which harbors this mutation, is absent in all available experimental structures. The goal of this work was to study the molecular level differences between the N-terminal variants using structural modeling and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations reveal that the N-terminal region of the Arg variant shows greater dynamics than the Gly variant, leading to differential placement. Further, the position and dynamics of the N-terminal region, further, affects the ligand binding-site accessibility. Interestingly, long-range effects are also seen at the ligand binding site, which is marginally larger in the Gly as compared to the Arg variant resulting in the preferential docking of albuterol to the Gly variant. This study thus reveals key differences between the variants providing a molecular framework towards understanding the variable drug response in asthma patients. PMID:25501358

  11. N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen as a biomarker of anabolic response to recombinant human GH and testosterone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: Biomarkers that predict musculoskeletal response to anabolic therapies should expedite drug development. During collagen synthesis in soft lean tissue, N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (P3NP) is released into circulation. We investigated P3NP as a biomarker of lean body mass (L...

  12. Facile synthesis of SAM–peptide conjugates through alkyl linkers targeting protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1†

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    We report the first chemical synthesis of SAM–peptide conjugates through alkyl linkers to prepare bisubstrate analogs for protein methyltransferases. We demonstrate its application by developing a series of bisubstrate inhibitors for protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1 and the most potent one exhibits a Ki value of 310 ± 55 nM.

  13. Three-dimensional solution structure and conformational plasticity of the N-terminal scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain of human CD5.

    PubMed

    Garza-Garcia, Acely; Esposito, Diego; Rieping, Wolfgang; Harris, Richard; Briggs, Cherry; Brown, Marion H; Driscoll, Paul C

    2008-04-18

    The lymphocyte receptor CD5 influences cell activation by modifying the strength of the intracellular response initiated by antigen engagement. Regulation through CD5 involves the interaction of one or more of its three scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains present in the extracellular region. Here, we present the 3D solution structure of a non-glycosylated double mutant of the N-terminal domain of human CD5 expressed in Escherichia coli (eCD5d1m), which has enhanced solubility compared to the non-glycosylated wild-type (eCD5d1). In common with a glycosylated form expressed in Pichia pastoris, the [(15)N,(1)H]-correlation spectra of both eCD5d1 and eCD5d1m exhibit non-uniform temperature-dependent signal intensities, indicating extensive conformational fluctuations on the micro-millisecond timescale. Although approximately one half of the signals expected for the domain are absent at 298 K, essentially complete resonance assignments and a solution structure could be obtained at 318 K. Because of the sparse nature of the experimental restraint data and the potentially important contribution of conformational exchange to the nuclear Overhauser effect peak intensity, we applied inferential structure determination to calculate the eCD5d1m structure. The inferential structure determination ensemble has similar features to that obtained by traditional simulated annealing methods, but displays superior definition and structural quality. The eCD5d1m structure is similar to other members of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily, but the position of the lone alpha helix differs due to interactions with the unique N-terminal region of the domain. The availability of an experimentally tractable form of CD5d1, together with its 3D structure, provides new tools for further investigation of its function within intact CD5. PMID:18339402

  14. The S-layer proteins of two Bacillus stearothermophilus wild-type strains are bound via their N-terminal region to a secondary cell wall polymer of identical chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Egelseer, E M; Leitner, K; Jarosch, M; Hotzy, C; Zayni, S; Sleytr, U B; Sára, M

    1998-03-01

    Two Bacillus stearothermophilus wild-type strains were investigated regarding a common recognition and binding mechanism between the S-layer protein and the underlying cell envelope layer. The S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus PV72/p6 has a molecular weight of 130,000 and assembles into a hexagonally ordered lattice. The S-layer from B. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 shows oblique lattice symmetry and is composed of subunits with a molecular weight of 122,000. Immunoblotting, peptide mapping, N-terminal sequencing of the whole S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 and of proteolytic cleavage fragments, and comparison with the S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus PV72/p6 revealed that the two S-layer proteins have identical N-terminal regions but no other extended structurally homologous domains. In contrast to the heterogeneity observed for the S-layer proteins, the secondary cell wall polymer isolated from peptidoglycan-containing sacculi of the different strains showed identical chemical compositions and comparable molecular weights. The S-layer proteins could bind and recrystallize into the appropriate lattice type on native peptidoglycan-containing sacculi from both organisms but not on those extracted with hydrofluoric acid, leading to peptidoglycan of the A1gamma chemotype. Affinity studies showed that only proteolytic cleavage fragments possessing the complete N terminus of the mature S-layer proteins recognized native peptidoglycan-containing sacculi as binding sites or could associate with the isolated secondary cell wall polymer, while proteolytic cleavage fragments missing the N-terminal region remained unbound. From the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that S-layer proteins from B. stearothermophilus wild-type strains possess an identical N-terminal region which is responsible for anchoring the S-layer subunits to a secondary cell wall polymer of identical chemical composition. PMID:9515918

  15. N-terminal processing of affinity-tagged recombinant proteins purified by IMAC procedures.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Jane T; Fredericks, Dale P; Christensen, Thorkild; Bruun Schiødt, Christine; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-07-01

    The ability of a new class of metal binding tags to facilitate the purification of recombinant proteins, exemplified by the tagged glutathione S-transferase and human growth hormone, from Escherichia coli fermentation broths and lysates has been further investigated. These histidine-containing tags exhibit high affinity for borderline metal ions chelated to the immobilised ligand, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn). The use of this tag-tacn immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) system engenders high selectivity with regard to host cell protein removal and permits facile tag removal from the E. coli-expressed recombinant protein. In particular, these tags were specifically designed to enable their efficient removal by the dipeptidyl aminopeptidase 1 (DAP-1), thus capturing the advantages of high substrate specificity and rates of cleavage. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the cleaved products from the DAP-1 digestion of the recombinant N-terminally tagged proteins confirmed the complete removal of the tag within 4-12 h under mild experimental conditions. Overall, this study demonstrates that the use of tags specifically designed to target tacn-based IMAC resins offers a comprehensive and flexible approach for the purification of E. coli-expressed recombinant proteins, where complete removal of the tag is an essential prerequisite for subsequent application of the purified native proteins in studies aimed at delineating the molecular and cellular basis of specific biological processes. PMID:25727088

  16. c-Jun N-terminal Kinase Phosphorylation of Stathmin Confers Protection against Cellular Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Dominic C. H.; Zhao, Teresa T.; Yeap, Yvonne Y. C.; Ngoei, Kevin R.; Bogoyevitch, Marie A.

    2010-01-01

    The cell stress response encompasses the range of intracellular events required for adaptation to stimuli detrimental to cell survival. Although the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a stress-activated kinase that can promote either cell survival or death in response to detrimental stimuli, the JNK-regulated mechanisms involved in survival are not fully characterized. Here we show that in response to hyperosmotic stress, JNK phosphorylates a key cytoplasmic microtubule regulatory protein, stathmin (STMN), on conserved Ser-25 and Ser-38 residues. In in vitro biochemical studies, we identified STMN Ser-38 as the critical residue required for efficient phosphorylation by JNK and identified a novel kinase interaction domain in STMN required for recognition by JNK. We revealed that JNK was required for microtubule stabilization in response to hyperosmotic stress. Importantly, we also demonstrated a novel cytoprotective function for STMN, as the knockdown of STMN levels by siRNA was sufficient to augment viability in response to hyperosmotic stress. Our findings show that JNK targeting of STMN represents a novel stress-activated cytoprotective mechanism involving microtubule network changes. PMID:20630875

  17. Peptide Scrambling During Collision-Induced Dissociation is Influenced by N-terminal Residue Basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawner, Ross; Holman, Stephen W.; Gaskell, Simon J.; Eyers, Claire E.

    2014-08-01

    `Bottom up' proteomic studies typically use tandem mass spectrometry data to infer peptide ion sequence, enabling identification of the protein whence they derive. The majority of such studies employ collision-induced dissociation (CID) to induce fragmentation of the peptide structure giving diagnostic b-, y-, and a- ions. Recently, rearrangement processes that result in scrambling of the original peptide sequence during CID have been reported for these ions. Such processes have the potential to adversely affect ion accounting (and thus scores from automated search algorithms) in tandem mass spectra, and in extreme cases could lead to false peptide identification. Here, analysis of peptide species produced by Lys-N proteolysis of standard proteins is performed and sequences that exhibit such rearrangement processes identified. The effect of increasing the gas-phase basicity of the N-terminal lysine residue through derivatization to homoarginine toward such sequence scrambling is then assessed. The presence of a highly basic homoarginine (or arginine) residue at the N-terminus is found to disfavor/inhibit sequence scrambling with a coincident increase in the formation of b(n-1)+H2O product ions. Finally, further analysis of a sequence produced by Lys-C proteolysis provides evidence toward a potential mechanism for the apparent inhibition of sequence scrambling during resonance excitation CID.

  18. Solution structure of Atg8 reveals conformational polymorphism of the N-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarten, Melanie; Stoldt, Matthias; Mohrlueder, Jeannine; Willbold, Dieter

    2010-05-07

    During autophagy a crescent shaped like membrane is formed, which engulfs the material that is to be degraded. This membrane grows further until its edges fuse to form the double membrane covered autophagosome. Atg8 is a protein, which is required for this initial step of autophagy. Therefore, a multistage conjugation process of newly synthesized Atg8 to phosphatidylethanolamine is of critical importance. Here we present the high resolution structure of unprocessed Atg8 determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Its C-terminal subdomain shows a well-defined ubiquitin-like fold with slightly elevated mobility in the pico- to nanosecond timescale as determined by heteronuclear NOE data. In comparison to unprocessed Atg8, cleaved Atg8{sup G116} shows a decreased mobility behaviour. The N-terminal domain adopts different conformations within the micro- to millisecond timescale. The possible biological relevance of the differences in dynamic behaviours between both subdomains as well as between the cleaved and uncleaved forms is discussed.

  19. Serum type III procollagen N-terminal peptide in coal miners.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Y M; Engelen, J J; Giancola, M S; Low, R B; Vacek, P; Borm, P J

    1992-01-01

    Health surveillance of workers exposed to fibrogenic agents ideally should identify individuals at risk or detect pulmonary fibrosis in preclinical stages. We investigated serum procollagen type III N-terminal peptide (PIIIP) in several groups of active miners and in a nondust-exposed control group. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of PIIIP as an early noninvasive marker of pulmonary fibrosis in workers exposed to coal mine dust. PIIIP levels were significantly elevated in miners without radiological signs of coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) as compared with the nonexposed controls. However, in coal miners with CWP beyond ILO classification 1/0, PIIIP levels were not significantly different from nondust-exposed controls. Trend analysis within the miners group indicated a decrease in PIIIP levels with progression of the fibrosis. Our data suggest that detection of early lung fibrosis by measuring serum PIIIP values may be more sensitive than radiological diagnosis of CWP. However, follow-up of the control miners with respect to serum PIIIP and chest radiography is essential to validate PIIIP as a biological marker for CWP. PMID:1572317

  20. Pyridopyrimidinone Derivatives as Potent and Selective c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A novel series of 2-aminopyridopyrimidinone based JNK (c-jun N-terminal kinase) inhibitors were discovered and developed. Structure–activity relationships (SARs) were systematically developed utilizing biochemical and cell based assays and in vitro and in vivo drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) studies. Through the optimization of lead compound 1, several potent and selective JNK inhibitors with high oral bioavailability were developed. Inhibitor 13 was a potent JNK3 inhibitor (IC50 = 15 nM), had high selectivity against p38 (IC50 > 10 μM), had high potency in functional cell based assays, and had high stability in human liver microsome (t1/2 = 76 min), a clean CYP-450 inhibition profile, and excellent oral bioavailability (%F = 87). Moreover, cocrystal structures of compounds 13 and 22 in JNK3 were solved at 2.0 Å. These structures elucidated the binding mode (Type-I binding) and can pave the way for further inhibitor design of this pyridopyrimidinone scaffold for JNK inhibition. PMID:25893042

  1. Bacterial secretion of soluble and functional trivalent scFv-based N-terminal trimerbodies.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Álvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Sainz-Pastor, Noelia; Merino, Nekane; Compte, Marta; Sanz, Laura; Blanco, Francisco J; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Recombinant antibodies are used with great success in many different diagnostic and therapeutic applications. A variety of protein expression systems are available, but nowadays almost all therapeutic antibodies are produced in mammalian cell lines due to their complex structure and glycosylation requirements. However, production of clinical-grade antibodies in mammalian cells is very expensive and time-consuming. On the other hand, Escherichia coli (E. coli) is known to be the simplest, fastest and most cost-effective recombinant expression system, which usually achieves higher protein yields than mammalian cells. Indeed, it is one of the most popular host in the industry for the expression of recombinant proteins. In this work, a trivalent single-chain fragment variable (scFv)-based N-terminal trimerbody, specific for native laminin-111, was expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and in E. coli. Mammalian and bacterially produced anti-laminin trimerbody molecules display comparable functional and structural properties, although importantly the yield of trimerbody expressed in E. coli was considerably higher than in human cells. These results demonstrated that E. coli is a versatile and efficient expression system for multivalent trimerbody-based molecules that is suitable for their industrial production. PMID:26239030

  2. Structure, Dynamics, and Allosteric Potential of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor N-Terminal Domains

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, James; Bahar, Ivet; Greger, Ingo H.

    2015-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are tetrameric cation channels that mediate synaptic transmission and plasticity. They have a unique modular architecture with four domains: the intracellular C-terminal domain (CTD) that is involved in synaptic targeting, the transmembrane domain (TMD) that forms the ion channel, the membrane-proximal ligand-binding domain (LBD) that binds agonists such as L-glutamate, and the distal N-terminal domain (NTD), whose function is the least clear. The extracellular portion, comprised of the LBD and NTD, is loosely arranged, mediating complex allosteric regulation and providing a rich target for drug development. Here, we briefly review recent work on iGluR NTD structure and dynamics, and further explore the allosteric potential for the NTD in AMPA-type iGluRs using coarse-grained simulations. We also investigate mechanisms underlying the established NTD allostery in NMDA-type iGluRs, as well as the fold-related metabotropic glutamate and GABAB receptors. We show that the clamshell motions intrinsically favored by the NTD bilobate fold are coupled to dimeric and higher-order rearrangements that impact the iGluR LBD and ultimately the TMD. Finally, we explore the dynamics of intact iGluRs and describe how it might affect receptor operation in a synaptic environment. PMID:26255587

  3. NMR structure of the N-terminal domain of the replication initiator protein DnaA

    SciTech Connect

    Wemmer, David E.; Lowery, Thomas J.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Chandonia, John-Marc; Kim, Rosalind; Yokota, Hisao; Wemmer, David E.

    2007-08-07

    DnaA is an essential component in the initiation of bacterial chromosomal replication. DnaA binds to a series of 9 base pair repeats leading to oligomerization, recruitment of the DnaBC helicase, and the assembly of the replication fork machinery. The structure of the N-terminal domain (residues 1-100) of DnaA from Mycoplasma genitalium was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The backbone r.m.s.d. for the first 86 residues was 0.6 +/- 0.2 Angstrom based on 742 NOE, 50 hydrogen bond, 46 backbone angle, and 88 residual dipolar coupling restraints. Ultracentrifugation studies revealed that the domain is monomeric in solution. Features on the protein surface include a hydrophobic cleft flanked by several negative residues on one side, and positive residues on the other. A negatively charged ridge is present on the opposite face of the protein. These surfaces may be important sites of interaction with other proteins involved in the replication process. Together, the structure and NMR assignments should facilitate the design of new experiments to probe the protein-protein interactions essential for the initiation of DNA replication.

  4. Highly heterologous region in the N-terminal extracellular domain of reptilian follitropin receptors.

    PubMed

    Akazome, Y; Ogasawara, O; Park, M K; Mori, T

    1996-12-01

    The primary structure of the N-terminal extracellular region of the follitropin receptor (FSH-R), which is thought to be responsible for hormone binding specificity, was determined in three reptilian species (tortoise, gecko, and lizard). Remarkably low sequence homologies were detected in the C-terminal part of the extracellular domain. This region was estimated to be a part of exon 10, which is the last exon of the FSH-R gene. In this region, not only were low homologies detected among the three reptilian species, but also specific deletions and/or insertions were found. In particular, large deletions were detected in squamate (gecko and lizard) FSH-Rs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these large deletions occurred recently, i.e., after the Triassic period. In another region characterized, sequence homologies were high, with tortoise-rat homology 78.4%, gecko-rat 64.7%, and lizard-rat 69.1%. In this highly conserved region, however, some reptile-specific alterations were detected, such as the loss of a cysteine residue in putative exon 7 and the existence of potential N-linked glycosylation sites in putative exon 9. PMID:8954771

  5. Metalloprotease Meprin β Generates Nontoxic N-terminal Amyloid Precursor Protein Fragments in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Tamara; Čaušević, Mirsada; auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Schilling, Oliver; Isbert, Simone; Geyer, Rebecca; Maier, Wladislaw; Tschickardt, Sabrina; Jumpertz, Thorsten; Weggen, Sascha; Bond, Judith S.; Overall, Christopher M.; Pietrzik, Claus U.; Becker-Pauly, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Identification of physiologically relevant substrates is still the most challenging part in protease research for understanding the biological activity of these enzymes. The zinc-dependent metalloprotease meprin β is known to be expressed in many tissues with functions in health and disease. Here, we demonstrate unique interactions between meprin β and the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Although APP is intensively studied as a ubiquitously expressed cell surface protein, which is involved in Alzheimer disease, its precise physiological role and relevance remain elusive. Based on a novel proteomics technique termed terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS), APP was identified as a substrate for meprin β. Processing of APP by meprin β was subsequently validated using in vitro and in vivo approaches. N-terminal APP fragments of about 11 and 20 kDa were found in human and mouse brain lysates but not in meprin β−/− mouse brain lysates. Although these APP fragments were in the range of those responsible for caspase-induced neurodegeneration, we did not detect cytotoxicity to primary neurons treated by these fragments. Our data demonstrate that meprin β is a physiologically relevant enzyme in APP processing. PMID:21646356

  6. Calcium-controlled conformational choreography in the N-terminal half of adseverin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumnarnsilpa, Sakesit; Robinson, Robert C.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Leyrat, Cedric

    2015-09-01

    Adseverin is a member of the calcium-regulated gelsolin superfamily of actin-binding proteins. Here we report the crystal structure of the calcium-free N-terminal half of adseverin (iA1-A3) and the Ca2+-bound structure of A3, which reveal structural similarities and differences with gelsolin. Solution small-angle X-ray scattering combined with ensemble optimization revealed a dynamic Ca2+-dependent equilibrium between inactive, intermediate and active conformations. Increasing calcium concentrations progressively shift this equilibrium from a main population of inactive conformation to the active form. Molecular dynamics simulations of iA1-A3 provided insights into Ca2+-induced destabilization, implicating a critical role for the A2 type II calcium-binding site and the A2A3 linker in the activation process. Finally, mutations that disrupt the A1/A3 interface increase Ca2+-independent F-actin severing by A1-A3, albeit at a lower efficiency than observed for gelsolin domains G1-G3. Together, these data address the calcium dependency of A1-A3 activity in relation to the calcium-independent activity of G1-G3.

  7. Tor forms a dimer through an N-terminal helical solenoid with a complex topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baretić, Domagoj; Berndt, Alex; Ohashi, Yohei; Johnson, Christopher M.; Williams, Roger L.

    2016-04-01

    The target of rapamycin (Tor) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that regulates a range of anabolic and catabolic processes. Tor is present in two complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, in which the Tor-Lst8 heterodimer forms a common sub-complex. We have determined the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure of Tor bound to Lst8. Two Tor-Lst8 heterodimers assemble further into a dyad-symmetry dimer mediated by Tor-Tor interactions. The first 1,300 residues of Tor form a HEAT repeat-containing α-solenoid with four distinct segments: a highly curved 800-residue N-terminal 'spiral', followed by a 400-residue low-curvature 'bridge' and an extended `railing' running along the bridge leading to the 'cap' that links to FAT region. This complex topology was verified by domain insertions and offers a new interpretation of the mTORC1 structure. The spiral of one TOR interacts with the bridge of another, which together form a joint platform for the Regulatory Associated Protein of TOR (RAPTOR) regulatory subunit.

  8. N-Terminal-Based Targeted, Inducible Protein Degradation in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Karthik; Gentile, Andrew M.; Bostick, John W.; Tyo, Keith E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamically altering protein concentration is a central activity in synthetic biology. While many tools are available to modulate protein concentration by altering protein synthesis rate, methods for decreasing protein concentration by inactivation or degradation rate are just being realized. Altering protein synthesis rates can quickly increase the concentration of a protein but not decrease, as residual protein will remain for a while. Inducible, targeted protein degradation is an attractive option and some tools have been introduced for higher organisms and bacteria. Current bacterial tools rely on C-terminal fusions, so we have developed an N-terminal fusion (Ntag) strategy to increase the possible proteins that can be targeted. We demonstrate Ntag dependent degradation of mCherry and beta-galactosidase and reconfigure the Ntag system to perform dynamic, exogenously inducible degradation of a targeted protein and complement protein depletion by traditional synthesis repression. Model driven analysis that focused on rates, rather than concentrations, was critical to understanding and engineering the system. We expect this tool and our model to enable inducible protein degradation use particularly in metabolic engineering, biological study of essential proteins, and protein circuits. PMID:26900850

  9. Calcium-controlled conformational choreography in the N-terminal half of adseverin

    PubMed Central

    Chumnarnsilpa, Sakesit; Robinson, Robert C.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Leyrat, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Adseverin is a member of the calcium-regulated gelsolin superfamily of actin-binding proteins. Here we report the crystal structure of the calcium-free N-terminal half of adseverin (iA1–A3) and the Ca2+-bound structure of A3, which reveal structural similarities and differences with gelsolin. Solution small-angle X-ray scattering combined with ensemble optimization revealed a dynamic Ca2+-dependent equilibrium between inactive, intermediate and active conformations. Increasing calcium concentrations progressively shift this equilibrium from a main population of inactive conformation to the active form. Molecular dynamics simulations of iA1–A3 provided insights into Ca2+-induced destabilization, implicating a critical role for the A2 type II calcium-binding site and the A2A3 linker in the activation process. Finally, mutations that disrupt the A1/A3 interface increase Ca2+-independent F-actin severing by A1–A3, albeit at a lower efficiency than observed for gelsolin domains G1–G3. Together, these data address the calcium dependency of A1–A3 activity in relation to the calcium-independent activity of G1–G3. PMID:26365202

  10. The C-terminus of p53 binds the N-terminal domain of MDM2

    PubMed Central

    Poyurovsky, Masha V.; Katz, Chen; Laptenko, Oleg; Beckerman, Rachel; Lokshin, Maria; Ahn, Jinwoo; Byeon, In-Ja L.; Gabizon, Ronen; Mattia, Melissa; Zupnick, Andrew; Brown, Lewis M.; Friedler, Assaf; Prives, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor interacts with its negative regulator Mdm2 via the former’s N-terminal region and core domain. Yet the extreme p53 C-terminal region contains lysine residues ubiquitinated by Mdm2 and can bear post-translational modifications that inhibit Mdm2–p53 association. We show that, the Mdm2–p53 interaction is decreased upon deletion, mutation or acetylation of the p53 C-terminus. Mdm2 decreases the association of full-length but not C-terminally deleted p53 with a DNA target sequence in vitro and in cells. Further, using multiple approaches we demonstrate that a peptide from p53 C-terminus directly binds Mdm2 N-terminus in vitro. We also show that p300-acetylated p53 binds inefficiently to Mdm2 in vitro, and Nutlin-3 treatment induces C-terminal modification(s) of p53 in cells, explaining the low efficiency of Nutlin-3 in dissociating p53-MDM2 in vitro. PMID:20639885

  11. Diuretic and myotropic activities of N-terminal truncated analogs of Musca domestica kinin neuropeptide.

    PubMed

    Coast, Geoffrey M; Zabrocki, Janusz; Nachman, Ronald J

    2002-04-01

    Musca kinin (Musdo-K; NTVVLGKKQRFHSWG-NH(2)) and N-terminal truncated analogs of 4-14 residues in length were assayed for diuretic and myotropic activity on housefly Malpighian tubules and hindgut, respectively. The pentapeptide was the minimum sequence required for biological activity, but it was > 5 orders of magnitude less potent than the intact peptide. The pharmacological profiles of the different analogs in the two assays were very similar, suggesting the same receptor is present on both tissues. Potency was little affected by the deletion of Asn(1), but was reduced > 10-fold after the removal of Thr(2). Deletion of the next 5 residues had relatively little effect, but after the second lysyl residue (Lys(8)) was removed potency fell by one to two orders of magnitude. There was a similar drop in potency after the removal of Arg(10), and at 100 microM the pentapeptide had only 20% of the diuretic activity of the intact peptide. The importance of Arg(10) was confirmed by comparing dose-response curves for Musdo-K [6-15] and Acheta kinin-V (AFSHWG-NH(2)) in the diuretic assay; the substitution of arginine by alanine produced a significant reduction in potency and some loss of activity. PMID:11897389

  12. N-terminal peptides from unprocessed prion proteins enter cells by macropinocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Magzoub, Mazin; Sandgren, Staffan; Lundberg, Pontus; Oglecka, Kamila; Lilja, Johanna; Wittrup, Anders; Goeran Eriksson, L.E.; Langel, Ulo; Belting, Mattias . E-mail: mattias.belting@med.lu.se; Graeslund, Astrid . E-mail: astrid@dbb.su.se

    2006-09-22

    A peptide derived from the N-terminus of the unprocessed bovine prion protein (bPrPp), incorporating the hydrophobic signal sequence (residues 1-24) and a basic domain (KKRPKP, residues 25-30), internalizes into mammalian cells, even when coupled to a sizeable cargo, and therefore functions as a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP). Confocal microscopy and co-localization studies indicate that the internalization of bPrPp is mainly through macropinocytosis, a fluid-phase endocytosis process, initiated by binding to cell-surface proteoglycans. Electron microscopy studies show internalized bPrPp-DNA-gold complexes residing in endosomal vesicles. bPrPp induces expression of a complexed luciferase-encoding DNA plasmid, demonstrating the peptide's ability to transport the cargo across the endosomal membrane and into the cytosol and nucleus. The novel CPP activity of the unprocessed N-terminal domain of PrP could be important for the retrotranslocation of partly processed PrP and for PrP trafficking inside or between cells, with implications for the infectivity associated with prion diseases.

  13. Functional Residues on the Surface of the N-terminal domain of Yeast Pms1

    PubMed Central

    Arana, Mercedes E.; Holmes, Shannon F.; Fortune, John M.; Moon, Andrea F.; Pedersen, Lars C.; Kunkel, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae MutLα is a heterodimer of Mlh1 and Pms1 that participates in DNA mismatch repair (MMR). Both proteins have weakly conserved C-terminal regions (CTD), with the CTD of Pms1 harboring an essential endonuclease activity. These proteins also have conserved N-terminal domains (NTD) that bind and hydrolyze ATP and bind to DNA. To better understand Pms1 functions and potential interactions with DNA and/or other proteins, we solved the 2.5Å crystal structure of yeast Pms1 (yPms1) NTD. The structure is similar to thehomologous NTDs of E. coli MutL and human PMS2, including the site involved in ATP binding and hydrolysis. The structure reveals a number of conserved, positively charged surface residues that do not interact with other residues in the NTD and are therefore candidates for interactions with DNA, with the CTD and/or with other proteins. When these were replaced with glutamate, several replacements resulted in yeast strains with elevated mutation rates. Two replacements also resulted in NTDs with decreased DNA binding affinity in vitro, suggesting that these residues contribute to DNA binding that is important for mismatch repair. Elevated mutation rates also resulted from surface residue replacements that did not affect DNA binding, suggesting that these conserved residues serve other functions, possibly involving interactions with other MMR proteins. PMID:20138591

  14. Tor forms a dimer through an N-terminal helical solenoid with a complex topology

    PubMed Central

    Baretić, Domagoj; Berndt, Alex; Ohashi, Yohei; Johnson, Christopher M.; Williams, Roger L.

    2016-01-01

    The target of rapamycin (Tor) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that regulates a range of anabolic and catabolic processes. Tor is present in two complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, in which the Tor–Lst8 heterodimer forms a common sub-complex. We have determined the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure of Tor bound to Lst8. Two Tor–Lst8 heterodimers assemble further into a dyad-symmetry dimer mediated by Tor–Tor interactions. The first 1,300 residues of Tor form a HEAT repeat-containing α-solenoid with four distinct segments: a highly curved 800-residue N-terminal 'spiral', followed by a 400-residue low-curvature 'bridge' and an extended ‘railing' running along the bridge leading to the 'cap' that links to FAT region. This complex topology was verified by domain insertions and offers a new interpretation of the mTORC1 structure. The spiral of one TOR interacts with the bridge of another, which together form a joint platform for the Regulatory Associated Protein of TOR (RAPTOR) regulatory subunit. PMID:27072897

  15. The N-terminal half of talin2 is sufficient for mouse development and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.-T.; Lo, S.H. . E-mail: shlo@ucdavis.edu

    2005-11-18

    Using a talin2 gene-trapped embryonic stem cell clone, we have developed a talin2 mutant mouse line that expresses the N-terminal half (1-1295) of talin2 fused with {beta}-galactosidase. The homozygous mutant mice appear to be normal and healthy. In the testis, talin2 expresses as a shorter form with a unique 30 residues at N-terminus linking to a common C-terminus from 1122 to 2453 of the long form. The resulting talin2 in the mutant testis only contains 204 residues of the wild-type testis talin2. However, it did not seem to affect the morphology of testis or reproduction of male mice. In fact, male and female mutant mice are fertile. Utilizing the expression of talin2(1-1295)/{beta}-galactosidase fusion protein, we have examined the distribution of talin2 in tissues. In contrast to talin1, talin2 expression is more restricted in tissues and cell types.

  16. N-terminal glutamate to pyroglutamate conversion in vivo for human IgG2 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Diana; Goetze, Andrew M; Bass, Randal B; Flynn, Gregory C

    2011-04-01

    Therapeutic proteins contain a large number of post-translational modifications, some of which could potentially impact their safety or efficacy. In one of these changes, pyroglutamate can form on the N terminus of the polypeptide chain. Both glutamine and glutamate at the N termini of recombinant monoclonal antibodies can cyclize spontaneously to pyroglutamate (pE) in vitro. Glutamate conversion to pyroglutamate occurs more slowly than from glutamine but has been observed under near physiological conditions. Here we investigated to what extent human IgG2 N-terminal glutamate converts to pE in vivo. Pyroglutamate levels increased over time after injection into humans, with the rate of formation differing between polypeptide chains. These changes were replicated for the same antibodies in vitro under physiological pH and temperature conditions, indicating that the changes observed in vivo were due to chemical conversion not differential clearance. Differences in the conversion rates between the light chain and heavy chain on an antibody were eliminated by denaturing the protein, revealing that structural elements affect pE formation rates. By enzymatically releasing pE from endogenous antibodies isolated from human serum, we could estimate the naturally occurring levels of this post-translational modification. Together, these techniques and results can be used to predict the exposure of pE for therapeutic antibodies and to guide criticality assessments for this attribute. PMID:21282104

  17. Intrinsic disorder drives N-terminal ubiquitination by Ube2w.

    PubMed

    Vittal, Vinayak; Shi, Lei; Wenzel, Dawn M; Scaglione, K Matthew; Duncan, Emily D; Basrur, Venkatesha; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Baker, David; Paulson, Henry L; Brzovic, Peter S; Klevit, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitination of the αN-terminus of protein substrates has been reported sporadically since the early 1980s. However, the identity of an enzyme responsible for this unique ubiquitin (Ub) modification has only recently been elucidated. We show the Ub-conjugating enzyme (E2) Ube2w uses a unique mechanism to facilitate the specific ubiquitination of the α-amino group of its substrates that involves recognition of backbone atoms of intrinsically disordered N termini. We present the NMR-based solution ensemble of full-length Ube2w that reveals a structural architecture unlike that of any other E2 in which its C terminus is partly disordered and flexible to accommodate variable substrate N termini. Flexibility of the substrate is critical for recognition by Ube2w, and either point mutations in or the removal of the flexible C terminus of Ube2w inhibits substrate binding and modification. Mechanistic insights reported here provide guiding principles for future efforts to define the N-terminal ubiquitome in cells. PMID:25436519

  18. Tor forms a dimer through an N-terminal helical solenoid with a complex topology.

    PubMed

    Baretić, Domagoj; Berndt, Alex; Ohashi, Yohei; Johnson, Christopher M; Williams, Roger L

    2016-01-01

    The target of rapamycin (Tor) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that regulates a range of anabolic and catabolic processes. Tor is present in two complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, in which the Tor-Lst8 heterodimer forms a common sub-complex. We have determined the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure of Tor bound to Lst8. Two Tor-Lst8 heterodimers assemble further into a dyad-symmetry dimer mediated by Tor-Tor interactions. The first 1,300 residues of Tor form a HEAT repeat-containing α-solenoid with four distinct segments: a highly curved 800-residue N-terminal 'spiral', followed by a 400-residue low-curvature 'bridge' and an extended 'railing' running along the bridge leading to the 'cap' that links to FAT region. This complex topology was verified by domain insertions and offers a new interpretation of the mTORC1 structure. The spiral of one TOR interacts with the bridge of another, which together form a joint platform for the Regulatory Associated Protein of TOR (RAPTOR) regulatory subunit. PMID:27072897

  19. Epsin N-terminal homology domains bind on opposite sides of two SNAREs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Gossing, Michael; Fang, Pengfei; Zimmermann, Jana; Li, Xu; von Mollard, Gabriele Fischer; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun

    2011-01-01

    SNARE proteins are crucial for membrane fusion in vesicular transport. To ensure efficient and accurate fusion, SNAREs need to be sorted into different budding vesicles. This process is usually regulated by specific recognition between SNAREs and their adaptor proteins. How different pairs of SNAREs and adaptors achieve their recognition is unclear. Here, we report the recognition between yeast SNARE Vti1p and its adaptor Ent3p derived from three crystal structures. Surprisingly, this yeast pair Vti1p/Ent3p interacts through a distinct binding site compared to their homologues vti1b/epsinR in mammals. An opposite surface on Vti1p_Habc domain binds to a conserved area on the epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domain of Ent3p. Two-hybrid, in vitro pull-down and in vivo experiments indicate this binding interface is important for correct localization of Vti1p in the cell. This previously undescribed discovery that a cargo and adaptor pair uses different binding sites across species suggests the diversity of SNARE-adaptor recognition in vesicular transport. PMID:21746902

  20. N-terminal domain of prion protein directs its oligomeric association.

    PubMed

    Trevitt, Clare R; Hosszu, Laszlo L P; Batchelor, Mark; Panico, Silvia; Terry, Cassandra; Nicoll, Andrew J; Risse, Emmanuel; Taylor, William A; Sandberg, Malin K; Al-Doujaily, Huda; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Saibil, Helen R; Scott, David J; Collinge, John; Waltho, Jonathan P; Clarke, Anthony R

    2014-09-12

    The self-association of prion protein (PrP) is a critical step in the pathology of prion diseases. It is increasingly recognized that small non-fibrillar β-sheet-rich oligomers of PrP may be of crucial importance in the prion disease process. Here, we characterize the structure of a well defined β-sheet-rich oligomer, containing ∼12 PrP molecules, and often enclosing a central cavity, formed using full-length recombinant PrP. The N-terminal region of prion protein (residues 23-90) is required for the formation of this distinct oligomer; a truncated form comprising residues 91-231 forms a broad distribution of aggregated species. No infectivity or toxicity was found using cell and animal model systems. This study demonstrates that examination of the full repertoire of conformers and assembly states that can be accessed by PrP under specific experimental conditions should ideally be done using the full-length protein. PMID:25074940

  1. Allostery and folding of the N-terminal receiver domain of protein NtrC.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Swarnendu; Portman, John J

    2013-10-24

    The N-terminal receiver domain of protein NtrC (NtrC(r)) exhibits allosteric transitions between the inactive (unphosphorylated) and active (phosphorylated) state on the microsecond time scale. Using a coarse-grained variational model with coupled energy basins, we illustrate that significant loss of conformational flexibility is the key determinant of the inactive (I) → active (A) state transition mechanism of NtrC(r). In particular, our results reveal that the rearrangements of the native contacts involving the regulatory helix-α4 and the flexible β3-α3 loop upon activation play a crucial role in the activation mechanism. Interestingly, we find that the β3-α3 loop exhibits a gradual decrease in flexibility throughout the activation transition, while helix-α4, in contrast, becomes more rigid abruptly near the free energy barrier separating the two states. To gain further insight into role these flexible regions play in the transition mechanism, we consider folding of NtrC(r) to both states using a similar model. Our calculated folding routes suggest that helix-α4 becomes structured later when folding to the I state compared to folding of the A state, a result consistent with it is relative conformational flexibility in the two states. Finally, we find a good qualitative agreement between our predicted I → A transition mechanism and the measured backbone dynamics from nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. PMID:23961720

  2. Structure and function of the N-terminal domain of the human mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjin; Min, Choon Kee; Kim, Tae Gyun; Song, Hong Ki; Lim, Yunki; Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Kahee; Kang, Moonkyung; Kang, Jung Youn; Youn, Hyung-Seop; Lee, Jung-Gyu; An, Jun Yop; Park, Kyoung Ryoung; Lim, Jia Jia; Kim, Ji Hun; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Zee Yong; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Wang, Jimin; Kim, Do Han; Eom, Soo Hyun

    2015-10-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is responsible for mitochondrial calcium uptake and homeostasis. It is also a target for the regulation of cellular anti-/pro-apoptosis and necrosis by several oncogenes and tumour suppressors. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the MCU N-terminal domain (NTD) at a resolution of 1.50 Å in a novel fold and the S92A MCU mutant at 2.75 Å resolution; the residue S92 is a predicted CaMKII phosphorylation site. The assembly of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex (uniplex) and the interaction with the MCU regulators such as the mitochondrial calcium uptake-1 and mitochondrial calcium uptake-2 proteins (MICU1 and MICU2) are not affected by the deletion of MCU NTD. However, the expression of the S92A mutant or a NTD deletion mutant failed to restore mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in a stable MCU knockdown HeLa cell line and exerted dominant-negative effects in the wild-type MCU-expressing cell line. These results suggest that the NTD of MCU is essential for the modulation of MCU function, although it does not affect the uniplex formation. PMID:26341627

  3. NMR assignments of the N-terminal domain of Ogataea polymorpha telomerase reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Polshakov, Vladimir I; Petrova, Olga A; Parfenova, Yulia Yu; Efimov, Sergey V; Klochkov, Vladimir V; Zvereva, Maria I; Dontsova, Olga A

    2016-04-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds telomeric DNA fragments to the ends of chromosomes. This enzyme is the focus of substantial attention, both because its structure and mechanism of action are still poorly studied, and because of its pivotal roles in aging and cellular proliferation. The use of telomerase as a potential target for the design of new anticancer drugs is also of great interest. The catalytic protein subunit of telomerase (TERT) contains an N-terminal domain (TEN) that is essential for activity and processivity. Elucidation of the structure and dynamics of TEN in solution is important for understanding the molecular mechanism of telomerase activity and for the design of new telomerase inhibitors. To approach this problem, in this study we report the (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N chemical shift assignments of TEN from Ogataea polymorpha. Analysis of the assigned chemical shifts allowed us to identify secondary structures and protein regions potentially involved in interaction with other participants of the telomerase catalytic cycle. PMID:26721464

  4. Impact of the N-Terminal Domain of STAT3 in STAT3-Dependent Transcriptional Activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tiancen; Yeh, Jennifer E; Pinello, Luca; Jacob, Jaison; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Chopra, Rajiv; Frank, David A

    2015-10-01

    The transcription factor STAT3 is constitutively active in many cancers, where it mediates important biological effects, including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and angiogenesis. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of STAT3 performs multiple functions, such as cooperative DNA binding, nuclear translocation, and protein-protein interactions. However, it is unclear which subsets of STAT3 target genes depend on the NTD for transcriptional regulation. To identify such genes, we compared gene expression in STAT3-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) stably expressing wild-type STAT3 or STAT3 from which NTD was deleted. NTD deletion reduced the cytokine-induced expression of specific STAT3 target genes by decreasing STAT3 binding to their regulatory regions. To better understand the potential mechanisms of this effect, we determined the crystal structure of the STAT3 NTD and identified a dimer interface responsible for cooperative DNA binding in vitro. We also observed an Ni(2+)-mediated oligomer with an as yet unknown biological function. Mutations on both dimer and Ni(2+)-mediated interfaces affected the cytokine induction of STAT3 target genes. These studies shed light on the role of the NTD in transcriptional regulation by STAT3 and provide a structural template with which to design STAT3 NTD inhibitors with potential therapeutic value. PMID:26169829

  5. Procollagen III N-terminal Propeptide and Desmosine are Released by Matrix Destruction in Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Jo; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Walker, Naomi F.; Yuen, Ho Ming; Sunpath, Henry; Tezera, Liku; Meintjes, Graeme; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Bishai, William R.; Friedland, Jon S.; Elkington, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis is transmitted by patients with pulmonary disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) drive lung destruction in tuberculosis but the resulting matrix degradation products (MDPs) have not been studied. We investigate the hypothesis that MMP activity generates matrix turnover products as correlates of lung pathology. Methods. Induced sputum and plasma were collected prospectively from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and negative patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and controls. Concentrations of MDPs and MMPs were analyzed by ELISA and Luminex array in 2 patient cohorts. Results. Procollagen III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP) was 3.8-fold higher in induced sputum of HIV-uninfected tuberculosis patients compared to controls and desmosine, released during elastin degradation, was 2.4-fold higher. PIIINP was elevated in plasma of tuberculosis patients. Plasma PIIINP correlated with induced sputum MMP-1 concentrations and radiological scores, demonstrating that circulating MDPs reflect lung destruction. In a second patient cohort of mixed HIV seroprevalence, plasma PIIINP concentration was increased 3.0-fold above controls (P < .001). Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-8 concentrations were also higher in tuberculosis patients (P = .001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis utilizing these 2 variables demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.832 (P < .001). Conclusions. In pulmonary tuberculosis, MMP-driven immunopathology generates matrix degradation products. PMID:23922364

  6. The N-terminal Set-β Protein Isoform Induces Neuronal Death.

    PubMed

    Trakhtenberg, Ephraim F; Morkin, Melina I; Patel, Karan H; Fernandez, Stephanie G; Sang, Alan; Shaw, Peter; Liu, Xiongfei; Wang, Yan; Mlacker, Gregory M; Gao, Han; Velmeshev, Dmitry; Dombrowski, Susan M; Vitek, Michael P; Goldberg, Jeffrey L

    2015-05-22

    Set-β protein plays different roles in neurons, but the diversity of Set-β neuronal isoforms and their functions have not been characterized. The expression and subcellular localization of Set-β are altered in Alzheimer disease, cleavage of Set-β leads to neuronal death after stroke, and the full-length Set-β regulates retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and hippocampal neuron axon growth and regeneration in a subcellular localization-dependent manner. Here we used various biochemical approaches to investigate Set-β isoforms and their role in the CNS, using the same type of neurons, RGCs, across studies. We found multiple alternatively spliced isoforms expressed from the Set locus in purified RGCs. Set transcripts containing the Set-β-specific exon were the most highly expressed isoforms. We also identified a novel, alternatively spliced Set-β transcript lacking the nuclear localization signal and demonstrated that the full-length (∼39-kDa) Set-β is localized predominantly in the nucleus, whereas a shorter (∼25-kDa) Set-β isoform is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Finally, we show that an N-terminal Set-β cleavage product can induce neuronal death. PMID:25833944

  7. Intrinsic disorder drives N-terminal ubiquitination by Ube2w

    PubMed Central

    Vittal, Vinayak; Shi, Lei; Wenzel, Dawn M.; Scaglione, K. Matthew; Duncan, Emily D.; Basrur, Venkatesha; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S. J.; Baker, David; Paulson, Henry L.; Brzovic, Peter S.; Klevit, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitination of the αN-terminus of protein substrates has been reported sporadically over the past twenty years. However the identity of an enzyme responsible for this unique ubiquitin (Ub) modification has only recently been elucidated. We show the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) Ube2w employs a novel mechanism to facilitate the specific ubiquitination of the α-amino group of its substrates that involves recognition of backbone atoms of intrinsically disordered N-termini. We present the NMR-based solution ensemble of full-length Ube2w that reveals a structural architecture unlike any other E2, in which its C-terminus is partly disordered and flexible to accommodate variable substrate N-termini. Flexibility of the substrate is critical for recognition by Ube2w and point mutations in, or removal of, the flexible C-terminus of Ube2w inhibits substrate binding and modification. Mechanistic insights reported here provide guiding principles for future efforts to define the N-terminal-Ubiquitome in cells. PMID:25436519

  8. Targeting to Transcriptionally Active Loci by the Hydrophilic N-Terminal Domain of Drosophila DNA Topoisomerase I

    PubMed Central

    Shaiu, Wen-Ling; Hsieh, Tao-shih

    1998-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase I (topo I) from Drosophila melanogaster contains a nonconserved, hydrophilic N-terminal domain of about 430 residues upstream of the conserved core domains. Deletion of this N terminus did not affect the catalytic activity of topo I, while further removal of sequences into the conserved regions inactivated its enzymatic activity. We have investigated the cellular function of the Drosophila topo I N-terminal domain with top1-lacZ transgenes. There was at least one putative nuclear localization signal within the first 315 residues of the N-terminal domain that allows efficient import of the large chimeric proteins into Drosophila nuclei. The top1-lacZ fusion proteins colocalized with RNA polymerase II (pol II) at developmental puffs on the polytene chromosomes. Either topo I or the top1-lacZ fusion protein was colocalized with RNA pol II in some but not all of the nonpuff, interband loci. However, the fusion proteins as well as RNA pol II were recruited to heat shock puffs during heat treatment, and they returned to the developmental puffs after recovery from heat shock. By immunoprecipitation, we showed that two of the largest subunits of RNA pol II coprecipitated with the N-terminal 315-residue fusion protein by using antibodies against β-galactosidase. These data suggest that the topo I fusion protein can be localized to the transcriptional complex on chromatin and that the N-terminal 315 residues were sufficient to respond to cellular processes, especially during the reprogramming of gene expression. PMID:9632819

  9. Consequences of C-terminal domains and N-terminal signal peptide deletions on LEKTI secretion, stability, and subcellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Arumugam; Kang, Ya'an; Henderson, Ying; Mitsudo, Kenji; Liu, Xiaoling; Briggs, Katrina; Wang, Mary; Frederick, Mitchell J; El-Naggar, Adel K; Bebök, Zsuzsa; Clayman, Gary L

    2005-03-01

    The secretory lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-inhibitor (LEKTI) is synthesized as a pro-LEKTI protein containing an N-terminal signal peptide and 15 potentially inhibitory domains. This inhibitor is of special interest because of its pathophysiological importance for the severe congenital disease Netherton syndrome. We showed that LEKTI is a potent inhibitor of a family of serine proteinases involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and its expression is downregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. To assess the role of C-terminal domains and N-terminal signal peptide in LEKTI secretion, we constructed deletion mutants of LEKTI, expressed them in HEK 293T cells, and analyzed their secretion behavior, stability, subcellular distribution, and proteinase inhibitory function. Pro-LEKTI is processed and secreted into the medium. On the basis of partial N-terminal sequencing and immunoblotting, the cleavage products are ordered from amino- to carboxy-terminal as follows: 37, 40, and 60kDa. Inhibitors of furin lead to enhanced secretion of unprocessed LEKTI, suggesting that processing was not required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminal signal peptide of pro-LEKTI caused altered distribution of LEKTI from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cytoplasm and markedly reduced its stability, consistent with its failure to become secreted into the medium. Interestingly, when we deleted the C-terminal domains, stable partial LEKTI (LD-1-6) accumulated and still retained its association with ER but was not secreted. Recombinant LD-1-6 specifically inhibited the trypsin activity. We conclude that N-terminal signal peptide is required for LEKTI import into ER and elements present in C-terminal domains may have a role in regulating LEKTI secretion. PMID:15680911

  10. Dimeric structure of the N-terminal domain of PriB protein from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis solved ab initio

    SciTech Connect

    Liebschner, Dorothee; Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew; Nowak, Marta; Kur, Józef; Olszewski, Marcin

    2012-12-01

    The N-terminal domain of the PriB protein from the thermophilic bacterium T. tengcongensis (TtePriB) was expressed and its crystal structure has been solved at the atomic resolution of 1.09 Å by direct methods. PriB is one of the components of the bacterial primosome, which catalyzes the reactivation of stalled replication forks at sites of DNA damage. The N-terminal domain of the PriB protein from the thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (TtePriB) was expressed and its crystal structure was solved at the atomic resolution of 1.09 Å by direct methods. The protein chain, which encompasses the first 104 residues of the full 220-residue protein, adopts the characteristic oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) structure consisting of a five-stranded β-barrel filled with hydrophobic residues and equipped with four loops extending from the barrel. In the crystal two protomers dimerize, forming a six-stranded antiparallel β-sheet. The structure of the N-terminal OB domain of T. tengcongensis shows significant differences compared with mesophile PriBs. While in all other known structures of PriB a dimer is formed by two identical OB domains in separate chains, TtePriB contains two consecutive OB domains in one chain. However, sequence comparison of both the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains of TtePriB suggests that they have analogous structures and that the natural protein possesses a structure similar to a dimer of two N-terminal domains.

  11. The N-terminal region of the heme-regulated eIF2alpha kinase is an autonomous heme binding domain.

    PubMed

    Uma, S; Matts, R L; Guo, Y; White, S; Chen, J J

    2000-01-01

    The N-terminal domain (NTD) of the heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2alpha kinase (HRI) was aligned to sequences in the NCBI data base using ENTREZ and a PAM250 matrix. Significant similarity was found between amino acids 11-118 in the NTD of rabbit HRI and amino acids 16-120 in mammalian alpha-globins. Several conserved amino acid residues present in globins are conserved in the NTD of HRI. His83 of HRI was predicted to be equivalent to the proximal heme ligand (HisF8) that is conserved in all globins. Molecular modeling of the NTD indicated that its amino acid sequence was compatible with the globin fold. Recombinant NTD (residues 1-159) was expressed in Escherichia coli. Spectral analysis of affinity purified recombinant NTD indicated that the NTD contained stably bound hemin. Mutational analysis indicated that His83 played a critical structural role in the stable binding of heme to the NTD, and was required to stabilize full length HRI synthesized de novo in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate. These results indicate that the NTD of HRI is an autonomous heme-binding domain, with His83 possibly serving as the proximal heme binding ligand. PMID:10632719

  12. Rim1 and rabphilin-3 bind Rab3-GTP by composite determinants partially related through N-terminal alpha -helix motifs.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Hu, B; Zimmermann, B; Kilimann, M W

    2001-08-31

    Rim1 is a protein of the presynaptic active zone, the area of the plasma membrane specialized for neurotransmitter exocytosis, and interacts with Rab3, a small GTPase implicated in neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics. Here, we have studied the molecular determinants of Rim1 that are responsible for Rab3 binding, employing surface plasmon resonance and recombinant, bacterially expressed Rab3 and Rim1 proteins. A site that binds GTP- but not GDP-saturated Rab3 was localized to a short alpha-helical sequence near the Rim1 N terminus (amino acids 19-55). Rab3 isoforms A, C, and D were bound with similar affinities (K(d) = 1-2 microm). Low affinity binding of Rab6A-GTP was also observed (K(d) = 16 microm), whereas Rab1B, -5, -7, -8, or -11A did not bind. Adjacent sequences up to amino acid 387, encompassing differentially spliced sequences, the zinc finger module, and the SGAWFF motif of Rim1, did not significantly contribute to the strength or the specificity of Rab3 binding, whereas a point mutation within the helix (R33G) abolished binding. This Rab3 binding site of Rim1 is reminiscent of the N-terminal alpha-helix that is part of the Rab3-binding region of rabphilin-3, and indeed we observed low affinity, specific binding of Rab3A (K(d) on the order of magnitude of 10-100 microm) to this region of rabphilin-3 alone (amino acids 40-88), whereas additional sequences up to amino acid 178 are needed for high affinity Rab3A binding to rabphilin-3 (K(d) = 10-20 nm). In contrast, an N-terminal alpha-helix motif in aczonin, with sequence similarity to the Rab3-binding site of Rim1, did not bind Rab3A, -C, or -D or several other Rab proteins. These results were qualitatively confirmed in pull-down experiments with native, prenylated Rab3 from brain lysate in Triton X-100. Munc13 bound to the zinc finger domain of Rim1 but not to the rabphilin-3 or aczonin zinc fingers. Pull-down experiments from brain lysate in the presence of cholate as detergent detected binding to

  13. Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents acute lipid-induced insulin resistance by attenuating ceramide accumulation and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in peripheral tissues.

    PubMed

    Watt, Matthew J; Hevener, Andrea; Lancaster, Graeme I; Febbraio, Mark A

    2006-05-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a member of the gp130 receptor cytokine family recently identified as an antiobesity agent in rodents and humans by mechanisms that remain unclear. We investigated the impact of acute CNTF treatment on insulin action in the presence of lipid oversupply. To avoid confounding effects of long-term high-fat feeding or genetic manipulation on whole-body insulin sensitivity, we performed a 2-h Intralipid infusion (20% heparinized Intralipid) with or without recombinant CNTF pretreatment (Axokine 0.3 mg/kg), followed by a 2-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (12 mU/kg.min) in fasted, male Wistar rats. Acute Intralipid infusion increased plasma free fatty acid levels from 1.0 +/- 0.1 to 2.5 +/- 0.3 mM, which subsequently caused reductions in skeletal muscle (insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate) and liver (hepatic glucose production) insulin sensitivity by 30 and 45%, respectively. CNTF pretreatment completely prevented the lipid-mediated reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate and the blunted suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin. Although lipid infusion increased triacylglycerol and ceramide accumulation and phosphorylation of mixed linage kinase 3 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 in skeletal muscle, CNTF pretreatment prevented these lipid-induced effects. Alterations in hepatic and muscle insulin signal transduction as well as phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 paralleled alterations in insulin sensitivity. These data support the use of CNTF as a potential therapeutic means to combat lipid-induced insulin resistance. PMID:16396984

  14. Structure and Function of the N-terminal Nucleolin Binding Domain of Nuclear Valosin-containing Protein-like 2 (NVL2) Harboring a Nucleolar Localization Signal*

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Yoshie; Fujiwara, Ken-ichiro; Goda, Natsuko; Iwaya, Naoko; Tenno, Takeshi; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2011-01-01

    The N-terminal regions of AAA-ATPases (ATPase associated with various cellular activities) often contain a domain that defines the distinct functions of the enzymes, such as substrate specificity and subcellular localization. As described herein, we have determined the solution structure of an N-terminal unique domain isolated from nuclear valosin-containing protein (VCP)-like protein 2 (NVL2UD). NVL2UD contains three α helices with an organization resembling that of a winged helix motif, whereas a pair of β-strands is missing. The structure is unique and distinct from those of other known type II AAA-ATPases, such as VCP. Consequently, we identified nucleolin from a HeLa cell extract as a binding partner of this domain. Nucleolin contains a long (∼300 amino acids) intrinsically unstructured region, followed by the four tandem RNA recognition motifs and the C-terminal glycine/arginine-rich domain. Binding analyses revealed that NVL2UD potentially binds to any of the combinations of two successive RNA binding domains in the presence of RNA. Furthermore, NVL2UD has a characteristic loop, in which the key basic residues RRKR are exposed to the solvent at the edge of the molecule. The mutation study showed that these residues are necessary and sufficient for nucleolin-RNA complex binding as well as nucleolar localization. Based on the observations presented above, we propose that NVL2 serves as an unfoldase for the nucleolin-RNA complex. As inferred from its RNA dependence and its ATPase activity, NVL2 might facilitate the dissociation and recycling of nucleolin, thereby promoting efficient ribosome biogenesis. PMID:21474449

  15. Bidirectional modulation of thermal and chemical sensitivity of TRPM8 channels by the initial region of the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Pertusa, María; González, Alejandro; Hardy, Paulina; Madrid, Rodolfo; Viana, Félix

    2014-08-01

    TRPM8, a nonselective cation channel activated by cold, voltage, and cooling compounds such as menthol, is the principal molecular detector of cold temperatures in primary sensory neurons of the somatosensory system. The N-terminal domain of TRPM8 consists of 693 amino acids, but little is known about its contribution to channel function. Here, we identified two distinct regions within the initial N terminus of TRPM8 that contribute differentially to channel activity and proper folding and assembly. Deletion or substitution of the first 40 residues yielded channels with augmented responses to cold and menthol. The thermal threshold of activation of these mutants was shifted 2 °C to higher temperatures, and the menthol dose-response curve was displaced to lower concentrations. Site-directed mutagenesis screening revealed that single point mutations at positions Ser-26 or Ser-27 by proline caused a comparable increase in the responses to cold and menthol. Electrophysiological analysis of the S27P mutant revealed that the enhanced sensitivity to agonists is related to a leftward shift in the voltage dependence of activation, increasing the probability of channel openings at physiological membrane potentials. In addition, we found that the region encompassing positions 40-60 is a key element in the proper folding and assembly of TRPM8. Different deletions and mutations within this region rendered channels with an impaired function that are retained within the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results suggest a critical contribution of the initial region of the N-terminal domain of TRPM8 to thermal and chemical sensitivity and the proper biogenesis of this polymodal ion channel. PMID:24917670

  16. Site-specific conjugation of the quencher on peptide's N-terminal for the synthesis of a targeted non-spreading activatable optical probe.

    PubMed

    Simard, Bryan; Mironov, Gleb G; Tomanek, Boguslaw; van Veggel, Frank C J M; Abulrob, Abedelnasser

    2016-06-01

    Optical imaging offers high sensitivity and portability at low cost. The design of 'smart' or 'activatable' probes can decrease the background noise and increase the specificity of the signal. By conjugating a fluorescent dye and a compatible quencher on each side of an enzyme's substrate, the signal remains in its 'off ' state until it reaches the area where a specific enzyme is expressed. However, the signal can leak from that area unless the dye is attached to a molecule able to bind to a specific target also presented in that area. The aim of this study was to (i) specifically conjugate the quencher on the α-amino group of the peptide's N-terminus, (ii) conjugate the dye on the ε-amino group of a lysine in C-terminus, and (iii) conjugate the carboxyl group of the peptide's C-terminus to an amino group present on an antibody, using carbodiimide chemistry. The use of protecting groups, such as Boc or Fmoc, to allow site-specific conjugation, presents several drawbacks including 'on beads labeling', additional steps required for deprotection and removal from the resin, decreased yield, and dye degradation. A method of preferential labeling of α-amino N-terminal group in slightly acidic solution, proposed by Selo et al. (1996) has partially solved the problem. The present study reports improvements of the method allowing to (i) avoid the homo-bilabeling, (ii) increase the yield of the N-terminal labeling by two folds, and (iii) decrease the cost by 44-fold. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27282138

  17. N-terminal amphipathic helix of Amphiphysin can change the spatial distribution of immunoglobulin E receptors (FcεRI) in the RBL-2H3 mast cell synapse

    PubMed Central

    Spendier, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    Biomembranes undergo extensive shape changes as they perform vital cellular functions or become diseased. To understand the mechanisms by which lipids and proteins control membrane curvature during various processes, researchers have identified and engineered many curvature-inducing and curvature-sensing proteins and peptides. In this paper, a simple experiment was performed to show qualitatively how membrane remodeling by N-terminal amphipathic helix of Amphiphysin affects the spatial distribution of the transmembrane Fc receptor protein (FcεRI) in mast cells. Results indicate that an elevated concentration of amphipathic helices can interfere with the formation of a typical mast cell synapse. PMID:26835247

  18. Deriving ribosomal binding site (RBS) statistical models from unannotated DNA sequences and the use of the RBS model for N-terminal prediction.

    PubMed

    Hayes, W S; Borodovsky, M

    1998-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the position of translation initiation (N-terminal prediction) is a difficult problem. N-terminal prediction from DNA sequence alone is ambiguous is several candidate start sites are close to each other. Protein similarity search is usually unable to indicate the true start of a gene as it would require a strong protein sequence similarity at the N-terminal portion of a protein where conservative regions are rarely situated. With the aid of the GeneMark program for gene identification, we extract DNA sequence fragments presumably containing ribosome binding sites (RBS) from unannotated complete genomic sequences. These DNA segments are aligned to generate the RBS model using the Gibbs' sampling method. N-terminal prediction is then performed by using the RBS model in conjunction with the GeneMark start codon prediction to aid in determining the true N-terminal site. PMID:9697189

  19. Dissecting functions of the N-terminal domain and GAS-site recognition in STAT3 nuclear trafficking.

    PubMed

    Martincuks, Antons; Fahrenkamp, Dirk; Haan, Serge; Herrmann, Andreas; Küster, Andrea; Müller-Newen, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in many biological processes, including hematopoiesis, inflammation and cancer progression. Cytokine-induced gene transcription greatly depends on tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 on a single tyrosine residue with subsequent nuclear accumulation and specific DNA sequence (GAS) recognition. In this study, we analyzed the roles of the conserved STAT3 N-terminal domain (NTD) and GAS-element binding ability of STAT3 in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Our results demonstrate the nonessential role of GAS-element recognition for both cytokine-induced and basal nuclear import of STAT3. Substitution of five key amino acids within the DNA-binding domain rendered STAT3 unable to bind to GAS-elements while still maintaining the ability for nuclear localization. In turn, deletion of the NTD markedly decreased nuclear accumulation upon IL-6 treatment resulting in a prolonged accumulation of phosphorylated dimers in the cytoplasm, at the same time preserving specific DNA recognition ability of the truncation mutant. Observed defect in nuclear localization could not be explained by flawed importin-α binding, since both wild-type and NTD deletion mutant of STAT3 could precipitate both full-length and autoinhibitory domain (∆IBB) deletion mutants of importin-α5, as well as ∆IBB-α3 and ∆IBB-α7 isoforms independently of IL-6 stimulation. Despite its inability to translocate to the nucleus upon IL-6 stimulation, the NTD lacking mutant still showed nuclear accumulation in resting cells similar to wild-type upon inhibition of nuclear export by leptomycin B. At the same time, blocking the nuclear export pathway could not rescue cytoplasmic trapping of phosphorylated STAT3 molecules without NTD. Moreover, STAT3 mutant with dysfunctional SH2 domain (R609Q) also localized in the nucleus of unstimulated cells after nuclear export blocking, while upon cytokine treatment the

  20. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide as a marker of blunt cardiac contusion in trauma.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Halil; Sarikaya, Sezgin; Neijmann, Sebnem Tekin; Uysal, Emin; Yucel, Neslihan; Ozucelik, Dogac Niyazi; Okuturlar, Yıldız; Solak, Suleyman; Sever, Nurten; Ayan, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac contusion is usually caused by blunt chest trauma and, although it is potentially a life-threatening condition, the diagnosis of a myocardial contusion is difficult because of non-specific symptoms and the lack of an ideal test to detect myocardial damage. Cardiac enzymes, such as creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTn-I), and cardiac troponin T (cTn-T) were used in previous studies to demonstrate the blunt cardiac contusion (BCC). Each of these diagnostic tests alone is not effective for diagnosis of BCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), CK, CK-MB, and cTn-I levels as a marker of BCC in blunt chest trauma in rats. The eighteen Wistar albino rats were randomly allocated to two groups; group I (control) (n=8) and group II (blunt chest trauma) (n=10). Isolated BCC was induced by the method described by Raghavendran et al. (2005). All rats were observed in their cages and blood samples were collected after five hours of trauma for the analysis of serum h-FABP, NT-pro BNP, CK, CK-MB, and cTn-I levels. The mean serum NT-pro BNP was significantly different between group I and II (10.3 ± 2.10 ng/L versus 15.4 ± 3.68 ng/L, respectively; P=0.0001). NT-pro BNP level >13 ng/ml had a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 70%, a positive predictive value of 70%, and a negative predictive value of 87.5% for predicting blunt chest trauma (area under curve was 0.794 and P=0.037). There was no significant difference between two groups in serum h-FABP, CK, CK-MB and c Tn-I levels. A relation between NT-Pro BNP and BCC was shown in this study. Serum NT-proBNP levels significantly increased with BCC after 5 hours of the blunt chest trauma. The use of NT-proBNP as an adjunct to other diagnostic tests, such as troponins, electrocardiography (ECG), chest x-ray and echocardiogram may be beneficial for diagnosis of

  1. Huntingtin N-Terminal Monomeric and Multimeric Structures Destabilized by Covalent Modification of Heteroatomic Residues.

    PubMed

    Arndt, James R; Kondalaji, Samaneh Ghassabi; Maurer, Megan M; Parker, Arlo; Legleiter, Justin; Valentine, Stephen J

    2015-07-21

    Early stage oligomer formation of the huntingtin protein may be driven by self-association of the 17-residue amphipathic α-helix at the protein's N-terminus (Nt17). Oligomeric structures have been implicated in neuronal toxicity and may represent important neurotoxic species in Huntington's disease. Therefore, a residue-specific structural characterization of Nt17 is crucial to understanding and potentially inhibiting oligomer formation. Native electrospray ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) techniques and molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) have been applied to study coexisting monomer and multimer conformations of Nt17, independent of the remainder of huntingtin exon 1. MDS suggests gas-phase monomer ion structures comprise a helix-turn-coil configuration and a helix-extended-coil region. Elongated dimer species comprise partially helical monomers arranged in an antiparallel geometry. This stacked helical bundle may represent the earliest stages of Nt17-driven oligomer formation. Nt17 monomers and multimers have been further probed using diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC). An N-terminal site (N-terminus of Threonine-3) and Lysine-6 are modified at higher DEPC concentrations, which led to the formation of an intermediate monomer structure. These modifications resulted in decreased extended monomer ion conformers, as well as a reduction in multimer formation. From the MDS experiments for the dimer ions, Lys6 residues in both monomer constituents interact with Ser16 and Glu12 residues on adjacent peptides; therefore, the decrease in multimer formation could result from disruption of these or similar interactions. This work provides a structurally selective model from which to study Nt17 self-association and provides critical insight toward Nt17 multimerization and, possibly, the early stages of huntingtin exon 1 aggregation. PMID:26098795

  2. Structural modeling of the N-terminal signal–receiving domain of IκBα

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Samira; Durdagi, Serdar; Naumann, Michael; Stein, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) exerts essential roles in many biological processes including cell growth, apoptosis and innate and adaptive immunity. The NF-κB inhibitor (IκBα) retains NF-κB in the cytoplasm and thus inhibits nuclear localization of NF-κB and its association with DNA. Recent protein crystal structures of the C-terminal part of IκBα in complex with NF-κB provided insights into the protein-protein interactions but could not reveal structural details about the N-terminal signal receiving domain (SRD). The SRD of IκBα contains a degron, formed following phosphorylation by IκB kinases (IKK). In current protein X-ray structures, however, the SRD is not resolved and assumed to be disordered. Here, we combined secondary structure annotation and domain threading followed by long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and showed that the SRD possesses well-defined secondary structure elements. We show that the SRD contains 3 additional stable α-helices supplementing the six ARDs present in crystallized IκBα. The IκBα/NF-κB protein-protein complex remained intact and stable during the entire simulations. Also in solution, free IκBα retains its structural integrity. Differences in structural topology and dynamics were observed by comparing the structures of NF-κB free and NF-κB bound IκBα-complex. This study paves the way for investigating the signaling properties of the SRD in the IκBα degron. A detailed atomic scale understanding of molecular mechanism of NF-κB activation, regulation and the protein-protein interactions may assist to design and develop novel chronic inflammation modulators. PMID:26157801

  3. The N-terminal CEBPA mutant in acute myeloid leukemia impairs CXCR4 expression.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yuan-Yeh; Hou, Hsin-An; Chen, Yin-Kai; Li, Li-Yu; Chen, Po-Hsuen; Tseng, Mei-Hsuan; Huang, Chi-Fei; Lee, Fen-Yu; Liu, Ming-Chih; Liu, Chia-Wen; Chou, Wen-Chien; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Tang, Jih-Luh; Yao, Ming; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2014-12-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is an essential regulator for homing and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow niches. Analysis of clinical implications of bone marrow CXCR4 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia showed not only higher CXCR4 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor, irrespective of age, white blood cell counts, cytogenetics, and mutation status of NPM1/FLT3-ITD and CEBPA, but also showed CXCR4 expression was inversely associated with mutations of CEBPA, a gene encoding transcription factor C/EBPα. Patients with wild-type CEBPA had significantly higher CXCR4 expression than those with mutated CEBPA. We hypothesized that CEBPA might influence the expression of CXCR4. To test this hypothesis, we first examined endogenous CXCR4 expression in 293T and K562 cells over-expressing wild-type C/EBPα p42 and demonstrated that CXCR4 levels were increased in these cells, whilst the expression of the N-terminal mutant, C/EBPα p30, diminished CXCR4 transcription. We further showed p42 was bound to the CXCR4 promoter by the chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Induction of p42 in the inducible K562-C/EBPα cell lines increased the chemotactic migration. Moreover, decreased expression of C/EBPα by RNA interference decreased levels of CXCR4 protein expression in U937 cells, thereby abrogating CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that C/EBPα indeed regulates the activation of CXCR4, which is critical for the homing and engraftment of acute myeloid leukemia cells, while p30 mutant impairs CXCR4 expression. PMID:25193961

  4. Promoter-dependent activity on androgen receptor N-terminal domain mutations in androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Rieko; Davies, John; Mongan, Nigel P; Bunch, Trevor; Brown, Rosalind S; Audi, Laura; Watt, Kate; McEwan, Iain J; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) mutations are associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Missense mutations identified in the AR-N-terminal domain (AR-NTD) are rare, and clinical phenotypes are typically mild. We investigated 7 missense mutations and 2 insertion/deletions located in the AR-NTD. This study aimed to elucidate the pathogenic role of AR-NTD mutants in AIS and to use this knowledge to further define AR-NTD function. AR-NTD mutations (Q120E, A159T, G216R, N235K, G248V, L272F, and P380R) were introduced into AR-expression plasmids. Stably expressing cell lines were established for del57L and ins58L. Transactivation was measured using luciferase reporter constructs under the control of GRE and Pem promoters. Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and partial proteolysis studies were performed for mutations which showed reduced activities by using a purified AR-AF1 protein. Pem-luciferase reporter activation was reduced for A159T, N235K, and G248V but not the GRE-luciferase reporter. Protein structure analysis detected no significant change in the AR-AF1 region for these mutations. Reduced cellular expression and transactivation activity were observed for ins58L. The mutations Q120E, G216R, L272F, P380R, and del57L showed small or no detectable changes in function. Thus, clinical and experimental analyses have identified novel AR-signalling defects associated with mutations in the structurally disordered AR-NTD domain in patients with AIS. PMID:25500996

  5. HEPATIC APOPTOSIS POST-BURN IS MEDIATED BY C-JUN N-TERMINAL KINASE-2

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alexandra H.; Brooks, Natasha C.; Hiyama, Yaeko; Qa’aty, Nour; Al-mousawi, Ahmed; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    The trauma of a severe burn injury induces a hypermetabolic response that increases morbidity and mortality. Previously, our group showed that insulin resistance post-burn injury is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Evidence suggests that c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) -2 may be involved in ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here, we hypothesized that JNK2 contributes to the apoptotic response after burn injury downstream of ER stress. To test this, we compared JNK2 knockout mice (−/−) to wildtype mice after inducing a 30% total body surface area thermal injury. Animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 5 days. Inflammatory cytokines in the blood were measured by multiplex analysis. Hepatic ER stress and insulin signaling were assessed by Western Blotting and insulin resistance was measured by a peritoneal glucose tolerance test. Apoptosis in the liver was quantified by TUNEL staining. Liver function was quantified by AST and ALT activity assays. ER stress increased after burn in both JNK2−/− and wildtype mice, indicating that JNK2 activation is downstream of ER stress. Knockout of JNK2 did not affect serum inflammatory cytokines; however, the increase in IL-6 mRNA expression was prevented in the knockouts. Serum insulin did not significantly increase in the JNK2−/− group. On the other hand, insulin signaling (PI3K/Akt pathway) and glucose tolerance tests did not improve in JNK2−/−. As expected, apoptosis in the liver increased after burn injury in wildtype mice but not in JNK2−/−. AST/ALT activity revealed that liver function recovered more quickly in JNK2−/−. This study indicates that JNK2 is a central mediator of hepatic apoptosis after a severe burn. PMID:23324888

  6. [Effect of N-terminal truncation of Bacillus acidopullulyticus pullulanase on enzyme properties and functions].

    PubMed

    Chen, A'na; Liu, Xiuxia; Dai, Xiaofeng; Zhan, Jinling; Peng, Feng; Li, Lu; Wang, Fen; Li, Song; Yang, Yankun; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-03-01

    We constructed different N-terminal truncated variants based on Bacillus acidopullulyticus pullulanase 3D structure (PDB code 2WAN), and studied the effects of truncated mutation on soluble expression, enzymatic properties, and application in saccharification. Upon expression, the variants of X45 domain deletion existed as inclusion bodies, whereas deletion of CBM41 domain had an effective effect on soluble expression level. The variants that lack of CBM41 (M1), lack of X25 (M3), and lack both of CBM41 and X25 (M5) had the same optimal pH (5.0) and optimal temperature (60 degrees C) with the wild-type pullulanase (WT). The K(m) of M1 and M5 were 1.42 mg/mL and 1.85 mg/mL, respectively, 2.4- and 3.1-fold higher than that of the WT. k(cat)/K(m) value of M5 was 40% lower than that of the WT. Substrate specificity results show that the enzymes exhibited greater activity with the low-molecular-weight dextrin than with high-molecular-weight soluble starch. When pullulanases were added to the saccharification reaction system, the dextrose equivalent of the WT, M1, M3, and M5 were 93.6%, 94.7%, 94.5%, and93.1%, respectively. These results indicate that the deletion of CBM41 domain and/or X25 domain did not affect the practical application in starch saccharification process. Furthermore, low-molecular-weight variants facilitate the heterologous expression. Truncated variants may be more suitable for industrial production than the WT. PMID:27349118

  7. Huntingtin N-terminal monomeric and multimeric structures destabilized by covalent modification of heteroatomic residues

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, James R.; Kondalaji, Samaneh G.; Maurer, Megan M.; Parker, Arlo; Legleiter, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Early-stage oligomer formation of the huntingtin protein may be driven by self-association of the seventeen-residue amphipathic α-helix at the protein’s N-terminus (Nt17). Oligomeric structures have been implicated in neuronal toxicity and may represent important neurotoxic species in Huntington’s disease. Therefore, a residue-specific structural characterization of Nt17 is crucial to understanding and potentially inhibiting oligomer formation. Native electrospray ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) techniques and molecular dynamics simulations (MDS), have been applied to study coexisting monomer and multimer conformations of Nt17, independent of the remainder of huntingtin exon 1. MDS suggests gas-phase monomer ion structures are comprised of a helix-turn-coil configuration and a helix-extended coil region. Elongated dimer species are comprised of partially-helical monomers arranged in an antiparallel geometry. This stacked helical bundle may represent the earliest stages of Nt17-driven oligomer formation. Nt17 monomers and multimers have been further probed using diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC). An N-terminal site (N-terminus of Threonine-3) and Lysine-6 are modified at higher DEPC concentrations, which led to the formation of an intermediate monomer structure. These modifications resulted in decreased extended monomer ion conformers, as well as a reduction in multimer formation. From the MDS experiments for the dimer ions, Lys6 residues in both monomer constituents interact with Ser16 and Glu12 residues on adjacent peptides; therefore, the decrease in multimer formation could result from disruption of these or similar interactions. This work provides a structurally selective model from which to study Nt17 self-association and provides critical insight toward Nt17 multimerization and possibly, the early stages of huntingtin exon 1 aggregation. PMID:26098795

  8. Specific inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase delays preterm labour and reduces mortality.

    PubMed

    Pirianov, Grisha; MacIntyre, David A; Lee, Yun; Waddington, Simon N; Terzidou, Vasso; Mehmet, Huseyin; Bennett, Phillip R

    2015-10-01

    Preterm labour (PTL) is commonly associated with infection and/or inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from different bacteria can be used to independently or mutually activate Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/AP1- or NF-κB-driven inflammatory pathways that lead to PTL. Previous studies using Salmonella abortus LPS, which activates both JNK/AP-1 and NF-κB, showed that selective inhibition of NF-κB delays labour and improves pup outcome. Where labour is induced using Escherichia coli LPS (O111), which upregulates JNK/AP-1 but not NF-κB, inhibition of JNK/AP-1 activation also delays labour. In this study, to determine the potential role of JNK as a therapeutic target in PTL, we investigated the specific contribution of JNK signalling to S. Abortus LPS-induced PTL in mice. Intrauterine administration of S. Abortus LPS to pregnant mice resulted in the activation of JNK in the maternal uterus and fetal brain, upregulation of pro-inflammatory proteins COX-2, CXCL1, and CCL2, phosphorylation of cPLA2 in myometrium, and induction of PTL. Specific inhibition of JNK by co-administration of specific D-JNK inhibitory peptide (D-JNKI) delayed LPS-induced preterm delivery and reduced fetal mortality. This is associated with inhibition of myometrial cPLA2 phosphorylation and proinflammatory proteins synthesis. In addition, we report that D-JNKI inhibits the activation of JNK/JNK3 and caspase-3, which are important mediators of neural cell death in the neonatal brain. Our data demonstrate that specific inhibition of TLR4-activated JNK signalling pathways has potential as a therapeutic approach in the management of infection/inflammation-associated PTL and prevention of the associated detrimental effects to the neonatal brain. PMID:26183892

  9. Specific inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase delays preterm labour and reduces mortality

    PubMed Central

    Pirianov, Grisha; MacIntyre, David A; Lee, Yun; Waddington, Simon N; Terzidou, Vasso; Mehmet, Huseyin; Bennett, Phillip R

    2015-01-01

    Preterm labour (PTL) is commonly associated with infection and/or inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from different bacteria can be used to independently or mutually activate Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/AP1- or NF-κB-driven inflammatory pathways that lead to PTL. Previous studies using Salmonella abortus LPS, which activates both JNK/AP-1 and NF-κB, showed that selective inhibition of NF-κB delays labour and improves pup outcome. Where labour is induced using Escherichia coli LPS (O111), which upregulates JNK/AP-1 but not NF-κB, inhibition of JNK/AP-1 activation also delays labour. In this study, to determine the potential role of JNK as a therapeutic target in PTL, we investigated the specific contribution of JNK signalling to S. Abortus LPS-induced PTL in mice. Intrauterine administration of S. Abortus LPS to pregnant mice resulted in the activation of JNK in the maternal uterus and fetal brain, upregulation of pro-inflammatory proteins COX-2, CXCL1, and CCL2, phosphorylation of cPLA2 in myometrium, and induction of PTL. Specific inhibition of JNK by co-administration of specific D-JNK inhibitory peptide (D-JNKI) delayed LPS-induced preterm delivery and reduced fetal mortality. This is associated with inhibition of myometrial cPLA2 phosphorylation and proinflammatory proteins synthesis. In addition, we report that D-JNKI inhibits the activation of JNK/JNK3 and caspase-3, which are important mediators of neural cell death in the neonatal brain. Our data demonstrate that specific inhibition of TLR4-activated JNK signalling pathways has potential as a therapeutic approach in the management of infection/inflammation-associated PTL and prevention of the associated detrimental effects to the neonatal brain. PMID:26183892

  10. Mechanochemical tuning of myosin-I by the N-terminal region

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael J.; Lin, Tianming; Shuman, Henry; Ostap, E. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Myosins are molecular motors that generate force to power a wide array of motile cellular functions. Myosins have the inherent ability to change their ATPase kinetics and force-generating properties when they encounter mechanical loads; however, little is known about the structural elements in myosin responsible for force sensing. Recent structural and biophysical studies have shown that myosin-I isoforms, Myosin-Ib (Myo1b) and Myosin-Ic (Myo1c), have similar unloaded kinetics and sequences but substantially different responses to forces that resist their working strokes. Myo1b has the properties of a tension-sensing anchor, slowing its actin-detachment kinetics by two orders of magnitude with just 1 pN of resisting force, whereas Myo1c has the properties of a slow transporter, generating power without slowing under 1-pN loads that would stall Myo1b. To examine the structural elements that lead to differences in force sensing, we used single-molecule and ensemble kinetic techniques to show that the myosin-I N-terminal region (NTR) plays a critical role in tuning myosin-I mechanochemistry. We found that replacing the Myo1c NTR with the Myo1b NTR changes the identity of the primary force-sensitive transition of Myo1c, resulting in sensitivity to forces of <2 pN. Additionally, we found that the NTR plays an important role in stabilizing the post–power-stroke conformation. These results identify the NTR as an important structural element in myosin force sensing and suggest a mechanism for generating diversity of function among myosin isoforms. PMID:26056287

  11. The vasorelaxant effect of adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide and amylin in human skin.

    PubMed

    Hasbak, Philip; Eskesen, Karen; Lind, Henrik; Holst, Jan; Edvinsson, Lars

    2006-08-01

    In this study we aimed to assess in vivo, the vasodilator effects of adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) and amylin in human skin vasculature and compare the responses to the effects mediated by the endogenous neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P and to examine the mRNA expression of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CL-R) and receptor-activity modifying proteins, RAMP1, RAMP 2 and RAMP3 in human subcutaneous arteries. Changes in skin blood flow of the forearm were measured using a Laser Doppler Imager after intradermal injection of the peptides. The mRNA expression was assessed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). CGRP, adrenomedullin and amylin induced concentration-dependent, long-lasting increases in skin blood flow. The response to PAMP was shorter in duration appearing similar to the transient response induced by substance P. PAMP (10(-6)-10(-5) M) caused distinct itch sensation and local erythema. This effect could be abolished when combining the histamine H1-receptor antagonist mepyramin and PAMP. Real-time PCR data showed a higher level of mRNA for RAMP2 than CL-R, RAMP1 and RAMP3 in the tissue. Though the PCR data demonstrated the presence of mRNA for both CGRP1 and adrenomedullin receptors the rank order of potency (CGRP>adrenomedullin>amylin) for the blood flow increase indicated vasodilatation for these peptides was induced by activation of CGRP1 receptors. Intradermal injection of CGRP, adrenomedullin and amylin induces long lasting dilatation of human skin vasculature by activation of CGRP1 receptors. PAMP induces transient vasodilatation. PAMP but not CGRP, adrenomedullin and amylin causes itch sensation and local erythema. The transient effect on vasodilatation as response to PAMP is discussed. PMID:16918718

  12. Age-adjusted plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Heul; Ko, Kyung Ok; Lim, Jae Woo; Yoon, Jung Min; Lee, Gyung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent reports showed that plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could be a useful biomarker of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesion (CAL) development in Kawasaki disease (KD). The levels of these peptides are critically influenced by age; hence, the normal range and upper limits for infants and children are different. We performed an age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level to validate its clinical use in the diagnosis of KD. Methods The data of 131 patients with KD were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into 2 groups—group I (high NT-proBNP group) and group II (normal NT-proBNP group)—comprising patients with NT-proBNP concentrations higher and lower than the 95th percentile of the reference value, respectively. We compared the laboratory data, responsiveness to IVIG, and the risk of CAL in both groups. Results Group I showed significantly higher white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, aspartate aminotransferase level, and troponin-I level than group II (P<0.05). The risk of CAL was also significantly higher in group I (odds ratio, 5.78; P=0.012). IVIG unresponsiveness in group I was three times that in group II (odds ratio, 3.35; P= 0.005). Conclusion Age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level could be helpful in predicting IVIG unresponsiveness and risk of CAL development in patients with KD. PMID:27588030

  13. Galactinol synthase from kidney bean cotyledon and zucchini leaf. Purification and N-terminal sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J J; Odegard, W; de Lumen, B O

    1995-01-01

    Galactinol synthase (GS) was purified 1591-fold with a 3.9% recovery from the cotyledon of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by a novel scheme consisting of ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by diethylaminoethyl, Affi-Gel Blue, and UDP-hexanolamine affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 8.75 mumol mg-1 min-1, a pH optimum of 7.0, and requirements for manganese ion and DTT. The enzyme exhibited a Km = 0.4 mM for UDP-galactose and a Km = 4.5 mM for myo-inositol. It was identified as a 38-kD peptide that co-purified with a 41- and a 43-kD peptide as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Purification to homogeneity was achieved by isolating the 38-kD peptide from the SDS-PAGE gel. To clarify conflicting reports in the literature about the relative molecular mass of purified GS from zucchini leaf (Cucurbita pepo), a similar scheme with modified eluting conditions was used to purify GS from this source. Zucchini leaf GS was purified to homogeneity and identified as a 36-kD peptide on SDS-PAGE. Partial N-terminal sequences of the 38-kD peptide from kidney bean cotyledon and the 36-kD peptide from zucchini leaf were obtained. To facilitate identification of GS during the purification, an assay utilizing thin-layer chromatography and an isotopic analytic imaging scanner was developed. PMID:7480343

  14. ClpB N-terminal domain plays a regulatory role in protein disaggregation

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Rina; Farber, Patrick; Velyvis, Algirdas; Rennella, Enrico; Latham, Michael P.; Kay, Lewis E.

    2015-01-01

    ClpB/Hsp100 is an ATP-dependent disaggregase that solubilizes and reactivates protein aggregates in cooperation with the DnaK/Hsp70 chaperone system. The ClpB–substrate interaction is mediated by conserved tyrosine residues located in flexible loops in nucleotide-binding domain-1 that extend into the ClpB central pore. In addition to the tyrosines, the ClpB N-terminal domain (NTD) was suggested to provide a second substrate-binding site; however, the manner in which the NTD recognizes and binds substrate proteins has remained elusive. Herein, we present an NMR spectroscopy study to structurally characterize the NTD–substrate interaction. We show that the NTD includes a substrate-binding groove that specifically recognizes exposed hydrophobic stretches in unfolded or aggregated client proteins. Using an optimized segmental labeling technique in combination with methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) NMR, the interaction of client proteins with both the NTD and the pore-loop tyrosines in the 580-kDa ClpB hexamer has been characterized. Unlike contacts with the tyrosines, the NTD–substrate interaction is independent of the ClpB nucleotide state and protein conformational changes that result from ATP hydrolysis. The NTD interaction destabilizes client proteins, priming them for subsequent unfolding and translocation. Mutations in the NTD substrate-binding groove are shown to have a dramatic effect on protein translocation through the ClpB central pore, suggesting that, before their interaction with substrates, the NTDs block the translocation channel. Together, our findings provide both a detailed characterization of the NTD–substrate complex and insight into the functional regulatory role of the ClpB NTD in protein disaggregation. PMID:26621746

  15. N-Terminal Mutations Modulate Yeast Snf1 Protein Kinase Function

    PubMed Central

    Estruch, F.; Treitel, M. A.; Yang, X.; Carlson, M.

    1992-01-01

    The SNF1 protein kinase is required for expression of glucose-repressed genes in response to glucose deprivation. The SNF4 protein is physically associated with SNF1 and positively affects the kinase activity. We report here the characterization of a dominant mutation, SNF1-G53R, that was isolated as a suppressor of the requirement for SNF4. The mutant SNF1-G53R protein is still responsive to SNF4 but has greatly elevated kinase activity in immune complex assays; in contrast, the activity is wild type in a protein blot assay. Deletion of the region N-terminal to the kinase domain (codons 5-52) reduces kinase activity in vitro, but the mutant SNF1-ΔN kinase is still dependent on SNF4. The N terminus is not required for the regulatory response to glucose. In gel filtration chromatography, the SNF1, SNF1-G53R and SNF1-ΔN proteins showed different elution profiles, consistent with differential formation of high molecular weight complexes. Taken together, the results suggest that the N terminus positively affects the function of the SNF1 kinase and may be involved in interaction with a positive effector other than SNF4. We also showed that the conserved threonine residue 210 in subdomain VIII, which is a phosphorylation site in other kinases, is essential for SNF1 activity. Finally, we present evidence that when the C terminus is deleted, overexpression of the SNF1 kinase domain is deleterious to the cell. PMID:1468623

  16. Contributions of the RAD51 N-terminal domain to BRCA2-RAD51 interaction.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Shyamal; Jones, William T; Spies, Maria; Spies, M Ashley

    2013-10-01

    RAD51 DNA strand exchange protein catalyzes the central step in homologous recombination, a cellular process fundamentally important for accurate repair of damaged chromosomes, preservation of the genetic integrity, restart of collapsed replication forks and telomere maintenance. BRCA2 protein, a product of the breast cancer susceptibility gene, is a key recombination mediator that interacts with RAD51 and facilitates RAD51 nucleoprotein filament formation on single-stranded DNA generated at the sites of DNA damage. An accurate atomistic level description of this interaction, however, is limited to a partial crystal structure of the RAD51 core fused to BRC4 peptide. Here, by integrating homology modeling and molecular dynamics, we generated a structure of the full-length RAD51 in complex with BRC4 peptide. Our model predicted previously unknown hydrogen bonding patterns involving the N-terminal domain (NTD) of RAD51. These interactions guide positioning of the BRC4 peptide within a cavity between the core and the NTDs; the peptide binding separates the two domains and restricts internal dynamics of RAD51 protomers. The model's depiction of the RAD51-BRC4 complex was validated by free energy calculations and in vitro functional analysis of rationally designed mutants. All generated mutants, RAD51(E42A), RAD51(E59A), RAD51(E237A), RAD51(E59A/E237A) and RAD51(E42A/E59A/E237A) maintained basic biochemical activities of the wild-type RAD51, but displayed reduced affinities for the BRC4 peptide. Strong correlation between the calculated and experimental binding energies confirmed the predicted structure of the RAD51-BRC4 complex and highlighted the importance of RAD51 NTD in RAD51-BRCA2 interaction. PMID:23935068

  17. Identification of a 35-kilodalton serovar-cross-reactive flagellar protein, FlaB, from Leptospira interrogans by N-terminal sequencing, gene cloning, and sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, M; Surujballi, O; Nielsen, K; Nadin-Davis, S; Randall, G

    1997-01-01

    During the screening of antibodies to pathogenic leptospires, a murine monoclonal antibody (designated M138) was found to react with various serovars. An antigen of approximately 35 kDa from Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona, which reacted strongly with M138, was characterized by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and identified as a flagellin, a class B polypeptide subunit (FlaB) of the periplasmic flagella. The gene encoding the FlaB protein, flaB, was amplified from the genomic DNA of several pathogenic serovars by PCR with a single pair of oligonucleotide primers, suggesting that FlaB is highly conserved among these serovars. Cloning and sequence analysis of flaB from serovar pomona revealed that it contains an 849-bp open reading frame with a G + C content of 46.88% which encodes a 283-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 31.297 kDa and a predicted pI of 9.065. A sequence comparison of flagellin proteins revealed that the amino acid sequence is most variable in the central portion of the serovar pomona FlaB, which is believed to contain specific sequence information and which may thus be useful in the design of DNA or synthetic peptide probes suitable for the detection of infection with pathogenic leptospires. PMID:9317049

  18. Diversified Structural Basis of a Conserved Molecular Mechanism for pH-Dependent Dimerization in Spider Silk N-Terminal Domains.

    PubMed

    Otikovs, Martins; Chen, Gefei; Nordling, Kerstin; Landreh, Michael; Meng, Qing; Jörnvall, Hans; Kronqvist, Nina; Rising, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Jaudzems, Kristaps

    2015-08-17

    Conversion of spider silk proteins from soluble dope to insoluble fibers involves pH-dependent dimerization of the N-terminal domain (NT). This conversion is tightly regulated to prevent premature precipitation and enable rapid silk formation at the end of the duct. Three glutamic acid residues that mediate this process in the NT from Euprosthenops australis major ampullate spidroin 1 are well conserved among spidroins. However, NTs of minor ampullate spidroins from several species, including Araneus ventricosus ((Av)MiSp NT), lack one of the glutamic acids. Here we investigate the pH-dependent structural changes of (Av)MiSp NT, revealing that it uses the same mechanism but involves a non-conserved glutamic acid residue instead. Homology modeling of the structures of other MiSp NTs suggests that these harbor different compensatory residues. This indicates that, despite sequence variations, the molecular mechanism underlying pH-dependent dimerization of NT is conserved among different silk types. PMID:26033527

  19. Identifying the activation motif in the N-terminal of rainbow trout and zebrafish melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein 1 (MRAP1) orthologs.

    PubMed

    Dores, Robert M; Liang, Liang; Hollmann, Rebecca E; Sandhu, Navdeep; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2016-08-01

    The activation of mammalian melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) orthologs is dependent on a four-amino acid activation motif (LDYL/I) located in the N-terminal of mammalian MRAP1 (melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein). Previous alanine substitution analysis had shown that the Y residue in this motif appears to be the most important for mediating the activation of mammalian MC2R orthologs. Similar, but not identical amino acid motifs were detected in rainbow trout MRAP1 (YDYL) and zebrafish MRAP1 (YDYV). To determine the importance of these residues in the putative activation motifs, rainbow trout and zebrafish MRAP1 orthologs were individually co-expressed in CHO cells with rainbow trout MC2R, and the activation of this receptor with either the wild-type MRAP1 ortholog or alanine-substituted analogs of the two teleost MRAP1s was analyzed. Alanine substitutions at all four amino acid positions in rainbow trout MRAP1 blocked activation of the rainbow trout MC2R. Single alanine substitutions of the D and Y residues in rainbow trout and zebrafish MRAP1 indicate that these two residues play a significant role in the activation of rainbow trout MC2R. These observations indicate that there are subtle differences in the way that teleost and mammalian MRAPs are involved in the activation of their corresponding MC2R orthologs. PMID:26752246

  20. The Localization of Cytochrome P450s CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 into Different Lipid Microdomains Is Governed by Their N-terminal and Internal Protein Regions.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Won; Reed, James R; Backes, Wayne L

    2015-12-01

    In cellular membranes, different lipid species are heterogeneously distributed forming domains with different characteristics. Ordered domains are tightly packed with cholesterol, sphingomyelin, and saturated fatty acids, whereas disordered domains contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Our laboratory has shown that membrane heterogeneity affects the organization of cytochrome P450s and their cognate redox partner, the cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). Despite the high degree of sequence similarity, CYP1A1 was found to localize to disordered regions, whereas CYP1A2 resided in ordered domains. We hypothesized that regions of amino acid sequence variability may contain signal motifs that direct CYP1A proteins into ordered or disordered domains. Thus, chimeric constructs of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were created, and their localization was tested in HEK293T cells. CYP1A2, containing the N-terminal regions from CYP1A1, no longer localized in ordered domains, whereas the N terminus of CYP1A2 partially directed CYP1A1 into ordered regions. In addition, intact CYP1A2 containing a 206-302-residue peptide segment of CYP1A1 had less affinity to bind to ordered microdomains. After expression, the catalytic activity of CYP1A2 was higher than that of the CYP1A1-CYP1A2 chimera containing the N-terminal end of CYP1A1 with subsaturating CPR concentrations, but it was approximately equal with excess CPR suggesting that the localization of the CYP1A enzyme in ordered domains favored its interaction with CPR. These data demonstrate that both the N-terminal end and an internal region of CYP1A2 play roles in targeting CYP1A2 to ordered domains, and domain localization may influence P450 function under conditions that resemble those found in vivo. PMID:26468279

  1. Role of Akt and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 2 in Apoptosis Induced by Interleukin-4 Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo, Ana; Martínez-A, Carlos; Lanzarot, Diego; Fischer, Siegmund; Franke, Thomas F.; Rebollo, Angelita

    1998-01-01

    We have shown previously that interleukin-4 (IL-4) protects TS1αβ cells from apoptosis, but very little is known about the mechanism by which IL-4 exerts this effect. We found that Akt activity, which is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, is reduced in IL-4-deprived TS1αβ cells. Overexpression of wild-type Akt or a constitutively active Akt mutant protects cells from IL-4 deprivation-induced apoptosis. Readdition of IL-4 before the commitment point is able to restore Akt activity. We also show expression and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 activation after IL-4 deprivation. Overexpression of the constitutively activated Akt mutant in IL-4-deprived cells correlates with inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 activity. Finally, TS1αβ survival is independent of Bcl-2, Bcl-x, or Bax. PMID:9802900

  2. The N-Terminal Domain of the Arenavirus L Protein Is an RNA Endonuclease Essential in mRNA Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Benjamin; Coutard, Bruno; Lelke, Michaela; Ferron, François; Kerber, Romy; Jamal, Saïd; Frangeul, Antoine; Baronti, Cécile; Charrel, Rémi; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Vonrhein, Clemens; Lescar, Julien; Bricogne, Gérard; Günther, Stephan; Canard, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Arenaviridae synthesize viral mRNAs using short capped primers presumably acquired from cellular transcripts by a ‘cap-snatching’ mechanism. Here, we report the crystal structure and functional characterization of the N-terminal 196 residues (NL1) of the L protein from the prototypic arenavirus: lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. The NL1 domain is able to bind and cleave RNA. The 2.13 Å resolution crystal structure of NL1 reveals a type II endonuclease α/β architecture similar to the N-terminal end of the influenza virus PA protein. Superimposition of both structures, mutagenesis and reverse genetics studies reveal a unique spatial arrangement of key active site residues related to the PD…(D/E)XK type II endonuclease signature sequence. We show that this endonuclease domain is conserved and active across the virus families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae and Orthomyxoviridae and propose that the arenavirus NL1 domain is the Arenaviridae cap-snatching endonuclease. PMID:20862324

  3. Copper induces conformational changes in the N-terminal part of cell-surface PrPC.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, E; Serban, H; Prusiner, S B; Burton, D R; Williamson, R A

    2006-11-01

    Prion diseases are caused by misfolding of the cellular prion protein, PrPC. In vitro studies have shown that PrP binds copper via the octarepeat region lying within the unstructured N-terminal segment of the protein, but the significance of copper in PrP metabolism remains unclear. Here, six specific antibodies recognizing different epitope regions of PrP were used to measure the effect of copper on the conformation of the molecule at the cell surface. Binding of an antibody, E149, to an epitope within the octarepeat domain of PrP is halved in the presence of copper, whereas binding of antibodies recognizing epitope motifs C-terminal to residue 90 of PrP remain relatively unaltered under equivalent conditions. These experiments strongly suggest that copper induces localized conformational change within the N-terminal portion of cell-surface PrPC. PMID:16791441

  4. Expression and characterization of the N-terminal half of antistasin, an anticoagulant protein derived from the leech Haementeria officinalis.

    PubMed

    Palladino, L O; Tung, J S; Dunwiddie, C; Alves, K; Lenny, A B; Przysiecki, C; Lehman, D; Nutt, E; Cuca, G C; Law, S W

    1991-02-01

    Antistasin, a 15-kDa anticoagulant protein isolated from the salivary glands of the Mexican leech Haementeria officinalis, has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of factor Xa in the blood coagulation cascade. Antistasin possesses a twofold internal homology between the N- and C-terminal halves of the molecule, suggesting a gene duplication event in the evolution of the antistasin gene. This structural feature also suggests that either or both halves of the protein may possess biological activity if expressed as separate domains. Because the N-terminal domain contains a factor Xa P1-reactive site, we chose to express this domain in an insect cell baculovirus expression system. Characterization of this recombinant half antistasin molecule reveals that the N-terminal domain inhibits factor Xa in vitro, with a K(i) of 1.7 nM. PMID:1821771

  5. Synthesis and SAR of 4-substituted-2-aminopyrimidines as novel c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Paul S; Lafontaine, Jennifer A; Agree, Charles S; Alexander, David; Chen, Ping; Do, Quyen-Quyen T; Li, Lilian Y; Lunney, Elizabeth A; Rajapakse, Ranjan J; Siegel, Karen; Timofeevski, Sergei L; Wang, Tianlun; Wilhite, David M

    2009-04-15

    The development of a series of novel 4-substituted-2-aminopyrimidines as inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinases is described. The synthesis, in vitro inhibitory values for JNK1, and the in vitro inhibitory value for a c-Jun cellular assay are discussed. Optimization of microsomal clearance led to the identification of 9c, whose kinase selectivity is reported. PMID:19327989

  6. Substrate recognition of holocytochrome c synthase: N-terminal region and CXXCH motif of mitochondrial cytochrome c

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yulin; Stevens, Julie M.; Ferguson, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS) attaches heme covalently to mitochondrial respiratory cytochromes c. Little is known about the reaction of heme attachment to apocytochromes c by HCCS, although recently it has been established that the CXXCH motif and the N-terminus of the apocytochrome polypeptide are important protein–protein recognition motifs. Here, we explore further the important features of the N-terminal sequence and investigate what variations in the CXXCH residues are productively recognised by HCCS in its substrate. PMID:25084480

  7. The role of the N-terminal tail for the oligomerization, folding and stability of human frataxin☆

    PubMed Central

    Faraj, Santiago E.; Venturutti, Leandro; Roman, Ernesto A.; Marino-Buslje, Cristina B.; Mignone, Astor; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.; Delfino, José M.; Santos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The N-terminal stretch of human frataxin (hFXN) intermediate (residues 42–80) is not conserved throughout evolution and, under defined experimental conditions, behaves as a random-coil. Overexpression of hFXN56–210 in Escherichia coli yields a multimer, whereas the mature form of hFXN (hFXN81–210) is monomeric. Thus, cumulative experimental evidence points to the N-terminal moiety as an essential element for the assembly of a high molecular weight oligomer. The secondary structure propensity of peptide 56–81, the moiety putatively responsible for promoting protein–protein interactions, was also studied. Depending on the environment (TFE or SDS), this peptide adopts α-helical or β-strand structure. In this context, we explored the conformation and stability of hFXN56–210. The biophysical characterization by fluorescence, CD and SEC-FPLC shows that subunits are well folded, sharing similar stability to hFXN90–210. However, controlled proteolysis indicates that the N-terminal stretch is labile in the context of the multimer, whereas the FXN domain (residues 81–210) remains strongly resistant. In addition, guanidine hydrochloride at low concentration disrupts intermolecular interactions, shifting the ensemble toward the monomeric form. The conformational plasticity of the N-terminal tail might impart on hFXN the ability to act as a recognition signal as well as an oligomerization trigger. Understanding the fine-tuning of these activities and their resulting balance will bear direct relevance for ultimately comprehending hFXN function. PMID:23951553

  8. Crystallized N-terminal domain of influenza virus matrix protein M1 and method of determining and using same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Ming (Inventor); Sha, Bingdong (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The matrix protein, M1, of influenza virus strain A/PR/8/34 has been purified from virions and crystallized. The crystals consist of a stable fragment (18 Kd) of the M1 protein. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that the crystals have a space group of P3.sub.t 21 or P3.sub.2 21. Vm calculations showed that there are two monomers in an asymmetric unit. A crystallized N-terminal domain of M1, wherein the N-terminal domain of M1 is crystallized such that the three dimensional structure of the crystallized N-terminal domain of M1 can be determined to a resolution of about 2.1 .ANG. or better, and wherein the three dimensional structure of the uncrystallized N-terminal domain of M1 cannot be determined to a resolution of about 2.1 .ANG. or better. A method of purifying M1 and a method of crystallizing M1. A method of using the three-dimensional crystal structure of M1 to screen for antiviral, influenza virus treating or preventing compounds. A method of using the three-dimensional crystal structure of M1 to screen for improved binding to or inhibition of influenza virus M1. The use of the three-dimensional crystal structure of the M1 protein of influenza virus in the manufacture of an inhibitor of influenza virus M1. The use of the three-dimensional crystal structure of the M1 protein of influenza virus in the screening of candidates for inhibition of influenza virus M1.

  9. Crystal Structures of the Human Doublecortin C- and N-terminal Domains in Complex with Specific Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Burger, Dominique; Stihle, Martine; Sharma, Ashwani; Di Lello, Paola; Benz, Jörg; D'Arcy, Brigitte; Debulpaep, Maja; Fry, David; Huber, Walter; Kremer, Thomas; Laeremans, Toon; Matile, Hugues; Ross, Alfred; Rufer, Arne C; Schoch, Guillaume; Steinmetz, Michel O; Steyaert, Jan; Rudolph, Markus G; Thoma, Ralf; Ruf, Armin

    2016-07-29

    Doublecortin is a microtubule-associated protein produced during neurogenesis. The protein stabilizes microtubules and stimulates their polymerization, which allows migration of immature neurons to their designated location in the brain. Mutations in the gene that impair doublecortin function and cause severe brain formation disorders are located on a tandem repeat of two doublecortin domains. The molecular mechanism of action of doublecortin is only incompletely understood. Anti-doublecortin antibodies, such as the rabbit polyclonal Abcam 18732, are widely used as neurogenesis markers. Here, we report the generation and characterization of antibodies that bind to single doublecortin domains. The antibodies were used as tools to obtain structures of both domains. Four independent crystal structures of the N-terminal domain reveal several distinct open and closed conformations of the peptide linking N- and C-terminal domains, which can be related to doublecortin function. An NMR assignment and a crystal structure in complex with a camelid antibody fragment show that the doublecortin C-terminal domain adopts the same well defined ubiquitin-like fold as the N-terminal domain, despite its reported aggregation and molten globule-like properties. The antibodies' unique domain specificity also renders them ideal research tools to better understand the role of individual domains in doublecortin function. A single chain camelid antibody fragment specific for the C-terminal doublecortin domain affected microtubule binding, whereas a monoclonal mouse antibody specific for the N-terminal domain did not. Together with steric considerations, this suggests that the microtubule-interacting doublecortin domain observed in cryo-electron micrographs is the C-terminal domain rather than the N-terminal one. PMID:27226599

  10. The metalloid arsenite induces nuclear export of Id3 possibly via binding to the N-terminal cysteine residues

    SciTech Connect

    Kurooka, Hisanori; Sugai, Manabu; Mori, Kentaro; Yokota, Yoshifumi

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Sodium arsenite induces cytoplasmic accumulation of Id3. •Arsenite binds to closely spaced N-terminal cysteine residues of Id3. •N-terminal cysteines are essential for arsenite-induced nuclear export of Id3. •Nuclear export of Id3 counteracts its transcriptional repression activity. -- Abstract: Ids are versatile transcriptional repressors that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, and appropriate subcellular localization of the Id proteins is important for their functions. We previously identified distinct functional nuclear export signals (NESs) in Id1 and Id2, but no active NES has been reported in Id3. In this study, we found that treatment with the stress-inducing metalloid arsenite led to the accumulation of GFP-tagged Id3 in the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic accumulation was impaired by a mutation in the Id3 NES-like sequence resembling the Id1 NES, located at the end of the HLH domain. It was also blocked by co-treatment with the CRM1-specific nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB), but not with the inhibitors for mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Importantly, we showed that the closely spaced N-terminal cysteine residues of Id3 interacted with the arsenic derivative phenylarsine oxide (PAO) and were essential for the arsenite-induced cytoplasmic accumulation, suggesting that arsenite induces the CRM1-dependent nuclear export of Id3 via binding to the N-terminal cysteines. Finally, we demonstrated that Id3 significantly repressed arsenite-stimulated transcription of the immediate-early gene Egr-1 and that this repression activity was inversely correlated with the arsenite-induced nuclear export. Our results imply that Id3 may be involved in the biological action of arsenite.

  11. Regulation of limited N-terminal proteolysis of APE1 in tumor via acetylation and its role in cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bhakat, Kishor K.; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Adeniyi, Victor F.; Roychoudhury, Shrabasti; Nath, Somsubhra; Bellot, Larry J.; Feng, Dan; Mantha, Anil K.; Sinha, Mala; Qiu, Suimin; Luxon, Bruce A.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1), a ubiquitous and multifunctional protein, plays an essential role in the repair of both endogenous and drug-induced DNA damages in the genome. Unlike its E.coli counterpart Xth, mammalian APE1 has a unique N-terminal domain and possesses both DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulatory functions. Although the overexpression of APE1 in diverse cancer types and the association of APE1 expression with chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis are well documented, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that alter APE1 functions during tumorigenesis are largely unknown. Here, we show the presence of full-length APE1 and N-terminal truncated isoforms of APE1 in tumor tissue samples of various cancer types. However, primary tumor tissue has higher levels of acetylated APE1 (AcAPE1) as well as full-length APE1 compared to adjacent non-tumor tissue. We found that APE1 is proteolytically cleaved by an unknown serine protease at its N-terminus following residue lysine (Lys) Lys6 and/or Lys7 and after Lys27 and Lys31 or Lys32. Acetylation of these Lys residues in APE1 prevents this proteolysis. The N-terminal domain of APE1 and its acetylation are required for modulation of the expression of hundreds of genes. Importantly, we found that AcAPE1 is essential for sustained cell proliferation. Together, our study demonstrates that increased acetylation levels of APE1 in tumor cells inhibit the limited N-terminal proteolysis of APE1 and thereby maintain the functions of APE1 to promote tumor cells' sustained proliferation and survival. PMID:26981776

  12. Magnetic immunoaffinity enrichment for selective capture and MS/MS analysis of N-terminal-TMPP-labeled peptides.

    PubMed

    Bland, Céline; Bellanger, Laurent; Armengaud, Jean

    2014-02-01

    Proteogenomics is the alliance of proteomics and genomics with the aim of better annotating structural genes based on experimental, protein-based data items established by tandem mass spectrometry. While, on average, more than one-tenth of protein N-termini are incorrectly annotated, there is a crucial need for methodological approaches to systematically establish the translational starts of polypeptides, and their maturations, such as N-terminal methionine processing and peptide signal excision. Refinement of genome annotation through correction of wrongly annotation initiation start site and detection of unannotated genes can be achieved after enrichment and detection of protein N-termini by mass spectrometry. Here we describe a straightforward strategy to specifically label protein N-termini with a positively charged TMPP label to selectively capture these entities with in-house-developed anti-TMPP antibodies coupled to magnetic beads and to analyze them by nanoLC-MS/MS. While most N-terminomics-oriented approaches are based on the depletion of internal peptides to retrieve N-terminal peptides, this enrichment approach is fast and the results are highly specific for improved, ionizable, TMPP-labeled peptides. The whole proteome of the model marine bacterium, Roseobacter denitrificans, was analyzed, leading to the identification of more than twice the number of N-terminal peptides compared with the nonenriched fraction. A total of 269 proteins were characterized in terms of their N-termini. In addition, three unannotated genes were identified based on multiple, redundant N-terminal peptides. Our strategy greatly simplifies the systematic and automatic proteogenomic annotation of genomes as well as degradomics-oriented approaches, focusing the mass spectrometric efforts on the most crucial enriched fractions. PMID:24313271

  13. N-Terminal Protein Characterization by Mass Spectrometry Using Combined Microscale Liquid and Solid-phase Derivatization

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Heinz; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue; Hawke, David H.

    2014-01-01

    A sample-preparation method for N-terminal peptide isolation from protein proteolytic digests has been developed. Protein thiols and primary amines were protected by carboxyamidomethylation and acetylation, respectively, followed by trypsinization. The digest was bound to ZipTipC18 pipette tips for reaction of the newly generated N-termini with sulfosuccinimidyl-6-[3′-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionamido] hexanoate. The digest was subsequently exposed to hydroxylamine for reversal of hydroxyl group acylation, followed by reductive release of the pyridine-2-thione moiety from the derivatives. The thiol group-functionalized internal and C-terminal peptides were reversibly captured by covalent chromatography on activated thiol sepharose leaving the N-terminal fragment free in solution. The use of the reversed-phase supports as a reaction bed enabled optimization of the serial modification steps for throughput and completeness of derivatization. The use of the sample-preparation method was demonstrated with low picomole amounts of in-solution- and in-gel-digested protein. The N-terminal peptide was selectively retrieved from the affinity support. The sample-preparation method provides for throughput, robustness, and simplicity of operation using standard equipment available in most biological laboratories and is anticipated to be readily expanded to proteome-wide applications. PMID:25187758

  14. Antigenic modules in the N-terminal S1 region of the transmissible gastroenteritis virus spike protein

    PubMed Central

    Reguera, Juan; Ordoño, Desiderio; Santiago, César; Enjuanes, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The N-terminal S1 region of the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike (S) glycoprotein contains four antigenic sites (C, B, D and A, from the N- to the C-terminal end) and is engaged in host-cell receptor recognition. The most N-terminal portion of the S1 region, which comprises antigenic sites C and B, is needed for the enteric tropism of TGEV, whereas the major antigenic site A at the C-terminal moiety is required for both respiratory and enteric cell tropism, and is engaged in recognition of the aminopeptidase N (APN) receptor. This study determined the kinetics for binding of a soluble S1 protein to the APN protein. Moreover, the S1 region of the TGEV S protein was dissected, with the aim of identifying discrete modules displaying unique antigenic sites and receptor-binding functions. Following protease treatments and mammalian cell expression methods, four modules or domains (D1–D4) were defined at the S1 region. Papain treatment identified an N-terminal domain (D1) resistant to proteolysis, whereas receptor binding defined a soluble and functional APN receptor-binding domain (D3). This domain was recognized by neutralizing antibodies belonging to the antigenic site A and therefore could be used as an immunogen for the prevention of viral infection. The organization of the four modules in the S1 region of the TGEV S glycoprotein is discussed. PMID:21228126

  15. Two-dimensional 1H NMR studies of cytochrome c: hydrogen exchange in the N-terminal helix

    SciTech Connect

    Wand, A.J.; Roder, H.; Englander, S.W.

    1986-03-11

    The hydrogen exchange behavior of the N-terminal helical segment in horse heart cytochrome c was studied in both the reduced and the oxidized forms by use of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The amide protons of the first six residues are not H bonded and exchange rapidly with solvent protons. The most N-terminal H-bonded groups--the amide NH of Lys-7 to Phe-10--exhibit a sharp gradient in exchange rate indicative of dynamic fraying behavior, consistent with statistical-mechanical principles. This occurs identically in both reduced and oxidized cytochrome c. In the oxidized form, residues 11-14, which form the last helical turn, all exchange with a similar rate, about one million times slower than the rate characteristic of freely exposed peptide NH, even though some are on the aqueous face of the helix and others are fully buried. These and similar observations in several other proteins appear to document local cooperative unfolding reactions as determinants of protein H exchange reactions. The N-terminal segment of cytochrome c is insensitive to the heme redox state, as in the crystallographic model, except for residues closest to the heme (Cys-14 and Ala-15), which exchange about 15-fold more slowly in the reduced form. The cytochrome c H exchange results can be further considered in terms of the conformation of the native and the transiently unfolded forms and their free energy relationships in both the reduced and the oxidized states.

  16. Purification and antimicrobial activity studies of the N-terminal fragment of ubiquitin from human amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Young; Lee, Sun Young; Park, Seong-Cheol; Shin, Song Yub; Choi, Sang Joon; Park, Yoonkyung; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2007-09-01

    A 4.3-kDa antimicrobial peptide was isolated from human amniotic fluid by dialysis, ultrafiltration, and C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. This peptide, which we named Amniotic Fluid Peptide-1 (AFP-1), possessed antimicrobial activity but lacked hemolytic activity. In addition, AFP-1 potently inhibited the growth of a variety of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus), filamentous fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus fumigatus, Neurospora crassa and Fusarium oxysporum) and yeast cells (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Automated Edman degradation showed that the N-terminal sequence of AFP-1 was NH(2)-Met-Gln-Ile-Phe-Val-Lys-Thr-Leu-Thr-Gly-Lys-Thr-Ile-Thr-Leu-Glu-Val-Glu-. The partial sequence had 100% homology to the N-terminal sequence of ubiquitin. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed that the molecular mass of AFP-1 was 4280.2 Da. Our data show an antimicrobial activity of ubiquitin N-terminal derived peptide that makes it suitable for use as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:17669700

  17. Unique N-terminal Arm of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PhoP Protein Plays an Unusual Role in Its Regulatory Function*

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arijit Kumar; Kumar, Vijjamarri Anil; Sevalkar, Ritesh Rajesh; Bansal, Roohi; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis PhoP, a master regulator involved in complex lipid biosynthesis and expression of unknown virulence determinants, is composed of an N-terminal receiver domain and a C-terminal effector domain. The two experimentally characterized PhoP orthologs, from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, display vastly different regulatory capabilities. Here, we demonstrate that the 20-residue-long N-terminal arm unique to M. tuberculosis PhoP plays an essential role in the expanded regulatory capabilities of this important regulator. Although the arm is not required for overall structural stability and/or phosphorylation of the PhoP N-domain, strikingly it is essential for phosphorylation-coupled transcription regulation of target genes. Consistent with this view, arm truncation of PhoP is accompanied by a conformational change of the effector domain, presenting a block in activation subsequent to phosphorylation. These results suggest that presence of the arm, unique to this regulator that shares an otherwise highly conserved domain structure with members of the protein family, contributes to the mechanism of inter-domain interactions. Thus, we propose that the N-terminal arm is an adaptable structural feature of M. tuberculosis PhoP, which evolved to fine-tune regulatory capabilities of the transcription factor in response to the changing physiology of the bacilli within its host. PMID:23963455

  18. N-Terminal Coiled-Coil Structure of ATPase Subunits of 26S Proteasome Is Crucial for Proteasome Function

    PubMed Central

    Inobe, Tomonao; Genmei, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    The proteasome is an essential proteolytic machine in eukaryotic cells, where it removes damaged proteins and regulates many cellular activities by degrading ubiquitinated proteins. Its heterohexameric AAA+ ATPase Rpt subunits play a central role in proteasome activity by the engagement of substrate unfolding and translocation for degradation; however, its detailed mechanism remains poorly understood. In contrast to AAA+ ATPase domains, their N-terminal regions of Rpt subunits substantially differ from each other. Here, to investigate the requirements and roles of the N-terminal regions of six Rpt subunits derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we performed systematic mutational analysis using conditional knockdown yeast strains for each Rpt subunit and bacterial heterologous expression system of the base subcomplex. We showed that the formation of the coiled-coil structure was the most important for the N-terminal region of Rpt subunits. The primary role of coiled-coil structure would be the maintenance of the ring structure with the defined order. However, the coiled-coil region would be also be involved in substrate recognition and an interaction between lid and base subcomplexes. PMID:26208326

  19. The autolysis of human HtrA1 is governed by the redox state of its N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Risør, Michael W; Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Thomsen, Line R; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Nielsen, Tania A; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Enghild, Jan J

    2014-06-17

    Human HtrA1 (high-temperature requirement protein A1) belongs to a conserved family of serine proteases involved in protein quality control and cell fate. The homotrimeric ubiquitously expressed protease has chymotrypsin-like specificity and primarily targets hydrophobic stretches in selected or misfolded substrate proteins. In addition, the enzyme is capable of exerting autolytic activity by removing the N-terminal insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)/Kazal-like tandem motif without affecting the protease activity. In this study, we have addressed the mechanism governing the autolytic activity and find that it depends on the integrity of the disulfide bonds in the N-terminal IGFBP/Kazal-like domain. The specificity of the autolytic cleavage reveals a strong preference for cysteine in the P1 position of HtrA1, explaining the lack of autolysis prior to disulfide reduction. Significantly, the disulfides were reduced by thioredoxin, suggesting that autolysis of HtrA1 in vivo is linked to the endogenous redox balance and that the N-terminal domain acts as a redox-sensing switch. PMID:24846539

  20. Site-Specific Labeling of Protein Lysine Residues and N-Terminal Amino Groups with Indoles and Indole-Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Larda, Sacha Thierry; Pichugin, Dmitry; Prosser, Robert Scott

    2015-12-16

    Indoles and indole-derivatives can be used to site-specifically label proteins on lysine and N-terminal amino groups under mild, nondenaturing reaction conditions. Hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and α-lactalbumin were labeled with indole, fluoroindole, or fluoroindole-2-carboxylate via electrophilic aromatic substitutions to lysine side chain Nε- and N-terminal amino imines, formed in situ in the presence of formaldehyde. The reaction is highly site-selective, easily controlled by temperature, and does not eliminate the native charge of the protein, unlike many other common lysine-specific labeling strategies. (19)F NMR was used to monitor reaction progression, and in the case of HEWL, unique resonances for each labeled side chain could be resolved. We demonstrate that the indole tags are highly selective for primary amino groups. (19)F NMR demonstrates that each lysine exhibits a different rate of conjugation to indoles making it possible to employ these tags as a means of probing surface topology by NMR or mass spectrometry. Given the site-specificity of this tagging method, the mildness of the reaction conditions (aqueous, buffered, or unbuffered) and the low stoichiometry required for the reaction, indole-derivatives should serve as a valuable addition to the bioconjugation toolkit. We propose that labeling lysine side chains and N-terminal amino groups with indoles is a versatile and general strategy for bioconjugations with substituted indoles having broad implications for protein functionalization. PMID:26587689

  1. Human cap methyltransferase (RNMT) N-terminal non-catalytic domain mediates recruitment to transcription initiation sites

    PubMed Central

    Aregger, Michael; Cowling, Victoria H.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression in eukaryotes is dependent on the mRNA methyl cap which mediates mRNA processing and translation initiation. Synthesis of the methyl cap initiates with the addition of 7-methylguanosine to the initiating nucleotide of RNA pol II (polymerase II) transcripts, which occurs predominantly during transcription and in mammals is catalysed by RNGTT (RNA guanylyltransferase and 5′ phosphatase) and RNMT (RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase). RNMT has a methyltransferase domain and an N-terminal domain whose function is unclear; it is conserved in mammals, but not required for cap methyltransferase activity. In the present study we report that the N-terminal domain is necessary and sufficient for RNMT recruitment to transcription initiation sites and that recruitment occurs in a DRB (5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole)-dependent manner. The RNMT-activating subunit, RAM (RNMT-activating miniprotein), is also recruited to transcription initiation sites via an interaction with RNMT. The RNMT N-terminal domain is required for transcript expression, translation and cell proliferation. PMID:23863084

  2. The Sec7 N-terminal regulatory domains facilitate membrane-proximal activation of the Arf1 GTPase

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Brian C; Halaby, Steve L; Gustafson, Margaret A; Fromme, J Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi complex is the central sorting compartment of eukaryotic cells. Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Arf-GEFs) regulate virtually all traffic through the Golgi by activating Arf GTPase trafficking pathways. The Golgi Arf-GEFs contain multiple autoregulatory domains, but the precise mechanisms underlying their function remain largely undefined. We report a crystal structure revealing that the N-terminal DCB and HUS regulatory domains of the Arf-GEF Sec7 form a single structural unit. We demonstrate that the established role of the N-terminal region in dimerization is not conserved; instead, a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain is responsible for dimerization of Sec7. We find that the DCB/HUS domain amplifies the ability of Sec7 to activate Arf1 on the membrane surface by facilitating membrane insertion of the Arf1 amphipathic helix. This enhancing function of the Sec7 N-terminal domains is consistent with the high rate of Arf1-dependent trafficking to the plasma membrane necessary for maximal cell growth. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12411.001 PMID:26765562

  3. Extensive cell migration, axon regeneration and improved function with polysialic acid-modified Schwann cells after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mousumi; Tuesta, Luis M.; Puentes, Rocio; Patel, Samik; Melendez, Kiara; Maarouf, Abderrahman El; Rutishauser, Urs; Pearse, Damien Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells (SC) implantation after spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes axonal regeneration, remyelination repair and functional recovery. Reparative efficacy, however, may be limited due to the inability of SCs to migrate outward from the lesion-implant site. Altering SC cell surface properties by over-expressing polysialic acid (PSA) has been shown to promote SC migration. In the current study, a SCI contusion was used to evaluate the migration, supraspinal axon growth support and functional recovery associated with polysialyltransferase (PST)-over-expressing SCs (PST-GFP SCs) or controls (GFP SCs). Compared to GFP SCs, which remained confined to the injection site at the injury center, PST-GFP SCs migrated across the lesion:host cord interface for distances of up to 4.4 mm within adjacent host tissue. In addition, with PST-GFP SCs, there was extensive serotonergic and corticospinal axon in-growth within the implants that was limited in the GFP SC controls. The enhanced migration of PST-GFP SCs was accompanied by significant growth of these axons caudal to lesion. Animals receiving PST-GFP SCs exhibited improved functional outcome, both in the open-field and on the gridwalk test, over modest improvements provided by GFP SC controls. The current study for the first time demonstrates that a lack of migration by SC may hinder their reparative benefits and that cell surface overexpression of PSA enhances the ability of implanted SCs to associate with and support the growth of corticospinal axons. These results provide further promise that PSA modified SCs will be a potent reparative approach for SCI. PMID:22460918

  4. Extensive cell migration, axon regeneration, and improved function with polysialic acid-modified Schwann cells after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mousumi; Tuesta, Luis M; Puentes, Rocio; Patel, Samik; Melendez, Kiara; El Maarouf, Abderrahman; Rutishauser, Urs; Pearse, Damien Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Schwann cell (SC) implantation after spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes axonal regeneration, remyelination repair, and functional recovery. Reparative efficacy, however, may be limited because of the inability of SCs to migrate outward from the lesion-implant site. Altering SC cell surface properties by overexpressing polysialic acid (PSA) has been shown to promote SC migration. In this study, a SCI contusion model was used to evaluate the migration, supraspinal axon growth support, and functional recovery associated with polysialyltransferase (PST)-overexpressing SCs [PST-green fluorescent protein (GFP) SCs] or controls (GFP SCs). Compared with GFP SCs, which remained confined to the injection site at the injury center, PST-GFP SCs migrated across the lesion:host cord interface for distances of up to 4.4 mm within adjacent host tissue. In addition, with PST-GFP SCs, there was extensive serotonergic and corticospinal axon in-growth within the implants that was limited in the GFP SC controls. The enhanced migration of PST-GFP SCs was accompanied by significant growth of these axons caudal to lesion. Animals receiving PST-GFP SCs exhibited improved functional outcome, both in the open-field and on the gridwalk test, beyond the modest improvements provided by GFP SC controls. This study for the first time demonstrates that a lack of migration by SCs may hinder their reparative benefits and that cell surface overexpression of PSA enhances the ability of implanted SCs to associate with and support the growth of corticospinal axons. These results provide further promise that PSA-modified SCs will be a potent reparative approach for SCI. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22460918

  5. Specific binding sites for proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, H; Hirata, Y; Iwashina, M; Sato, K; Marumo, F

    1996-07-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM), a potent and novel vasodilator 52-residue peptide originally isolated from pheochromocytoma, is processed from a precursor molecule (preproAM) in which another unique 20-residue sequence, termed proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP), exists. Using [125I Tyr0] rat PAMP as a radioligand, we have examined PAMP binding sites in various rat tissues and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from rat aorta. Specific binding sites for rat PAMP, although very low, were widely distributed in various rat tissues examined. The relatively more abundant sites were present in aorta and adrenal glands, followed by lung, kidney, brain, spleen, and heart. An equilibrium binding study using cultured rat VSMC revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity [dissociation constant (Kd): 3.5 x 10(-8) M] binding sites for rat PAMP with a maximal binding capacity of 4.5 x 10(6) sites per cell. Binding studies revealed that synthetic rat PAMP(1-19)-NH2 was about 10-fold less potent, and rat PAMP(1-20)-OH and human PAMP were about 20-fold less potent than rat PAMP(1-20)-NH2. SDS-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis after affinity-labeling of membranes from various rat tissues (aorta, adrenal glands, lung) and VSMC revealed a distinct labeled band with the apparent molecular mass of 90 kDa, which was diminished by excess unlabeled rat PAMP. A nonhydrolyzable GTP analog (GTP-gammaS) dose-dependently reduced binding of [125I] rat PAMP to VSMC membranes, while ATP-gammaS had no effect. Neither cyclic AMP nor inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate formation was affected by rat PAMP in rat VSMC. The present study demonstrates for the first time that PAMP receptors are widely distributed in various rat tissues, among which aorta and adrenal glands have the most abundant sites. Our data suggest that PAMP receptors are functionally coupled to G-proteins, although its signal transduction remains obscure. The present study also shows that amidation of C-terminal residue

  6. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Class of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Hanks, Tracey S.; Kochetkova, Irina; Pascual, David W.; Jutila, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    In efforts to identify novel small molecules with anti-inflammatory properties, we discovered a unique series of tetracyclic indenoquinoxaline derivatives that inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear factor-κB/activating protein 1 activation. Compound IQ-1 (11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one oxime) was found to be a potent, noncytotoxic inhibitor of pro-inflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon-γ, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor] and nitric oxide production by human and murine monocyte/macrophages. Three additional potent inhibitors of cytokine production were identified through further screening of IQ-1 analogs. The sodium salt of IQ-1 inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in MonoMac-6 cells with IC50 values of 0.25 and 0.61 μM, respectively. Screening of 131 protein kinases revealed that derivative IQ-3 [11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one-O-(2-furoyl)oxime]was a specific inhibitor of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) family, with preference for JNK3. This compound, as well as IQ-1 and three additional oxime indenoquinoxalines, were found to be high-affinity JNK inhibitors with nanomolar binding affinity and ability to inhibit c-Jun phosphorylation. Furthermore, docking studies showed that hydrogen bonding interactions of the active indenoquinoxalines with Asn152, Gln155, and Met149 of JNK3 played an important role in enzyme binding activity. Finally, we showed that the sodium salt of IQ-1 had favorable pharmacokinetics and inhibited the ovalbumin-induced CD4+ T-cell immune response in a murine delayed-type hypersensitivity model in vivo. We conclude that compounds with an indenoquinoxaline nucleus can serve as specific small-molecule modulators for mechanistic studies of JNKs as well as a potential leads for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:22434859

  7. Structure and properties of a dimeric N-terminal fragment of human ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Bolton, D; Evans, P A; Stott, K; Broadhurst, R W

    2001-12-01

    Previous peptide dissection and kinetic experiments have indicated that in vitro folding of ubiquitin may proceed via transient species in which native-like structure has been acquired in the first 45 residues. A peptide fragment, UQ(1-51), encompassing residues 1 to 51 of ubiquitin was produced in order to test whether this portion has propensity for independent self-assembly. Surprisingly, the construct formed a folded symmetrical dimer that was stabilised by 0.8 M sodium sulphate at 298 K (the S state). The solution structure of the UQ(1-51) dimer was determined by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Each subunit of UQ(1-51) consists of an N-terminal beta-hairpin followed by an alpha-helix and a final beta-strand, with orientations similar to intact ubiquitin. The dimer is formed by the third beta-strand of one subunit interleaving between the hairpin and third strand of the other to give a six-stranded beta-sheet, with the two alpha-helices sitting on top. The helix-helix and strand portions of the dimer interface also mimic related features in the structure of ubiquitin. The structural specificity of the UQ(1-51) peptide is tuneable: as the concentration of sodium sulphate is decreased, near-native alternative conformations are populated in slow chemical exchange. Magnetization transfer experiments were performed to characterize the various species present in 0.35 M sodium sulphate, namely the S state and two minor forms. Chemical shift differences suggest that one minor form is very similar to the S state, while the other experiences a significant conformational change in the third strand. A segmental rearrangement of the third strand in one subunit of the S state would render the dimer asymmetric, accounting for most of our results. Similar small-scale transitions in proteins are often invoked to explain solvent exchange at backbone amide proton sites that have an intermediate level of protection. PMID:11733996

  8. N-terminal domains of native multidomain proteins have the potential to assist de novo folding of their downstream domains in vivo by acting as solubility enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Woo; Han, Kyoung Sim; Ryu, Ki-Sun; Kim, Byung Hee; Kim, Kyun-Hwan; Choi, Seong Il; Seong, Baik L.

    2007-01-01

    The fusion of soluble partner to the N terminus of aggregation-prone polypeptide has been popularly used to overcome the formation of inclusion bodies in the E. coli cytosol. The chaperone-like functions of the upstream fusion partner in the artificial multidomain proteins could occur in de novo folding of native multidomain proteins. Here, we show that the N-terminal domains of three E. coli multidomain proteins such as lysyl-tRNA synthetase, threonyl-tRNA synthetase, and aconitase are potent solubility enhancers for various C-terminal heterologous proteins. The results suggest that the N-terminal domains could act as solubility enhancers for the folding of their authentic C-terminal domains in vivo. Tandem repeat of N-terminal domain or insertion of aspartic residues at the C terminus of the N-terminal domain also increased the solubility of fusion proteins, suggesting that the solubilizing ability correlates with the size and charge of N-terminal domains. The solubilizing ability of N-terminal domains would contribute to the autonomous folding of multidomain proteins in vivo, and based on these results, we propose a model of how N-terminal domains solubilize their downstream domains. PMID:17384228