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Sample records for acid n-terminal sequence

  1. Complete amino acid sequence of the N-terminal extension of calf skin type III procollagen.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, A; Glanville, R W; Hörlein, D; Bruckner, P; Timpl, R; Fietzek, P P; Kühn, K

    1984-01-01

    The N-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen, isolated from foetal-calf skin, contains 130 amino acid residues. To determine its amino acid sequence, the peptide was reduced and carboxymethylated or aminoethylated and fragmented with trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase and bacterial collagenase. Pyroglutamate aminopeptidase was used to deblock the N-terminal collagenase fragment to enable amino acid sequencing. The type III collagen extension peptide is homologous to that of the alpha 1 chain of type I procollagen with respect to a three-domain structure. The N-terminal 79 amino acids, which contain ten of the 12 cysteine residues, form a compact globular domain. The next 39 amino acids are in a collagenase triplet sequence (Gly- Xaa - Yaa )n with a high hydroxyproline content. Finally, another short non-collagenous domain of 12 amino acids ends at the cleavage site for procollagen aminopeptidase, which cleaves a proline-glutamine bond. In contrast with type I procollagen, the type III procollagen extension peptides contain interchain disulphide bridges located at the C-terminus of the triple-helical domain. PMID:6331392

  2. Peptide Mass Fingerprinting and N-Terminal Amino Acid Sequencing of Glycosylated Cysteine Protease of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham.

    PubMed Central

    Badgujar, Shamkant B.; Mahajan, Raghunath T.

    2013-01-01

    A new cysteine protease named Nivulian-II has been purified from the latex of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. The apparent molecular mass of Nivulian-II is 43670.846 Da (MALDI TOF/MS). Peptide mass fingerprint analysis revealed peptide matches to Maturase K (Q52ZV1_9MAGN) of Banksia quercifolia. The N-terminal sequence (DFPPNTCCCICC) showed partial homology with those of other cysteine proteinases of biological origin. This is the first paper to characterize a Nivulian-II of E. nivulia latex with respect to amino acid sequencing. PMID:23476742

  3. Predicting subcellular localization of proteins based on their N-terminal amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Emanuelsson, O; Nielsen, H; Brunak, S; von Heijne, G

    2000-07-21

    A neural network-based tool, TargetP, for large-scale subcellular location prediction of newly identified proteins has been developed. Using N-terminal sequence information only, it discriminates between proteins destined for the mitochondrion, the chloroplast, the secretory pathway, and "other" localizations with a success rate of 85% (plant) or 90% (non-plant) on redundancy-reduced test sets. From a TargetP analysis of the recently sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana chromosomes 2 and 4 and the Ensembl Homo sapiens protein set, we estimate that 10% of all plant proteins are mitochondrial and 14% chloroplastic, and that the abundance of secretory proteins, in both Arabidopsis and Homo, is around 10%. TargetP also predicts cleavage sites with levels of correctly predicted sites ranging from approximately 40% to 50% (chloroplastic and mitochondrial presequences) to above 70% (secretory signal peptides). TargetP is available as a web-server at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/TargetP/.

  4. Sequence dependent N-terminal rearrangement and degradation of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in aqueous solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksson, M.; Christensen, L.; Schmidt, J.; Haaima, G.; Orgel, L.; Nielsen, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    The stability of the PNA (peptide nucleic acid) thymine monomer inverted question markN-[2-(thymin-1-ylacetyl)]-N-(2-aminoaminoethyl)glycine inverted question mark and those of various PNA oligomers (5-8-mers) have been measured at room temperature (20 degrees C) as a function of pH. The thymine monomer undergoes N-acyl transfer rearrangement with a half-life of 34 days at pH 11 as analyzed by 1H NMR; and two reactions, the N-acyl transfer and a sequential degradation, are found by HPLC analysis to occur at measurable rates for the oligomers at pH 9 or above. Dependent on the amino-terminal sequence, half-lives of 350 h to 163 days were found at pH 9. At pH 12 the half-lives ranged from 1.5 h to 21 days. The results are discussed in terms of PNA as a gene therapeutic drug as well as a possible prebiotic genetic material.

  5. The ABRF Edman Sequencing Research Group 2008 Study: Investigation into Homopolymeric Amino Acid N-Terminal Sequence Tags and Their Effects on Automated Edman Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, R. S.; Smith, J. S.; Sandoval, W.; Leone, J. W.; Hunziker, P.; Hampton, B.; Linse, K. D.; Denslow, N. D.

    2009-01-01

    The Edman Sequence Research Group (ESRG) of the Association of Biomolecular Resource designs and executes interlaboratory studies investigating the use of automated Edman degradation for protein and peptide analysis. In 2008, the ESRG enlisted the help of core sequencing facilities to investigate the effects of a repeating amino acid tag at the N-terminus of a protein. Commonly, to facilitate protein purification, an affinity tag containing a polyhistidine sequence is conjugated to the N-terminus of the protein. After expression, polyhistidine-tagged protein is readily purified via chelation with an immobilized metal affinity resin. The addition of the polyhistidine tag presents unique challenges for the determination of protein identity using Edman degradation chemistry. Participating laboratories were asked to sequence one protein engineered in three configurations: with an N-terminal polyhistidine tag; with an N-terminal polyalanine tag; or with no tag. Study participants were asked to return a data file containing the uncorrected amino acid picomole yields for the first 17 cycles. Initial and repetitive yield (R.Y.) information and the amount of lag were evaluated. Information about instrumentation and sample treatment was also collected as part of the study. For this study, the majority of participating laboratories successfully called the amino acid sequence for 17 cycles for all three test proteins. In general, laboratories found it more difficult to call the sequence containing the polyhistidine tag. Lag was observed earlier and more consistently with the polyhistidine-tagged protein than the polyalanine-tagged protein. Histidine yields were significantly less than the alanine yields in the tag portion of each analysis. The polyhistidine and polyalanine protein-R.Y. calculations were found to be equivalent. These calculations showed that the nontagged portion from each protein was equivalent. The terminal histidines from the tagged portion of the protein

  6. Biosynthesis, glycosylation, and partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the T-cell-activating protein TAP.

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, H; Coligan, J; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1987-01-01

    We have characterized the TAP molecule, an Ly-6 linked T-cell-activating glycoprotein. The three TAP bands that are precipitated from metabolically labeled cells display a common migration pattern in isoelectric focusing/NaDodSO4/PAGE gels and have common N-terminal sequences. This sequence is rich in cysteine and is homologous to that previously reported for the Ly-6.1E antigen. We, therefore, compared TAP and Ly-6.1E biochemically and found them to be structurally distinct. Given the role of TAP in T-cell activation, we further studied whether the molecule was phosphorylated. We have not found evidence for phosphorylation of the TAP protein. The carbohydrates present on the TAP molecule are resistant to peptide N-glycosidase F in vitro and tunicamycin in vivo. The upper band of the TAP triplet is susceptible to treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid and thus seems to be of the O-linked rather than of the N-linked variety. The biosynthetic processing of TAP was studied in pulse-chase experiments. The middle band of the TAP triplet appears to be the earliest detectable species. Its conversion to the O-linked high molecular weight species can be blocked by monensin. Images PMID:3033645

  7. Biosynthesis, glycosylation, and partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the T-cell-activating protein TAP

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, H.; Coligan, J.; Benacerraf, B.; Rock, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have characterized the TAP molecule, an Ly-6 linked T-cell-activating glycoprotein. The three TAP bands that are precipitated from metabolically labeled cells display a common migration pattern in isoelectric focusing/NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE gels and have common N-terminal sequences. This sequence is rich in cysteine and is homologous to that previously reported for the Ly-6.1E antigen. They therefore, compared TAP and Ly-6.1E biochemically and found them to be structurally distinct. Given the role of TAP in T-cell activation, they further studied whether the molecule was phosphorylated. We have not found evidence for phosphorylation of the TAP protein. The carbohydrates present on the TAP molecule are resistant to peptide N-glycosidase F in vitro and tunicamycin in vivo. The upper band of the TAP triplet is susceptible to treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid and thus seems to be of the O-linked rather than of the N-linked variety. The biosynthetic processing of TAP was studied in pulse-chase experiments. The middle band of the TAP triplet appears to be the earliest detectable species. Its conversion to the O-linked high molecular weight species can be blocked by monensin.

  8. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence comparisons of structural proteins from retrovirus-D/Washington and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, L E; Sowder, R; Smythers, G; Benveniste, R E; Oroszlan, S

    1985-01-01

    A new D-type retrovirus originally designated SAIDS-D/Washington and here referred to as retrovirus-D/Washington (R-D/W) was recently isolated at the University of Washington Primate Center, Seattle, Wash., from a rhesus monkey with an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and retroperitoneal fibromatosis. To better establish the relationship of this new D-type virus to the prototype D-type virus, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), we have purified and compared six structural proteins from each virus. The proteins purified from each D-type retrovirus include p4, p10, p12, p14, p27, and a phosphoprotein designated pp18 for MPMV and pp20 for R-D/W. Amino acid analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis show that the p4, p12, p14, and p27 proteins of R-D/W are distinct from the homologous proteins of MPMV but that these proteins from the two different viruses share a high degree of amino acid sequence homology. The p10 proteins from the two viruses have similar amino acid compositions, and both are blocked to N-terminal Edman degradation. The phosphoproteins from the two viruses each contain phosphoserine but are different from each other in amino acid composition, molecular weight, and N-terminal amino acid sequence. The data thus show that each of the R-D/W proteins examined is distinguishable from its MPMV homolog and that a major difference between these two D-type retroviruses is found in the viral phosphoproteins. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of D-type retroviral proteins were used to search for sequence homologies between D-type and other retroviral amino acid sequences. An unexpected amino acid sequence homology was found between R-D/W pp20 (a gag protein) and a 28-residue segment of the env precursor polyprotein of Rous sarcoma virus. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the D-type major gag protein (p27) and the nucleic acid-binding protein (p14) show only limited amino acid sequence homology to functionally homologous proteins of C

  9. N-terminal amino acid sequences of D-serine deaminases of wild-type and operator-constitutive strains of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Heincz, M C; McFall, E

    1975-01-01

    The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the D-serine deaminases from strains of Escherichia coli K-12 that harbor wild-type and high-level constitutive catabolite-insensitive operator-initiator regions are identical: Met-Ser-GluNH2-Ser-Gly-Arg-His-Cys. This result indicates that the operator-initiator region is probably distinct from the D-serine deaminase structural gene. Images PMID:1099073

  10. The characterization of Mycoplasma synoviae EF-Tu protein and proteins involved in hemadherence and their N-terminal amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Bencina, D; Narat, M; Dovc, P; Drobnic-Valic, M; Habe, F; Kleven, S H

    1999-04-01

    An abundant cytoplasmic 43-kDa protein from Mycoplasma synoviae, a major pathogen from poultry, was identified as elongation factor Tu. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (AKLDFDRSKEHVNVGTIGHV) has 90% identity with the sequence of the Mycoplasma hominis elongation factor Tu protein. Monoclonal antibodies reacting with the M. synoviae elongation factor Tu protein also reacted with 43-kDa proteins from the avian Mycoplasma species Mycoplasma gallinarum, Mycoplasma gallinaceum, Mycoplasma pullorum, Mycoplasma cloacale, Mycoplasma iners and Mycoplasma meleagridis, but not with the proteins from Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma imitans or Mycoplasma iowae. In addition, two groups of phase variable integral membrane proteins, pMSA and pMSB, associated with hemadherence and pathogenicity of M. synoviae strains AAY-4 and ULB925 were identified. The cleavage of a larger hemagglutinating protein encoded by a gene homologous to the vlhA gene of M. synoviae generates pMSB1 and pMSA1 proteins defined by mAb 125 and by hemagglutination inhibiting mAb 3E10, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of pMSA proteins (SENKLI ... and SENETQ ...) probably indicate the cleavage site of the M. synoviae strain ULB 925 hemagglutinin.

  11. N-terminal sequence analysis of proteins and peptides.

    PubMed

    Reim, D F; Speicher, D W

    2001-05-01

    Amino-terminal (N-terminal) sequence analysis is used to identify the order of amino acids of proteins or peptides, starting at their N-terminal end. This unit describes the sequence analysis of protein or peptide samples in solution or bound to PVDF membranes using a Perkin-Elmer Procise Sequencer. Sequence analysis of protein or peptide samples in solution or bound to PVDF membranes using a Hewlett-Packard Model G1005A sequencer is also described. Methods are provided for optimizing separation of PTH amino acid derivatives on Perkin-Elmer instruments and for increasing the proportion of sample injected onto the PTH analyzer on older Perkin-Elmer instruments by installing a modified sample loop. The amount of data obtained from a single sequencer run is substantial, and careful interpretation of this data by an experienced scientist familiar with the current operation performance of the instrument used for this analysis is critically important. A discussion of data interpretation is therefore provided. Finally, discussion of optimization of sequencer performance as well as possible solutions to frequently encountered problems is included.

  12. Isolation and N-terminal sequencing of a novel cadmium-binding protein from Boletus edulis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin-Hansen, C.; Andersen, R. A.; Steinnes, E.

    2003-05-01

    A Cd-binding protein was isolated from the popular edible mushroom Boletus edulis, which is a hyperaccumulator of both Cd and Hg. Wild-growing samples of B. edulis were collected from soils rich in Cd. Cd radiotracer was added to the crude protein preparation obtained from ethanol precipitation of heat-treated cytosol. Proteins were then further separated in two consecutive steps; gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. In both steps the Cd radiotracer profile showed only one distinct peak, which corresponded well with the profiles of endogenous Cd obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Concentrations of the essential elements Cu and Zn were low in the protein fractions high in Cd. N-terminal sequencing performed on the Cd-binding protein fractions revealed a protein with a novel amino acid sequence, which contained aromatic amino acids as well as proline. Both the N-terminal sequencing and spectrofluorimetric analysis with EDTA and ABD-F (4-aminosulfonyl-7-fluoro-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazole) failed to detect cysteine in the Cd-binding fractions. These findings conclude that the novel protein does not belong to the metallothionein family. The results suggest a role for the protein in Cd transport and storage, and they are of importance in view of toxicology and food chemistry, but also for environmental protection.

  13. N-Terminal signal sequence is required for cellular trafficking and hyaluronan-depolymerization of KIAA1199.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nagaoka, Aya; Nakamura, Sachiko; Tobiishi, Megumi; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Inoue, Shintaro

    2014-01-03

    Recently, we disclosed that KIAA1199-mediated hyaluronan (HA) depolymerization requires an acidic cellular microenvironment (e.g. clathrin-coated vesicles or early endosomes), but no information about the structural basis underlying the cellular targeting and functional modification of KIAA1199 was available. Here, we show that the cleavage of N-terminal 30 amino acids occurs in functionally matured KIAA1199, and the deletion of the N-terminal portion results in altered intracellular trafficking of the molecule and loss of cellular HA depolymerization. These results suggest that the N-terminal portion of KIAA1199 functions as a cleavable signal sequence required for proper KIAA1199 translocation and KIAA1199-mediated HA depolymerization.

  14. Identification, N-terminal region sequencing and similarity analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Cunha, A F; Sousa, M V; Silva, S P; Jesuíno, R S; Soares, C M; Felipe, M S

    1999-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, which is a systemic mycosis in Latin America. This human pathogen is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelium (26 degrees C) and in infected tissues as a yeast form (36 degrees C). The in vitro differentiation process is reversible and dependent on temperature shift. In the present study, the total proteins from both forms of P. brasiliensis (isolate Pb01) were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified. Two of these proteins, PbM46 (mycelium) and PbY20 (yeast), were submitted to automated protein sequencing of their N-terminal regions. The 15 amino acid residue sequence of PbM46, AITKIFALKVYDSSG, is similar to enolases from several sources, and specially those from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (80%) and Candida albicans (67%), when compared to the NR database at NCBI using the BLASTP program. The 34 amino acid residue sequence of PbY20, APKIAIVFYSLYGHIQKLAEAQKKGIEAAGGTAD, could probably represent an allergen protein since it is very similar (90%) to the minor allergen protein of Alternaria alternata and 82% similar to the allergen protein of Cladosporium herbarum. This comparative analysis of proteins from mycelium and yeast forms has allowed the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins, probably related to differential gene expression in P. brasiliensis.

  15. Acute effects of N-terminal progastrin fragments on gastric acid secretion in man.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Jens P; Hansen, Carsten P; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2017-03-01

    We previously identified an N-terminal fragment of progastrin in human antrum and plasma, where it circulates in high concentrations. In this study, we examined the effects of N-terminal progastrin fragments on gastric acid secretion by infusion in healthy individuals. Increasing doses of progastrin fragment 1-35 were infused intravenously during constant gastric acid stimulation by gastrin-17. In addition, the effects of progastrin fragment 1-35, fragment 6-35, and fragment 1-19 on gastrin-17 stimulated acid secretion were tested. The gastrin-17 stimulated acid secretion decreased 30% after administration of a high dose of progastrin fragment 1-35 (P < 0.05). In extension, a 1-h infusion of fragment 1-35 also decreased gastric acid output. In contrast, fragment 6-35 did not affect acid secretion, and a single infusion of gastrin-17 alone did not reveal fading of gastric acid output during the time course of the experiments. The results show that N-terminal fragments of progastrin may acutely affect gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in vivo. Structure-function analysis suggests that the N-terminal pentapeptide of progastrin is required for the effect.

  16. The reaction of iodine and thiol-blocking reagents with human complement components C2 and factor B. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a peptide from C2a containing a free thiol group.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, C; Gagnon, J; Kerr, M A

    1983-01-01

    Human complement components C2 and Factor B each contain one free thiol group/molecule. Reaction with p-chloromercuribenzoate destroyed the haemolytic activity of C2 but had no effect on Factor B. Reaction of C2 with I2 gave a 16-fold enhancement of its haemolytic activity. The pH optimum for the reaction was 7.0. The I2 reacted at the thiol group in C2 with a stoicheiometry of 1 mol of I2/mol of C2. The product of the reaction was unaffected by millimolar concentrations of dithiothreitol; however, azide and cyanide were inhibitory. Reaction with azide did not result in re-expression of the thiol group. Mild oxidation of the thiol group with m-chloroperbenzoic acid did not enhance the haemolytic activity. The results suggest that reaction with I2 causes intramolecular covalent, but not disulphide, bond formation. I2 reacted with Factor B at the free thiol group without affecting the haemolytic activity. A CNBr-cleavage peptide from C2a (obtained by cleavage of C2 by subcomponent C1s) containing the free thiol group was isolated. Automated Edman degradation of the peptide showed that it was the N-terminal peptide of C2a. The free thiol group was identified at position 18. PMID:6555044

  17. Ascorbate as a pro-oxidant: mild N-terminal modification with vinylboronic acids.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Jun; Ball, Zachary T

    2017-02-04

    We describe divergent reactivity of vinylboronic acids for protein modification. In addition to previously reported copper-catalyzed backbone N-H modification, ascorbate in air mediates N-terminal functionalization with the same vinylboronate reagents. This mild and selective aqueous reactivity enables selective single-modification of the B chain of human insulin.

  18. Hydrogen ion titration of 12 S rape seed protein and partial N-terminal sequence of one of it's subunits.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, R; Mahesh, V K; Mallikharjun, P V

    1989-10-01

    The high molecular weight 12 S protein from rape seed was isolated in a homogeneous form and characterized. Six subunits were isolated by PAGE in the presence of SDS and 0.2 M 2-mercaptoethanol. These subunits (s1 to s6) were found in the protein in the weight ratio of 1.32:1.2:1.15:1.0:1.21:1.11. The molecular weights and first two N-terminal amino acids of the isolated subunits were 64,800 and phenylalanine, alanine (s1), 50,650 and valine, tyrosine (s2), 42,500 and phenylalanine, leucine (s3), 28,800 and threonine, glutamic acid (s4), 19,100 and cystine, isoleucine (s5) and 15,600 and alanine, phenylalanine (s6). The number of side chain carboxyl, imidazole and epsilon-amino groups were calculated from the hydrogen ion titrations, which were in agreement with the amino acid assay. Besides, the N-terminal amino acid sequence upto 43 residues for one subunit (s6) is reported using Edman degradation.

  19. Preparation of protein samples for mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of protein samples for mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing is a key step in successfully identifying proteins. Mass spectrometry is a very sensitive technique, and as such, samples must be prepared carefully since they can be subject to contamination of the sample (e.g., due to incomplete subcellular fractionation or purification of a multiprotein complex), overwhelming of the sample by highly abundant proteins, and contamination from skin or hair (keratin can be a very common hit). One goal of sample preparation for mass spec is to reduce the complexity of the sample - in the example presented here, mitochondria are purified, solubilized, and fractionated by sucrose density gradient sedimentation prior to preparative 1D SDS-PAGE. It is important to verify the purity and integrity of the sample so that you can have confidence in the hits obtained. More protein is needed for N-terminal sequencing and ideally it should be purified to a single band when run on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. The example presented here involves stably expressing a tagged protein in HEK293 cells and then isolating the protein by affinity purification and SDS-PAGE.

  20. Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin binds to target cells via the N-terminal 30 amino acids.

    PubMed

    Fukui-Miyazaki, Aya; Ohnishi, Shinya; Kamitani, Shigeki; Abe, Hiroyuki; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko

    2011-03-01

    Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) affects the biological function of host cells by activating intracellular Rho GTPases. The toxin binds to unidentified receptor(s) via 54 N-terminal amino acids, undergoes intramolecular cleavage on the C-terminal side of Arg(44) by furin or furin-like protease, and eventually enters the cytoplasm where the Rho GTPases reside. The binding to the receptor(s) and intramolecular cleavage are essential for DNT to intoxicate cells, and the 54 amino-acid binding domain encompasses the cleavage site, however, it is unclear whether these two events are related. In this study, we could narrow down the cell-binding domain to the N-terminal amino acids 2-30. The region does not contain the furin-recognition site, indicating that the cell binding and the intramolecular cleavage are independent events.

  1. A highly conserved N-terminal sequence for teleost vitellogenin with potential value to the biochemistry, molecular biology and pathology of vitellogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Folmar, L.D.; Denslow, N.D.; Wallace, R.A.; LaFleur, G.; Gross, T.S.; Bonomelli, S.; Sullivan, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    N-terminal amino acid sequences for vitellogenin (Vtg) from six species of teleost fish (striped bass, mummichog, pinfish, brown bullhead, medaka, yellow perch and the sturgeon) are compared with published N-terminal Vtg sequences for the lamprey, clawed frog and domestic chicken. Striped bass and mummichog had 100% identical amino acids between positions 7 and 21, while pinfish, brown bullhead, sturgeon, lamprey, Xenopus and chicken had 87%, 93%, 60%, 47%, 47-60%) for four transcripts and had 40% identical, respectively, with striped bass for the same positions. Partial sequences obtained for medaka and yellow perch were 100% identical between positions 5 to 10. The potential utility of this conserved sequence for studies on the biochemistry, molecular biology and pathology of vitellogenesis is discussed.

  2. An N-terminal glycine-rich sequence contributes to retrovirus trimer of hairpins stability

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Kirilee A.; Maerz, Anne L.; Baer, Severine; Drummer, Heidi E.; Poumbourios, Pantelis . E-mail: apoumbourios@burnet.edu.au

    2007-08-10

    Retroviral transmembrane proteins (TMs) contain a glycine-rich segment linking the N-terminal fusion peptide and coiled coil core. Previously, we reported that the glycine-rich segment (Met-326-Ser-337) of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) TM, gp21, is a determinant of membrane fusion function [K.A. Wilson, S. Baer, A.L. Maerz, M. Alizon, P. Poumbourios, The conserved glycine-rich segment linking the N-terminal fusion peptide to the coiled coil of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein gp21 is a determinant of membrane fusion function, J. Virol. 79 (2005) 4533-4539]. Here we show that the reduced fusion activity of an I334A mutant correlated with a decrease in stability of the gp21 trimer of hairpins conformation, in the context of a maltose-binding protein-gp21 chimera. The stabilizing influence of Ile-334 required the C-terminal membrane-proximal sequence Trp-431-Ser-436. Proline substitution of four of five Gly residues altered gp21 trimer of hairpins stability. Our data indicate that flexibility within and hydrophobic interactions mediated by this region are determinants of gp21 stability and membrane fusion function.

  3. Sequence requirements for Lon-dependent degradation of the Escherichia coli transcription activator SoxS: identification of the SoxS residues critical to proteolysis and specific inhibition of in vitro degradation by a peptide comprised of the N-terminal 21 amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ishita M; Wolf, Richard E

    2006-03-31

    When Escherichia coli encounter redox-cycling compounds that endogenously generate superoxide, the cell's defense response is initiated by the de novo synthesis of SoxS, which then activates transcription of the genes of the SoxRS regulon. Recently, we showed that after the oxidative stress is relieved, the SoxRS system resets by an active process wherein SoxS synthesis ceases and the intrinsically unstable SoxS protein is rapidly degraded, primarily by Lon protease. Here, we use deletion mutants and a library of alanine-stretch mutants of the entire protein to identify the SoxS features responsible for Lon-dependent proteolysis in vivo. We found that the 17 amino acid residues at the SoxS N terminus play the primary role in protease recognition and that the addition of the N-terminal 21 residues of SoxS to the otherwise stable green fluorescent protein is sufficient to signal the chimera for Lon-dependent degradation. With a minimal in vitro degradation system, we confirm the intrinsic instability of SoxS and the sequence requirements for Lon-dependent degradation. Lastly, we demonstrate that the addition of a peptide comprised of the 21 N-terminal amino acid residues of SoxS is able to inhibit specifically the in vitro proteolysis of SoxS.

  4. Requirement of N-terminal amino acid residues of gp41 for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-mediated cell fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, H; Klein, M; Gehrmann, P; Adams, O; Scheid, A

    1995-01-01

    An expression vector was designed to test the structural requirements of the gp41 N terminus for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced membrane fusion. Mutations in the region coding for the N terminus of gp41 were found to disrupt glycoprotein expression because of deleterious effects on the Rev-responsive element (RRE). Insertion of an additional RRE in the 3'-noncoding sequence of env made possible efficient glycoprotein expression, irrespective of the mutations introduced into the RRE in the natural location. This permitted the insertion of the unique restriction site SpeI within the N-terminal sequences of gp41, allowing convenient and efficient mutation of the gp41 N terminus by using double-stranded synthetic oligonucleotides. Mutants with deletions of 1 to 7 amino acids of the N terminus were constructed. Expression and cleavage of all mutants were confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis with anti-gp41 antibodies. The capability of mutants to induce membrane fusion was monitored following transfection of HeLa-T4+ cell lines with wild-type and mutant expression vectors by electroporation and microinjection. The efficiency of cell-fusing activity decreased drastically with deletion of 3 and 4 amino acids and was completely lost with deletion of 5 amino acids. Cotransfection of the parent and mutant expression vectors resulted in reduced cell-fusing activity. The extent of this dominant interference by mutant glycoprotein paralleled the decrease in cell-fusing activity of the mutants alone. This suggests the existence of a specific N-terminal structure required for fusing activity. However, there does not appear to be a stringent requirement for the precise length of the N terminus. This finding is supported by the length variation of this region among natural human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates and is in contrast to the apparent stringency in the length of analogous N-terminal structures of influenza A virus and paramyxovirus fusion

  5. Inhibition of polyglutamine aggregation by SIMILAR huntingtin N-terminal sequences: Prospective molecules for preclinical evaluation in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Burra, Gunasekhar; Thakur, Ashwani Kumar

    2017-04-12

    The mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt) fragments with expanded polyglutamine sequence forms microscopically visible aggregates in neurons, a hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD). The aggregation process and aggregates are possible targets of therapeutic intervention in HD. Due to lack of treatment and cure, the patients die within 15-20 years after the disease onset. Therefore, discovering therapeutic molecules that may either inhibit the aggregation mechanism or downregulate the toxic effects of mhtt are highly needed. The present study demonstrates the design and use of peptide inhibitors based on the role played by the N-terminal seventeen amino acid sequence (NT17 ) of huntingtin fragment in its aggregation. Fug-NT17 (Fugu), Xen-NT17 (Xenopus), Dro-NT17 (Drosophila), Aib-NT17 , and Pro-NT17 sequences were tested for their ability to inhibit aggregation. Among them, the first three are the sequence variants of human NT17 from evolutionarily distant organisms and the latter two are the analogs of human NT17 containing aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and proline (Pro). Four out of five inhibited the aggregation of huntingtin fragment, NT17 Q35 P10 K2 polypeptide. Data indicates that the physicochemical properties of the inhibitors play a crucial role in exhibiting the inhibitory effect. These inhibitors can be tested in cell and animal models for the preclinical evaluation in the treating of HD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of evolutionarily conserved non-AUG-initiated N-terminal extensions in human coding sequences

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Ivaylo P.; Firth, Andrew E.; Michel, Audrey M.; Atkins, John F.; Baranov, Pavel V.

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes, it is generally assumed that translation initiation occurs at the AUG codon closest to the messenger RNA 5′ cap. However, in certain cases, initiation can occur at codons differing from AUG by a single nucleotide, especially the codons CUG, UUG, GUG, ACG, AUA and AUU. While non-AUG initiation has been experimentally verified for a handful of human genes, the full extent to which this phenomenon is utilized—both for increased coding capacity and potentially also for novel regulatory mechanisms—remains unclear. To address this issue, and hence to improve the quality of existing coding sequence annotations, we developed a methodology based on phylogenetic analysis of predicted 5′ untranslated regions from orthologous genes. We use evolutionary signatures of protein-coding sequences as an indicator of translation initiation upstream of annotated coding sequences. Our search identified novel conserved potential non-AUG-initiated N-terminal extensions in 42 human genes including VANGL2, FGFR1, KCNN4, TRPV6, HDGF, CITED2, EIF4G3 and NTF3, and also affirmed the conservation of known non-AUG-initiated extensions in 17 other genes. In several instances, we have been able to obtain independent experimental evidence of the expression of non-AUG-initiated products from the previously published literature and ribosome profiling data. PMID:21266472

  7. N-Terminal Peptide Detection with Optimized Peptide-Spectrum Matching and Streamlined Sequence Libraries.

    PubMed

    Lycette, Brynne E; Glickman, Jacob W; Roth, Samuel J; Cram, Abigail E; Kim, Tae Hee; Krizanc, Danny; Weir, Michael P

    2016-09-02

    We identified tryptic peptides in yeast cell lysates that map to translation initiation sites downstream of the annotated start sites using the peptide-spectrum matching algorithms OMSSA and Mascot. To increase the accuracy of peptide-spectrum matching, both algorithms were run using several standardized parameter sets, and Mascot was run utilizing a, b, and y ions from collision-induced dissociation. A large fraction (22%) of the detected N-terminal peptides mapped to translation initiation downstream of the annotated initiation sites. Expression of several truncated proteins from downstream initiation in the same reading frame as the full-length protein (frame 1) was verified by western analysis. To facilitate analysis of the larger proteome of Drosophila, we created a streamlined sequence library from which all duplicated trypsin fragments had been removed. OMSSA assessment using this "stripped" library revealed 171 peptides that map to downstream translation initiation sites, 76% of which are in the same reading frame as the full-length annotated proteins, although some are in different reading frames creating new protein sequences not in the annotated proteome. Sequences surrounding implicated downstream AUG start codons are associated with nucleotide preferences with a pronounced three-base periodicity N1^G2^A3.

  8. N-terminal or signal peptide sequence engineering prevents truncation of human monoclonal antibody light chains.

    PubMed

    Gibson, S J; Bond, N J; Milne, S; Lewis, A; Sheriff, A; Pettman, G; Pradhan, R; Higazi, D R; Hatton, D

    2017-03-28

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) contain short N-terminal signal peptides on each individual polypeptide that comprises the mature antibody, targeting them for export from the cell in which they are produced. The signal peptide is cleaved from each heavy chain (Hc) and light chain (Lc) polypeptide after translocation to the ER and prior to secretion. This process is generally highly efficient, producing a high proportion of correctly cleaved Hc and Lc polypeptides. However, mis-cleavage of the signal peptide can occur, resulting in truncation or elongation at the N-terminus of the Hc or Lc. This is undesirable for antibody manufacturing as it can impact efficacy and can result in product heterogeneity. Here, we describe a truncated variant of the Lc that was detected during a routine developability assessment of the recombinant human IgG1 MEDI8490 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We found that the truncation of the Lc was caused due to the use of the murine Hc signal peptide together with a lambda Lc containing an SYE amino acid motif at the N-terminus. This truncation was not caused by mis-processing of the mRNA encoding the Lc and was not dependent on expression platform (transient or stable), the scale of the fed-batch culture or clonal lineage. We further show that using alternative signal peptides or engineering the Lc SYE N-terminal motif prevented the truncation and that this strategy will improve Lc homogeneity of other SYE lambda Lc-containing mAbs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional dissection of the N-terminal sequence of Clostridium sp. G0005 glucoamylase: identification of components critical for folding the catalytic domain and for constructing the active site structure.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Matsushima, Yudai; Nagamine, Yusuke; Matsuhashi, Tomoki; Honda, Shotaro; Okuda, Shoi; Ohno, Misa; Sugahara, Yasusato; Shin, Yongchol; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao

    2017-03-01

    Clostridium sp. G0005 glucoamylase (CGA) is composed of a β-sandwich domain (BD), a linker, and a catalytic domain (CD). In the present study, CGA was expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies when the N-terminal region (39 amino acid residues) of the BD was truncated. To further elucidate the role of the N-terminal region of the BD, we constructed N-terminally truncated proteins (Δ19, Δ24, Δ29, and Δ34) and assessed their solubility and activity. Although all evaluated proteins were soluble, their hydrolytic activities toward maltotriose as a substrate varied: Δ19 and Δ24 were almost as active as CGA, but the activity of Δ29 was substantially lower, and Δ34 exhibited little hydrolytic activity. Subsequent truncation analysis of the N-terminal region sequence between residues 25 and 28 revealed that truncation of less than 26 residues did not affect CGA activity, whereas truncation of 26 or more residues resulted in a substantial loss of activity. Based on further site-directed mutagenesis and N-terminal sequence analysis, we concluded that the 26XaaXaaTrp28 sequence of CGA is important in exhibiting CGA activity. These results suggest that the N-terminal region of the BD in bacterial GAs may function not only in folding the protein into the correct structure but also in constructing a competent active site for catalyzing the hydrolytic reaction.

  10. Structural characterization and biological activity of recombinant human epidermal growth factor proteins with different N-terminal sequences.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, M; Bauhofer, A; Schwind, P; Bade, E; Rasched, I; Przybylski, M

    1994-05-18

    The primary structures and molecular homogeneity of recombinant human epidermal growth factors from different suppliers were characterized and their biological activities evaluated by a standard DNA synthesis assay. Molecular weight determinations using 252Cf-plasma-desorption and electrospray mass spectrometry in combination with N- and C-terminal sequence analysis and determination of intramolecular disulfide bridges revealed that one recombinant protein had the correct human-identical structure (54 aa residues; 6347 Da). In contrast, a second recombinant protein (7020 Da) was found to contain a pentapeptide (KKYPR) insert following its N-terminal methionine. This structural variant showed a significant reduction in its capacity to stimulate DNA synthesis.

  11. Selective heterogeneous acid catalyzed esterification of N-terminal sulfyhdryl fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our interest in thiol fatty acids lies in their antioxidative, free radical scavenging, and metal ion scavenging capabilities as applied to cosmeceutical and skin care formulations. The retail market is filled with products containing the disulfide-containing free fatty acid, lipoic acid. These pr...

  12. Purification and N-terminal sequence of a serine proteinase-like protein (BMK-CBP) from the venom of the Chinese scorpion (Buthus martensii Karsch).

    PubMed

    Gao, Rong; Zhang, Yong; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam

    2008-08-01

    A serine proteinase-like protein was isolated from the venom of Chinese red scorpion (Buthus martensii Karsch) by combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange and reveres-phase chromatography and named BMK-CBP. The apparent molecular weight of BMK-CBP was identified as 33 kDa by SDS-PAGE under non-reducing condition. The sequence of N-terminal 40 amino acids was obtained by Edman degradation. The sequence shows highest similarity to proteinase from insect source. When tested with commonly used substrates of proteinase, no significant hydrolytic activity was observed for BMK-CBP. The purified BMK-CBP was found to bind to the cancer cell line MCF-7 and the cell binding ability was dose-dependent.

  13. The N-terminal portion of domain E of retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta is essential for the recognition of retinoic acid and various analogs.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, J; Hammer, L; Roalsvig, T; Pokornowski, K; Reczek, P R

    1995-03-14

    Utilizing a strategy involving domain exchange between retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta (RAR alpha and RAR beta) and monitoring the transcriptional activity of the resulting chimeric receptors with receptor-selective retinoids, we identified a 70-aa region within the N-terminal portion of the RAR alpha and -beta domain E which is important for an RAR alpha- or RAR beta-specific response. Two amino acid residues within this region, serine-232 (S232) and threonine-239 (T239) in RAR alpha and the corresponding alanine-225 (A225) and isoleucine-232 (I232) in RAR beta, were found to be essential for this effect. In addition, binding studies using the chimeric receptors expressed in Escherichia coli showed that the N-terminal portion of domain E was also important for the characteristic binding profile of t-RA and various retinoids with RAR alpha or RAR beta. Structural predictions of the primary amino acid sequence in this region indicate the presence of an amphipathic helix-turn-helix structure with five hydrophobic amino acids that resemble a leucine zipper motif. The amino acid residues identified by domain swapping, S232 and T239 in RAR alpha and A225 and I232 in RAR beta, were found within the hydrophobic face of an alpha-helix in close proximity to this zipper motif, suggesting that the ligand may interact with the receptor in the region adjacent to a surface involved in protein-protein interactions. This finding may link ligand binding to other processes important for transcriptional activation.

  14. The N-terminal portion of domain E of retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta is essential for the recognition of retinoic acid and various analogs.

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, J; Hammer, L; Roalsvig, T; Pokornowski, K; Reczek, P R

    1995-01-01

    Utilizing a strategy involving domain exchange between retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta (RAR alpha and RAR beta) and monitoring the transcriptional activity of the resulting chimeric receptors with receptor-selective retinoids, we identified a 70-aa region within the N-terminal portion of the RAR alpha and -beta domain E which is important for an RAR alpha- or RAR beta-specific response. Two amino acid residues within this region, serine-232 (S232) and threonine-239 (T239) in RAR alpha and the corresponding alanine-225 (A225) and isoleucine-232 (I232) in RAR beta, were found to be essential for this effect. In addition, binding studies using the chimeric receptors expressed in Escherichia coli showed that the N-terminal portion of domain E was also important for the characteristic binding profile of t-RA and various retinoids with RAR alpha or RAR beta. Structural predictions of the primary amino acid sequence in this region indicate the presence of an amphipathic helix-turn-helix structure with five hydrophobic amino acids that resemble a leucine zipper motif. The amino acid residues identified by domain swapping, S232 and T239 in RAR alpha and A225 and I232 in RAR beta, were found within the hydrophobic face of an alpha-helix in close proximity to this zipper motif, suggesting that the ligand may interact with the receptor in the region adjacent to a surface involved in protein-protein interactions. This finding may link ligand binding to other processes important for transcriptional activation. PMID:7892182

  15. Size does matter: 18 amino acids at the N-terminal tip of an amino acid transporter in Leishmania determine substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Schlisselberg, Doreen; Mazarib, Eldar; Inbar, Ehud; Rentsch, Doris; Myler, Peter J.; Zilberstein, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Long N-terminal tails of amino acid transporters are known to act as sensors of the internal pool of amino acids and as positive regulators of substrate flux rate. In this study we establish that N-termini of amino acid transporters can also determine substrate specificity. We show that due to alternative trans splicing, the human pathogen Leishmania naturally expresses two variants of the proline/alanine transporter, one 18 amino acid shorter than the other. We demonstrate that the longer variant (LdAAP24) translocates both proline and alanine, whereas the shorter variant (∆18LdAAP24) translocates just proline. Remarkably, co-expressing the hydrophilic N-terminal peptide of the long variant with ∆18LdAAP24 was found to recover alanine transport. This restoration of alanine transport could be mediated by a truncated N-terminal tail, though truncations exceeding half of the tail length were no longer functional. Taken together, the data indicate that the first 18 amino acids of the negatively charged N-terminal LdAAP24 tail are required for alanine transport and may facilitate the electrostatic interactions of the entire negatively charged N-terminal tail with the positively charged internal loops in the transmembrane domain, as this mechanism has been shown to underlie regulation of substrate flux rate for other transporters. PMID:26549185

  16. The serine proteinase chain of human complement component C1s. Cyanogen bromide cleavage and N-terminal sequences of the fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, P E; Dunbar, B; Fothergill, J E

    1983-01-01

    Human complement component C1s was purified from fresh blood by conventional methods of precipitation and chromatography. The single-chain zymogen form was activated by treatment with C1r. Reduction and carboxymethylation then allowed the light chain and heavy chain to be separated on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B in 8 M-urea. Liquid-phase sequencing of the light chain determined 50 residues from the N-terminus. CNBr-cleavage fragments of the light chain were separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography on gel-permeation and reverse-phase columns. N-Terminal sequencing of these fragments determined the order of a further 138 residues, giving a total of 188 residues or about 75% of the light chain. Seven of these eight sequences could be readily aligned with the amino acid sequences of other serine proteinases. The typical serine proteinase active-site residues are clearly conserved in C1s, and the specificity-related side chain of the substrate-binding pocket is aspartic acid, as in trypsin, consistent with the proteolytic action of C1s on C4 at an arginine residue. Somewhat surprisingly, when the C1s sequence is compared with that of complement subcomponent C1r, the percentage difference (59%) is approximately the same as that found between the other mammalian serine proteinases (56-71%). PMID:6362661

  17. Inhibition of 2A-mediated ‘cleavage’ of certain artificial polyproteins bearing N-terminal signal sequences

    PubMed Central

    de Felipe, Pablo; Luke, Garry A; Brown, Jeremy D; Ryan, Martin D

    2010-01-01

    Where 2A oligopeptide sequences occur within ORFs, the formation of the glycyl-prolyl peptide bond at the C-terminus of (each) 2A does not occur. This property can be used to concatenate sequences encoding several proteins into a single ORF: each component of such an artificial polyprotein is generated as a discrete translation product. 2A and ‘2A-like’ sequences have become widely utilised in biotechnology and biomedicine. Individual proteins may also be co- and post-translationally targeted to a variety of sub-cellular sites. In the case of polyproteins bearing N-terminal signal sequences we observed, however, that the protein downstream of 2A (no signal) was translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We interpreted these data as a form of ‘slipstream’ translocation: downstream proteins, without signals, were translocated through a translocon pore already formed by the signal sequence at the N-terminus of the polyprotein. Here we show this effect is, in fact, due to inhibition of the 2A reaction (formation of fusion protein) by the C-terminal region (immediately upstream of 2A) of some proteins when translocated into the ER. Solutions to this problem include the use of longer 2As (with a favourable upstream context) or modifying the order of proteins comprising polyproteins. PMID:19946875

  18. The scorpion toxin Bot IX is a potent member of the α-like family and has a unique N-terminal sequence extension.

    PubMed

    Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Salvatierra, Juan; Bosmans, Frank; Bougis, Pierre E

    2016-09-01

    We report the detailed chemical, immunological and pharmacological characterization of the α-toxin Bot IX from the Moroccan scorpion Buthus occitanus tunetanus venom. Bot IX, which consists of 70 amino acids, is a highly atypical toxin. It carries a unique N-terminal sequence extension and is highly lethal in mice. Voltage clamp recordings on oocytes expressing rat Nav1.2 or insect BgNav1 reveal that, similar to other α-like toxins, Bot IX inhibits fast inactivation of both variants. Moreover, Bot IX belongs to the same structural/immunological group as the α-like toxin Bot I. Remarkably, radioiodinated Bot IX competes efficiently with the classical α-toxin AaH II from Androctonus australis, and displays one of the highest affinities for Nav channels.

  19. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization

    SciTech Connect

    Shiheido, Hirokazu Shimizu, Jun

    2015-02-20

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND3{sub 56–58}, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3. - Highlights: • BEND3 localizes to the nucleus. • The N-terminal 60 amino acids region of BEND3 contains NLS. • Amino acids located between 56 and 58 of BEND3 (KRK) are part of NLS. • KRK motif is highly conserved among BEND3 homologs.

  20. An N-terminal partial sequence of the 13 kDa Pycnopodia helianthoides sperm chemoattractant 'startrak' possesses sperm-attracting activity.

    PubMed

    Miller, R L; Vogt, R

    1996-02-01

    Freshwater extracts of starfish ovaries were used to purify the sperm-attracting peptide 'startrak' from Pycnopodia helianthoides using hydrophobic interaction chromatography and DEAE-high-pressure liquid chromatography. Partially purified attractant had a molecular mass of 13 kDa, estimated from gel filtration and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results. The purified attractant was subjected to amino acid analysis and direct sequencing, and was found to consist largely of a single peptide composed of an estimated 127 residues based on a molecular mass of 13kDa. An N-terminal sequence of amino acids from positions 3 to 34 was obtained and synthesized as: NH2-Ala-Glu-Leu-Gly-Leu-Cys-Ile-Ala-Arg-Val-Arg-Gln-Gln-Asn-Gln-Gly-Gln- Asp-Asp-Val-Ser-Ile-Tyr-Gln-Ala-Ile-Met-Ser-Gln-Cys-Gln-Ser-COOH. The synthetic peptide possessed sperm-attracting activity 130 times greater than the activity of partially purified startrak and showed a pattern of species-specificity of sperm chemotaxis similar to that of startrak. Antibody prepared against synthetic peptide removed the sperm-attracting activity from crude and partially purified preparations of startrak. The partial sequence of startrak was not homologous with that of any of the known echinoid sperm motility-activating peptides.

  1. [Proteolysis of semax analogues with different N-terminal amino acids by aminopeptidases].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, K V; V'iunova, T V; Nagaev, I Iu; Andreeva, L A; Alfeeva, L Iu; Miasoedov, N F

    2011-01-01

    Proteolysis of semax (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro, Sem) and its analogues ([Ala1]Sem, [Gly1]Sem, [Thr1]Sem, [Trp1]Sem) that are differ from semax in substitution of N-terminal Met residue were studied. It is shown that such replacement changes the rate of peptides degradation by N-aminopeptidases (EC 3.4.11.2, Sigma, Type VI, 9.2 units. Akt. / mg). [Ala1]Sem, [Gly1]Sem and [Thr1]Sem semax analogues proved to be more stable to proteolysis than semax (Sem), and their initial product of proteolysis is His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro (Sem-5). For triptophan analogue both Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro (Sem-6) and Sem-5 product are formed in similar quantities. It is found that all investigated analogues can be used as inhibitors in Sem proteolysis.

  2. Monomer DJ-1 and Its N-Terminal Sequence Are Necessary for Mitochondrial Localization of DJ-1 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Maita, Chinatsu; Maita, Hiroshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2013-01-01

    DJ-1 is a novel oncogene and also a causative gene for familial Parkinson’s disease (park7). DJ-1 has multiple functions that include transcriptional regulation, anti-oxidative reaction and chaperone and mitochondrial regulation. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in DJ-1-knockout mice and fry, and mitochondrial DJ-1 is more protective against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Although translocation of DJ-1 into mitochondria is enhanced by oxidative stress that leads to oxidation of cysteine 106 (C106) of DJ-1, the characteristics of mitochondrial DJ-1 and the mechanism by which DJ-1 is translocated into mitochondria are poorly understood. In this study, immunostaining, co-immunoprecipitation, cell fractionation and pull-down experiments showed that mutants of glutamine 18 (E18) DJ-1 are localized in mitochondria and do not make homodimers. Likewise, DJ-1 with mutations of two cysteines located in the dimer interface, C46S and C53A, and pathogenic mutants, M26I and L166P DJ-1, were found to be localized in mitochondria and not to make homodimers. Mutant DJ-1 harboring both E18A and C106S, in which C106 is not oxidized, was also localized in mitochondria, indicating that oxidation of C106 is important but not essential for mitochondrial localization of DJ-1. It should be noted that E18A DJ-1 was translocated from mitochondria to the cytoplasm when mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced by treatment of cells with CCCP, an uncoupler of the oxidative phosphorylation system in mitochondria. Furthermore, deletion or substitution of the N-terminal 12 amino acids in DJ-1 resulted in re-localization of E18A, M26I and L166P DJ-1 from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that a monomer and the N-terminal 12 amino acids are necessary for mitochondrial localization of DJ-1 mutants and that conformation change induced by C106 oxidation or by E18 mutation leads to translocation of DJ-1 into mitochondria. PMID:23326576

  3. Monomer DJ-1 and its N-terminal sequence are necessary for mitochondrial localization of DJ-1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Maita, Chinatsu; Maita, Hiroshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2013-01-01

    DJ-1 is a novel oncogene and also a causative gene for familial Parkinson's disease (park7). DJ-1 has multiple functions that include transcriptional regulation, anti-oxidative reaction and chaperone and mitochondrial regulation. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in DJ-1-knockout mice and fry, and mitochondrial DJ-1 is more protective against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Although translocation of DJ-1 into mitochondria is enhanced by oxidative stress that leads to oxidation of cysteine 106 (C106) of DJ-1, the characteristics of mitochondrial DJ-1 and the mechanism by which DJ-1 is translocated into mitochondria are poorly understood. In this study, immunostaining, co-immunoprecipitation, cell fractionation and pull-down experiments showed that mutants of glutamine 18 (E18) DJ-1 are localized in mitochondria and do not make homodimers. Likewise, DJ-1 with mutations of two cysteines located in the dimer interface, C46S and C53A, and pathogenic mutants, M26I and L166P DJ-1, were found to be localized in mitochondria and not to make homodimers. Mutant DJ-1 harboring both E18A and C106S, in which C106 is not oxidized, was also localized in mitochondria, indicating that oxidation of C106 is important but not essential for mitochondrial localization of DJ-1. It should be noted that E18A DJ-1 was translocated from mitochondria to the cytoplasm when mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced by treatment of cells with CCCP, an uncoupler of the oxidative phosphorylation system in mitochondria. Furthermore, deletion or substitution of the N-terminal 12 amino acids in DJ-1 resulted in re-localization of E18A, M26I and L166P DJ-1 from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that a monomer and the N-terminal 12 amino acids are necessary for mitochondrial localization of DJ-1 mutants and that conformation change induced by C106 oxidation or by E18 mutation leads to translocation of DJ-1 into mitochondria.

  4. Intein-Promoted Cyclization of Aspartic Acid Flanking the Intein Leads to Atypical N-Terminal Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Christopher J; Siegart, Nicolle M; Colelli, Kathryn M; Liu, Xinyue; Linhardt, Robert J; Wang, Chunyu; Gomez, Alvin V; Reitter, Julie N; Mills, Kenneth V

    2017-02-28

    Protein splicing is a post-translational reaction facilitated by an intein, or intervening protein, which involves the removal of the intein and the ligation of the flanking polypeptides, or exteins. A DNA polymerase II intein from Pyrococcus abyssi (Pab PolII intein) can promote protein splicing in vitro on incubation at high temperature. Mutation of active site residues Cys1, Gln185, and Cys+1 to Ala results in an inactive intein precursor, which cannot promote the steps of splicing, including cleavage of the peptide bond linking the N-extein and intein (N-terminal cleavage). Surprisingly, coupling the inactivating mutations to a change of the residue at the C-terminus of the N-extein (N-1 residue) from the native Asn to Asp reactivates N-terminal cleavage at pH 5. Similar "aspartic acid effects" have been observed in other proteins and peptides but usually only occur at lower pH values. In this case, however, the unusual N-terminal cleavage is abolished by mutations to catalytic active site residues and unfolding of the intein, indicating that this cleavage effect is mediated by the intein active site and the intein fold. We show via mass spectrometry that the reaction proceeds through cyclization of Asp resulting in anhydride formation coupled to peptide bond cleavage. Our results add to the richness of the understanding of the mechanism of protein splicing and provide insight into the stability of proteins at moderately low pH. The results also explain, and may help practitioners avoid, a side reaction that may complicate intein applications in biotechnology.

  5. The N-terminal anchor sequences of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases determine their orientation in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

    PubMed

    Odermatt, A; Arnold, P; Stauffer, A; Frey, B M; Frey, F J

    1999-10-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes (11beta- HSD) regulate the ratio of active endogenous glucocorticoids to their inactive keto-metabolites, thereby controlling the access of glucocorticoids to their cognate receptors. In this study, the topology and intracellular localization of 11beta-HSD1 and 11beta-HSD2 have been analyzed by immunohistochemistry and protease protection assays of in vitro transcription/translation products. 11beta-HSD constructs, tagged with the FLAG epitope, were transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells. The enzymatic characteristics of tagged and native enzymes were indistinguishable. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated the localization of both 11beta-HSD1 and 11beta-HSD2 exclusively to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. To examine the orientation of tagged 11beta-HSD enzymes within the ER membrane, we stained selectively permeabilized HEK-293 cells with anti-FLAG antibody. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the N terminus of 11beta-HSD1 is cytoplasmic, and the catalytic domain containing the C terminus is protruding into the ER lumen. In contrast, the N terminus of 11beta-HSD2 is lumenal, and the catalytic domain is facing the cytoplasm. Chimeric proteins where the N-terminal anchor sequences of 11beta-HSD1 and 11beta-HSD2 were exchanged adopted inverted orientation in the ER membrane. However, both chimeric proteins were not catalytically active. Furthermore, mutation of a tyrosine motif to alanine in the transmembrane segment of 11beta-HSD1 significantly reduced V(max). The subcellular localization of 11beta-HSD1 was not affected by mutations of the tyrosine motif or of a di-lysine motif in the N terminus. However, residue Lys(5), but not Lys(6), turned out to be critical for the topology of 11beta-HSD1. Mutation of Lys(5) to Ser inverted the orientation of 11beta-HSD1 in the ER membrane without loss of catalytic activity. Our results emphasize the importance of the N-terminal transmembrane segments of 11beta-HSD enzymes for

  6. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Shiheido, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Jun

    2015-02-20

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND356-58, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3.

  7. Identification of the cleavage sites of the RNA2-encoded polyproteins for two members of the genus Torradovirus by N-terminal sequencing of the virion capsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Ferriol, I; Silva Junior, D M; Nigg, J C; Zamora-Macorra, E J; Falk, B W

    2016-11-01

    Torradoviruses, family Secoviridae, are emergent bipartite RNA plant viruses. RNA1 is ca. 7kb and has one open reading frame (ORF) encoding for the protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). RNA2 is ca. 5kb and has two ORFs. RNA2-ORF1 encodes for a putative protein with unknown function(s). RNA2-ORF2 encodes for a putative movement protein and three capsid proteins. Little is known about the replication and polyprotein processing strategies of torradoviruses. Here, the cleavage sites in the RNA2-ORF2-encoded polyproteins of two torradoviruses, Tomato marchitez virus isolate M (ToMarV-M) and tomato chocolate spot virus, were determined by N-terminal sequencing, revealing that the amino acid (aa) at the -1 position of the cleavage sites is a glutamine. Multiple aa sequence comparison confirmed that this glutamine is conserved among other torradoviruses. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis of conserved aas in the ToMarV-M RdRp and protease prevented substantial accumulation of viral coat proteins or RNAs.

  8. A specific isoform of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix by a N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Whatcott, Clifford J.; Meyer-Ficca, Mirella L.; Meyer, Ralph G.; Jacobson, Myron K.

    2009-12-10

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) convert NAD to polymers of ADP-ribose that are converted to free ADP-ribose by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). The activation of the nuclear enzyme PARP-1 following genotoxic stress has been linked to release of apoptosis inducing factor from the mitochondria, but the mechanisms by which signals are transmitted between nuclear and mitochondrial compartments are not well understood. The study reported here has examined the relationship between PARG and mitochondria in HeLa cells. Endogenous PARG associated with the mitochondrial fraction migrated in the range of 60 kDa. Transient transfection of cells with PARG expression constructs with amino acids encoded by exon 4 at the N-terminus was targeted to the mitochondria as demonstrated by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy of whole cells. Deletion and missense mutants allowed identification of a canonical N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence consisting of the first 16 amino acids encoded by PARG exon 4. Sub-mitochondrial localization experiments indicate that this mitochondrial PARG isoform is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. The identification of a PARG isoform as a component of the mitochondrial matrix raises several interesting possibilities concerning mechanisms of nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk involved in regulation of cell death pathways.

  9. Biochemical characterization, stability studies and N-terminal sequence of a bi-functional inhibitor from Phaseolus aureus Roxb. (Mung bean).

    PubMed

    Haq, Soghra Khatun; Atif, Shaikh Muhammad; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2005-12-01

    Herein, we report the purification and biochemical characterization of a novel bi-functional protein proteinase/amylase inhibitor from the dietary leguminous pulse Phaseolus aureus Roxb. (Vigna radiata L.) by means of acetic acid precipitation, salt fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose) and affinity chromatography on trypsin-sepharose column. P. aureus inhibitor is a bi-functional inhibitor since it exhibits inhibitory activity towards trypsin-like and alpha-chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases as well as against alpha-amylases. It is a helix-rich protein (Mr 13,600) containing approximately eight tyrosines, one tryptophan and two cystines. N-terminal sequence alignment reveals no homology to other proteinase inhibitors reported from Phaseolus sp. thereby confirming that it is a novel inhibitor. Inhibitory activity measurements show that the inhibitor is quite stable even at extremely high temperatures and is only slightly affected by pH changes. Circular dichroism (CD) conformational studies revealed some changes in its near- as well as far-ultraviolet spectrum at extremes of pH and temperature. Treatments with trypsin for varying time periods did not alter its proteolytic inhibitory activity but caused some reduction in its amylase inhibitory activity.

  10. Evidence of mineralization activity and supramolecular assembly by the N-terminal sequence of ACCBP, a biomineralization protein that is homologous to the acetylcholine binding protein family.

    PubMed

    Amos, Fairland F; Ndao, Moise; Evans, John Spencer

    2009-12-14

    Several biomineralization proteins that exhibit intrinsic disorder also possess sequence regions that are homologous to nonmineral associated folded proteins. One such protein is the amorphous calcium carbonate binding protein (ACCBP), one of several proteins that regulate the formation of the oyster shell and exhibit 30% conserved sequence identity to the acetylcholine binding protein sequences. To gain a better understanding of the ACCBP protein, we utilized bioinformatic approaches to identify the location of disordered and folded regions within this protein. In addition, we synthesized a 50 AA polypeptide, ACCN, representing the N-terminal domain of the mature processed ACCBP protein. We then utilized this polypeptide to determine the mineralization activity and qualitative structure of the N-terminal region of ACCBP. Our bioinformatic studies indicate that ACCBP consists of a ten-stranded beta-sandwich structure that includes short disordered sequence blocks, two of which reside within the primarily helical and surface-accessible ACCN sequence. Circular dichroism studies reveal that ACCN is partially disordered in solution; however, ACCN can be induced to fold into an alpha helix in the presence of TFE. Furthermore, we confirm that the ACCN sequence is multifunctional; this sequence promotes radial calcite polycrystal growth on Kevlar threads and forms supramolecular assemblies in solution that contain amorphous-appearing deposits. We conclude that the partially disordered ACCN sequence is a putative site for mineralization activity within the ACCBP protein and that the presence of short disordered sequence regions within the ACCBP fold are essential for function.

  11. Electrophoretic characterization of species of fibronectin bearing sequences from the N-terminal heparin-binding domain in synovial fluid samples from patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Peters, John H; Carsons, Steven; Yoshida, Mika; Ko, Fred; McDougall, Skye; Loredo, Grace A; Hahn, Theodore J

    2003-01-01

    Fragments of fibronectin (FN) corresponding to the N-terminal heparin-binding domain have been observed to promote catabolic chondrocytic gene expression and chondrolysis. We therefore characterized FN species that include sequences from this domain in samples of arthritic synovial fluid using one-and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) Western blot analysis. We detected similar assortments of species, ranging from ~47 to greater than 200 kDa, in samples obtained from patients with osteoarthritis (n = 9) versus rheumatoid arthritis (n = 10). One of the predominant forms, with an apparent molecular weight of ~170 kDa, typically resolved in 2D electrophoresis into a cluster of subspecies. These exhibited reduced binding to gelatin in comparison with a more prevalent species of ~200+ kDa and were also recognized by a monoclonal antibody to the central cell-binding domain (CBD). When considered together with our previous analyses of synovial fluid FN species containing the alternatively spliced EIIIA segment, these observations indicate that the ~170-kDa species includes sequences from four FN domains that have previously, in isolation, been observed to promote catabolic responses by chondrocytes in vitro: the N-terminal heparin-binding domain, the gelatin-binding domain, the central CBD, and the EIIIA segment. The ~170-kDa N-terminal species of FN may therefore be both a participant in joint destructive processes and a biomarker with which to gauge activity of the arthritic process. PMID:14680507

  12. Passive immunization targeting the N-terminal region of phosphorylated tau (residues 68-71) improves spatial memory in okadaic acid induced tauopathy model rats.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sarada; Savanur, Ganesh; Madhavadas, Sowmya

    2017-01-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia, characterized by progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. The cognitive impairment in patients with AD is closely associated with loss of synapses and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) containing hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampus. Effective treatment for AD is still not available. In this study, the sequence comprising of residues 50-71 in the N-terminal region of tau, containing theoretically predicted B- and T-cell epitopes in close proximity to pathologically relevant phospho-serine (residue 68) and phospho-threonine (residues 69, 71) was selected as a potential immunotherapeutic peptide. This 22-residue long phospho-peptide ((50)TPTEDGSEEPGSETSDAKpSpTPpT(71)) was custom synthesized and its therapeutic potential was tested in experimental rats. For this purpose, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were intranasally treated with okadaic acid (OA), a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase PP2A. Within a day of OA administration, these rats showed marked impairment in cognitive functions with a significant increase in p-tau/t-tau ratio in the hippocampal homogenates. Passive immunization studies conducted in these OA treated rats with polyclonal anti-phospho-peptide antibodies resulted in a significant improvement in learning and memory functions in Barne's maze task. Further, p-tau levels in the hippocampal homogenates were reduced. In addition, these antibodies effectively prevented the aggregation of recombinant tau in vitro. These results demonstrate that targeting N-terminal region of tau harbouring the phospho-residue cluster 68-71 would be beneficial and may present an effective therapeutic opportunity for AD and other tauopathies.

  13. N-terminal sequences from Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus envelope proteins ODV-E66 and ODV-E25 are sufficient to direct reporter proteins to the nuclear envelope, intranuclear microvesicles and the envelope of occlusion derived virus.

    PubMed

    Hong, T; Summers, M D; Braunagel, S C

    1997-04-15

    Baculovirus occlusion-derived virus (ODV) derives its envelope from an intranuclear membrane source. N-terminal amino acid sequences of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) envelope proteins, ODV-E66 and ODV-E25 (23 and 24 amino acids, respectively) are highly hydrophobic. Recombinant viruses that express the two N-terminal amino acid sequences fused to green fluorescent protein (23GFP or 24GFP) provided visual markers to follow protein transport and localization within the nucleus during infection. Autoflourescence was first detected along the cytoplasmic periphery of the nucleus and subsequently localized as foci to discrete locations within the nucleus. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that these foci predominantly contained intranuclear microvesicles and the reporter fusion proteins were also detected in cytoplasmic membranes near the nucleus, and the outer and inner nuclear membrane. Therefore, these defined hydrophobic domains are sufficient to direct native and fusion proteins to induced membrane microvesicles within a baculovirus-infected cell nucleus and the viral envelope. In addition, these data suggest that movement of these proteins into the nuclear envelope may initiate through cytoplasmic membranes, such as endoplasmic reticulum, and that transport into the nucleus may be mediated through the outer and inner nuclear membrane.

  14. The Aquaporin Splice Variant NbXIP1;1α Is Permeable to Boric Acid and Is Phosphorylated in the N-terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Ampah-Korsah, Henry; Anderberg, Hanna I.; Engfors, Angelica; Kirscht, Andreas; Norden, Kristina; Kjellstrom, Sven; Kjellbom, Per; Johanson, Urban

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channel proteins that transport water and uncharged solutes across different membranes in organisms in all kingdoms of life. In plants, the AQPs can be divided into seven different subfamilies and five of these are present in higher plants. The most recently characterized of these subfamilies is the XIP subfamily, which is found in most dicots but not in monocots. In this article, we present data on two different splice variants (α and β) of NbXIP1;1 from Nicotiana benthamiana. We describe the heterologous expression of NbXIP1;1α and β in the yeast Pichia pastoris, the subcellular localization of the protein in this system and the purification of the NbXIP1;1α protein. Furthermore, we investigated the functionality and the substrate specificity of the protein by stopped-flow spectrometry in P. pastoris spheroplasts and with the protein reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The phosphorylation status of the protein and localization of the phosphorylated amino acids were verified by mass spectrometry. Our results show that NbXIP1;1α is located in the plasma membrane when expressed in P. pastoris, that it is not permeable to water but to boric acid and that the protein is phosphorylated at several amino acids in the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein. A growth assay showed that the yeast cells expressing the N-terminally His-tagged NbXIP1;1α were more sensitive to boric acid as compared to the cells expressing the C-terminally His-tagged isoform. This might suggest that the N-terminal His-tag functionally mimics the phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain and that the N-terminal domain is involved in gating of the channel. PMID:27379142

  15. The Aquaporin Splice Variant NbXIP1;1α Is Permeable to Boric Acid and Is Phosphorylated in the N-terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Ampah-Korsah, Henry; Anderberg, Hanna I; Engfors, Angelica; Kirscht, Andreas; Norden, Kristina; Kjellstrom, Sven; Kjellbom, Per; Johanson, Urban

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channel proteins that transport water and uncharged solutes across different membranes in organisms in all kingdoms of life. In plants, the AQPs can be divided into seven different subfamilies and five of these are present in higher plants. The most recently characterized of these subfamilies is the XIP subfamily, which is found in most dicots but not in monocots. In this article, we present data on two different splice variants (α and β) of NbXIP1;1 from Nicotiana benthamiana. We describe the heterologous expression of NbXIP1;1α and β in the yeast Pichia pastoris, the subcellular localization of the protein in this system and the purification of the NbXIP1;1α protein. Furthermore, we investigated the functionality and the substrate specificity of the protein by stopped-flow spectrometry in P. pastoris spheroplasts and with the protein reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The phosphorylation status of the protein and localization of the phosphorylated amino acids were verified by mass spectrometry. Our results show that NbXIP1;1α is located in the plasma membrane when expressed in P. pastoris, that it is not permeable to water but to boric acid and that the protein is phosphorylated at several amino acids in the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein. A growth assay showed that the yeast cells expressing the N-terminally His-tagged NbXIP1;1α were more sensitive to boric acid as compared to the cells expressing the C-terminally His-tagged isoform. This might suggest that the N-terminal His-tag functionally mimics the phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain and that the N-terminal domain is involved in gating of the channel.

  16. Maintenance of coat protein N-terminal net charge and not primary sequence is essential for zucchini yellow mosaic virus systemic infectivity.

    PubMed

    Kimalov, Boaz; Gal-On, Amit; Stav, Ran; Belausov, Eduard; Arazi, Tzahi

    2004-11-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) surface exposed coat protein (CP) N-terminal domain (Nt) is 43 aa long and contains an equal number of positively and negatively charged amino acid residues (CP-Nt net charge = 0). A ZYMV-AGII truncation mutant lacking the first 20 aa of its CP-Nt (AGII-CP Delta 20; CP-Nt net charge = +2) was found to be systemically non-infectious even though AGII mutants harbouring larger CP-Nt deletions were previously demonstrated to be fully infectious. Nevertheless, AGII-CP Delta 20 infectivity was restored by fusion to its CP-Nt two Asp residues or a negatively charged Myc peptide, both predicted to neutralize CP-Nt net positive charge. To evaluate further the significance of CP-Nt net charge for AGII infectivity, a series of CP-Nt net charge mutants was generated and analysed for systemic infectivity of squash plants. AGII-CP(KKK) harbouring a CP-Nt amino fusion of three Lys residues (CP-Nt net charge = +3) was not systemically infectious. Addition of up to four Asp residues to CP-Nt did not abolish virus infectivity, although certain mutants were genetically unstable and had delayed infectivity. Addition of five negatively charged residues abolished infectivity (AGII-CP(DDDDD); CP-Nt net charge = -5) even though a recombinant CP(DDDDD) could assemble into potyviral-like particle in bacteria. Neutralization of CP-Nt net charge by fusing Asp or Lys residues recovered infectivity of AGII-CP(KKK) and AGII-CP(DDDDD). GFP-tagging of these mutants has demonstrated that both viruses have defective cell-to-cell movement. Together, these findings suggest that maintenance of CP-Nt net charge and not primary sequence is essential for ZYMV infectivity.

  17. The N-terminal of a heparin-binding sperm membrane mitogen possess lectin-like sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Mor, Visesato; Chatterjee, Tapati . E-mail: c_tapati@yahoo.com

    2007-03-02

    Glycosaminoglycans like heparin and heparin sulfate in follicular fluid induce changes in the intracellular environment during the spermatozoal functional maturation. We previously reported the isolation, purification and partial characterization of a heparin binding sperm membrane protein (HBSM). In the present study, the amino acids analysis provided evidence of a single sequence, which suggest the homogeneity of the purified HBSM. Fourteen amino acids-{sup 1} A D T I V A V E L D T Y P N {sup 14}-correspond to the amino terminal sequence of Concanavalin A (Con A) and contain 45.2% carbohydrate by weight. HBSM possess mitogenic property on lymphocytes with comparable magnitude to the well-known mitogen; Con A, inducing 83% radiolabel thymidine incorporation in growing lymphocytes. Unlike Con A, there was no agglutination of cell by HBSM upto 5 ng/ml concentration. Interestingly, we found that heparin and chondroitin sulfate-conjugated HBSM inhibit the proliferative activity. Similar effect was also found with an in-house isolate sulfated glycans; G-I (28% sulfate). In contrast, there was no inhibition by the desulfated form; G-ID. Altogether, our data suggest that the mechanism of cell proliferative pathway may be different for HBSM and Con A.

  18. "Unknown genome" proteomics: a new NADP-dependent epimerase/dehydratase revealed by N-terminal sequencing, inverted PCR, and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Simeonova, Diliana Dancheva; Susnea, Iuliana; Moise, Adrian; Schink, Bernhard; Przybylski, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present here a new approach that enabled the identification of a new protein from a bacterial strain with unknown genomic background using a combination of inverted PCR with degenerate primers derived from N-terminal protein sequences and high resolution peptide mass determination of proteolytic digests from two-dimensional electrophoretic separation. Proteins of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans specifically induced in the presence of phosphite were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as a series of apparent soluble and membrane-bound isoforms with molecular masses of approximately 35 kDa. Inverted PCR based on N-terminal sequences and high resolution peptide mass fingerprinting by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry provided the identification of a new NAD(P) epimerase/dehydratase by specific assignment of peptide masses to a single ORF, excluding other possible ORF candidates. The protein identification was ascertained by chromatographic separation and sequencing of internal proteolytic peptides. Metal ion affinity isolation of tryptic peptides and high resolution mass spectrometry provided the identification of five phosphorylations identified in the domains 23-47 and 91-118 of the protein. In agreement with the phosphorylations identified, direct molecular weight determination of the soluble protein eluted from the two-dimensional gels by mass spectrometry provided a molecular mass of 35,400 Da, which is consistent with an average degree of three phosphorylations.

  19. Improving the secretion of a methyl parathion hydrolase in Pichia pastoris by modifying its N-terminal sequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Huang, Lu; Jiang, Hu; Tian, Jian; Chu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Ningfeng

    2014-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is commonly used to express and secrete target proteins, although not all recombinant proteins can be successfully produced. In this study, we used methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) from Ochrobactrum sp. M231 as a model to study the importance of the N-terminus of the protein for its secretion. While MPH can be efficiently expressed intracellularly in P. pastoris, it is not secreted into the extracellular environment. Three MPH mutants (N66-MPH, D10-MPH, and N9-MPH) were constructed through modification of its N-terminus, and the secretion of each by P. pastoris was improved when compared to wild-type MPH. The level of secreted D10-MPH was increased to 0.21 U/mL, while that of N9-MPH was enhanced to 0.16 U/mL. Although N66-MPH was not enzymatically active, it was secreted efficiently, and was identified by SDS-PAGE. These results demonstrate that the secretion of heterologous proteins in P. pastoris may be improved by modifying their N-terminal structures.

  20. Characterization of N-terminal amino group-heme ligation emerging upon guanidine hydrochloric acid induced unfolding of Hydrogenobacter thermophilus ferricytochrome c552.

    PubMed

    Tai, Hulin; Kawano, Shin; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Nonnative heme coordination structures emerging upon guanidine hydrochloric acid (GdnHCl) induced unfolding of Hydrogenobacter thermophilus ferricytochrome c552 were characterized by means of paramagnetic NMR. The heme coordination structure possessing the N-terminal amino group of the peptide chain in place of axial Met (His-Nterm form) was determined in the presence of GdnHCl concentrations in excess of 1.5 M at neutral pH. The stability of the His-Nterm form at pH 7.0 was found to be comparable with that of the bis-His form which has been recognized as a major nonnative heme coordination structure in cytochrome c folding/unfolding. Consequently, in addition to the bis-His form, the His-Nterm form is a substantial intermediate which affects the pathway and kinetics of the folding/unfolding of cytochromes c, of which the N-terminal amino groups are not acetylated.

  1. The N-terminal region of acyl-CoA synthetase 3 is essential for both the localization on lipid droplets and the function in fatty acid uptake.

    PubMed

    Poppelreuther, Margarete; Rudolph, Berenice; Du, Chen; Großmann, Regina; Becker, Melanie; Thiele, Christoph; Ehehalt, Robert; Füllekrug, Joachim

    2012-05-01

    Cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) are storage organelles for neutral lipids derived from endogenous metabolism. Acyl-CoA synthetase family proteins are essential enzymes in this biosynthetic pathway, contributing activated fatty acids. Fluorescence microscopy showed that ACSL3 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and LDs, with the distribution dependent on the cell type and the supply of fatty acids. The N-terminus of ACSL3 was necessary and sufficient for targeting reporter proteins correctly, as demonstrated by subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy. The N-terminal region of ACSL3 was also found to be functionally required for the enzyme activity. Selective permeabilization and in silico analysis suggest that ACSL3 assumes a hairpin membrane topology, with the N-terminal hydrophobic amino acids forming an amphipathic helix restricted to the cytosolic leaflet of the ER membrane. ACSL3 was effectively translocated from the ER to nascent LDs when neutral lipid synthesis was stimulated by the external addition of fatty acids. Cellular fatty acid uptake was increased by overexpression and reduced by RNA interference of ACSL3. In conclusion, the structural organization of ACSL3 allows the fast and efficient movement from the ER to emerging LDs. ACSL3 not only esterifies fatty acids with CoA but is also involved in the cellular uptake of fatty acids, presumably indirectly by metabolic trapping. The unique localization of the acyl-CoA synthetase ACSL3 on LDs suggests a function in the local synthesis of lipids.

  2. Application of protein N-terminal amidase in enzymatic synthesis of dipeptides containing acidic amino acids specifically at the N-terminus.

    PubMed

    Arai, Toshinobu; Noguchi, Atsushi; Takano, Eriko; Kino, Kuniki

    2013-04-01

    Dipeptides exhibit unique physiological functions and physical properties, e.g., l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-methyl ester (Asp-Phe-OMe, aspartame) as an artificial sweetener, and functional studies of peptides have been carried out in various fields. Therefore, to establish a manufacturing process for the useful dipeptides, we investigated its enzymatic synthesis by utilizing an l-amino acid ligase (Lal), which catalyzes dipeptide synthesis in an ATP-dependent manner. Many Lals were obtained, but the Lals recognizing acidic amino acids as N-terminal substrates have not been identified. To increase the variety of dipeptides that are enzymatically synthesized, we proposed a two-step synthesis: Asn-Xaa and Gln-Xaa (Asn, l-asparagine; Gln, l-glutamine; and Xaa, arbitrary amino acids) synthesized by Lals were continuously deamidated by a novel amidase, yielding Asp-Xaa and Glu-Xaa (Asp, l-aspartic acid; and Glu, l-glutamic acid). We searched for amidases that specifically deamidate the N-terminus of Asn or Gln in dipeptides since none have been previously reported. We focused on the protein N-terminal amidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NTA1), and assayed its activity toward dipeptides. Our findings showed that NTA1 deamidated l-asparaginyl-l-valine (Asn-Val) and l-glutaminyl-glycine (Gln-Gly), but did not deamidate l-valyl-l-asparagine and l-alanyl-l-glutamine, suggesting that this deamidation activity is N-terminus specific. The specific activity toward Asn-Val and Gln-Gly were 190 ± 30 nmol min(-1) mg(-1)·protein and 136 ± 6 nmol min(-1) mg(-1)·protein. Additionally, we examined some characteristics of NTA1. Acidic dipeptide synthesis was examined by a combination of Lals and NTA1, resulting in the synthesis of 12 kinds of Asp-Xaa, including Asp-Phe, a precursor of aspartame, and 11 kinds of Glu-Xaa.

  3. Characterization, N-terminal sequencing and classification of Tolworthcin 524: A bacteriocin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Cano, Rubén D; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Salcedo-Hernández, Rubén; León-Galván, M Fabiola; Bideshi, Dennis K; Hernández-Guzmán, Gustavo; Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar

    2014-12-01

    Bacteriocins synthesized by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis are gaining attention owing to their inhibitory effects against a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we purified and characterized Tolworthcin 524, a bacteriocin synthesized by B. thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi, and compared it with other bacteriocins synthesized by B. thuringiensis. Tolworthcin 524 was separated and purified from the secretome of B. thuringiensis by fast protein liquid chromatography with a gel filtration column to obtain yields of 17% and a specific activity of ∼3600U/mgprotein. The purified product showed two peptides of ∼9 and 6kDa with antimicrobial activity in a gel-screening assay. The purified product was analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the resolved peptides of ∼9 and 6kDa with isoelectric points of ∼8 were sequenced. Partial sequences (METPVVQPR and DWTCWSCLVCAACS) were obtained suggesting that the ∼9 and 6kDa correspond to the prebacteriocin and mature Tolworthcin 524, respectively. Sequences showed high identity with Thurincin H and Thuricin 17 and had a conserved motif with other bacteriocins of B. thuringiensis. Based on sequence data, Tolworthcin 524 was classified in subclass II.2 (Thuricin-like peptides) of the Bacillus bacteriocin classification scheme. The larger peptide did not harbor a sequence suggestive of a signal peptide neither did it contain the double-glycine (GG) motif characteristic of the secretion leader recognized by the ABC transport system. Implications of these properties in Tolworthcin 524 secretion are discussed.

  4. Copper and zinc binding properties of the N-terminal histidine-rich sequence of Haemophilus ducreyi Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Paksi, Zoltán; Jancsó, Attila; Pacello, Francesca; Nagy, Nóra; Battistoni, Andrea; Gajda, Tamás

    2008-09-01

    The Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,ZnSOD) isolated from Haemophilus ducreyi possesses a His-rich N-terminal metal binding domain, which has been previously proposed to play a copper(II) chaperoning role. To analyze the metal binding ability and selectivity of the histidine-rich domain we have carried out thermodynamic and solution structural analysis of the copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes of a peptide corresponding to the first 11 amino acids of the enzyme (H(2)N-HGDHMHNHDTK-OH, L). This peptide has highly versatile metal binding ability and provides one and three high affinity binding sites for zinc(II) and copper(II), respectively. In equimolar solutions the MHL complexes are dominant in the neutral pH-range with protonated lysine epsilon-amino group. As a consequence of its multidentate nature, L binds zinc and copper with extraordinary high affinity (K(D,Zn)=1.6x10(-9)M and K(D,Cu)=5.0x10(-12)M at pH 7.4) and appears as the strongest zinc(II) and copper(II) chelator between the His-rich peptides so far investigated. These K(D) values support the already proposed role of the N-terminal His-rich region of H. ducreyi Cu,ZnSOD in copper recruitment under metal starvation, and indicate a similar function in the zinc(II) uptake, too. The kinetics of copper(II) transfer from L to the active site of Cu-free N-deleted H. ducreyi Cu,ZnSOD showed significant pH and copper-to-peptide ratio dependence, indicating specific structural requirements during the metal ion transfer to the active site. Interestingly, the complex CuHL has significant superoxide dismutase like activity, which may suggest multifunctional role of the copper(II)-bound N-terminal His-rich domain of H. ducreyi Cu,ZnSOD.

  5. Quantification of glycated N-terminal peptide of hemoglobin using derivatization for multiple functional groups of amino acids followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yohei; Kinumi, Tomoya; Yamazaki, Taichi; Takatsu, Akiko

    2016-02-01

    A novel method of amino acid analysis using derivatization of multiple functional groups (amino, carboxyl, and phenolic hydroxyl groups) was applied to measure glycated amino acids in order to quantify glycated peptides and evaluate the degree of glycation of peptide. Amino and carboxyl groups of amino acids were derivatized with 1-bromobutane so that the hydrophobicities and basicities of the amino acids, including glycated amino acids, were improved. These derivatized amino acids could be detected with high sensitivity using LC-MS/MS. In this study, 1-deoxyfructosyl-VHLTPE and VHLTPE, which are N-terminal peptides of the β-chains of hemoglobin, were selected as target compounds. After reducing the peptide sample solution with sodium borohydride, the obtained peptides were hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid. The released amino acids were then derivatized with 1-bromobutane and analyzed with LC-MS/MS. The derivatized amino acids, including glycated amino acids, could be separated using an octadecyl silylated silica column and good sharp peaks were detected. We show a confirmatory experiment that the proposed method can be applied to evaluate the degree of glycation of peptides, using mixtures of glycated and non-glycated peptide.

  6. Synthesis of Met-enkephalin by solution-phase peptide synthesis methodology utilizing para-toluene sulfonic acid as N-terminal masking of l-methionine amino acid.

    PubMed

    Khan, Riaz A

    2016-12-01

    The Met-enkephalin, Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met, was synthesized by the solution-phase synthesis (SPS) methodology employing -OBzl group as carboxyls' protection, while the t-Boc groups were employed for the N-terminal α-amines' protection for the majority of the amino acids of the pentapeptide sequence. The l-methionine (l-Met) amino acid was used as PTSA.Met-OBzl obtained from the simultaneous protection of the α-amino, and carboxyl group with para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) and as-OBzl ester, respectively in a C-terminal start of the 2 + 2 + 1 fragments condensation convergent synthetic approach. The protection strategy provided a short, single-step, simultaneous, orthogonal, nearly quantitative, robust, and stable process to carry through the protected l-methionine and l-phenylalanine coupling without any structural deformities during coupling and workups. The structurally confirmed final pentapeptide product was feasibly obtained in good yields through the current approach.

  7. The N-terminal nuclear localization sequences of liver X receptors alpha and beta bind to importin alpha and are essential for both nuclear import and transactivating functions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anna; Crumbley, Christine; Prüfer, Kirsten

    2009-04-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) alpha and beta are nuclear receptors, which form obligate heterodimers with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). The LXRs regulate both redundantly and non-redundantly the transcription of genes controlling cholesterol metabolism and transport as well as lipogenesis. Previously, we showed that mutations in putative N-terminal nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) within both LXRs inhibit nuclear import. Through in vitro studies, we show here that these NLSs bind importin alpha and are both necessary and sufficient for the nuclear import of LXRs. Imaging, transactivation, and electro-mobility shift experiments show that RXR rescues the nuclear import of the LXRalpha NLS mutant yet does not restore its transcriptional activity despite intact DNA binding. In contrast, RXR partially rescues the import of the LXRbeta NLS mutant, but has no effect on its transcriptional activity due to the loss of DNA binding. Experiments with NLS mutant RXR confirmed that RXR may dominate the nuclear import of the RXR/LXRalpha heterodimer, whereas LXRbeta dominates the nuclear import of the RXR/LXRbeta heterodimer. Intriguingly, our data indicate differences between LXRalpha and LXRbeta in their interaction with RXR and in the role their NLSs play in transactivating functions independent of nuclear import.

  8. Ischemia-Modified Albumin as a Marker of Acute Coronary Syndrome: The Case for Revising the Concept of "N-Terminal Modification" to "Fatty Acid Occupation" of Albumin.

    PubMed

    Oran, Ismail; Oran, Bulent

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is assumed "N-terminal modified" albumin which is generated immediately following myocardial ischemia. The diagnosis of IMA is based on reduced cobalt binding affinity to albumin which is attributed mainly to incapability of cobalt to bind at albumin's modified N-terminus. Although the albumin cobalt binding test was accepted as a potentially powerful marker for discriminating acute coronary syndrome from nonischemic chest pain, its usefulness has been brought into question in recent years. Patients with acutely ischemic myocardium exhibit a rapid increase in serum levels of fatty acids (FAs). Almost all released FAs are strongly bound to albumin which create conformational changes in the protein with resultant reduced cobalt binding affinity. There is a clear metabolic and temporal relationship between IMA measured via albumin cobalt binding testing and serum levels of FAs. In line with what has been suggested recently in the literature, we conclude that a shift from the concept of "N-terminal modified" to "FA-occupied" albumin is required, as this better describes IMA in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We also offer "oxidation modified albumin, OMA," which is conceptually different from the "FA-occupied" IMA, to describe modification of albumin in chronic disease associated with increased oxidative stress.

  9. Complete nucleotide and derived amino acid sequence of cDNA encoding the mitochondrial uncoupling protein of rat brown adipose tissue: lack of a mitochondrial targeting presequence.

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, R G; Patel, H V; Gerber, G E; Morton, R C; Freeman, K B

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA clone spanning the entire amino acid sequence of the nuclear-encoded uncoupling protein of rat brown adipose tissue mitochondria has been isolated and sequenced. With the exception of the N-terminal methionine the deduced N-terminus of the newly synthesized uncoupling protein is identical to the N-terminal 30 amino acids of the native uncoupling protein as determined by protein sequencing. This proves that the protein contains no N-terminal mitochondrial targeting prepiece and that a targeting region must reside within the amino acid sequence of the mature protein. Images PMID:3012461

  10. c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) induces phosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) at Thr668, in okadaic acid-induced neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji-Hwan; So, Sang-Pil; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kim, Dong-Hou

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have revealed that phosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) at Thr668 is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Okadaic acid (OA), a protein phosphatase-2A inhibitor, has been used in AD research models to increase tau phosphorylation and induce neuronal death. We previously showed that OA increased levels of APP and induced accumulation of APP in axonal swellings. In this study, we found that in OA-treated neurons, phosphorylation of APP at Thr668 increased and accumulated in axonal swellings by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and not by Cdk5 or ERK/MAPK. These results suggest that JNK may be one of therapeutic targets for the treatment of AD. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 376-381] PMID:26839154

  11. Regulation of Nucleosome Stacking and Chromatin Compaction by the Histone H4 N-Terminal Tail-H2A Acidic Patch Interaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinming; Yang, Renliang; Korolev, Nikolay; Liu, Chuan Fa; Nordenskiöld, Lars

    2017-03-16

    Chromatin folding and dynamics are critically dependent on nucleosome-nucleosome interactions with important contributions from internucleosome binding of the histone H4 N-terminal tail K16-R23 domain to the surface of the H2A/H2B dimer. The H4 Lys16 plays a pivotal role in this regard. Using in vitro reconstituted 12-mer nucleosome arrays, we have investigated the mechanism of the H4 N-terminal tail in maintaining nucleosome-nucleosome stacking and mediating intra- and inter-array chromatin compaction, with emphasis on the role of K16 and the positive charge region, R17-R23. Analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity experiments and precipitation assays were employed to analyze effects on chromatin folding and self-association, respectively. Effects on chromatin folding caused by various mutations and modifications at position K16 in the H4 histone were studied. Additionally, using charge-quenching mutations, we characterized the importance of the interaction of the residues within the H4 positive charge region R17-R23 with the H2A acidic patch of the adjacent nucleosome. Furthermore, crosslinking experiments were conducted to establish the proximity of the basic tail region to the acidic patch. Our data indicate that the positive charge and length of the side chain of H4 K16 are important for its access to the adjacent nucleosome in the process of nucleosome-nucleosome stacking and array folding. The location and orientation of the H4 R17-R23 domain on the H2A/H2B dimer surface of the neighboring nucleosome core particle (NCP) in the compacted chromatin fiber were established. The dominance of electrostatic interactions in maintaining intra-array interaction was demonstrated.

  12. Characterization of amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of Ubc9 that play a role in Ubc9 nuclear localization

    SciTech Connect

    Sekhri, Palak; Tao, Tao; Kaplan, Feige; Zhang, Xiang-Dong

    2015-02-27

    As the sole E2 enzyme for SUMOylation, Ubc9 is predominantly nuclear. However, the underlying mechanisms of Ubc9 nuclear localization are still not well understood. Here we show that RNAi-depletion of Imp13, an importin known to mediate Ubc9 nuclear import, reduces both Ubc9 nuclear accumulation and global SUMOylation. Furthermore, Ubc9-R13A or Ubc9-H20D mutation previously shown to interrupt the interaction of Ubc9 with nucleus-enriched SUMOs reduces the nuclear enrichment of Ubc9, suggesting that the interaction of Ubc9 with the nuclear SUMOs may enhance Ubc9 nuclear retention. Moreover, Ubc9-R17E mutation, which is known to disrupt the interaction of Ubc9 with both SUMOs and Imp13, causes a greater decrease in Ubc9 nuclear accumulation than Ubc9-R13A or Ubc9-H20D mutation. Lastly, Ubc9-K74A/S89D mutations that perturb the interaction of Ubc9 with nucleus-enriched SUMOylation-consensus motifs has no effect on Ubc9 nuclear localization. Altogether, our results have elucidated that the amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of Ubc9 play a pivotal role in regulation of Ubc9 nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Imp13-mediated nuclear import of Ubc9 is critical for global SUMOylation. • Ubc9 mutations disrupting Ubc9-SUMO interaction decrease Ubc9 nuclear accumulation. • N-terminal amino acid residues of Ubc9 are critical for Ubc9 nuclear enrichment.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structural Mapping Reveals Promiscuous Interactions between Clathrin-Box Motif Sequences and the N-Terminal Domain of the Clathrin Heavy Chain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment and organization of clathrin at endocytic sites first to form coated pits and then clathrin-coated vesicles depend on interactions between the clathrin N-terminal domain (TD) and multiple clathrin binding sequences on the cargo adaptor and accessory proteins that are concentrated at such sites. Up to four distinct protein binding sites have been proposed to be present on the clathrin TD, with each site proposed to interact with a distinct clathrin binding motif. However, an understanding of how such interactions contribute to clathrin coat assembly must take into account observations that any three of these four sites on clathrin TD can be mutationally ablated without causing loss of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. To take an unbiased approach to mapping binding sites for clathrin-box motifs on clathrin TD, we used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our ITC experiments revealed that a canonical clathrin-box motif peptide from the AP-2 adaptor binds to clathrin TD with a stoichiometry of 3:1. Assignment of 90% of the total visible amide resonances in the TROSY-HSQC spectrum of 13C-, 2H-, and 15N-labeled TD40 allowed us to map these three binding sites by analyzing the chemical shift changes as clathrin-box motif peptides were titrated into clathrin TD. We found that three different clathrin-box motif peptides can each simultaneously bind not only to the previously characterized clathrin-box site but also to the W-box site and the β-arrestin splice loop site on a single TD. The promiscuity of these binding sites can help explain why their mutation does not lead to larger effects on clathrin function and suggests a mechanism by which clathrin may be transferred between different proteins during the course of an endocytic event. PMID:25844500

  14. The calmodulin-like proteins AtCML4 and AtCML5 are single-pass membrane proteins targeted to the endomembrane system by an N-terminal signal anchor sequence

    PubMed Central

    Ruge, Henning; Flosdorff, Sandra; Ebersberger, Ingo; Chigri, Fatima; Vothknecht, Ute C.

    2016-01-01

    Calmodulins (CaMs) are important mediators of Ca2+ signals that are found ubiquitously in all eukaryotic organisms. Plants contain a unique family of calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) that exhibit greater sequence variance compared to canonical CaMs. The Arabidopsis thaliana proteins AtCML4 and AtCML5 are members of CML subfamily VII and possess a CaM domain comprising the characteristic double pair of EF-hands, but they are distinguished from other members of this subfamily and from canonical CaMs by an N-terminal extension of their amino acid sequence. Transient expression of yellow fluorescent protein-tagged AtCML4 and AtCML5 under a 35S-promoter in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells revealed a spherical fluorescence pattern. This pattern was confirmed by transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts under the native promoter. Co-localization analyses with various endomembrane marker proteins suggest that AtCML4 and AtCML5 are localized to vesicular structures in the interphase between Golgi and the endosomal system. Further studies revealed AtCML5 to be a single-pass membrane protein that is targeted into the endomembrane system by an N-terminal signal anchor sequence. Self-assembly green fluorescent protein and protease protection assays support a topology with the CaM domain exposed to the cytosolic surface and not the lumen of the vesicles, indicating that AtCML5 could sense Ca2+ signals in the cytosol. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that AtCML4 and AtCML5 are closely related paralogues originating from a duplication event within the Brassicaceae family. CML4/5-like proteins seem to be universally present in eudicots but are absent in some monocots. Together these results show that CML4/5-like proteins represent a flowering plant-specific subfamily of CMLs with a potential function in vesicle transport within the plant endomembrane system. PMID:27029353

  15. Deletion of N-terminal amino acids from human lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase differentially affects enzyme activity toward alpha- and beta-substrate lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Vickaryous, Nicola K; Teh, Evelyn M; Stewart, Bruce; Dolphin, Peter J; Too, Catherine K L; McLeod, Roger S

    2003-03-21

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the enzyme responsible for generation of the majority of the cholesteryl esters (CE) in human plasma. Although most plasma cholesterol esterification occurs on high-density lipoprotein (HDL), via alpha-LCAT activity, esterification also occurs on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) via the beta-activity of the enzyme. Computer threading techniques have provided a three-dimensional model for use in the structure-function analysis of the core and catalytic site of the LCAT protein, but the model does not extend to the N-terminal region of the enzyme, which may mediate LCAT interaction with lipoprotein substrates. In the present study, we have examined the functional consequences of deletion of the highly conserved hydrophobic N-terminal amino acids (residues 1-5) of human LCAT. Western blot analysis showed that the mutant proteins (Delta 1-Delta 5) were synthesized and secreted from transfected COS-7 cells at levels approximately equivalent to those of wild-type hLCAT. The secreted proteins had apparent molecular weights of 67 kDa, indicating that they were correctly processed and glycosylated during cellular transit. However, deletion of the first residue of the mature LCAT protein (Delta 1 mutant) resulted in a dramatic loss of alpha-LCAT activity (5% of wild type using reconstituted HDL substrate, rHDL), although this mutant retained full beta-LCAT activity (108% of wild-type using human LDL substrate). Removal of residues 1 and 2 (Delta 2 mutant) abolished alpha-LCAT activity and reduced beta-LCAT activity to 12% of wild type. Nevertheless, LCAT Delta 1 and Delta 2 mutants retained their ability to bind to rHDL and LDL lipoprotein substrates. The dramatic loss of enzyme activity suggests that the N-terminal residues of LCAT may be involved in maintaining the conformation of the lid domain and influence activation by the alpha-LCAT cofactor apoA-I (in Delta 1) and/or loss of enzyme activity (in Delta 1-Delta 5). Since the

  16. Genomic analysis of 16 Colorado human NL63 coronaviruses identifies a new genotype, high sequence diversity in the N-terminal domain of the spike gene and evidence of recombination.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Samuel R; Sims, Gregory E; Wentworth, David E; Halpin, Rebecca A; Robinson, Christine C; Town, Christopher D; Holmes, Kathryn V

    2012-11-01

    This study compared the complete genome sequences of 16 NL63 strain human coronaviruses (hCoVs) from respiratory specimens of paediatric patients with respiratory disease in Colorado, USA, and characterized the epidemiology and clinical characteristics associated with circulating NL63 viruses over a 3-year period. From 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2011, 92 of 9380 respiratory specimens were found to be positive for NL63 RNA by PCR, an overall prevalence of 1 %. NL63 viruses were circulating during all 3 years, but there was considerable yearly variation in prevalence and the month of peak incidence. Phylogenetic analysis comparing the genome sequences of the 16 Colorado NL63 viruses with those of the prototypical hCoV-NL63 and three other NL63 viruses from the Netherlands demonstrated that there were three genotypes (A, B and C) circulating in Colorado from 2005 to 2010, and evidence of recombination between virus strains was found. Genotypes B and C co-circulated in Colorado in 2005, 2009 and 2010, but genotype A circulated only in 2005 when it was the predominant NL63 strain. Genotype C represents a new lineage that has not been described previously. The greatest variability in the NL63 virus genomes was found in the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike gene (nt 1-600, aa 1-200). Ten different amino acid sequences were found in the NTD of the spike protein among these NL63 strains and the 75 partial published sequences of NTDs from strains found at different times throughout the world.

  17. Primary structure of the A chain of human complement-classical-pathway enzyme C1r. N-terminal sequences and alignment of autolytic fragments and CNBr-cleavage peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, J; Arlaud, G J

    1985-01-01

    Activated human complement-classical-pathway enzyme C1r has previously been shown to undergo autolytic cleavages occurring in the A chain [Arlaud, Villiers, Chesne & Colomb (1980) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 616, 116-129]. Chemical analysis of the autolytic products confirms that the A chain undergoes two major cleavages, generating three fragments, which have now been isolated and characterized. The N-terminal alpha fragment (approx. 210 residues long) has a blocked N-terminus, as does the whole A chain, whereas N-terminal sequences of fragments beta and gamma (approx. 66 and 176 residues long respectively) do not, and their N-terminal sequences were determined. Fragments alpha, beta and gamma, which are not interconnected by disulphide bridges, are located in this order within C1r A chain. Fragment gamma is disulphide-linked to the B chain of C1r, which is C-terminal in the single polypeptide chain of precursor C1r. CNBr cleavage of C1r A chain yields seven major peptides, CN1b, CN4a, CN2a, CN1a, CN3, CN4b and CN2b, which were positioned in that order, on the basis of N-terminal sequences of the methionine-containing peptides generated from tryptic cleavage of the succinylated (3-carboxypropionylated) C1r A chain. About 60% of the sequence of C1r A chain (440-460 residues long) was determined, including the complete sequence of the C-terminal 95 residues. This region shows homology with the corresponding parts of plasminogen and chymotrypsinogen and, more surprisingly, with the alpha 1 chain of human haptoglobin 1-1, a serine proteinase homologue. PMID:2983658

  18. Stability of the heme Fe-N-terminal amino group coordination bond in denatured cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Tai, Hulin; Munegumi, Toratane; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2009-01-05

    In the denatured states of Hydrogenobacter thermophilus cytochrome c(552) (HT) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c(551) (PA), and their mutants, the N-terminal amino group of the polypeptide chain is coordinated to heme Fe in place of the axial Met, the His-N(term) form being formed. The coordination of the N-terminal amino group to heme Fe leads to loop formation by the N-terminal stretch preceding the first Cys residue bound to the heme, and the N-terminal stretches of HT and PA are different from each other in terms of both the sequence and the number of constituent amino acid residues. The His-N(term) form was shown to be rather stable, and hence it can influence the stability of the denatured state. We have investigated the heme Fe coordination structures and stabilities of the His-N(term) forms emerging upon guanidine hydrochloric acid-induced unfolding of the oxidized forms of the proteins. The Fe-N(term) coordination bond in the His-N(term) form with a 9-residue N-terminal stretch of HT proteins was found to be tilted to some extent away from the heme normal, as reflected by the great heme methyl proton shift spread. On the other hand, the small heme methyl proton shift spread of the His-N(term) form with an 11-residue stretch of PA proteins indicated that its Fe-N(term) bond is nearly parallel with the heme normal. The stability of the His-N(term) form was found to be affected by the structural properties of the N-terminal stretch, such as its length and the N-terminal residue. With a given N-terminal residue, the stability of the His-N(term) form is higher for a 9-residue N-terminal stretch than an 11-residue one. In addition, with a given length of the N-terminal stretch, the His-N(term) form with an N-terminal Glu is stabilized by a few kJ mol(-1) relative to that with an N-terminal Asn. These results provide a novel insight into the stabilizing interactions in the denatured cyts c that will facilitate elucidation of the folding/unfolding mechanisms

  19. Acidic Residues Control the Dimerization of the N-terminal Domain of Black Widow Spiders’ Major Ampullate Spidroin 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Joschka; Schaal, Daniel; Eisoldt, Lukas; Schweimer, Kristian; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Dragline silk is the most prominent amongst spider silks and comprises two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) differing in their proline content. In the natural spinning process, the conversion of soluble MaSp into a tough fiber is, amongst other factors, triggered by dimerization and conformational switching of their helical amino-terminal domains (NRN). Both processes are induced by protonation of acidic residues upon acidification along the spinning duct. Here, the structure and monomer-dimer-equilibrium of the domain NRN1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 and variants thereof have been investigated, and the key residues for both could be identified. Changes in ionic composition and strength within the spinning duct enable electrostatic interactions between the acidic and basic pole of two monomers which prearrange into an antiparallel dimer. Upon naturally occurring acidification this dimer is stabilized by protonation of residue E114. A conformational change is independently triggered by protonation of clustered acidic residues (D39, E76, E81). Such step-by-step mechanism allows a controlled spidroin assembly in a pH- and salt sensitive manner, preventing premature aggregation of spider silk proteins in the gland and at the same time ensuring fast and efficient dimer formation and stabilization on demand in the spinning duct.

  20. Acidic Residues Control the Dimerization of the N-terminal Domain of Black Widow Spiders’ Major Ampullate Spidroin 1

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Joschka; Schaal, Daniel; Eisoldt, Lukas; Schweimer, Kristian; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Dragline silk is the most prominent amongst spider silks and comprises two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) differing in their proline content. In the natural spinning process, the conversion of soluble MaSp into a tough fiber is, amongst other factors, triggered by dimerization and conformational switching of their helical amino-terminal domains (NRN). Both processes are induced by protonation of acidic residues upon acidification along the spinning duct. Here, the structure and monomer-dimer-equilibrium of the domain NRN1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 and variants thereof have been investigated, and the key residues for both could be identified. Changes in ionic composition and strength within the spinning duct enable electrostatic interactions between the acidic and basic pole of two monomers which prearrange into an antiparallel dimer. Upon naturally occurring acidification this dimer is stabilized by protonation of residue E114. A conformational change is independently triggered by protonation of clustered acidic residues (D39, E76, E81). Such step-by-step mechanism allows a controlled spidroin assembly in a pH- and salt sensitive manner, preventing premature aggregation of spider silk proteins in the gland and at the same time ensuring fast and efficient dimer formation and stabilization on demand in the spinning duct. PMID:27681031

  1. Dipeptide Sequence Determination: Analyzing Phenylthiohydantoin Amino Acids by HPLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Janice S.; Tang, Chung-Fei; Reed, Steven S.

    2000-02-01

    Amino acid composition and sequence determination, important techniques for characterizing peptides and proteins, are essential for predicting conformation and studying sequence alignment. This experiment presents improved, fundamental methods of sequence analysis for an upper-division biochemistry laboratory. Working in pairs, students use the Edman reagent to prepare phenylthiohydantoin derivatives of amino acids for determination of the sequence of an unknown dipeptide. With a single HPLC technique, students identify both the N-terminal amino acid and the composition of the dipeptide. This method yields good precision of retention times and allows use of a broad range of amino acids as components of the dipeptide. Students learn fundamental principles and techniques of sequence analysis and HPLC.

  2. Oligomerization of the microtubule-associated protein tau is mediated by its N-terminal sequences: implications for normal and pathological tau action.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, H Eric; Benbow, Sarah J; LaPointe, Nichole E; Patel, Nirav; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Do, Thanh D; Gaylord, Michelle R; Huskey, Noelle E; Dressler, Nicolette; Korff, Megan; Quon, Brady; Cantrell, Kristi Lazar; Bowers, Michael T; Lal, Ratnesh; Feinstein, Stuart C

    2016-06-01

    Despite extensive structure-function analyses, the molecular mechanisms of normal and pathological tau action remain poorly understood. How does the C-terminal microtubule-binding region regulate microtubule dynamics and bundling? In what biophysical form does tau transfer trans-synaptically from one neuron to another, promoting neurodegeneration and dementia? Previous biochemical/biophysical work led to the hypothesis that tau can dimerize via electrostatic interactions between two N-terminal 'projection domains' aligned in an anti-parallel fashion, generating a multivalent complex capable of interacting with multiple tubulin subunits. We sought to test this dimerization model directly. Native gel analyses of full-length tau and deletion constructs demonstrate that the N-terminal region leads to multiple bands, consistent with oligomerization. Ferguson analyses of native gels indicate that an N-terminal fragment (tau(45-230) ) assembles into heptamers/octamers. Ferguson analyses of denaturing gels demonstrates that tau(45-230) can dimerize even in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Atomic force microscopy reveals multiple levels of oligomerization by both full-length tau and tau(45-230) . Finally, ion mobility-mass spectrometric analyses of tau(106-144) , a small peptide containing the core of the hypothesized dimerization region, also demonstrate oligomerization. Thus, multiple independent strategies demonstrate that the N-terminal region of tau can mediate higher order oligomerization, which may have important implications for both normal and pathological tau action. The microtubule-associated protein tau is essential for neuronal development and maintenance, but is also central to Alzheimer's and related dementias. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms underlying normal and pathological tau action remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that tau can homo-oligomerize, providing novel mechanistic models for normal tau action (promoting microtubule growth and

  3. Influenza A virus virulence depends on two amino acids in the N-terminal domain of its NS1 protein facilitating inhibition of PKR.

    PubMed

    Schierhorn, Kristina L; Jolmes, Fabian; Bespalowa, Julia; Saenger, Sandra; Peteranderl, Christin; Dzieciolowski, Julia; Budt, Matthias; Pleschka, Stephan; Herrmann, Andreas; Herold, Susanne; Wolff, Thorsten

    2017-03-01

    main activity of the amino acids 35 and 46 as the strong attenuation of corresponding mutant viruses in human cells was rescued to a large extent by lowering PKR expression levels. Significantly, this corresponded with restoration of viral virulence for NS1 R35A and R46A mutant viruses in PKR(-/-) mice. Therefore, our data establish a model in which the NS1 N-terminal domain engages in a binding interaction to inhibit activation of PKR and ensure efficient viral propagation and virulence.

  4. A highly basic sequence at the N-terminal region is essential for targeting the DNA replication protein ORC1 to the nucleus in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devanand; Kumar, Diwakar; Saha, Swati

    2012-07-01

    The conserved eukaryotic DNA replication protein ORC1 is one of the constituents of pre-replication complexes that assemble at or very near origins prior to replication initiation. ORC1 has been shown to be constitutively nuclear in Leishmania major. This study investigates the sequences involved in nuclear localization of ORC1 in Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Nuclear localization signals (NLSs) have been reported in only a few Leishmania proteins. Functional analyses have delineated NLSs to regions of ~60 amino acids in length in the tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase I and type II DNA topoisomerase of L. donovani, and in the L. major kinesin KIN13-1. Using a panel of site-directed mutations we have identified a sequence essential for nuclear import of LdORC1. This sequence at the N terminus of the protein comprises residues 2-5 (KRSR), with K2, R3 and R5 being crucial. Independent mutation of the K2 residue causes exclusion of the protein from the nucleus, while mutating the R5 residue leads to diffusion of the protein throughout the cell. This sequence, however, is insufficient for targeting a heterologous protein (β-galactosidase) to the nucleus. Analysis of additional ORC1 mutations and reporter constructs reveals that while the highly basic tetra-amino acid sequence at the N terminus is essential for nuclear localization, the ORC1 NLS in its entirety is more complex, and of a distributive character. Our results suggest that nuclear localization signalling sequences in Leishmania nuclear proteins are more complex than what is typically seen in higher eukaryotes.

  5. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Heart Dysfunction by Restoring Fatty Acid Oxidation in Rats by Mitigating C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Bingdong; Liu, Lidan; Wang, Ni; Tong, Dongyi; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jin

    2015-12-01

    Sepsis is common in intensive care units (ICU) and is associated with high mortality. Cardiac dysfunction complicating sepsis is one of the most important causes of this mortality. This dysfunction is due to myocardial inflammation and reduced production of energy by the heart. A number of studies have shown that hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) has a beneficial effect on sepsis. Therefore, we tested whether HRS prevents cardiac dysfunction by increasing cardiac energy. Four groups of rats received intraperitoneal injections of one of the following solutions: normal saline (NS), HRS, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and LPS plus HRS. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography 8 h after the injections. Gene and protein expression related to fatty acid oxidation (FAO) were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis. The injection of LPS compromised heart function through decreased fractional shortening (FS) and increased left ventricular diameter (LVD). The addition of HRS increased FS, palmitate triphosphate, and the ratio of phosphocreatinine (PCr) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as well as decreasing LVD. The LPS challenge reduced the expression of genes related to FAO, including perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα), and their downstream targets, in mRNA and protein level, which were attenuated by HRS. However, HRS had little effect on glucose metabolism. Furthermore, HRS inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in the rat heart. Inhibition of JNK by HRS showed beneficial effects on LPS-challenged rats, at least in part, by restoring cardiac FAO.

  6. The N-terminal sequence of the extrinsic PsbP protein modulates the redox potential of Cyt b559 in photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Taishi; Nagao, Ryo; Noguchi, Takumi; Nield, Jon; Sato, Fumihiko; Ifuku, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    The PsbP protein, an extrinsic subunit of photosystem II (PSII) in green plants, is known to induce a conformational change around the catalytic Mn4CaO5 cluster securing the binding of Ca2+ and Cl– in PSII. PsbP has multiple interactions with the membrane subunits of PSII, but how these affect the structure and function of PSII requires clarification. Here, we focus on the interactions between the N-terminal residues of PsbP and the α subunit of Cytochrome (Cyt) b559 (PsbE). A key observation was that a peptide fragment formed of the first N-terminal 15 residues of PsbP, ‘pN15’, was able to convert Cyt b559 into its HP form. Interestingly, addition of pN15 to NaCl-washed PSII membranes decreased PSII’s oxygen-evolving activity, even in the presence of saturating Ca2+ and Cl– ions. In fact, pN15 reversibly inhibited the S1 to S2 transition of the OEC in PSII. These data suggest that pN15 can modulate the redox property of Cyt b559 involved in the side-electron pathway in PSII. This potential change of Cyt b559, in the absence of the C-terminal domain of PsbP, however, would interfere with any electron donation from the Mn4CaO5 cluster, leading to the possibility that multiple interactions of PsbP, binding to PSII, have distinct roles in regulating electron transfer within PSII. PMID:26887804

  7. Engineered recombinant enteropeptidase catalytic subunit: effect of N-terminal modification.

    PubMed

    Song, Hye-Won; Choi, Sung-Il; Seong, Baik L

    2002-04-01

    Enteropeptidase (enterokinase) is a serine protease highly specific for recognition and cleavage of the target sequence of Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys (D4K). The three-dimensional structure of the enteropeptidase shows that the N-terminal amino acid is buried inside the protein providing molecular interactions necessary to maintain the conformation of the active site. To determine the influence of the N-terminal amino acid of enteropeptidase light chain (EK(L)) on the enzymatic activity, we constructed various mutants including 17 different single amino acid substitutions and three different extensions at the N-terminal end. The mutants of recombinant enteropeptidase (rEK(L)) were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and secreted into culture medium. Among 20 different mutants tested, the only mutant with the Ile --> Val substitution exhibited significant activity. The kinetic properties of the mutant protein were very similar to those of the wild-type rEK(L). Based on the three-dimensional structure where the N-terminal Ile is oriented into hydrophobic pocket, the results suggest that Val could substitute Ile without affecting the active conformation of the enzyme. The results also explain why all trypsin-like serine proteases carry either Ile or Val at the N-termini and none other amino acid residues are found. Moreover, this finding provides a mental framework for expressing the N-terminally engineered enteropeptidase in Escherichia coli, utilizing the known property of the methionine aminopeptidase that exhibits poor activity toward the N-terminal Met-Ile bond, but offers efficient cleavage of the Met-Val bond.

  8. Enzyme-Dependent [4 + 2] Cycloaddition Depends on Lid-like Interaction of the N-Terminal Sequence with the Catalytic Core in PyrI4.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qingfei; Guo, Yujiao; Yang, Linlin; Zhao, Zhixiong; Wu, Zhuhua; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Jianping; Cheng, Xiaofang; Wu, Jiequn; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Pan, Lifeng; Liu, Wen

    2016-03-17

    The Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction is one of the most powerful and elegant organic synthesis methods for forming 6-membered molecules and has been known for nearly a century. However, whether and how enzymes catalyze this type of reaction is still not completely clear. Here we focus on PyrI4, an enzyme found in the biosynthetic pathway of pyrroindomycins where it catalyzes the formation of a spiro-conjugate via an enzyme-dependent exo-selective [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. We report the crystal structures of PyrI4 alone and in complex with its product. Comparative analysis of these structures, combined with biochemical analysis, lead us to propose a unique trapping mechanism whereby the lid-like action of the N-terminal tail imposes conformational constraints on the β barrel catalytic core, which enhances the proximity and polarization effects of reactive groups (1,3-diene and alkene) to drive cyclization in a regio- and stereo-specific manner. This work represents an important step toward the wider application of enzyme-catalyzed [4 + 2] cyclization for synthetic purposes.

  9. Structure of N-terminal sequence Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser of Aβ-peptide with phospholipase A2 from venom of Andaman Cobra sub-species Naja naja sagittifera at 2.0 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Zeenat; Pillai, Vikram Gopalakrishna; Zhong, Wei-Zhu

    2014-03-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most significant social and health burdens of the present century. Plaques formed by extracellular deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) are the prime player of AD's neuropathology. Studies have implicated the varied role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in brain where it contributes to neuronal growth and inflammatory response. Overall contour and chemical nature of the substrate-binding channel in the low molecular weight PLA2s are similar. This study involves the reductionist fragment-based approach to understand the structure adopted by N-terminal fragment of Alzheimer's Aβ peptide in its complex with PLA2. In the current communication, we report the structure determined by X-ray crystallography of N-terminal sequence Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser (DAEFRHDS) of Aβ-peptide with a Group I PLA2 purified from venom of Andaman Cobra sub-species Naja naja sagittifera at 2.0 Å resolution (Protein Data Bank (PDB) Code: 3JQ5). This is probably the first attempt to structurally establish interaction between amyloid-β peptide fragment and hydrophobic substrate binding site of PLA2 involving H bond and van der Waals interactions. We speculate that higher affinity between Aβ and PLA2 has the therapeutic potential of decreasing the Aβ-Aβ interaction, thereby reducing the amyloid aggregation and plaque formation in AD.

  10. An N-terminal nuclear localization sequence but not the calmodulin-binding domain mediates nuclear localization of nucleomorphin, a protein that regulates nuclear number in Dictyostelium

    SciTech Connect

    Myre, Michael A.; O'Day, Danton H. . E-mail: doday@utm.utoronto.ca

    2005-06-24

    Nucleomorphin is a novel nuclear calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein (CaMBP) containing an extensive DEED (glu/asp repeat) domain that regulates nuclear number. GFP-constructs of the 38 kDa NumA1 isoform localize as intranuclear patches adjacent to the inner nuclear membrane. The translocation of CaMBPs into nuclei has previously been shown by others to be mediated by both classic nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) and CaM-binding domains (CaMBDs). Here we show that NumA1 possesses a CaMBD ({sup 171}EDVSRFIKGKLLQKQQKIYKDLERF{sup 195}) containing both calcium-dependent-binding motifs and an IQ-like motif for calcium-independent binding. GFP-constructs containing only NumA1 residues 1-129, lacking the DEED and CaMBDs, still localized as patches at the internal periphery of nuclei thus ruling out a direct role for the CaMBD in nuclear import. These constructs contained the amino acid residues {sup 48}KKSYQDPEIIAHSRPRK{sup 64} that include both a putative bipartite and classical NLS. GFP-bipartite NLS constructs localized uniformly within nuclei but not as patches. As with previous work, removal of the DEED domain resulted in highly multinucleate cells. However as shown here, multinuclearity only occurred when the NLS was present allowing the protein to enter nuclei. Site-directed mutation analysis in which the NLS was changed to {sup 48}EF{sup 49} abolished the stability of the GFP fusion at the protein but not RNA level preventing subcellular analyses. Cells transfected with the {sup 48}EF{sup 49} construct exhibited slowed growth when compared to parental AX3 cells and other GFP-NumA1 deletion mutants. In addition to identifying an NLS that is sufficient for nuclear translocation of nucleomorphin and ruling out CaM-binding in this event, this work shows that the nuclear localization of NumA1 is crucial to its ability to regulate nuclear number in Dictyostelium.

  11. The amino acid sequence of protein CM-3 from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (black mamba) venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J

    1985-01-01

    Protein CM-3 from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis venom was purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. It comprises 65 amino acids including eight half-cystines. The complete amino acid sequence of protein CM-3 has been elucidated. The sequence (residues 1-50) resembles that of the N-terminal sequence of the subunits of a synergistic type protein and residues 51-65 that of the C-terminal sequence of an angusticeps type protein. Mixtures of protein CM-3 and angusticeps type proteins showed no apparent synergistic effect, in that their toxicity in combination was no greater than the sum of their individual toxicities.

  12. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  13. SHAPE Analysis of the RNA Secondary Structure of the Mouse Hepatitis Virus 5′ Untranslated Region and N-Terminal Nsp1 Coding Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong; Liu, Pinghua; Wudeck, Elyse V.; Giedroc, David P.; Leibowitz, Julian L.

    2014-01-01

    SHAPE technology was used to analyze RNA secondary structure of the 5′ most 474 nts of the MHV-A59 genome encompassing the minimal 5′ cis-acting region required for defective interfering RNA replication. The structures generated were in agreement with previous characterizations of SL1 through SL4 and two recently predicted secondary structure elements, S5 and SL5A. SHAPE provided biochemical support for four additional stem-loops not previously functionally investigated in MHV. Secondary structure predictions for 5′ regions of MHV-A59, BCoV and SARS-CoV were similar despite high sequence divergence. The pattern of SHAPE reactivity of in virio genomic RNA, ex virio genomic RNA, and in vitro synthesized RNA were similar, suggesting that binding of N protein or other proteins to virion RNA fails to protect the RNA from reaction with lipid permeable SHAPE reagent. Reverse genetic experiments suggested that SL5C and SL6 within the nsp1 coding sequence are not required for viral replication. PMID:25462342

  14. Role of the N-terminal region of the skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase target sequence in its interaction with calmodulin.

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, W. A.; Gradwell, M. J.; Bayley, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    The binding of calmodulin (CaM) to four synthetic peptide analogues of the skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase (sk-MLCK) target sequence has been studied using 1H-NMR. The 18-residue peptide WFF is anchored to CaM via the interaction of the Trp 4 side chain with the C-domain and the Phe 17 side chain with the N-domain of the protein. A peptide corresponding to the first 10 residues (WF10) does not provide the second anchoring residue and is not long enough to span both domains of CaM. 1H-NMR spectroscopy indicates that the WF10 peptide interacts specifically with the C-domain of CaM, and the chemical shifts of the bound Trp side chain are very similar in the CaM:WF10 and CaM:WFF complexes. Binding of the C-domain of CaM to the strongly basic region around Trp 4 of this MLCK sequence may be an important step in target recognition. Comparison of 1H-NMR spectra of CaM bound to WFF, a Trp 4-->Phe analogue (FFF), or a Trp 4-->Phe/Phe 17-->Trp analogue (FFW) suggests that all three peptides bind to CaM in the same orientation, i.e., with the peptide side chain in position 4 interacting with the C-domain and the side chain in position 17 interacting with the N-domain. This indicates that a Trp residue in position 4 is not an absolute requirement for binding this target sequence and that interchanging the Trp 4 and Phe 17 residues does not reverse the orientation of the bound peptide, in confirmation of the deduction from previous indirect studies using circular dichroism (Findlay WA, Martin SR, Beckingham K, Bayley PM, 1995, Biochemistry 34:2087-2094). Molecular modeling/energy minimization studies indicate that only minor local changes in the protein structure are required to accommodate binding of the bulkier Trp 17 side chain of the FFW peptide to the N-domain of CaM. PMID:8563635

  15. N-Terminal Methionine Processing.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Paul T

    2017-04-03

    Protein synthesis is initiated by methionine in eukaryotes and by formylmethionine in prokaryotes. N-terminal methionine can be co-translationally cleaved by the enzyme methionine aminopeptidase (MAP). When recombinant proteins are expressed in bacterial and mammalian expression systems, there is a simple universal rule that predicts whether the initiating methionine will be processed by MAP based on the size of the residue adjacent (penultimate) to the N-methionine. In general, if the side chains of the penultimate residues have a radius of gyration of 1.29 Å or less, methionine is cleaved. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Protection efficacy of the Brucella abortus ghost vaccine candidate lysed by the N-terminal 24-amino acid fragment (GI24) of the 36-amino acid peptide PMAP-36 (porcine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 36) in murine models

    PubMed Central

    KWON, Ae Jeong; MOON, Ja Young; KIM, Won Kyong; KIM, Suk; HUR, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus cells were lysed by the N-terminal 24-amino acid fragment (GI24) of the 36-amino acid peptide PMAP-36 (porcine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 36). Next, the protection efficacy of the lysed fragment as a vaccine candidate was evaluated. Group A mice were immunized with sterile PBS, group B mice were intraperitoneally (ip) immunized with 3 × 108 colony-forming units (CFUs) of B. abortus strain RB51, group C mice were immunized ip with 3 × 108 cells of the B. abortus vaccine candidate, and group D mice were orally immunized with 3 × 109 cells of the B. abortus vaccine candidate. Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific serum IgG titers were considerably higher in groups C and D than in group A. The levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were significantly higher in groups B–D than in group A. After an ip challenge with B. abortus 544, only group C mice showed a significant level of protection as compared to group A. Overall, these results show that ip immunization with a vaccine candidate lysed by GI24 can effectively protect mice from systemic infection with virulent B. abortus. PMID:27349900

  17. Independent repression of bile acid synthesis and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by activated hepatocyte fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) and bile acids.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chundong; Wang, Fen; Jin, Chengliu; Huang, Xinqiang; McKeehan, Wallace L

    2005-05-06

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor complex is a regulator of adult organ homeostasis in addition to its central role in embryonic development and wound healing. FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4) is the sole FGFR receptor kinase that is significantly expressed in mature hepatocytes. Previously, we showed that mice lacking mouse FGFR4 (mR4(-/-)) exhibited elevated fecal bile acids, bile acid pool size, and expression of liver cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for canonical neutral bile acid synthesis. To prove that hepatocyte FGFR4 was a negative regulator of cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis independent of background, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing a constitutively active human FGFR4 (CahR4) in hepatocytes and crossed them with the FGFR4-deficient mice to generate CahR4/mR4(-/-) mice. In mice expressing active FGFR4 in liver, fecal bile acid excretion was 64%, bile acid pool size was 47%, and Cyp7a1 expression was 10-30% of wild-type mice. The repressed level of Cyp7a1 expression was resistant to induction by a high cholesterol diet relative to wild-type mice. Expression of CahR4 in mR4(-/-) mouse livers depressed bile acid synthesis below wild-type levels from the elevated levels observed in mR4(-/-). Levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which is part of a pathway implicated in bile acid-mediated repression of synthesis, was 30% of wild-type levels in mR4(-/-) livers, whereas CahR4 livers exhibited an average 2-fold increase. However, cholate still strongly induced phospho-JNK in mR4(-/-) livers. These results confirm that hepatocyte FGFR4 regulates bile acid synthesis by repression of Cyp7a1 expression. Hepatocyte FGFR4 may contribute to the repression of bile acid synthesis through JNK signaling but is not required for activation of JNK signaling by bile acids.

  18. Ischemia-Modified Albumin as a Marker of Acute Coronary Syndrome: The Case for Revising the Concept of “N-Terminal Modification” to “Fatty Acid Occupation” of Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Oran, Bulent

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is assumed “N-terminal modified” albumin which is generated immediately following myocardial ischemia. The diagnosis of IMA is based on reduced cobalt binding affinity to albumin which is attributed mainly to incapability of cobalt to bind at albumin's modified N-terminus. Although the albumin cobalt binding test was accepted as a potentially powerful marker for discriminating acute coronary syndrome from nonischemic chest pain, its usefulness has been brought into question in recent years. Patients with acutely ischemic myocardium exhibit a rapid increase in serum levels of fatty acids (FAs). Almost all released FAs are strongly bound to albumin which create conformational changes in the protein with resultant reduced cobalt binding affinity. There is a clear metabolic and temporal relationship between IMA measured via albumin cobalt binding testing and serum levels of FAs. In line with what has been suggested recently in the literature, we conclude that a shift from the concept of “N-terminal modified” to “FA-occupied” albumin is required, as this better describes IMA in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We also offer “oxidation modified albumin, OMA,” which is conceptually different from the “FA-occupied” IMA, to describe modification of albumin in chronic disease associated with increased oxidative stress. PMID:28356609

  19. Spatial structure of oligopeptide PAP(248-261), the N-terminal fragment of the HIV enhancer prostatic acid phosphatase peptide PAP(248-286), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokhin, Dmitriy S.; Filippov, Andrei V.; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Karataeva, Farida Kh.; Klochkov, Vladimir V.

    2014-07-01

    Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is an enzyme that facilitates infection of cells by HIV. Its peptide fragment PAP(248-286) forms amyloid fibrils known as SEVI, which enhance attachment of the virus by viral adhesion to the host cell prior to receptor-specific binding via reducing the electrostatic repulsion between the membranes of the virus and the target cell. The secondary structure of PAP(248-286) in aqueous and SDS solutions can be divided into an N-terminal disordered region, an α-helical central part and an α/310-helical C-terminal region (Nanga et al., 2009). In this work, we used NMR spectroscopy to study the spatial structure of the isolated N-terminal fragment of PAP(248-286), PAP(248-261) (GIHKQKEKSRLQGG), in aqueous and SDS micelle solutions. Formation of a PAP(248-261)-SDS complex was confirmed by chemical shift alterations in the 1H NMR spectra of the peptide, as well as by the signs and values of Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE). In addition, the PAP(248-261) peptide does not form any specified secondary structure in either aqueous or SDS solutions.

  20. pH-sensitive Self-associations of the N-terminal Domain of NBCe1-A Suggest a Compact Conformation under Acidic Intracellular Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Harindarpal S

    2012-01-01

    NBCe1-A is an integral membrane protein that cotransports Na+ and HCO3- ions across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. It is essential for maintaining a homeostatic balance of cellular and blood pH. In X-ray diffraction studies, we reported that the cytoplasmic, N-terminal domain of NBCe1-A (NtNBCe1-A) is a dimer. Here, biophysical measurements show that the dimer is in a concentration-dependent dynamic equilibrium among three additional states in solution that are characterized by its hydrodynamic properties, molar masses, emission spectra, binding properties, and stabilities as a function of pH. Under physiological conditions, dimers are in equilibrium with monomers that are pronounced at low concentration and clusters of molecular masses up to 3-5 times that of a dimer that are pronounced at high concentration. The equilibrium can be influenced so that individual dimers predominate in a taut conformation by lowering the pH. Conversely, dimers begin to relax and disassociate into an increasing population of monomers by elevating the pH. A mechanistic diagram for the inter-conversion of these states is given. The self-associations are further supported by surface plasmon resonance (SPR-Biacore) techniques that illustrate NtNBCe1-A molecules transiently bind with one another. Bicarbonate and bicarbonate-analog bisulfite appear to enhance dimerization and induce a small amount of tetramers. A model is proposed, where the Nt responds to pH or bicarbonate fluctuations inside the cell and plays a role in self-association of entire NBCe1-A molecules in the membrane. PMID:22316307

  1. Expression of a borage desaturase cDNA containing an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain results in the accumulation of high levels of delta6-desaturated fatty acids in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Sayanova, O; Smith, M A; Lapinskas, P; Stobart, A K; Dobson, G; Christie, W W; Shewry, P R; Napier, J A

    1997-04-15

    gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA; C18:3 delta(6,9,12)) is a component of the seed oils of evening primrose (Oenothera spp.), borage (Borago officinalis L.), and some other plants. It is widely used as a dietary supplement and for treatment of various medical conditions. GLA is synthesized by a delta6-fatty acid desaturase using linoleic acid (C18:2 delta(9,12)) as a substrate. To enable the production of GLA in conventional oilseeds, we have isolated a cDNA encoding the delta6-fatty acid desaturase from developing seeds of borage and confirmed its function by expression in transgenic tobacco plants. Analysis of leaf lipids from a transformed plant demonstrated the accumulation of GLA and octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 delta(6,9,12,15)) to levels of 13.2% and 9.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The borage delta6-fatty acid desaturase differs from other desaturase enzymes, characterized from higher plants previously, by the presence of an N-terminal domain related to cytochrome b5.

  2. NMR assignments of the N-terminal domain of Nephila clavipes spidroin 1.

    PubMed

    Parnham, Stuart; Gaines, William A; Duggan, Brendan M; Marcotte, William R; Hennig, Mirko

    2011-10-01

    The building blocks of spider dragline silk are two fibrous proteins secreted from the major ampullate gland named spidroins 1 and 2 (MaSp1, MaSp2). These proteins consist of a large central domain composed of approximately 100 tandem copies of a 35-40 amino acid repeat sequence. Non-repetitive N and C-terminal domains, of which the C-terminal domain has been implicated to transition from soluble and insoluble states during spinning, flank the repetitive core. The N-terminal domain until recently has been largely unknown due to difficulties in cloning and expression. Here, we report nearly complete assignment for all (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N resonances in the 14 kDa N-terminal domain of major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1-N) of the golden orb-web spider Nephila clavipes.

  3. New roles for old modifications: emerging roles of N-terminal post-translational modifications in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Tooley, John G; Schaner Tooley, Christine E

    2014-12-01

    The importance of internal post-translational modification (PTM) in protein signaling and function has long been known and appreciated. However, the significance of the same PTMs on the alpha amino group of N-terminal amino acids has been comparatively understudied. Historically considered static regulators of protein stability, additional functional roles for N-terminal PTMs are now beginning to be elucidated. New findings show that N-terminal methylation, along with N-terminal acetylation, is an important regulatory modification with significant roles in development and disease progression. There are also emerging studies on the enzymology and functional roles of N-terminal ubiquitylation and N-terminal propionylation. Here, will discuss the recent advances in the functional studies of N-terminal PTMs, recount the new N-terminal PTMs being identified, and briefly examine the possibility of dynamic N-terminal PTM exchange.

  4. New roles for old modifications: Emerging roles of N-terminal post-translational modifications in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Tooley, John G; Schaner Tooley, Christine E

    2014-01-01

    The importance of internal post-translational modification (PTM) in protein signaling and function has long been known and appreciated. However, the significance of the same PTMs on the alpha amino group of N-terminal amino acids has been comparatively understudied. Historically considered static regulators of protein stability, additional functional roles for N-terminal PTMs are now beginning to be elucidated. New findings show that N-terminal methylation, along with N-terminal acetylation, is an important regulatory modification with significant roles in development and disease progression. There are also emerging studies on the enzymology and functional roles of N-terminal ubiquitylation and N-terminal propionylation. Here, will discuss the recent advances in the functional studies of N-terminal PTMs, recount the new N-terminal PTMs being identified, and briefly examine the possibility of dynamic N-terminal PTM exchange. PMID:25209108

  5. High speed nucleic acid sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2011-05-17

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid. Each type of labeled nucleotide comprises an acceptor fluorophore attached to a phosphate portion of the nucleotide such that the fluorophore is removed upon incorporation into a growing strand. Fluorescent signal is emitted via fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the donor fluorophore and the acceptor fluorophore as each nucleotide is incorporated into the growing strand. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing strand.

  6. Intrinsic disorder and multiple phosphorylations constrain the evolution of the flightin N-terminal region.

    PubMed

    Lemas, Dominick; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Ballif, Bryan A; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2016-03-01

    Flightin is a myosin binding phosphoprotein that originated in the ancestor to Pancrustacea ~500 MYA. In Drosophila melanogaster, flightin is essential for length determination and flexural rigidity of thick filaments. Here, we show that among 12 Drosophila species, the N-terminal region is characterized by low sequence conservation, low pI, a cluster of phosphorylation sites, and a high propensity to intrinsic disorder (ID) that is augmented by phosphorylation. Using mass spectrometry, we identified eight phosphorylation sites within a 29 amino acid segment in the N-terminal region of D. melanogaster flightin. We show that phosphorylation of D. melanogaster flightin is modulated during flight and, through a comparative analysis to orthologs from other Drosophila species, we found phosphorylation sites that remain invariant, sites that retain the charge character, and sites that are clade-specific. While the number of predicted phosphorylation sites differs across species, we uncovered a conserved pattern that relates the number of phosphorylation sites to pI and ID. Extending the analysis to orthologs of other insects, we found additional conserved features in flightin despite the near absence of sequence identity. Collectively, our results demonstrate that structural constraints demarcate the evolution of the highly variable N-terminal region.

  7. Intrinsic disorder and multiple phosphorylations constrain the evolution of the flightin N-terminal region

    PubMed Central

    Lemas, Dominick; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Ballif, Bryan A.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2015-01-01

    Flightin is a myosin binding phosphoprotein that originated in the ancestor to Pancrustacea ~500 MYA. In Drosophila melanogaster, flightin is essential for length determination and flexural rigidity of thick filaments. Here, we show that among 12 Drosophila species, the N-terminal region is characterized by low sequence conservation, low pI, a cluster of phosphorylation sites, and a high propensity to intrinsic disorder (ID) that is augmented by phosphorylation. Using mass spectrometry, we identified eight phosphorylation sites within a 29 amino acid segment in the N-terminal region of D. melanogaster flightin. We show that phosphorylation of D. melanogaster flightin is modulated during flight and, through a comparative analysis to orthologs from other Drosophila species, we found phosphorylation sites that remain invariant, sites that retain the charge character, and sites that are clade-specific. While the number of predicted phosphorylation sites differs across species, we uncovered a conserved pattern that relates the number of phosphorylation sites to pI and ID. Extending the analysis to orthologs of other insects, we found additional conserved features in flightin despite the near absence of sequence identity. Collectively, our results demonstrate that structural constraints demarcate the evolution of the highly variable N-terminal region. PMID:26691840

  8. Retinoic acids acting through retinoid receptors protect hippocampal neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation-mediated cell death by inhibition of c-jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Y; Sato, Y; Koizumi, S; Ohno, Y; Nagao, T; Inoue, K

    2007-06-15

    Retinoic acids (RAs), including all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA), play fundamental roles in a variety of physiological events in vertebrates, through their specific nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). Despite the physiological importance of RA, their functional significance under pathological conditions is not well understood. We examined the effect of ATRA on oxygen/glucose-deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/Rep)-induced neuronal damage in cultured rat hippocampal slices, and found that ATRA significantly reduced neuronal death. The cytoprotective effect of ATRA was observed not only in cornu ammonis (CA) 1 but also in CA2 and dentate gyrus (DG), and was attenuated by selective antagonists for RAR or RXR. By contrast, in the CA3 region, no protective effects of ATRA were observed. The OGD/Rep also increased phosphorylated forms of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (P-JNK) and p38 (P-p38) in hippocampus, and specific inhibitors for these kinases protected neurons. ATRA prevented the increases in P-JNK and P-p38 after OGD/Rep, as well as the decrease in NeuN and its shrinkage, all of which were inhibited by antagonists for RAR or RXR. These findings suggest that the ATRA signaling via retinoid receptors results in the inhibition of JNK and p38 activation, leading to the protection of neurons against OGD/Rep-induced damage in the rat hippocampus.

  9. N-Terminal Fatty Acid Substitution Increases the Leishmanicidal Activity of CA(1-7)M(2-9), a Cecropin-Melittin Hybrid Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Chicharro, Cristina; Granata, Cesare; Lozano, Rosario; Andreu, David; Rivas, Luis

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve the leishmanicidal activity of the synthetic cecropin A-melittin hybrid peptide CA(1-7)M(2-9) (KWKLFKKIGAVLKVL-NH2), a systematic study of its acylation with saturated linear fatty acids was carried out. Acylation of the Nɛ-7 lysine residue led to a drastic decrease in leishmanicidal activity, whereas acylation at lysine 1, in either the α or the ɛ NH2 group, increased up to 3 times the activity of the peptide against promastigotes and increased up to 15 times the activity of the peptide against amastigotes. Leishmanicidal activity increased with the length of the fatty acid chain, reaching a maximum for the lauroyl analogue (12 carbons). According to the fast kinetics, dissipation of membrane potential, and parasite membrane permeability to the nucleic acid binding probe SYTOX green, the lethal mechanism was directly related to plasma membrane permeabilization. PMID:11502512

  10. Expression of Ceramide Synthase 6 Transcriptionally Activates Acid Ceramidase in a c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Tirodkar, Tejas S.; Lu, Ping; Bai, Aiping; Scheffel, Matthew J.; Gencer, Salih; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Bielawska, Alicja; Ogretmen, Besim; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

    2015-01-01

    A family of six ceramide synthases with distinct but overlapping substrate specificities is responsible for generation of ceramides with acyl chains ranging from ∼14–26 carbons. Ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6) preferentially generates C14- and C16-ceramides, and we have previously shown that down-regulation of this enzyme decreases apoptotic susceptibility. In this study, we further evaluated how increased CerS6 expression impacts sphingolipid composition and metabolism. Overexpression of CerS6 in HT29 colon cancer cells resulted in increased apoptotic susceptibility and preferential generation of C16-ceramide, which occurred at the expense of very long chain, saturated ceramides. These changes were also reflected in sphingomyelin composition. HT-CerS6 cells had increased intracellular levels of sphingosine, which is generated by ceramidases upon hydrolysis of ceramide. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that only expression of acid ceramidase (ASAH1) was increased. The increase in acid ceramidase was confirmed by expression and activity analyses. Pharmacological inhibition of JNK (SP600125) or curcumin reduced transcriptional up-regulation of acid ceramidase. Using an acid ceramidase promoter driven luciferase reporter plasmid, we demonstrated that CerS1 has no effect on transcriptional activation of acid ceramidase and that CerS2 slightly but significantly decreased the luciferase signal. Similar to CerS6, overexpression of CerS3–5 resulted in an ∼2-fold increase in luciferase reporter gene activity. Exogenous ceramide failed to induce reporter activity, while a CerS inhibitor and a catalytically inactive mutant of CerS6 failed to reduce it. Taken together, these results suggest that increased expression of CerS6 can mediate transcriptional activation of acid ceramidase in a JNK-dependent manner that is independent of CerS6 activity. PMID:25839235

  11. Expression of Ceramide Synthase 6 Transcriptionally Activates Acid Ceramidase in a c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)-dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Tirodkar, Tejas S; Lu, Ping; Bai, Aiping; Scheffel, Matthew J; Gencer, Salih; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Bielawska, Alicja; Ogretmen, Besim; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

    2015-05-22

    A family of six ceramide synthases with distinct but overlapping substrate specificities is responsible for generation of ceramides with acyl chains ranging from ∼14-26 carbons. Ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6) preferentially generates C14- and C16-ceramides, and we have previously shown that down-regulation of this enzyme decreases apoptotic susceptibility. In this study, we further evaluated how increased CerS6 expression impacts sphingolipid composition and metabolism. Overexpression of CerS6 in HT29 colon cancer cells resulted in increased apoptotic susceptibility and preferential generation of C16-ceramide, which occurred at the expense of very long chain, saturated ceramides. These changes were also reflected in sphingomyelin composition. HT-CerS6 cells had increased intracellular levels of sphingosine, which is generated by ceramidases upon hydrolysis of ceramide. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that only expression of acid ceramidase (ASAH1) was increased. The increase in acid ceramidase was confirmed by expression and activity analyses. Pharmacological inhibition of JNK (SP600125) or curcumin reduced transcriptional up-regulation of acid ceramidase. Using an acid ceramidase promoter driven luciferase reporter plasmid, we demonstrated that CerS1 has no effect on transcriptional activation of acid ceramidase and that CerS2 slightly but significantly decreased the luciferase signal. Similar to CerS6, overexpression of CerS3-5 resulted in an ∼2-fold increase in luciferase reporter gene activity. Exogenous ceramide failed to induce reporter activity, while a CerS inhibitor and a catalytically inactive mutant of CerS6 failed to reduce it. Taken together, these results suggest that increased expression of CerS6 can mediate transcriptional activation of acid ceramidase in a JNK-dependent manner that is independent of CerS6 activity.

  12. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared towards the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically-expressed enzymes. Here we show that the addit...

  13. Enhancement of Ganoderic Acid Accumulation by Overexpression of an N-Terminally Truncated 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Gene in the Basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun-Wei; Xu, Yi-Ning

    2012-01-01

    Ganoderic acids produced by Ganoderma lucidum, a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom, exhibit antitumor and antimetastasis activities. Genetic modification of G. lucidum is difficult but critical for the enhancement of cellular accumulation of ganoderic acids. In this study, a homologous genetic transformation system for G. lucidum was developed for the first time using mutated sdhB, encoding the iron-sulfur protein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase, as a selection marker. The truncated G. lucidum gene encoding the catalytic domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) was overexpressed by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system. The results showed that the mutated sdhB successfully conferred carboxin resistance upon transformation. Most of the integrated transfer DNA (T-DNA) appeared as a single copy in the genome. Moreover, deregulated constitutive overexpression of the HMGR gene led to a 2-fold increase in ganoderic acid content. It also increased the accumulation of intermediates (squalene and lanosterol) and the upregulation of downstream genes such as those of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and lanosterol synthase. This study demonstrates that transgenic basidiomycete G. lucidum is a promising system to achieve metabolic engineering of the ganoderic acid pathway. PMID:22941092

  14. Acquisition of a novel eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site confers intracellular cleavage of an H7N7 influenza virus hemagglutinin

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Sun, Xiangjie; Chung, Changik; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2012-12-05

    A critical feature of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1 and H7N7) is the efficient intracellular cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. H7N7 viruses also exist in equine species, and a unique feature of the equine H7N7 HA is the presence of an eleven amino acid insertion directly N-terminal to a tetrabasic cleavage site. Here, we show that three histidine residues within the unique insertion of the equine H7N7 HA are essential for intracellular cleavage. An asparagine residue within the insertion-derived glycosylation site was also found to be essential for intracellular cleavage. The presence of the histidine residues also appear to be involved in triggering fusion, since mutation of the histidine residues resulted in a destabilizing effect. Importantly, the addition of a tetrabasic site and the eleven amino acid insertion conferred efficient intracellular cleavage to the HA of an H7N3 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Our studies show that acquisition of the eleven amino acid insertion offers an alternative mechanism for intracellular cleavage of influenza HA.

  15. Solid-phase N-terminal peptide enrichment study by optimizing trypsin proteolysis on homoarginine modified proteins by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Saiful M.; Munske, Gerhard R.; Yang, Jonathon; Zhukova, Daria; Nguen, Hamilton; Bruce, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Proteolytic cleavages generate active precursor proteins by creating new N-termini in the proteins. A number of strategies recently published regarding the enrichment of original or newly formed N-terminal peptides using guanidination of lysine residues and amine reactive reagents. For effective enrichment of N-terminal peptides, the efficiency of trypsin proteolysis on homoarginine (guanidinated) modified proteins must be understood and simple and versatile solid-phase N-terminal capture strategies should be developed. Methods We present here a mass spectrometry-based study to evaluate and optimize the trypsin proteolysis on a guanidinated modified protein. Trypsin proteolysis was studied using different amount of trypsin to modified protein ratios. To capture the original N-termini, after guanidination of proteins, original N-termini were acetylated and the proteins were digested with trypsin. The newly formed N-terminal tryptic peptides were captured with a new amine reactive acid-cleavable solid-phase reagent. The original N-terminal peptides were then collected from the supernatant of the solution. Results We demonstrated a detailed study of the efficiency of enzyme trypsin on homoarginine modified proteins. We observed that the rate of hydrolysis of homoarginine residues compared to their lysine/arginine counter parts were slower but generally cleaved after an overnight digestion period depending on the protein to protease concentration ratios. Selectivity of the solid-phase N-terminal reagent was studied by enrichment of original N-terminal peptides from two standard proteins, ubiquitin and RNaseS. Conclusion We found enzyme trypsin is active in guanidinated form of protein depending on enzyme to protein concentrations, time and the proximity of arginine residues in the sequence. The novel solid-phase capture reagent also successfully enriched N-terminal peptides from the standard protein mixtures. We believe this trypsin proteolysis study on

  16. N-terminal and central segments of the type 1 ryanodine receptor mediate its interaction with FK506-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Girgenrath, Tanya; Mahalingam, Mohana; Svensson, Bengt; Nitu, Florentin R; Cornea, Razvan L; Fessenden, James D

    2013-05-31

    We used site-directed labeling of the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements to map RyR1 sequence elements forming the binding site of the 12-kDa binding protein for the immunosuppressant drug, FK506. This protein, FKBP12, promotes the RyR1 closed state, thereby inhibiting Ca(2+) leakage in resting muscle. Although FKBP12 function is well established, its binding determinants within the RyR1 protein sequence remain unresolved. To identify these sequence determinants using FRET, we created five single-Cys FKBP variants labeled with Alexa Fluor 488 (denoted D-FKBP) and then targeted these D-FKBPs to full-length RyR1 constructs containing decahistidine (His10) "tags" placed within N-terminal (amino acid residues 76-619) or central (residues 2157-2777) regions of RyR1. The FRET acceptor Cy3NTA bound specifically and saturably to these His tags, allowing distance analysis of FRET measured from each D-FKBP variant to Cy3NTA bound to each His tag. Results indicate that D-FKBP binds proximal to both N-terminal and central domains of RyR1, thus suggesting that the FKBP binding site is composed of determinants from both regions. These findings further imply that the RyR1 N-terminal and central domains are proximal to one another, a core premise of the domain-switch hypothesis of RyR function. We observed FRET from GFP fused at position 620 within the N-terminal domain to central domain His-tagged sites, thus further supporting this hypothesis. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that N-terminal and central domain elements are closely apposed near the FKBP binding site within the RyR1 three-dimensional structure.

  17. Bioinformatics analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae N-terminal proteome provides evidence of alternative translation initiation and post-translational N-terminal acetylation.

    PubMed

    Helsens, Kenny; Van Damme, Petra; Degroeve, Sven; Martens, Lennart; Arnesen, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Gevaert, Kris

    2011-08-05

    Initiation of protein translation is a well-studied fundamental process, albeit high-throughput and more comprehensive determination of the exact translation initiation sites (TIS) was only recently made possible following the introduction of positional proteomics techniques that target protein N-termini. Precise translation initiation is of crucial importance, as truncated or extended proteins might fold, function, and locate erroneously. Still, as already shown for some proteins, alternative translation initiation can also serve as a regulatory mechanism. By applying N-terminal COFRADIC (combined fractional diagonal chromatography), we here isolated N-terminal peptides of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome and analyzed both annotated and alternative TIS. We analyzed this N-terminome of S. cerevisiae which resulted in the identification of 650 unique N-terminal peptides corresponding to database annotated TIS. Furthermore, 56 unique N(α)-acetylated peptides were identified that suggest alternative TIS (MS/MS-based), while MS-based evidence of N(α)-acetylation led to an additional 33 such peptides. To improve the overall sensitivity of the analysis, we also included the 5' UTR (untranslated region) in-frame translations together with the yeast protein sequences in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. To ensure the quality of the individual peptide identifications, peptide-to-spectrum matches were only accepted at a 99% probability threshold and were subsequently analyzed in detail by the Peptizer tool to automatically ascertain their compliance with several expert criteria. Furthermore, we have also identified 60 MS/MS-based and 117 MS-based N(α)-acetylated peptides that point to N(α)-acetylation as a post-translational modification since these peptides did not start nor were preceded (in their corresponding protein sequence) by a methionine residue. Next, we evaluated consensus sequence features of nucleic acids and amino acids across each of these groups of peptides and

  18. Purification, characterization and partial amino acid sequence of glycogen synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Carabaza, A; Arino, J; Fox, J W; Villar-Palasi, C; Guinovart, J J

    1990-01-01

    Glycogen synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme showed a subunit molecular mass of 80 kDa. The holoenzyme appears to be a tetramer. Antibodies developed against purified yeast glycogen synthase inactivated the enzyme in yeast extracts and allowed the detection of the protein in Western blots. Amino acid analysis showed that the enzyme is very rich in glutamate and/or glutamine residues. The N-terminal sequence (11 amino acid residues) was determined. In addition, selected tryptic-digest peptides were purified by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. and submitted to gas-phase sequencing. Up to eight sequences (79 amino acid residues) could be aligned with the human muscle enzyme sequence. Levels of identity range between 37 and 100%, indicating that, although human and yeast glycogen synthases probably share some conserved regions, significant differences in their primary structure should be expected. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2114092

  19. Respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein: nucleotide sequence of mRNA, identification of cleavage activation site and amino acid sequence of N-terminus of F1 subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Elango, N; Satake, M; Coligan, J E; Norrby, E; Camargo, E; Venkatesan, S

    1985-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein (Fo) was deduced from the sequence of a partial cDNA clone of mRNA and from the 5' mRNA sequence obtained by primer extension and dideoxysequencing. The encoded protein of 574 amino acids is extremely hydrophobic and has a molecular weight of 63371 daltons. The site of proteolytic cleavage within this protein was accurately mapped by determining a partial amino acid sequence of the N-terminus of the larger subunit (F1) purified by radioimmunoprecipitation using monoclonal antibodies. Alignment of the N-terminus of the F1 subunit within the deduced amino acid sequence of Fo permitted us to identify a sequence of lys-lys-arg-lys-arg-arg at the C-terminus of the smaller N-terminal F2 subunit that appears to represent the cleavage/activation domain. Five potential sites of glycosylation, four within the F2 subunit, were also identified. Three extremely hydrophobic domains are present in the protein; a) the N-terminal signal sequence, b) the N-terminus of the F1 subunit that is analogous to the N-terminus of the paramyxovirus F1 subunit and the HA2 subunit of influenza virus hemagglutinin, and c) the putative membrane anchorage domain near the C-terminus of F1. Images PMID:2987829

  20. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/c-Jun activation of the p53/microRNA 34a/sirtuin 1 pathway contributes to apoptosis induced by deoxycholic acid in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Duarte M S; Afonso, Marta B; Rodrigues, Pedro M; Simão, André L; Pereira, Diane M; Borralho, Pedro M; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Castro, Rui E

    2014-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are increasingly associated with metabolic liver diseases. We have shown that ursodeoxycholic acid, a hydrophilic bile acid, counteracts the miR-34a/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)/p53 pathway, activated in the liver of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients. In contrast, hydrophobic bile acids, particularly deoxycholic acid (DCA), activate apoptosis and are increased in NASH. We evaluated whether DCA-induced apoptosis of rat hepatocytes occurs via miR-34a-dependent pathways and whether they connect with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) induction. DCA enhanced miR-34a/SIRT1/p53 proapoptotic signaling in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In turn, miR-34a inhibition and SIRT1 overexpression significantly rescued targeting of the miR-34a pathway and apoptosis by DCA. In addition, p53 overexpression activated the miR-34a/SIRT1/p53 pathway, further induced by DCA. DCA increased p53 expression as well as p53 transcriptional activation of PUMA and miR-34a itself, providing a functional mechanism for miR-34a activation. JNK1 and c-Jun were shown to be major targets of DCA, upstream of p53, in engaging the miR-34a pathway and apoptosis. Finally, activation of this JNK1/miR-34a proapoptotic circuit was also shown to occur in vivo in the rat liver. These results suggest that the JNK1/p53/miR-34a/SIRT1 pathway may represent an attractive pharmacological target for the development of new drugs to arrest metabolism- and apoptosis-related liver pathologies.

  1. N-terminal modification of proteins with o-aminophenols.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Allie C; Jarman, John B; Francis, Matthew B

    2014-07-09

    The synthetic modification of proteins plays an important role in chemical biology and biomaterials science. These fields provide a constant need for chemical tools that can introduce new functionality in specific locations on protein surfaces. In this work, an oxidative strategy is demonstrated for the efficient modification of N-terminal residues on peptides and N-terminal proline residues on proteins. The strategy uses o-aminophenols or o-catechols that are oxidized to active coupling species in situ using potassium ferricyanide. Peptide screening results have revealed that many N-terminal amino acids can participate in this reaction, and that proline residues are particularly reactive. When applied to protein substrates, the reaction shows a stronger requirement for the proline group. Key advantages of the reaction include its fast second-order kinetics and ability to achieve site-selective modification in a single step using low concentrations of reagent. Although free cysteines are also modified by the coupling reaction, they can be protected through disulfide formation and then liberated after N-terminal coupling is complete. This allows access to doubly functionalized bioconjugates that can be difficult to access using other methods.

  2. Human parainfluenza type 3 virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein: nucleotide sequence of mRNA and limited amino acid sequence of the purified protein.

    PubMed Central

    Elango, N; Coligan, J E; Jambou, R C; Venkatesan, S

    1986-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of mRNA for the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of human parainfluenza type 3 virus obtained from the corresponding cDNA clone had a single long open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 64,254 daltons consisting of 572 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence was confirmed by limited N-terminal amino acid microsequencing of CNBr cleavage fragments of native HN that was purified by immunoprecipitation. The HN protein is moderately hydrophobic and has four potential sites (Asn-X-Ser/Thr) of N-glycosylation in the C-terminal half of the molecule. It is devoid of both the N-terminal signal sequence and the C-terminal membrane anchorage domain characteristic of the hemagglutinin of influenza virus and the fusion (F0) protein of the paramyxoviruses. Instead, it has a single prominent hydrophobic region capable of membrane insertion beginning at 32 residues from the N terminus. This N-terminal membrane insertion is similar to that of influenza virus neuraminidase and the recently reported structures of HN proteins of Sendai virus and simian virus 5. Images PMID:3003381

  3. Deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid: SPL(pVal)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitsett, J.A.; Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.E.; Clark, J.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Meuth, J.; Fox, J.L.

    1987-05-01

    Hydrophobic, proteolipid-like protein of Mr 6500 was isolated from ether/ethanol extracts of human, canine and bovine pulmonary surfactant. Amino acid composition of the protein demonstrated a remarkable abundance of hydrophobic residues, particularly valine and leucine. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the human protein was determined: N-Leu-Ile-Pro-Cys-Cys-Pro-Val-Asn-Leu-Lys-Arg-Leu-Leu-Ile-Val4... An oligonucleotide probe was used to screen an adult human lung cDNA library and resulted in detection of cDNA clones with predicted amino acid sequence with close identity to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the human peptide. SPL(pVal) was found within the reading frame of a larger peptide. SPL(pVal) results from proteolytic processing of a larger preprotein. Northern blot analysis detected in a single 1.0 kilobase SPL(pVal) RNA which was less abundant in fetal than in adult lung. Mixtures of purified canine and bovine SPL(pVal) and synthetic phospholipids display properties of rapid adsorption and surface tension lowering activity characteristic of surfactant. Human SPL(pVal) is a pulmonary surfactant proteolipid which may therefore be useful in combination with phospholipids and/or other surfactant proteins for the treatment of surfactant deficiency such as hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants.

  4. Nucleic acid (cDNA) and amino acid sequences of the maize endosperm protein glutelin-2.

    PubMed Central

    Prat, S; Cortadas, J; Puigdomènech, P; Palau, J

    1985-01-01

    The cDNA coding for a glutelin-2 protein from maize endosperm has been cloned and the complete amino acid sequence of the protein derived for the first time. An immature maize endosperm cDNA bank was screened for the expression of a beta-lactamase:glutelin-2 (G2) fusion polypeptide by using antibodies against the purified 28 kd G2 protein. A clone corresponding to the 28 kd G2 protein was sequenced and the primary structure of this protein was derived. Five regions can be defined in the protein sequence: an 11 residue N-terminal part, a repeated region formed by eight units of the sequence Pro-Pro-Pro-Val-His-Leu, an alternating Pro-X stretch 21 residues long, a Cys rich domain and a C-terminal part rich in Gln. The protein sequence is preceded by 19 residues which have the characteristics of the signal peptide found in secreted proteins. Unlike zeins, the main maize storage proteins, 28 kd glutelin-2 has several homologous sequences in common with other cereal storage proteins. Images PMID:3839076

  5. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene encoding an alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from Acetobacter turbidans.

    PubMed

    Polderman-Tijmes, Jolanda J; Jekel, Peter A; de Vries, Erik J; van Merode, Annet E J; Floris, René; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Sonke, Theo; Janssen, Dick B

    2002-01-01

    The alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from Acetobacter turbidans ATCC 9325 is capable of hydrolyzing and synthesizing beta-lactam antibiotics, such as cephalexin and ampicillin. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the purified alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase allowed cloning and genetic characterization of the corresponding gene from an A. turbidans genomic library. The gene, designated aehA, encodes a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 72,000. Comparison of the determined N-terminal sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence indicated the presence of an N-terminal leader sequence of 40 amino acids. The aehA gene was subcloned in the pET9 expression plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified and found to be dimeric with subunits of 70 kDa. A sequence similarity search revealed 26% identity with a glutaryl 7-ACA acylase precursor from Bacillus laterosporus, but no homology was found with other known penicillin or cephalosporin acylases. There was some similarity to serine proteases, including the conservation of the active site motif, GXSYXG. Together with database searches, this suggested that the alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase is a beta-lactam antibiotic acylase that belongs to a class of hydrolases that is different from the Ntn hydrolase superfamily to which the well-characterized penicillin acylase from E. coli belongs. The alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase of A. turbidans represents a subclass of this new class of beta-lactam antibiotic acylases.

  6. β-Amyloid Oligomers Induce Phosphorylation of Tau and Inactivation of Insulin Receptor Substrate via c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Signaling: Suppression by Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiu-Lan; Yang, Fusheng; Rosario, Emily R.; Ubeda, Oliver J.; Beech, Walter; Gant, Dana J.; Chen, Ping Ping; Hudspeth, Beverly; Chen, Cory; Zhao, Yongle; Vinters, Harry V.; Frautschy, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    Both insulin resistance (type II diabetes) and β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers are implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigate the role of Aβ oligomer-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation leading to phosphorylation and degradation of the adaptor protein insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). IRS-1 couples insulin and other trophic factor receptors to downstream kinases and neuroprotective signaling. Increased phospho-IRS-1 is found in AD brain and insulin-resistant tissues from diabetics. Here, we report Aβ oligomers significantly increased active JNK and phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Ser616) and tau (Ser422) in cultured hippocampal neurons, whereas JNK inhibition blocked these responses. The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) similarly inhibited JNK and the phosphorylation of IRS-1 and tau in cultured hippocampal neurons. Feeding 3xTg-AD transgenic mice a diet high in saturated and omega-6 fat increased active JNK and phosphorylated IRS-1 and tau. Treatment of the 3xTg-AD mice on high-fat diet with fish oil or curcumin or a combination of both for 4 months reduced phosphorylated JNK, IRS-1, and tau and prevented the degradation of total IRS-1. This was accompanied by improvement in Y-maze performance. Mice fed with fish oil and curcumin for 1 month had more significant effects on Y-maze, and the combination showed more significant inhibition of JNK, IRS-1, and tau phosphorylation. These data indicate JNK mediates Aβ oligomer inactivation of IRS-1 and phospho-tau pathology and that dietary treatment with fish oil/DHA, curcumin, or a combination of both has the potential to improve insulin/trophic signaling and cognitive deficits in AD. PMID:19605645

  7. Amino acid sequences of heterotrophic and photosynthetic ferredoxins from the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    PubMed

    Kamide, K; Sakai, H; Aoki, K; Sanada, Y; Wada, K; Green, L S; Yee, B C; Buchanan, B B

    1995-11-01

    Several forms (isoproteins) of ferredoxin in roots, leaves, and green and red pericarps in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were earlier identified on the basis of N-terminal amino acid sequence and chromatographic behavior (Green et al. 1991). In the present study, a large scale preparation made possible determination of the full length amino acid sequence of the two ferredoxins from leaves. The ferredoxins characteristic of fruit and root were sequenced from the amino terminus to the 30th residue or beyond. The leaf ferredoxins were confirmed to be expressed in pericarp of both green and red fruit. The ferredoxins characteristic of fruit and root appeared to be restricted to those tissue. The results extend earlier findings in demonstrating that ferredoxin occurs in the major organs of the tomato plant where it appears to function irrespective of photosynthetic competence.

  8. Chip-based sequencing nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2014-08-26

    A system for fast DNA sequencing by amplification of genetic material within microreactors, denaturing, demulsifying, and then sequencing the material, while retaining it in a PCR/sequencing zone by a magnetic field. One embodiment includes sequencing nucleic acids on a microchip that includes a microchannel flow channel in the microchip. The nucleic acids are isolated and hybridized to magnetic nanoparticles or to magnetic polystyrene-coated beads. Microreactor droplets are formed in the microchannel flow channel. The microreactor droplets containing the nucleic acids and the magnetic nanoparticles are retained in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel and sequenced.

  9. The N-terminal region of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) plays an essential role in regulating its plasma membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Chun, Se-Eun; Thakkar, Nilay; Oh, Yunseok; Park, Ji Eun; Han, Songhee; Ryoo, Gongmi; Hahn, Hyunggu; Maeng, Sang Hyun; Lim, Young-Ran; Han, Byung Woo; Lee, Wooin

    2017-05-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) is a major influx transporter mediating the hepatic uptake of various endogenous substrates as well as clinically important drugs such as statins and anticancer drugs. However, molecular mechanisms controlling the membrane trafficking of OATP1B3 have been largely unknown. Several reports recently indicated the presence of a distinct, cancer-type OATP1B3 variant lacking the N-terminal 28 amino acids compared to OATP1B3 expressed in non-malignant hepatocytes. Interestingly, the cancer-type OATP1B3 variant is located predominantly in the cytoplasm, implicating the involvement of the N-terminal region of OATP1B3 in its membrane trafficking. In the current study, we set out to experimentally validate the importance of the N-terminal region of OATP1B3 and to identify responsible sequence motif(s) in that region. A number of truncation or point mutants of OATP1B3 were transiently expressed in HEK293T, HCT-8 or MDCK II cells and their expression in cytoplasmic and surface membrane fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting. Our results indicated that the N-terminal sequence of OATP1B3, in particular, at the amino acid positions between 12 and 28, may be indispensable in its membrane trafficking. Moreover, our results using a fusion construct indicated that the first 50 amino acids of OATP1B3 are sufficient for its membrane localization. The importance of the N-terminal region in membranous localization was shared among the other OATP1B subfamily members, OATP1B1 and rat Oatp1b2. Our efforts to identify the responsible amino acid(s) or structure motif(s) in the N-terminal region did not pinpoint individual amino acids or motifs with putative secondary structures. Our current findings however demonstrate that the N-terminal region is important for the membrane localization of the OATP1B subfamily members and should facilitate future investigations of the mechanisms involved in the regulation and membrane trafficking of

  10. N-Terminal region is responsible for chemotaxis-inducing activity of flounder IL-8.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Osamu; Wada, Shinpei; Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Sakai, Takamitsu; Takano, Tomokazu

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to locate the functional region responsible for the chemotaxis-inducing activity of flounder interleukin 8 (IL-8), which lacks the glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR) motif essential for the induction of neutrophil migration by mammalian IL-8. Using a human cell line, we produced a secretory recombinant protein of flounder IL-8, and analyzed its chemotaxis-inducing activity on leukocytes collected from the flounder kidney. The recombinant IL-8 induced significant migration in neutrophils, which were morphologically and functionally characterized. Using the Edman degradation method, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of rIL-8 was identified as VSLRSLGV. To examine the significance of the N-terminal region for the bioactivity of flounder IL-8, we prepared several recombinant proteins that containing mutations at the N-terminus. Modification of three residues (residues 9-11: serine-leucine-histidine) corresponding in position to the ELR motif in mammalian IL-8 did not reduce its chemotaxis-inducing activity. However, deletion of the first six or more residues significantly reduced its chemotaxis-inducing activity. We propose that residue 6 (leucine) at the N-terminus is important for the chemotaxis-inducing activity of flounder IL-8.

  11. The first N-terminal unprotected (Gly-Aib)n peptide: H-Gly-Aib-Gly-Aib-OtBu.

    PubMed

    Gessmann, Renate; Brückner, Hans; Petratos, Kyriacos

    2015-12-01

    Glycine (Gly) is incorporated in roughly half of all known peptaibiotic (nonribosomally biosynthesized antibiotic peptides of fungal origin) sequences and is the residue with the greatest conformational flexibility. The conformational space of Aib (α-aminoisobutyric acid) is severely restricted by the second methyl group attached to the Cα atom. Most of the crystal structures containing Aib are N-terminal protected. Deprotection of the N- or C-terminus of peptides may alter the hydrogen-bonding scheme and/or the structure and may facilitate crystallization. The structure reported here for glycyl-α-aminoisobutyrylglycyl-α-aminoisobutyric acid tert-butyl ester, C16H30N4O5, describes the first N-terminal-unprotected (Gly-Aib)n peptide. The achiral peptide could form an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the C=O group of Gly1 and the N-H group of Aib4. This hydrogen bond is found in all tetrapeptides and N-terminal-protected tripeptides containing Aib, apart from one exception. In the present work, this hydrogen bond is not observed (N...O = 5.88 Å). Instead, every molecule is hydrogen bonded to six other symmetry-related molecules with a total of eight hydrogen bonds per molecule. The backbone conformation starts in the right-handed helical region (and the left-handed helical region for the inverted molecule) and reverses the screw sense in the last two residues.

  12. Distinguishing Proteins From Arbitrary Amino Acid Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Stephen S.-T.; Mao, Wei-Guang; Benson, Max; He, Rong Lucy

    2015-01-01

    What kinds of amino acid sequences could possibly be protein sequences? From all existing databases that we can find, known proteins are only a small fraction of all possible combinations of amino acids. Beginning with Sanger's first detailed determination of a protein sequence in 1952, previous studies have focused on describing the structure of existing protein sequences in order to construct the protein universe. No one, however, has developed a criteria for determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Here we show that when the collection of arbitrary amino acid sequences is viewed in an appropriate geometric context, the protein sequences cluster together. This leads to a new computational test, described here, that has proved to be remarkably accurate at determining whether an arbitrary amino acid sequence can be a protein. Even more, if the results of this test indicate that the sequence can be a protein, and it is indeed a protein sequence, then its identity as a protein sequence is uniquely defined. We anticipate our computational test will be useful for those who are attempting to complete the job of discovering all proteins, or constructing the protein universe. PMID:25609314

  13. "De-novo" amino acid sequence elucidation of protein G'e by combined "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up" mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yefremova, Yelena; Al-Majdoub, Mahmoud; Opuni, Kwabena F. M.; Koy, Cornelia; Cui, Weidong; Yan, Yuetian; Gross, Michael L.; Glocker, Michael O.

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometric de-novo sequencing was applied to review the amino acid sequence of a commercially available recombinant protein Ǵ with great scientific and economic importance. Substantial deviations to the published amino acid sequence (Uniprot Q54181) were found by the presence of 46 additional amino acids at the N-terminus, including a so-called "His-tag" as well as an N-terminal partial α- N-gluconoylation and α- N-phosphogluconoylation, respectively. The unexpected amino acid sequence of the commercial protein G' comprised 241 amino acids and resulted in a molecular mass of 25,998.9 ± 0.2 Da for the unmodified protein. Due to the higher mass that is caused by its extended amino acid sequence compared with the original protein G' (185 amino acids), we named this protein "protein G'e." By means of mass spectrometric peptide mapping, the suggested amino acid sequence, as well as the N-terminal partial α- N-gluconoylations, was confirmed with 100% sequence coverage. After the protein G'e sequence was determined, we were able to determine the expression vector pET-28b from Novagen with the Xho I restriction enzyme cleavage site as the best option that was used for cloning and expressing the recombinant protein G'e in E. coli. A dissociation constant ( K d ) value of 9.4 nM for protein G'e was determined thermophoretically, showing that the N-terminal flanking sequence extension did not cause significant changes in the binding affinity to immunoglobulins.

  14. Functional Characterization of the N-Terminal C2 Domain from Arabidopsis thaliana Phospholipase Dα and Dβ

    PubMed Central

    Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Most of plant phospholipases D (PLD) exhibit a C2-lipid binding domain of around 130 amino acid residues at their N-terminal region, involved in their Ca2+-dependent membrane binding. In this study, we expressed and partially purified catalytically active PLDα from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPLDα) in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the recombinant AtPLDα was found to be NVEETIGV and thus to lack the first 35 amino acid belonging to the C2 domain, as found in other recombinant or plant purified PLDs. To investigate the impact of such a cleavage on the functionality of C2 domains, we expressed, in E. coli, purified, and refolded the mature-like form of the C2 domain of the AtPLDα along with its equivalent C2 domain of the AtPLDβ, for the sake of comparison. Using Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and dot-blot assays, both C2 domains were shown to bind phosphatidylglycerol in a Ca2+-independent manner while phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine binding were found to be enhanced in the presence of Ca2+. Amino acid sequence alignment and molecular modeling of both C2 domains with known C2 domain structures revealed the presence of a novel Ca2+-binding site within the C2 domain of AtPLDα. PMID:28101506

  15. The complete amino acid sequence of prochymosin.

    PubMed Central

    Foltmann, B; Pedersen, V B; Jacobsen, H; Kauffman, D; Wybrandt, G

    1977-01-01

    The total sequence of 365 amino acid residues in bovine prochymosin is presented. Alignment with the amino acid sequence of porcine pepsinogen shows that 204 amino acid residues are common to the two zymogens. Further comparison and alignment with the amino acid sequence of penicillopepsin shows that 66 residues are located at identical positions in all three proteases. The three enzymes belong to a large group of proteases with two aspartate residues in the active center. This group forms a family derived from one common ancestor. PMID:329280

  16. Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2006-05-30

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  17. Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2006-06-06

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  18. Substrate specificity of mammalian N-terminal α-amino methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Petkowski, Janusz J.; Schaner Tooley, Christine E.; Anderson, Lissa C.; Shumilin, Igor A.; Balsbaugh, Jeremy L.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Minor, Wladek; Macara, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    N-terminal methylation of free α-amino-groups is a post-translational modification of proteins that has been known for 30 years but has been very little studied. In this modification, the initiating M residue is cleaved and the exposed α-amino group is mono- di- or trimethylated by NRMT, a recently identified N-terminal methyltransferase. Currently, all known eukaryotic α-aminomethylated proteins have a unique N-terminal motif, M-X-P-K, where X is A, P, or S. NRMT can also methylate artificial substrates in vitro in which X is G, F, Y, C, M, K, R, N, Q or H. Methylation efficiencies of N-terminal amino acids are variable with respect to the identity of X. Here we use in vitro peptide methylation assays and substrate immunoprecipitations to show that the canonical M-X-P-K methylation motif is not the only one recognized by NRMT. We predict that N-terminal methylation is a widespread post-translational modification, and that there is interplay between N-terminal acetylation and N-terminal methylation. We also use isothermal calorimetry experiments to demonstrate that NRMT can efficiently recognize and bind to its fully methylated products. PMID:22769851

  19. Partial amino acid sequence of human pancreatic stone protein, a novel pancreatic secretory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Montalto, G; Bonicel, J; Multigner, L; Rovery, M; Sarles, H; De Caro, A

    1986-01-01

    Pancreatic stone protein (PSP) is the major organic component of human pancreatic stones. With the use of monoclonal antibody immunoadsorbents, five immunoreactive forms (PSP-S) with close Mr values (14,000-19,000) were isolated from normal pancreatic juice. By CM-Trisacryl M chromatography the lowest-Mr form (PSP-S1) was separated from the others and some of its molecular characteristics were investigated. The Mr of the PSP-S1 polypeptide chain calculated from the amino acid composition was about 16,100. The N-terminal sequences (40 residues) of PSP and PSP-S1 are identical, which suggests that the peptide backbone is the same for both of these polypeptides. The PSP-S1 sequence was determined up to residue 65 and was found to be different from all other known protein sequences. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3541906

  20. SSDP1 gene encodes a protein with a conserved N-terminal FORWARD domain.

    PubMed

    Bayarsaihan, Dashzeveg

    2002-09-23

    I describe the characterization of mouse, human and chicken SSDP1 orthologs that encode a highly conserved protein with over 90% identity at the amino acid level. Structurally, the protein consists of a well-preserved FWD (FORWARD)-domain at the N-terminal end and a proline-, glycine-, methionine- and serine-rich sequence in the central and C-terminal regions. The FORWARD domain, comprised of three alpha-helices, is characterized by the presence of a FWD-box of unknown function conserved not only in vertebrates, but also in nematode, plants, fly and yeast. Human SSDP1 spans about 200 kb on the chromosome 1p31-p32 region and consists of 17 exons. The SSDP1 mRNA transcripts are distributed ubiquitously in adult human and mouse tissues.

  1. Specific cleavage of N-terminal acetyl-methionine from peptides by rabbit muscle fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, G.R.; Wold, F.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated the hypothesis that the processing of eukaryotic proteins involves acetylation of the N-terminal Met, followed by removal of the resulting Ac-Met to expose the second amino acid in the sequence. An activity was identified in rabbit muscle extracts that effectively removes Ac-Met from a synthetic peptide I (AcMDETGDTALVA) resembling the N-terminus of actin. The activity is associated with microsomes and free ribosomes, but can be extracted from the ribosomes by treatment with 0.5 M NaCl in the presence of 2 mM Mg/sup + +/; a 200 fold purification is achieved by this differential centrifugation procedure. A number of chemically acetylated (/sup 14/C-Ac) peptides have been tested as substrates using an HPLC assay for liberated /sup 14/C-Ac-Met. The results suggest that the partially purified activity is specific for N-terminal Ac-Met in that other Ac-amino acids (Gly, Ala, Ser, Asp) were not released from similar peptides, including a derivative of peptide I with Met missing and with Ac-Asp as n-terminus. The amino acid in the second position also appears to be involved as a specificity determinant; a peptide Ac-Met-Arg-Phe-Ala was inert and the tripeptide Ac-Met/sub 3/ was a poor substrate. The dipeptide Ac-Met-Glu was also a very poor substrate, while several tripeptides Ac-Met-X-Y, were good substrates, although not as good as the actinlike peptide I.

  2. The isolation, purification and amino-acid sequence of insulin from the teleost fish Cottus scorpius (daddy sculpin).

    PubMed

    Cutfield, J F; Cutfield, S M; Carne, A; Emdin, S O; Falkmer, S

    1986-07-01

    Insulin from the principal islets of the teleost fish, Cottus scorpius (daddy sculpin), has been isolated and sequenced. Purification involved acid/alcohol extraction, gel filtration, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to yield nearly 1 mg pure insulin/g wet weight islet tissue. Biological potency was estimated as 40% compared to porcine insulin. The sculpin insulin crystallised in the absence of zinc ions although zinc is known to be present in the islets in significant amounts. Two other hormones, glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide, were copurified with the insulin, and an N-terminal sequence for pancreatic polypeptide was determined. The primary structure of sculpin insulin shows a number of sequence changes unique so far amongst teleost fish. These changes occur at A14 (Arg), A15 (Val), and B2 (Asp). The B chain contains 29 amino acids and there is no N-terminal extension as seen with several other fish. Presumably as a result of the amino acid substitutions, sculpin insulin does not readily form crystals containing zinc-insulin hexamers, despite the presence of the coordinating B10 His.

  3. N-terminal H3/D3-acetylation for improved high-throughput peptide sequencing by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with a time-of-flight/time-of-flight analyzer.

    PubMed

    Noga, Marek J; Asperger, Arndt; Silberring, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    A novel method for peptide sequencing by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with a time-of-flight/time-of-flight analyzer (MALDI-TOF/TOF) is presented. A stable isotope label introduced in the peptide N-terminus by derivatization, using a 1:1 mixture of acetic anhydride and deuterated acetic anhydride, allows for easy and unambiguous identification of ions belonging either to the N- or the C-terminal ion series in the product ion spectrum, making sequence assignment significantly simplified. The good performance of this technique was shown by successful sequencing of the contents of several peptide maps. A similar approach was recently applied to nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) and nano-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The MALDI-TOF/TOF technique allows for fast, direct sequencing of modified peptides in proteomics samples, and is complementary to the nanoESI and nanoLC/MS/MS approaches.

  4. Complete amino acid sequence of the A chain of human complement-classical-pathway enzyme C1r.

    PubMed Central

    Arlaud, G J; Willis, A C; Gagnon, J

    1987-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of human C1r A chain was determined, from sequence analysis performed on fragments obtained from C1r autolytic cleavage, cleavage of methionyl bonds, tryptic cleavages at arginine and lysine residues, and cleavages by staphylococcal proteinase. The polypeptide chain has an N-terminal serine residue and contains 446 amino acid residues (Mr 51,200). The sequence data allow chemical characterization of fragments alpha (positions 1-211), beta (positions 212-279) and gamma (positions 280-446) yielded from C1r autolytic cleavage, and identification of the two major cleavage sites generating these fragments. Position 150 of C1r A chain is occupied by a modified amino acid residue that, upon acid hydrolysis, yields erythro-beta-hydroxyaspartic acid, and that is located in a sequence homologous to the beta-hydroxyaspartic acid-containing regions of Factor IX, Factor X, protein C and protein Z. Sequence comparison reveals internal homology between two segments (positions 10-78 and 186-257). Two carbohydrate moieties are attached to the polypeptide chain, both via asparagine residues at positions 108 and 204. Combined with the previously determined sequence of C1r B chain [Arlaud & Gagnon (1983) Biochemistry 22, 1758-1764], these data give the complete sequence of human C1r. PMID:3036070

  5. Nickel Ligation of the N-Terminal Amine of HypA Is Required for Urease Maturation in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Hu, Heidi Q; Johnson, Ryan C; Merrell, D Scott; Maroney, Michael J

    2017-02-28

    The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori requires nickel for colonization of the acidic environment of the stomach. HypA, a Ni metallochaperone that is typically associated with hydrogenase maturation, is also required for urease maturation and acid survival of H. pylori. There are two proposed Ni site structures for HypA; one is a paramagnetic six-coordinate site characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in unmodified HypA, while another is a diamagnetic four-coordinate planar site characterized by solution nuclear magnetic resonance in an N-terminally modified HypA construct. To determine the role of the N-terminal amine in Ni binding of HypA, an N-terminal extension variant, L2*-HypA, in which a leucine residue was inserted into the second position of the amino acid sequence in the proposed Ni-binding motif, was characterized in vitro and in vivo. Structural characterization of the Ni site using XAS showed a coordination change from six-coordinate in wild-type HypA (WT-HypA) to five-coordinate pyramidal in L2*-HypA, which was accompanied by the loss of two N/O donor protein ligands and the addition of an exogenous bromide ligand from the buffer. The magnetic properties of the Ni sites in WT-HypA compared to those of the Ni sites in L2*-HypA confirmed that a spin-state change from high to low spin accompanied this change in structure. The L2*-HypA H. pylori strain was shown to be acid sensitive and deficient in urease activity in vivo. In vitro characterization showed that L2*-HypA did not disrupt the HypA-UreE interaction that is essential for urease maturation but was at least 20-fold weaker in Ni binding than WT-HypA. Characterization of the L2*-HypA variant clearly demonstrates that the N-terminal amine of HypA is involved in proper Ni coordination and is necessary for urease activity and acid survival.

  6. N-Terminal Hypothesis for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Murray, Brian; Sharma, Bhanushee; Belfort, Georges

    2017-03-15

    Although the amyloid (abeta peptide, Aβ) hypothesis is 25 years old, is the dominant model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, and guides the development of potential treatments, it is still controversial. One possible reason is a lack of a mechanistic path from the cleavage products of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) such as soluble Aβ monomer and soluble molecular fragments to the deleterious effects on synaptic form and function. From a review of the recent literature and our own published work including aggregation kinetics and structural morphology, Aβ clearance, molecular simulations, long-term potentiation measurements with inhibition binding, and the binding of a commercial monoclonal antibody, aducanumab, we hypothesize that the N-terminal domains of neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are implicated in causing the disease.

  7. Regulation of presynaptic Ca2+, synaptic plasticity and contextual fear conditioning by a N-terminal β-amyloid fragment.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, James L M; Tong, Mei; Alfulaij, Naghum; Sherrin, Tessi; Contarino, Mark; White, Michael M; Bellinger, Frederick P; Todorovic, Cedomir; Nichols, Robert A

    2014-10-22

    Soluble β-amyloid has been shown to regulate presynaptic Ca(2+) and synaptic plasticity. In particular, picomolar β-amyloid was found to have an agonist-like action on presynaptic nicotinic receptors and to augment long-term potentiation (LTP) in a manner dependent upon nicotinic receptors. Here, we report that a functional N-terminal domain exists within β-amyloid for its agonist-like activity. This sequence corresponds to a N-terminal fragment generated by the combined action of α- and β-secretases, and resident carboxypeptidase. The N-terminal β-amyloid fragment is present in the brains and CSF of healthy adults as well as in Alzheimer's patients. Unlike full-length β-amyloid, the N-terminal β-amyloid fragment is monomeric and nontoxic. In Ca(2+) imaging studies using a model reconstituted rodent neuroblastoma cell line and isolated mouse nerve terminals, the N-terminal β-amyloid fragment proved to be highly potent and more effective than full-length β-amyloid in its agonist-like action on nicotinic receptors. In addition, the N-terminal β-amyloid fragment augmented theta burst-induced post-tetanic potentiation and LTP in mouse hippocampal slices. The N-terminal fragment also rescued LTP inhibited by elevated levels of full-length β-amyloid. Contextual fear conditioning was also strongly augmented following bilateral injection of N-terminal β-amyloid fragment into the dorsal hippocampi of intact mice. The fragment-induced augmentation of fear conditioning was attenuated by coadministration of nicotinic antagonist. The activity of the N-terminal β-amyloid fragment appears to reside largely in a sequence surrounding a putative metal binding site, YEVHHQ. These findings suggest that the N-terminal β-amyloid fragment may serve as a potent and effective endogenous neuromodulator.

  8. The complete amino acid sequence of a trypsin inhibitor from Bauhinia variegata var. candida seeds.

    PubMed

    Di Ciero, L; Oliva, M L; Torquato, R; Köhler, P; Weder, J K; Camillo Novello, J; Sampaio, C A; Oliveira, B; Marangoni, S

    1998-11-01

    Trypsin inhibitors of two varieties of Bauhinia variegata seeds have been isolated and characterized. Bauhinia variegata candida trypsin inhibitor (BvcTI) and B. variegata lilac trypsin inhibitor (BvlTI) are proteins with Mr of about 20,000 without free sulfhydryl groups. Amino acid analysis shows a high content of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and glycine, and a low content of histidine, tyrosine, methionine, and lysine in both inhibitors. Isoelectric focusing for both varieties detected three isoforms (pI 4.85, 5.00, and 5.15), which were resolved by HPLC procedure. The trypsin inhibitors show Ki values of 6.9 and 1.2 nM for BvcTI and BvlTI, respectively. The N-terminal sequences of the three trypsin inhibitor isoforms from both varieties of Bauhinia variegata and the complete amino acid sequence of B. variegata var. candida L. trypsin inhibitor isoform 3 (BvcTI-3) are presented. The sequences have been determined by automated Edman degradation of the reduced and carboxymethylated proteins of the peptides resulting from Staphylococcus aureus protease and trypsin digestion. BvcTI-3 is composed of 167 residues and has a calculated molecular mass of 18,529. Homology studies with other trypsin inhibitors show that BvcTI-3 belongs to the Kunitz family. The putative active site encompasses Arg (63)-Ile (64).

  9. Peptidase E, a Peptidase Specific for N-Terminal Aspartic Dipeptides, Is a Serine Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Lassy, Rachel A. L.; Miller, Charles G.

    2000-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium peptidase E (PepE) is an N-terminal Asp-specific dipeptidase. PepE is not inhibited by any of the classical peptidase inhibitors, and its amino acid sequence does not place it in any of the known peptidase structural classes. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of PepE with a number of related sequences has allowed us to define the amino acid residues that are strongly conserved in this family. To ensure the validity of this comparison, we have expressed one of the most distantly related relatives (Xenopus) in Escherichia coli and have shown that it is indeed an Asp-specific dipeptidase with properties very similar to those of serovar Typhimurium PepE. The sequence comparison suggests that PepE is a serine hydrolase. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to change all of the conserved Ser, His, and Asp residues and have found that Ser120, His157, and Asp135 are all required for activity. Conversion of Ser120 to Cys leads to severely reduced (104-fold) but still detectable activity, and this activity but not that of the parent is inhibited by thiol reagents; these results confirm that this residue is likely to be the catalytic nucleophile. These results suggest that PepE is the prototype of a new family of serine peptidases. The phylogenetic distribution of the family is unusual, since representatives are found in eubacteria, an insect (Drosophila), and a vertebrate (Xenopus) but not in the Archaea or in any of the other eukaryotes for which genome sequences are available. PMID:10762256

  10. Phenolic acid esterases, coding sequences and methods

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David L.; Kataeva, Irina; Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.

    2002-01-01

    Described herein are four phenolic acid esterases, three of which correspond to domains of previously unknown function within bacterial xylanases, from XynY and XynZ of Clostridium thermocellum and from a xylanase of Ruminococcus. The fourth specifically exemplified xylanase is a protein encoded within the genome of Orpinomyces PC-2. The amino acids of these polypeptides and nucleotide sequences encoding them are provided. Recombinant host cells, expression vectors and methods for the recombinant production of phenolic acid esterases are also provided.

  11. Nuclear hormone receptors involved in neoplasia: erb A exhibits a novel DNA sequence specificity determined by amino acids outside of the zinc-finger domain.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H; Smit-McBride, Z; Lewis, S; Sharif, M; Privalsky, M L

    1993-01-01

    The erb A oncogene is a dominant negative allele of a thyroid hormone receptor gene and acts in the cancer cell by encoding a transcriptional repressor. We demonstrate here that the DNA sequence recognition properties of the oncogenic form of the erb A protein are significantly altered from those of the normal thyroid hormone receptors and more closely resemble those of the retinoic acid receptors; this alteration appears to play an important role in defining the targets of erb A action in neoplasia. Unexpectedly, the novel DNA recognition properties of erb A are encoded by an N-terminal region not previously implicated as playing this function in current models of receptor-DNA interaction. Two N-terminal erb A amino acids in particular, histidine 12 and cysteine 32, contribute to this phenomenon, acting in conjunction with amino acids in the zinc finger domain. The effects of the N-terminal domain can be observed at the level of both DNA binding and transcriptional modulation. Our results indicate that unanticipated determinants within the nuclear hormone receptors participate in DNA sequence recognition and may contribute to the differential target gene specificity displayed by different receptor forms. Images PMID:8096060

  12. An N-terminal deletion variant of HCN1 in the epileptic WAG/Rij strain modulates HCN current densities.

    PubMed

    Wemhöner, Konstantin; Kanyshkova, Tatyana; Silbernagel, Nicole; Fernandez-Orth, Juncal; Bittner, Stefan; Kiper, Aytug K; Rinné, Susanne; Netter, Michael F; Meuth, Sven G; Budde, Thomas; Decher, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Rats of the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) strain show symptoms resembling human absence epilepsy. Thalamocortical neurons of WAG/Rij rats are characterized by an increased HCN1 expression, a negative shift in I h activation curve, and an altered responsiveness of I h to cAMP. We cloned HCN1 channels from rat thalamic cDNA libraries of the WAG/Rij strain and found an N-terminal deletion of 37 amino acids. In addition, WAG-HCN1 has a stretch of six amino acids, directly following the deletion, where the wild-type sequence (GNSVCF) is changed to a polyserine motif. These alterations were found solely in thalamus mRNA but not in genomic DNA. The truncated WAG-HCN1 was detected late postnatal in WAG/Rij rats and was not passed on to rats obtained from pairing WAG/Rij and non-epileptic August Copenhagen Irish rats. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed 2.2-fold increased current amplitude of WAG-HCN1 compared to rat HCN1. While WAG-HCN1 channels did not have altered current kinetics or changed regulation by protein kinases, fluorescence imaging revealed a faster and more pronounced surface expression of WAG-HCN1. Using co-expression experiments, we found that WAG-HCN1 channels suppress heteromeric HCN2 and HCN4 currents. Moreover, heteromeric channels of WAG-HCN1 with HCN2 have a reduced cAMP sensitivity. Functional studies revealed that the gain-of-function of WAG-HCN1 is not caused by the N-terminal deletion alone, thus requiring a change of the N-terminal GNSVCF motif. Our findings may help to explain previous observations in neurons of the WAG/Rij strain and indicate that WAG-HCN1 may contribute to the genesis of absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats.

  13. An N-terminal deletion variant of HCN1 in the epileptic WAG/Rij strain modulates HCN current densities

    PubMed Central

    Wemhöner, Konstantin; Kanyshkova, Tatyana; Silbernagel, Nicole; Fernandez-Orth, Juncal; Bittner, Stefan; Kiper, Aytug K.; Rinné, Susanne; Netter, Michael F.; Meuth, Sven G.; Budde, Thomas; Decher, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Rats of the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) strain show symptoms resembling human absence epilepsy. Thalamocortical neurons of WAG/Rij rats are characterized by an increased HCN1 expression, a negative shift in Ih activation curve, and an altered responsiveness of Ih to cAMP. We cloned HCN1 channels from rat thalamic cDNA libraries of the WAG/Rij strain and found an N-terminal deletion of 37 amino acids. In addition, WAG-HCN1 has a stretch of six amino acids, directly following the deletion, where the wild-type sequence (GNSVCF) is changed to a polyserine motif. These alterations were found solely in thalamus mRNA but not in genomic DNA. The truncated WAG-HCN1 was detected late postnatal in WAG/Rij rats and was not passed on to rats obtained from pairing WAG/Rij and non-epileptic August Copenhagen Irish rats. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed 2.2-fold increased current amplitude of WAG-HCN1 compared to rat HCN1. While WAG-HCN1 channels did not have altered current kinetics or changed regulation by protein kinases, fluorescence imaging revealed a faster and more pronounced surface expression of WAG-HCN1. Using co-expression experiments, we found that WAG-HCN1 channels suppress heteromeric HCN2 and HCN4 currents. Moreover, heteromeric channels of WAG-HCN1 with HCN2 have a reduced cAMP sensitivity. Functional studies revealed that the gain-of-function of WAG-HCN1 is not caused by the N-terminal deletion alone, thus requiring a change of the N-terminal GNSVCF motif. Our findings may help to explain previous observations in neurons of the WAG/Rij strain and indicate that WAG-HCN1 may contribute to the genesis of absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats. PMID:26578877

  14. Protease Substrate Profiling by N-Terminal COFRADIC.

    PubMed

    Staes, An; Van Damme, Petra; Timmerman, Evy; Ruttens, Bart; Stes, Elisabeth; Gevaert, Kris; Impens, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Detection of (neo-)N-terminal peptides is essential for identifying protease cleavage sites . We here present an update of a well-established and efficient selection method for enriching N-terminal peptides out of peptide mixtures: N-terminal COFRADIC (COmbined FRActional DIagonal Chromatography). This method is based on the old concept of diagonal chromatography, which involves a peptide modification step in between otherwise identical chromatographic separations, with this modification step finally allowing for the isolation of N-terminal peptides by longer retention of non-N-terminal peptides on the resin. N-terminal COFRADIC has been successfully applied in many protease-centric studies, as well as for studies on protein alpha-N-acetylation and on characterizing alternative translation initiation events.

  15. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method is disclosed for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe. 11 figs.

  16. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1998-01-01

    A method for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe.

  17. Amino acid substitutions V63I or A37S/I61T/V63I/V100A in the PA N-terminal domain increase the virulence of H7N7 influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Meng; Chu, Hin; Zhang, Ke; Singh, Kailash; Li, Cun; Yuan, Shuofeng; Chow, Billy K. C.; Song, Wenjun; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2016-01-01

    The PA N-terminal domain (PA-Nter) is essential for viral transcription and replication. Here we identified PA-Nter substitutions A37S, I61T, V63I and V100A in recently emerged avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) with potential effect on virus pathogenicity and/or host adaptation. We introduced the identified PA-Nter substitutions into avian H7N7 IAV by reverse genetics. Our results showed that single substitution V63I and combined substitutions, I61T/V63I and A37S/I61T/V63I/V100A (Mfour), significantly increased virus growth capacity in mammalian cells. Meanwhile, these substitutions conferred higher virus transcription/replication capacity by producing more mRNA, cRNA and vRNA. Consistently, the polymerase activity and the endonuclease activity were enhanced by these PA-Nter substitutions. Notably, substitutions V63I and Mfour strongly increased virus replication and virulence in mice. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that the PA-Nter substitutions V63I and Mfour enhanced IAV pathogenicity through modification of the polymerase activity and the endonuclease activity, which added to the evolving knowledge of IAV virulence determinants. PMID:27886255

  18. Methods for analyzing nucleic acid sequences

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2011-05-17

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid. The method provides a complex comprising a polymerase enzyme, a target nucleic acid molecule, and a primer, wherein the complex is immobilized on a support Fluorescent label is attached to a terminal phosphate group of the nucleotide or nucleotide analog. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The time duration of the signal from labeled nucleotides or nucleotide analogs that become incorporated is distinguished from freely diffusing labels by a longer retention in the observation volume for the nucleotides or nucleotide analogs that become incorporated than for the freely diffusing labels.

  19. Oxidation of the N-terminal methionine of lens alpha-A crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Horwitz, J.; Emmons, T.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Antiserum against the N-terminal peptide of bovine alpha-A crystallin has been used to monitor purification of two different seropositive peptides (i.e. T1a and T1b) from a tryptic digest of bovine lens proteins. Both these peptides have similar amino acid compositions, but peptide T1b has a molecular weight 16 atomic mass units larger than T1a, suggesting posttranslational modification. Analysis of ionization fragments of the T1b peptide by mass spectrometry demonstrates that this difference in molecular weight is due to the in vivo oxidation of the N-terminal met residue of the alpha-A crystallin molecule.

  20. Analysis of a eukaryotic beta-galactosidase gene: the N-terminal end of the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis protein shows homology to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Breunig, K D; Dahlems, U; Das, S; Hollenberg, C P

    1984-01-01

    The LAC4 gene of Kluyveromyces lactis, encoding the enzyme beta-galactosidase was mapped on a cloned DNA fragment and the sequence of the 5' end was determined. This sequence includes the 5' regulatory region involved in the induction by lactose and the N-terminal end of the protein coding region. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of this eukaryotic enzyme with the N-terminal end of the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase revealed substantial homology. Two major RNA initiation sites were mapped at -115 and -105. A number of structural peculiarities of the 5'non-coding region are discussed as in comparison to Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes. Images PMID:6324114

  1. Structural characterization of the N-terminal mineral modification domains from the molluscan crystal-modulating biomineralization proteins, AP7 and AP24.

    PubMed

    Wustman, Brandon A; Morse, Daniel E; Evans, John Spencer

    2004-08-05

    The AP7 and AP24 proteins represent a class of mineral-interaction polypeptides that are found in the aragonite-containing nacre layer of mollusk shell (H. rufescens). These proteins have been shown to preferentially interfere with calcium carbonate mineral growth in vitro. It is believed that both proteins play an important role in aragonite polymorph selection in the mollusk shell. Previously, we demonstrated the 1-30 amino acid (AA) N-terminal sequences of AP7 and AP24 represent mineral interaction/modification domains in both proteins, as evidenced by their ability to frustrate calcium carbonate crystal growth at step edge regions. In this present report, using free N-terminal, C(alpha)-amide "capped" synthetic polypeptides representing the 1-30 AA regions of AP7 (AP7-1 polypeptide) and AP24 (AP24-1 polypeptide) and NMR spectroscopy, we confirm that both N-terminal sequences possess putative Ca (II) interaction polyanionic sequence regions (2 x -DD- in AP7-1, -DDDED- in AP24-1) that are random coil-like in structure. However, with regard to the remaining sequences regions, each polypeptide features unique structural differences. AP7-1 possesses an extended beta-strand or polyproline type II-like structure within the A11-M10, S12-V13, and S28-I27 sequence regions, with the remaining sequence regions adopting a random-coil-like structure, a trait common to other polyelectrolyte mineral-associated polypeptide sequences. Conversely, AP24-1 possesses random coil-like structure within A1-S9 and Q14-N16 sequence regions, and evidence for turn-like, bend, or loop conformation within the G10-N13, Q17-N24, and M29-F30 sequence regions, similar to the structures identified within the putative elastomeric proteins Lustrin A and sea urchin spicule matrix proteins. The similarities and differences in AP7 and AP24 N-terminal domain structure are discussed with regard to joint AP7-AP24 protein modification of calcium carbonate growth.

  2. NRMT2 is an N-terminal monomethylase that primes for its homologue NRMT1.

    PubMed

    Petkowski, Janusz J; Bonsignore, Lindsay A; Tooley, John G; Wilkey, Daniel W; Merchant, Michael L; Macara, Ian G; Schaner Tooley, Christine E

    2013-12-15

    NRMT (N-terminal regulator of chromatin condensation 1 methyltransferase) was the first eukaryotic methyltransferase identified to specifically methylate the free α-amino group of proteins. Since the discovery of this N-terminal methyltransferase, many new substrates have been identified and the modification itself has been shown to regulate DNA-protein interactions. Sequence analysis predicts one close human homologue of NRMT, METTL11B (methyltransferase-like protein 11B, now renamed NRMT2). We show in the present paper for the first time that NRMT2 also has N-terminal methylation activity and recognizes the same N-terminal consensus sequences as NRMT (now NRMT1). Both enzymes have similar tissue expression and cellular localization patterns. However, enzyme assays and MS experiments indicate that they differ in their specific catalytic functions. Although NRMT1 is a distributive methyltransferase that can mono-, di- and tri-methylate its substrates, NRMT2 is primarily a monomethylase. Concurrent expression of NRMT1 and NRMT2 accelerates the production of trimethylation, and we propose that NRMT2 activates NRMT1 by priming its substrates for trimethylation.

  3. NRMT2 is an N-terminal monomethylase that primes for its homolog NRMT1

    PubMed Central

    Petkowski, Janusz J.; Bonsignore, Lindsay A.; Tooley, John G.; Wilkey, Daniel W.; Merchant, Michael L.; Macara, Ian G.; Schaner Tooley, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    N-terminal RCC1 methyltransferase (NRMT) was the first eukaryotic methyltransferase identified to specifically methylate the free α-amino group of proteins. Since the discovery of this N-terminal methyltransferase, many new substrates have been identified and the modification itself has been shown to regulate DNA-protein interactions. Sequence analysis predicts one close human homolog of NRMT, Methyltransferase-like protein 11B (METTL11B, now renamed NRMT2). We show here for the first time that NRMT2 also has N-terminal methylation activity and recognizes the same N-terminal consensus sequences as NRMT (now NRMT1). Both enzymes have similar tissue expression and cellular localization patterns. However, enzyme assays and mass spectrometry experiments indicate they differ in their specific catalytic functions. While NRMT1 is a distributive methyltransferase that can mono-, di-, and trimethylate its substrates, NRMT2 is primarily a monomethylase. Concurrent expression of NRMT1 and NRMT2 accelerates the production of trimethylation, and we propose that NRMT2 activates NRMT1 by priming its substrates for trimethylation. PMID:24090352

  4. Lumazine proteins from photobacteria: localization of the single ligand binding site to the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Illarionov, Boris; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Wirth, Martina; Yong Lee, Chan; Eun Woo, Young; Bacher, Adelbert; Fischer, Markus

    2007-12-01

    Lumazine protein is believed to serve as an optical transponder in bioluminescence emission by certain marine bacteria. Sequence arguments suggest that the protein comprises two similarly folded riboflavin synthase-type domains, but earlier work also suggested that only one domain binds 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine (DMRL). We show that the replacement of serine-48 or threonine-50 in the N-terminal domain of lumazine protein of Photobacterium leiognathi modulates the absorbance and fluorescence properties of bound DMRL or riboflavin. Moreover, the replacement of these amino acids is accompanied by reduced ligand affinity. Replacement of serine-48 by tryptophan shifts the (13)C NMR signal of the 6-methyl group in bound DMRL upfield by 2.9 ppm as compared to the wild-type protein complex. Replacement of threonine-50 causes a downfield shift of approximately 20 ppm for the (15)N NMR signal of N-5, as well as an upfield shift of 3 ppm for the (13)C NMR signal of C-7 in bound DMRL, respectively. The replacement of the topologically equivalent serine-144 and proline-146 in the C-terminal domain had no significant impact on optical properties, chemical shifts and apparent binding constants of bound DMRL. These data show that the N-terminal domain is the unique site for ligand binding in lumazine protein.

  5. Differential isotope dansylation labeling combined with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for quantification of intact and N-terminal truncated proteins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yanan; Li, Liang

    2013-08-20

    The N-terminal amino acids of proteins are important structure units for maintaining the biological function, localization, and interaction networks of proteins. Under different biological conditions, one or several N-terminal amino acids could be cleaved from an intact protein due to processes, such as proteolysis, resulting in the change of protein properties. Thus, the ability to quantify the N-terminal truncated forms of proteins is of great importance, particularly in the area of development and production of protein-based drugs where the relative quantity of the intact protein and its truncated form needs to be monitored. In this work, we describe a rapid method for absolute quantification of protein mixtures containing intact and N-terminal truncated proteins. This method is based on dansylation labeling of the N-terminal amino acids of proteins, followed by microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis of the proteins into amino acids. It is shown that dansyl labeled amino acids are stable in acidic conditions and can be quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with the use of isotope analog standards.

  6. 77 FR 65537 - Requirements for Patent Applications Containing Nucleotide Sequence and/or Amino Acid Sequence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Patent applications that contain nucleotide and/or amino acid...

  7. N-terminal isoforms of the large-conductance Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channel are differentially modulated by the auxiliary β1-subunit.

    PubMed

    Lorca, Ramón A; Stamnes, Susan J; Pillai, Meghan K; Hsiao, Jordy J; Wright, Michael E; England, Sarah K

    2014-04-04

    The large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel is essential for maintaining the membrane in a hyperpolarized state, thereby regulating neuronal excitability, smooth muscle contraction, and secretion. The BK(Ca) α-subunit has three predicted initiation codons that generate proteins with N-terminal ends starting with the amino acid sequences MANG, MSSN, or MDAL. Because the N-terminal region and first transmembrane domain of the α-subunit are required for modulation by auxiliary β1-subunits, we examined whether β1 differentially modulates the N-terminal BK(Ca) α-subunit isoforms. In the absence of β1, all isoforms had similar single-channel conductances and voltage-dependent activation. However, whereas β1 did not modulate the voltage-activation curve of MSSN, β1 induced a significant leftward shift of the voltage activation curves of both the MDAL and MANG isoforms. These shifts, of which the MDAL was larger, occurred at both 10 μM and 100 μM Ca(2+). The β1-subunit increased the open dwell times of all three isoforms and decreased the closed dwell times of MANG and MDAL but increased the closed dwell times of MSSN. The distinct modulation of voltage activation by the β1-subunit may be due to the differential effect of β1 on burst duration and interburst intervals observed among these isoforms. Additionally, we observed that the related β2-subunit induced comparable leftward shifts in the voltage-activation curves of all three isoforms, indicating that the differential modulation of these isoforms was specific to β1. These findings suggest that the relative expression of the N-terminal isoforms can fine-tune BK(Ca) channel activity in cells, highlighting a novel mechanism of BK(Ca) channel regulation.

  8. N-Terminal Derivatization with Structures Having High Proton Affinity for Discrimination between Leu and Ile Residues in Peptides by High-Energy Collision-Induced Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Kitanaka, Atsushi; Miyashita, Masahiro; Kubo, Ayumi; Satoh, Takaya; Toyoda, Michisato; Miyagawa, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    De novo sequencing is still essential in the identification of peptides and proteins from unexplored organisms whose sequence information is not available. One of the remaining problems in de novo sequencing is discrimination between Leu and Ile residues. The discrimination is possible based on differences in side chain fragmentation between Leu and Ile under high-energy collision-induced dissociation (HE-CID) conditions. However, this is observed only when basic residues, such as Arg and Lys, are present near the N- or C-terminal end. It has been shown that the charge derivatization at the N-terminal end by a quarternary ammonium or phosphonium moiety facilitates the side chain fragmentation by HE-CID. However, the effective backbone fragmentation by low-energy CID (LE-CID) is often hampered in those derivatives with a fixed charge. Previously, we demonstrated that the N-terminal charge derivatization with the structures having high proton affinity induced the preferential formation of b-ions under LE-CID conditions, allowing straightforward interpretation of product ion spectra. In the present study, we further investigated whether the same derivatization approach is also effective for discrimination between Leu and Ile under HE-CID conditions. Consequently, the side chain fragmentation of Leu and Ile residues was most effectively enhanced by the N-terminal derivatization with 4-(guanidinomethyl)benzoic acid among the tested structures. This derivatization approach, which is compatible with both HE- and LE-CID analysis, offers a straightforward and unambiguous de novo peptide sequencing method.

  9. N-Terminal Derivatization with Structures Having High Proton Affinity for Discrimination between Leu and Ile Residues in Peptides by High-Energy Collision-Induced Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Kitanaka, Atsushi; Miyashita, Masahiro; Kubo, Ayumi; Satoh, Takaya; Toyoda, Michisato; Miyagawa, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    De novo sequencing is still essential in the identification of peptides and proteins from unexplored organisms whose sequence information is not available. One of the remaining problems in de novo sequencing is discrimination between Leu and Ile residues. The discrimination is possible based on differences in side chain fragmentation between Leu and Ile under high-energy collision-induced dissociation (HE-CID) conditions. However, this is observed only when basic residues, such as Arg and Lys, are present near the N- or C-terminal end. It has been shown that the charge derivatization at the N-terminal end by a quarternary ammonium or phosphonium moiety facilitates the side chain fragmentation by HE-CID. However, the effective backbone fragmentation by low-energy CID (LE-CID) is often hampered in those derivatives with a fixed charge. Previously, we demonstrated that the N-terminal charge derivatization with the structures having high proton affinity induced the preferential formation of b-ions under LE-CID conditions, allowing straightforward interpretation of product ion spectra. In the present study, we further investigated whether the same derivatization approach is also effective for discrimination between Leu and Ile under HE-CID conditions. Consequently, the side chain fragmentation of Leu and Ile residues was most effectively enhanced by the N-terminal derivatization with 4-(guanidinomethyl)benzoic acid among the tested structures. This derivatization approach, which is compatible with both HE- and LE-CID analysis, offers a straightforward and unambiguous de novo peptide sequencing method. PMID:27900234

  10. Structure and Function of the N-Terminal Domain of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shihong; Ogino, Minako; Luo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses have various mechanisms to duplicate their genomes and produce virus-specific mRNAs. Negative-strand RNA viruses encode their own polymerases to perform each of these processes. For the nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, the polymerase is comprised of the large polymerase subunit (L) and the phosphoprotein (P). L proteins from members of the Rhabdoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Filoviridae share sequence and predicted secondary structure homology. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal domain (conserved region I) of the L protein from a rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, at 1.8-Å resolution. The strictly and strongly conserved residues in this domain cluster in a single area of the protein. Serial mutation of these residues shows that many of the amino acids are essential for viral transcription but not for mRNA capping. Three-dimensional alignments show that this domain shares structural homology with polymerases from other viral families, including segmented negative-strand RNA and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. IMPORTANCE Negative-strand RNA viruses include a diverse set of viral families that infect animals and plants, causing serious illness and economic impact. The members of this group of viruses share a set of functionally conserved proteins that are essential to their replication cycle. Among this set of proteins is the viral polymerase, which performs a unique set of reactions to produce genome- and subgenome-length RNA transcripts. In this article, we study the polymerase of vesicular stomatitis virus, a member of the rhabdoviruses, which has served in the past as a model to study negative-strand RNA virus replication. We have identified a site in the N-terminal domain of the polymerase that is essential to viral transcription and that shares sequence homology with members of the paramyxoviruses and the filoviruses. Newly identified sites such as that described here could prove to be useful targets in the

  11. Purification, amino acid sequence and characterisation of kangaroo IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Yandell, C A; Francis, G L; Wheldrake, J F; Upton, Z

    1998-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-II have been purified to homogeneity from kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) serum, thus this represents the first report of the purification, sequencing and characterisation of marsupial IGFs. N-Terminal protein sequencing reveals that there are six amino acid differences between kangaroo and human IGF-I. Kangaroo IGF-II has been partially sequenced and no differences were found between human and kangaroo IGF-II in the 53 residues identified. Thus the IGFs appear to be remarkably structurally conserved during mammalian radiation. In addition, in vitro characterisation of kangaroo IGF-I demonstrated that the functional properties of human, kangaroo and chicken IGF-I are very similar. In an assay measuring the ability of the proteins to stimulate protein synthesis in rat L6 myoblasts, all IGF-I proteins were found to be equally potent. The ability of all three proteins to compete for binding with radiolabelled human IGF-I to type-1 IGF receptors in L6 myoblasts and in Sminthopsis crassicaudata transformed lung fibroblasts, a marsupial cell line, was comparable. Furthermore, kangaroo and human IGF-I react equally in a human IGF-I RIA using a human reference standard, radiolabelled human IGF-I and a polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant human IGF-I. This study indicates that not only is the primary structure of eutherian and metatherian IGF-I conserved, but also the proteins appear to be functionally similar.

  12. Detection of nucleic acid sequences by invader-directed cleavage

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Mary Ann D.; Hall, Jeff Steven Grotelueschen; Lyamichev, Victor; Olive, David Michael; Prudent, James Robert

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The 5' nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based by charge.

  13. Molecular properties of the N-terminal extension of the fission yeast kinesin-5, Cut7.

    PubMed

    Edamatsu, M

    2016-02-11

    Kinesin-5 plays an essential role in spindle formation and function, and serves as a potential target for anti-cancer drugs. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular properties of the N-terminal extension of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe kinesin-5, Cut7. This extension is rich in charged amino acids and predicted to be intrinsically disordered. In S. pombe cells, a Cut7 construct lacking half the N-terminal extension failed to localize along the spindle microtubules and formed a monopolar spindle. However, a construct lacking the entire N-terminal extension exhibited normal localization and formed a typical bipolar spindle. In addition, in vitro analyses revealed that the truncated Cut7 constructs demonstrated similar motile velocities and directionalities as the wild-type motor protein, but the microtubule landing rates were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that the N-terminal extension is not required for normal Cut7 intracellular localization or function, but alters the microtubule-binding properties of this protein in vitro.

  14. Selecting protein N-terminal peptides by combined fractional diagonal chromatography.

    PubMed

    Staes, An; Impens, Francis; Van Damme, Petra; Ruttens, Bart; Goethals, Marc; Demol, Hans; Timmerman, Evy; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Gevaert, Kris

    2011-07-14

    In recent years, procedures for selecting the N-terminal peptides of proteins with analysis by mass spectrometry have been established to characterize protease-mediated cleavage and protein α-N-acetylation on a proteomic level. As a pioneering technology, N-terminal combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC) has been used in numerous studies in which these protein modifications were investigated. Derivatization of primary amines--which can include stable isotope labeling--occurs before trypsin digestion so that cleavage occurs after arginine residues. Strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography results in the removal of most of the internal peptides. Diagonal, reversed-phase peptide chromatography, in which the two runs are separated by reaction with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, results in the removal of the C-terminal peptides and remaining internal peptides and the fractionation of the sample. We describe here the fully matured N-terminal COFRADIC protocol as it is currently routinely used, including the most substantial improvements (including treatment with glutamine cyclotransferase and pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase to remove pyroglutamate before SCX, and a sample pooling scheme to reduce the overall number of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses) that were made since its original publication. Completion of the N-terminal COFRADIC procedure takes ~5 d.

  15. The N-terminal acetyltransferase Naa10 is essential for zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Ree, Rasmus; Myklebust, Line M.; Thiel, Puja; Foyn, Håvard; Fladmark, Kari E.; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation, catalysed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes and involves the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the α-amino group of the first amino acid. Functions of N-terminal acetylation include protein degradation and sub-cellular targeting. Recent findings in humans indicate that a dysfunctional Nα-acetyltransferase (Naa) 10, the catalytic subunit of NatA, the major NAT, is associated with lethality during infancy. In the present study, we identified the Danio rerio orthologue zebrafish Naa 10 (zNaa10). In vitro N-terminal acetylation assays revealed that zNaa10 has NAT activity with substrate specificity highly similar to that of human Naa10. Spatiotemporal expression pattern was determined by in situ hybridization, showing ubiquitous expression with especially strong staining in brain and eye. By morpholino-mediated knockdown, we demonstrated that naa10 morphants displayed increased lethality, growth retardation and developmental abnormalities like bent axis, abnormal eyes and bent tails. In conclusion, we identified the zebrafish Naa10 orthologue and revealed that it is essential for normal development and viability of zebrafish. PMID:26251455

  16. Sargaquinoic acid isolated from Sargassum siliquastrum inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in macrophages via modulation of nuclear factor-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gyeoung-Jin; Han, Sang-Chul; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Koh, Young-Sang; Hyun, Jin-Won; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Youl Cho, Jae; Yoo, Eun-Sook

    2013-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a crucial molecule in inflammatory diseases and is synthesized from L-arginine by a specific enzyme, NO synthase (NOS). The expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) is activated in macrophages by various stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a wall component of gram-negative bacteria. LPS binds to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the macrophage surface and activates several downstream signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathways. This study investigated whether sargaquinoic acid isolated from Sargassum siliquastrum might have anti-inflammatory activity and interfere with NO production in macrophages by disrupting LPS-induced signaling. This study was conducted in vitro using RAW264.7 murine macrophages. LPS-stimulated cells were treated with sargaquinoic acid, and the effects on NO production, iNOS expression, and involvement of the NF-κB signaling pathway were investigated by Griess assay, western blotting, and confocal microscopy. The results demonstrated that sargaquinoic acid inhibited the production of NO and the expression of the iNOS protein in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, sargaquinoic acid inhibited the degradation of inhibitory-κB protein (IκB)-α and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, a key transcription factor for the regulation of iNOS expression. Also, sargaquinoic acid influenced the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 MAPK, except ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs, stimulated by LPS. These results suggest that sargaquinoic acid specifically prevents NO production in macrophages via the blockade of NF-κB activation and may thus have therapeutic applications in various inflammatory diseases.

  17. Los Alamos sequence analysis package for nucleic acids and proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Kanehisa, M I

    1982-01-01

    An interactive system for computer analysis of nucleic acid and protein sequences has been developed for the Los Alamos DNA Sequence Database. It provides a convenient way to search or verify various sequence features, e.g., restriction enzyme sites, protein coding frames, and properties of coded proteins. Further, the comprehensive analysis package on a large-scale database can be used for comparative studies on sequence and structural homologies in order to find unnoted information stored in nucleic acid sequences. PMID:6174934

  18. Three N-terminal domains of beta-1,3-glucanase A1 are involved in binding to insoluble beta-1,3-glucan.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, T; Kasahara, N; Aida, K; Tanaka, H

    1992-01-01

    Limited proteolysis of beta-1,3-glucanase A1 by three different proteases, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain, gave three major active fragments. The sizes of the three major fragments generated by each protease treatment were identical to those of beta-1,3-glucanase A2, A3, and A4 detected in both the culture supernatant of Bacillus circulans WL-12 and the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli carrying a cloned glcA gene. These results indicate a four-domain structure for the enzyme. At the N terminus of the glucanase, duplicated segments of approximately 100 amino acids were observed. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the active fragments with sizes corresponding to those of A2 and A3 lack the first segment (domain) and both duplicated segments (domains), respectively. The fragment corresponding to A4 lacks both duplicated segments and the following ca. 120-amino-acid region. By losing the first, second, and third (corresponding to the segment of 120 amino acids) domains, beta-1,3-glucanase progressively lost the ability to bind to pachyman, beta-1,3-glucan. An active fragment which did not have the three N-terminal domains did not show significant binding to pachyman. Thus, all three N-terminal domains contribute to binding to beta-1,3-glucan, and the presence of three domains confers the highest binding activity on the glucanase. The loss of these binding domains remarkably decreased pachyman-hydrolyzing activity, indicating that the binding activity is essential for the efficient hydrolysis of insoluble beta-1,3-glucan. Images PMID:1729208

  19. Amino acid sequence of rabbit kidney neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (enkephalinase) deduced from a complementary DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Devault, A; Lazure, C; Nault, C; Le Moual, H; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M; Kahn, P; Powell, J; Mallet, J; Beaumont, A

    1987-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11) is a major constituent of kidney brush border membranes. It is also present in the brain where it has been shown to be involved in the inactivation of opioid peptides, methionine- and leucine-enkephalins. For this reason this enzyme is often called 'enkephalinase'. In order to characterize the primary structure of the enzyme, oligonucleotide probes were designed from partial amino acid sequences and used to isolate clones from kidney cDNA libraries. Sequencing of the cDNA inserts revealed the complete primary structure of the enzyme. Neutral endopeptidase consists of 750 amino acids. It contains a short N-terminal cytoplasmic domain (27 amino acids), a single membrane-spanning segment (23 amino acids) and an extracellular domain that comprises most of the protein mass. The comparison of the primary structure of neutral endopeptidase with that of thermolysin, a bacterial Zn-metallopeptidase, indicates that most of the amino acid residues involved in Zn coordination and catalytic activity in thermolysin are found within highly honmologous sequences in neutral endopeptidase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:2440677

  20. Stable proline box motif at the N-terminal end of alpha-helices.

    PubMed Central

    Viguera, A. R.; Serrano, L.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a novel N-terminal alpha-helix local motif that involves three hydrophobic residues and a Pro residue (Pro-box motif). Database analysis shows that when Pro is the N-cap of an alpha-helix the distribution of amino acids in adjacent positions changes dramatically with respect to the average distribution in an alpha-helix, but not when Pro is at position N1. N-cap Pro residues are usually associated to Ile and Leu, at position N', Val at position N3 and a hydrophobic residue (h) at position N4. The side chain of the N-cap Pro packs against Val, while the hydrophobic residues at positions N' and N4 make favorable interactions. To analyze the role of this putative motif (sequence fingerprint hPXXhh), we have synthesized a series of peptides and analyzed them by circular dichroism (CD) and NMR. We find that this motif is formed in peptides, and that the accompanying hydrophobic interactions contribute up to 1.2 kcal/mol to helix stability. The fact that some of the residues in this fingerprint are not good N-cap and helix formers results in a small overall stabilization of the alpha-helix with respect to other peptides having Gly as the N-cap and Ala at N3 and N4. This suggests that the Pro-box motif will not specially contribute to protein stability but to the specificity of its fold. In fact, 80% of the sequences that contain the fingerprint sequence in the protein database are adopting the described structural motif, and in none of them is the helix extended to place Pro at the more favorable N1 position. PMID:10493574

  1. Glycosylation and surface expression of the influenza virus neuraminidase requires the N-terminal hydrophobic region.

    PubMed Central

    Markoff, L; Lin, B C; Sveda, M M; Lai, C J

    1984-01-01

    A full-length double-stranded DNA copy of an influenza A virus N2 neuraminidase (NA) gene was cloned into the late region of pSV2330, a hybrid expression vector that includes pBR322 plasmid DNA sequences and the simian virus 40 early region and simian virus 40 late region promoters, splice sequences, and transcription termination sites. The protein encoded by the cloned wild-type NA gene was shown to be present in the cytoplasm of fixed cells and at the surface of "live" or unfixed cells by indirect immunofluorescence with N2 monoclonal antibodies. Immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of [35S]methionine-labeled proteins from wild-type vector-infected cells with heterospecific N2 antibody showed that the product of the cloned NA DNA comigrated with glycosylated NA from influenza virus-infected cells, remained associated with internal membranes of cells fractionated into membrane and cytoplasmic fractions, and could form an immunoprecipitable dimer. NA enzymatic activity was detectable after simian virus 40 lysis of vector-infected cells. These properties of the product of the cloned wild-type gene were compared with those of the polypeptides produced by three deletion mutant NA DNAs that were also cloned into the late region of the pSV2330 vector. These mutants lacked 7 (dlk), 21 (dlI), or all 23 amino acids (dlZ) of the amino (N)-terminal variable hydrophobic region that anchors the mature wild-type NA tetrameric structure in the infected cell or influenza viral membrane. Comparison of the phenotypes of these mutants showed that this region in the NA molecule also includes sequences that control translocation of the nascent polypeptide into membrane organelles for glycosylation. Images PMID:6700587

  2. The N-terminal half of membrane CD14 is a functional cellular lipopolysaccharide receptor.

    PubMed

    Viriyakosol, S; Kirkland, T N

    1996-02-01

    CD14, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein on the surface of monocytes, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, is a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It was recently reported that an N-terminal 152-amino-acid fragment of soluble CD14 was an active soluble lipopolysaccharide receptor (T. S. -C. Juan, M. J. Kelley, D. A. Johnson, L. A. Busse, E. Hailman, S. D. Wright, and H. S. Lichenstein, J. Biol. Chem. 270:1382-1387, 1995). To determine whether the N-terminal half of the membrane CD14 was a functional LPS receptor on the cell membrane, we engineered a chimeric gene coding for amino acids 1 to 151 of CD14 fused to the C-terminal region of decay-accelerating factor and expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary cells and 70Z/3 cells. We found that the chimeric, truncated CD14 is a fully functional LPS receptor in both cell lines.

  3. A 25-Amino Acid Sequence of the Arabidopsis TGD2 Protein Is Sufficient for Specific Binding of Phosphatidic Acid*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Binbin; Benning, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Genetic analysis suggests that the TGD2 protein of Arabidopsis is required for the biosynthesis of endoplasmic reticulum derived thylakoid lipids. TGD2 is proposed to be the substrate-binding protein of a presumed lipid transporter consisting of the TGD1 (permease) and TGD3 (ATPase) proteins. The TGD1, -2, and -3 proteins are localized in the inner chloroplast envelope membrane. TGD2 appears to be anchored with an N-terminal membrane-spanning domain into the inner envelope membrane, whereas the C-terminal domain faces the intermembrane space. It was previously shown that the C-terminal domain of TGD2 binds phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). To investigate the PtdOH binding site of TGD2 in detail, the C-terminal domain of the TGD2 sequence lacking the transit peptide and transmembrane sequences was fused to the C terminus of the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DR). This greatly improved the solubility of the resulting DR-TGD2C fusion protein following production in Escherichia coli. The DR-TGD2C protein bound PtdOH with high specificity, as demonstrated by membrane lipid-protein overlay and liposome association assays. Internal deletion and truncation mutagenesis identified a previously undescribed minimal 25-amino acid fragment in the C-terminal domain of TGD2 that is sufficient for PtdOH binding. Binding characteristics of this 25-mer were distinctly different from those of TGD2C, suggesting that additional sequences of TGD2 providing the proper context for this 25-mer are needed for wild type-like PtdOH binding. PMID:19416982

  4. Hybridization and sequencing of nucleic acids using base pair mismatches

    DOEpatents

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  5. The N-terminal hydrophobic region of the mature phosphate translocator is sufficient for targeting to the chloroplast inner envelope membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, J S; Gray, J C

    1995-01-01

    To locate the sequence required for directing the phosphate translocator to the chloroplast inner envelope membrane, a series of chimeric proteins constituting parts of the phosphate translocator and the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, which is normally located in the stroma, has been produced. Reciprocal exchanges of the presequences and mature sequences of the phosphate translocator and the small subunit indicated that the phosphate translocator presequence contains stromal targeting information and that the mature protein is responsible for inner envelope membrane targeting. Chimeric proteins containing the N-terminal 46 amino acid residues of the phosphate translocator were directed to the inner envelope membrane. Subdivision of this region into its composite hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions showed that the hydrophobic region alone, which consists of amino acid residues 24 to 45, was able to direct the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase to the inner envelope membrane. PMID:8589626

  6. The cyanobacterial cell division factor Ftn6 contains an N-terminal DnaD-like domain

    PubMed Central

    Marbouty, Martial; Saguez, Cyril; Chauvat, Franck

    2009-01-01

    Background DNA replication and cell cycle as well as their relationship have been extensively studied in the two model organisms E. coli and B. subtilis. By contrast, little is known about these processes in cyanobacteria, even though they are crucial to the biosphere, in utilizing solar energy to renew the oxygenic atmosphere and in producing the biomass for the food chain. Recent studies have allowed the identification of several cell division factors that are specifics to cyanobacteria. Among them, Ftn6 has been proposed to function in the recruitment of the crucial FtsZ proteins to the septum or the subsequent Z-ring assembly and possibly in chromosome segregation. Results In this study, we identified an as yet undescribed domain located in the conserved N-terminal region of Ftn6. This 77 amino-acids-long domain, designated here as FND (Ftn6 N-Terminal Domain), exhibits striking sequence and structural similarities with the DNA-interacting module, listed in the PFAM database as the DnaD-like domain (pfam04271). We took advantage of the sequence similarities between FND and the DnaD-like domains to construct a homology 3D-model of the Ftn6 FND domain from the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. Mapping of the conserved residues exposed onto the FND surface allowed us to identify a highly conserved area that could be engaged in Ftn6-specific interactions. Conclusion Overall, similarities between FND and DnaD-like domains as well as previously reported observations on Ftn6 suggest that FND may function as a DNA-interacting module thereby providing an as yet missing link between DNA replication and cell division in cyanobacteria. Consistently, we also showed that Ftn6 is involved in tolerance to DNA damages generated by UV rays. PMID:19698108

  7. Critical roles of CTP synthase N-terminal in cytoophidium assembly.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Wang, Jin-Jun; Ghosh, Sanjay; Liu, Ji-Long

    2017-03-22

    Several metabolic enzymes assemble into distinct intracellular structures in prokaryotes and eukaryotes suggesting an important functional role in cell physiology. The CTP-generating enzyme CTP synthase forms long filamentous structures termed cytoophidia in bacteria, yeast, fruit flies and human cells independent of its catalytic activity. However, the amino acid determinants for protein-protein interaction necessary for polymerisation remained unknown. In this study, we systematically analysed the role of the conserved N-terminal of Drosophila CTP synthase in cytoophidium assembly. Our mutational analyses identified three key amino acid residues within this region that play an instructive role in organisation of CTP synthase into a filamentous structure. Co-transfection assays demonstrated formation of heteromeric CTP synthase filaments which is disrupted by protein carrying a mutated N-terminal alanine residue thus revealing a dominant-negative activity. Interestingly, the dominant-negative activity is supressed by the CTP synthase inhibitor DON. Furthermore, we found that the amino acids at the corresponding position in the human protein exhibit similar properties suggesting conservation of their function through evolution. Our data suggest that cytoophidium assembly is a multi-step process involving N-terminal-dependent sequential interactions between correctly folded structural units and provide insights into the assembly of these enigmatic structures.

  8. Negative Ion In-Source Decay Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sequencing Acidic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Chelsea L.; Wright, Patience M.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in-source decay was studied in the negative ion mode on deprotonated peptides to determine its usefulness for obtaining extensive sequence information for acidic peptides. Eight biological acidic peptides, ranging in size from 11 to 33 residues, were studied by negative ion mode ISD (nISD). The matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, 5-amino-1-naphthol, 3-aminoquinoline, and 9-aminoacridine were used with each peptide. Optimal fragmentation was produced with 1,5-diaminonphthalene (DAN), and extensive sequence informative fragmentation was observed for every peptide except hirudin(54-65). Cleavage at the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone, producing c' and z' ions, was dominant for all peptides. Cleavage of the N-Cα bond N-terminal to proline residues was not observed. The formation of c and z ions is also found in electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and positive ion mode ISD, which are considered to be radical-driven techniques. Oxidized insulin chain A, which has four highly acidic oxidized cysteine residues, had less extensive fragmentation. This peptide also exhibited the only charged localized fragmentation, with more pronounced product ion formation adjacent to the highly acidic residues. In addition, spectra were obtained by positive ion mode ISD for each protonated peptide; more sequence informative fragmentation was observed via nISD for all peptides. Three of the peptides studied had no product ion formation in ISD, but extensive sequence informative fragmentation was found in their nISD spectra. The results of this study indicate that nISD can be used to readily obtain sequence information for acidic peptides.

  9. Isolation and a partial amino acid sequence of insulin from the islet tissue of cod (Gadus callarias)

    PubMed Central

    Grant, P. T.; Reid, K. B. M.

    1968-01-01

    1. Insulin has been isolated by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography from extracts of the discrete islet tissue of cod. The final preparation yielded a single band on electrophoresis at two pH values. The biological potency was 11·5 international units/mg. in mouse-convulsion and other assay procedures. 2. Glycine and methionine were shown to be the N-terminal amino acids of the A and B chains respectively. An estimate of the molecular weight together with amino acid analyses indicated that cod insulin, like the bovine hormone, consists of 51 amino acid residues. In contrast, the amino acid composition differs markedly from bovine insulin. 3. Oxidation of insulin with performic acid yielded the A and B peptide chains, which were separated by ion-exchange chromatography. Sequence studies on smaller peptides isolated from enzymic digests or from dilute acetic acid hydrolysates of the two chains have established the sequential order of 14 of the 21 amino acid residues of the A chain and 25 of the 30 amino acid residues of the B chain. PMID:4866431

  10. Effects of Acidic Peptide Size and Sequence on Trivalent Praseodymium Adduction and Electron Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Commodore, Juliette J; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2017-02-07

    Using the lanthanide ion praseodymium, Pr(III), metallated ion formation and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) were studied for 25 biological and model acidic peptides. For chain lengths of seven or more residues, even highly acidic peptides that can be difficult to protonate by electrospray ionization will metallate and undergo abundant ETD fragmentation. Peptides composed of predominantly acidic residues form only the deprotonated ion, [M + Pr - H](2+) ; this ion yields near complete ETD sequence coverage for larger peptides. Peptides with a mixture of acidic and neutral residues, generate [M + Pr](3+) , which cleaves between every residue for many peptides. Acidic peptides that contain at least one residue with a basic side chain also produce the protonated ion, [M + Pr + H](4+) ; this ion undergoes the most extensive sequence coverage by ETD. Primarily metallated and non-metallated c- and z-ions form for all peptides investigated. Metal adducted product ions are only present when at least half of the peptide sequence can be incorporated into the ion; this suggests that the metal ion simultaneously attaches to more than one acidic site. The only site consistently lacking dissociation is at the N-terminal side of a proline residue. Increasing peptide chain length generates more backbone cleavage for metal-peptide complexes with the same charge state. For acidic peptides with the same length, increasing the precursor ion charge state from 2+ to 3+ also leads to more cleavage. The results of this study indicate that highly acidic peptides can be sequenced by ETD of complexes formed with Pr(III).

  11. The N-terminal strand modulates immunoglobulin light chain fibrillogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pozo-Yauner, Luis del; Wall, Jonathan S.; González Andrade, Martín; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Rodríguez-Ambriz, Sandra L.; Pérez Carreón, Julio I.; and others

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •We evaluated the impact of mutations in the N-terminal strand of 6aJL2 protein. •Mutations destabilized the protein in a position-dependent manner. •Destabilizing mutations accelerated the fibrillogenesis by shortening the lag time. •The effect on the kinetic of fibril elongation by seeding was of different nature. •The N-terminal strand is buried in the fibrillar state of 6aJL2 protein. -- Abstract: It has been suggested that the N-terminal strand of the light chain variable domain (V{sub L}) protects the molecule from aggregation by hindering spurious intermolecular contacts. We evaluated the impact of mutations in the N-terminal strand on the thermodynamic stability and kinetic of fibrillogenesis of the V{sub L} protein 6aJL2. Mutations in this strand destabilized the protein in a position-dependent manner, accelerating the fibrillogenesis by shortening the lag time; an effect that correlated with the extent of destabilization. In contrast, the effect on the kinetics of fibril elongation, as assessed in seeding experiments was of different nature, as it was not directly dependant on the degree of destabilization. This finding suggests different factors drive the nucleation-dependent and elongation phases of light chain fibrillogenesis. Finally, taking advantage of the dependence of the Trp fluorescence upon environment, four single Trp substitutions were made in the N-terminal strand, and changes in solvent exposure during aggregation were evaluated by acrylamide-quenching. The results suggest that the N-terminal strand is buried in the fibrillar state of 6aJL2 protein. This finding suggest a possible explanation for the modulating effect exerted by the mutations in this strand on the aggregation behavior of 6aJL2 protein.

  12. PURIFICATION AND N-TERMINAL ANALYSES OF ALGAL BILIPROTEINS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    R-, B- and C-phycoerythrins and R- and C- phycocyanins were isolated and purified on a preparative scale by calcium phosphate chromatography, ammonium...of C-phycoerythrin (mol.wt. 226 000). Threonine (1 residue) is N-terminal in C- phycocyanin (mol.wt. 138 000), and both threonine (about 1.3 residues...and methionine (5 residues) are N-terminal in R- phycocyanin (mol.wt. 273 000). Results suggest that the apoproteins of the various phycoerythrins are

  13. Structure of the human histone chaperone FACT Spt16 N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Marcianò, G; Huang, D T

    2016-02-01

    The histone chaperone FACT plays an important role in facilitating nucleosome assembly and disassembly during transcription. FACT is a heterodimeric complex consisting of Spt16 and SSRP1. The N-terminal domain of Spt16 resembles an inactive aminopeptidase. How this domain contributes to the histone chaperone activity of FACT remains elusive. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of human Spt16 is reported at a resolution of 1.84 Å. The structure adopts an aminopeptidase-like fold similar to those of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Spt16 NTDs. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyses show that human Spt16 NTD binds histones H3/H4 with low-micromolar affinity, suggesting that Spt16 NTD may contribute to histone binding in the FACT complex. Surface-residue conservation and electrostatic analysis reveal a conserved acidic patch that may be involved in histone binding.

  14. The N-terminal domains of spider silk proteins assemble ultrafast and protected from charge screening.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Simone; Zwettler, Fabian U; Johnson, Christopher M; Neuweiler, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Web spiders assemble spidroin monomers into silk fibres of unrivalled tensile strength at remarkably high spinning speeds of up to 1 m s(-1). The spidroin N-terminal domain contains a charge-driven, pH-sensitive relay that controls self-association by an elusive mechanism. The underlying kinetics have not yet been reported. Here we engineer a fluorescence switch into the isolated N-terminal domain from spidroin 1 of the major ampullate gland of the nursery web spider E. australis that monitors dimerization. We observe ultrafast association that is surprisingly insensitive to salt, contrasting the classical screening effects in accelerated, charged protein interfaces. To gain deeper mechanistic insight, we mutate each of the protonatable residue side chains and probe their contributions. Two vicinal aspartic acids are critically involved in an unusual process of accelerated protein association that is protected from screening by electrolytes, potentially facilitating the rapid synthesis of silk fibres by web spiders.

  15. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2006-07-04

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  16. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  17. [Designing of hybrid human interferon alfa-2 strain-producers and the use of enteropeptidase for obtaining N-terminal methionine-free interferons].

    PubMed

    Shirokov, D A; Riabichenko, V V; Akishina, R I; Ospel'nikova, T P; Glazunov, A V; Chestukhina, G G; Veĭko, V P

    2011-01-01

    A system for production of human interferon-alpha2a (IFN-alpha2a) and IFN-alpha2b lacking N-terminal methionine has been developed. Plasmids containing genes of hybrid IFN-alpha2 under the control of different promoters were constructed; a sequence encoding the enteropeptidase hydrolysis site being introduced in proximal part of the genes. As the result, 4 strains of Escherichia coli producing hybrid IFN-alpha2 have been obtained. The methodology for IFN-alpha2 renaturation, hydrolysis of its N-terminal part, chromatographic purification of N-terminal methionine-free IFN-alpha2 has been developed.

  18. Kit for detecting nucleic acid sequences using competitive hybridization probes

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-01-01

    A kit is provided for detecting a target nucleic acid sequence in a sample, the kit comprising: a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the first hybridization probe including a first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent; and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the first hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the second hybridization probe including a detectable marker; a third hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the third hybridization probe including the same detectable marker as the second hybridization probe; and a fourth hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the third hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the fourth hybridization probe including the first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with the second complexing agent; wherein the first and second hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence and the third and fourth hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence, the detectable marker is not present on the first or fourth hybridization probes and the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes each include a competitive nucleic acid sequence which is sufficiently complementary to a third portion of the target sequence that the competitive sequences of the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes compete with each other to hybridize to the third portion of the

  19. The N-terminal strand modulates immunoglobulin light chain fibrillogenesis.

    PubMed

    del Pozo-Yauner, Luis; Wall, Jonathan S; González Andrade, Martín; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Rodríguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Pérez Carreón, Julio I; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián; Fernández-Velasco, D Alejandro

    2014-01-10

    It has been suggested that the N-terminal strand of the light chain variable domain (V(L)) protects the molecule from aggregation by hindering spurious intermolecular contacts. We evaluated the impact of mutations in the N-terminal strand on the thermodynamic stability and kinetic of fibrillogenesis of the V(L) protein 6aJL2. Mutations in this strand destabilized the protein in a position-dependent manner, accelerating the fibrillogenesis by shortening the lag time; an effect that correlated with the extent of destabilization. In contrast, the effect on the kinetics of fibril elongation, as assessed in seeding experiments was of different nature, as it was not directly dependant on the degree of destabilization. This finding suggests different factors drive the nucleation-dependent and elongation phases of light chain fibrillogenesis. Finally, taking advantage of the dependence of the Trp fluorescence upon environment, four single Trp substitutions were made in the N-terminal strand, and changes in solvent exposure during aggregation were evaluated by acrylamide-quenching. The results suggest that the N-terminal strand is buried in the fibrillar state of 6aJL2 protein. This finding suggest a possible explanation for the modulating effect exerted by the mutations in this strand on the aggregation behavior of 6aJL2 protein.

  20. Analysis and Annotation of Nucleic Acid Sequence

    SciTech Connect

    States, David J.

    2004-07-28

    The aims of this project were to develop improved methods for computational genome annotation and to apply these methods to improve the annotation of genomic sequence data with a specific focus on human genome sequencing. The project resulted in a substantial body of published work. Notable contributions of this project were the identification of basecalling and lane tracking as error processes in genome sequencing and contributions to improved methods for these steps in genome sequencing. This technology improved the accuracy and throughput of genome sequence analysis. Probabilistic methods for physical map construction were developed. Improved methods for sequence alignment, alternative splicing analysis, promoter identification and NF kappa B response gene prediction were also developed.

  1. Role of N-terminal region of Escherichia coli maltodextrin glucosidase in folding and function of the protein.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Ashutosh; Singh, Amit K; Shukla, Prakash K; Equbal, Md Javed; Malik, Shikha T; Singh, Tej P; Chaudhuri, Tapan K

    2016-09-01

    Maltodextrin glucosidase (MalZ) hydrolyses short malto-oligosaccharides from the reducing end releasing glucose and maltose in Escherichia coli. MalZ is a highly aggregation prone protein and molecular chaperonins GroEL and GroES assist in the folding of this protein to a substantial level. The N-terminal region of this enzyme appears to be a unique domain as seen in sequence comparison studies with other amylases as well as through homology modelling. The sequence and homology model analysis show a probability of disorder in the N-Terminal region of MalZ. The crystal structure of this enzyme has been reported in the present communication. Based on the crystallographic structure, it has been interpreted that the N-terminal region of the enzyme (Met1-Phe131) might be unstructured or flexible. To understand the role of the N-terminal region of MalZ in its enzymatic activity, and overall stability, a truncated version (Ala111-His616) of MalZ was created. The truncated version failed to fold into an active enzyme both in E. coli cytosol and in vitro even with the assistance of chaperonins GroEL and GroES. Furthermore, the refolding effort of N-truncated MalZ in the presence of isolated N-terminal domain didn't succeed. Our studies suggest that while the structural rigidity or orientation of the N-terminal region of the MalZ protein may not be essential for its stability and function, but the said domain is likely to play an important role in the formation of the native structure of the protein when present as an integral part of the protein.

  2. Solid phase sequencing of double-stranded nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Cantor, Charles R.; Koster, Hubert; Smith, Cassandra L.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing of target double-stranded nucleic acid sequences, to nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probe comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include nucleic acids in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated determination of molecular weights and identification of the target sequence.

  3. Molecular Basis of Substrate Specific Acetylation by N-Terminal Acetyltransferase NatB.

    PubMed

    Hong, Haiyan; Cai, Yongfei; Zhang, Shijun; Ding, Hongyan; Wang, Haitao; Han, Aidong

    2017-04-04

    The NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase specifically acetylates the N-terminal group of substrate protein peptides starting with Met-Asp/Glu/Asn/Gln. How NatB recognizes and acetylates these substrates remains unknown. Here, we report crystal structures of a NatB holoenzyme from Candida albicans in the presence of its co-factor CoA and substrate peptides. The auxiliary subunit Naa25 of NatB forms a horseshoe-like deck to hold specifically its catalytic subunit Naa20. The first two amino acids Met and Asp of a substrate peptide mediate the major interactions with the active site in the Naa20 subunit. The hydrogen bonds between the substrate Asp and pocket residues of Naa20 are essential to determine the NatB substrate specificity. Moreover, a hydrogen bond between the amino group of the substrate Met and a carbonyl group in the Naa20 active site directly anchors the substrate toward acetyl-CoA. Together, these structures define a unique molecular mechanism of specific N-terminal acetylation acted by NatB.

  4. Structure and Function of the Sterol Carrier Protein-2 N-Terminal Presequence†

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gregory G.; Hostetler, Heather A.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Tichy, Shane E.; Williams, Brad J.; Russell, David H.; Berg, Jeremy M.; Spencer, Thomas A.; Ball, Judith; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Although sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) is encoded as a precursor protein (proSCP-2), little is known regarding the structure and function of the 20-amino acid N-terminal presequence. As shown herein, the presequence contains significant secondary structure and alters SCP-2: (i) secondary structure (CD), (ii) tertiary structure (aqueous exposure of Trp shown by UV absorbance, fluorescence, fluorescence quenching), (iii) ligand binding site [Trp response to ligands, peptide cross-linked by photoactivatable free cholesterol (FCBP)], (iv) selectivity for interaction with anionic phospholipid-rich membranes, (v) interaction with a peroxisomal import protein [FRET studies of Pex5p(C) binding], the N-terminal presequence increased SCP-2’s affinity for Pex5p(C) by 10-fold, and (vi) intracellular targeting in living and fixed cells (confocal microscopy). Nearly 5-fold more SCP-2 than proSCP-2 colocalized with plasma membrane lipid rafts/caveolae (AF488-CTB), 2.8-fold more SCP-2 than proSCP-2 colocalized with a mitochondrial marker (Mitotracker), but nearly 2-fold less SCP-2 than proSCP-2 colocalized with peroxisomes (AF488-antibody to PMP70). These data indicate the importance of the N-terminal presequence in regulating SCP-2 structure, cholesterol localization within the ligand binding site, membrane association, and, potentially, intracellular targeting. PMID:18465878

  5. Structure of the human histone chaperone FACT Spt16 N-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Marcianò, G.; Huang, D. T.

    2016-01-22

    The Spt16–SSRP1 heterodimer is a histone chaperone that plays an important role in regulating chromatin assembly. Here, a crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of human Spt16 is presented and it is shown that this domain may contribute to histone binding. The histone chaperone FACT plays an important role in facilitating nucleosome assembly and disassembly during transcription. FACT is a heterodimeric complex consisting of Spt16 and SSRP1. The N-terminal domain of Spt16 resembles an inactive aminopeptidase. How this domain contributes to the histone chaperone activity of FACT remains elusive. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of human Spt16 is reported at a resolution of 1.84 Å. The structure adopts an aminopeptidase-like fold similar to those of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Spt16 NTDs. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyses show that human Spt16 NTD binds histones H3/H4 with low-micromolar affinity, suggesting that Spt16 NTD may contribute to histone binding in the FACT complex. Surface-residue conservation and electrostatic analysis reveal a conserved acidic patch that may be involved in histone binding.

  6. Isolation, Amino Acid Sequence and Biological Activities of Novel Long-Chain Polyamine-Associated Peptide Toxins from the Sponge Axinyssa aculeata

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Satoko; Jimbo, Mitsuru; Gill, Martin B.; Lash-Van Wyhe, L. Leanne; Murata, Michio; Nonomura, Ken’ichi; Swanson, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    A novel family of functionalized peptide toxins, aculeines (ACUs), was isolated from the marine sponge Axinyssa aculeate. ACUs are polypeptides with N-terminal residues that are modified by the addition of long-chain polyamines (LCPA). Aculeines were present in the sponge extract as a complex mixture with differing polyamine chain lengths and peptide structures. ACU-A and B, which were purified in this study, share a common polypeptide chain but differ in their N-terminal residue modifications. The amino acid sequence of the polypeptide portion of ACU-A and B was deduced from 3′ and 5′ RACE, and supported by Edman degradation and mass spectral analysis of peptide fragments. ACU induced convulsions upon intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection in mice, and disrupted neuronal membrane integrity in electrophysiological assays. ACU also lysed erythrocytes with a potency that differed between animal species. Here we describe the isolation, amino acid sequence, and biological activity of this new group of cytotoxic sponge peptides. PMID:21830292

  7. Folding and stability studies on C-PE and its natural N-terminal truncant.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Khalid; Parmar, Asha; Rahman, Safikur; Kaushal, Avani; Madamwar, Datta; Islam, Asimul; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan

    2014-03-01

    The conformational and functional state of biliproteins can be determined by optical properties of the covalently linked chromophores. α-Subunit of most of the phycoerythrin contains 164 residues. Recently determined crystal structure of the naturally truncated form of α-subunit of cyanobacterial phycoerythrin (Tr-αC-PE) lacks 31 N-terminal residues present in its full length form (FL-αC-PE). This provides an opportunity to investigate the structure-function relationship between these two natural forms. We measured guanidinium chloride (GdmCl)-induced denaturation curves of FL-αC-PE and Tr-αC-PE proteins, followed by observing changes in absorbance at 565nm, fluorescence at 350 and 573nm, and circular dichroism at 222nm. The denaturation curve of each protein was analyzed for ΔGD(∘), the value of Gibbs free energy change on denaturation (ΔGD) in the absence of GdmCl. The main conclusions of the this study are: (i) GdmCl-induced denaturation (native state↔denatured state) of FL-αC-PE and Tr-αC-PE is reversible and follows a two-state mechanism, (ii) FL-αC-PE is 1.4kcalmol(-1) more stable than Tr-αC-PE, (iii) truncation of 31-residue long fragment that contains two α-helices, does not alter the 3-D structure of the remaining protein polypeptide chain, protein-chromophore interaction, and (iv) amino acid sequence of Tr-αC-PE determines the functional structure of the phycoerythrin.

  8. Prediction of N-terminal protein sorting signals.

    PubMed

    Claros, M G; Brunak, S; von Heijne, G

    1997-06-01

    Recently, neural networks have been applied to a widening range of problems in molecular biology. An area particularly suited to neural-network methods is the identification of protein sorting signals and the prediction of their cleavage sites, as these functional units are encoded by local, linear sequences of amino acids rather than global 3D structures.

  9. Altering the N-terminal arms of the polymerase manager protein UmuD modulates protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Murison, David A; Ollivierre, Jaylene N; Huang, Qiuying; Budil, David E; Beuning, Penny J

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells that are exposed to DNA damaging agents invoke the SOS response that involves expression of the umuD gene products, along with more than 50 other genes. Full-length UmuD is expressed as a 139-amino-acid protein, which eventually cleaves its N-terminal 24 amino acids to form UmuD'. The N-terminal arms of UmuD are dynamic and contain recognition sites for multiple partner proteins. Cleavage of UmuD to UmuD' dramatically affects the function of the protein and activates UmuC for translesion synthesis (TLS) by forming DNA Polymerase V. To probe the roles of the N-terminal arms in the cellular functions of the umuD gene products, we constructed additional N-terminal truncated versions of UmuD: UmuD 8 (UmuD Δ1-7) and UmuD 18 (UmuD Δ1-17). We found that the loss of just the N-terminal seven (7) amino acids of UmuD results in changes in conformation of the N-terminal arms, as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with site-directed spin labeling. UmuD 8 is cleaved as efficiently as full-length UmuD in vitro and in vivo, but expression of a plasmid-borne non-cleavable variant of UmuD 8 causes hypersensitivity to UV irradiation, which we determined is the result of a copy-number effect. UmuD 18 does not cleave to form UmuD', but confers resistance to UV radiation. Moreover, removal of the N-terminal seven residues of UmuD maintained its interactions with the alpha polymerase subunit of DNA polymerase III as well as its ability to disrupt interactions between alpha and the beta processivity clamp, whereas deletion of the N-terminal 17 residues resulted in decreases in binding to alpha and in the ability to disrupt the alpha-beta interaction. We find that UmuD 8 mimics full-length UmuD in many respects, whereas UmuD 18 lacks a number of functions characteristic of UmuD.

  10. Altering the N-terminal arms of the polymerase manager protein UmuD modulates protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiuying; Budil, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells that are exposed to DNA damaging agents invoke the SOS response that involves expression of the umuD gene products, along with more than 50 other genes. Full-length UmuD is expressed as a 139-amino-acid protein, which eventually cleaves its N-terminal 24 amino acids to form UmuD′. The N-terminal arms of UmuD are dynamic and contain recognition sites for multiple partner proteins. Cleavage of UmuD to UmuD′ dramatically affects the function of the protein and activates UmuC for translesion synthesis (TLS) by forming DNA Polymerase V. To probe the roles of the N-terminal arms in the cellular functions of the umuD gene products, we constructed additional N-terminal truncated versions of UmuD: UmuD 8 (UmuD Δ1–7) and UmuD 18 (UmuD Δ1–17). We found that the loss of just the N-terminal seven (7) amino acids of UmuD results in changes in conformation of the N-terminal arms, as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with site-directed spin labeling. UmuD 8 is cleaved as efficiently as full-length UmuD in vitro and in vivo, but expression of a plasmid-borne non-cleavable variant of UmuD 8 causes hypersensitivity to UV irradiation, which we determined is the result of a copy-number effect. UmuD 18 does not cleave to form UmuDʹ, but confers resistance to UV radiation. Moreover, removal of the N-terminal seven residues of UmuD maintained its interactions with the alpha polymerase subunit of DNA polymerase III as well as its ability to disrupt interactions between alpha and the beta processivity clamp, whereas deletion of the N-terminal 17 residues resulted in decreases in binding to alpha and in the ability to disrupt the alpha-beta interaction. We find that UmuD 8 mimics full-length UmuD in many respects, whereas UmuD 18 lacks a number of functions characteristic of UmuD. PMID:28273172

  11. N-Terminal extension of human immunodeficiency virus capsid protein converts the in vitro assembly phenotype from tubular to spherical particles.

    PubMed

    Gross, I; Hohenberg, H; Huckhagel, C; Kräusslich, H G

    1998-06-01

    Expression of retroviral Gag polyproteins is sufficient for morphogenesis of virus-like particles with a spherical immature protein shell. Proteolytic cleavage of Gag into the matrix (MA), capsid (CA), nucleocapsid (NC), and p6 domains (in the case of human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) leads to condensation to the mature cone-shaped core. We have analyzed the formation of spherical or cylindrical particles on in vitro assembly of purified HIV proteins or inside Escherichia coli cells. CA protein alone yielded cylindrical particles, while all N-terminal extensions of CA abolished cylinder formation. Spherical particles with heterogeneous diameters or amorphous protein aggregates were observed instead. Extending CA by 5 amino acids was sufficient to convert the assembly phenotype to spherical particles. Sequences C-terminal of CA were not required for sphere formation. Proteolytic cleavage of N-terminally extended CA proteins prior to in vitro assembly led to the formation of cylindrical particles, while proteolysis of in vitro assembly products caused disruption of spheres but not formation of cylinders. In vitro assembly of CA and extended CA proteins in the presence of cyclophilin A (CypA) at a CA-to-CypA molar ratio of 10:1 yielded significantly longer cylinders and heterogeneous spheres, while higher concentrations of CypA completely disrupted particle formation. We conclude that the spherical shape of immature HIV particles is determined by the presence of an N-terminal extension on the CA domain and that core condensation during virion maturation requires the liberation of the N terminus of CA.

  12. N-terminal domains of human DNA polymerase lambda promote primer realignment during translesion DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Taggart, David J; Dayeh, Daniel M; Fredrickson, Saul W; Suo, Zucai

    2014-10-01

    The X-family DNA polymerases λ (Polλ) and β (Polβ) possess similar 5'-2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (dRPase) and polymerase domains. Besides these domains, Polλ also possesses a BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain and a proline-rich domain at its N terminus. However, it is unclear how these non-enzymatic domains contribute to the unique biological functions of Polλ. Here, we used primer extension assays and a newly developed high-throughput short oligonucleotide sequencing assay (HT-SOSA) to compare the efficiency of lesion bypass and fidelity of human Polβ, Polλ and two N-terminal deletion constructs of Polλ during the bypass of either an abasic site or an 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) lesion. We demonstrate that the BRCT domain of Polλ enhances the efficiency of abasic site bypass by approximately 1.6-fold. In contrast, deletion of the N-terminal domains of Polλ did not affect the efficiency of 8-oxodG bypass relative to nucleotide incorporations opposite undamaged dG. HT-SOSA analysis demonstrated that Polλ and Polβ preferentially generated -1 or -2 frameshift mutations when bypassing an abasic site and the single or double base deletion frequency was highly sequence dependent. Interestingly, the BRCT and proline-rich domains of Polλ cooperatively promoted the generation of -2 frameshift mutations when the abasic site was situated within a sequence context that was susceptible to homology-driven primer realignment. Furthermore, both N-terminal domains of Polλ increased the generation of -1 frameshift mutations during 8-oxodG bypass and influenced the frequency of substitution mutations produced by Polλ opposite the 8-oxodG lesion. Overall, our data support a model wherein the BRCT and proline-rich domains of Polλ act cooperatively to promote primer/template realignment between DNA strands of limited sequence homology. This function of the N-terminal domains may facilitate the role of Polλ as a gap-filling polymerase within the non

  13. Role of Prion Disease-Linked Mutations in the Intrinsically Disordered N-Terminal Domain of the Prion Protein.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaojing; Casiraghi, Nicola; Rossetti, Giulia; Mohanty, Sandipan; Giachin, Gabriele; Legname, Giuseppe; Carloni, Paolo

    2013-11-12

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in mammals and other animal species. In humans, about 15% of these maladies are caused by pathogenic mutations (PMs) in the gene encoding for the prion protein (PrP(C)). Seven PMs are located in the naturally unfolded PrP(C) N-terminal domain, which constitutes about half of the protein. Intriguingly and in sharp contrast to other PMs clustered in the folded domain, N-terminal PMs barely affect the conversion to the pathogenic (scrapie, or PrP(Sc)) isoform of PrP(C). Here, we hypothesize that the neurotoxicity of these PMs arises from changes in structural determinants of the N-terminal domain, affecting the protein binding with its cellular partners and/or the cotranslational translocation during the PrP(C) biosynthesis. We test this idea by predicting the conformational ensemble of the wild-type (WT) and mutated mouse PrP(C) N-terminal domain, whose sequence is almost identical to that of the human one and for which the largest number of in vivo data is available. The conformational properties of the WT are consistent with those inferred experimentally. Importantly, the PMs turn out to affect in a subtle manner the intramolecular contacts in the putative N-terminal domain binding sites for Cu(2+) ions, sulphated glycosaminoglycans, and other known PrP(C) cellular partners. The PMs also alter the local structural features of the transmembrane domain and adjacent stop transfer effector, which act together to regulate the protein topology. These results corroborate the hypothesis that N-terminal PMs affect the PrP(C) binding to functional interactors and/or the translocation.

  14. Amino acid sequence of mouse submaxillary gland renin.

    PubMed Central

    Misono, K S; Chang, J J; Inagami, T

    1982-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequences of the heavy chain and light chain of mouse submaxillary gland renin have been determined. The heavy chain consists of 288 amino acid residues having a Mr of 31,036 calculated from the sequence. The light chain contains 48 amino acid residues with a Mr of 5,458. The sequence of the heavy chain was determined by automated Edman degradations of the cyanogen bromide peptides and tryptic peptides generated after citraconylation, as well as other peptides generated therefrom. The sequence of the light chain was derived from sequence analyses of the peptides generated by cyanogen bromide cleavage or by digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protease. The sequences in the active site regions in renin containing two catalytically essential aspartyl residues 32 and 215 were found identical with those in pepsin, chymosin, and penicillopepsin. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of renin with that of porcine pepsin indicated a 42% sequence identity of the heavy chain with the amino-terminal and middle regions and a 46% identity of the light chain with the carboxyl-terminal region of the porcine pepsin sequence. Residues identical in renin and pepsin are distributed throughout the length of the molecules, suggesting a similarity in their overall structures. PMID:6812055

  15. A domain in the N-terminal part of Hsp26 is essential for chaperone function and oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Haslbeck, Martin; Ignatiou, Athanasios; Saibil, Helen; Helmich, Sonja; Frenzl, Elke; Stromer, Thusnelda; Buchner, Johannes

    2004-10-15

    Small heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are ubiquitous molecular chaperones which prevent the unspecific aggregation of non-native proteins. For Hsp26, a cytosolic sHsp from of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it has been shown that, at elevated temperatures, the 24 subunit complex dissociates into dimers. This dissociation is required for the efficient interaction with non-native proteins. Deletion analysis of the protein showed that the N-terminal half of Hsp26 (amino acid residues 1-95) is required for the assembly of the oligomer. Limited proteolysis in combination with mass spectrometry suggested that this region can be divided in two parts, an N-terminal segment including amino acid residues 1-30 and a second part ranging from residues 31-95. To analyze the structure and function of the N-terminal part of Hsp26 we created a deletion mutant lacking amino acid residues 1-30. We show that the oligomeric state and the structure, as determined by size exclusion chromatography and electron microscopy, corresponds to that of the Hsp26 wild-type protein. Furthermore, this truncated version of Hsp26 is active as a chaperone. However, in contrast to full length Hsp26, the truncated version dissociates at lower temperatures and complexes with non-native proteins are less stable than those found with wild-type Hsp26. Our results suggest that the N-terminal segment of Hsp26 is involved in both, oligomerization and chaperone function and that the second part of the N-terminal region (amino acid residues 31-95) is essential for both functions.

  16. Investigating Mutations to Reduce Huntingtin Aggregation by Increasing Htt-N-Terminal Stability and Weakening Interactions with PolyQ Domain

    PubMed Central

    Mazza-Anthony, Cody; Waldispühl, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a fatal autosomal genetic disorder characterized by an expanded glutamine-coding CAG repeat sequence in the huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 gene. The Htt protein associated with the disease misfolds into toxic oligomers and aggregate fibril structures. Competing models for the misfolding and aggregation phenomena have suggested the role of the Htt-N-terminal region and the CAG trinucleotide repeats (polyQ domain) in affecting aggregation propensities and misfolding. In particular, one model suggests a correlation between structural stability and the emergence of toxic oligomers, whereas a second model proposes that molecular interactions with the extended polyQ domain increase aggregation propensity. In this paper, we computationally explore the potential to reduce Htt aggregation by addressing the aggregation causes outlined in both models. We investigate the mutation landscape of the Htt-N-terminal region and explore amino acid residue mutations that affect its structural stability and hydrophobic interactions with the polyQ domain. Out of the millions of 3-point mutation combinations that we explored, the (L4K E12K K15E) was the most promising mutation combination that addressed aggregation causes in both models. The mutant structure exhibited extreme alpha-helical stability, low amyloidogenicity potential, a hydrophobic residue replacement, and removal of a solvent-inaccessible intermolecular side chain that assists oligomerization. PMID:28096892

  17. Amino Acid Sequence of Human Cholinesterase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    liquid chromatography (HPLC). Activity testing of the aged, DFP-labeled cholinesterase showed that 99.8% of the active sites had been labeled, since...acids were quantitated by ninhydrin at the AAA Labs, or by derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate at the University of Michigan. The latter method

  18. Cystatin. Amino acid sequence and possible secondary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Schwabe, C; Anastasi, A; Crow, H; McDonald, J K; Barrett, A J

    1984-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of cystatin, the protein from chicken egg-white that is a tight-binding inhibitor of many cysteine proteinases, is reported. Cystatin is composed of 116 amino acid residues, and the Mr is calculated to be 13 143. No striking similarity to any other known sequence has been detected. The results of computer analysis of the sequence and c.d. spectrometry indicate that the secondary structure includes relatively little alpha-helix (about 20%) and that the remainder is mainly beta-structure. PMID:6712597

  19. Analysis of the complete sequences of two biologically distinct Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates further evidences the involvement of a single amino acid in the virus pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Nováková, S; Svoboda, J; Glasa, M

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of two Slovak Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates (ZYMV-H and ZYMV-SE04T) were determined. These isolates differ significantly in their pathogenicity, producing either severe or very mild symptoms on susceptible cucurbit hosts. The viral genome of both isolates consisted of 9593 nucleotides in size, and contained an open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein of 3080 amino acids. Despite their different biological properties, an extremely high nucleotide identity could be noted (99.8%), resulting in differences of only 5 aa, located in the HC-Pro, P3, and NIb, respectively. In silico analysis including 5 additional fully-sequenced and phylogenetically closely-related isolates known to induce different symptoms in cucurbits was performed. This suggested that the key single mutation responsible for virus pathogenicity is likely located in the N-terminal part of P3, adjacent to the PIPO.

  20. Mouse Vk gene classification by nucleic acid sequence similarity.

    PubMed

    Strohal, R; Helmberg, A; Kroemer, G; Kofler, R

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) region gene usage in the immune response, estimates of V gene germline complexity, and other nucleic acid hybridization-based studies depend on the extent to which such genes are related (i.e., sequence similarity) and their organization in gene families. While mouse Igh heavy chain V region (VH) gene families are relatively well-established, a corresponding systematic classification of Igk light chain V region (Vk) genes has not been reported. The present analysis, in the course of which we reviewed the known extent of the Vk germline gene repertoire and Vk gene usage in a variety of responses to foreign and self antigens, provides a classification of mouse Vk genes in gene families composed of members with greater than 80% overall nucleic acid sequence similarity. This classification differed in several aspects from that of VH genes: only some Vk gene families were as clearly separated (by greater than 25% sequence dissimilarity) as typical VH gene families; most Vk gene families were closely related and, in several instances, members from different families were very similar (greater than 80%) over large sequence portions; frequently, classification by nucleic acid sequence similarity diverged from existing classifications based on amino-terminal protein sequence similarity. Our data have implications for Vk gene analyses by nucleic acid hybridization and describe potentially important differences in sequence organization between VH and Vk genes.

  1. The S-Layer Proteins of Two Bacillus stearothermophilus Wild-Type Strains Are Bound via Their N-Terminal Region to a Secondary Cell Wall Polymer of Identical Chemical Composition

    PubMed Central

    Egelseer, Eva Maria; Leitner, Karl; Jarosch, Marina; Hotzy, Christoph; Zayni, Sonja; Sleytr, Uwe B.; Sára, Margit

    1998-01-01

    Two Bacillus stearothermophilus wild-type strains were investigated regarding a common recognition and binding mechanism between the S-layer protein and the underlying cell envelope layer. The S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus PV72/p6 has a molecular weight of 130,000 and assembles into a hexagonally ordered lattice. The S-layer from B. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 shows oblique lattice symmetry and is composed of subunits with a molecular weight of 122,000. Immunoblotting, peptide mapping, N-terminal sequencing of the whole S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 and of proteolytic cleavage fragments, and comparison with the S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus PV72/p6 revealed that the two S-layer proteins have identical N-terminal regions but no other extended structurally homologous domains. In contrast to the heterogeneity observed for the S-layer proteins, the secondary cell wall polymer isolated from peptidoglycan-containing sacculi of the different strains showed identical chemical compositions and comparable molecular weights. The S-layer proteins could bind and recrystallize into the appropriate lattice type on native peptidoglycan-containing sacculi from both organisms but not on those extracted with hydrofluoric acid, leading to peptidoglycan of the A1γ chemotype. Affinity studies showed that only proteolytic cleavage fragments possessing the complete N terminus of the mature S-layer proteins recognized native peptidoglycan-containing sacculi as binding sites or could associate with the isolated secondary cell wall polymer, while proteolytic cleavage fragments missing the N-terminal region remained unbound. From the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that S-layer proteins from B. stearothermophilus wild-type strains possess an identical N-terminal region which is responsible for anchoring the S-layer subunits to a secondary cell wall polymer of identical chemical composition. PMID:9515918

  2. Non-native, N-terminal Hsp70 Molecular Motor Recognition Elements in Transit Peptides Support Plastid Protein Translocation*

    PubMed Central

    Chotewutmontri, Prakitchai; Bruce, Barry D.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we identified the N-terminal domain of transit peptides (TPs) as a major determinant for the translocation step in plastid protein import. Analysis of Arabidopsis TP dataset revealed that this domain has two overlapping characteristics, highly uncharged and Hsp70-interacting. To investigate these two properties, we replaced the N-terminal domains of the TP of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and its reverse peptide with a series of unrelated peptides whose affinities to the chloroplast stromal Hsp70 have been determined. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that eight out of nine peptides in this series are not similar to the TP N terminus. Using in vivo and in vitro protein import assays, the majority of the precursors containing Hsp70-binding elements were targeted to plastids, whereas none of the chimeric precursors lacking an N-terminal Hsp70-binding element were targeted to the plastids. Moreover, a pulse-chase assay showed that two chimeric precursors with the most uncharged peptides failed to translocate into the stroma. The ability of multiple unrelated Hsp70-binding elements to support protein import verified that the majority of TPs utilize an N-terminal Hsp70-binding domain during translocation and expand the mechanistic view of the import process. This work also indicates that synthetic biology may be utilized to create de novo TPs that exceed the targeting activity of naturally occurring sequences. PMID:25645915

  3. Molecular evolution of troponin I and a role of its N-terminal extension in nematode locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Dawn E.; Hwang, Hyundoo; Ono, Kanako; Lu, Hang; Ono, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary The troponin complex, composed of troponin T (TnT), troponin I (TnI), and troponin C (TnC), is the major calcium-dependent regulator of muscle contraction, which is present widely in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Little is known about evolutionary aspects of troponin in the animal kingdom. Using a combination of data mining and functional analysis of TnI, we report evidence that an N-terminal extension of TnI is present in most of bilaterian animals as a functionally important domain. Troponin components have been reported in species in most of representative bilaterian phyla. Comparison of TnI sequences shows that the core domains are conserved in all examined TnIs, and that N- and C-terminal extensions are variable among isoforms and species. In particular, N-terminal extensions are present in all protostome TnIs and chordate cardiac TnIs but lost in a subset of chordate TnIs including vertebrate skeletal-muscle isoforms. Transgenic rescue experiments in C. elegans striated muscle show that the N-terminal extension of TnI (UNC-27) is required for coordinated worm locomotion but not in sarcomere assembly and single muscle-contractility kinetics. These results suggest that N-terminal extensions of TnIs are retained from a TnI ancestor as a functional domain. PMID:26849746

  4. N-Terminal Ubiquitination of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 3 and p21 Directs Their Degradation by the Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Coulombe, Philippe; Rodier, Geneviève; Bonneil, Eric; Thibault, Pierre; Meloche, Sylvain

    2004-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3) is an unstable mitogen-activated protein kinase homologue that is constitutively degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in proliferating cells. Here we show that a lysineless mutant of ERK3 is still ubiquitinated in vivo and requires a functional ubiquitin conjugation pathway for its degradation. Addition of N-terminal sequence tags of increasing size stabilizes ERK3 by preventing its ubiquitination. Importantly, we identified a fusion peptide between the N-terminal methionine of ERK3 and the C-terminal glycine of ubiquitin in vivo by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. These findings demonstrate that ERK3 is conjugated to ubiquitin via its free NH2 terminus. We found that large N-terminal tags also stabilize the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 but not that of substrates ubiquitinated on internal lysine residues. Consistent with this observation, lysineless p21 is ubiquitinated and degraded in a ubiquitin-dependent manner in intact cells. Our results suggests that N-terminal ubiquitination is a more prevalent modification than originally recognized. PMID:15226418

  5. A human transmembrane protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, PTP zeta, is expressed in brain and has an N-terminal receptor domain homologous to carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, N X; Saito, H

    1992-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine-phosphatases (PTPases, EC 3.1.3.48) play a crucial role in the regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Recently, it was found that the PTPase gene family exhibits a large variety of different functional domains associated with the PTPase catalytic domains. In this paper, we report the complete cDNA sequence of a human transmembrane PTPase, PTP zeta, isolated from fetal brain cDNA libraries. The deduced amino acid sequence of human PTP zeta is composed of a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids, a very large extracellular domain of 1616 amino acids, a transmembrane peptide of 26 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic domain of 653 amino acids. The extracellular portion of human PTP zeta contains two striking structural features: the N-terminal 280-amino acid sequence that is homologous to carbonic anhydrases (carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1), and a sequence of 1048 amino acids without a cysteine residue. While it is unlikely that the carbonic anhydrase-like domain of PTP zeta has any carbonic anhydrase activity, its three-dimensional structure may be quite similar to that of carbonic anhydrases, a structure that appears ideal for binding a small soluble ligand. The cytoplasmic portion of human PTP zeta contains two repeated PTPase-like domains, which, when expressed in Escherichia coli, had PTPase activity in vitro. Mutational analyses indicate that only the membrane-proximal PTPase domain is catalytically active. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicate that human PTP zeta is highly expressed in a glioblastoma cell line. Images PMID:1323835

  6. Hydroxyl Radical-Mediated Novel Modification of Peptides: N-Terminal Cyclization through the Formation of α-Ketoamide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon Hwa; Kyung, Hyunsook; Yokota, Ryo; Goto, Takaaki; Oe, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-20

    The hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation of peptides and proteins constitutes a large group of post-translational modifications that can result in structural and functional changes. These oxidations can lead to hydroxylation, sulfoxidation, or carbonylation of certain amino acid residues and cleavage of peptide bonds. In addition, hydroxyl radicals can convert the N-terminus of peptides to an α-ketoamide via abstraction of the N-terminal α-hydrogen and hydrolysis of the ketimine intermediate. In the present study, we identified N-terminal cyclization as a novel modification mediated by a hydroxyl radical. The reaction of angiotensin (Ang) II (DRVYIHPF) and the hydroxyl radical generated by the Cu(II)/ascorbic acid (AA) system or UV/hydrogen peroxide system produced N-terminal cyclized-Ang II (Ang C) and pyruvamide-Ang II (Ang P, CH3COCONH-RVYIHPF). The structure of Ang C was confirmed by mass spectrometry and comparison to an authentic standard. The subsequent incubation of isolated Ang P in the presence of Cu(II)/AA revealed that Ang P was the direct precursor of Ang C. The proposed mechanism involves the formation of a nitrogen-centered (aminyl) radical, which cyclizes to form a five-membered ring containing the alkoxy radical. The subsequent β-scission reaction of the alkoxyl radical results in the cleavage of the terminal CH3CO group. The initial aminyl radical can be stabilized by chelation to the Cu(II) ions. The affinity of Ang C toward the Ang II type 1 receptor was significantly lower than that of Ang II or Ang P. Ang C was not further metabolized by aminopeptidase A, which converts Ang II to Ang III. Hydroxyl radical-mediated N-terminal cyclization was also observed in other Ang peptides containing N-terminal alanine, arginine, valine, and amyloid β 1-11 (DAEFRHDSGYE).

  7. Structural insights into the human RyR2 N-terminal region involved in cardiac arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Borko, Ľubomír; Bauerová-Hlinková, Vladena Hostinová, Eva; Gašperík, Juraj; Beck, Konrad; Lai, F. Anthony; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Ševčík, Jozef

    2014-11-01

    X-ray and solution structures of the human RyR2 N-terminal region were obtained under near-physiological conditions. The structure exhibits a unique network of interactions between its three domains, revealing an important stabilizing role of the central helix. Human ryanodine receptor 2 (hRyR2) mediates calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, enabling cardiomyocyte contraction. The N-terminal region of hRyR2 (amino acids 1–606) is the target of >30 arrhythmogenic mutations and contains a binding site for phosphoprotein phosphatase 1. Here, the solution and crystal structures determined under near-physiological conditions, as well as a homology model of the hRyR2 N-terminal region, are presented. The N-terminus is held together by a unique network of interactions among its three domains, A, B and C, in which the central helix (amino acids 410–437) plays a prominent stabilizing role. Importantly, the anion-binding site reported for the mouse RyR2 N-terminal region is notably absent from the human RyR2. The structure concurs with the differential stability of arrhythmogenic mutations in the central helix (R420W, I419F and I419F/R420W) which are owing to disparities in the propensity of mutated residues to form energetically favourable or unfavourable contacts. In solution, the N-terminus adopts a globular shape with a prominent tail that is likely to involve residues 545–606, which are unresolved in the crystal structure. Docking the N-terminal domains into cryo-electron microscopy maps of the closed and open RyR1 conformations reveals C{sup α} atom movements of up to 8 Å upon channel gating, and predicts the location of the leucine–isoleucine zipper segment and the interaction site for spinophilin and phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 on the RyR surface.

  8. Specificity and versatility of substrate binding sites in four catalytic domains of human N-terminal acetyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Grauffel, Cédric; Abboud, Angèle; Liszczak, Glen; Marmorstein, Ronen; Arnesen, Thomas; Reuter, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Nt-acetylation is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes. Although thought for a long time to protect proteins from degradation, the role of Nt-acetylation is still debated. It is catalyzed by enzymes called N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). In eukaryotes, several NATs, composed of at least one catalytic domain, target different substrates based on their N-terminal sequences. In order to better understand the substrate specificity of human NATs, we investigated in silico the enzyme-substrate interactions in four catalytic subunits of human NATs (Naa10p, Naa20p, Naa30p and Naa50p). To date hNaa50p is the only human subunit for which X-ray structures are available. We used the structure of the ternary hNaa50p/AcCoA/MLG complex and a structural model of hNaa10p as a starting point for multiple molecular dynamics simulations of hNaa50p/AcCoA/substrate (substrate=MLG, EEE, MKG), hNaa10p/AcCoA/substrate (substrate=MLG, EEE). Nine alanine point-mutants of the hNaa50p/AcCoA/MLG complex were also simulated. Homology models of hNaa20p and hNaa30p were built and compared to hNaa50p and hNaa10p. The simulations of hNaa50p/AcCoA/MLG reproduce the interactions revealed by the X-ray data. We observed strong hydrogen bonds between MLG and tyrosines 31, 138 and 139. Yet the tyrosines interacting with the substrate's backbone suggest that their role in specificity is limited. This is confirmed by the simulations of hNaa50p/AcCoA/EEE and hNaa10p/AcCoA/MLG, where these hydrogen bonds are still observed. Moreover these tyrosines are all conserved in hNaa20p and hNaa30p. Other amino acids tune the specificity of the S1' sites that is different for hNaa10p (acidic), hNaa20p (hydrophobic/basic), hNaa30p (basic) and hNaa50p (hydrophobic). We also observe dynamic correlation between the ligand binding site and helix [Formula: see text] that tightens under substrate binding. Finally, by comparing the four structures we propose maps of the peptide-enzyme interactions

  9. CXCL12 N-terminal end is sufficient to induce chemotaxis and proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Filippo, Thais R M; Galindo, Layla T; Barnabe, Gabriela F; Ariza, Carolina B; Mello, Luiz E; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Porcionatto, Marimélia A

    2013-09-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC) respond to injury after brain injuries secreting IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10, as well as chemokine members of the CC and CXC ligand families. CXCL12 is one of the chemokines secreted at an injury site and is known to attract NSC-derived neuroblasts, cells that express CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4. Activation of CXCR4 by CXCL12 depends on two domains located at the N-terminal of the chemokine. In the present work we aimed to investigate if the N-terminal end of CXCL12, where CXCR4 binding and activation domains are located, was sufficient to induce NSC-derived neuroblast chemotaxis. Our data show that a synthetic peptide analogous to the first 21 amino acids of the N-terminal end of CXCL12, named PepC-C (KPVSLSYRCPCRFFESHIARA), is able to promote chemotaxis of neuroblasts in vivo, and stimulate chemotaxis and proliferation of CXCR4+ cells in vitro, without affecting NSC fate. We also show that PepC-C upregulates CXCL12 expression in vivo and in vitro. We suggest the N-terminal end of CXCL12 is responsible for a positive feedback loop to maintain a gradient of CXCL12 that attracts neuroblasts from the subventricular zone into an injury site.

  10. Rescue and Stabilization of Acetylcholinesterase in Skeletal Muscle by N-terminal Peptides Derived from the Noncatalytic Subunits*

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Carlos A.; Rossi, Susana G.; Rotundo, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of newly synthesized acetylcholinesterase (AChE) molecules do not assemble into catalytically active oligomeric forms and are rapidly degraded intracellularly by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway. We have previously shown that AChE in skeletal muscle is regulated in part post-translationally by the availability of the noncatalytic subunit collagen Q, and others have shown that expression of a 17-amino acid N-terminal proline-rich attachment domain of collagen Q is sufficient to promote AChE tetramerization in cells producing AChE. In this study we show that muscle cells, or cell lines expressing AChE catalytic subunits, incubated with synthetic proline-rich attachment domain peptides containing the endoplasmic reticulum retrieval sequence KDEL take up and retrogradely transport them to the endoplasmic reticulum network where they induce assembly of AChE tetramers. The peptides act to enhance AChE folding thereby rescuing them from reticulum degradation. This enhanced folding efficiency occurs in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis and in turn increases total cell-associated AChE activity and active tetramer secretion. Pulse-chase studies of isotopically labeled AChE molecules show that the enzyme is rescued from intracellular degradation. These studies provide a mechanistic explanation for the large scale intracellular degradation of AChE previously observed and indicate that simple peptides alone can increase the production and secretion of this critical synaptic enzyme in muscle tissue. PMID:26139603

  11. Expressed truncated N-terminal variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) of Trypanosoma evansi in E. coli exhibits immuno-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, P P; Balumahendiran, M; Balamurugan, V; Rudramurthy, G R; Prabhudas, K

    2012-06-08

    The variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) of trypanosome is an important part of its body surface coat, which is expressed in early, middle and late stages of infection contributing a major diagnostic value. In the present study, the 5' end of the partial VSG gene sequences (681 bp) encoding N-terminal protein of RoTat 1.2 VSG (227 amino acid) was amplified, cloned into pET32a vector, and expressed in prokaryotic system. The fused His-tagged expressed VSG protein (43 kDa) of the Trypanosoma evansi was characterized in SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using hyperimmune/immune sera raised against buffalo, dog, lion and leopard isolates of T. evansi. The expressed protein remained immunoreactive with all the sera combinations. The animals immunized with whole cell lysate or recombinant protein showed similar antibody reactions in ELISA and CATT (Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis). This study suggests the expressed recombinant truncated VSG is having its importance for its possible use in sero-diagnosis of surra.

  12. The N-terminal domain of the androgen receptor drives its nuclear localization in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Javid A.; Masoodi, Khalid Z.; Eisermann, Kurtis; Isharwal, Sudhir; Ai, Junkui; Pascal, Laura E.; Nelson, Joel B.; Wang, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Androgen-independent nuclear localization is required for androgen receptor (AR) transactivation in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and should be a key step leading to castration resistance. However, mechanism(s) leading to androgen-independent AR nuclear localization are poorly understood. Since the N-terminal domain (NTD) of AR plays a role in transactivation under androgen-depleted conditions, we investigated the role of NTD in AR nuclear localization in CRPC. Deletion mutagenesis was used to identify amino acid sequences in the NTD essential for its androgen-independent nuclear localization in C4-2, a widely used CRPC cell line. Deletion mutants of AR tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) at the 5`-end were generated and their signal distribution was investigated in C4-2 cells by fluorescent microscopy. Our results showed that the region of a.a. 294–556 was required for androgen-independent AR nuclear localization whereas a.a. 1–293 mediates Hsp90 regulation of AR nuclear localization in CRPC cells. Although a.a. 294–556 does not contain a nuclear import signal, it was able to enhance DHT-induced import of the ligand binding domain (LBD). Also, transactivation of the NTD could be uncoupled from its modulation of AR nuclear localization in C4-2 cells. These observations suggest an important role of NTD in AR intracellular trafficking and androgen-independent AR nuclear localization in CRPC cells. PMID:24662325

  13. Amino acid sequence repertoire of the bacterial proteome and the occurrence of untranslatable sequences

    PubMed Central

    Navon, Sharon Penias; Kornberg, Guy; Chen, Jin; Schwartzman, Tali; Tsai, Albert; Puglisi, Elisabetta Viani; Puglisi, Joseph D.; Adir, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Bioinformatic analysis of Escherichia coli proteomes revealed that all possible amino acid triplet sequences occur at their expected frequencies, with four exceptions. Two of the four underrepresented sequences (URSs) were shown to interfere with translation in vivo and in vitro. Enlarging the URS by a single amino acid resulted in increased translational inhibition. Single-molecule methods revealed stalling of translation at the entrance of the peptide exit tunnel of the ribosome, adjacent to ribosomal nucleotides A2062 and U2585. Interaction with these same ribosomal residues is involved in regulation of translation by longer, naturally occurring protein sequences. The E. coli exit tunnel has evidently evolved to minimize interaction with the exit tunnel and maximize the sequence diversity of the proteome, although allowing some interactions for regulatory purposes. Bioinformatic analysis of the human proteome revealed no underrepresented triplet sequences, possibly reflecting an absence of regulation by interaction with the exit tunnel. PMID:27307442

  14. Amino acid sequence repertoire of the bacterial proteome and the occurrence of untranslatable sequences.

    PubMed

    Navon, Sharon Penias; Kornberg, Guy; Chen, Jin; Schwartzman, Tali; Tsai, Albert; Puglisi, Elisabetta Viani; Puglisi, Joseph D; Adir, Noam

    2016-06-28

    Bioinformatic analysis of Escherichia coli proteomes revealed that all possible amino acid triplet sequences occur at their expected frequencies, with four exceptions. Two of the four underrepresented sequences (URSs) were shown to interfere with translation in vivo and in vitro. Enlarging the URS by a single amino acid resulted in increased translational inhibition. Single-molecule methods revealed stalling of translation at the entrance of the peptide exit tunnel of the ribosome, adjacent to ribosomal nucleotides A2062 and U2585. Interaction with these same ribosomal residues is involved in regulation of translation by longer, naturally occurring protein sequences. The E. coli exit tunnel has evidently evolved to minimize interaction with the exit tunnel and maximize the sequence diversity of the proteome, although allowing some interactions for regulatory purposes. Bioinformatic analysis of the human proteome revealed no underrepresented triplet sequences, possibly reflecting an absence of regulation by interaction with the exit tunnel.

  15. Light-regulated nuclear import and degradation of Arabidopsis phytochrome-A N-terminal fragments.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Iris; Kircher, Stefan; Fejes, Erzsébet; Kozma-Bognár, László; Schäfer, Eberhard; Nagy, Ferenc; Adám, Eva

    2011-02-01

    The photoreceptor phytochrome-A (phyA) regulates germination and seedling establishment by mediating very low fluence (VLFR) and far-red high irradiance (FR-HIR) responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. In darkness, phyA homodimers exist in the biologically inactive Pr form and are localized in the cytoplasm. Light induces formation of the biologically active Pfr form and subsequent rapid nuclear import. PhyA Pfr, in contrast to the Pr form, is labile and has a half-life of ∼30 min. We produced transgenic plants in a phyA-201 null background that express the PHYA-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) or the PHYA686-YFP-dimerization domain (DD) and PHYA686-YFP-DD-nuclear localization signal (NLS) or PHYA686-YFP-DD-nuclear exclusion signal (NES) fusion proteins. The PHYA686-YFP fusion proteins contained the N-terminal domain of phyA (686 amino acid residues), a short DD and the YFP. Here we report that (i) PHYA686-YFP-DD fusion protein is imported into the nucleus in a light-dependent fashion; (ii) neither of the PHYA686 fusion proteins is functional in FR-HIR and nuclear VLFR; and (iii) the phyA-dependent, blue light-induced inhibition of hypocotyl growth is mediated by the PHYA686-YFP-DD-NES but not by the PHYA686-YFP-DD-NLS and PHYA686-YFP-DD fusion proteins. We demonstrate that (i) light induces degradation of all PHYA N-terminal-containing fusion proteins and (ii) these N-terminal domain-containing fusion proteins including the constitutively nuclear PHYA686-YFP-DD-NLS and predominantly cytoplasmic PHYA686-YFP-DD-NES degrade at comparable rates but markedly more slowly than PHYA-YFP, whereas (iii) light-induced degradation of the native phyA is faster compared with PHYA-YFP.

  16. The N-terminal domain of Npro of classical swine fever virus determines its stability and regulates type I IFN production.

    PubMed

    Mine, Junki; Tamura, Tomokazu; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Pinyochon, Wasana; Ruggli, Nicolas; Tratschin, Jon-Duri; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-01

    The viral protein Npro is unique to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. After autocatalytic cleavage from the nascent polyprotein, Npro suppresses type I IFN (IFN-α/β) induction by mediating proteasomal degradation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3). Previous studies found that the Npro-mediated IRF-3 degradation was dependent of a TRASH domain in the C-terminal half of Npro coordinating zinc by means of the amino acid residues C112, C134, D136 and C138. Interestingly, four classical swine fever virus (CSFV) isolates obtained from diseased pigs in Thailand in 1993 and 1998 did not suppress IFN-α/β induction despite the presence of an intact TRASH domain. Through systematic analyses, it was found that an amino acid mutation at position 40 or mutations at positions 17 and 61 in the N-terminal half of Npro of these four isolates were related to the lack of IRF-3-degrading activity. Restoring a histidine at position 40 or both a proline at position 17 and a lysine at position 61 based on the sequence of a functional Npro contributed to higher stability of the reconstructed Npro compared with the Npro from the Thai isolate. This led to enhanced interaction of Npro with IRF-3 along with its degradation by the proteasome. The results of the present study revealed that amino acid residues in the N-terminal domain of Npro are involved in the stability of Npro, in interaction of Npro with IRF-3 and subsequent degradation of IRF-3, leading to downregulation of IFN-α/β production.

  17. Amino acid sequences of proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona.

    PubMed

    Alves, S F; Lefebvre, R B; Probert, W

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a partial amino acid sequences from three putative outer envelope proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona. In order to obtain internal fragments for protein sequencing, enzymatic and chemical digestion was performed. The enzyme clostripain was used to digest the proteins 32 and 45 kDa. In situ digestion of 40 kDa molecular weight protein was accomplished using cyanogen bromide. The 32 kDa protein generated two fragments, one of 21 kDa and another of 10 kDa that yielded five residues. A fragment of 24 kDa that yielded nineteen residues of amino acids was obtained from 45 kDa protein. A fragment with a molecular weight of 20 kDa, yielding a twenty amino acids sequence from the 40 kDa protein.

  18. A helical bundle in the N-terminal domain of the BLM helicase mediates dimer and potentially hexamer formation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Chen, Wei-Fei; Zhang, Bo; Fan, San-Hong; Ai, Xia; Liu, Na-Nv; Rety, Stephane; Xi, Xu-Guang

    2017-04-07

    Helicases play a critical role in processes such as replication or recombination by unwinding double-stranded DNA; mutations of these genes can therefore have devastating biological consequences. In humans, mutations in genes of three members of the RecQ family helicases (blm, wrn, and recq4) give rise to three strikingly distinctive clinical phenotypes: Bloom syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, respectively. However, the molecular basis for these varying phenotypic outcomes is unclear, in part because a full mechanistic description of helicase activity is lacking. Because the helicase core domains are highly conserved, it has been postulated that functional differences among family members might be explained by significant differences in the N-terminal domains, but these domains are poorly characterized. To help fill this gap, we now describe bioinformatics, biochemical, and structural data for three vertebrate BLM proteins. We pair high resolution crystal structures with SAXS analysis to describe an internal, highly conserved sequence we term the dimerization helical bundle in N-terminal domain (DHBN). We show that, despite the N-terminal domain being loosely structured and potentially lacking a defined three-dimensional structure in general, the DHBN exists as a dimeric structure required for higher order oligomer assembly. Interestingly, the unwinding amplitude and rate decrease as BLM is assembled from dimer into hexamer, and also, the stable DHBN dimer can be dissociated upon ATP hydrolysis. Thus, the structural and biochemical characterizations of N-terminal domains will provide new insights into how the N-terminal domain affects the structural and functional organization of the full BLM molecule.

  19. Dimeric structure of the N-terminal domain of PriB protein from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis solved ab initio

    SciTech Connect

    Liebschner, Dorothee; Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew; Nowak, Marta; Kur, Józef; Olszewski, Marcin

    2012-12-01

    The N-terminal domain of the PriB protein from the thermophilic bacterium T. tengcongensis (TtePriB) was expressed and its crystal structure has been solved at the atomic resolution of 1.09 Å by direct methods. PriB is one of the components of the bacterial primosome, which catalyzes the reactivation of stalled replication forks at sites of DNA damage. The N-terminal domain of the PriB protein from the thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (TtePriB) was expressed and its crystal structure was solved at the atomic resolution of 1.09 Å by direct methods. The protein chain, which encompasses the first 104 residues of the full 220-residue protein, adopts the characteristic oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) structure consisting of a five-stranded β-barrel filled with hydrophobic residues and equipped with four loops extending from the barrel. In the crystal two protomers dimerize, forming a six-stranded antiparallel β-sheet. The structure of the N-terminal OB domain of T. tengcongensis shows significant differences compared with mesophile PriBs. While in all other known structures of PriB a dimer is formed by two identical OB domains in separate chains, TtePriB contains two consecutive OB domains in one chain. However, sequence comparison of both the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains of TtePriB suggests that they have analogous structures and that the natural protein possesses a structure similar to a dimer of two N-terminal domains.

  20. Cloning, sequence, and developmental expression of a type 5, tartrate-resistant, acid phosphatase of rat bone.

    PubMed

    Ek-Rylander, B; Bill, P; Norgård, M; Nilsson, S; Andersson, G

    1991-12-25

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is a characteristic constituent of osteoclasts and some mononuclear preosteoclasts and, therefore, used as a histochemical and biochemical marker for osteoclasts and bone resorption. We now report the isolation of a 1397-base pair (bp) full-length TRAP/tartrate-resistant acid ATPase (TrATPase) cDNA clone from a neonatal rat calvaria lambda gt11 cDNA library. The cDNA clone consists of a 92-bp untranslated 5'-flank, an open reading frame of 981 bp and a 324-bp untranslated 3'-poly(A)-containing region. The deduced protein sequence of 327 amino acids contains a putative cleavable signal sequence of 21 amino acids. The mature polypeptide of 306 amino acids has a calculated Mr of 34,350 Da and a pI of 9.18, and it contains two potential N-glycosylation sites and the lysosomal targeting sequence DKRFQ. At the protein level, the sequence displays 89-94% homology to TRAP enzymes from human placenta, beef spleen, and uteroferrin and identity to the N terminus of purified rat bone TRAP/TrATPase. An N-terminal amino acid segment is strikingly homologous to the corresponding region in lysosomal and prostatic acid phosphatases. The cDNA recognized a 1.5-kilobase mRNA in long bones and calvaria, and in vitro translation using, as template, mRNA transcribed from the full-length insert yielded an immunoprecipitated product of 34 kDa. In neonatal rats, TRAP/TrATPase mRNA was highly expressed in skeletal tissues, with much lower (less than 10%) levels detected in spleen, thymus, liver, skin, brain, kidney, brain, lung, and heart. In situ hybridization demonstrated specific labeling of osteoclasts at endostal surfaces and bone trabeculae of long bones. Thus, despite the apparent similarity of this osteoclastic TRAP/TrATPase with type 5, tartrate-resistant and purple, acid phosphatases expressed in other mammalian tissues, this gene appears to be preferentially expressed at skeletal sites.

  1. Peptide scrambling during collision-induced dissociation is influenced by N-terminal residue basicity.

    PubMed

    Chawner, Ross; Holman, Stephen W; Gaskell, Simon J; Eyers, Claire E

    2014-11-01

    'Bottom up' proteomic studies typically use tandem mass spectrometry data to infer peptide ion sequence, enabling identification of the protein whence they derive. The majority of such studies employ collision-induced dissociation (CID) to induce fragmentation of the peptide structure giving diagnostic b-, y-, and a- ions. Recently, rearrangement processes that result in scrambling of the original peptide sequence during CID have been reported for these ions. Such processes have the potential to adversely affect ion accounting (and thus scores from automated search algorithms) in tandem mass spectra, and in extreme cases could lead to false peptide identification. Here, analysis of peptide species produced by Lys-N proteolysis of standard proteins is performed and sequences that exhibit such rearrangement processes identified. The effect of increasing the gas-phase basicity of the N-terminal lysine residue through derivatization to homoarginine toward such sequence scrambling is then assessed. The presence of a highly basic homoarginine (or arginine) residue at the N-terminus is found to disfavor/inhibit sequence scrambling with a coincident increase in the formation of b(n-1)+H(2)O product ions. Finally, further analysis of a sequence produced by Lys-C proteolysis provides evidence toward a potential mechanism for the apparent inhibition of sequence scrambling during resonance excitation CID.

  2. Specific N-terminal CGRP fragments mitigate chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Qing, Xin; Wimalawansa, Sunil J; Keith, Ingegerd M

    2003-01-31

    Chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure (P(PA)), right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), pulmonary vascular remodeling, pulmonary edema and polycythemia. Currently, there is no safe and effective treatment for HPH. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is the most potent peptide vasodilator discovered thus far. We previously demonstrated that exogenous CGRP reversed HPH in rats. However, the CGRP1 receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37) and smaller inhibitory C-terminal CGRP fragments that can be formed by enzymatic cleavage in vivo may compromise the beneficial effects of endogenous or exogenous CGRP. We here examine the agonistic efficacy of N-terminal rat alpha-CGRP peptides containing the disulfide bridge (Cys(2)-Cys(7)) with amidated C-terminal in prevention of HPH. Chronic infusion of CGRP(1-8), CGRP(1-13), or CGRP(1-14) at 7 nmol/h/rat via the right jugular vein during 14 days of hypobaric hypoxia (10% inspired O(2)) significantly decreased the P(PA), RVH and pulmonary arterial medial thickness in comparison with controls, suggesting that these CGRP sequences can mitigate chronic HPH in rats. Systemic pressure was unchanged by infused peptides indicating no carry-over effect. In conclusion, N-terminal CGRP fragments (CGRP(1-8), CGRP(1-13) and CGRP(1-14)) may have a protective role in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  3. Novel Insights into Structure-Activity Relationships of N-Terminally Modified PACE4 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Anna; Couture, Frédéric; Levesque, Christine; Ly, Kévin; Beauchemin, Sophie; Desjardins, Roxane; Neugebauer, Witold; Dory, Yves L; Day, Robert

    2016-02-04

    PACE4 plays important roles in prostate cancer cell proliferation. The inhibition of this enzyme has been shown to slow prostate cancer progression and is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy. In previous work, we developed a highly potent and selective PACE4 inhibitor, the multi-Leu (ML) peptide, an octapeptide with the sequence Ac-LLLLRVKR-NH2 . Here, with the objective of developing a useful compound for in vivo administration, we investigate the effect of N-terminal modifications. The inhibitory activity, toxicity, stability, and cell penetration properties of the resulting analogues were studied and compared to the unmodified inhibitor. Our results show that the incorporation of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety leads to a loss of antiproliferative activity, whereas the attachment of a lipid chain preserves or improves it. However, the lipidated peptides are significantly more toxic when compared with their unmodified counterparts. Therefore, the best results were achieved not by the N-terminal extension but by the protection of both ends with the d-Leu residue and 4-amidinobenzylamide, which yielded the most stable inhibitor, with an excellent activity and toxicity profile.

  4. Supramolecular properties of the proline-rich gamma-Zein N-terminal domain.

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Marcelo J; Dalcol, Ionara; Gorostiza, Pau; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Pons, Ramon; Pons, Miquel; Sanz, Fausto; Giralt, Ernest

    2002-01-01

    Zeins are maize storages proteins that accumulate inside large vesicles called protein bodies. gamma-Zein lines the inner face of the protein body membrane, and its N-terminal proline-rich repetitive domain with the sequence (VHLPPP)(8) appears to be necessary for the accumulation of the protein within the organelle. Synthetic (VHLPPP)(8) adopts an amphipathic polyproline II conformation. In a preliminary recent work we used atomic force microscopy to study the surface organization of the octamer and transmission electron microscopy to visualize aggregates of the peptide from aqueous solution. We previously envisioned two self-assembly models (i.e., the geometric and the micellar) that take into account the observed features. In the present work we studied in detail the self-assembly of the peptide in solution and found that the peptide is able to form cylindrical micelles. Fibrils formed on graphite are generated by assembly of solution micelles. Based on the results of these studies, we focused exclusively on the micellar model. To our knowledge we have characterized for the first time supramolecular aggregates of polyproline structures other than collagen. The spontaneous arrangement of (VHLPPP)(8) suggests a role for the N-terminal domain of gamma-zein in the process of the whole protein deposition in protein bodies. PMID:12124299

  5. Extensive amino acid sequence homologies between animal lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Paroutaud, P.; Levi, G.; Teichberg, V.I.; Strosberg, A.D.

    1987-09-01

    The authors have established the amino acid sequence of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from the electric eel and the sequences of several peptides from a similar lectin isolated from human placenta. These sequences were compared with the published sequences of peptides derived from the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from human lung and with sequences deduced from cDNAs assigned to the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins from chicken embryo skin and human hepatomas. Significant homologies were observed. One of the highly conserved regions that contains a tryptophan residue and two glutamic acid resides is probably part of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding site, which, on the basis of spectroscopic studies of the electric eel lectin, is expected to contain such residues. The similarity of the hydropathy profiles and the predicted secondary structure of the lectins from chicken skin and electric eel, in spite of differences in their amino acid sequences, strongly suggests that these proteins have maintained structural homologies during evolution and together with the other ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins were derived form a common ancestor gene.

  6. [Chemical synthesis of lactococcin B and functional evaluation of the N-terminal domain using a truncated synthetic analogue].

    PubMed

    Lasta, S; Fajloun, Z; Mansuelle, P; Sabatier, J M; Boudabous, A; Sampieri, F

    2008-01-01

    The lactococcin B (LnB) is a hydrophobic, positively charged bacteriocin, produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris 9B4. It consists of a peptidic chain made up of 47 amino acid residues, and inhibits Lactococcus exclusively. In order to study its biological activity a synthetic lactococcin B (LnBs) was obtained by solid-phase chemical synthesis using a Fmoc strategy. LnBs was shown to be indistinguishable from the natural peptide. In addition, a synthetic (7-47) LnBst analogue was obtained by withdrawal of peptidyl-resin after the 41 cycle of LnBs peptide chain assembly. The synthetic N-terminal truncated (7-47) LnBst analogue was found to be inactive on indicator strains. Our results strongly suggest that the first six N-terminal amino acid residues are involved in the bactericidal activity of LnB.

  7. Amino acid sequence of porcine spleen cathepsin D.

    PubMed Central

    Shewale, J G; Tang, J

    1984-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of porcine spleen cathepsin D heavy chain has been determined and, hence, the complete structure of this enzyme is now known. The sequence of heavy chain was constructed by aligning the structures of peptides generated by cyanogen bromide, trypsin, and endo-proteinase Lys C cleavages. The structure of the light chain has been published previously. The cathepsin D molecule contains 339 amino acid residues in two polypeptide chains: a 97-residue light chain and a 242-residue heavy chain, with a combined Mr of 36,779 (without carbohydrate). There are two carbohydrate units linked to asparagine residues 70 and 192. The disulfide bond arrangement in cathepsin D is probably similar to that of pepsin, because the positions of six half-cystine residues are conserved. The active site aspartyl residues, corresponding to aspartic acid-32 and -215 of pepsin, are located at residues 33 and 224 in the cathepsin D molecule. The amino acid sequence around these aspartyl residues is strongly conserved. Cathepsin D shows a strong homology with other acid proteases. When the sequence of cathepsin D, renin, and pepsin are aligned, 32.7% of the residues are identical. The homology is observed throughout the length of the molecules, indicating that three-dimensional structures of all three molecules are similar. PMID:6587385

  8. Conformational unfolding in the N-terminal region of ribonuclease A detected by nonradiative energy transfer.

    PubMed

    McWherter, C A; Haas, E; Leed, A R; Scheraga, H A

    1986-04-22

    Unfolding in the N-terminal region of RNase A was studied by the nonradiative energy-transfer technique. RNase A was labeled with a nonfluorescent acceptor (2,4-dinitrophenyl) on the alpha-amino group and a fluorescent donor (ethylenediamine monoamide of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid) on a carboxyl group in the vicinity of residue 50 (75% at Glu-49 and 25% at Asp-53). The distribution of donor labeling sites does not affect the results of this study since they are close in both the sequence and the three-dimensional structure. The sites of labeling were determined by peptide mapping. The derivatives possessed full enzymatic activity and underwent reversible thermal transitions. However, there were some quantitative differences in the thermodynamic parameters. When the carboxyl groups were masked, there was a 5 degrees C lowering of the melting temperature at pH 2 and 4, and no significant change in delta H(Tm). Labeling of the alpha-amino group had no effect on the melting temperature or delta H(Tm) at pH 2 but did result in a dramatic decrease in delta H(Tm) of the unfolding reaction at pH 4. The melting temperature did not change appreciably at pH 4, indicating that an enthalpy/entropy compensation had occurred. The efficiencies of energy transfer determined with both fluorescence intensity and lifetime measurements were in reasonably good agreement. The transfer efficiency dropped from about 60% under folding conditions to roughly 20% when the derivatives were unfolded with disulfide bonds intact and was further reduced to 5% when the disulfide bonds were reduced. The interprobe separation distance was estimated to be 35 +/- 2 A under folding conditions. The contribution to the interprobe distance resulting from the finite size of the probes was treated by using simple geometric considerations and a rotational isomeric state model of the donor probe linkage. With this model, the estimated average interprobe distance of 36 A is in excellent agreement with the

  9. N-terminal {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms do not correlate with bronchodilator response in asthma families

    SciTech Connect

    Holyroyd, K.J.; Dragwa, C.; Xu, J.

    1994-09-01

    Family and twin studies have suggested that susceptibility to asthma is inherited. One clinically relevant phenotype in asthma is the bronchodilator response to beta adrenergic therapy (reversibility) which may also be inherited and vary among asthmatics. Two polymorphisms of the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor common to both asthmatic and normal individuals have been reported. One polymorphism, an amino acid polymorphism at position 16, correlated in one study with the need for long-term corticosteriod use in a population of asthmatics. It is conceivable that the increased use of corticosteroids needed to control symptoms in these patients may be explained by a decreased responsiveness to brochodilators mediated through this amino acid polymorphism in the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor. However, the response to {beta}{sub 2} bronchodilators was not tested in these patients. In our Dutch asthma families, DNA sequencing of the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor has been performed for N-terminal polymorphisms at amino acid positions 16 and 27 in over 100 individuals, and no correlation was found with the increase of FEV{sub 1} in response to bronchodilator. Linkage analysis between bronchodilator response and marker D5S412 near the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor gene was performed in 286 sibpairs from these families. Using a bronchodilator response of >10% in FEV{sub 1} as a qualitative definition of affected individuals, there were 145 unaffected sibpairs, 121 sibpairs where one was affected, and 20 in which both were affected. Linear regression analysis of these sibpair data suggested possible linkage (p=0.007). This supports further examination of the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor and its regulatory regions for polymorphisms that correlate with the bronchodilator response in asthma families.

  10. N-terminal galanin-(1-16) fragment is an agonist at the hippocampal galanin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisone, G.; Berthold, M.; Bedecs, K.; Unden, A.; Bartfai, T.; Bertorelli, R.; Consolo, S.; Crawley, J.; Martin, B.; Nilsson, S.; )

    1989-12-01

    The galanin N-terminal fragment (galanin-(1-16)) has been prepared by solid-phase synthesis and by enzymic cleavage of galanin by endoproteinase Asp-N. This peptide fragment displaced {sup 125}I-labeled galanin in receptor autoradiography experiments on rat forebrain and spinal cord and in equilibrium binding experiments from high-affinity binding sites in the ventral hippocampus with an IC50 of approximately 3 nM. In tissue slices of the same brain area, galanin-(1-16), similarly to galanin, inhibited the muscarinic agonist-stimulated breakdown of inositol phospholipids. Upon intracerebroventricular administration, galanin-(1-16) (10 micrograms/15 microliters) also inhibited the scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg, s.c.)-evoked release of acetylcholine, as studied in vivo by microdialysis. Substitution of (L-Trp2) for (D-Trp2) resulted in a 500-fold loss in affinity as compared with galanin-(1-16). It is concluded that, in the ventral hippocampus, the N-terminal galanin fragment (galanin-(1-16)) is recognized by the galanin receptors controlling acetylcholine release and muscarinic agonist-stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown as a high-affinity agonist and that amino acid residue (Trp2) plays an important role in the receptor-ligand interactions.

  11. Concerted regulation of ISWI by an autoinhibitory domain and the H4 N-terminal tail

    PubMed Central

    Ludwigsen, Johanna; Pfennig, Sabrina; Singh, Ashish K; Schindler, Christina; Harrer, Nadine; Forné, Ignasi; Zacharias, Martin; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2017-01-01

    ISWI-family nucleosome remodeling enzymes need the histone H4 N-terminal tail to mobilize nucleosomes. Here we mapped the H4-tail binding pocket of ISWI. Surprisingly the binding site was adjacent to but not overlapping with the docking site of an auto-regulatory motif, AutoN, in the N-terminal region (NTR) of ISWI, indicating that AutoN does not act as a simple pseudosubstrate as suggested previously. Rather, AutoN cooperated with a hitherto uncharacterized motif, termed AcidicN, to confer H4-tail sensitivity and discriminate between DNA and nucleosomes. A third motif in the NTR, ppHSA, was functionally required in vivo and provided structural stability by clamping the NTR to Lobe 2 of the ATPase domain. This configuration is reminiscent of Chd1 even though Chd1 contains an unrelated NTR. Our results shed light on the intricate structural and functional regulation of ISWI by the NTR and uncover surprising parallels with Chd1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21477.001 PMID:28109157

  12. The catalytic subunit of Dictyostelium cAMP-dependent protein kinase -- role of the N-terminal domain and of the C-terminal residues in catalytic activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Etchebehere, L C; Van Bemmelen, M X; Anjard, C; Traincard, F; Assemat, K; Reymond, C; Véron, M

    1997-09-15

    The C subunit of Dictyostelium cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is unusually large (73 kDa) due to the presence of 330 amino acids N-terminal to the conserved catalytic core. The sequence following the core, including a C-terminal -Phe-Xaa-Xaa-Phe-COOH motif, is highly conserved. We have characterized the catalytic activity and stability of C subunits mutated in sequences outside the catalytic core and we have analyzed their ability to interact with the R subunit and with the heat-stable protein-kinase inhibitor PKI. Mutants carrying deletions in the N-terminal domain displayed little difference in their kinetic properties and retained their capacity to be inhibited by R subunit and by PKI. In contrast, the mutation of one or both of the phenylalanine residues in the C-terminal motif resulted in a decrease of catalytic activity and stability of the proteins. Inhibition by the R subunit or by PKI were however unaffected. Sequence-comparison analysis of other protein kinases revealed that a -Phe-Xaa-Xaa-Phe- motif is present in many Ser/Thr protein kinases, although its location at the very end of the polypeptide is a particular feature of the PKA family. We propose that the presence of this motif may serve to identify isoforms of protein kinases.

  13. Identification of specific adenovirus E1A N-terminal residues critical to the binding of cellular proteins and to the control of cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H G; Rikitake, Y; Carter, M C; Yaciuk, P; Abraham, S E; Zerler, B; Moran, E

    1993-01-01

    Adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) oncogene-encoded sequences essential for transformation- and cell growth-regulating activities are localized at the N terminus and in regions of highly conserved amino acid sequence designated conserved regions 1 and 2. These regions interact to form the binding sites for two classes of cellular proteins: those, such as the retinoblastoma gene product, whose association with the E1A products is specifically dependent on region 2, and another class which so far is known to include only a large cellular DNA-binding protein, p300, whose association with the E1A products is specifically dependent on the N-terminal region. Association between the E1A products and either class of cellular proteins can be disrupted by mutations in conserved region 1. While region 2 has been studied intensively, very little is known so far concerning the nature of the essential residues in the N-terminal region, or about the manner in which conserved region 1 participates in the binding of two distinct sets of cellular proteins. A combination of site-directed point mutagenesis and monoclonal antibody competition experiments reported here suggests that p300 binding is dependent on specific, conserved residues in the N terminus, including positively charged residues at positions 2 and 3 of the E1A proteins, and that p300 and pRB bind to distinct, nonoverlapping subregions within conserved region 1. The availability of precise point mutations disrupting p300 binding supports previous data linking p300 with cell cycle control and enhancer function. Images PMID:8416379

  14. Kinetic mechanism of protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Stacie L; Mao, Yunfei; Zhang, Gang; Hanjra, Pahul; Peterson, Darrell L; Huang, Rong

    2015-05-01

    The protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1 (NTMT1) catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from the S-adenosyl-l-methionine to the protein α-amine, resulting in formation of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and α-N-methylated proteins. NTMT1 is an interesting potential anticancer target because it is overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancers and plays an important role in cell mitosis. To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism of NTMT1, we have characterized the kinetic mechanism of recombinant NTMT1 using a fluorescence assay and mass spectrometry. The results of initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies indicate that methylation by NTMT1 proceeds via a random sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In addition, our processivity studies demonstrate that NTMT1 proceeds via a distributive mechanism for multiple methylations. Together, our studies provide new knowledge about the kinetic mechanism of NTMT1 and lay the foundation for the development of mechanism-based inhibitors.

  15. Recombinant hnRNP protein A1 and its N-terminal domain show preferential affinity for oligodeoxynucleotides homologous to intron/exon acceptor sites.

    PubMed Central

    Buvoli, M; Cobianchi, F; Biamonti, G; Riva, S

    1990-01-01

    The reported binding preference of human hnRNP protein A1 for the 3'-splice site of some introns (Swanson and Dreyfuss (1988) EMBO J. 7, 3519-3529; Mayrand and Pederson (1990) Nucleic Acids Res. 18, 3307-3318) was tested by assaying in vitro the binding of purified recombinant A1 protein (expressed in bacteria) to synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (21-mers) of suitable sequence. In such a minimal system we find preferential binding of protein A1 to oligodeoxynucleotide sequences corresponding to the 3'-splice site of IVS1 of human beta-globin pre-mRNA and of IVS1 of Adenovirus type 2 major late transcript. Mutation studies demonstrate that the binding specificity is dependent on the known critical domains of this intron region, the AG splice site dinucleotide and polypyrimidine tract, and resides entirely in the short oligonucleotide sequence. Moreover specific binding does not require the presence of other hnRNP proteins or of snRNP particles. Studies with a truncated recombinant protein demonstrated that the minimal protein sequence determinants for A1 recognition of 3'-splice acceptor site reside entirely in the N-terminal 195 aa of the unmodified protein. Images PMID:2251120

  16. Active site amino acid sequence of human factor D.

    PubMed

    Davis, A E

    1980-08-01

    Factor D was isolated from human plasma by chromatography on CM-Sephadex C50, Sephadex G-75, and hydroxylapatite. Digestion of reduced, S-carboxymethylated factor D with cyanogen bromide resulted in three peptides which were isolated by chromatography on Sephadex G-75 (superfine) equilibrated in 20% formic acid. NH2-Terminal sequences were determined by automated Edman degradation with a Beckman 890C sequencer using a 0.1 M Quadrol program. The smallest peptide (CNBr III) consisted of the NH2-terminal 14 amino acids. The other two peptides had molecular weights of 17,000 (CNBr I) and 7000 (CNBr II). Overlap of the NH2-terminal sequence of factor D with the NH2-terminal sequence of CNBr I established the order of the peptides. The NH2-terminal 53 residues of factor D are somewhat more homologous with the group-specific protease of rat intestine than with other serine proteases. The NH2-terminal sequence of CNBr II revealed the active site serine of factor D. The typical serine protease active site sequence (Gly-Asp-Ser-Gly-Gly-Pro was found at residues 12-17. The region surrounding the active site serine does not appear to be more highly homologous with any one of the other serine proteases. The structural data obtained point out the similarities between factor D and the other proteases. However, complete definition of the degree of relationship between factor D and other proteases will require determination of the remainder of the primary structure.

  17. The N-Terminal Domain of the Arenavirus L Protein Is an RNA Endonuclease Essential in mRNA Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Benjamin; Coutard, Bruno; Lelke, Michaela; Ferron, François; Kerber, Romy; Jamal, Saïd; Frangeul, Antoine; Baronti, Cécile; Charrel, Rémi; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Vonrhein, Clemens; Lescar, Julien; Bricogne, Gérard; Günther, Stephan; Canard, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Arenaviridae synthesize viral mRNAs using short capped primers presumably acquired from cellular transcripts by a ‘cap-snatching’ mechanism. Here, we report the crystal structure and functional characterization of the N-terminal 196 residues (NL1) of the L protein from the prototypic arenavirus: lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. The NL1 domain is able to bind and cleave RNA. The 2.13 Å resolution crystal structure of NL1 reveals a type II endonuclease α/β architecture similar to the N-terminal end of the influenza virus PA protein. Superimposition of both structures, mutagenesis and reverse genetics studies reveal a unique spatial arrangement of key active site residues related to the PD…(D/E)XK type II endonuclease signature sequence. We show that this endonuclease domain is conserved and active across the virus families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae and Orthomyxoviridae and propose that the arenavirus NL1 domain is the Arenaviridae cap-snatching endonuclease. PMID:20862324

  18. The amino acid sequence of iguana (Iguana iguana) pancreatic ribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W; Beintema, J J; Hofsteenge, J

    1994-01-15

    The pyrimidine-specific ribonuclease superfamily constitutes a group of homologous proteins so far found only in higher vertebrates. Four separate families are found in mammals, which have resulted from gene duplications in mammalian ancestors. To learn more about the evolutionary history of this superfamily, the primary structure and other characteristics of the pancreatic enzyme from iguana (Iguana iguana), a herbivorous lizard species belonging to the reptiles, have been determined. The polypeptide chain consists of 119 amino acid residues. The positions of insertions and deletions in the sequence are identical to those in the enzyme from snapping turtle. However, the two enzymes differ at 54% of the amino acid positions. Iguana ribonuclease contains no carbohydrate, although the enzyme possesses three recognition sites for carbohydrate attachment, and has a high number of acidic residues in a localized part of the sequence.

  19. Amino acid sequence and posttranslational modifications of human factor VII sub a from plasma and transfected baby hamster kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thim, L.; Bjoern, S.; Christensen, M.; Nicolaisen, E.M.; Lund-Hansen, T.; Pedersen, A.H.; Hedner, U. )

    1988-10-04

    Blood coagulation factor VII is a vitamin K dependent glycoprotein which in its activated form, factor VII{sub a}, participates in the coagulation process by activating factor X and/or factor IX in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} and tissue factor. Three types of potential posttranslational modifications exist in the human factor VII{sub a} molecule, namely, 10 {gamma}-carboxylated, N-terminally located glutamic acid residues, 1 {beta}-hydroxylated aspartic acid residue, and 2 N-glycosylated asparagine residues. In the present study, the amino acid sequence and posttranslational modifications of recombinant factor VII{sub a} as purified from the culture medium of a transfected baby hamster kidney cell line have been compared to human plasma factor VII{sub a}. By use of HPLC, amino acid analysis, peptide mapping, and automated Edman degradation, the protein backbone of recombinant factor VII{sub a} was found to be identical with human factor VII{sub a}. Asparagine residues 145 and 322 were found to be fully N-glycosylated in human plasma factor VII{sub a}. In the recombinant factor VII{sub a}, asparagine residue 322 was fully glycosylated whereas asparagine residue 145 was only partially (approximately 66%) glycosylated. Besides minor differences in the sialic acid and fucose contents, the overall carbohydrate compositions were nearly identical in recombinant factor VII{sub a} and human plasma factor VII{sub a}. These results show that factor VII{sub a} as produced in the transfected baby hamster kidney cells is very similar to human plasma factor VII{sub a} and that this cell line thus might represent an alternative source for human factor VII{sub a}.

  20. Structure of the N-terminal fragment of topoisomerase V reveals a new family of topoisomerases

    SciTech Connect

    Taneja, Bhupesh; Patel, Asmita; Slesarev, Alexei; Mondragon, Alfonso

    2010-09-02

    Topoisomerases are involved in controlling and maintaining the topology of DNA and are present in all kingdoms of life. Unlike all other types of topoisomerases, similar type IB enzymes have only been identified in bacteria and eukarya. The only putative type IB topoisomerase in archaea is represented by Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V. Despite several common functional characteristics, topoisomerase V shows no sequence similarity to other members of the same type. The structure of the 61 kDa N-terminal fragment of topoisomerase V reveals no structural similarity to other topoisomerases. Furthermore, the structure of the active site region is different, suggesting no conservation in the cleavage and religation mechanism. Additionally, the active site is buried, indicating the need of a conformational change for activity. The presence of a topoisomerase in archaea with a unique structure suggests the evolution of a separate mechanism to alter DNA.

  1. Synaptic transmission and plasticity require AMPA receptor anchoring via its N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jake F; Ho, Hinze; Greger, Ingo H

    2017-03-14

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and are selectively recruited during activity-dependent plasticity to increase synaptic strength. A prerequisite for faithful signal transmission is the positioning and clustering of AMPARs at postsynaptic sites. The mechanisms underlying this positioning have largely been ascribed to the receptor cytoplasmic C-termini and to AMPAR-associated auxiliary subunits, both interacting with the postsynaptic scaffold. Here, using mouse organotypic hippocampal slices, we show that the extracellular AMPAR N-terminal domain (NTD), which projects midway into the synaptic cleft, plays a fundamental role in this process. This highly sequence-diverse domain mediates synaptic anchoring in a subunit-selective manner. Receptors lacking the NTD exhibit increased mobility in synapses, depress synaptic transmission and are unable to sustain long-term potentiation (LTP). Thus, synaptic transmission and the expression of LTP are dependent upon an AMPAR anchoring mechanism that is driven by the NTD.

  2. N-terminal acetylome analyses and functional insights of the N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Petra; Lasa, Marta; Polevoda, Bogdan; Gazquez, Cristina; Elosegui-Artola, Alberto; Kim, Duk Soo; De Juan-Pardo, Elena; Demeyer, Kimberly; Hole, Kristine; Larrea, Esther; Timmerman, Evy; Prieto, Jesus; Arnesen, Thomas; Sherman, Fred; Gevaert, Kris; Aldabe, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Protein N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) is an important mediator of protein function, stability, sorting, and localization. Although the responsible enzymes are thought to be fairly well characterized, the lack of identified in vivo substrates, the occurrence of Nt-acetylation substrates displaying yet uncharacterized N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) specificities, and emerging evidence of posttranslational Nt-acetylation, necessitate the use of genetic models and quantitative proteomics. NatB, which targets Met-Glu-, Met-Asp-, and Met-Asn-starting protein N termini, is presumed to Nt-acetylate 15% of all yeast and 18% of all human proteins. We here report on the evolutionary traits of NatB from yeast to human and demonstrate that ectopically expressed hNatB in a yNatB-Δ yeast strain partially complements the natB-Δ phenotypes and partially restores the yNatB Nt-acetylome. Overall, combining quantitative N-terminomics with yeast studies and knockdown of hNatB in human cell lines, led to the unambiguous identification of 180 human and 110 yeast NatB substrates. Interestingly, these substrates included Met-Gln- N-termini, which are thus now classified as in vivo NatB substrates. We also demonstrate the requirement of hNatB activity for maintaining the structure and function of actomyosin fibers and for proper cellular migration. In addition, expression of tropomyosin-1 restored the altered focal adhesions and cellular migration defects observed in hNatB-depleted HeLa cells, indicative for the conserved link between NatB, tropomyosin, and actin cable function from yeast to human. PMID:22814378

  3. Amino acid sequence of bovine heart coupling factor 6.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, J K; Jacobs, J W; Kanner, B I; Racker, E; Bradshaw, R A

    1984-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of bovine heart mitochondrial coupling factor 6 (F6) has been determined by automated Edman degradation of the whole protein and derived peptides. Preparations based on heat precipitation and ethanol extraction showed allotypic variation at three positions while material further purified by HPLC yielded only one sequence that also differed by a Phe-Thr replacement at residue 62. The mature protein contains 76 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 9006 and a pI of approximately equal to 5, in good agreement with experimentally measured values. The charged amino acids are mainly clustered at the termini and in one section in the middle; these three polar segments are separated by two segments relatively rich in nonpolar residues. Chou-Fasman analysis suggests three stretches of alpha-helix coinciding (or within) the high-charge-density sequences with a single beta-turn at the first polar-nonpolar junction. Comparison of the F6 sequence with those of other proteins did not reveal any homologous structures. PMID:6149548

  4. Amino acid sequence and comparative antigenicity of chicken metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, C C; Fullmer, C S; Garvey, J S

    1988-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of metallothionein (MT) from chicken liver is reported. The primary structure was determined by automated sequence analysis of peptides produced by limited acid hydrolysis and by trypsin digestion. The comparative antigenicity of chicken MT was determined by radioimmunoassay using rabbit anti-rat MT polyclonal antibody. Chicken MT consists of 63 amino acids as compared to 61 found in MTs from mammals. One insertion (and two substitutions) occurs in the amino-terminal region, a region considered invariant among mammalian MTs. Eighteen of the 20 cysteines in chicken MT were aligned with cysteines from other mammalian sequences. Two cysteines near the carboxyl terminus are shifted by one residue due to the insertion of proline in that region. Overall, the chicken protein showed approximately equal to 68% sequence identity in a comparison with various mammalian MTs. The affinity of the polyclonal antibody for chicken MT was decreased by 2 orders of magnitude in comparison to that of a mammalian MT (rat MT isoforms). This reduced affinity is attributed to major substitutions in chicken MT in the regions of the principal determinants of mammalian MTs. Theoretical analysis of the primary structure predicted the secondary structure to consist of reverse turns and random coils with no stable beta or helix conformations. There is no evidence that chicken MT differs functionally from mammalian MTs. PMID:2448773

  5. Importin α1 Mediates Yorkie Nuclear Import via an N-terminal Non-canonical Nuclear Localization Signal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shimin; Lu, Yi; Yin, Meng-Xin; Wang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Li, Jinhui; Wu, Wenqing; Ge, Ling; Hu, Lianxin; Zhao, Yun; Zhang, Lei

    2016-04-08

    The Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size by orchestrating cell proliferation and apoptosis. When the Hippo pathway was inactivated, the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie translocates into the nucleus and forms a complex with transcription factor Scalloped to promote the expression of Hippo pathway target genes. Therefore, the nuclear translocation of Yorkie is a critical step in Hippo signaling. Here, we provide evidence that the N-terminal 1-55 amino acids of Yorkie, especially Arg-15, were essential for its nuclear localization. By mass spectrometry and biochemical analyses, we found that Importin α1 can directly interact with the Yorkie N terminus and drive Yorkie into the nucleus. Further experiments show that the upstream component Hippo can inhibit Importin α1-mediated Yorkie nuclear import. Taken together, we identified a potential nuclear localization signal at the N-terminal end of Yorkie as well as a critical role for Importin α1 in Yorkie nuclear import.

  6. Defining Lipid Interacting Domains in the N-terminal Region of Apolipoprotein B

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhenghui Gordon; Gantz, Donald; Bullitt, Esther; McKnight, C. James

    2008-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a nonexchangeable apolipoprotein that dictates the synthesis of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins. ApoB is the major protein in low density lipoprotein, also known as the “bad cholesterol” that is directly implicated in atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that the N-terminal domain of apoB plays a critical role in the formation of apoB-containing lipoproteins through the initial recruitment of phospholipids in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, very little is known about the mechanism of lipoprotein nucleation by apoB. Here we demonstrate that a strong phospholipid remodeling function is associated with the predicted α-helical and C-sheet domains in the N-terminal 17% of apoB (B17). Using dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) as a model lipid, these domains can convert multilamellar DMPC vesicles into discoidal-shaped particles. The nascent particles reconstituted from different apoB domains are distinctive and compositionally homogenous. This phospholipid remodeling activity is also observed with egg phosphatidylcholine (egg PC) and is therefore not DMPC dependent. Using kinetic analysis of the DMPC clearance assay, we show that the identified phospholipid binding sequences all map to the surface of the lipid binding pocket in the B17 model based on the homologous protein, lipovitellin. Since both B17 and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), a critical chaperone during lipoprotein assembly, are homologous to lipovitellin, the identification of these phospholipid remodeling sequences in B17 provides important insights into the potential mechanism that initiates the assembly of apoB-containing lipoproteins. PMID:17002280

  7. The human erythrocyte anion-transport protein. Partial amino acid sequence, conformation and a possible molecular mechanism for anion exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Brock, C J; Tanner, M J; Kempf, C

    1983-01-01

    The N-terminal 72 residues of an integral membrane fragment, P5, of the human erythrocyte anion-transport protein, which is known to be directly involved in the anion-exchange process, was shown to have the following amino acid sequence: Met-Val-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gly-Pro-Leu-Pro-Asn-Thr-Ala-Leu-Leu-Ser-Leu-Val-Leu-Met -Ala-Gly-Thr-Phe-Phe-Phe-Ala-Met-Met-Leu-Arg-Lys-Phe-Lys-Asn-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Phe-Pro-Gly-Lys-Leu-Arg-Arg-Val-Ile-Gly-Asp-Phe-Gly-Val-Pro-Ile-Ser-Ile-Leu-Ile-Met-Val-Leu-Val-Asp-Phe-Phe-Ile-Gln-Asp-Thr-Tyr-Thr-Gln- The structure of this fragment was analysed, with account being taken of the constraints that apply to the folding of integral membrane proteins and the topographical locations of various sites in the sequence. It was concluded that this sequence forms two transmembrane alpha-helices. These are probably part of a cluster of amphipathic transmembrane alpha-helices, which could comprise that part of the protein responsible for transport activity. The presently available evidence relating to the anion-exchange process was considered with the structural features noted in this study and a possible molecular mechanism is proposed. In this model the rearrangement of a network of intramembranous charged pairs mediates the translocation of an anion between anion-binding regions at each surface of the membrane, which are composed of clusters of positively charged amino acids. This model imposes a sequential exchange mechanism on the system. Supplementary material, including Tables and Figures describing the compositions of peptides determined by amino acid analysis and sequence studies, quantitative and qualitative data that provide a residue-by-residue justification for the sequence assignment and a description of modifications to and use of the solid-phase sequencer has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50123 (12 pages) with the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be

  8. Sequences Of Amino Acids For Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Sequences of amino acids defined for use in making polypeptides one-third to one-sixth as large as parent human serum albumin molecule. Smaller, chemically stable peptides have diverse applications including service as artificial human serum and as active components of biosensors and chromatographic matrices. In applications involving production of artificial sera from new sequences, little or no concern about viral contaminants. Smaller genetically engineered polypeptides more easily expressed and produced in large quantities, making commercial isolation and production more feasible and profitable.

  9. Structure of the Tropomyosin Overlap Complex from Chicken Smooth Muscle: Insight into the Diversity of N-Terminal Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Jeremiah; Klenchin, Vadim A.; Rayment, Ivan

    2010-09-08

    Tropomyosin is a stereotypical {alpha}-helical coiled coil that polymerizes to form a filamentous macromolecular assembly that lies on the surface of F-actin. The interaction between the C-terminal and N-terminal segments on adjacent molecules is known as the overlap region. We report here two X-ray structures of the chicken smooth muscle tropomyosin overlap complex. A novel approach was used to stabilize the C-terminal and N-terminal fragments. Globular domains from both the human DNA ligase binding protein XRCC4 and bacteriophage {phi}29 scaffolding protein Gp7 were fused to 37 and 28 C-terminal amino acid residues of tropomyosin, respectively, whereas the 29 N-terminal amino acids of tropomyosin were fused to the C-terminal helix bundle of microtubule binding protein EB1. The structures of both the XRCC4 and Gp7 fusion proteins complexed with the N-terminal EB1 fusion contain a very similar helix bundle in the overlap region that encompasses {approx}15 residues. The C-terminal coiled coil opens to allow formation of the helix bundle, which is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. These structures are similar to that observed in the NMR structure of the rat skeletal overlap complex [Greenfield, N. J., et al. (2006) J. Mol. Biol. 364, 80-96]. The interactions between the N- and C-terminal coiled coils of smooth muscle tropomyosin show significant curvature, which differs somewhat between the two structures and implies flexibility in the overlap complex, at least in solution. This is likely an important attribute that allows tropomyosin to assemble around the actin filaments. These structures provide a molecular explanation for the role of N-acetylation in the assembly of native tropomyosin.

  10. Structural and functional properties of CiNTH, an endonuclease III homologue of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis: critical role of N-terminal region.

    PubMed

    Kato, Seiji; Hashiguchi, Kazunari; Igarashi, Kento; Moriwaki, Takahito; Yonekura, Shin-Ichiro; Zhang-Akiyama, Qiu-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Oxidatively damaged bases in DNA can cause cell death, mutation and/or cancer induction. To overcome such deleterious effects of DNA base oxidation, cells are equipped with base excision repair (BER) initiated by DNA glycosylases. Endonuclease III (Nth), a major DNA glycosylase, mainly excises oxidatively damaged pyrimidines from DNA. The aims of this study were to obtain an overview of the repair mechanism of oxidatively damaged bases and to elucidate the function of BER in maintaining genome stability during embryogenesis and development. In this study, we used the ascidian Ciona intestinalis because at every developmental stage it is possible to observe the phenotype of individuals with DNA damage or mutations. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that the amino acid sequence of Ciona intestinalis Nth homologue (CiNTH) had high homology with those of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Caenorhabditis elegans and human Nth homologues. It was evident that two domains, the Helix-hairpin-Helix and 4Fe-4S cluster domains that are critical regions for the Nth activity, are well conserved in CiNTH. CiNTH efficiently complemented the sensitivity of E. coli nth nei mutant to H(2)O(2). CiNTH was bifunctional, with DNA glycosylase and AP lyase activities. It removed thymine glycol, 5-formyluracil and 8-oxoguanine paired with G from DNA via a β-elimination reaction. Interestingly, the N-terminal 44 amino acids were essential for the DNA glycosylase activity of CiNTH.

  11. c-jun-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0431 TITLE: “c-jun-N- Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis” PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE “c-jun-N- Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Scelerosis” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...ABSTRACT Abstract: 250 aminopyrazoles, a new class of c-jun-N- terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors, have been synthesized and the biochemical IC50 has

  12. Nanopores and nucleic acids: prospects for ultrarapid sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deamer, D. W.; Akeson, M.

    2000-01-01

    DNA and RNA molecules can be detected as they are driven through a nanopore by an applied electric field at rates ranging from several hundred microseconds to a few milliseconds per molecule. The nanopore can rapidly discriminate between pyrimidine and purine segments along a single-stranded nucleic acid molecule. Nanopore detection and characterization of single molecules represents a new method for directly reading information encoded in linear polymers. If single-nucleotide resolution can be achieved, it is possible that nucleic acid sequences can be determined at rates exceeding a thousand bases per second.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of the active matrix metalloproteinase-2: positioning of the N-terminal fragment and binding of a small peptide substrate.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Natalia; Suárez, Dimas

    2008-07-01

    Herein we use different computational methods to study the structure and energetic stability of the catalytic domain of the active MMP-2 enzyme considering two different orientations of its N-terminal coil. The first orientation is largely solvent accessible and corresponds to that observed in the 1CK7 crystal structure of the proenzyme. In the second orientation, the N-terminal coil is packed against the Omega-loop and the alpha3-helix of the MMP-2 enzyme likewise in the so-called "superactivated" form of other MMPs. Binding to the MMP-2 catalytic domain of a short peptide substrate, which mimics the sequence of the alpha1 chain of collagen type I, is also examined considering again the two configurations of the N-terminal coil. All these MMP-2 models are subject to 20 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations followed by MM-PBSA (Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area) calculations. The positioning of the N-terminal coil in the "superactivated" form is found to be energetically favored for the MMP-2 enzyme. Moreover, this configuration of the N-terminal moiety can facilitate the binding of peptide substrates. Globally, the results obtained in this study could be relevant for the structural-based design of specific MMP inhibitors.

  14. Characterization of mutant xylanases using fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: stabilizing contributions of disulfide bridges and N-terminal extensions.

    PubMed

    Jänis, Janne; Turunen, Ossi; Leisola, Matti; Derrick, Peter J; Rouvinen, Juha; Vainiotalo, Pirjo

    2004-07-27

    Structural properties and thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei endo-1,4-beta-xylanase II (TRX II) and its three recombinant mutants were characterized using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI FT-ICR) mass spectrometry and hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions. TRX II has been previously stabilized by a disulfide bridge C110-C154 and other site-directed mutations (TRX II mutants DS2 and DS5). Very recently, a highly thermostable mutant was introduced by combining mutations of DS5 with an N-terminal disulfide bridge C2-C28 (mutant DB1). Accurate mass measurements of TRX II, DS2, DS5, and DB1 verified the expected DNA-encoded protein sequences (average mass error 1.3 ppm) and allowed unequivocal assignment of the disulfides without chemical reduction and subsequent alkylation of the expected cross-links. Moreover, H/D exchange reactions provided means for the detection of a major heat-induced conformational change comprising two interconverting conformers of very different H/D exchange rates as well as allowed the apparent melting temperatures (T(m)) to be determined (62.6, 65.1, 68.0, and 82.2 degrees C for TRX II, DS2, DS5, and DB1, respectively). Residual activity measurements verified that the enzymes inactivated at significantly lower temperatures than expected on the basis of the apparent T(m) values, strongly suggesting that the inactivation takes place through minor conformational change other than observed by H/D exchange. ESI FT-ICR analyses also revealed molecular heterogeneity in DS5 and DB1 due to the propeptide incorporation. Resulting unintentional N-terminal extensions were observed to further improve the stability of the DB1 mutant. The extension of six amino acid residues upstream from the protein N-terminus increased stability by approximately 5 degrees C.

  15. Kinetic Mechanism of Protein N-terminal Methyltransferase 1*

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stacie L.; Mao, Yunfei; Zhang, Gang; Hanjra, Pahul; Peterson, Darrell L.; Huang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1 (NTMT1) catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from the S-adenosyl-l-methionine to the protein α-amine, resulting in formation of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and α-N-methylated proteins. NTMT1 is an interesting potential anticancer target because it is overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancers and plays an important role in cell mitosis. To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism of NTMT1, we have characterized the kinetic mechanism of recombinant NTMT1 using a fluorescence assay and mass spectrometry. The results of initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies indicate that methylation by NTMT1 proceeds via a random sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In addition, our processivity studies demonstrate that NTMT1 proceeds via a distributive mechanism for multiple methylations. Together, our studies provide new knowledge about the kinetic mechanism of NTMT1 and lay the foundation for the development of mechanism-based inhibitors. PMID:25771539

  16. Jun N-terminal kinase signaling makes a face

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, Deborah A.; Stultz, Brian G.; Park, Sung Yeon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT decapentaplegic (dpp), the Drosophila ortholog of BMP 2/4, directs ventral adult head morphogenesis through expression in the peripodial epithelium of the eye-antennal disc. This dpp expressing domain exerts effects both on the peripodial epithelium, and the underlying disc proper epithelium. We have uncovered a role for the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in dpp-mediated ventral head development. JNK activity is required for dpp's action on the disc proper, but in the absence of dpp expression, excessive JNK activity is produced, leading to specific loss of maxillary palps. In this review we outline our hypotheses on how dpp acts by both short range and longer range mechanisms to direct head morphogenesis and speculate on the dual role of JNK signaling in this process. Finally, we describe the regulatory control of dpp expression in the eye-antennal disc, and pose the problem of how the various expression domains of a secreted protein can be targeted to their specific functions. PMID:27384866

  17. The metalloid arsenite induces nuclear export of Id3 possibly via binding to the N-terminal cysteine residues

    SciTech Connect

    Kurooka, Hisanori; Sugai, Manabu; Mori, Kentaro; Yokota, Yoshifumi

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Sodium arsenite induces cytoplasmic accumulation of Id3. •Arsenite binds to closely spaced N-terminal cysteine residues of Id3. •N-terminal cysteines are essential for arsenite-induced nuclear export of Id3. •Nuclear export of Id3 counteracts its transcriptional repression activity. -- Abstract: Ids are versatile transcriptional repressors that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, and appropriate subcellular localization of the Id proteins is important for their functions. We previously identified distinct functional nuclear export signals (NESs) in Id1 and Id2, but no active NES has been reported in Id3. In this study, we found that treatment with the stress-inducing metalloid arsenite led to the accumulation of GFP-tagged Id3 in the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic accumulation was impaired by a mutation in the Id3 NES-like sequence resembling the Id1 NES, located at the end of the HLH domain. It was also blocked by co-treatment with the CRM1-specific nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB), but not with the inhibitors for mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Importantly, we showed that the closely spaced N-terminal cysteine residues of Id3 interacted with the arsenic derivative phenylarsine oxide (PAO) and were essential for the arsenite-induced cytoplasmic accumulation, suggesting that arsenite induces the CRM1-dependent nuclear export of Id3 via binding to the N-terminal cysteines. Finally, we demonstrated that Id3 significantly repressed arsenite-stimulated transcription of the immediate-early gene Egr-1 and that this repression activity was inversely correlated with the arsenite-induced nuclear export. Our results imply that Id3 may be involved in the biological action of arsenite.

  18. A novel calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase (ACA2) from Arabidopsis with an N-terminal autoinhibitory domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, J. F.; Hong, B.; Hwang, I.; Guo, H. Q.; Stoddard, R.; Huang, J. F.; Palmgren, M. G.; Sze, H.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    To study transporters involved in regulating intracellular Ca2+, we isolated a full-length cDNA encoding a Ca2+-ATPase from a model plant, Arabidopsis, and named it ACA2 (Arabidopsis Ca2+-ATPase, isoform 2). ACA2p is most similar to a "plasma membrane-type" Ca2+-ATPase, but is smaller (110 kDa), contains a unique N-terminal domain, and is missing a long C-terminal calmodulin-binding regulatory domain. In addition, ACA2p is localized to an endomembrane system and not the plasma membrane, as shown by aqueous-two phase fractionation of microsomal membranes. ACA2p was expressed in yeast as both a full-length protein (ACA2-1p) and an N-terminal truncation mutant (ACA2-2p; Delta residues 2-80). Only the truncation mutant restored the growth on Ca2+-depleted medium of a yeast mutant defective in both endogenous Ca2+ pumps, PMR1 and PMC1. Although basal Ca2+-ATPase activity of the full-length protein was low, it was stimulated 5-fold by calmodulin (50% activation around 30 nM). In contrast, the truncated pump was fully active and insensitive to calmodulin. A calmodulin-binding sequence was identified within the first 36 residues of the N-terminal domain, as shown by calmodulin gel overlays on fusion proteins. Thus, ACA2 encodes a novel calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase distinguished by a unique N-terminal regulatory domain and a non-plasma membrane localization.

  19. Lactobacillus kefiri shows inter-strain variations in the amino acid sequence of the S-layer proteins.

    PubMed

    Malamud, Mariano; Carasi, Paula; Bronsoms, Sílvia; Trejo, Sebastián A; Serradell, María de Los Angeles

    2017-04-01

    The S-layer is a proteinaceous envelope constituted by subunits that self-assemble to form a two-dimensional lattice that covers the surface of different species of Bacteria and Archaea, and it could be involved in cell recognition of microbes among other several distinct functions. In this work, both proteomic and genomic approaches were used to gain knowledge about the sequences of the S-layer protein (SLPs) encoding genes expressed by six aggregative and sixteen non-aggregative strains of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus kefiri. Peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) analysis confirmed the identity of SLPs extracted from L. kefiri, and based on the homology with phylogenetically related species, primers located outside and inside the SLP-genes were employed to amplify genomic DNA. The O-glycosylation site SASSAS was found in all L. kefiri SLPs. Ten strains were selected for sequencing of the complete genes. The total length of the mature proteins varies from 492 to 576 amino acids, and all SLPs have a calculated pI between 9.37 and 9.60. The N-terminal region is relatively conserved and shows a high percentage of positively charged amino acids. Major differences among strains are found in the C-terminal region. Different groups could be distinguished regarding the mature SLPs and the similarities observed in the PMF spectra. Interestingly, SLPs of the aggregative strains are 100% homologous, although these strains were isolated from different kefir grains. This knowledge provides relevant data for better understanding of the mechanisms involved in SLPs functionality and could contribute to the development of products of biotechnological interest from potentially probiotic bacteria.

  20. The Solution Structure of the N-Terminal Domain of Human Tubulin Binding Cofactor C Reveals a Platform for Tubulin Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Mayoral, Mª Flor; Castaño, Raquel; Fanarraga, Monica L.; Zabala, Juan Carlos; Rico, Manuel; Bruix, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Human Tubulin Binding Cofactor C (TBCC) is a post-chaperonin involved in the folding and assembly of α- and β-tubulin monomers leading to the release of productive tubulin heterodimers ready to polymerize into microtubules. In this process it collaborates with other cofactors (TBC's A, B, D, and E) and forms a supercomplex with TBCD, β-tubulin, TBCE and α-tubulin. Here, we demonstrate that TBCC depletion results in multipolar spindles and mitotic failure. Accordingly, TBCC is found at the centrosome and is implicated in bipolar spindle formation. We also determine by NMR the structure of the N-terminal domain of TBCC. The TBCC N-terminal domain adopts a spectrin-like fold topology composed of a left-handed 3-stranded α-helix bundle. Remarkably, the 30-residue N-terminal segment of the TBCC N-terminal domain is flexible and disordered in solution. This unstructured region is involved in the interaction with tubulin. Our data lead us to propose a testable model for TBCC N-terminal domain/tubulin recognition in which the highly charged N-terminus as well as residues from the three helices and the loops interact with the acidic hypervariable regions of tubulin monomers. PMID:22028797

  1. The N-terminal domain plays a crucial role in the structure of a full-length human mitochondrial Lon protease

    PubMed Central

    Kereïche, Sami; Kováčik, Lubomír; Bednár, Jan; Pevala, Vladimír; Kunová, Nina; Ondrovičová, Gabriela; Bauer, Jacob; Ambro, Ľuboš; Bellová, Jana; Kutejová, Eva; Raška, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Lon is an essential, multitasking AAA+ protease regulating many cellular processes in species across all kingdoms of life. Altered expression levels of the human mitochondrial Lon protease (hLon) are linked to serious diseases including myopathies, paraplegia, and cancer. Here, we present the first 3D structure of full-length hLon using cryo-electron microscopy. hLon has a unique three-dimensional structure, in which the proteolytic and ATP-binding domains (AP-domain) form a hexameric chamber, while the N-terminal domain is arranged as a trimer of dimers. These two domains are linked by a narrow trimeric channel composed likely of coiled-coil helices. In the presence of AMP-PNP, the AP-domain has a closed-ring conformation and its N-terminal entry gate appears closed, but in ADP binding, it switches to a lock-washer conformation and its N-terminal gate opens, which is accompanied by a rearrangement of the N-terminal domain. We have also found that both the enzymatic activities and the 3D structure of a hLon mutant lacking the first 156 amino acids are severely disturbed, showing that hLon’s N-terminal domains are crucial for the overall structure of the hLon, maintaining a conformation allowing its proper functioning. PMID:27632940

  2. N-terminally truncated GADD34 proteins are convenient translation enhancers in a human cell-derived in vitro protein synthesis system.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Tominari; Machida, Kodai; Masutani, Mamiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Imataka, Hiroaki

    2010-07-01

    Human cell-derived in vitro protein synthesis systems are useful for the production of recombinant proteins. Productivity can be increased by supplementation with GADD34, a protein that is difficult to express in and purify from E. coli. Deletion of the N-terminal 120 or 240 amino acids of GADD34 improves recovery of this protein from E. coli without compromising its ability to boost protein synthesis in an in vitro protein synthesis system. The use of N-terminally truncated GADD34 proteins in place of full-length GADD34 should improve the utility of human cell-based cell-free protein synthesis systems.

  3. Diversified Structural Basis of a Conserved Molecular Mechanism for pH-Dependent Dimerization in Spider Silk N-Terminal Domains.

    PubMed

    Otikovs, Martins; Chen, Gefei; Nordling, Kerstin; Landreh, Michael; Meng, Qing; Jörnvall, Hans; Kronqvist, Nina; Rising, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Jaudzems, Kristaps

    2015-08-17

    Conversion of spider silk proteins from soluble dope to insoluble fibers involves pH-dependent dimerization of the N-terminal domain (NT). This conversion is tightly regulated to prevent premature precipitation and enable rapid silk formation at the end of the duct. Three glutamic acid residues that mediate this process in the NT from Euprosthenops australis major ampullate spidroin 1 are well conserved among spidroins. However, NTs of minor ampullate spidroins from several species, including Araneus ventricosus ((Av)MiSp NT), lack one of the glutamic acids. Here we investigate the pH-dependent structural changes of (Av)MiSp NT, revealing that it uses the same mechanism but involves a non-conserved glutamic acid residue instead. Homology modeling of the structures of other MiSp NTs suggests that these harbor different compensatory residues. This indicates that, despite sequence variations, the molecular mechanism underlying pH-dependent dimerization of NT is conserved among different silk types.

  4. Improved thermal performance of Thermomyces lanuginosus GH11 xylanase by engineering of an N-terminal disulfide bridge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yawei; Fu, Zheng; Huang, Huoqing; Zhang, Huashan; Yao, Bin; Xiong, Hairong; Turunen, Ossi

    2012-05-01

    In order to increase the stability of thermophilic Thermomyces lanuginosus GH11 xylanase, TLX, a disulfide bridge Q1C-Q24C was introduced into the N-terminal region of the enzyme. The apparent temperature optimum shifted upwards at pH 6.5 by about 10°C to 75°C. The resistance to thermal inactivation also increased by about 10°C. The melting temperature measured by CD spectroscopy increased from 66 to 74°C. Therefore the N-terminal disulfide bridge increased both kinetic and thermodynamic stability almost equally. At pH 8 and 70°C, the disulfide bridge increased the enzyme half-life 20-fold in the presence of substrate. In contrast to the situation in acidic-neutral pH, the substrate decreased the thermostability of xylanases in alkaline pH. The upper limit for the performance of the disulfide bridge mutant at pH 9 was 75°C. This study showed that N-terminal disulfide bridges can stabilize even thermostable family GH11 xylanases.

  5. Functional differences between HOX proteins conferred by two residues in the homeodomain N-terminal arm.

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, M L; Sadoul, R; Featherstone, M S

    1994-01-01

    Hox genes encode homeodomain-containing transcriptional regulators that function during development to specify positional identity along embryonic axes. The homeodomain is composed of a flexible N-terminal arm and three alpha helices, and it differentially binds DNA. A number of homeodomains recognize sites containing a TAAT core motif. The product of the murine Hoxd-4 (Hox-4.2) gene functions in a positive autoregulatory fashion in P19 cells that is dependent on two TAAT motifs in the Hoxd-4 promoter. This effect is specific in that murine HOXA-1 (HOX-1.6) is unable to activate transcription through the Hoxd-4 autoregulatory element. Here we show that this is due to an inability of the HOXA-1 homeodomain to bind a HOXD-4 recognition site effectively. We have produced chimeras between HOXD-4 and HOXA-1 to map specific residues responsible for this functional difference. When positions 2 and 3 in the N-terminal arm of HOXA-1 were converted to HOXD-4 identity, both strong DNA binding and transcriptional activation were rescued. This substitution appears to confer an increased DNA-binding ability on the HOXA-1 homeodomain, since we were unable to detect a high-affinity recognition sequence for HOXA-1 in a randomized pool of DNA probes. The contribution of position 3 to DNA binding has been implicated by structural studies, but this is the first report of the importance of position 2 in regulating homeodomain-DNA interactions. Additionally, specific homeodomain residues that confer major differences in DNA binding and transcriptional activation between Hox gene products have not been previously determined. Identity at these two positions is generally conserved among paralogs but varies between Hox gene subfamilies. As a result, these residues may be important for the regulation of target gene expression by specific Hox products. Images PMID:7913516

  6. Micellar environments induce structuring of the N-terminal tail of the prion protein.

    PubMed

    Renner, Christian; Fiori, Stella; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Landgraf, Dirk; Deluca, Dominga; Mentler, Matthias; Grantner, Klaus; Parak, Fritz G; Kretzschmar, Hans; Moroder, Luis

    2004-03-01

    In the physiological form, the prion protein is a glycoprotein tethered to the cell surface via a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, consisting of a largely alpha-helical globular C-terminal domain and an unstructured N-terminal portion. This unstructured part of the protein contains four successive octapeptide repeats, which were shown to bind up to four Cu(2+) ions in a cooperative manner. To mimic the location of the protein on the cell membrane and to analyze possible structuring effects of the lipid/water interface, the conformational preferences of a single octapeptide repeat and its tetrameric form, as well of the fragment 92-113, proposed as an additional copper binding site, were comparatively analyzed in aqueous and dodecylphosphocholine micellar solution as a membrane mimetic. While for the downstream fragment 92-113 no conformational effects were detectable in the presence of DPC micelles by CD and NMR, both the single octapeptide repeat and, in an even more pronounced manner, its tetrameric form are restricted into well-defined conformations. Because of the repetitive character of the rigid structural subdomain in the tetrarepeat molecule, the spatial arrangement of these identical motifs could not be resolved by NMR analysis. However, the polyvalent nature of the repetitive subunits leads to a remarkably enhanced interaction with the micelles, which is not detectably affected by copper complexation. These results strongly suggest interactions of the cellular form of PrP (PrP(c)) N-terminal tail with the cell membrane surface at least in the octapeptide repeat region with preorganization of these sequence portions for copper complexation. There are sufficient experimental facts known that support a physiological role of copper complexation by the octapeptide repeat region of PrP(c) such as a copper-buffering role of the PrP(c) protein on the extracellular surface.

  7. The complementary deoxyribonucleic acid sequence of guinea pig endometrial prorelaxin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y A; Bryant-Greenwood, G D; Mandel, M; Greenwood, F C

    1992-03-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the relaxin gene transcript in the endometrium of the late pregnant guinea pig has been determined. The strategy used was a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers designed from the mRNA sequence of porcine preprorelaxin, rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR, and blunt end cloning in M13 mp18. With heterologous primers, a 226-basepair (bp) segment of the guinea pig relaxin gene sequence was obtained and was used to design a guinea pig-specific primer for use with the rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR method. The latter allowed completion of the sequence of 336 bp, with a 96-bp overlap. The sequence obtained shows greater homology at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels with porcine and human relaxins H1 and H2 than with rat relaxin, supporting the thesis that the guinea pig is not a rodent. The transcription of the guinea pig endometrial relaxin gene during pregnancy was confirmed by Northern analysis of guinea pig endometrial tissues with a species-specific cDNA probe. The endometrial relaxin gene is transcribed during pregnancy, but not in lactation, consistent with the observed immunostaining for relaxin.

  8. Quantum-Sequencing: Biophysics of quantum tunneling through nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casamada Ribot, Josep; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy has extensively been used in physical surface sciences to study quantum tunneling to measure electronic local density of states of nanomaterials and to characterize adsorbed species. Quantum-Sequencing (Q-Seq) is a new method based on tunneling microscopy for electronic sequencing of single molecule of nucleic acids. A major goal of third-generation sequencing technologies is to develop a fast, reliable, enzyme-free single-molecule sequencing method. Here, we present the unique ``electronic fingerprints'' for all nucleotides on DNA and RNA using Q-Seq along their intrinsic biophysical parameters. We have analyzed tunneling spectra for the nucleotides at different pH conditions and analyzed the HOMO, LUMO and energy gap for all of them. In addition we show a number of biophysical parameters to further characterize all nucleobases (electron and hole transition voltage and energy barriers). These results highlight the robustness of Q-Seq as a technique for next-generation sequencing.

  9. NFAT2 Isoforms Differentially Regulate Gene Expression, Cell Death, and Transformation through Alternative N-Terminal Domains

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Pedro I.; Faget, Douglas V.; Pachulec, Emilia; Robaina, Marcela C.; Klumb, Claudete E.

    2015-01-01

    The NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) family of transcription factors is composed of four calcium-responsive proteins (NFAT1 to -4). The NFAT2 (also called NFATc1) gene encodes the isoforms NFAT2α and NFAT2β that result mainly from alternative initiation exons that provide two different N-terminal transactivation domains. However, the specific roles of the NFAT2 isoforms in cell physiology remain unclear. Because previous studies have shown oncogenic potential for NFAT2, this study emphasized the role of the NFAT2 isoforms in cell transformation. Here, we show that a constitutively active form of NFAT2α (CA-NFAT2α) and CA-NFAT2β distinctly control death and transformation in NIH 3T3 cells. While CA-NFAT2α strongly induces cell transformation, CA-NFAT2β leads to reduced cell proliferation and intense cell death through the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). CA-NFAT2β also increases cell death and upregulates Fas ligand (FasL) and TNF-α in CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that differential roles of NFAT2 isoforms in NIH 3T3 cells depend on the N-terminal domain, where the NFAT2β-specific N-terminal acidic motif is necessary to induce cell death. Interestingly, the NFAT2α isoform is upregulated in Burkitt lymphomas, suggesting an isoform-specific involvement of NFAT2 in cancer development. Finally, our data suggest that alternative N-terminal domains of NFAT2 could provide differential mechanisms for the control of cellular functions. PMID:26483414

  10. NFAT2 Isoforms Differentially Regulate Gene Expression, Cell Death, and Transformation through Alternative N-Terminal Domains.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Pedro I; Faget, Douglas V; Pachulec, Emilia; Robaina, Marcela C; Klumb, Claudete E; Robbs, Bruno K; Viola, João P B

    2016-01-01

    The NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) family of transcription factors is composed of four calcium-responsive proteins (NFAT1 to -4). The NFAT2 (also called NFATc1) gene encodes the isoforms NFAT2α and NFAT2β that result mainly from alternative initiation exons that provide two different N-terminal transactivation domains. However, the specific roles of the NFAT2 isoforms in cell physiology remain unclear. Because previous studies have shown oncogenic potential for NFAT2, this study emphasized the role of the NFAT2 isoforms in cell transformation. Here, we show that a constitutively active form of NFAT2α (CA-NFAT2α) and CA-NFAT2β distinctly control death and transformation in NIH 3T3 cells. While CA-NFAT2α strongly induces cell transformation, CA-NFAT2β leads to reduced cell proliferation and intense cell death through the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). CA-NFAT2β also increases cell death and upregulates Fas ligand (FasL) and TNF-α in CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that differential roles of NFAT2 isoforms in NIH 3T3 cells depend on the N-terminal domain, where the NFAT2β-specific N-terminal acidic motif is necessary to induce cell death. Interestingly, the NFAT2α isoform is upregulated in Burkitt lymphomas, suggesting an isoform-specific involvement of NFAT2 in cancer development. Finally, our data suggest that alternative N-terminal domains of NFAT2 could provide differential mechanisms for the control of cellular functions.

  11. Impact of an N-terminal extension on the stability and activity of the GH11 xylanase from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus.

    PubMed

    Song, Letian; Dumon, Claire; Siguier, Béatrice; André, Isabelle; Eneyskaya, Elena; Kulminskaya, Anna; Bozonnet, Sophie; O'Donohue, Michael Joseph

    2014-03-20

    To understand structure-function relationships in the N-terminal region of GH11 xylanases, the 17 N-terminal amino acids of the GH11 xylanase from Neocallimastix patriciarum (Np-Xyn) have been grafted onto the N-terminal extremity of the untypically short GH11 xylanase from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus (Tx-Xyn), creating a hybrid enzyme denoted NTfus. The hybrid xylanase displayed properties (pH and temperature optima) similar to those of the parental enzyme, although thermostability was lowered, with the Tm value, being reduced by 5°C. Kinetic assays using oNP-Xylo-oligosaccharides (DP2 and 3) indicated that the N-extension did not procure more extensive substrate binding, even when further mutagenesis was performed to promote this. However, these experiments confirmed weak subsite -3 for both NTfus and the parental enzyme. The catalytic efficiency of NTfus was shown to be 17% higher than that of the parental enzyme on low viscosity wheat arabinoxylan and trials using milled wheat straw as the substrate revealed that NTfus released more substituted oligosaccharide products (Xyl/Ara=8.97±0.13 compared to Xyl/Ara=9.70±0.21 for the parental enzyme), suggesting that the hybrid enzyme possesses wider substrate selectivity. Combining either the parental enzyme or NTfus with the cellulolytic cocktail Accellerase 1500 boosted the impact of the latter on wheat straw, procuring yields of solubilized xylose and glucose of 23 and 24% of theoretical yield, respectively, thus underlining the benefits of added xylanase activity when using this cellulase cocktail. Overall, in view of the results obtained for NTfus, we propose that the N-terminal extension leads to the modification of a putative secondary substrate binding site, a hypothesis that is highly consistent with previous data.

  12. Role of N-terminal methionine residues in the redox activity of copper bound to alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Esaú E; Arcos-López, Trinidad; Trujano-Ortiz, Lidia G; Fernández, Claudio O; González, Felipe J; Vela, Alberto; Quintanar, Liliana

    2016-09-01

    Amyloid aggregation of α-synuclein (AS) is one of the hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. The interaction of copper ions with the N-terminal region of AS promotes its amyloid aggregation and metal-catalyzed oxidation has been proposed as a plausible mechanism. The AS(1-6) fragment represents the minimal sequence that models copper coordination to this intrinsically disordered protein. In this study, we evaluated the role of methionine residues Met1 and Met5 in Cu(II) coordination to the AS(1-6) fragment, and in the redox activity of the Cu-AS(1-6) complex. Spectroscopic and electronic structure calculations show that Met1 may play a role as an axial ligand in the Cu(II)-AS(1-6) complex, while Met5 does not participate in metal coordination. Cyclic voltammetry and reactivity studies demonstrate that Met residues play an important role in the reduction and reoxidation processes of this complex. However, Met1 plays a more important role than Met5, as substitution of Met1 by Ile decreases the reduction potential of the Cu-AS(1-6) complex by ~80 mV, causing a significant decrease in its rate of reduction. Reoxidation of the complex by oxygen results in oxidation of the Met residues to sulfoxide, being Met1 more susceptible to copper-catalyzed oxidation than Met5. The sulfoxide species can suffer elimination of methanesulfenic acid, rendering a peptide with no thioether moiety, which would impair the ability of AS to bind Cu(I) ions. Overall, our study underscores the important roles that Met1 plays in copper coordination and the reactivity of the Cu-AS complex.

  13. Discrete Molecular Dynamics Study of Oligomer Formation by N-Terminally Truncated Amyloid β-Protein

    PubMed Central

    Meral, Derya; Urbanc, Brigita

    2013-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyloid β-protein (Aβ) self–assembles into toxic oligomers. Of the two predominant Aβ alloforms, Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42, the latter is particularly strongly linked to AD. N-terminally truncated and pyroglutamated Aβ peptides were recently shown to seed Aβ aggregation and contribute significantly to Aβ–mediated toxicity, yet their folding and assembly were not explored computationally. Discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) approach previously captured in vitro–derived distinct Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 oligomer size distributions and predicted that the more toxic Aβ1–42 oligomers had more flexible and solvent exposed N-termini than Aβ1–40 oligomers. Here, we examined oligomer formation of Aβ3–40, Aβ3–42, Aβ11–40, and Aβ11–42 by the DMD approach. The four N-terminally truncated peptides showed increased oligomerization propensity relative to the full–length peptides, consistent with in vitro findings. Conformations formed by Aβ3–40/42 had significantly more flexible and solvent–exposed N-termini than Aβ1–40/42 conformations. In contrast, in Aβ11–40/42 conformations the N-termini formed more contacts and were less accessible to the solvent. The compactness of the Aβ11–40/42 conformations was in part facilitated by Val12. Two single amino acid substitutions that reduced and abolished hydrophobicity at position 12, respectively, resulted in a proportionally increased structural variability. Our results suggest that Aβ11–40 and Aβ11–42 oligomers might be less toxic than Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 oligomers and offer a plausible explanation for the experimentally–observed increased toxicity of Aβ3–40 and Aβ3–42 and their pyroglutamated forms. PMID:23500806

  14. Structure of the N-terminal fragment of Escherichia coli Lon protease

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Rasulova, Fatima S.; Melnikov, Edward E.; Maurizi, Michael R.; Rotanova, Tatyana V.; Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-08-01

    The medium-resolution structure of the N-terminal fragment of E. coli Lon protease shows that this part of the enzyme consists of two compact domains and a very long α-helix. The structure of a recombinant construct consisting of residues 1–245 of Escherichia coli Lon protease, the prototypical member of the A-type Lon family, is reported. This construct encompasses all or most of the N-terminal domain of the enzyme. The structure was solved by SeMet SAD to 2.6 Å resolution utilizing trigonal crystals that contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The molecule consists of two compact subdomains and a very long C-terminal α-helix. The structure of the first subdomain (residues 1–117), which consists mostly of β-strands, is similar to that of the shorter fragment previously expressed and crystallized, whereas the second subdomain is almost entirely helical. The fold and spatial relationship of the two subdomains, with the exception of the C-terminal helix, closely resemble the structure of BPP1347, a 203-amino-acid protein of unknown function from Bordetella parapertussis, and more distantly several other proteins. It was not possible to refine the structure to satisfactory convergence; however, since almost all of the Se atoms could be located on the basis of their anomalous scattering the correctness of the overall structure is not in question. The structure reported here was also compared with the structures of the putative substrate-binding domains of several proteins, showing topological similarities that should help in defining the binding sites used by Lon substrates.

  15. Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of human 5-lipoxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T.; Funk, C.D.; Radmark, O.; Hoeoeg, J.O.; Joernvall, H.; Samuelsson, B.

    1988-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.34), a Ca/sup 2 +/- and ATP-requiring enzyme, catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of the peptidoleukotrienes and the chemotactic factor leukotriene B/sub 4/. A cDNA clone corresponding to 5-lipoxygenase was isolated from a human lung lambda gt11 expression library by immunoscreening with a polyclonal antibody. Additional clones from a human placenta lambda gt11 cDNA library were obtained by plaque hybridization with the /sup 32/P-labeled lung cDNA clone. Sequence data obtained from several overlapping clones indicate that the composite DNAs contain the complete coding region for the enzyme. From the deduced primary structure, 5-lipoxygenase encodes a 673 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 77,839. Direct analysis of the native protein and its proteolytic fragments confirmed the deduced composition, the amino-terminal amino acid sequence, and the structure of many internal segments. 5-Lipoxygenase has no apparent sequence homology with leukotriene A/sub 4/ hydrolase or Ca/sup 2 +/-binding proteins. RNA blot analysis indicated substantial amounts of an mRNA species of approx. = 2700 nucleotides in leukocytes, lung, and placenta.

  16. Nucleic acid sequence detection using multiplexed oligonucleotide PCR

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, John P.; White, P. Scott

    2006-12-26

    Methods for rapidly detecting single or multiple sequence alleles in a sample nucleic acid are described. Provided are all of the oligonucleotide pairs capable of annealing specifically to a target allele and discriminating among possible sequences thereof, and ligating to each other to form an oligonucleotide complex when a particular sequence feature is present (or, alternatively, absent) in the sample nucleic acid. The design of each oligonucleotide pair permits the subsequent high-level PCR amplification of a specific amplicon when the oligonucleotide complex is formed, but not when the oligonucleotide complex is not formed. The presence or absence of the specific amplicon is used to detect the allele. Detection of the specific amplicon may be achieved using a variety of methods well known in the art, including without limitation, oligonucleotide capture onto DNA chips or microarrays, oligonucleotide capture onto beads or microspheres, electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Various labels and address-capture tags may be employed in the amplicon detection step of multiplexed assays, as further described herein.

  17. The amino acid sequence of chymopapain from Carica papaya.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, D C; Yaguchi, M; Lynn, K R

    1990-01-01

    Chymopapain is a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. It has considerable structural similarity with papain and papaya proteinase omega, including conservation of the catalytic site and of the disulphide bonding. Chymopapain is like papaya proteinase omega in carrying four extra residues between papain positions 168 and 169, but differs from both papaya proteinases in the composition of its S2 subsite, as well as in having a second thiol group, Cys-117. Some evidence for the amino acid sequence of chymopapain has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50153 (12 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa., Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1990) 265, 5. The information comprises Supplement Tables 1-4, which contain, in order, amino acid compositions of peptides from tryptic, peptic, CNBr and mild acid cleavages, Supplement Fig. 1, showing re-fractionation of selected peaks from Fig. 2 of the main paper. Supplement Fig. 2, showing cation-exchange chromatography of the earliest-eluted peak of Fig. 3 of the main paper, Supplement Fig. 3, showing reverse-phase h.p.l.c. of the later-eluted peak from Fig. 3 of the main paper, and Supplement Fig. 4, showing the separation of peptides after mild acid hydrolysis of CNBr-cleavage fragment CB3. PMID:2106878

  18. The amino acid sequence of rabbit cardiac troponin I.

    PubMed Central

    Grand, R J; Wilkinson, J M

    1976-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of troponin I from rabbit cardiac muscle was determined by the isolation of four unique CNBr fragments, together with overlapping tryptic peptides containing radioactive methionine residues. Overlap data for residues 35-36, 93-94 and 140-145 are incomplete, the sequence at these positions being based on homology with the sequence of the fast-skeletal-muscle protein. Cardiac troponin I is a single polypeptide chain of 206 residues with mol.wt. 23550 and an extinction coefficient, E 1%,1cm/280, of 4.37. The protein has a net positive charge of 14 and is thus somewhat more basic than troponin I from fast-skeletal muscle. Comparison of the sequences of troponin I from cardiac and fast skeletal muscle show that the cardiac protein has 26 extra residues at the N-terminus which account for the larger size of the protein. In the remainder of sequence there is a considerable degree of homology, this being greater in the C-terminal two-thirds of the molecule. The region in the cardiac protein corresponding to the peptide with inhibitory activity from the fast-skeletal-muscle protein is very similar and it seems unlikely that this is the cause of the difference in inhibitory activity between the two proteins. The region responsible for binding troponin C, however, possesses a lower degree of homology. Detailed evidence on which the sequence is based has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50072 (20 pages), at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7QB, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms given in Biochem. J. (1976) 153, 5. PMID:1008822

  19. N-Terminal Acetylation Acts as an Avidity Enhancer Within an Interconnected Multiprotein Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Daniel C.; Monda, Julie K.; Bennett, Eric J.; Harper, J. Wade; Schulman, Brenda A.

    2012-10-25

    Although many eukaryotic proteins are amino (N)-terminally acetylated, structural mechanisms by which N-terminal acetylation mediates protein interactions are largely unknown. Here, we found that N-terminal acetylation of the E2 enzyme, Ubc12, dictates distinctive E3-dependent ligation of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 to Cul1. Structural, biochemical, biophysical, and genetic analyses revealed how complete burial of Ubc12's N-acetyl-methionine in a hydrophobic pocket in the E3, Dcn1, promotes cullin neddylation. The results suggest that the N-terminal acetyl both directs Ubc12's interactions with Dcn1 and prevents repulsion of a charged N terminus. Our data provide a link between acetylation and ubiquitin-like protein conjugation and define a mechanism for N-terminal acetylation-dependent recognition.

  20. Amino acid sequence of a mouse immunoglobulin mu chain.

    PubMed Central

    Kehry, M; Sibley, C; Fuhrman, J; Schilling, J; Hood, L E

    1979-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the mouse mu chain from the BALB/c myeloma tumor MOPC 104E is reported. The C mu region contains four consecutive homology regions of approximately 110 residues and a COOH-terminal region of 19 residues. A comparison of this mu chain from mouse with a complete mu sequence from human (Ou) and a partial mu chain sequence from dog (Moo) reveals a striking gradient of increasing homology from the NH2-terminal to the COOH-terminal portion of these mu chains, with the former being the least and the latter the most highly conserved. Four of the five sites of carbohydrate attachment appear to be at identical residue positions when the constant regions of the mouse and human mu chains are compared. The mu chain of MOPC 104E has a carbohydrate moiety attached in the second hypervariable region. This is particularly interesting in view of the fact that MOPC 104E binds alpha-(1 leads to 3)-dextran, a simple carbohydrate. The structural and functional constraints imposed by these comparative sequence analyses are discussed. PMID:111247

  1. Development and Identification of a Novel Anti-HIV-1 Peptide Derived by Modification of the N-Terminal Domain of HIV-1 Integrase

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Marina; Spensiero, Antonia; Esposito, Francesca; Scala, Maria C.; Vernieri, Ermelinda; Bertamino, Alessia; Manfra, Michele; Carotenuto, Alfonso; Grieco, Paolo; Novellino, Ettore; Cadeddu, Marta; Tramontano, Enzo; Schols, Dominique; Campiglia, Pietro; Gomez-Monterrey, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    The viral enzyme integrase (IN) is essential for the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and represents an important target for the development of new antiretroviral drugs. In this study, we focused on the N-terminal domain (NTD), which is mainly involved into protein oligomerization process, for the development and synthesis of a library of overlapping peptide sequences, with specific length and specific offset covering the entire native protein sequence NTD IN 1–50. The most potent fragment, VVAKEIVAH (peptide 18), which includes a His residue instead of the natural Ser at position 39, inhibits the HIV-1 IN activity with an IC50 value of 4.5 μM. Amino acid substitution analysis on this peptide revealed essential residues for activity and allowed us to identify two nonapeptides (peptides 24 and 25), that show a potency of inhibition similar to the one of peptide 18. Interestingly, peptide 18 does not interfere with the dynamic interplay between IN subunits, while peptides 24 and 25 modulated these interactions in different manners. In fact, peptide 24 inhibited the IN-IN dimerization, while peptide 25 promoted IN multimerization, with IC50 values of 32 and 4.8 μM, respectively. In addition, peptide 25 has shown to have selective anti-infective cell activity for HIV-1. These results confirmed peptide 25 as a hit for further development of new chemotherapeutic agents against HIV-1. PMID:27375570

  2. Nucleotide sequence and taxonomical distribution of the bacteriocin gene lin cloned from Brevibacterium linens M18.

    PubMed

    Valdes-Stauber, N; Scherer, S

    1996-04-01

    Linocin M18 is an antilisterial bacteriocin produced by the red smear cheese bacterium Brevibacterium linens M18. Oligonucleotide probes based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence were used to locate its single copy gene, lin, on the chromosomal DNA. The amino acid composition, N-terminal sequence, and molecular mass derived from the nucleotide sequence of an open reading frame of 798 nucleotides coding for 266 amino acids found on a 3-kb BamHI restriction fragment correspond closely to those obtained from the purified protein (N. Valdés-Stauber and S. Scherer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:3809-3814, 1994). No sequence homology to any protein or nucleotide sequences deposited in databases was found. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence and the N-terminal amino acid sequence derived from the protein suggests that B. linens M18 produces an N-formyl-methionyl-CAC tRNA. A wide taxonomical distribution of the gene within coryneform bacteria has been demonstrated by PCR amplification. The structural gene from linocin M18 is present at least in three Brevibacterium species, five Arthrobacter species, and five Corynebacterium species.

  3. Ultrasensitive nucleic acid sequence detection by single-molecule electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A; Shera, E.B.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year laboratory-directed research and development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. There has been considerable interest in the development of very sensitive clinical diagnostic techniques over the last few years. Many pathogenic agents are often present in extremely small concentrations in clinical samples, especially at the initial stages of infection, making their detection very difficult. This project sought to develop a new technique for the detection and accurate quantification of specific bacterial and viral nucleic acid sequences in clinical samples. The scheme involved the use of novel hybridization probes for the detection of nucleic acids combined with our recently developed technique of single-molecule electrophoresis. This project is directly relevant to the DOE`s Defense Programs strategic directions in the area of biological warfare counter-proliferation.

  4. Structural and biochemical characterization of an RNA/DNA binding motif in the N-terminal domain of RecQ4 helicases

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Francesca; Mojumdar, Aditya; Zucchelli, Chiara; Bhardwaj, Amit; Buratti, Emanuele; Vindigni, Alessandro; Musco, Giovanna; Onesti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The RecQ4 helicase belongs to the ubiquitous RecQ family but its exact role in the cell is not completely understood. In addition to the helicase domain, RecQ4 has a unique N-terminal part that is essential for viability and is constituted by a region homologous to the yeast Sld2 replication initiation factor, followed by a cysteine-rich region, predicted to fold as a Zn knuckle. We carried out a structural and biochemical analysis of both the human and Xenopus laevis RecQ4 cysteine-rich regions, and showed by NMR spectroscopy that the Xenopus fragment indeed assumes the canonical Zn knuckle fold, whereas the human sequence remains unstructured, consistent with the mutation of one of the Zn ligands. Both the human and Xenopus Zn knuckles bind to a variety of nucleic acid substrates, with a mild preference for RNA. We also investigated the effect of a segment located upstream the Zn knuckle that is highly conserved and rich in positively charged and aromatic residues, partially overlapping with the C-terminus of the Sld2-like domain. In both the human and Xenopus proteins, the presence of this region strongly enhances binding to nucleic acids. These results reveal novel possible roles of RecQ4 in DNA replication and genome stability. PMID:26888063

  5. Copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes of the N-terminal nonapeptide fragment of amyloid-β and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Grenács, Ágnes; Sóvágó, Imre

    2014-10-01

    Copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes of the nonapeptide fragment of amyloid-β Aβ(1-9) (NH2-DAEFRHDSG-NH2) and its two derivatives: NH2-DAAAAHAAA-NH2 and NH2-DAAAAAHAA-NH2 have been studied by potentiometric, UV-visible and CD spectroscopic methods. The results reveal the primary role of the amino terminus of peptides in copper(II) and nickel(II) binding. The formation of dinuclear complexes was also possible in the copper(II) containing systems but only the first six amino acids from the amino terminus were involved in metal binding in the physiologically relevant pH range. The coordination chemistry of the two alanine mutated peptides is almost the same as that of the native nonapeptide, but the thermodynamic stability of the copper(II) complexes of the mutants is significantly reduced. This difference probably comes from the secondary interactions of the polar side chains of Asp, Glu, Ser and Arg residues present in the native peptide. Moreover, this difference reveals that the amino acid sequence of the N-terminal domains of amyloid peptides is especially well suited for the complexation with copper(II) ions.

  6. Requirement of the N-terminal residues of human cytomegalovirus UL112-113 proteins for viral growth and oriLyt-dependent DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Eui; Park, Mi Young; Kang, Kyeong Jin; Han, Tae Hee; Lee, Chan Hee; Ahn, Jin-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The UL112-113 region of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome encodes four phosphoproteins of 34, 43, 50, and 84 kDa that promote viral DNA replication. Co-transfection assays have demonstrated that self-interaction of these proteins via the shared N-termini is necessary for their intranuclear distribution as foci and for the efficient relocation of a viral DNA polymerase processivity factor (UL44) to the viral replication sites. However, the requirement of UL112-113 N-terminal residues for viral growth and DNA replication has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of deletion of the N-terminal regions of UL112-113 proteins on viral growth and oriLyt-dependent DNA replication. A deletion of the entire UL112 region or the region encoding the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues from the HCMV (Towne strain) bacmid impaired viral growth in bacmid-transfected human fibroblast cells, indicating their requirement for viral growth. In co-immunoprecipitation assays using the genomic gene expressing the four UL112-113 proteins together, the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues were found to be necessary for stable expression of UL112-113 proteins and their self-interaction. These residues were also required for efficient binding to and relocation of UL44, but not for interaction with IE2, an origin-binding transcription factor. In co-transfection/replication assays, replication of the oriLyt-containing plasmid was promoted by expression of intact UL112-113 proteins, but not by the expression of 25-amino-acid residue-deleted proteins. Our results demonstrate that the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues of UL112-113 proteins that mediate self-interaction contribute to viral growth by promoting their binding to UL44 and the initiation of oriLyt-dependent DNA replication.

  7. Highly heterologous region in the N-terminal extracellular domain of reptilian follitropin receptors.

    PubMed

    Akazome, Y; Ogasawara, O; Park, M K; Mori, T

    1996-12-01

    The primary structure of the N-terminal extracellular region of the follitropin receptor (FSH-R), which is thought to be responsible for hormone binding specificity, was determined in three reptilian species (tortoise, gecko, and lizard). Remarkably low sequence homologies were detected in the C-terminal part of the extracellular domain. This region was estimated to be a part of exon 10, which is the last exon of the FSH-R gene. In this region, not only were low homologies detected among the three reptilian species, but also specific deletions and/or insertions were found. In particular, large deletions were detected in squamate (gecko and lizard) FSH-Rs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these large deletions occurred recently, i.e., after the Triassic period. In another region characterized, sequence homologies were high, with tortoise-rat homology 78.4%, gecko-rat 64.7%, and lizard-rat 69.1%. In this highly conserved region, however, some reptile-specific alterations were detected, such as the loss of a cysteine residue in putative exon 7 and the existence of potential N-linked glycosylation sites in putative exon 9.

  8. Bean peptides have higher in silico binding affinities than ezetimibe for the N-terminal domain of cholesterol receptor Niemann-Pick C1 Like-1.

    PubMed

    Real Hernandez, Luis M; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2017-04-01

    Niemann-Pick C1 like-1 (NPC1L1) mediates cholesterol absorption at the apical membrane of enterocytes through a yet unknown mechanism. Bean, pea, and lentil proteins are naturally hydrolyzed during digestion to produce peptides. The potential for pulse peptides to have high binding affinities for NPC1L1 has not been determined. In this study , in silico binding affinities and interactions were determined between the N-terminal domain of NPC1L1 and 14 pulse peptides (5≥ amino acids) derived through pepsin-pancreatin digestion. Peptides were docked in triplicate to the N-terminal domain using docking program AutoDock Vina, and results were compared to those of ezetimibe, a prescribed NPC1L1 inhibitor. Three black bean peptides (-7.2 to -7.0kcal/mol) and the cowpea bean dipeptide Lys-Asp (-7.0kcal/mol) had higher binding affinities than ezetimibe (-6.6kcal/mol) for the N-terminal domain of NPC1L1. Lentil and pea peptides studied did not have high binding affinities. The common bean peptide Tyr-Ala-Ala-Ala-Thr (-7.2kcal/mol), which can be produced from black or navy bean proteins, had the highest binding affinity. Ezetimibe and peptides with high binding affinities for the N-terminal domain are expected to interact at different locations of the N-terminal domain. All high affinity black bean peptides are expected to have van der Waals interactions with SER130, PHE136, and LEU236 and a conventional hydrogen bond with GLU238 of NPC1L1. Due to their high affinity for the N-terminal domain of NPC1L1, black and cowpea bean peptides produced in the digestive track have the potential to disrupt interactions between NPC1L1 and membrane proteins that lead to cholesterol absorption.

  9. N-Terminal Lipid Modification Is Required for the Stable Accumulation of CyanoQ in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Juneau, Andrea D.; Frankel, Laurie K.; Bricker, Terry M.; Roose, Johnna L.

    2016-01-01

    The CyanoQ protein has been demonstrated to be a component of cyanobacterial Photosystem II (PS II), but there exist a number of outstanding questions concerning its physical association with the complex. CyanoQ is a lipoprotein; upon cleavage of its transit peptide by Signal Peptidase II, which targets delivery of the mature protein to the thylakoid lumenal space, the N-terminal cysteinyl residue is lipid-modified. This modification appears to tether this otherwise soluble component to the thylakoid membrane. To probe the functional significance of the lipid anchor, mutants of the CyanoQ protein have been generated in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to eliminate the N-terminal cysteinyl residue, preventing lipid modification. Substitution of the N-terminal cysteinyl residue with serine (Q-C22S) resulted in a decrease in the amount of detectable CyanoQ protein to 17% that of the wild-type protein. Moreover, the physical properties of the accumulated Q-C22S protein were consistent with altered processing of the CyanoQ precursor. The Q-C22S protein was shifted to a higher apparent molecular mass and partitioned in the hydrophobic phase in TX-114 phase-partitioning experiments. These results suggest that the hydrophobic N-terminal 22 amino acids were not properly cleaved by a signal peptidase. Substitution of the entire CyanoQ transit peptide with the transit peptide of the soluble lumenal protein PsbO yielded the Q-SS mutant and resulted in no detectable accumulation of the modified CyanoQ protein. Finally, the CyanoQ protein was present at normal amounts in the PS II mutant strains ΔpsbB and ΔpsbO, indicating that an association with PS II was not a prerequisite for stable CyanoQ accumulation. Together these results indicate that CyanoQ accumulation in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 depends on the presence of the N-terminal lipid anchor, but not on the association of CyanoQ with the PS II complex. PMID:27656895

  10. The effects of phosphomimetic lid mutation on the thermostability of the N-terminal domain of MDM2.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Erin G; Worrall, Liam; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Walkinshaw, Malcolm; Hupp, Ted R

    2010-05-07

    The multidomain E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 catalyzes p53 ubiquitination by a "dual-site" docking mechanism whereby MDM2 binding to at least two distinct peptide motifs on p53 promotes ubiquitination. One protein-protein interaction occurs between the N-terminal hydrophobic pocket of MDM2 and the transactivation motif of p53, and the second interaction occurs between the acidic domain of MDM2 and a motif in the DNA-binding domain of p53. A flexible N-terminal pseudo-substrate or "lid" adjacent to the N-terminal hydrophobic pocket of MDM2 has a phosphorylation site, and there are distinct models proposed on how the phosphorylated lid could affect MDM2 function. Biochemical studies have predicted that phosphomimetic mutation will stabilize the lid on the surface of MDM2 and will "open" the hydrophobic pocket and stabilize the MDM2-p53 complex, while NMR studies proposed that phosphomimetic mutation "closes" the lid over the MDM2 pocket and inhibits MDM2-p53 complex formation. To resolve these discrepancies, we utilized a quantitative fluorescence-based dye binding assay to measure the thermal unfolding of wild-type (wt), DeltaLid, and S17D N-terminal domains of MDM2 as a function of increasing ligand concentration. Our data reveal that S17D lid mutation increases, rather than decreases, the thermostability of the N-terminal domain of MDM2 in the absence or in the presence of ligand. DeltaLid mutation, by contrast, increases MDM2 thermoinstability. This is consistent with biochemical data, using full-length MDM2, showing that the S17D mutation stabilizes the MDM2-p53 complex and increases the specific activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase function of MDM2. These data indicate that phosphomimetic lid mutation results in an "opening," rather than a "closing," of the pocket of MDM2 and highlight the ability of small intrinsically disordered or unstructured peptide motifs to regulate the specific activity of a protein.

  11. Nucleic acid (cDNA) and amino acid sequences of alpha-type gliadins from wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed Central

    Kasarda, D D; Okita, T W; Bernardin, J E; Baecker, P A; Nimmo, C C; Lew, E J; Dietler, M D; Greene, F C

    1984-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence for an alpha-type gliadin protein of wheat (Triticum aestivum Linnaeus) endosperm has been derived from a cloned cDNA sequence. An additional cDNA clone that corresponds to about 75% of a similar alpha-type gliadin has been sequenced and shows some important differences. About 97% of the composite sequence of A-gliadin (an alpha-type gliadin fraction) has also been obtained by direct amino acid sequencing. This sequence shows a high degree of similarity with amino acid sequences derived from both cDNA clones and is virtually identical to one of them. On the basis of sequence information, after loss of the signal sequence, the mature alpha-type gliadins may be divided into five different domains, two of which may have evolved from an ancestral gliadin gene, whereas the remaining three contain repeating sequences that may have developed independently. Images PMID:6589619

  12. Identification of an antigenic domain in the N-terminal region of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid protein that is not common to swine and human HEVs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhen; Sun, Yani; Du, Taofeng; Wang, Chengbao; Xiao, Shuqi; Mu, Yang; Zhang, Gaiping; Liu, Lihong; Widén, Frederik; Hsu, Walter H; Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En-Min

    2014-12-01

    The antigenic domains located in the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid protein have been characterized. This region shares common epitopes with swine and human HEVs. However, epitopes in the N-terminal 338 amino acid residues have never been reported. In this study, an antigenic domain located between amino acids 23 and 85 was identified by indirect ELISA using the truncated recombinant capsid proteins as coating antigens and anti-avian HEV chicken sera as primary antibodies. In addition, this domain did not react with anti-swine and human HEV sera. These results indicated that the N-terminal 338 amino acid residues of avian HEV capsid protein do not share common epitopes with swine and human HEVs. This finding is important for our understanding of the antigenicity of the avian HEV capsid protein. Furthermore, it has important implications in the selection of viral antigens for serological diagnosis.

  13. N-terminal domain of complexin independently activates calcium-triggered fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ying; Choi, Ucheor B.; Zhang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Minglei; Pfuetzner, Richard A.; Wang, Austin L.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2016-01-01

    Complexin activates Ca2+-triggered neurotransmitter release and regulates spontaneous release in the presynaptic terminal by cooperating with the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and the Ca2+-sensor synaptotagmin. The N-terminal domain of complexin is important for activation, but its molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. Here, we observed that a split pair of N-terminal and central domain fragments of complexin is sufficient to activate Ca2+-triggered release using a reconstituted single-vesicle fusion assay, suggesting that the N-terminal domain acts as an independent module within the synaptic fusion machinery. The N-terminal domain can also interact independently with membranes, which is enhanced by a cooperative interaction with the neuronal SNARE complex. We show by mutagenesis that membrane binding of the N-terminal domain is essential for activation of Ca2+-triggered fusion. Consistent with the membrane-binding property, the N-terminal domain can be substituted by the influenza virus hemagglutinin fusion peptide, and this chimera also activates Ca2+-triggered fusion. Membrane binding of the N-terminal domain of complexin therefore cooperates with the other fusogenic elements of the synaptic fusion machinery during Ca2+-triggered release. PMID:27444020

  14. Structural gene and complete amino acid sequence of Vibrio alginolyticus collagenase.

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, H; Shibano, Y; Morihara, K; Fukushima, J; Inami, S; Keil, B; Gilles, A M; Kawamoto, S; Okuda, K

    1992-01-01

    The DNA encoding the collagenase of Vibrio alginolyticus was cloned, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. When the cloned gene was ligated to pUC18, the Escherichia coli expression vector, bacteria carrying the gene exhibited both collagenase antigen and collagenase activity. The open reading frame from the ATG initiation codon was 2442 bp in length for the collagenase structural gene. The amino acid sequence, deduced from the nucleotide sequence, revealed that the mature collagenase consists of 739 amino acids with an Mr of 81875. The amino acid sequences of 20 polypeptide fragments were completely identical with the deduced amino acid sequences of the collagenase gene. The amino acid composition predicted from the DNA sequence was similar to the chemically determined composition of purified collagenase reported previously. The analyses of both the DNA and amino acid sequences of the collagenase gene were rigorously performed, but we could not detect any significant sequence similarity to other collagenases. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1311172

  15. An N-terminal region of mot-2 binds to p53 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kaul, S C; Reddel, R R; Mitsui, Y; Wadhwa, R

    2001-01-01

    The mouse mot-2 protein was earlier shown to bind to the tumor suppressor protein, p53. The mot-2 binding site of p53 was mapped to C-terminal amino acid residues 312-352, which includes the cytoplasmic sequestration domain. In the present study, we have found that both mot-1 and mot-2 bind to p53 in vitro. By using His-tagged deletion mutant proteins, the p53-binding domain of mot-2 was mapped to its N-terminal amino acid residues 253-282, which are identical in mot-1 and mot-2 proteins. Some peptides containing the p53-binding region of mot-2 were able to compete with the full-length protein for p53 binding. The data provided rationale for in vitro binding of mot-1 and mot-2 proteins to p53 and supported the conclusion that inability of mot-1 protein to bind p53 in vivo depends on secondary structure or its binding to other cellular factors. Most interestingly, the p53-binding region of mot-2 was common to its MKT-077, a cationic dye that exhibits antitumor activity, binding region. Therefore it is most likely that MKT-077-induced nuclear translocation and restoration of wild-type p53 function in transformed cells takes place by a competitional mechanism.

  16. Yeast strains with N-terminally truncated ribosomal protein S5: implications for the evolution, structure and function of the Rps5/Rps7 proteins.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, Thomas; Bentley, Amber A; Beutler, William; Ghosh, Arnab; Galkin, Oleksandr; Komar, Anton A

    2010-03-01

    Ribosomal protein (rp)S5 belongs to the family of the highly conserved rp's that contains rpS7 from prokaryotes and rpS5 from eukaryotes. Alignment of rpS5/rpS7 from metazoans (Homo sapiens), fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bacteria (Escherichia coli) shows that the proteins contain a conserved central/C-terminal core region and possess variable N-terminal regions. Yeast rpS5 is 69 amino acids (aa) longer than the E. coli rpS7 protein; and human rpS5 is 48 aa longer than the rpS7, respectively. To investigate the function of the yeast rpS5 and in particular the role of its N-terminal region, we obtained and characterized yeast strains in which the wild-type yeast rpS5 was replaced by its truncated variants, lacking 13, 24, 30 and 46 N-terminal amino acids, respectively. All mutant yeast strains were viable and displayed only moderately reduced growth rates, with the exception of the strain lacking 46 N-terminal amino acids, which had a doubling time of about 3 h. Biochemical analysis of the mutant yeast strains suggests that the N-terminal part of the eukaryotic and, in particular, yeast rpS5 may impact the ability of 40S subunits to function properly in translation and affect the efficiency of initiation, specifically the recruitment of initiation factors eIF3 and eIF2.

  17. The assembly of CD1e is controlled by an N-terminal propeptide which is processed in endosomal compartments.

    PubMed

    Maître, Blandine; Angénieux, Catherine; Wurtz, Virginie; Layre, Emilie; Gilleron, Martine; Collmann, Anthony; Mariotti, Sabrina; Mori, Lucia; Fricker, Dominique; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Gachet, Christian; de Libero, Gennaro; Puzo, Germain; Hanau, Daniel; de la Salle, Henri

    2009-05-01

    CD1e displays unique features in comparison with other CD1 proteins. CD1e accumulates in Golgi compartments of immature dendritic cells and is transported directly to lysosomes, where it is cleaved into a soluble form. In these latter compartments, CD1e participates in the processing of glycolipid antigens. In the present study, we show that the N-terminal end of the membrane-associated molecule begins at amino acid 20, whereas the soluble molecule consists of amino acids 32-333. Thus immature CD1e includes an N-terminal propeptide which is cleaved in acidic compartments and so is absent from its mature endosomal form. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that the propeptide controls the assembly of the CD1e alpha-chain with beta(2)-microglobulin, whereas propeptide-deleted CD1e molecules are immunologically active. Comparison of CD1e cDNAs from different mammalian species indicates that the CD1e propeptide is conserved during evolution, suggesting that it may also optimize the generation of CD1e molecules in other species.

  18. Preparation of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling proteomes for identifying metacaspase substrates by N-terminal COFRADIC.

    PubMed

    Tsiatsiani, Liana; Stael, Simon; Van Damme, Petra; Van Breusegem, Frank; Gevaert, Kris

    2014-01-01

    Proteome-wide discovery of in vivo metacaspase substrates can be obtained by positional proteomics approaches such as N-terminal COFRADIC, for example by comparing the N-terminal proteomes (or N-terminomes) of wild-type plants to transgenic plants not expressing a given metacaspase. In this chapter we describe a protocol for the preparation of plant tissue proteomes, including differential isotopic labelling allowing for a comparison of in vivo N-terminomes that serves as the starting point for N-terminal COFRADIC studies.

  19. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of a subtilisin-like serine protease from a deep-sea bacterium, Alkalimonas collagenimarina AC40(T).

    PubMed

    Kurata, Atsushi; Uchimura, Kohsuke; Shimamura, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Tohru; Horikoshi, Koki

    2007-11-01

    The acpI gene encoding an alkaline protease (AcpI) from a deep-sea bacterium, Alkalimonas collagenimarina AC40(T), was shotgun-cloned and sequenced. It had a 1,617-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 538 amino acids. Based on analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence, AcpI is a subtilisin-like serine protease belonging to subtilase family A. It consists of a prepropeptide, a catalytic domain, and a prepeptidase C-terminal domain like other serine proteases from the genera Pseudomonas, Shewanella, Alteromonas, and Xanthomonas. Heterologous expression of the acpI gene in Escherichia coli cells yielded a 28-kDa recombinant AcpI (rAcpI), suggesting that both the prepropeptide and prepeptidase C-terminal domains were cleaved off to give the mature form. Analysis of N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences of purified rAcpI showed that the mature enzyme would be composed of 273 amino acids. The optimal pH and temperature for the caseinolytic activity of the purified rAcpI were 9.0-9.5 and 45 degrees C in 100 mM glycine-NaOH buffer. Calcium ions slightly enhanced the enzyme activity and stability. The enzyme favorably hydrolyzed gelatin, collagen, and casein. AcpI from A. collagenimarina AC40(T) was also purified from culture broth, and its molecular mass was around 28 kDa, indicating that the cleavage manner of the enzyme is similar to that in E. coli cells.

  20. N-terminal peptides from unprocessed prion proteins enter cells by macropinocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Magzoub, Mazin; Sandgren, Staffan; Lundberg, Pontus; Oglecka, Kamila; Lilja, Johanna; Wittrup, Anders; Goeran Eriksson, L.E.; Langel, Ulo; Belting, Mattias . E-mail: mattias.belting@med.lu.se; Graeslund, Astrid . E-mail: astrid@dbb.su.se

    2006-09-22

    A peptide derived from the N-terminus of the unprocessed bovine prion protein (bPrPp), incorporating the hydrophobic signal sequence (residues 1-24) and a basic domain (KKRPKP, residues 25-30), internalizes into mammalian cells, even when coupled to a sizeable cargo, and therefore functions as a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP). Confocal microscopy and co-localization studies indicate that the internalization of bPrPp is mainly through macropinocytosis, a fluid-phase endocytosis process, initiated by binding to cell-surface proteoglycans. Electron microscopy studies show internalized bPrPp-DNA-gold complexes residing in endosomal vesicles. bPrPp induces expression of a complexed luciferase-encoding DNA plasmid, demonstrating the peptide's ability to transport the cargo across the endosomal membrane and into the cytosol and nucleus. The novel CPP activity of the unprocessed N-terminal domain of PrP could be important for the retrotranslocation of partly processed PrP and for PrP trafficking inside or between cells, with implications for the infectivity associated with prion diseases.

  1. Analysis of an N-terminal deletion in subunit a of the Escherichia coli ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R; DeLeon-Rangel, Jessica; Zhu, Shaotong; Vik, Steven B

    2017-04-01

    Subunit a is a membrane-bound stator subunit of the ATP synthase and is essential for proton translocation. The N-terminus of subunit a in E. coli is localized to the periplasm, and contains a sequence motif that is conserved among some bacteria. Previous work has identified mutations in this region that impair enzyme activity. Here, an internal deletion was constructed in subunit a in which residues 6-20 were replaced by a single lysine residue, and this mutant was unable to grow on succinate minimal medium. Membrane vesicles prepared from this mutant lacked ATP synthesis and ATP-driven proton translocation, even though immunoblots showed a significant level of subunit a. Similar results were obtained after purification and reconstitution of the mutant ATP synthase into liposomes. The location of subunit a with respect to its neighboring subunits b and c was probed by introducing cysteine substitutions that were known to promote cross-linking: a_L207C + c_I55C, a_L121C + b_N4C, and a_T107C + b_V18C. The last pair was unable to form cross-links in the background of the deletion mutant. The results indicate that loss of the N-terminal region of subunit a does not generally disrupt its structure, but does alter interactions with subunit b.

  2. Synaptic transmission and plasticity require AMPA receptor anchoring via its N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Jake F; Ho, Hinze; Greger, Ingo H

    2017-01-01

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and are selectively recruited during activity-dependent plasticity to increase synaptic strength. A prerequisite for faithful signal transmission is the positioning and clustering of AMPARs at postsynaptic sites. The mechanisms underlying this positioning have largely been ascribed to the receptor cytoplasmic C-termini and to AMPAR-associated auxiliary subunits, both interacting with the postsynaptic scaffold. Here, using mouse organotypic hippocampal slices, we show that the extracellular AMPAR N-terminal domain (NTD), which projects midway into the synaptic cleft, plays a fundamental role in this process. This highly sequence-diverse domain mediates synaptic anchoring in a subunit-selective manner. Receptors lacking the NTD exhibit increased mobility in synapses, depress synaptic transmission and are unable to sustain long-term potentiation (LTP). Thus, synaptic transmission and the expression of LTP are dependent upon an AMPAR anchoring mechanism that is driven by the NTD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23024.001 PMID:28290985

  3. Extended amino acid sequences around the active-site lysine residue of class-I fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases from rabbit muscle, sturgeon muscle, trout muscle and ox liver.

    PubMed Central

    Benfield, P A; Forcina, B G; Gibbons, I; Perham, R N

    1979-01-01

    1. Amino acid sequences covering the region between residues 173 and 248 [adopting the numbering system proposed by Lai, Nakai & Chang (1974) Science 183, 1204-1206] were derived for trout (Salmo trutta) muscle aldolase and for ox liver aldolase. A comparable sequence was derived for residues 180-248 of sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) muscle aldolase. The close homology with the rabbit muscle enzyme was used to align the peptides of the other aldolases from which the sequences were derived. The results also allowed a partial sequence for the N-terminal 39 residues for the ox liver enzyme to be deduced. 2. In the light of the strong homology evinced for these enzymes, a re-investigation of the amino acid sequence of rabbit muscle aldolase between residues 181 and 185 was undertaken. This indicated the presence of a hitherto unsuspected -Ile-Val-sequence between residues 181 and 182 and the need to invert the sequence -Glu-Val- to -Val-Glx- at positions 184 and 185. 3. Comparison of the available amino acid sequences of these enzymes suggested an early evolutionary divergence of the genes for muscle and liver aldolases. It was also consistent with other evidence that the central region of the primary structure of these enzymes (which includes the active-site lysine-227) forms part of a conserved folding domain in the protein subunit. 4. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequences proposed has been deposited as Suy Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1978) 169, 5. PMID:534504

  4. Phosphorylation Regulates Interaction of 210-kDa Myosin Light Chain Kinase N-terminal Domain with Actin Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Vilitkevich, E L; Khapchaev, A Y; Kudryashov, D S; Nikashin, A V; Schavocky, J P; Lukas, T J; Watterson, D M; Shirinsky, V P

    2015-10-01

    High molecular weight myosin light chain kinase (MLCK210) is a multifunctional protein involved in myosin II activation and integration of cytoskeletal components in cells. MLCK210 possesses actin-binding regions both in the central part of the molecule and in its N-terminal tail domain. In HeLa cells, mitotic protein kinase Aurora B was suggested to phosphorylate MLCK210 N-terminal tail at serine residues (Dulyaninova, N. G., and Bresnick, A. R. (2004) Exp. Cell Res., 299, 303-314), but the functional significance of the phosphorylation was not established. We report here that in vitro, the N-terminal actin-binding domain of MLCK210 is located within residues 27-157 (N27-157, avian MLCK210 sequence) and is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Aurora B at serine residues 140/149 leading to a decrease in N27-157 binding to actin. The same residues are phosphorylated in a PKA-dependent manner in transfected HeLa cells. Further, in transfected cells, phosphomimetic mutants of N27-157 showed reduced association with the detergent-stable cytoskeleton, whereas in vitro, the single S149D mutation reduced N27-157 association with F-actin to a similar extent as that achieved by N27-157 phosphorylation. Altogether, our results indicate that phosphorylation of MLCK210 at distinct serine residues, mainly at S149, attenuates the interaction of MLCK210 N-terminus with the actin cytoskeleton and might serve to regulate MLCK210 microfilament cross-linking activity in cells.

  5. Dissecting the Functional Role of the N-Terminal Domain of the Human Small Heat Shock Protein HSPB6

    PubMed Central

    Heirbaut, Michelle; Beelen, Steven; Strelkov, Sergei V.; Weeks, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    HSPB6 is a member of the human small heat shock protein (sHSP) family, a conserved group of molecular chaperones that bind partially unfolded proteins and prevent them from aggregating. In vertebrate sHSPs the poorly structured N-terminal domain has been implicated in both chaperone activity and the formation of higher-order oligomers. These two functionally important properties are likely intertwined at the sequence level, complicating attempts to delineate the regions that define them. Differing from the prototypical α-crystallins human HSPB6 has been shown to only form dimers in solution making it more amendable to explore the determinants of chaperoning activity alone. Using a systematic and iterative deletion strategy, we have extensively investigated the role of the N-terminal domain on the chaperone activity of this sHSP. As determined by size-exclusion chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering, most mutants had a dimeric structure closely resembling that of wild-type HSPB6. The chaperone-like activity was tested using three different substrates, whereby no single truncation, except for complete removal of the N-terminal domain, showed full loss of activity, pointing to the presence of multiple sites for binding unfolding proteins. Intriguingly, we found that the stretch encompassing residues 31 to 35, which is nearly fully conserved across vertebrate sHSPs, acts as a negative regulator of activity, as its deletion greatly enhanced chaperoning capability. Further single point mutational analysis revealed an interplay between the highly conserved residues Q31 and F33 in fine-tuning its function. PMID:25157403

  6. Molecular cloning, expression, and primary sequence of outer membrane protein P2 of Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Munson, R; Tolan, R W

    1989-01-01

    The structural gene for the porin of Haemophilus influenzae type b, designated outer membrane protein P2, was cloned, and the DNA sequence was determined. An oligonucleotide probe generated by reverse translation of N-terminal amino acid sequence data from the purified protein was used to screen genomic DNA. The probe detected a single EcoRI fragment of approximately 1,700 base pairs which was cloned to lambda gt11 and then into M13 and partially sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence indicated that we had cloned the N-terminal portion of the P2 gene. An overlapping approximately 1,600-base-pair PvuII genomic fragment was cloned into M13, and the sequence of the remainder of the P2 gene was determined. The gene for P2 was then reconstructed under the control of the T7 promoter and expressed in Escherichia coli. The N-terminal sequence of the purified protein corresponds to residues 21 through 34 of the derived amino acid sequence. Thus, the protein is synthesized with a 20-amino-acid leader peptide. The Mr of the processed protein is 37,782, in good agreement with the estimate of 37,000 from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Images PMID:2535836

  7. Effects of pre- and pro-sequence of thaumatin on the secretion by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Ide, Nobuyuki; Masuda, Tetsuya; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2007-11-23

    Thaumatin is a 22-kDa sweet-tasting protein containing eight disulfide bonds. When thaumatin is expressed in Pichia pastoris using the thaumatin cDNA fused with both the alpha-factor signal sequence and the Kex2 protease cleavage site from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the N-terminal sequence of the secreted thaumatin molecule is not processed correctly. To examine the role of the thaumatin cDNA-encoded N-terminal pre-sequence and C-terminal pro-sequence on the processing of thaumatin and efficiency of thaumatin production in P. pastoris, four expression plasmids with different pre-sequence and pro-sequence were constructed and transformed into P. pastoris. The transformants containing pre-thaumatin gene that has the native plant signal, secreted thaumatin molecules in the medium. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the secreted thaumatin molecule was processed correctly. The production yield of thaumatin was not affected by the C-terminal pro-sequence, and the pro-sequence was not processed in P. pastoris, indicating that pro-sequence is not necessary for thaumatin synthesis.

  8. Differential Contributions of Tacaribe Arenavirus Nucleoprotein N-Terminal and C-Terminal Residues to Nucleocapsid Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    D'Antuono, Alejandra; Loureiro, Maria Eugenia; Foscaldi, Sabrina; Marino-Buslje, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) is the main protein component of viral nucleocapsids and is strictly required for viral genome replication mediated by the L polymerase. Homo-oligomerization of NP is presumed to play an important role in nucleocapsid assembly, albeit the underlying mechanism and the relevance of NP-NP interaction in nucleocapsid activity are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the contribution of the New World Tacaribe virus (TCRV) NP self-interaction to nucleocapsid functional activity. We show that alanine substitution of N-terminal residues predicted to be available for NP-NP interaction strongly affected NP self-association, as determined by coimmunoprecipitation assays, produced a drastic inhibition of transcription and replication of a TCRV minigenome RNA, and impaired NP binding to RNA. Mutagenesis and functional analysis also revealed that, while dispensable for NP self-interaction, key amino acids at the C-terminal domain were essential for RNA synthesis. Furthermore, mutations at these C-terminal residues rendered NP unable to bind RNA both in vivo and in vitro but had no effect on the interaction with the L polymerase. In addition, while all oligomerization-defective variants tested exhibited unaltered capacities to sustain NP-L interaction, NP deletion mutants were fully incompetent to bind L, suggesting that, whereas NP self-association is dispensable, the integrity of both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains is required for binding the L polymerase. Overall, our results suggest that NP self-interaction mediated by the N-terminal domain may play a critical role in TCRV nucleocapsid assembly and activity and that the C-terminal domain of NP is implicated in RNA binding. IMPORTANCE The mechanism of arenavirus functional nucleocapsid assembly is still poorly understood. No detailed information is available on the nucleocapsid structure, and the regions of full-length NP involved in binding to viral RNA remain to be

  9. Effect of truncation of the N-terminal region of the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) P protein on viral replication.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Sun; Kim, Min Sun; Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kang, Yue Jai; Kim, Ki Hong

    2015-11-01

    The phosphoprotein (P) of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) plays an essential role in viral replication by interconnecting the L protein and the N protein-RNA complex. In this study, to investigate the role of the N-terminal region of the P protein in viral replication, we mutated the first or the first and second or the first, second, and third ATG codon into TGA stop codons. The respective mutants were named P1, P2, and P3. Recombinant VHSVs containing each mutated P gene (rVHSV-P1, -P2, and -P3) were successfully generated by supplying the intact P protein in trans. The rVHSV-P2 and -P3 were not generated from cells expressing truncated P proteins (P1, P2 or P3 protein), but the rVHSV-P1 produced infectious viruses, even in cells without any P-protein-expressing plasmids. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the P gene of rVHSV-P1 showed that a mutation had occurred that resulted in the fourth amino acid (isoleucine, ATT) being changed to methionine (ATG) without a frameshift (P0.5), suggesting that strong selection pressure might facilitate mutations that are advantageous or essential for virus replication. Infectious rVHSV-P2 and -P3 were produced in cells expressing the P0.5 protein, suggesting that the first three amino acids of the P protein of VHSV are dispensable for viral replication. Furthermore, although the P1 protein was shorter than the P0.5 protein by only two amino acid residues, no viruses were produced when the P1 protein was supplied indicating that the fourth and the fifth amino acid residues are indispensable for normal P protein functions involved in viral replication.

  10. Activation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1 Involves Interactions between Its N-Terminal Region and Its Kinase Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chih-chin; Orban, Tivadar; Jastrzebska, Beata; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2012-03-16

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to initiate receptor desensitization. In addition to the canonical phosphoacceptor site of the kinase domain, activated receptors bind to a distinct docking site that confers higher affinity and activates GRKs allosterically. Recent mutagenesis and structural studies support a model in which receptor docking activates a GRK by stabilizing the interaction of its 20-amino acid N-terminal region with the kinase domain. This interaction in turn stabilizes a closed, more active conformation of the enzyme. To investigate the importance of this interaction for the process of GRK activation, we first validated the functionality of the N-terminal region in rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) by site-directed mutagenesis and then introduced a disulfide bond to cross-link the N-terminal region of GRK1 with its specific binding site on the kinase domain. Characterization of the kinetic and biophysical properties of the cross-linked protein showed that disulfide bond formation greatly enhances the catalytic efficiency of the peptide phosphorylation, but receptor-dependent phosphorylation, Meta II stabilization, and inhibition of transducin activation were unaffected. These data indicate that the interaction of the N-terminal region with the kinase domain is important for GRK activation but does not dictate the affinity of GRKs for activated receptors.

  11. [Effect of modification of the N-terminal region of molecule on the expression of neotropic effect of semax analogues].

    PubMed

    Glazova, N Iu; Sebentsova, E A; Levitskaia, N G; Andreeva, L A; Alfeeva, L Iu; Kamenskiĭ, A A; Miasoedov, N F

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of neotropic activity of semax (MEHFPGP), an analogue of the ACTH(4-10), and some of its derivatives in which the N-terminal methionine was modified or substituted with other amino acid residues was performed. The effect of these peptides on learning of albino rats in tests with positive (alimentary) and negative (pain) reinforcement was studied. In the case of modification of methionine by attachment of the gluconic-acid residue or substitution of methionine with lysine, the neotropic effect of the peptide was retained. The substitution of methionine with tryptophan or serine resulted in a decrease in the neotropic activity. The substitution of methionine with glycine, threonine, or alanine caused a complete loss of the neotropic activity of the peptide. Therefore, the amino acid residue located at position 1 of the heptapeptide analogue semax, plays a key role in retaining the neotropic effects of the peptide and determines the degree of their expression.

  12. A new general pathway for synthesis of reference compounds of N-terminal valine-isocyanate adducts.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ronnie; Rydberg, Per; Westberg, Emelie; Motwani, Hitesh V; Johnstone, Erik; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2010-03-15

    Adducts to Hb could be used as biomarkers to monitor exposure to isocyanates. Particularly useful is the measurement of carbamoylation of N-terminal valines in Hb, after detachment as hydantoins. The synthesis of references from the reactive isocyanates, especially diisocyanates, has been problematic due to side reactions and polymerization of the isocyanate starting material. A simpler, safer, and more general method for the synthesis of valine adducts of isocyanates has been developed using N-[(4-nitrophenyl)carbamate]valine methylamide (NPCVMA) as the key precursor to adducts of various mono- and diisocyanates of interest. By reacting NPCVMA with a range of isocyanate-related amines, carbamoylated valines are formed without the use of the reactive isocyanates. The carbamoylated products synthesized here were cyclized with good yields of the formed hydantoins. The carbamoylated derivative from phenyl isocyanate also showed quantitative yield in a test with cyclization under the conditions used in blood. This new pathway for the preparation of N-carbamoylated model compounds overcomes the above-mentioned problems in the synthesis and is a general and simplified approach, which could make such reference compounds of adducts to N-terminal valine from isocyanates accessible for biomonitoring purposes. The synthesized hydantoins corresponding to adducts from isocyanic acid, methyl isocyanate, phenyl isocyanate, and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate were characterized by LC-MS analysis. The background level of the hydantoin from isocyanic acid in human blood was analyzed with the LC-MS conditions developed.

  13. The trappin gene family: proteins defined by an N-terminal transglutaminase substrate domain and a C-terminal four-disulphide core.

    PubMed Central

    Schalkwijk, J; Wiedow, O; Hirose, S

    1999-01-01

    Recently, several new genes have been discovered in various species which are homologous to the well-characterized human epithelial proteinase inhibitor elafin/SKALP (skin-derived anti-leukoproteinase). Because of the high degree of conservation and the similarities in genomic organization, we propose that these genes belong to a novel gene family. At the protein level, the family members are defined by: (1) an N-terminal domain consisting of a variable number of repeats with the consensus sequence Gly-Gln-Asp-Pro-Val-Lys that can act as an anchoring motif by transglutaminase cross-linking, and (2) a C-terminal four-disulphide core or whey acidic protein (WAP) domain, which harbours a functional motif involved in binding of proteinases and possibly other proteins. We have proposed the name trappin gene family as a unifying nomenclature for this group of proteins (trappin is an acronym for TRansglutaminase substrate and wAP domain containing ProteIN, and refers to its functional property of 'getting trapped' in tissues by covalent cross-linking). Analysis of the trappin family members shows extensive diversification in bovidae and suidae, whereas the number of primate trappins is probably limited. Recent biochemical and cell biological data on the human trappin family member elafin/SKALP suggest that this molecule is induced in epidermis by cellular stress. We hypothesize that trappins play an important role in the regulation of inflammation and in protection against tissue damage in stratified epithelia. PMID:10359639

  14. Contribution of the tyrosines to the structure and function of the human U1A N-terminal RNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, J. K.; Lu, J.; Hall, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    RNA binding domains (RBDs) are members of a large family of proteins that share minimal sequence conservation but adopt an alpha beta sandwich global fold. Defining the contributions of specific amino acids to RBD structure and RNA binding is critical to understanding the functions of these proteins. In these experiments with the human U1A N-terminal RNA binding domain (RBD1), the contributions from each of its four tyrosines to protein structure, stability, and RNA binding were measured. Each tyrosine was substituted with phenylalanine and one other selected residue, and the resulting proteins were characterized by chemical denaturation to measure their unfolding free energy, by binding free energies to the wild-type RNA hairpin, and by 19F NMR to probe for structural changes. Features of the protein identified in these experiments include a possible tyrosine/lysine contact in an alpha-helix, which may be an example of an energetically favorable aromatic/amino side chain interaction. One long loop of the protein, which shows unusual 15N backbone and tyrosine side-chain dynamics, is implicated in protein:protein association. The diverse interactions of the four tyrosine residues in the organization of RBD1 illustrate how each member of this family of proteins will have unique molecular details that contribute to function. PMID:8844847

  15. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid... Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Application Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (a) Nucleotide...

  16. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid... Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Application Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (a) Nucleotide...

  17. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid... Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Application Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (a) Nucleotide...

  18. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid... Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Application Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (a) Nucleotide...

  19. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nucleotide and/or amino acid... Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Application Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences § 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (a) Nucleotide...

  20. Transcription-dependent nuclear localization of DAZAP1 requires an N-terminal signal

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yi-Tzu; Wen, Wan-Ching; Yen, Pauline H.

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DAZAP1 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DAZAP1 accumulates in the cytoplasm when the nuclear transcription is inhibited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DAZAP1's transcription-dependent nuclear localization requires N-terminal N42. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SLIRP binds to N42 and may be involved in the process. -- Abstract: Deleted in Azoospermia Associated Protein 1 (DAZAP1) is a ubiquitous hnRNP protein required for normal development and spermatogenesis. It resides predominantly in the nucleus and moves between the nucleus and the cytoplasm via a ZNS shuttling signal at its C-terminus. DAZAP1 accumulates in the cytoplasm when RNA polymerase II activity is inhibited by actinomycin D. Here we report the mapping of a 42-amino acid segment (N42) at the N-terminus of DAZAP1 that is both necessary and sufficient for its transcription-dependent nuclear localization. In addition, using a yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified SLIRP as a N42-binding protein which may regulate DAZAP1 subcellular localization.

  1. Structure of the N-terminal fragment of Escherichia coli Lon protease

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Rasulova, Fatima S.; Melnikov, Edward E.; Maurizi, Michael R.; Rotanova, Tatyana V.; Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-10-22

    The structure of a recombinant construct consisting of residues 1-245 of Escherichia coli Lon protease, the prototypical member of the A-type Lon family, is reported. This construct encompasses all or most of the N-terminal domain of the enzyme. The structure was solved by SeMet SAD to 2.6 {angstrom} resolution utilizing trigonal crystals that contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The molecule consists of two compact subdomains and a very long C-terminal {alpha}-helix. The structure of the first subdomain (residues 1-117), which consists mostly of {beta}-strands, is similar to that of the shorter fragment previously expressed and crystallized, whereas the second subdomain is almost entirely helical. The fold and spatial relationship of the two subdomains, with the exception of the C-terminal helix, closely resemble the structure of BPP1347, a 203-amino-acid protein of unknown function from Bordetella parapertussis, and more distantly several other proteins. It was not possible to refine the structure to satisfactory convergence; however, since almost all of the Se atoms could be located on the basis of their anomalous scattering the correctness of the overall structure is not in question. The structure reported here was also compared with the structures of the putative substrate-binding domains of several proteins, showing topological similarities that should help in defining the binding sites used by Lon substrates.

  2. N-Terminal Truncated UCH-L1 Prevents Parkinson's Disease Associated Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Jung; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Jae-Eun; Baek, Jeong Yeob; Jeong, Jaeho; Kim, Sun; Kim, Young-Mee; Kim, Youhwa; Nam, Jin Han; Huh, Sue Hee; Seo, Jawon; Jin, Byung Kwan; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has been proposed as one of the Parkinson's disease (PD) related genes, but the possible molecular connection between UCH-L1 and PD is not well understood. In this study, we discovered an N-terminal 11 amino acid truncated variant UCH-L1 that we called NT-UCH-L1, in mouse brain tissue as well as in NCI-H157 lung cancer and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. In vivo experiments and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS) studies showed that NT-UCH-L1 is readily aggregated and degraded, and has more flexible structure than UCH-L1. Post-translational modifications including monoubiquitination and disulfide crosslinking regulate the stability and cellular localization of NT-UCH-L1, as confirmed by mutational and proteomic studies. Stable expression of NT-UCH-L1 decreases cellular ROS levels and protects cells from H2O2, rotenone and CCCP-induced cell death. NT-UCH-L1-expressing transgenic mice are less susceptible to degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons seen in the MPTP mouse model of PD, in comparison to control animals. These results suggest that NT-UCH-L1 may have the potential to prevent neural damage in diseases like PD. PMID:24959670

  3. Identification of the WW domain-interaction sites in the unstructured N-terminal domain of EBV LMP 2A.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Duk; Park, Sung Jean; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Bong Jin

    2007-01-09

    Epstein-Barr virus latency is maintained by the latent membrane protein (LMP) 2A, which mimics the B-cell receptor (BCR) and perturbs BCR signaling. The cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of LMP2A is composed of 119 amino acids. The N-terminal domain of LMP2A (LMP2A NTD) contains two PY motifs (PPPPY) that interact with the WW domains of Nedd4 family ubiquitin-protein ligases. Based on our analysis of NMR data, we found that the LMP2A NTD adopts an overall random-coil structure in its native state. However, the region between residues 60 and 90 was relatively ordered, and seemed to form the hydrophobic core of the LMP2A NTD. This region resides between two PY motifs and is important for WW domain binding. Mapping of the residues involved in the interaction between the LMP2A NTD and WW domains was achieved by chemical shift perturbation, by the addition of WW2 and WW3 peptides. Interestingly, the binding of the WW domains mainly occurred in the hydrophobic core of the LMP2A NTD. In addition, we detected a difference in the binding modes of the two PY motifs against the two WW peptides. The binding of the WW3 peptide caused the resonances of five residues (Tyr(60), Glu(61), Asp(62), Trp(65), and Gly(66)) just behind the N-terminal PY motif of the LMP2A NTD to disappear. A similar result was obtained with WW2 binding. However, near the C-terminal PY motif, the chemical shift perturbation caused by WW2 binding was different from that due to WW3 binding, indicating that the residues near the PY motifs are involved in selective binding of WW domains. The present work represents the first structural study of the LMP2A NTD and provides fundamental structural information about its interaction with ubiquitin-protein ligase.

  4. Characterization of a novel human sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) having structural homology with c-Jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein

    PubMed Central

    Jagadish, Nirmala; Rana, Ritu; Selvi, Ramasamy; Mishra, Deepshikha; Garg, Manoj; Yadav, Shikha; Herr, John C.; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Hasegawa, Akiko; Koyama, Koji; Suri, Anil

    2005-01-01

    We report a novel SPAG9 (sperm-associated antigen 9) protein having structural homology with JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase)-interacting protein 3. SPAG9, a single copy gene mapped to the human chromosome 17q21.33 syntenic with location of mouse chromosome 11, was earlier shown to be expressed exclusively in testis [Shankar, Mohapatra and Suri (1998) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 243, 561–565]. The SPAG9 amino acid sequence analysis revealed identity with the JNK-binding domain and predicted coiled-coil, leucine zipper and transmembrane domains. The secondary structure analysis predicted an α-helical structure for SPAG9 that was confirmed by CD spectra. Microsequencing of higher-order aggregates of recombinant SPAG9 by tandem MS confirmed the amino acid sequence and mono atomic mass of 83.9 kDa. Transient expression of SPAG9 and its deletion mutants revealed that both leucine zipper with extended coiled-coil domains and transmembrane domain of SPAG9 were essential for dimerization and proper localization. Studies of MAPK (mitogenactivated protein kinase) interactions demonstrated that SPAG9 interacted with higher binding affinity to JNK3 and JNK2 compared with JNK1. No interaction was observed with p38α or extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathways. Polyclonal antibodies raised against recombinant SPAG9 recognized native protein in human sperm extracts and localized specifically on the acrosomal compartment of intact human spermatozoa. Acrosome-reacted spermatozoa demonstrated SPAG9 immunofluorescence, indicating its retention on the equatorial segment after the acrosome reaction. Further, anti-SPAG9 antibodies inhibited the binding of human spermatozoa to intact human oocytes as well as to matched hemizona. This is the first report of sperm-associated JNK-binding protein that may have a role in spermatozoa–egg interaction. PMID:15693750

  5. Human liver apolipoprotein B-100 cDNA: complete nucleic acid and derived amino acid sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Law, S W; Grant, S M; Higuchi, K; Hospattankar, A; Lackner, K; Lee, N; Brewer, H B

    1986-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), the ligand on low density lipoproteins that interacts with the low density lipoprotein receptor and initiates receptor-mediated endocytosis and low density lipoprotein catabolism, has been cloned, and the complete nucleic acid and derived amino acid sequences have been determined. ApoB-100 cDNAs were isolated from normal human liver cDNA libraries utilizing immunoscreening as well as filter hybridization with radiolabeled apoB-100 oligodeoxynucleotides. The apoB-100 mRNA is 14.1 kilobases long encoding a mature apoB-100 protein of 4536 amino acids with a calculated amino acid molecular weight of 512,723. ApoB-100 contains 20 potential glycosylation sites, and 12 of a total of 25 cysteine residues are located in the amino-terminal region of the apolipoprotein providing a potential globular structure of the amino terminus of the protein. ApoB-100 contains relatively few regions of amphipathic helices, but compared to other human apolipoproteins it is enriched in beta-structure. The delineation of the entire human apoB-100 sequence will now permit a detailed analysis of the conformation of the protein, the low density lipoprotein receptor binding domain(s), and the structural relationship between apoB-100 and apoB-48 and will provide the basis for the study of genetic defects in apoB-100 in patients with dyslipoproteinemias. PMID:3464946

  6. Computer selection of oligonucleotide probes from amino acid sequences for use in gene library screening.

    PubMed

    Yang, J H; Ye, J H; Wallace, D C

    1984-01-11

    We present a computer program, FINPROBE, which utilizes known amino acid sequence data to deduce minimum redundancy oligonucleotide probes for use in screening cDNA or genomic libraries or in primer extension. The user enters the amino acid sequence of interest, the desired probe length, the number of probes sought, and the constraints on oligonucleotide synthesis. The computer generates a table of possible probes listed in increasing order of redundancy and provides the location of each probe in the protein and mRNA coding sequence. Activation of a next function provides the amino acid and mRNA sequences of each probe of interest as well as the complementary sequence and the minimum dissociation temperature of the probe. A final routine prints out the amino acid sequence of the protein in parallel with the mRNA sequence listing all possible codons for each amino acid.

  7. Alzheimer's amyloid-β A2T variant and its N-terminal peptides inhibit amyloid-β fibrillization and rescue the induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tien-Wei; Chang, Chi-Fon; Chang, Yu-Jen; Liao, Yi-Hung; Yu, Hui-Ming; Chen, Yun-Ru

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common dementia affecting tens of million people worldwide. The primary neuropathological hallmark in AD is amyloid plaques composed of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). Several familial mutations found in Aβ sequence result in early onset of AD. Previous studies showed that the mutations located at N-terminus of Aβ, such as the English (H6R) and Tottori (D7N) mutations, promote fibril formation and increase cytotoxicity. However, A2T mutant located at the very N-terminus of Aβ shows low-prevalence incidence of AD, whereas, another mutant A2V causes early onset of AD. To understand the molecular mechanism of the distinct effect and develop new potential therapeutic strategy, here, we examined the effect of full-length and N-terminal A2V/T variants to wild type (WT) Aβ40 by fibrillization assays and NMR studies. We found that full-length and N-terminal A2V accelerated WT fibrillization and induced large chemical shifts on the N-terminus of WT Aβ, whereas, full-length and N-terminal A2T retarded the fibrillization. We further examined the inhibition effect of various N-terminal fragments (NTFs) of A2T to WT Aβ. The A2T NTFs ranging from residue 1 to residue 7 to 10, but not 1 to 6 or shorter, are capable to retard WT Aβ fibrillization and rescue cytotoxicity. The results suggest that in the presence of full-length or specific N-terminal A2T can retard Aβ aggregation and the A2T NTFs can mitigate its toxicity. Our results provide a novel targeting site for future therapeutic development of AD.

  8. Alzheimer’s amyloid-β A2T variant and its N-terminal peptides inhibit amyloid-β fibrillization and rescue the induced cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tien-Wei; Chang, Chi-Fon; Chang, Yu-Jen; Liao, Yi-Hung; Yu, Hui-Ming; Chen, Yun-Ru

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common dementia affecting tens of million people worldwide. The primary neuropathological hallmark in AD is amyloid plaques composed of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). Several familial mutations found in Aβ sequence result in early onset of AD. Previous studies showed that the mutations located at N-terminus of Aβ, such as the English (H6R) and Tottori (D7N) mutations, promote fibril formation and increase cytotoxicity. However, A2T mutant located at the very N-terminus of Aβ shows low-prevalence incidence of AD, whereas, another mutant A2V causes early onset of AD. To understand the molecular mechanism of the distinct effect and develop new potential therapeutic strategy, here, we examined the effect of full-length and N-terminal A2V/T variants to wild type (WT) Aβ40 by fibrillization assays and NMR studies. We found that full-length and N-terminal A2V accelerated WT fibrillization and induced large chemical shifts on the N-terminus of WT Aβ, whereas, full-length and N-terminal A2T retarded the fibrillization. We further examined the inhibition effect of various N-terminal fragments (NTFs) of A2T to WT Aβ. The A2T NTFs ranging from residue 1 to residue 7 to 10, but not 1 to 6 or shorter, are capable to retard WT Aβ fibrillization and rescue cytotoxicity. The results suggest that in the presence of full-length or specific N-terminal A2T can retard Aβ aggregation and the A2T NTFs can mitigate its toxicity. Our results provide a novel targeting site for future therapeutic development of AD. PMID:28362827

  9. RNA sequencing identifies upregulated kyphoscoliosis peptidase and phosphatidic acid signaling pathways in muscle hypertrophy generated by transgenic expression of myostatin propeptide.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yuanxin; Yang, Jinzeng; Xu, Zhong; Jing, Lu; Zhao, Shuhong; Li, Xinyun

    2015-04-09

    Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, plays a crucial negative role in muscle growth. MSTN mutations or inhibitions can dramatically increase muscle mass in most mammal species. Previously, we generated a transgenic mouse model of muscle hypertrophy via the transgenic expression of the MSTN N-terminal propeptide cDNA under the control of the skeletal muscle-specific MLC1 promoter. Here, we compare the mRNA profiles between transgenic mice and wild-type littermate controls with a high-throughput RNA sequencing method. The results show that 132 genes were significantly differentially expressed between transgenic mice and wild-type control mice; 97 of these genes were up-regulated, and 35 genes were down-regulated in the skeletal muscle. Several genes that had not been reported to be involved in muscle hypertrophy were identified, including up-regulated myosin binding protein H (mybph), and zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (Zmpste24). In addition, kyphoscoliosis peptidase (Ky), which plays a vital role in muscle growth, was also up-regulated in the transgenic mice. Interestingly, a pathway analysis based on grouping the differentially expressed genes uncovered that cardiomyopathy-related pathways and phosphatidic acid (PA) pathways (Dgki, Dgkz, Plcd4) were up-regulated. Increased PA signaling may increase mTOR signaling, resulting in skeletal muscle growth. The findings of the RNA sequencing analysis help to understand the molecular mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy caused by MSTN inhibition.

  10. RNA Sequencing Identifies Upregulated Kyphoscoliosis Peptidase and Phosphatidic Acid Signaling Pathways in Muscle Hypertrophy Generated by Transgenic Expression of Myostatin Propeptide

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yuanxin; Yang, Jinzeng; Xu, Zhong; Jing, Lu; Zhao, Shuhong; Li, Xinyun

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, plays a crucial negative role in muscle growth. MSTN mutations or inhibitions can dramatically increase muscle mass in most mammal species. Previously, we generated a transgenic mouse model of muscle hypertrophy via the transgenic expression of the MSTN N-terminal propeptide cDNA under the control of the skeletal muscle-specific MLC1 promoter. Here, we compare the mRNA profiles between transgenic mice and wild-type littermate controls with a high-throughput RNA sequencing method. The results show that 132 genes were significantly differentially expressed between transgenic mice and wild-type control mice; 97 of these genes were up-regulated, and 35 genes were down-regulated in the skeletal muscle. Several genes that had not been reported to be involved in muscle hypertrophy were identified, including up-regulated myosin binding protein H (mybph), and zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (Zmpste24). In addition, kyphoscoliosis peptidase (Ky), which plays a vital role in muscle growth, was also up-regulated in the transgenic mice. Interestingly, a pathway analysis based on grouping the differentially expressed genes uncovered that cardiomyopathy-related pathways and phosphatidic acid (PA) pathways (Dgki, Dgkz, Plcd4) were up-regulated. Increased PA signaling may increase mTOR signaling, resulting in skeletal muscle growth. The findings of the RNA sequencing analysis help to understand the molecular mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy caused by MSTN inhibition. PMID:25860951

  11. Full amino acid sequence of centrally administered NPY required for maximal food intake response.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C L; Tou, J S; Rogan, G J; Baile, C A

    1991-03-01

    Central administration of NPY (1-36) potently increases food intake and it has been hypothesized that biological activities of NPY are related to its ability to form an alpha-helix, represented by the fragment NPY (14-31). In this experiment the necessity of N-terminal fragments for increasing food intake was evaluated. Two-h fasted male rats were administered 0, 0.2, 1.0 or 5.0 nmol NPY (1-36) or NPY fragments in 5 microliters saline ICV and intake of lab chow pellets was measured for 22 h. Fragments containing all or part of the polyproline-like helix [NPY (1-8)] antiparallel to the alpha-helix dose-relatedly increased food intake for 4 hours after injection. Five nmol NPY (1-36) and NPY (2-36) increased 4-hour food intake 486 and 219%, respectively (p less than 0.05). Fragments excluding the first 8 amino acids but including all of the alpha-helix also increased food intake, but the response was much reduced. Five nmol NPY (9-36) and NPY (14-36) increased 4-hour food intake 128% (p = 0.02) and 62% (NS), respectively. When all or part of the alpha-helix was excluded, no activity was detected, i.e., NPY (21-36) and NPY (32-36). Substitution of dPro for lPro in position 2 increased potency but not efficacy of NPY since food intake was increased at the 0.2 and 1.0 but not 5.0 nmol doses and the percent increase was not more than to 5 nmol NPY (1-36). Thus the maximum food intake response to NPY requires both C-terminal and N-terminal fragments as well as the alpha-helix.

  12. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S.; Renard, Emmanuelle; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A.; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence of a major dimorphic region in the functionally critical N-terminal ID1 domain. Parasite isolates expressing VAR2CSA with particular motifs present within this domain are associated with gravidity- and parasite density-related effects. These observations are of particular interest in guiding efforts with respect to optimization of the VAR2CSA-based vaccines currently under development. PMID:26393516

  13. Improvement of the catalytic performance of a Bispora antennata cellulase by replacing the N-terminal semi-barrel structure.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fei; Huang, Huoqing; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tu, Tao; Liu, Qiong; Meng, Kun; Wang, Yuan; Su, Xiaoyun; Xie, Xiangming; Luo, Huiying

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the contribution of the N-terminal structure to cellulase catalytic performance. A wild-type cellulase (BaCel5) of glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 5 from Bispora antennata and two hybrid enzymes (BaCel5(127) and BaCel5(167)) with replacement of the N-terminal (βα)3 (127 residues) or (βα)4 (167 residues)-barrel with the corresponding sequences of TeEgl5A from Talaromyces emersonii were produced in Pichia pastoris and biochemically characterized. BaCel5 exhibited optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 50°C but had low catalytic efficiency (25.4±0.8mLs(-1)mg(-1)). In contrast, BaCel5(127) and BaCel5(167) showed similar enzymatic properties but improved catalytic performance. When using CMC-Na, barley β-glucan, lichenan, and cellooligosaccharides as substrates, BaCel5(127) and BaCel5(167) had increased specific activities and catalytic efficiencies by ∼1.8-6.7-fold and ∼1.0-4.7-fold, respectively. The catalytic efficiency of BaCel5(167) was even higher than that of parental proteins. The underlying mechanism was analyzed by molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation.

  14. Depletion of the human N-terminal acetyltransferase hNaa30 disrupts Golgi integrity and ARFRP1-localization.

    PubMed

    Kobbenes Starheim, Kristian; Kalvik, Thomas Vikestad; Bjørkøy, Geir; Arnesen, Thomas

    2017-03-29

    The organization of the Golgi apparatus is tightly regulated. Golgi stack scattering is observed in cellular processes such as apoptosis and mitosis, and has also been associated with disruption of cellular lipid metabolism, and neurodegenerative diseases. Our studies show that depletion of the human N-α-acetyltransferase 30 (hNaa30) induces fragmentation of the Golgi stack in HeLa and CAL-62 cell lines. The Golgi apparatus-associated GTPase ARFRP1 was previously shown to require N-terminal acetylation for membrane association, and based on its N-terminal sequence it is likely to be a substrate of hNaa30. ARFRP1 is involved in endosome-to- trans- Golgi Network traffic. We observed that ARFRP1 shifted from a predominantly cis- Golgi and trans- Golgi Network localization to localizing both to the Golgi and to non-Golgi vesicular structures in hNaa30-depleted cells. However, we did not observe loss of membrane association of ARFRP1. We conclude that hNaa30-depletion induces Golgi-scattering, and induces aberrant ARFRP1 Golgi-localization.

  15. The N-terminal Part of Arabidopsis thaliana Starch Synthase 4 Determines the Localization and Activity of the Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, Sandy; Ragel, Paula; Rojas, Tomás; Mérida, Ángel

    2016-05-13

    Starch synthase 4 (SS4) plays a specific role in starch synthesis because it controls the number of starch granules synthesized in the chloroplast and is involved in the initiation of the starch granule. We showed previously that SS4 interacts with fibrillins 1 and is associated with plastoglobules, suborganelle compartments physically attached to the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts. Both SS4 localization and its interaction with fibrillins 1 were mediated by the N-terminal part of SS4. Here we show that the coiled-coil region within the N-terminal portion of SS4 is involved in both processes. Elimination of this region prevents SS4 from binding to fibrillins 1 and alters SS4 localization in the chloroplast. We also show that SS4 forms dimers, which depends on a region located between the coiled-coil region and the glycosyltransferase domain of SS4. This region is highly conserved between all SS4 enzymes sequenced to date. We show that the dimerization seems to be necessary for the activity of the enzyme. Both dimerization and the functionality of the coiled-coil region are conserved among SS4 proteins from phylogenetically distant species, such as Arabidopsis and Brachypodium This finding suggests that the mechanism of action of SS4 is conserved among different plant species.

  16. The similarity between N-terminal targeting signals for protein import into different organelles and its evolutionary relevance

    PubMed Central

    Kunze, Markus; Berger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The proper distribution of proteins between the cytosol and various membrane-bound compartments is crucial for the functionality of eukaryotic cells. This requires the cooperation between protein transport machineries that translocate diverse proteins from the cytosol into these compartments and targeting signal(s) encoded within the primary sequence of these proteins that define their cellular destination. The mechanisms exerting protein translocation differ remarkably between the compartments, but the predominant targeting signals for mitochondria, chloroplasts and the ER share the N-terminal position, an α-helical structural element and the removal from the core protein by intraorganellar cleavage. Interestingly, similar properties have been described for the peroxisomal targeting signal type 2 mediating the import of a fraction of soluble peroxisomal proteins, whereas other peroxisomal matrix proteins encode the type 1 targeting signal residing at the extreme C-terminus. The structural similarity of N-terminal targeting signals poses a challenge to the specificity of protein transport, but allows the generation of ambiguous targeting signals that mediate dual targeting of proteins into different compartments. Dual targeting might represent an advantage for adaptation processes that involve a redistribution of proteins, because it circumvents the hierarchy of targeting signals. Thus, the co-existence of two equally functional import pathways into peroxisomes might reflect a balance between evolutionary constant and flexible transport routes. PMID:26441678

  17. Functional characterization of heat-shock protein 90 from Oryza sativa and crystal structure of its N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Raman, Swetha; Suguna, Kaza

    2015-06-01

    Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that is essential for the normal functioning of eukaryotic cells. It plays crucial roles in cell signalling, cell-cycle control and in maintaining proteome integrity and protein homeostasis. In plants, Hsp90s are required for normal plant growth and development. Hsp90s are observed to be upregulated in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses and are also involved in immune responses in plants. Although there are several studies elucidating the physiological role of Hsp90s in plants, their molecular mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, biochemical characterization of an Hsp90 protein from rice (Oryza sativa; OsHsp90) has been performed and the crystal structure of its N-terminal domain (OsHsp90-NTD) was determined. The binding of OsHsp90 to its substrate ATP and the inhibitor 17-AAG was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. The protein also exhibited a weak ATPase activity. The crystal structure of OsHsp90-NTD was solved in complex with the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue AMPPCP at 3.1 Å resolution. The domain was crystallized by cross-seeding with crystals of the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 from Dictyostelium discoideum, which shares 70% sequence identity with OsHsp90-NTD. This is the second reported structure of a domain of Hsp90 from a plant source.

  18. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. 1.822 Section 1.822 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.822 Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. (a) The symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data...

  19. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. 1.822 Section 1.822 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.822 Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. (a) The symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data...

  20. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. 1.822 Section 1.822 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.822 Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. (a) The symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data...

  1. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. 1.822 Section 1.822 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.822 Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. (a) The symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data...

  2. 37 CFR 1.822 - Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. 1.822 Section 1.822 Patents, Trademarks, and... Amino Acid Sequences § 1.822 Symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data. (a) The symbols and format to be used for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data...

  3. Functional and computational analysis of amino acid patterns predictive of type III secretion system substrates in Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs) deliver proteins called effectors into eukaryotic cells. Although N-terminal amino acid sequences are required for translocation, the mechanism of substrate recognition by the T3SS is unknown. Almost all actively deployed T3SS substrates in the plant path...

  4. Dissecting functions of the N-terminal domain and GAS-site recognition in STAT3 nuclear trafficking.

    PubMed

    Martincuks, Antons; Fahrenkamp, Dirk; Haan, Serge; Herrmann, Andreas; Küster, Andrea; Müller-Newen, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in many biological processes, including hematopoiesis, inflammation and cancer progression. Cytokine-induced gene transcription greatly depends on tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 on a single tyrosine residue with subsequent nuclear accumulation and specific DNA sequence (GAS) recognition. In this study, we analyzed the roles of the conserved STAT3 N-terminal domain (NTD) and GAS-element binding ability of STAT3 in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Our results demonstrate the nonessential role of GAS-element recognition for both cytokine-induced and basal nuclear import of STAT3. Substitution of five key amino acids within the DNA-binding domain rendered STAT3 unable to bind to GAS-elements while still maintaining the ability for nuclear localization. In turn, deletion of the NTD markedly decreased nuclear accumulation upon IL-6 treatment resulting in a prolonged accumulation of phosphorylated dimers in the cytoplasm, at the same time preserving specific DNA recognition ability of the truncation mutant. Observed defect in nuclear localization could not be explained by flawed importin-α binding, since both wild-type and NTD deletion mutant of STAT3 could precipitate both full-length and autoinhibitory domain (∆IBB) deletion mutants of importin-α5, as well as ∆IBB-α3 and ∆IBB-α7 isoforms independently of IL-6 stimulation. Despite its inability to translocate to the nucleus upon IL-6 stimulation, the NTD lacking mutant still showed nuclear accumulation in resting cells similar to wild-type upon inhibition of nuclear export by leptomycin B. At the same time, blocking the nuclear export pathway could not rescue cytoplasmic trapping of phosphorylated STAT3 molecules without NTD. Moreover, STAT3 mutant with dysfunctional SH2 domain (R609Q) also localized in the nucleus of unstimulated cells after nuclear export blocking, while upon cytokine treatment the

  5. Intracellular membrane association of the N-terminal domain of classical swine fever virus NS4B determines viral genome replication and virulence.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomokazu; Ruggli, Nicolas; Nagashima, Naofumi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Igarashi, Manabu; Mine, Junki; Hofmann, Martin A; Liniger, Matthias; Summerfield, Artur; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly contagious disease in pigs that can range from a severe haemorrhagic fever to a nearly unapparent disease, depending on the virulence of the virus strain. Little is known about the viral molecular determinants of CSFV virulence. The nonstructural protein NS4B is essential for viral replication. However, the roles of CSFV NS4B in viral genome replication and pathogenesis have not yet been elucidated. NS4B of the GPE-  vaccine strain and of the highly virulent Eystrup strain differ by a total of seven amino acid residues, two of which are located in the predicted trans-membrane domains of NS4B and were described previously to relate to virulence, and five residues clustering in the N-terminal part. In the present study, we examined the potential role of these five amino acids in modulating genome replication and determining pathogenicity in pigs. A chimeric low virulent GPE- -derived virus carrying the complete Eystrup NS4B showed enhanced pathogenicity in pigs. The in vitro replication efficiency of the NS4B chimeric GPE-  replicon was significantly higher than that of the replicon carrying only the two Eystrup-specific amino acids in NS4B. In silico and in vitro data suggest that the N-terminal part of NS4B forms an amphipathic α-helix structure. The N-terminal NS4B with these five amino acid residues is associated with the intracellular membranes. Taken together, this is the first gain-of-function study showing that the N-terminal domain of NS4B can determine CSFV genome replication in cell culture and viral pathogenicity in pigs.

  6. Human retroviruses and AIDS 1996. A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.; Foley, B.; Korber, B.; Mellors, J.W.; Jeang, K.T.; Wain-Hobson, S.

    1997-04-01

    This compendium and the accompanying floppy diskettes are the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts that it comprises: (1) Nuclear Acid Alignments and Sequences; (2) Amino Acid Alignments; (3) Analysis; (4) Related Sequences; and (5) Database Communications. Information within all the parts is updated throughout the year on the Web site, http://hiv-web.lanl.gov. While this publication could take the form of a review or sequence monograph, it is not so conceived. Instead, the literature from which the database is derived has simply been summarized and some elementary computational analyses have been performed upon the data. Interpretation and commentary have been avoided insofar as possible so that the reader can form his or her own judgments concerning the complex information. In addition to the general descriptions of the parts of the compendium, the user should read the individual introductions for each part.

  7. Autocatalytic activity and substrate specificity of the pestivirus N-terminal protease N{sup pro}

    SciTech Connect

    Gottipati, Keerthi; Acholi, Sudheer; Ruggli, Nicolas; Choi, Kyung H.

    2014-03-15

    Pestivirus N{sup pro} is the first protein translated in the viral polypeptide, and cleaves itself off co-translationally generating the N-terminus of the core protein. Once released, N{sup pro} blocks the host's interferon response by inducing degradation of interferon regulatory factor-3. N{sup pro'}s intracellular autocatalytic activity and lack of trans-activity have hampered in vitro cleavage studies to establish its substrate specificity and the roles of individual residues. We constructed N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins that carry the authentic cleavage site and determined the autoproteolytic activities of N{sup pro} proteins containing substitutions at the predicted catalytic sites Glu22 and Cys69, at Arg100 that forms a salt bridge with Glu22, and at the cleavage site Cys168. Contrary to previous reports, we show that N{sup pro'}s catalytic activity does not involve Glu22, which may instead be involved in protein stability. Furthermore, N{sup pro} does not have specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site even though this residue is conserved throughout the pestivirus genus. - Highlights: • N{sup pro'}s autoproteolysis is studied using N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins. • N-terminal 17 amino acids are dispensable without loss of protease activity. • The putative catalytic residue Glu22 is not involved in protease catalysis. • No specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site despite evolutionary conservation. • N{sup pro} prefers small amino acids with non-branched beta carbons at the P1 position.

  8. Nested N-terminal megalin fragments induce high-titer autoantibody and attenuated Heymann nephritis.

    PubMed

    Tramontano, Alfonso; Knight, Thomas; Vizzuso, Domenica; Makker, Sudesh P

    2006-07-01

    It was shown previously that an N-terminal fragment (nM60) that encompasses amino acid residues 1 to 563 of megalin could induce active Heymann nephritis (AHN) as efficiently as the native protein. For delineation of a minimal structure within this fragment that is sufficient to induce AHN, smaller protein fragments that encompass residues 1 to 236 (L6), 1 to 195 (L5), 1 to 156 (L4), and 1 to 120 (L3), representing successive C-terminal truncations within ligand-binding repeats of nM60, were cloned and produced in a baculovirus insect cell expression system. Protein fragments L4, L5, and L6 clearly were glycosylated. All four fragments stimulated proliferation of megalin-sensitized lymph node cells and induced high-titer anti-megalin autoantibodies in Lewis rats. A full-blown disease, as assessed by severity of proteinuria, was observed in rats that were immunized with L6 and L5, whereas animals that were immunized with L4 and L3 developed only mild disease. The proteinuria levels correlated with staining for complement (C3, C5b-9) and IgG1 isotype in glomerular immune deposits. The results suggest that one or more molecular determinants on the region that comprises amino acid residues 157 to 236 contribute to the induction of a full-blown form of AHN. Study of the structure, conformation, and posttranslational modifications of these determinants could provide greater insight into the molecular correlates of immunopathogenesis in this disease model.

  9. Histone H3 N-terminal mutations allow hyperactivation of the yeast GAL1 gene in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, R K; Grunstein, M

    1992-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the yeast histone H4 N-terminus, while not essential for viability, is required for repression of the silent mating loci and activation of GAL1 and PHO5 promoters. Because histone H3 shares many structural features with histone H4 and is intimately associated with H4 in the assembled nucleosome, we asked whether H3 has similar functions. While the basic N-terminal domain of H3 is found to be non-essential (deletion of residues 4-40 of this 135 amino acid protein allows viability), its removal has only a minor effect on mating. Surprisingly, both deletions (of residues 4-15) and acetylation site substitutions (at residues 9, 14 and 18) within the N-terminus of H3 allow hyperactivation of the GAL1 promoter as well as a number of other GAL4-regulated genes including GAL2, GAL7 and GAL10. To a limited extent glucose repression is also alleviated by H3 N-terminal deletions. Expression of another inducible promoter, PHO5, is shown to be relatively unaffected. We conclude that the H3 and H4 N-termini have different functions in both the repression of the silent mating loci and in the regulation of GAL1. Images PMID:1505519

  10. The serine 106 residue within the N-terminal transactivation domain is crucial for Oct4 function in mice.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Atsushi; Fukuda, Atsushi; Miyashita, Toshiyuki; Umezawa, Akihiro; Akutsu, Hidenori

    2017-03-07

    Pou5f1/Oct4 is a key transcription factor for the induction of pluripotency and totipotency in preimplantation mouse embryos. In mice, loss or gain of function experiments have demonstrated an important role for Oct4 in preimplantation and developmental ability. In this study, using mouse preimplantation embryos as a model for the evaluation of Oct4 function, we constructed Oct4 overexpression embryos with various mutations at the N-terminal transactivation domain. Developmental competency and molecular biological phenotypes depended on the type of mutation. The replacement of serine 106 with alanine resulted in more severe phenotypes similar to that of wild type Oct4, indicating that this alteration using alanine is negligible for Oct4 function. In contrast, we found that Oct4-specific antibodies could not recognize Oct4 protein when this residue was replaced by aspartic acid (Oct4-S106D). Oct4-S106D overexpressing embryos did not show developmental arrest and aberrant chromatin structure. Thus, these results demonstrated that the Ser-106 residue within the N-terminal transactivation domain is crucial for Oct4 function and suggested that this mutation might affect Oct4 protein conformation.

  11. Transcriptome Sequencing in Response to Salicylic Acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Dong, Juane; Liu, Hailong; Wang, Jiao; Qi, Yuexin; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, whose quality and yield are often affected by diseases and environmental stresses during its growing season. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a significant role in plants responding to biotic and abiotic stresses, but the involved regulatory factors and their signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. In order to identify the genes involved in SA signaling, the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) strategy was employed to evaluate the transcriptional profiles in S. miltiorrhiza cell cultures. A total of 50,778 unigenes were assembled, in which 5,316 unigenes were differentially expressed among 0-, 2-, and 8-h SA induction. The up-regulated genes were mainly involved in stimulus response and multi-organism process. A core set of candidate novel genes coding SA signaling component proteins was identified. Many transcription factors (e.g., WRKY, bHLH and GRAS) and genes involved in hormone signal transduction were differentially expressed in response to SA induction. Detailed analysis revealed that genes associated with defense signaling, such as antioxidant system genes, cytochrome P450s and ATP-binding cassette transporters, were significantly overexpressed, which can be used as genetic tools to investigate disease resistance. Our transcriptome analysis will help understand SA signaling and its mechanism of defense systems in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:26808150

  12. A basic motif in the N-terminal region of RAG1 enhances V(D)J recombination activity.

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, C J; Difilippantonio, M J; Rao, N; Spanopoulou, E; Schatz, D G

    1997-01-01

    The variable portions of antigen receptor genes are assembled from component gene segments by a site-specific recombination reaction known as V(D)J recombination. The RAG1 and RAG2 proteins are the critical lymphoid cell-specific components of the recombination enzymatic machinery and are responsible for site-specific DNA recognition and cleavage. Previous studies had defined a minimal, recombinationally active core region of murine RAG1 consisting of amino acids 384 to 1008 of the 1,040-residue RAG1 protein. No recombination function has heretofore been ascribed to any portion of the 383-amino-acid N-terminal region that is missing from the core, but it seems likely to be of functional significance, based on its evolutionary conservation. Using extrachromosomal recombination substrates, we demonstrate here that the N-terminal region enhances the recombination activity of RAG1 by up to an order of magnitude in a variety of cell lines. Deletion analysis localized a region of the N terminus critical for this effect to amino acids 216 to 238, and further mutagenesis demonstrated that a small basic amino acid motif (BIIa) in this region is essential for enhancing the activity of RAG1. Despite the fact that BIIa is important for the interaction of RAG1 with the nuclear localization factor Srp-1, it does not appear to enhance recombination by facilitating nuclear transport of RAG1. A variety of models for how this region stimulates the recombination activity of RAG1 are considered. PMID:9234712

  13. Structural transitions in full-length human prion protein detected by xenon as probe and spin labeling of the N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sunilkumar Puthenpurackal; Nair, Divya Gopalakrishnan; Schaal, Daniel; Barbosa de Aguiar, Marisa; Wenzel, Sabine; Kremer, Werner; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2016-01-01

    Fatal neurodegenerative disorders termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are associated with the accumulation of fibrils of misfolded prion protein PrP. The noble gas xenon accommodates into four transiently enlarged hydrophobic cavities located in the well-folded core of human PrP(23–230) as detected by [1H, 15N]-HSQC spectroscopy. In thermal equilibrium a fifth xenon binding site is formed transiently by amino acids A120 to L125 of the presumably disordered N-terminal domain and by amino acids K185 to T193 of the well-folded domain. Xenon bound PrP was modelled by restraint molecular dynamics. The individual microscopic and macroscopic dissociation constants could be derived by fitting the data to a model including a dynamic opening and closing of the cavities. As observed earlier by high pressure NMR spectroscopy xenon binding influences also other amino acids all over the N-terminal domain including residues of the AGAAAAGA motif indicating a structural coupling between the N-terminal domain and the core domain. This is in agreement with spin labelling experiments at positions 93 or 107 that show a transient interaction between the N-terminus and the start of helix 2 and the end of helix 3 of the core domain similar to that observed earlier by Zn2+-binding to the octarepeat motif. PMID:27341298

  14. Structural transitions in full-length human prion protein detected by xenon as probe and spin labeling of the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sunilkumar Puthenpurackal; Nair, Divya Gopalakrishnan; Schaal, Daniel; Barbosa de Aguiar, Marisa; Wenzel, Sabine; Kremer, Werner; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2016-06-24

    Fatal neurodegenerative disorders termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are associated with the accumulation of fibrils of misfolded prion protein PrP. The noble gas xenon accommodates into four transiently enlarged hydrophobic cavities located in the well-folded core of human PrP(23-230) as detected by [(1)H, (15)N]-HSQC spectroscopy. In thermal equilibrium a fifth xenon binding site is formed transiently by amino acids A120 to L125 of the presumably disordered N-terminal domain and by amino acids K185 to T193 of the well-folded domain. Xenon bound PrP was modelled by restraint molecular dynamics. The individual microscopic and macroscopic dissociation constants could be derived by fitting the data to a model including a dynamic opening and closing of the cavities. As observed earlier by high pressure NMR spectroscopy xenon binding influences also other amino acids all over the N-terminal domain including residues of the AGAAAAGA motif indicating a structural coupling between the N-terminal domain and the core domain. This is in agreement with spin labelling experiments at positions 93 or 107 that show a transient interaction between the N-terminus and the start of helix 2 and the end of helix 3 of the core domain similar to that observed earlier by Zn(2+)-binding to the octarepeat motif.

  15. N-terminal extension of the yeast IA3 aspartic proteinase inhibitor relaxes the strict intrinsic selectivity.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Phylip, Lowri H; Bur, Daniel; Wyatt, David M; Berry, Colin; Kay, John

    2007-07-01

    Yeast IA(3) aspartic proteinase inhibitor operates through an unprecedented mechanism and exhibits a remarkable specificity for one target enzyme, saccharopepsin. Even aspartic proteinases that are very closely similar to saccharopepsin (e.g. the vacuolar enzyme from Pichia pastoris) are not susceptible to significant inhibition. The Pichia proteinase was selected as the target for initial attempts to engineer IA(3) to re-design the specificity. The IA(3) polypeptides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces castellii differ considerably in sequence. Alterations made by deletion or exchange of the residues in the C-terminal segment of these polypeptides had only minor effects. By contrast, extension of each of these wild-type and chimaeric polypeptides at its N-terminus by an MK(H)(7)MQ sequence generated inhibitors that displayed subnanomolar potency towards the Pichia enzyme. This gain-in-function was completely reversed upon removal of the extension sequence by exopeptidase trimming. Capture of the potentially positively charged aromatic histidine residues of the extension by remote, negatively charged side-chains, which were identified in the Pichia enzyme by modelling, may increase the local IA(3) concentration and create an anchor that enables the N-terminal segment residues to be harboured in closer proximity to the enzyme active site, thus promoting their interaction. In saccharopepsin, some of the counterpart residues are different and, consistent with this, the N-terminal extension of each IA(3) polypeptide was without major effect on the potency of interaction with saccharopepsin. In this way, it is possible to convert IA(3) polypeptides that display little affinity for the Pichia enzyme into potent inhibitors of this proteinase and thus broaden the target selectivity of this remarkable small protein.

  16. Fine Mapping of Pre-S Sequence Requirements for Hepatitis B Virus Large Envelope Protein-Mediated Receptor Interaction▿

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Andreas; Schieck, Alexa; Ni, Yi; Mier, Walter; Urban, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the N-terminal 75 amino acids of the pre-S1 domain of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) L protein are essential for HBV and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infectivity. Consistently, synthetic lipopeptides encompassing this sequence or only parts of it efficiently block HBV and HDV infection, presumably through specific interference with a cellular receptor. Crucial for both virus infectivity and the inhibitory activity of the peptides are N-terminal myristoylation and a highly conserved motif within the N-terminal 48 amino acids. To refine the sequence requirements, we synthesized a series of HBV pre-S1 peptides containing deletions, point mutations, d-amino acid exchanges, or genotype-specific sequence permutations. Using the HepaRG cell line and a genotype D-derived virus, we determined the specific inhibitory activities of the peptides and found that (i) lipopeptides with an artificial consensus sequence inhibit HBV genotype D infection more potently than the corresponding genotype D peptides; (ii) point mutations, d-amino acid exchanges, or deletions introduced into the highly conserved part of the pre-S1 domain result in an almost complete loss of activity; and (iii) the flanking sequences comprising amino acids 2 to 8, 16 to 20, and, to a less pronounced extent, 34 to 48 gradually increase the inhibitory activity, while amino acids 21 to 33 behave indifferently. Taken together, our data suggest that HBV pre-S1-mediated receptor interference and, thus, HBV receptor recognition form a highly specific process. It requires an N-terminal acyl moiety and a highly conserved sequence that is present in primate but not rodent or avian hepadnaviruses, indicating different entry pathways for the different family members. PMID:20007265

  17. Cloning, phenotypic expression, and DNA sequence of the gene for lactacin F, an antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Muriana, P M; Klaenhammer, T R

    1991-01-01

    Lactacin F is a heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus 11088. A 63-mer oligonucleotide probe deduced from the N-terminal lactacin F amino acid sequence was used to clone the putative laf structural gene from plasmid DNA of a lactacin F-producing transconjugant, L. acidophilus T143. One clone, NCK360, harbored a recombinant plasmid, pTRK160, which contained a 2.2-kb EcoRI fragment of the size expected from hybridization experiments. An Escherichia coli-L. acidophilus shuttle vector was constructed, and a subclone (pTRK162) containing the 2.2-kb EcoRI fragment was introduced by electroporation into two lactacin F-negative strains, L. acidophilus 89 and 88-C. Lactobacillus transformants containing pTRK162 expressed lactacin F activity and immunity. Bacteriocin produced by the transformants exhibited an inhibitory spectrum and heat stability identical to those of the wild-type bacteriocin. An 873-bp region of the 2.2-kb fragment was sequenced by using a 20-mer degenerate lactacin F-specific primer to initiate sequencing from within the lactacin F structural gene. Analysis of the resulting sequence identified an open reading frame which could encode a protein of 75 amino acids. The 25 N-terminal amino acids for lactacin F were identified within the open reading frame along with an N-terminal extension, possibly a signal sequence. The lactacin F N-terminal sequence, through the remainder of the open reading frame (57 amino acids; 6.3 kDa), correlated extremely well with composition analyses of purified lactacin F which also predicted a size of 51 to 56 amino acid residues. Molecular characterization of lactacin F identified a small hydrophobic peptide that may be representative of a common bacteriocin class in lactic acid bacteria. Images PMID:1900281

  18. Human retroviruses and aids, 1992. A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.; Korber, B.; Berzofsky, J.A.; Pavlakis, G.N.; Smith, R.F.

    1992-10-01

    This compendium and the accompanying floppy diskettes are the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts that it comprises: (1) HIV and SIV Nucleotide Sequences; (H) Amino Acid Sequences; (III) Analyses; (IV) Related Sequences; and (V) Database Communications. information within all the parts is updated at least twice in each year, which accounts for the modes of binding and pagination in the compendium. While this publication could take the form of a review or sequence monograph, it is not so conceived. Instead, the literature from which the database is derived has simply been summarized and some elementary computational analyses have been performed upon the data. Interpretation and commentary have been avoided insofar as possible so that the reader can form his or her own judgments concerning the complex information. In addition to the general descriptions below of the parts of the compendium, the user should read the individual introductions for each part.

  19. Mechanochemical tuning of myosin-I by the N-terminal region

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael J.; Lin, Tianming; Shuman, Henry; Ostap, E. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Myosins are molecular motors that generate force to power a wide array of motile cellular functions. Myosins have the inherent ability to change their ATPase kinetics and force-generating properties when they encounter mechanical loads; however, little is known about the structural elements in myosin responsible for force sensing. Recent structural and biophysical studies have shown that myosin-I isoforms, Myosin-Ib (Myo1b) and Myosin-Ic (Myo1c), have similar unloaded kinetics and sequences but substantially different responses to forces that resist their working strokes. Myo1b has the properties of a tension-sensing anchor, slowing its actin-detachment kinetics by two orders of magnitude with just 1 pN of resisting force, whereas Myo1c has the properties of a slow transporter, generating power without slowing under 1-pN loads that would stall Myo1b. To examine the structural elements that lead to differences in force sensing, we used single-molecule and ensemble kinetic techniques to show that the myosin-I N-terminal region (NTR) plays a critical role in tuning myosin-I mechanochemistry. We found that replacing the Myo1c NTR with the Myo1b NTR changes the identity of the primary force-sensitive transition of Myo1c, resulting in sensitivity to forces of <2 pN. Additionally, we found that the NTR plays an important role in stabilizing the post–power-stroke conformation. These results identify the NTR as an important structural element in myosin force sensing and suggest a mechanism for generating diversity of function among myosin isoforms. PMID:26056287

  20. Mutation of the N-Terminal Region of Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein: Implications for Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Zaid, Ali; Goh, Lucas Y. H.; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Hall, Roy A.; Merits, Andres

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleolus. In encephalitic alphaviruses, nuclear translocation induces host cell transcriptional shutoff; however, the role of capsid protein nucleolar localization in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged expression constructs and CHIKV infectious clones, we describe a nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein, previously uncharacterized in CHIKV. Mutation of the NoLS by site-directed mutagenesis reduced efficiency of nuclear import of CHIKV capsid protein. In the virus, mutation of the capsid protein NoLS (CHIKV-NoLS) attenuated replication in mammalian and mosquito cells, producing a small-plaque phenotype. Attenuation of CHIKV-NoLS is likely due to disruption of the viral replication cycle downstream of viral RNA synthesis. In mice, CHIKV-NoLS infection caused no disease signs compared to wild-type CHIKV (CHIKV-WT)-infected mice; lack of disease signs correlated with significantly reduced viremia and decreased expression of proinflammatory factors. Mice immunized with CHIKV-NoLS, challenged with CHIKV-WT at 30 days postimmunization, develop no disease signs and no detectable viremia. Serum from CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice is able to efficiently neutralize CHIKV infection in vitro. Additionally, CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice challenged with the related alphavirus Ross River virus showed reduced early and peak viremia postchallenge, indicating a cross-protective effect. The high degree of CHIKV-NoLS attenuation may improve CHIKV antiviral and rational vaccine design. PMID:28223458

  1. Completion of the amino acid sequence of the alpha 1 chain from type I calf skin collagen. Amino acid sequence of alpha 1(I)B8.

    PubMed Central

    Glanville, R W; Breitkreutz, D; Meitinger, M; Fietzek, P P

    1983-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the 279-residue CNBr peptide CB8 from the alpha 1 chain of type I calf skin collagen is presented. It was determined by sequencing overlapping fragments of CB8 produced by Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, trypsin, Endoproteinase Arg-C and hydroxylamine. Tryptic cleavages were also made specific for lysine by blocking arginine residues with cyclohexane-1,2-dione. This completes the amino acid sequence analysis of the 1054-residues-long alpha (I) chain of calf skin collagen. PMID:6354180

  2. Deletion of the N-terminal region of the AREA protein is correlated with a derepressed phenotype with respect to nitrogen metabolite repression.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, H K; Dodds, A L; Swatman, D R; Cairns, E; Hawkins, A R

    1997-01-01

    The entire areA gene and a truncated version lacking the sequence encoding the N-terminal 389 amino acids were expressed from the qutE promoter and terminator in an Aspergillus nidulans strain with the endogenous areA gene deleted. This expression system was used to decouple the effects of transcription regulation and mRNA stability mediated by the native promoter and terminator from any posttranslational modulation of AREA activity. Both the full-length AREA protein and the truncated form were able to function in the deletion strain, conferring the ability to use alternate nitrogen sources. Transformants containing the entire areA gene had a repressible phenotype with respect to nitrogen metabolite repression, whereas those containing the truncated form of the areA gene had a derepressed phenotype. The truncated areA gene was expressed in an A. nidulans strain containing a normally regulated wild-type areA gene, and transformants displayed a quinate-inducible nitrogen metabolite derepressed phenotype. Northern blot analysis of transformed strains showed that areA-specific mRNAs of the expected sizes were being produced. The truncated AREA protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein and purified to homogeneity by a single-step immobilized metal affinity chromatography, and the purified protein was shown to bind specifically to the niaD promoter. Revised sequences of the 5' region of the areA gene and the entire meaB gene are reported. PMID:9352912

  3. Engineering, cloning, and functional characterization of recombinant LIM mineralization protein-1 containing an N-terminal HIV-derived membrane transduction domain.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, Sreedhara; Okada, Motohiro; Liu, Yunshan; Viggeswarapu, Manjula; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

    2009-06-01

    Short peptide sequences known as protein transduction domains have become increasingly prevalent as tools to internalize molecules that would otherwise remain extracellular. Here, we determine whether a purified recombinant mammalian intracellular osteogenic factor delivered by a HIV-derived TAT-peptide tag is indeed capable of intracellular localization in a form accessible to interaction with other proteins. We engineered and bacterially expressed a TAT-fusion-cDNA construct of a known osteogenic factor, LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) involved in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway that has the potential to serve as an enhancer of BMP-2 efficacy. The expressed recombinant protein contains an N-terminal (His)(6)-tag, a hemagglutinin(HA)-tag, and an 11-amino acid HIV-derived TAT-membrane transduction domain and was purified to homogeneity by Sephacryl S-100 molecular exclusion and Ni(2+)-affinity chromatography. The purified TAT-LMP-1 protein was chemically labeled with fluorescein, and its time and concentration dependent entry into rabbit blood cells was monitored by flow cytometry. We demonstrate the accumulation of TAT-tagged LMP-1 both in cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. By performing affinity pull-down assays, we confirm our earlier findings that the recombinant TAT-LMP-1, when used as molecular bait to identify the intracellular binding proteins, interacts with Smurf1, a known binding partner of LMP-1. We also show potentiation of BMP-2 activity using the purified TAT-LMP-1 in mouse muscle C2C12 cells by assaying a heterologous luciferase-reporter construct containing multiple copies of a BMP-responsive sequence motif. Finally, we also confirm the biological activity of the purified TAT-LMP-1 by showing enhancement of BMP-2 induced increase of alkaline phosphatase mRNA and protein by RT-PCR and enzyme activity, respectively.

  4. Doublet N-Terminal Oriented Proteomics for N-Terminomics and Proteolytic Processing Identification.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Benoit; Jacome, Alvaro Sebastian Vaca; Rompais, Magali; Carapito, Christine; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The study of the N-terminome and the precise identification of proteolytic processing events are key in biology. Dedicated methodologies have been developed as the comprehensive characterization of the N-terminome can hardly be achieved by standard proteomics methods. In this context, we have set up a trimethoxyphenyl phosphonium (TMPP) labeling approach that allows the characterization of both N-terminal and internal digestion peptides in a single experiment. This latter point is a major advantage of our strategy as most N-terminomics methods rely on the enrichment of N-terminal peptides and thus exclude internal peptides.We have implemented a double heavy/light TMPP labeling and an automated data validation workflow that make our doublet N-terminal oriented proteomics (dN-TOP) strategy efficient for high-throughput N-terminome analysis.

  5. Peptides derived from human galectin-3 N-terminal tail interact with its carbohydrate recognition domain in a phosphorylation-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Berbís, M. Álvaro; André, Sabine; Cañada, F. Javier; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Ippel, Hans; Mayo, Kevin H.; Kübler, Dieter; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Galectin-3 is composed of a carbohydrate recognition domain and an N-terminal tail. •Synthetic peptides derived from the tail are shown to interact with the CRD. •This interaction is modulated by Ser- and Tyr-phosphorylation of the peptides. -- Abstract: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a multi-functional effector protein that functions in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, as well as extracellularly following non-classical secretion. Structurally, Gal-3 is unique among galectins with its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) attached to a rather long N-terminal tail composed mostly of collagen-like repeats (nine in the human protein) and terminating in a short non-collagenous terminal peptide sequence unique in this lectin family and not yet fully explored. Although several Ser and Tyr sites within the N-terminal tail can be phosphorylated, the physiological significance of this post-translational modification remains unclear. Here, we used a series of synthetic (phospho)peptides derived from the tail to assess phosphorylation-mediated interactions with {sup 15}N-labeled Gal-3 CRD. HSQC-derived chemical shift perturbations revealed selective interactions at the backface of the CRD that were attenuated by phosphorylation of Tyr 107 and Tyr 118, while phosphorylation of Ser 6 and Ser 12 was essential. Controls with sequence scrambling underscored inherent specificity. Our studies shed light on how phosphorylation of the N-terminal tail may impact on Gal-3 function and prompt further studies using phosphorylated full-length protein.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of the N-terminal thioredoxin-like domain of protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Kemmink, J.; Darby, N. J.; Dijkstra, K.; Scheek, R. M.; Creighton, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    A genetically engineered protein consisting of the 120 residues at the N-terminus of human protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been characterized by 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR methods. The sequence of this protein is 35% identical to Escherichia coli thioredoxin, and it has been found also to have similar patterns of secondary structure and beta-sheet topology. The results confirm that PDI is a modular, multidomain protein. The last 20 residues of the N-terminal domain of PDI are some of those that are similar to part of the estrogen receptor, yet they appear to be an intrinsic part of the thioredoxin fold. This observation makes it unlikely that any of the segments of PDI with similarities to the estrogen receptor comprise individual domains. PMID:8580850

  7. An Integrated Sequence-Structure Database incorporating matching mRNA sequence, amino acid sequence and protein three-dimensional structure data.

    PubMed Central

    Adzhubei, I A; Adzhubei, A A; Neidle, S

    1998-01-01

    We have constructed a non-homologous database, termed the Integrated Sequence-Structure Database (ISSD) which comprises the coding sequences of genes, amino acid sequences of the corresponding proteins, their secondary structure and straight phi,psi angles assignments, and polypeptide backbone coordinates. Each protein entry in the database holds the alignment of nucleotide sequence, amino acid sequence and the PDB three-dimensional structure data. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences for each entry are selected on the basis of exact matches of the source organism and cell environment. The current version 1.0 of ISSD is available on the WWW at http://www.protein.bio.msu.su/issd/ and includes 107 non-homologous mammalian proteins, of which 80 are human proteins. The database has been used by us for the analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in mRNA sequences showing their correlation with the three-dimensional structure features in the encoded proteins. Possible ISSD applications include optimisation of protein expression, improvement of the protein structure prediction accuracy, and analysis of evolutionary aspects of the nucleotide sequence-protein structure relationship. PMID:9399866

  8. Functional stabilization of an RNA recognition motif by a noncanonical N-terminal expansion.

    PubMed

    Netter, Catharina; Weber, Gert; Benecke, Heike; Wahl, Markus C

    2009-07-01

    RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) constitute versatile macromolecular interaction platforms. They are found in many components of spliceosomes, in which they mediate RNA and protein interactions by diverse molecular strategies. The human U11/U12-65K protein of the minor spliceosome employs a C-terminal RRM to bind hairpin III of the U12 small nuclear RNA (snRNA). This interaction comprises one side of a molecular bridge between the U11 and U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) and is reminiscent of the binding of the N-terminal RRMs in the major spliceosomal U1A and U2B'' proteins to hairpins in their cognate snRNAs. Here we show by mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that the beta-sheet surface and a neighboring loop of 65K C-terminal RRM are involved in RNA binding, as previously seen in canonical RRMs like the N-terminal RRMs of the U1A and U2B'' proteins. However, unlike U1A and U2B'', some 30 residues N-terminal of the 65K C-terminal RRM core are additionally required for stable U12 snRNA binding. The crystal structure of the expanded 65K C-terminal RRM revealed that the N-terminal tail adopts an alpha-helical conformation and wraps around the protein toward the face opposite the RNA-binding platform. Point mutations in this part of the protein had only minor effects on RNA affinity. Removal of the N-terminal extension significantly decreased the thermal stability of the 65K C-terminal RRM. These results demonstrate that the 65K C-terminal RRM is augmented by an N-terminal element that confers stability to the domain, and thereby facilitates stable RNA binding.

  9. The Pilin N-terminal Domain Maintains Neisseria gonorrhoeae Transformation Competence during Pilus Phase Variation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the sole aetiologic agent of the sexually transmitted infection, gonorrhea. Required for gonococcal infection, Type IV pili (Tfp) mediate many functions including adherence, twitching motility, defense against neutrophil killing, and natural transformation. Critical for immune escape, the gonococcal Tfp undergoes antigenic variation, a recombination event at the pilE locus that varies the surface exposed residues of the major pilus subunit PilE (pilin) in the pilus fiber. This programmed recombination system has the potential to produce thousands of pilin variants and can produce strains with unproductive pilin molecules that are completely unable to form Tfp. Saturating mutagenesis of the 3’ third of the pilE gene identified 68 unique single nucleotide mutations that each resulted in an underpiliated colony morphology. Notably, all isolates, including those with undetectable levels of pilin protein and no observable surface-exposed pili, retained an intermediate level of transformation competence not exhibited in ΔpilE strains. Site-directed, nonsense mutations revealed that only the first 38 amino acids of the mature pilin N-terminus (the N-terminal domain or Ntd) are required for transformation competence, and microscopy, ELISAs and pilus purification demonstrate that extended Tfp are not required for competence. Transformation in strains producing only the pilin Ntd has the same genetic determinants as wild-type transformation. The Ntd corresponds to the alternative product of S-pilin cleavage, a specific proteolysis unique to pathogenic Neisseria. Mutation of the S-pilin cleavage site demonstrated that S-pilin cleavage mediated release of the Ntd is required for competence when a strain produces unproductive pilin molecules that cannot assemble into a Tfp through mutation or antigenic variation. We conclude that S-pilin cleavage evolved as a mechanism to maintain competence in nonpiliated antigenic

  10. GPR37 Surface Expression Enhancement via N-Terminal Truncation or Protein-Protein Interactions1

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Jill H.; Meyer, Rebecca C.; Garcia, Erin L.; Hall, Randy A.

    2009-01-01

    GPR37, also known as the parkin-associated endothelin-like receptor (Pael-R), is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that exhibits poor plasma membrane expression when expressed in most cell types. We sought to find ways to enhance GPR37 trafficking to the cell surface in order to facilitate studies of GPR37 functional activity in heterologous cells. In truncation studies, we found that removing the GPR37 N-terminus (NT) dramatically enhanced the receptor’s plasma membrane insertion. Further studies on sequential NT truncations revealed that removal of the first 210 amino acids increased surface expression nearly as much as removal of the entire NT. In studies examining the effects of co-expression of GPR37 with a variety of other GPCRs, we observed significant increases in GPR37 surface expression when the receptor was co-expressed with the adenosine receptor A2AR or the dopamine receptor D2R. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that full-length GPR37 and, to a greater extent, the truncated GPR37 were capable of robustly associating with D2R, resulting in modestly-altered D2R affinity for both agonists and antagonists. In studies examining potential interactions of GPR37 with PDZ scaffolds, we observed a specific interaction between GPR37 and syntenin-1, which resulted in a dramatic increase in GPR37 surface expression in HEK-293 cells. These findings reveal three independent approaches – N-terminal truncation, co-expression with other receptors and co-expression with syntenin-1 – by which GPR37 surface trafficking in heterologous cells can be greatly enhanced to facilitate functional studies on this orphan receptor. PMID:19799451

  11. Complete amino acid sequence and structure characterization of the taste-modifying protein, miraculin.

    PubMed

    Theerasilp, S; Hitotsuya, H; Nakajo, S; Nakaya, K; Nakamura, Y; Kurihara, Y

    1989-04-25

    The taste-modifying protein, miraculin, has the unusual property of modifying sour taste into sweet taste. The complete amino acid sequence of miraculin purified from miracle fruits by a newly developed method (Theerasilp, S., and Kurihara, Y. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 11536-11539) was determined by an automatic Edman degradation method. Miraculin was a single polypeptide with 191 amino acid residues. The calculated molecular weight based on the amino acid sequence and the carbohydrate content (13.9%) was 24,600. Asn-42 and Asn-186 were linked N-glycosidically to carbohydrate chains. High homology was found between the amino acid sequences of miraculin and soybean trypsin inhibitor.

  12. C-Jun N-terminal Kinase and Apoptotic Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    hydrogen peroxide (H20 2) to induce JNK activation varied in different cell types. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a presumed antioxidant (13,14...Down-regulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphatase M3/6 and activation of JNK by hydrogen peroxide and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate...and Tan, T.-H. (2001) Down-regulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphatase M3/6 and activation of JNK by hydrogen peroxide and pyrrolidine

  13. Detection and isolation of nucleic acid sequences using a bifunctional hybridization probe

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2000-01-01

    A method for detecting and isolating a target sequence in a sample of nucleic acids is provided using a bifunctional hybridization probe capable of hybridizing to the target sequence that includes a detectable marker and a first complexing agent capable of forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent. A kit is also provided for detecting a target sequence in a sample of nucleic acids using a bifunctional hybridization probe according to this method.

  14. The Herpes Simplex Virus Protein pUL31 Escorts Nucleocapsids to Sites of Nuclear Egress, a Process Coordinated by Its N-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Claus-Henning; Binz, Anne; Sodeik, Beate; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Bailer, Susanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Progeny capsids of herpesviruses leave the nucleus by budding through the nuclear envelope. Two viral proteins, the membrane protein pUL34 and the nucleo-phosphoprotein pUL31 form the nuclear egress complex that is required for capsid egress out of the nucleus. All pUL31 orthologs are composed of a diverse N-terminal domain with 1 to 3 basic patches and a conserved C-terminal domain. To decipher the functions of the N-terminal domain, we have generated several Herpes simplex virus mutants and show here that the N-terminal domain of pUL31 is essential with basic patches being critical for viral propagation. pUL31 and pUL34 entered the nucleus independently of each other via separate routes and the N-terminal domain of pUL31 was required to prevent their premature interaction in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal embedded in this domain was not required for nuclear import of pUL31. In the nucleus, pUL31 associated with the nuclear envelope and newly formed capsids. Viral mutants lacking the N-terminal domain or with its basic patches neutralized still associated with nucleocapsids but were unable to translocate them to the nuclear envelope. Replacing the authentic basic patches with a novel artificial one resulted in HSV1(17+)Lox-UL31-hbpmp1mp2, that was viable but delayed in nuclear egress and compromised in viral production. Thus, while the C-terminal domain of pUL31 is sufficient for the interaction with nucleocapsids, the N-terminal domain was essential for capsid translocation to sites of nuclear egress and a coordinated interaction with pUL34. Our data indicate an orchestrated sequence of events with pUL31 binding to nucleocapsids and escorting them to the inner nuclear envelope. We propose a common mechanism for herpesviral nuclear egress: pUL31 is required for intranuclear translocation of nucleocapsids and subsequent interaction with pUL34 thereby coupling capsid maturation with primary envelopment. PMID:26083367

  15. The N-terminal peptide of mammalian GTP cyclohydrolase I is an autoinhibitory control element and contributes to binding the allosteric regulatory protein GFRP.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Christina E; Gross, Steven S

    2011-04-08

    GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an obligate cofactor for NO synthases and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. BH4 can limit its own synthesis by triggering decameric GTPCH to assemble in an inhibitory complex with two GTPCH feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) pentamers. Subsequent phenylalanine binding to the GTPCH·GFRP inhibitory complex converts it to a stimulatory complex. An N-terminal inhibitory peptide in GTPCH may also contribute to autoregulation of GTPCH activity, but mechanisms are undefined. To characterize potential regulatory actions of the N-terminal peptide in rat GTPCH, we expressed, purified, and characterized a truncation mutant, devoid of 45 N-terminal amino acids (Δ45-GTPCH) and contrasted its catalytic and GFRP binding properties to wild type GTPCH (wt-GTPCH). Contrary to prior reports, we show that GFRP binds wt-GTPCH in the absence of any small molecule effector, resulting in allosteric stimulation of GTPCH activity: a 20% increase in Vmax, 50% decrease in KmGTP, and increase in Hill coefficient to 1.6, from 1.0. These features of GFRP-stimulated wt-GTPCH activity were phenocopied by Δ45-GTPCH in the absence of bound GFRP. Addition of GFRP to Δ45-GTPCH failed to elicit complex formation or a substantial further increase in GTPCH catalytic activity. Expression of Δ45-GTPCH in HEK-293 cells elicited 3-fold greater BH4 accumulation than an equivalent of wt-GTPCH. Together, results indicate that the N-terminal peptide exerts autoinhibitory control over rat GTPCH and is required for GFRP binding on its own. Displacement of the autoinhibitory peptide provides a molecular mechanism for physiological up-regulation of GTPCH activity.

  16. Selective monoprotection of 1,n-terminal Diols in supercritical carbon dioxide: a striking example of solvent tunable desymmetrization.

    PubMed

    Licence, Peter; Gray, William K; Sokolova, Maia; Poliakoff, Martyn

    2005-01-12

    The reaction between 1,n-terminal diols (n = 3 or 6) with simple alcohols (MeOH, EtOH, and n-PrOH) in supercritical CO(2) over an acid catalyst (Amberlyst 15) leads to two possible products, a mono- and a bis-ether. At 150 degrees C, the selectivity of the reaction with 1,6-hexanediol and MeOH can be switched from 1:20 in favor of the bis-ether at 50 bar to 9:1 in favor of the desymmetrized mono-ether at 200 bar. It is demonstrated that the switch in selectivity is associated with the phase state of the reaction mixture, with monophasic conditions favoring the mono-ether and biphasic conditions favoring the bis-ether. A rationalization of this effect is also presented.

  17. Mutation of the N-Terminal Region of Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein: Implications for Vaccine Design.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adam; Liu, Xiang; Zaid, Ali; Goh, Lucas Y H; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Hall, Roy A; Merits, Andres; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2017-02-21

    Mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleolus. In encephalitic alphaviruses, nuclear translocation induces host cell transcriptional shutoff; however, the role of capsid protein nucleolar localization in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged expression constructs and CHIKV infectious clones, we describe a nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein, previously uncharacterized in CHIKV. Mutation of the NoLS by site-directed mutagenesis reduced efficiency of nuclear import of CHIKV capsid protein. In the virus, mutation of the capsid protein NoLS (CHIKV-NoLS) attenuated replication in mammalian and mosquito cells, producing a small-plaque phenotype. Attenuation of CHIKV-NoLS is likely due to disruption of the viral replication cycle downstream of viral RNA synthesis. In mice, CHIKV-NoLS infection caused no disease signs compared to wild-type CHIKV (CHIKV-WT)-infected mice; lack of disease signs correlated with significantly reduced viremia and decreased expression of proinflammatory factors. Mice immunized with CHIKV-NoLS, challenged with CHIKV-WT at 30 days postimmunization, develop no disease signs and no detectable viremia. Serum from CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice is able to efficiently neutralize CHIKV infection in vitro Additionally, CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice challenged with the related alphavirus Ross River virus showed reduced early and peak viremia postchallenge, indicating a cross-protective effect. The high degree of CHIKV-NoLS attenuation may improve CHIKV antiviral and rational vaccine design.IMPORTANCE CHIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen capable of causing explosive epidemics of incapacitating joint pain

  18. NMR structure of the (1-51) N-terminal domain of the HIV-1 regulatory protein Vpr.

    PubMed

    Wecker, K; Roques, B P

    1999-12-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome encodes a highly conserved 16 kDa regulatory gene product, Vpr (viral protein of regulation, 96 amino acid residues), which is incorporated into virions, in quantities equivalent to those of the viral Gag proteins. In the infected cells, Vpr is believed to function in the early phase of HIV-1 replication, including nuclear migration of preintegration complex, transcription of the provirus genome and viral multiplication by blocking cells in the G2 phase. Vpr has a critical role in long-term AIDS disease by inducing infection in nondividing cells such as monocytes and macrophages. Mutations have suggested that the N-terminal domain of Vpr encompassing the first 40 residues could be required for nuclear localization, packaging into virions and binding of transcription factor (TFIIB, Sp1), viral proteins (p6) and cellular proteins (RIP1, UNG, karyopherins). To gain insight into the structure-function relationship of Vpr, (1-51)Vpr was synthesized and its structure analyzed by circular dichroism and two-dimensional 1H NMR in aqueous trifluoroethanol (30%) solution and refined by restrained molecular dynamics. The structure is characterized by three turns around the first three prolines, Pro5, Pro10, Pro14, followed by a long amphipathic alpha helix-turn-alpha helix (Asp17-Ile46) motif ended by a turn extending from Tyr47 to Thr49. The alpha helix-turn-alpha helix motif and the amphipathic helix are well known for being implicated in protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid interaction. Therefore structural characteristics of the (1-51) N-terminal fragment of Vpr could explain why this region of Vpr plays a role in several biological functions of this protein.

  19. Pyroglutamyl-N-terminal prion protein fragments in sheep brain following the development of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Gielbert, Adriana; Thorne, Jemma K.; Hope, James

    2015-01-01

    Protein misfolding, protein aggregation and disruption to cellular proteostasis are key processes in the propagation of disease and, in some progressive neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system, the misfolded protein can act as a self-replicating template or prion converting its normal isoform into a misfolded copy of itself. We have investigated the sheep transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, scrapie, and developed a multiple selected reaction monitoring (mSRM) mass spectrometry assay to quantify brain peptides representing the “ragged” N-terminus and the core of ovine prion protein (PrPSc) by using Q-Tof mass spectrometry. This allowed us to identify pyroglutamylated N-terminal fragments of PrPSc at residues 86, 95 and 101, and establish that these fragments were likely to be the result of in vivo processes. We found that the ratios of pyroglutamylated PrPSc fragments were different in sheep of different breeds and geographical origin, and our expanded ovine PrPSc assay was able to determine the ratio and allotypes of PrP accumulating in diseased brain of PrP heterozygous sheep; it also revealed significant differences between N-terminal amino acid profiles (N-TAAPs) in other types of ovine prion disease, CH1641 scrapie and ovine BSE. Variable rates of PrP misfolding, aggregation and degradation are the likely basis for phenotypic (or strain) differences in prion-affected animals and our mass spectrometry-based approach allows the simultaneous investigation of factors such as post-translational modification (pyroglutamyl formation), conformation (by N-TAAP analysis) and amino-acid polymorphisms (allotype ratio) which affect the kinetics of these proteostatic processes. PMID:25988175

  20. Thermal unfolding of the N-terminal region of p53 monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Leasha J; Campbell, James C; Whitten, Steven T

    2012-11-01

    It has been estimated that 30% of eukaryotic protein and 70% of transcription factors are intrinsically disordered (ID). The biochemical significance of proteins that lack stable tertiary structure, however, is not clearly understood, largely owing to an inability to assign well-defined structures to specific biological tasks. In an attempt to investigate the structural character of ID protein, we have measured the circular dichroism spectrum of the N-terminal region of p53 over a range of temperatures and solution conditions. p53 is a well-studied transcription factor that has a proline-rich N-terminal ID region containing two activation domains. High proline content is a property commonly associated with ID, and thus p53 may be a good model system for investigating the biochemical importance of ID. The spectra presented here suggest that the N-terminal region of p53 may adopt an ordered structure under physiological conditions and that this structure can be thermally unfolded in an apparent two-state manner. The midpoint temperature for this thermal unfolding of the N-terminal region of p53 was at the near-physiological temperature of 39°C, suggesting the possibility of a physiological role for the observed structural equilibrium.

  1. Determining the N-terminal orientations of recombinant transmembrane proteins in the Escherichia coli plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Hsien; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Hsu, Min-Feng; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    In silico algorithms have been the common approach for transmembrane (TM) protein topology prediction. However, computational tools may produce questionable results and experimental validation has proven difficult. Although biochemical strategies are available to determine the C-terminal orientation of TM proteins, experimental strategies to determine the N-terminal orientation are still limited but needed because the N-terminal end is essential for membrane targeting. Here, we describe a new and easy method to effectively determine the N-terminal orientation of the target TM proteins in Escherichia coli plasma membrane environment. D94N, the mutant of bacteriorhodopsin from Haloarcula marismortui, can be a fusion partner to increase the production of the target TM proteins if their N-termini are in cytoplasm (Nin orientation). To create a suitable linker for orientating the target TM proteins with the periplasmic N-termini (Nout orientation) correctly, we designed a three-TM-helix linker fused at the C-terminus of D94N fusion partner (termed D94N-3TM) and found that D94N-3TM can specifically improve the production of the Nout target TM proteins. In conclusion, D94N and D94N-3TM fusion partners can be applied to determine the N-terminal end of the target TM proteins oriented either Nin or Nout by evaluating the net expression of the fusion proteins. PMID:26462555

  2. Cytoplasmic c-Jun N-terminal immunoreactivity: a hallmark of retinal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Luciana B; de Freitas, Fabíola G; Leal-Ferreira, Mona Lisa; Tolkovsky, Aviva; Linden, Rafael

    2002-12-01

    1. We investigated the association of c-Jun with apoptosis within retinal tissue. Explants of the retina of neonatal rats were subject to a variety of procedures that cause apoptosis of specific classes of retinal cells at distinct stages of differentiation. The expression of c-Jun was detected by Western Blot, and immunohistochemistry was done with antibodies made for either N-terminal or C-terminal domains of c-Jun, and correlated with apoptosis detected either by chromatin condensation or by in situ nick end labeling of fragmented DNA. 2. c-Jun protein content was increased in retinal tissue subject to induction of both photoreceptor and ganglion cell death. 3. c-Jun N-terminal immunoreactivity was found mainly in the cytoplasm of apoptotic cells regardless of cell type, of the stage of differentiation, including proliferating cells, or of the means of induction of apoptosis. 4. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that c-Jun is involved in the control of cell death in retinal tissue, but other proteins that cross-react with c-Jun N-terminal antibodies may also be major markers of retinal apoptosis. 5. Antibodies directed to c-Jun N-terminal (aa 91-105) are useful tools to follow apoptotic changes in retinal tissue.

  3. Calmodulin activation of an endoplasmic reticulum-located calcium pump involves an interaction with the N-terminal autoinhibitory domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, I.; Harper, J. F.; Liang, F.; Sze, H.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate how calmodulin regulates a unique subfamily of Ca(2+) pumps found in plants, we examined the kinetic properties of isoform ACA2 identified in Arabidopsis. A recombinant ACA2 was expressed in a yeast K616 mutant deficient in two endogenous Ca(2+) pumps. Orthovanadate-sensitive (45)Ca(2+) transport into vesicles isolated from transformants demonstrated that ACA2 is a Ca(2+) pump. Ca(2+) pumping by the full-length protein (ACA2-1) was 4- to 10-fold lower than that of the N-terminal truncated ACA2-2 (Delta2-80), indicating that the N-terminal domain normally acts to inhibit the pump. An inhibitory sequence (IC(50) = 4 microM) was localized to a region within valine-20 to leucine-44, because a peptide corresponding to this sequence lowered the V(max) and increased the K(m) for Ca(2+) of the constitutively active ACA2-2 to values comparable to the full-length pump. The peptide also blocked the activity (IC(50) = 7 microM) of a Ca(2+) pump (AtECA1) belonging to a second family of Ca(2+) pumps. This inhibitory sequence appears to overlap with a calmodulin-binding site in ACA2, previously mapped between aspartate-19 and arginine-36 (J.F. Harper, B. Hong, I. Hwang, H.Q. Guo, R. Stoddard, J.F. Huang, M.G. Palmgren, H. Sze inverted question mark1998 J Biol Chem 273: 1099-1106). These results support a model in which the pump is kept "unactivated" by an intramolecular interaction between an autoinhibitory sequence located between residues 20 and 44 and a site in the Ca(2+) pump core that is highly conserved between different Ca(2+) pump families. Results further support a model in which activation occurs as a result of Ca(2+)-induced binding of calmodulin to a site overlapping or immediately adjacent to the autoinhibitory sequence.

  4. The N-terminal pleckstrin, coiled-coil, and IQ domains of the exchange factor Ras-GRF act cooperatively to facilitate activation by calcium.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, R; Telliez, J B; Goonesekera, S; Feig, L A

    1996-09-01

    We have recently shown that the neuronal exchange factor p140 Ras-GRF becomes activated in vivo in response to elevated calcium levels [C. L. Farnsworth, N. W. Freshney, L. B. Rosen, A. Ghosh, M. E. Greenberg, and L. A. Feig, Nature (London) 376:524-527, 1995]. Activation is mediated by calcium-induced calmodulin binding to an IQ domain near the N terminus of Ras-GRF. Here we show that the adjacent N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH), coiled-coil, and IQ domains function cooperatively to allow Ras-GRF activation. Deletion of the N-terminal PH domain redistributes a large percentage of Ras-GRF from the particulate to the cytosolic fraction of cells and renders the protein insensitive to calcium stimulation. A similar cellular distribution and biological activity are observed when only the core catalytic domain is expressed. Although the PH domain is necessary for particulate association of Ras-GRF, it is not sufficient for targeting the core catalytic domain to this cellular location. This requires the PH domain and the adjacent coiled-coil and IQ sequences. Remarkably, this form of Ras-GRF is constitutively activated. The PH and coiled-coil domains must also perform an additional function, since targeting to the particulate fraction of cells is not sufficient to allow Ras-GRF activation by calcium. A Ras-GRF mutant containing the PH domain from Ras-GTPase-activating protein in place of its own N-terminal PH domain localizes to the particulate fraction of cells but does not respond to calcium. Similar phenotypes are seen with mutant Ras-GRFs containing point mutations in either the PH or coiled-coil domain. These findings argue that the N-terminal PH, coiled-coil, and IQ domains of Ras-GRF function together to connect Ras-GRF to multiple components in the particulate fractions of cells that are required for responsiveness of the protein to calcium signaling.

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis acidic phospholipase A2: isolation and partial amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Escobedo-Guajardo, Brenda L; González-Salazar, Francisco; Palacios-Corona, Rebeca; Torres de la Cruz, Víctor M; Morales-Vallarta, Mario; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito D; Garza-González, Jesús N; Rivera-Silva, Gerardo; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier

    2013-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are a major cause of acute disease worldwide, and trichomoniasis is the most common and curable disease, generating more than 170 million cases annually worldwide. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causal agent of trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy in vitro cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa, where the phospholipases A2 (PLA2) have been reported as potential virulence factors. These enzymes have been partially characterized from the subcellular fraction S30 of pathogenic T. vaginalis strains. The main objective of this study was to purify a phospholipase A2 from T. vaginalis, make a partial characterization, obtain a partial amino acid sequence, and determine its enzymatic participation as hemolytic factor causing lysis of erythrocytes. Trichomonas S30, RF30 and UFF30 sub-fractions from GT-15 strain have the capacity to hydrolyze [2-(14)C-PA]-PC at pH 6.0. Proteins from the UFF30 sub-fraction were separated by affinity chromatography into two eluted fractions with detectable PLA A2 activity. The EDTA-eluted fraction was analyzed by HPLC using on-line HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry and two protein peaks were observed at 8.2 and 13 kDa. Peptide sequences were identified from the proteins present in the eluted EDTA UFF30 fraction; bioinformatic analysis using Protein Link Global Server charged with T. vaginalis protein database suggests that eluted peptides correspond a putative ubiquitin protein in the 8.2 kDa fraction and a phospholipase preserved in the 13 kDa fraction. The EDTA-eluted fraction hydrolyzed [2-(14)C-PA]-PC lyses erythrocytes from Sprague-Dawley in a time and dose-dependent manner. The acidic hemolytic activity decreased by 84% with the addition of 100 μM of Rosenthal's inhibitor.

  6. Site directed spin labeling studies of Escherichia coli dihydroorotate dehydrogenase N-terminal extension

    SciTech Connect

    Couto, Sheila G.; Cristina Nonato, M.

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EcDHODH is a membrane-associated enzyme and a promising target for drug design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzyme's N-terminal extension is responsible for membrane association. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-terminal works as a molecular lid regulating access to the protein interior. -- Abstract: Dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODHs) are enzymes that catalyze the fourth step of the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. In this reaction, DHODH converts dihydroorotate to orotate, using a flavine mononucleotide as a cofactor. Since the synthesis of nucleotides has different pathways in mammals as compared to parasites, DHODH has gained much attention as a promising target for drug design. Escherichia coli DHODH (EcDHODH) is a family 2 DHODH that interacts with cell membranes in order to promote catalysis. The membrane association is supposedly made via an extension found in the enzyme's N-terminal. In the present work, we used site directed spin labeling (SDSL) to specifically place a magnetic probe at positions 2, 5, 19, and 21 within the N-terminal and thus monitor, by using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), dynamics and structural changes in this region in the presence of a membrane model system. Overall, our ESR spectra show that the N-terminal indeed binds to membranes and that it experiences a somewhat high flexibility that could be related to the role of this region as a molecular lid controlling the entrance of the enzyme's active site and thus allowing the enzyme to give access to quinones that are dispersed in the membrane and that are necessary for the catalysis.

  7. Identification of random nucleic acid sequence aberrations using dual capture probes which hybridize to different chromosome regions

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1998-03-24

    A method is provided for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations using two immobilization steps. According to the method, a nucleic acid sequence aberration is detected by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a first chromosome) and a second nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a second chromosome), the presence of the first and the second nucleic acid sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. In the method, immobilization of a first hybridization probe is used to isolate a first set of nucleic acids in the sample which contain the first nucleic acid sequence type. Immobilization of a second hybridization probe is then used to isolate a second set of nucleic acids from within the first set of nucleic acids which contain the second nucleic acid sequence type. The second set of nucleic acids are then detected, their presence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. 14 figs.

  8. Identification of random nucleic acid sequence aberrations using dual capture probes which hybridize to different chromosome regions

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1998-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations using two immobilization steps. According to the method, a nucleic acid sequence aberration is detected by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a first chromosome) and a second nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a second chromosome), the presence of the first and the second nucleic acid sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. In the method, immobilization of a first hybridization probe is used to isolate a first set of nucleic acids in the sample which contain the first nucleic acid sequence type. Immobilization of a second hybridization probe is then used to isolate a second set of nucleic acids from within the first set of nucleic acids which contain the second nucleic acid sequence type. The second set of nucleic acids are then detected, their presence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration.

  9. The amino acid sequences of the Fd fragments of two human γ heavy chains

    PubMed Central

    Press, E. M.; Hogg, N. M.

    1970-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the Fd fragments of two human pathological immunoglobulins of the immunoglobulin G1 class are reported. Comparison of the two sequences shows that the heavy-chain variable regions are similar in length to those of the light chains. The existence of heavy chain variable region subgroups is also deduced, from a comparison of these two sequences with those of another γ 1 chain, Eu, a μ chain, Ou, and the partial sequence of a fourth γ 1 chain, Ste. Carbohydrate has been found to be linked to an aspartic acid residue in the variable region of one of the γ 1 chains, Cor. PMID:5449120

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of the N-terminal region of the human formin-homology protein FHOD1

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Antje Rak, Alexey; Pylypenko, Olena; Ludwig, Diana; Geyer, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    The N-terminal region (1–339) of the human FHOD1 protein has been crystallized in two different crystal forms. A crystal of the (C31S,C71S) mutant diffracted to around 2.3 Å resolution. Formins are key regulators of actin cytoskeletal dynamics that constitute a diverse protein family that is present in all eukaryotes examined. They typically consist of more than 1000 amino acids and are defined by the presence of two conserved regions, namely the formin homology 1 and 2 domains. Additional conserved domains comprise a GTPase-binding domain for activation, a C-terminal autoregulation motif and an N-terminal recognition domain. In this study, the N-terminal region (residues 1–339) of the human formin homology domain-containing protein 1 (FHOD1) was purified and crystallized from 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 10%(v/v) glycerol, 0.3 M magnesium chloride and 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.0. Native crystals belong to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.4, b = 73.9, c = 78.7 Å, α = 78.2, β = 86.2, γ = 89.7°. They contain two monomers of FHOD1 in the asymmetric unit and diffract to a resolution of 2.3 Å using a synchrotron-radiation source.

  11. Functional analysis of the extended N-terminal region in PLC-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1) from the mud loach, Misgurnus mizolepis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Young; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Moo-Sang; Seo, Jung Soo; Jung, Se Hwan; Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Hyung Ho; Chung, Joon Ki

    2014-01-01

    Mud loach phospholipase C-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1) contains all the characteristic domains found in mammalian PLC-δ isozymes (pleckstrin homology domain, EF-hands, X–Y catalytic region, and C2 domain) as well as an extended 26-amino acid (aa)-long N-terminal region that is an alternative splice form of PLC-δ1 and is novel to vertebrate PLC-δ. In the present structure-function analysis, deletion of the extended N-terminal region caused complete loss of phosphatidylinositol (PI)- and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-hydrolyzing activity in MlPLC-δ1. Additionally, recombinant full-length MlPLC-δ1 PLC activity was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by coincubation with the 26-aa protein fragment. Using a protein-lipid overlay assay, both full-length MlPLC-δ1 and the 26-aa protein fragment had substantial affinity for PIP2, whereas deletion of the 26-aa region from MlPLC-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1-deletion) resulted in lower affinity for PIP2. These results suggest that the novel N-terminal exon of MlPLC-δ1 could play an important role in the regulation of PLC-δ1.

  12. Functional analysis of the N-terminal basic motif of a eukaryotic satellite RNA virus capsid protein in replication and packaging

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandam, Venkatesh; Mathews, Deborah; Garmann, Rees; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Zandi, Roya; Rao, A. L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient replication and assembly of virus particles are integral to the establishment of infection. In addition to the primary role of the capsid protein (CP) in encapsidating the RNA progeny, experimental evidence on positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses suggests that the CP also regulates RNA synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that replication of Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) is controlled by the cooperative interaction between STMV CP and the helper virus (HV) Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) replicase. We identified that the STMV CP-HV replicase interaction requires a positively charged residue at the third position (3R) in the N-terminal 13 amino acid (aa) motif. Far-Northwestern blotting showed that STMV CP promotes binding between HV-replicase and STMV RNA. An STMV CP variant having an arginine to alanine substitution at position 3 in the N-terminal 13aa motif abolished replicase-CP binding. The N-terminal 13aa motif of the CP bearing alanine substitutions for positively charged residues located at positions 5, 7, 10 and 11 are defective in packaging full-length STMV, but can package a truncated STMV RNA lacking the 3′ terminal 150 nt region. These findings provide insights into the mechanism underlying the regulation of STMV replication and packaging. PMID:27193742

  13. NMR solution structure of the N-terminal domain of hERG and its interaction with the S4-S5 linker

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qingxin; Gayen, Shovanlal; Chen, Angela Shuyi; Huang, Qiwei; Raida, Manfred; Kang, CongBao

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} The N-terminal domain (NTD, eag domain) containing 135 residues of hERG was expressed and purified from E. coli cells. {yields} Solution structure of NTD was determined with NMR spectroscopy. {yields} The alpha-helical region (residues 13-23) was demonstrated to possess the characteristics of an amphipathic helix. {yields} NMR titration confirmed the interaction between NTD and the peptide from the S4-S5 linker. -- Abstract: The human Ether-a-go-go Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel mediates the rapid delayed rectifier current (IKr) in the cardiac action potential. Mutations in the 135 amino acid residue N-terminal domain (NTD) cause channel dysfunction or mis-translocation. To study the structure of NTD, it was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells using affinity purification and gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein behaved as a monomer under purification conditions. Far- and near-UV, circular dichroism (CD) and solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies showed that the purified protein was well-folded. The solution structure of NTD was obtained and the N-terminal residues 13-23 forming an amphipathic helix which may be important for the protein-protein or protein-membrane interactions. NMR titration experiment also demonstrated that residues from 88 to 94 in NTD are important for the molecular interaction with the peptide derived from the S4-S5 linker.

  14. Thermostabilization of glutamate decarboxylase B from Escherichia coli by structure-guided design of its pH-responsive N-terminal interdomain.

    PubMed

    Jun, Chanha; Joo, Jeong Chan; Lee, Jung Heon; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2014-03-20

    Glutamate decarboxylase B (GadB) from Escherichia coli is a highly active biocatalyst that can convert l-glutamate to γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), a precursor of 2-pyrrolidone (a monomer of Nylon 4). In contrast to vigorous studies of pH shifting of GadB, mesophilic GadB has not been stabilized by protein engineering. In this study, we improved the thermostability of GadB through structural optimization of its N-terminal interdomain. According to structural analysis, the N-terminal fourteen residues (1-14) of homo-hexameric GadB formed a triple-helix bundle interdomain at acidic pH and contributed to the thermostability of GadB in preliminary tests as the pH shifted from 7.6 to 4.6. GadB thermostabilization was achieved by optimization of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions at the N-terminal interdomain. A triple mutant (GadB-TM: Gln5Asp/Val6Ile/Thr7Glu) showed higher thermostability than the wild-type (GadB-WT), i.e., 7.9 and 7.7°C increases in the melting temperature (Tm) and the temperature at which 50% of the initial activity remained after 10min incubation (T50(10)), respectively. The triple mutant showed no reduction of catalytic activity in enzyme kinetics. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at high temperature showed that reinforced interactions of the triple mutant rigidified the N-terminal interdomain compared to the wild-type, leading to GadB thermostabilization.

  15. Widespread occurrence of N-terminal acylation in animal globins and possible origin of respiratory globins from a membrane-bound ancestor.

    PubMed

    Blank, Miriam; Burmester, Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    Proteins of the (hemo-)globin superfamily have been identified in many different animals but also occur in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Globins are renowned for their ability to store and to transport oxygen, but additional globin functions such as sensing, signaling, and detoxification have been proposed. Recently, we found that the zebrafish globin X protein is myristoylated and palmitoylated at its N-terminus. The addition of fatty acids results in an association with the cellular membranes, suggesting a previously unrecognized globin function. In this study, we show that N-terminal acylation likely occurs in globin proteins from a broad range of phyla. An N-terminal myristoylation site was identified in 90 nonredundant globins from Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata (including Cephalochordata), of which 66 proteins carry an additional palmitoylation site. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses identified five major globin families, which may mirror the ancient globin diversity of the Metazoa. Globin X-like proteins form two related clades, which diverged before the radiation of the Eumetazoa. Vertebrate hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin, cytoglobin, globin E, and globin Y form a strongly supported common clade, which is the sister group of a clade consisting of invertebrate Hbs and relatives. The N-terminally acylated globins do not form a single monophyletic group but are distributed to four distinct clades. This pattern may be either explained by multiple introduction of an N-terminal acylation site into distinct globin lineages or by the origin of animal respiratory globins from a membrane-bound ancestor. Similarly, respiratory globins were not monophyletic. This suggests that respiratory globins might have emerged independently several times and that the early metazoan globins might have been associated with a membrane and carried out a function that was related to lipid protection or

  16. Passive immunization targeting the N-terminal projection domain of tau decreases tau pathology and improves cognition in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease and tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chun-ling; Chen, Xia; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-04-01

    Intraneuronal accumulation of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain is a histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and a family of related neurodegenerative disorders collectively called tauopathies. At present there is no effective treatment available for these progressive neurodegenerative diseases which are clinically characterized by dementia in mid to old-age. Here we report the treatment of 14-17-months-old 3xTg-AD mice with tau antibodies 43D (tau 6-18) and 77E9 (tau 184-195) to the N-terminal projection domain of tau or mouse IgG as a control by intraperitoneal injection once a week for 4 weeks, and the effects of the passive immunization on reduction of hyperphosphorylated tau, Aβ accumulation and cognitive performance in these animals. We found that treatment with tau antibodies 43D and 77E9 reduced total tau level, decreased tau hyperphosphorylated at Ser199, Ser202/Thr205 (AT8), Thr205, Ser262/356 (12E8), and Ser396/404 (PHF-1) sites, and a trend to reduce Aβ pathology. Most importantly, targeting N-terminal tau especially by 43D (tau 6-18) improved reference memory in the Morris water maze task in 3xTg-AD mice. We did not observe any abnormality in general physical characteristics of the treated animals with either of the two antibodies during the course of this study. Taken together, our studies demonstrate for the first time (1) that passive immunization targeting normal tau can effectively clear the hyperphosphorylated protein and possibly reduce Aβ pathology from the brain and (2) that targeting N-terminal projection domain of tau containing amino acid 6-18 is especially beneficial. Thus, targeting selective epitopes of N-terminal domain of tau may present a novel effective therapeutic opportunity for Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies.

  17. N-terminal of Papaya ringspot virus type-W (PRSV-W) helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) is essential for PRSV systemic infection in zucchini.

    PubMed

    Yap, Yun-Kiam; Duangjit, Janejira; Panyim, Sakol

    2009-06-01

    The Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is one of the limiting factors affecting papaya and cucurbits production worldwide. PRSV belongs to the potyvirus genus which consists of 30% of known plant viruses. Two serological closely related strains, namely type-P and -W, have been reported. PRSV type-P infects both papaya and cucurbits, while type-W infects only cucurbits. The genome of PRSV Thailand isolate consists of a (+) RNA molecule of 10323 nucleotides, which is first translated into a single polypeptide and further cleaved by three viral encoded proteases into ten gene products. Helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro), which is encoded by the 2nd cistron of the potyviral genome, has been implicated in aphid transmission, viral movement, viral replication and suppression of host viral defense system. Studies of the Tobacco etch virus (TEV), Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) indicate that the N-terminal of HC-Pro is dispensable for systemic infection in their respective hosts. However, deletion analysis of the Tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV) indicates otherwise. In this study, we examined whether HC-Pro is essential for PRSV systemic infection in cucurbits and the role of its N-terminal in systemic infection. Our results indicated that HC-Pro is indispensable for PRSV infection in zucchini. Deletion analysis of PRSV HC-Pro showed that deletion of as few as 54 amino acids at the N-terminal of HC-Pro completely abolished the infectivity of the corresponding cDNA clone. Therefore, it is proposed that the N-terminal of HC-Pro is involved in systemic infection of PRSV, in addition to its conserved function in aphid transmission.

  18. The N-terminal fragment of the tomato torrado virus RNA1-encoded polyprotein induces a hypersensitive response (HR)-like reaction in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Przemysław; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2016-07-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is a defence reaction observed during incompatible plant-pathogen interactions in plants infected with a wide range of fungi, bacteria and viruses. Here, we show that an N-terminal polyprotein fragment encoded by tomato torrado virus RNA1, located between the first ATG codon and the protease cofactor (ProCo) motif, induces an HR-like reaction in Nicotiana benthamiana. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression of the first 105 amino acids (the calculated molecular weight of the fragment was ca. 11.33 kDa, hereafter refered to as the 11K domain) from ToTV RNA1 induced an HR-like phenotype in infiltrated leaves. To investigate whether the 11K domain could influence the virulence and pathogenicity of a recombinant virus, we created a potato virus X (PVX) with the 11K coding sequence inserted under a duplicated coat protein promoter. We found that 11K substantially increased the virulence of the recombinant virus. Disease phenotype induced in N. benthamiana by PVX-11K was characterized by strong local and systemic necrosis. This was not observed when the 11K domain was expressed from PVX in an antisense orientation. Further analyses revealed that the 11K domain could not suppress posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the N. benthamiana 16c line. In silico analysis of the predicted secondary structure of the 11K domain indicated the presence of two putative helices that are highly conserved in tomato-infecting representatives of the genus Torradovirus.

  19. The Chinese hamster Alu-equivalent sequence: a conserved highly repetitious, interspersed deoxyribonucleic acid sequence in mammals has a structure suggestive of a transposable element.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, S R; Toomey, T P; Leinwand, L; Jelinek, W R

    1981-01-01

    A consensus sequence has been determined for a major interspersed deoxyribonucleic acid repeat in the genome of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells). This sequence is extensively homologous to (i) the human Alu sequence (P. L. Deininger et al., J. Mol. Biol., in press), (ii) the mouse B1 interspersed repetitious sequence (Krayev et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 8:1201-1215, 1980) (iii) an interspersed repetitious sequence from African green monkey deoxyribonucleic acid (Dhruva et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:4514-4518, 1980) and (iv) the CHO and mouse 4.5S ribonucleic acid (this report; F. Harada and N. Kato, Nucleic Acids Res. 8:1273-1285, 1980). Because the CHO consensus sequence shows significant homology to the human Alu sequence it is termed the CHO Alu-equivalent sequence. A conserved structure surrounding CHO Alu-equivalent family members can be recognized. It is similar to that surrounding the human Alu and the mouse B1 sequences, and is represented as follows: direct repeat-CHO-Alu-A-rich sequence-direct repeat. A composite interspersed repetitious sequence has been identified. Its structure is represented as follows: direct repeat-residue 47 to 107 of CHO-Alu-non-Alu repetitious sequence-A-rich sequence-direct repeat. Because the Alu flanking sequences resemble those that flank known transposable elements, we think it likely that the Alu sequence dispersed throughout the mammalian genome by transposition. Images PMID:9279371

  20. [Cloning and expression of N-terminal protective domain of spaA gene from Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae C43311].

    PubMed

    Nazierbieke, Wulumuhan; Liu, Zhuxiang; Li, Ke; Chen, Yiguang; Borrathybay, Entomack

    2008-02-01

    The spaA gene was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae C43311 strain, and inserted into the pMD18-T vector and then sequenced. The N-terminal protective domain of the spaA gene was amplified by PCR from the recombinant plasmid pMD18-spaA, then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-6p-2 and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) by IPTG induction. The expressed protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The sequence analyses showed that the coding region of the spaA gene of C43311 strain was 1881bp in length, and the nucleotide sequence homology of the spaA genes between the C43311 strain and the previously reported different serotype strains of E. rhusiopathiae was 93 to 99%. The SDS-PAGE analyses revealed a single fusion protein band with a molecular weight of 64kDa, and the Western blot results showed that the GST-SpaA-N fusion protein was recognized specifically by an antiserum against the SpaA protein of C43311 strain, suggesting that the fusion protein of GST-SpaA-N possessed high immunoreactivity.

  1. The amino acid sequence of goat beta-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Préaux, G; Braunitzer, G; Schrank, B; Stangl, A

    1979-11-01

    The isolation of beta-lactoglobulin from milk of the goat is described. The purified protein was checked for purity and has been characterized by its gross composition and end groups. The native or the modified protein was then degraded by tryptic and cyanogen bromide cleavage. The cleavage products were isolated and sequenced in the sequenator using a Quadrol and propyne program. These data provide the complete sequence of beta-lactoglobulin of the goat. The results are discussed and compared particularly with bovine beta-lactoglobulin components AB. Some biological aspects are described.

  2. Layered materials with coexisting acidic and basic sites for catalytic one-pot reaction sequences.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2009-06-17

    Acidic montmorillonite-immobilized primary amines (H-mont-NH(2)) were found to be excellent acid-base bifunctional catalysts for one-pot reaction sequences, which are the first materials with coexisting acid and base sites active for acid-base tamdem reactions. For example, tandem deacetalization-Knoevenagel condensation proceeded successfully with the H-mont-NH(2), affording the corresponding condensation product in a quantitative yield. The acidity of the H-mont-NH(2) was strongly influenced by the preparation solvent, and the base-catalyzed reactions were enhanced by interlayer acid sites.

  3. Synthesis of gamma,delta-unsaturated glycolic acids via sequenced brook and Ireland--claisen rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Daniel C; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2010-03-05

    Organozinc, -magnesium, and -lithium nucleophiles initiate a Brook/Ireland-Claisen rearrangement sequence of allylic silyl glyoxylates resulting in the formation of gamma,delta-unsaturated alpha-silyloxy acids.

  4. Computer Simulation of the Determination of Amino Acid Sequences in Polypeptides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daubert, Stephen D.; Sontum, Stephen F.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a computer program that generates a random string of amino acids and guides the student in determining the correct sequence of a given protein by using experimental analytic data for that protein. (MLH)

  5. The N-terminal domain determines the affinity and specificity of H1 binding to chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Oeberg, Christine; Belikov, Sergey

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer wt Human histone H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of N-terminal domain, {Delta}N-hH1.4, were compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both histones bind to chromatin, however, {Delta}N-hH1.4 displays lower binding affinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of {Delta}N-hH1.4 with chromatin includes a significant unspecific component. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-terminal domain is a determinant of specificity of histone H1 binding to chromatin. -- Abstract: Linker histone H1, one of the most abundant nuclear proteins in multicellular eukaryotes, is a key component of the chromatin structure mainly due to its role in the formation and maintenance of the 30 nm chromatin fiber. It has a three-domain structure; a central globular domain flanked by a short N-terminal domain and a long, highly basic C-terminal domain. Previous studies have shown that the binding abilities of H1 are at large determined by the properties of the C-terminal domain; much less attention has been paid to role of the N-terminal domain. We have previously shown that H1 can be reconstituted via cytoplasmic mRNA injection in Xenopus oocytes, cells that lack somatic H1. The heterologously expressed H1 proteins are incorporated into in vivo assembled chromatin at specific sites and the binding event is monitored as an increase in nucleosomal repeat length (NRL). Using this setup we have here compared the binding properties of wt-H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of its N-terminal domain ({Delta}N-hH1.4). The {Delta}N-hH1.4 displays a drastically lower affinity for chromatin binding as compared to the wild type hH1.4. Our data also indicates that {Delta}N-hH1.4 is more prone to unspecific chromatin binding than the wild type. We conclude that the N-terminal domain of H1 is an important determinant of affinity and specificity of H1-chromatin interactions.

  6. Genome sequence of the acid-tolerant strain Rhizobium sp. LPU83.

    PubMed

    Wibberg, Daniel; Tejerizo, Gonzalo Torres; Del Papa, María Florencia; Martini, Carla; Pühler, Alfred; Lagares, Antonio; Schlüter, Andreas; Pistorio, Mariano

    2014-04-20

    Rhizobia are important members of the soil microbiome since they enter into nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with different legume host plants. Rhizobium sp. LPU83 is an acid-tolerant Rhizobium strain featuring a broad-host-range. However, it is ineffective in nitrogen fixation. Here, the improved draft genome sequence of this strain is reported. Genome sequence information provides the basis for analysis of its acid tolerance, symbiotic properties and taxonomic classification.

  7. The amino acid sequence of monal pheasant lysozyme and its activity.

    PubMed

    Araki, T; Matsumoto, T; Torikata, T

    1998-10-01

    The amino acid sequence of monal pheasant lysozyme and its activity were analyzed. Carboxymethylated lysozyme was digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were sequenced. The established amino acid sequence had one amino acid substitution at position 102 (Arg to Gly) comparing with Indian peafowl lysozyme and four amino acid substitutions at positions 3 (Phe to Tyr), 15 (His to Leu), 41 (Gln to His), and 121 (Gln to His) with chicken lysozyme. Analysis of the time-courses of reaction using N-acetylglucosamine pentamer as a substrate showed a difference of binding free energy change (-0.4 kcal/mol) at subsites A between monal pheasant and Indian peafowl lysozyme. This was assumed to be caused by the amino acid substitution at subsite A with loss of a positive charge at position 102 (Arg102 to Gly).

  8. Single-chain structure of human ceruloplasmin: the complete amino acid sequence of the whole molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, N; Ortel, T L; Putnam, F W

    1984-01-01

    We have determined the amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal 67,000-dalton (67-kDa) fragment of human ceruloplasmin and have established overlapping sequences between the 67-kDa and 50-kDa fragments and between the 50-kDa and 19-kDa fragments. The 67-kDa fragment contains 480 amino acid residues and three glucosamine oligosaccharides. These results together with our previous sequence data for the 50-kDa and 19-kDa fragments complete the amino acid sequence of human ceruloplasmin. The polypeptide chain has a total of 1,046 amino acid residues (Mr 120,085) and has attachment sites for four glucosamine oligosaccharides; together these account for the total molecular mass of human ceruloplasmin (132 kDa). The sequence analysis of the peptides overlapping the fragments showed that one additional amino acid, arginine, is present between the 67-kDa and 50-kDa fragments, and another, lysine, is between the 50-kDa and 19-kDa fragments. Only two apparent sites of amino acid interchange have been identified in the polypeptide chain. Both involve a single-point interchange of glycine and lysine that would result in a difference in charge. The results of the complete sequence analysis verified that human ceruloplasmin is composed of a single polypeptide chain and that the subunit-like fragments are produced by proteolytic cleavage during purification (and possibly also in vivo). PMID:6582496

  9. Multiple Genome Sequences of Important Beer-Spoiling Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Andreas J.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    Seven strains of important beer-spoiling lactic acid bacteria were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Complete genomes were obtained for strains of Lactobacillus paracollinoides, Lactobacillus lindneri, and Pediococcus claussenii. The analysis of these genomes emphasizes the role of plasmids as the genomic foundation of beer-spoiling ability. PMID:27795248

  10. Tryptic digestion of human GPIIIa. Isolation and biochemical characterization of the 23 kDa N-terminal glycopeptide carrying the antigenic determinant for a monoclonal antibody (P37) which inhibits platelet aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Calvete, J J; Rivas, G; Maruri, M; Alvarez, M V; McGregor, J L; Hew, C L; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J

    1988-01-01

    Early digestion of pure human platelet glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) leads to a single cleavage of the molecule at 23 kDa far from one of the terminal amino acids. Automated Edman degradation demonstrates that GPIIIa and the smaller (23 kDa) tryptic fragment share the same N-terminal amino acid sequence. A further cleavage occurs in the larger fragment (80 kDa), reducing its apparent molecular mass by 10 kDa. The 23 kDa fragment remains attached to the larger ones in unreduced samples. Stepwise reduction of early digested GPIIIa with dithioerythritol selectively reduces the single disulphide bond joining the smaller (23 kDa) to the larger (80/70 kDa) fragments. Two fractions were obtained by size-exclusion chromatography of early digested GPIIIa after partial or full reduction and alkylation. The larger-size fraction contains the 80/70 kDa fragments, while the 23 kDa fragment is isolated in the smaller. The amino acid compositions of these fractions do not differ very significantly from the composition of GPIIIa; however the 23 kDa fragment contains only 10.2% by weight of sugars and is richer in neuraminic acid. Disulphide bonds are distributed four in the 23 kDa glycopeptide and 20-21 in the 80/70 kDa glycopeptide. The epitope for P37, a monoclonal antibody which inhibits platelet aggregation [Melero & González-Rodríguez (1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 141, 421-427] is situated within the first 17 kDa of the N-terminal region of GPIIIa, which gives a special functional interest to this extracellular region of GPIIIa. On the other hand, the epitopes for GPIIIa-specific monoclonal antibodies, P6, P35, P40 and P97, which do not interfere with platelet aggregation, are located within the larger tryptic fragment (80/70 kDa). Thus, the antigenic areas available in the extracellular surface of GPIIIa for these five monoclonal antibodies are now more precisely delineated. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2455507

  11. PASTA: Ultra-Large Multiple Sequence Alignment for Nucleotide and Amino-Acid Sequences.

    PubMed

    Mirarab, Siavash; Nguyen, Nam; Guo, Sheng; Wang, Li-San; Kim, Junhyong; Warnow, Tandy

    2015-05-01

    We introduce PASTA, a new multiple sequence alignment algorithm. PASTA uses a new technique to produce an alignment given a guide tree that enables it to be both highly scalable and very accurate. We present a study on biological and simulated data with up to 200,000 sequences, showing that PASTA produces highly accurate alignments, improving on the accuracy and scalability of the leading alignment methods (including SATé). We also show that trees estimated on PASTA alignments are highly accurate--slightly better than SATé trees, but with substantial improvements relative to other methods. Finally, PASTA is faster than SATé, highly parallelizable, and requires relatively little memory.

  12. PRINT: A Protein Bioconjugation Method with Exquisite N-terminal Specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Surojit; Qiao, Yuan; Fries, Anja; O'Meally, Robert N.; Cole, Robert N.; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Zhou, Shibin

    2015-12-01

    Chemical conjugation is commonly used to enhance the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and potency of protein therapeutics, but often leads to non-specific modification or loss of bioactivity. Here, we present a simple, versatile and widely applicable method that allows exquisite N-terminal specific modification of proteins. Combining reversible side-chain blocking and protease mediated cleavage of a commonly used HIS tag appended to a protein, we generate with high yield and purity exquisitely site specific and selective bio-conjugates of TNF-α by using amine reactive NHS ester chemistry. We confirm the N terminal selectivity and specificity using mass spectral analyses and show near complete retention of the biological activity of our model protein both in vitro and in vivo murine models. We believe that this methodology would be applicable to a variety of potentially therapeutic proteins and the specificity afforded by this technique would allow for rapid generation of novel biologics.

  13. Absence of N-terminal acetyltransferase diversification during evolution of eukaryotic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Om Singh; Faustino, Alexandra; Prudêncio, Pedro; Van Damme, Petra; Cox, Cymon J.; Martinho, Rui Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    Protein N-terminal acetylation is an ancient and ubiquitous co-translational modification catalyzed by a highly conserved family of N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). Prokaryotes have at least 3 NATs, whereas humans have six distinct but highly conserved NATs, suggesting an increase in regulatory complexity of this modification during eukaryotic evolution. Despite this, and against our initial expectations, we determined that NAT diversification did not occur in the eukaryotes, as all six major human NATs were most likely present in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA). Furthermore, we also observed that some NATs were actually secondarily lost during evolution of major eukaryotic lineages; therefore, the increased complexity of the higher eukaryotic proteome occurred without a concomitant diversification of NAT complexes. PMID:26861501

  14. Involvement of the N-terminal region in alpha-crystallin-lens membrane recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifeanyi, F.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that alpha-crystallin binds specifically, in a saturable manner, to lens membrane. To determine the region of the alpha-crystallin molecule that might be involved in this binding, native alpha-crystallin from the bovine lens has been treated by limited digestion with trypsin, to produce alpha-A molecules with an intact C-terminal region, and a nicked N-terminal region. Compared to intact alpha-crystallin, trypsin-treated alpha-crystallin binds less avidly to lens membrane, suggesting that the N-terminal region of the alpha-A molecule may play a key role in the recognition between lens membrane and crystallin.

  15. Resin-assisted Enrichment of N-terminal Peptides for Characterizing Proteolytic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong Seo; Dai, Ziyu; Aryal, Uma K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Baker, Scott E.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2013-06-17

    Proteolytic processing is a ubiquitous, irreversible posttranslational modification that plays an important role in cellular regulation in all living organisms. Herein we report a resin-assisted positive selection method for specifically enriching protein N-terminal peptides to facilitate the characterization of proteolytic processing events by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In this approach, proteins are initially reduced and alkylated and their lysine residues are converted to homoarginines. Then, protein N-termini are selectively converted to reactive thiol groups. We demonstrate that these sequential reactions were achieved with nearly quantitative efficiencies. Thiol-containing N-terminal peptides are then captured (>98% efficiency) by a thiol-affinity resin, a significant improvement over the traditional avidin/biotin enrichment. Application to cell lysates of Aspergillus niger, a filamentous fungus of interest for biomass degradation, enabled the identification of 1672 unique protein N-termini and proteolytic cleavage sites from 690 unique proteins.

  16. PRINT: A Protein Bioconjugation Method with Exquisite N-terminal Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Surojit; Qiao, Yuan; Fries, Anja; O’Meally, Robert N.; Cole, Robert N.; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Zhou, Shibin

    2015-01-01

    Chemical conjugation is commonly used to enhance the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and potency of protein therapeutics, but often leads to non-specific modification or loss of bioactivity. Here, we present a simple, versatile and widely applicable method that allows exquisite N-terminal specific modification of proteins. Combining reversible side-chain blocking and protease mediated cleavage of a commonly used HIS tag appended to a protein, we generate with high yield and purity exquisitely site specific and selective bio-conjugates of TNF-α by using amine reactive NHS ester chemistry. We confirm the N terminal selectivity and specificity using mass spectral analyses and show near complete retention of the biological activity of our model protein both in vitro and in vivo murine models. We believe that this methodology would be applicable to a variety of potentially therapeutic proteins and the specificity afforded by this technique would allow for rapid generation of novel biologics. PMID:26678960

  17. Nucleotide sequences of two fimbrial major subunit genes, pmpA and ucaA, from canine-uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis strains.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, I G; van Dijk, L; Kusters, J G; Gaastra, W

    1995-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains were isolated from dogs with urinary tract infection (UTI) and fimbriae were prepared from two strains. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the major fimbrial subunits were determined and both sequences appeared identical to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of a urinary cell adhesin (UCA) (Wray, S. K., Hull, S. I., Cook, R. G., Barrish, J. & Hull, R. A., 1986, Infect Immun 54, 43-49). The genes of two different major fimbrial subunits were cloned using oligonucleotide probes that were designed on the basis of the N-terminal UCA sequence. Nucleotide sequencing revealed the complete ucaA gene of 540 bp (from strain IVB247) encoding a polypeptide of 180 amino acids, including a 22 amino acid signal sequence peptide, and the pmpA (P. mirabilis P-like pili) gene of 549 bp (from strain IVB219) encoding a polypeptide of 183 amino acids, including a 23 amino acid signal sequence. Hybridization experiments gave clear indications of the presence of both kinds of fimbriae in many UTI-related canine P. mirabilis isolates. However, the presence of these fimbriae could not be demonstrated in P. vulgaris or other Proteus-related species. Database analysis of amino acid sequences of major subunit proteins revealed that the UcaA protein shares about 56% amino acid identity with the F17A and F111A major fimbrial subunits from bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. In turn, the PmpA protein more closely resembled the pyelonephritis-associated pili (Pap)-like major subunit protein from UTI-related E. coli. The evolutionary relationship of UcaA, PmpA and various other fimbrial subunit proteins is presented in a phylogenetic tree.

  18. The large N-terminal region of the Brr2 RNA helicase guides productive spliceosome activation

    PubMed Central

    Absmeier, Eva; Wollenhaupt, Jan; Mozaffari-Jovin, Sina; Becke, Christian; Lee, Chung-Tien; Preussner, Marco; Heyd, Florian; Urlaub, Henning; Lührmann, Reinhard; Santos, Karine F.; Wahl, Markus C.

    2015-01-01

    The Brr2 helicase provides the key remodeling activity for spliceosome catalytic activation, during which it disrupts the U4/U6 di-snRNP (small nuclear RNA protein), and its activity has to be tightly regulated. Brr2 exhibits an unusual architecture, including an ∼500-residue N-terminal region, whose functions and molecular mechanisms are presently unknown, followed by a tandem array of structurally similar helicase units (cassettes), only the first of which is catalytically active. Here, we show by crystal structure analysis of full-length Brr2 in complex with a regulatory Jab1/MPN domain of the Prp8 protein and by cross-linking/mass spectrometry of isolated Brr2 that the Brr2 N-terminal region encompasses two folded domains and adjacent linear elements that clamp and interconnect the helicase cassettes. Stepwise N-terminal truncations led to yeast growth and splicing defects, reduced Brr2 association with U4/U6•U5 tri-snRNPs, and increased ATP-dependent disruption of the tri-snRNP, yielding U4/U6 di-snRNP and U5 snRNP. Trends in the RNA-binding, ATPase, and helicase activities of the Brr2 truncation variants are fully rationalized by the crystal structure, demonstrating that the N-terminal region autoinhibits Brr2 via substrate competition and conformational clamping. Our results reveal molecular mechanisms that prevent premature and unproductive tri-snRNP disruption and suggest novel principles of Brr2-dependent splicing regulation. PMID:26637280

  19. c-jun-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Philip LoGrasso CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Scripps Research... Lateral Sclerosis ” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0431 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0431 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Philip...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30September2012-29September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “c-jun-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic

  20. SETG: Nucleic Acid Extraction and Sequencing for In Situ Life Detection on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojarro, A.; Hachey, J.; Tani, J.; Smith, A.; Bhattaru, S. A.; Pontefract, A.; Doebler, R.; Brown, M.; Ruvkun, G.; Zuber, M. T.; Carr, C. E.

    2016-10-01

    We are developing an integrated nucleic acid extraction and sequencing instrument: the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Genomes (SETG) for in situ life detection on Mars. Our goals are to identify related or unrelated nucleic acid-based life on Mars.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Cyanobacterium sp. Strain IPPAS B-1200 with a Unique Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Starikov, Alexander Y.; Usserbaeva, Aizhan A.; Sinetova, Maria A.; Sarsekeyeva, Fariza K.; Zayadan, Bolatkhan K.; Ustinova, Vera V.; Kupriyanova, Elena V.; Los, Dmitry A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome of Cyanobacterium sp. IPPAS strain B-1200, isolated from Lake Balkhash, Kazakhstan, and characterized by the unique fatty acid composition of its membrane lipids, which are enriched with myristic and myristoleic acids. The approximate genome size is 3.4 Mb, and the predicted number of coding sequences is 3,119. PMID:27856596

  2. Characterization of an invertase with pH tolerance and truncation of its N-terminal to shift optimum activity toward neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Du, Liqin; Pang, Hao; Wang, Zilong; Lu, Jian; Wei, Yutuo; Huang, Ribo

    2013-01-01

    Most invertases identified to date have optimal activity at acidic pH, and are intolerant to neutral or alkaline environments. Here, an acid invertase named uninv2 is described. Uninv2 contained 586 amino acids, with a 100 amino acids N-terminal domain, a catalytic domain and a C-terminal domain. With sucrose as the substrate, uninv2 activity was optimal at pH 4.5 and at 45°C. Removal of N-terminal domain of uninv2 has shifted the optimum pH to 6.0 while retaining its optimum temperaure at 45°C. Both uninv2 and the truncated enzyme retained highly stable at neutral pH at 37°C, and they were stable at their optimum pH at 4°C for as long as 30 days. These characteristics make them far superior to invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is mostly used as industrial enzyme.

  3. Sequencing and computational analysis of complete genome sequences of Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus from acid lime and pummelo.

    PubMed

    Borah, Basanta K; Johnson, A M Anthony; Sai Gopal, D V R; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2009-08-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus (CMBV), a member of the Family Caulimoviridae, Genus Badnavirus, is the causative agent of Citrus mosaic disease in India. Although the virus has been detected in several citrus species, only two full-length genomes, one each from Sweet orange and Rangpur lime, are available in publicly accessible databases. In order to obtain a better understanding of the genetic variability of the virus in other citrus mosaic-affected citrus species, we performed the cloning and sequence analysis of complete genomes of CMBV from two additional citrus species, Acid lime and Pummelo. We show that CMBV genomes from the two hosts share high homology with previously reported CMBV sequences and hence conclude that the new isolates represent variants of the virus present in these species. Based on in silico sequence analysis, we predict the possible function of the protein encoded by one of the five ORFs.

  4. Parvalbumins from coelacanth muscle. III. Amino acid sequence of the major component.

    PubMed

    Jauregui-Adell, J; Pechere, J F

    1978-09-26

    The primary structure of the major parvalbumin (pI = 4.52) from coelacanth muscle (Latimeria chalumnae) has been determined. Sequence analysis of the tryptic peptides, in some cases obtained with beta-trypsin, accounts for the total amino acid content of the protein. Chymotryptic peptides provide appropriate sequence overlaps, to complete the localization of the tryptic peptides. Examination of the amino acid sequence of this protein shows the typical structure of a beta-parvalbumin. Its position in the dendrogram of related calcium-binding proteins corresponds to that usually accepted for crossopterygians.

  5. Nucleotide sequence of the large double-stranded RNA segment of bacteriophage phi 6: genes specifying the viral replicase and transcriptase.

    PubMed Central

    Mindich, L; Nemhauser, I; Gottlieb, P; Romantschuk, M; Carton, J; Frucht, S; Strassman, J; Bamford, D H; Kalkkinen, N

    1988-01-01

    The genome of the lipid-containing bacteriophage phi 6 contains three segments of double-stranded RNA. We determined the nucleotide sequence of cDNA derived from the largest RNA segment (L). This segment specifies the procapsid proteins necessary for transcription and replication of the phi 6 genome. The coding sequences of the four proteins on this segment were identified on the basis of size and the correlation of predicted N-terminal amino acid sequences with those found through analysis of isolated proteins. This report completes the sequence analysis of phi 6. This constitutes the first complete sequence of a double-stranded RNA genome virus. PMID:3346944

  6. Expanding the Phenotype Associated with NAA10-Related N-Terminal Acetylation Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saunier, Chloé; Støve, Svein Isungset; Popp, Bernt; Gérard, Bénédicte; Blenski, Marina; AhMew, Nicholas; de Bie, Charlotte; Goldenberg, Paula; Isidor, Bertrand; Keren, Boris; Leheup, Bruno; Lampert, Laetitia; Mignot, Cyril; Tezcan, Kamer; Mancini, Grazia M S; Nava, Caroline; Wasserstein, Melissa; Bruel, Ange-Line; Thevenon, Julien; Masurel, Alice; Duffourd, Yannis; Kuentz, Paul; Huet, Frédéric; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon; Faivre, Laurence; Piton, Amélie; Reis, André; Arnesen, Thomas; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Zweier, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a common protein modification in eukaryotes associated with numerous cellular processes. Inherited mutations in NAA10, encoding the catalytic subunit of the major N-terminal acetylation complex NatA have been associated with diverse, syndromic X-linked recessive disorders, whereas de novo missense mutations have been reported in one male and one female individual with severe intellectual disability but otherwise unspecific phenotypes. Thus, the full genetic and clinical spectrum of NAA10 deficiency is yet to be delineated. We identified three different novel and one known missense mutation in NAA10, de novo in 11 females, and due to maternal germ line mosaicism in another girl and her more severely affected and deceased brother. In vitro enzymatic assays for the novel, recurrent mutations p.(Arg83Cys) and p.(Phe128Leu) revealed reduced catalytic activity. X-inactivation was random in five females. The core phenotype of X-linked NAA10-related N-terminal-acetyltransferase deficiency in both males and females includes developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, postnatal growth failure with severe microcephaly, and skeletal or cardiac anomalies. Genotype-phenotype correlations within and between both genders are complex and may include various factors such as location and nature of mutations, enzymatic stability and activity, and X-inactivation in females.

  7. N-Terminal Deletion of Peptide:N-Glycanase Results in Enhanced Deglycosylation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shengjun; Xin, Fengxue; Liu, Xiaoyue; Wang, Yuxiao; An, Zhenyi; Qi, Qingsheng; Wang, Peng George

    2009-01-01

    Peptide:N-glycanase catalyzes the detachment of N-linked glycan chains from glycopeptides or glycoproteins by hydrolyzing the β-aspartylglucosaminyl bond. Peptide:N-glycanase in yeast binds to Rad23p through its N-terminus. In this study, the complex formed between Peptide:N-glycanase and Rad23p was found to exhibit enhanced deglycosylation activity, which suggests an important role for this enzyme in the misfolded glycoprotein degradation pathway in vivo. To investigate the role of this enzyme in this pathway, we made stepwise deletions of the N-terminal helices of peptide:N-glycanase. Enzymatic analysis of the deletion mutants showed that deletion of the N-terminal H1 helix (Png1p-ΔH1) enhanced the deglycosylation activity of N-glycanase towards denatured glycoproteins. In addition, this mutant exhibited high deglycosylation activity towards native glycoproteins. Dynamic simulations of the wild type and N-terminal H1 deletion mutant implied that Png1p-ΔH1 is more flexible than wild type Png1p. The efficient deglycosylation of Png1p-ΔH1 towards native and non-native glycoproteins offers a potential biotechnological application. PMID:20016784

  8. Mechanism of N-terminal modulation of activity at the melanocortin-4 receptor GPCR

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Baran A; Pardo, Leonardo; Zhang, Sumei; Thompson, Darren A; Millhauser, Glenn; Govaerts, Cedric; Vaisse, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Most of our understanding of G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) activation has been focused on the direct interaction between diffusible ligands and their seven-transmembrane domains. However, a number of these receptors depend on their extracellular N-terminal domain for ligand recognition and activation. To dissect the molecular interactions underlying both modes of activation at a single receptor, we used the unique properties of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), a GPCR that shows constitutive activity maintained by its N-terminal domain and is physiologically activated by the peptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH). We find that activation by the N-terminal domain and αMSH relies on different key residues in the transmembrane region. We also demonstrate that agouti-related protein, a physiological antagonist of MC4R, acts as an inverse agonist by inhibiting N terminus–mediated activation, leading to the speculation that a number of constitutively active orphan GPCRs could have physiological inverse agonists as sole regulators. PMID:22729149

  9. Disease mutations in the ryanodine receptor N-terminal region couple to a mobile intersubunit interface.

    PubMed

    Kimlicka, Lynn; Lau, Kelvin; Tung, Ching-Chieh; Van Petegem, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors are large channels that release Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Hundreds of RyR mutations can cause cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders, yet detailed mechanisms explaining their effects have been lacking. Here we compare pseudo-atomic models and propose that channel opening coincides with widening of a cytoplasmic vestibule formed by the N-terminal region, thus altering an interface targeted by 20 disease mutations. We solve crystal structures of several disease mutants that affect intrasubunit domain-domain interfaces. Mutations affecting intrasubunit ionic pairs alter relative domain orientations, and thus couple to surrounding interfaces. Buried disease mutations cause structural changes that also connect to the intersubunit contact area. These results suggest that the intersubunit contact region between N-terminal domains is a prime target for disease mutations, direct or indirect, and we present a model whereby ryanodine receptors and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are activated by altering domain arrangements in the N-terminal region.

  10. Bepridil opens the regulatory N-terminal lobe of cardiac troponin C

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Love, Michael L.; Putkey, John A.; Cohen, Carolyn

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac troponin C (cTnC) is the calcium-dependent switch for contraction in heart muscle and a potential target for drugs in the therapy of congestive heart failure. This calmodulin-like protein consists of two lobes connected by a central linker; each lobe contains two EF-hand domains. The regulatory N-terminal lobe of cTnC, unlike that of skeletal troponin C (sTnC), contains only one functional EF-hand and does not open fully upon the binding of Ca2+. We have determined the crystal structure of cTnC, with three bound Ca2+ ions, complexed with the calcium-sensitizer bepridil, to 2.15-Å resolution. In contrast to apo- and 3Ca2+-cTnC, the drug-bound complex displays a fully open N-terminal lobe similar to the N-terminal lobes of 4Ca2+-sTnC and cTnC bound to a C-terminal fragment of cardiac troponin I (residues 147–163). The closing of the lobe is sterically hindered by one of the three bound bepridils. Our results provide a structural basis for the Ca2+-sensitizing effect of bepridil and reveal the details of a distinctive two-stage mechanism for Ca2+ regulation by troponin C in cardiac muscle. PMID:10792039

  11. Analysis of cloned cDNA and genomic sequences for phytochrome: complete amino acid sequences for two gene products expressed in etiolated Avena.

    PubMed Central

    Hershey, H P; Barker, R F; Idler, K B; Lissemore, J L; Quail, P H

    1985-01-01

    Cloned cDNA and genomic sequences have been analyzed to deduce the amino acid sequence of phytochrome from etiolated Avena. Restriction endonuclease site polymorphism between clones indicates that at least four phytochrome genes are expressed in this tissue. Sequence analysis of two complete and one partial coding region shows approximately 98% homology at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels, with the majority of amino acid changes being conservative. High sequence homology is also found in the 5'-untranslated region but significant divergence occurs in the 3'-untranslated region. The phytochrome polypeptides are 1128 amino acid residues long corresponding to a molecular mass of 125 kdaltons. The known protein sequence at the chromophore attachment site occurs only once in the polypeptide, establishing that phytochrome has a single chromophore per monomer covalently linked to Cys-321. Computer analyses of the amino acid sequences have provided predictions regarding a number of structural features of the phytochrome molecule. PMID:3001642

  12. Peptides from the N-terminal domain of chromogranin A (vasostatins) exert negative inotropic effects in the isolated frog heart.

    PubMed

    Tota, Bruno; Mazza, Rosa; Angelone, Tommaso; Nullans, Gerard; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hélène; Aunis, Dominique; Helle, Karen B

    2003-07-15

    The negative inotropic effects of synthetic peptides derived from the N-terminus of chromogranin A (CgA) were studied in an avascular model of the vertebrate myocardium, the isolated working frog heart (Rana esculenta). The peptides were frog and bovine CgA(4-16) and CgA(47-66), and bovine CgA(1-40) with (CgA(1-40SS)) and without an intact disulfide bridge (CgA(1-40SH)). Under basal cardiac conditions, four of the peptides caused a concentration-dependent negative inotropism that was comparable to the negative inotropy reported for human recombinant vasostatin I (CgA(1-78)) and bovine CgA(7-57). By comparison of the structural characteristics of the bovine and frog sequences with their minimally effective concentrations ranging from 68 to 125 nM of peptide, the results were consistent with the natural structure (CgA(17-38SS)) being essential for the negative inotropism. In addition, the partial sequences of the frog and bovine vasostatin I were effective in counteracting the characteristic positive inotropism exerted by isoproterenol (1 nM) at minimally effective concentrations ranging from 45 to 272 nM. Taken together, these results extend the first evidence for a cardiosuppressive role of the N-terminal domain of chromogranin A known for its co-storage with catecholamines in the sympathoadrenal system of vertebrates.

  13. Amino acid sequence of anionic peroxidase from the windmill palm tree Trachycarpus fortunei.

    PubMed

    Baker, Margaret R; Zhao, Hongwei; Sakharov, Ivan Yu; Li, Qing X

    2014-12-10

    Palm peroxidases are extremely stable and have uncommon substrate specificity. This study was designed to fill in the knowledge gap about the structures of a peroxidase from the windmill palm tree Trachycarpus fortunei. The complete amino acid sequence and partial glycosylation were determined by MALDI-top-down sequencing of native windmill palm tree peroxidase (WPTP), MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS of WPTP tryptic peptides, and cDNA sequencing. The propeptide of WPTP contained N- and C-terminal signal sequences which contained 21 and 17 amino acid residues, respectively. Mature WPTP was 306 amino acids in length, and its carbohydrate content ranged from 21% to 29%. Comparison to closely related royal palm tree peroxidase revealed structural features that may explain differences in their substrate specificity. The results can be used to guide engineering of WPTP and its novel applications.

  14. Amino acid sequence of TsTX-V, an alpha-toxin from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom, and its effect on K+ permeability of beta-cells from isolated rat islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, S; Toyama, M H; Arantes, E C; Giglio, J R; da Silva, C A; Carneiro, E M; Gonçalves, A A; Oliveira, B

    1995-04-13

    Highly purified Tityustoxin V (TsTX-V), an alpha-toxin isolated from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus, was obtained by ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose-52. It was shown to be homogeneous by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, N-terminal sequencing (first 39 residues) of the reduced and alkylated protein and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate and tricine. Following enzymatic digestion, the complete amino acid sequence (64 residues) was determined. The sequence showed higher homology with the toxins from the venoms of the North African than with those of the North and South American scorpions. Using the rate of 86Rb+ release from depolarized rat pancreatic beta-cells as a measure of K+ permeability changes, TsTX-V (5.6 micrograms/ml) was found to increase by 2.0-2.4-fold the rate of marker outflow in the presence of 8.3 mM glucose. This effect was persistent and slowly reversible, showing similarity to that induced by 100 microM veratridine, an agent that increases the open period of Na+ channels, delaying their inactivation. It is suggested that, by extending the depolarized period, TsTX-V indirectly affects beta-cell voltage-dependent K+ channels, thus increasing K+ permeability.

  15. TranslatorX: multiple alignment of nucleotide sequences guided by amino acid translations.

    PubMed

    Abascal, Federico; Zardoya, Rafael; Telford, Maximilian J

    2010-07-01

    We present TranslatorX, a web server designed to align protein-coding nucleotide sequences based on their corresponding amino acid translations. Many comparisons between biological sequences (nucleic acids and proteins) involve the construction of multiple alignments. Alignments represent a statement regarding the homology between individual nucleotides or amino acids within homologous genes. As protein-coding DNA sequences evolve as triplets of nucleotides (codons) and it is known that sequence similarity degrades more rapidly at the DNA than at the amino acid level, alignments are generally more accurate when based on amino acids than on their corresponding nucleotides. TranslatorX novelties include: (i) use of all documented genetic codes and the possibility of assigning different genetic codes for each sequence; (ii) a battery of different multiple alignment programs; (iii) translation of ambiguous codons when possible; (iv) an innovative criterion to clean nucleotide alignments with GBlocks based on protein information; and (v) a rich output, including Jalview-powered graphical visualization of the alignments, codon-based alignments coloured according to the corresponding amino acids, measures of compositional bias and first, second and third codon position specific alignments. The TranslatorX server is freely available at http://translatorx.co.uk.

  16. Sequencing Lys-N Proteolytic Peptides by ESI and MALDI Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Verdié, Pascal; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we explored the MS/MS behavior of various synthetic peptides that possess a lysine residue at the N-terminal position. These peptides were designed to mimic peptides produced upon proteolysis by the Lys-N enzyme, a metalloendopeptidase issued from a Japanese fungus Grifola frondosa that was recently investigated in proteomic studies as an alternative to trypsin digestion, as a specific cleavage at the amide X-Lys chain is obtained that provides N-terminal lysine peptide fragments. In contrast to tryptic peptides exhibiting a lysine or arginine residue solely at the C-terminal position, and are thus devoid of such basic amino acids within the sequence, these Lys-N proteolytic peptides can contain the highly basic arginine residue anywhere within the peptide chain. The fragmentation patterns of such sequences with the ESI-QqTOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometers commonly used in proteomic bottom-up experiments were investigated.

  17. Amino acid sequence of homologous rat atrial peptides: natriuretic activity of native and synthetic forms.

    PubMed Central

    Seidah, N G; Lazure, C; Chrétien, M; Thibault, G; Garcia, R; Cantin, M; Genest, J; Nutt, R F; Brady, S F; Lyle, T A

    1984-01-01

    A substance called atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), localized in secretory granules of atrial cardiocytes, was isolated as four homologous natriuretic peptides from homogenates of rat atria. The complete sequence of the longest form showed that it is composed of 33 amino acids. The three other shorter forms (2-33, 3-33, and 8-33) represent amino-terminally truncated versions of the 33 amino acid parent molecule as shown by analysis of sequence, amino acid composition, or both. The proposed primary structure agrees entirely with the amino acid composition and reveals no significant sequence homology with any known protein or segment of protein. The short form ANF-(8-33) was synthesized by a multi-fragment condensation approach and the synthetic product was shown to exhibit specific activity comparable to that of the natural ANF-(3-33). PMID:6232612

  18. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of a new subtilisin from an alkaliphilic Bacillus isolate.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Katsuhisa; Magallones, Marietta V; Takimura, Yasushi; Hatada, Yuji; Kobayashi, Tohru; Kawai, Shuji; Ito, Susumu

    2003-10-01

    The gene for a new subtilisin from the alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. KSM-LD1 was cloned and sequenced. The open reading frame of the gene encoded a 97 amino-acid prepro-peptide plus a 307 amino-acid mature enzyme that contained a possible catalytic triad of residues, Asp32, His66, and Ser224. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature enzyme (LD1) showed approximately 65% identity to those of subtilisins SprC and SprD from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. LG12. The amino acid sequence identities of LD1 to those of previously reported true subtilisins and high-alkaline proteases were below 60%. LD1 was characteristically stable during incubation with surfactants and chemical oxidants. Interestingly, an oxidizable Met residue is located next to the catalytic Ser224 of the enzyme as in the cases of the oxidation-susceptible subtilisins reported to date.

  19. DNA-binding and transactivation properties of Pax-6: three amino acids in the paired domain are responsible for the different sequence recognition of Pax-6 and BSAP (Pax-5).

    PubMed Central

    Czerny, T; Busslinger, M

    1995-01-01

    Pax-6 is known to be a key regulator of vertebrate eye development. We have now isolated cDNA for an invertebrate Pax-6 protein from sea urchin embryos. Transcripts of this gene first appear during development at the gastrula stage and are later expressed at high levels in the tube foot of the adult sea urchin. The sea urchin Pax-6 protein is highly homologous throughout the whole protein to its vertebrate counterpart with the paired domain and homeodomain being virtually identical. Consequently, we found that the DNA-binding and transactivation properties of the sea urchin and mouse Pax-6 proteins are very similar, if not identical. A potent activation domain capable of stimulating transcription from proximal promoter and distal enhancer positions was localized within the C-terminal sequences of both the sea urchin and mouse Pax-6 proteins. The homeodomain of Pax-6 was shown to cooperatively dimerize on DNA sequences consisting of an inverted repeat of the TAAT motif with a preferred spacing of 3 nucleotides. The consensus recognition sequence of the Pax-6 paired domain deviates primarily only at one position from that of BSAP (Pax-5), and yet the two proteins exhibit largely different binding specificities for individual, naturally occurring sites. By creating Pax-6-BSAP fusion proteins, we were able to identify a short amino acid stretch in the N-terminal part of the paired domain which is responsible for these differences in DNA-binding specificity. Mutation of three Pax-6-specific residues in this region (at positions 42, 44, and 47 of the paired domain) to the corresponding amino acids of BSAP resulted in a complete switch of the DNA-binding specificity from Pax-6 to BSAP. These three amino acids were furthermore shown to discriminate between the Pax-6- and BSAP-specific nucleotide at the divergent position of the two consensus recognition sequences. PMID:7739566

  20. Shark myelin basic protein: amino acid sequence, secondary structure, and self-association.

    PubMed

    Milne, T J; Atkins, A R; Warren, J A; Auton, W P; Smith, R

    1990-09-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) from the Whaler shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) has been purified from acid extracts of a chloroform/methanol pellet from whole brains. The amino acid sequence of the majority of the protein has been determined and compared with the sequences of other MBPs. The shark protein has only 44% homology with the bovine protein, but, in common with other MBPs, it has basic residues distributed throughout the sequence and no extensive segments that are predicted to have an ordered secondary structure in solution. Shark MBP lacks the triproline sequence previously postulated to form a hairpin bend in the molecule. The region containing the putative consensus sequence for encephalitogenicity in the guinea pig contains several substitutions, thus accounting for the lack of activity of the shark protein. Studies of the secondary structure and self-association have shown that shark MBP possesses solution properties similar to those of the bovine protein, despite the extensive differences in primary structure.

  1. Structural Studies of Geosmin Synthase, a Bifunctional Sesquiterpene Synthase with αα Domain Architecture That Catalyzes a Unique Cyclization-Fragmentation Reaction Sequence.

    PubMed

    Harris, Golda G; Lombardi, Patrick M; Pemberton, Travis A; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M; Cole, Kathryn E; Köksal, Mustafa; Murphy, Frank V; Vedula, L Sangeetha; Chou, Wayne K W; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

    2015-12-08

    Geosmin synthase from Streptomyces coelicolor (ScGS) catalyzes an unusual, metal-dependent terpenoid cyclization and fragmentation reaction sequence. Two distinct active sites are required for catalysis: the N-terminal domain catalyzes the ionization and cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to form germacradienol and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and the C-terminal domain catalyzes the protonation, cyclization, and fragmentation of germacradienol to form geosmin and acetone through a retro-Prins reaction. A unique αα domain architecture is predicted for ScGS based on amino acid sequence: each domain contains the metal-binding motifs typical of a class I terpenoid cyclase, and each domain requires Mg(2+) for catalysis. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the unliganded N-terminal domain of ScGS and the structure of its complex with three Mg(2+) ions and alendronate. These structures highlight conformational changes required for active site closure and catalysis. Although neither full-length ScGS nor constructs of the C-terminal domain could be crystallized, homology models of the C-terminal domain were constructed on the basis of ∼36% sequence identity with the N-terminal domain. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments yield low-resolution molecular envelopes into which the N-terminal domain crystal structure and the C-terminal domain homology model were fit, suggesting possible αα domain architectures as frameworks for bifunctional catalysis.

  2. Structural Studies of Geosmin Synthase, a Bifunctional Sesquiterpene Synthase with Alpha-Alpha Domain Architecture that Catalyzes a Unique Cyclization-Fragmentation Reaction Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Golda G.; Lombardi, Patrick M.; Pemberton, Travis A.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M.; Cole, Kathryn E.; Köksal, Mustafa; Murphy, Frank V.; Vedula, L. Sangeetha; Chou, Wayne K.W.; Cane, David E.; Christianson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Geosmin synthase from Streptomyces coelicolor (ScGS) catalyzes an unusual, metal-dependent terpenoid cyclization and fragmentation reaction sequence. Two distinct active sites are required for catalysis: the N-terminal domain catalyzes the ionization and cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to form germacradienol and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and the C-terminal domain catalyzes the protonation, cyclization, and fragmentation of germacradienol to form geosmin and acetone through a retro-Prins reaction. A unique αα domain architecture is predicted for ScGS based on amino acid sequence: each domain contains the metal-binding motifs typical of a class I terpenoid cyclase, and each domain requires Mg2+ for catalysis. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the unliganded N-terminal domain of ScGS and the structure of its complex with 3 Mg2+ ions and alendronate. These structures highlight conformational changes required for active site closure and catalysis. Although neither full-length ScGS nor constructs of the C-terminal domain could be crystallized, homology models of the C-terminal domain were constructed based on ~36% sequence identity with the N-terminal domain. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments yield low resolution molecular envelopes into which the N-terminal domain crystal structure and the C-terminal domain homology model were fit, suggesting possible αα domain architectures as frameworks for bifunctional catalysis. PMID:26598179

  3. Complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of human factor V

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny, R.J.; Pittman, D.D.; Toole, J.J.; Kriz, R.W.; Aldape, R.A.; Hewick, R.M.; Kaufman, R.J.; Mann, K.G.

    1987-07-01

    cDNA clones encoding human factor V have been isolated from an oligo(dT)-primed human fetal liver cDNA library prepared with vector Charon 21A. The cDNA sequence of factor V from three overlapping clones includes a 6672-base-pair (bp) coding region, a 90-bp 5' untranslated region, and a 163-bp 3' untranslated region within which is a poly(A)tail. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 2224 amino acids inclusive of a 28-amino acid leader peptide. Direct comparison with human factor VIII reveals considerable homology between proteins in amino acid sequence and domain structure: a triplicated A domain and duplicated C domain show approx. 40% identity with the corresponding domains in factor VIII. As in factor VIII, the A domains of factor V share approx. 40% amino acid-sequence homology with the three highly conserved domains in ceruloplasmin. The B domain of factor V contains 35 tandem and approx. 9 additional semiconserved repeats of nine amino acids of the form Asp-Leu-Ser-Gln-Thr-Thr/Asn-Leu-Ser-Pro and 2 additional semiconserved repeats of 17 amino acids. Factor V contains 37 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, 25 of which are in the B domain, and a total of 19 cysteine residues.

  4. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Eichler, Jerry

    2007-05-01

    Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  5. Isolation and characterization of new exon 11-associated N-terminal splice variants of the human