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Sample records for acid neutralising capacity

  1. Acid neutralisation capacity of accelerated carbonated stainless steel slag.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D C; MacLeod, C L; Hills, C D

    2003-05-01

    The acid neutralisation capacity test is widely used to assess the long-term performance of waste materials prior to disposal. Samples of fixed mass are exposed to increasing additions of nitric add in sealed containers and the resultant pH is plotted as a titration curve. In this work, the add neutralisation capacity test was used in the assessment of an accelerated carbonated stainless steel slag. Difficulties arose in applying the test procedure to this material. This was largely because of the raised pressure from significant volumes of released carbon dioxide trapped in the sealed sample containers, causing an alteration to leachate pH values. Consequently, the add neutralisation capacity test was modified to enable testing of samples in equilibrium with the atmosphere. No adverse effects on the results from testing of a carbonate free material were recorded. PMID:12803247

  2. The capacity of biochar made from common reeds to neutralise pH and remove dissolved metals in acid drainage.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Luke M; Willson, Philip; Hamilton, Benjamin; Butler, Greg; Seaman, Russell

    2015-10-01

    We tested the capacity of biochar (made at 450 °C from a common reed species) to neutralise pH and remove metals in two acid drainage waters (pH 2.6 and 4.6) using column leaching and batch mixing experiments. In the column experiments, the acid drainage water was neutralised upon passage through the biochar with substantial increases (4-5 pH units) in the leachate pH. In the batch experiments, the leachate pH remained above 6.5 when the drainage:biochar ratio was less than approximately 700:1 (L acid drainage:kg biochar) and 20:1 for the pH 4.6 and pH 2.6 drainage waters, respectively. Dissolved metal concentrations were reduced by 89-98 % (Fe ≈ Al > Ni ≈ Zn > Mn) in the leachate from the biochar. A key mechanism of pH neutralisation appears to be solid carbonate dissolution as calcite (CaCO3) was identified (via X-ray diffraction) in the biochar prior to contact with acid drainage, and dissolved alkalinity and Ca was observed in the leachate. Proton and metal removal by cation exchange, direct binding to oxygen-containing functional groups, and metal oxide precipitation also appears important. Further evaluation of the treatment capacity of other biochars and field trials are warranted. PMID:26004563

  3. Potential of fly ash for neutralisation of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asif; Jia, Yu; Maurice, Christian; Öhlander, Björn

    2016-09-01

    Lignite (PK), bituminous (FI) and biomass (SE) fly ashes (FAs) were mineralogically and geochemically characterised, and their element leachability was studied with batch leaching tests. The potential for acid neutralisation (ANP) was quantified by their buffering capacity, reflecting their potential for neutralisation of acid mine drainage. Quartz was the common mineral in FAs detected by XRD with iron oxide, anhydrite, and magnesioferrite in PK, mullite and lime in FI, and calcite and anorthite in SE. All the FAs had high contents of major elements such as Fe, Si, Al and Ca. The Ca content in SE was six and eight times higher compared to PK and FI, respectively. Sulphur content in PK and SE was one magnitude higher than FI. Iron concentrations were higher in PK. The trace element concentrations varied between the FAs. SE had the highest ANP (corresponding to 275 kg CaCO3 tonne(-1)) which was 15 and 10 times higher than PK and FI, respectively. The concentrations of Ca(2+), SO4 (2-), Na(+) and Cl(-) in the leachates were much higher compared to other elements from all FA samples. Iron, Cu and Hg were not detected in any of the FA leachates because of their mild to strong alkaline nature with pH ranging from 9 to 13. Potassium leached in much higher quantity from SE than from the other ashes. Arsenic, Mn and Ni leached from PK only, while Co and Pb from SE only. The concentrations of Zn were higher in the leachates from SE. The FAs used in this study have strong potential for the neutralisation of AMD due to their alkaline nature. However, on the other hand, FAs must be further investigated, with scaled-up experiments before full-scale application, because they might leach pronounced concentrations of elements of concern with decreasing pH while neutralising AMD. PMID:27209637

  4. Methods for estimation of long-term non-carbonate neutralisation of acid rock drainage.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stuart D; Stewart, Warwick S; Rusdinar, Yuni; Schumann, Russell E; Ciccarelli, Joseph M; Li, Jun; Smart, Roger St C

    2010-04-01

    In the long-term phase of an acid rock drainage (ARD) evolution profile, after any short-term neutralisation capacity provided by carbonate minerals is exhausted, the net acid release is a product of a declining acid generation rate (AGR) and a slower, long-term acid neutralisation rate mainly provided by gangue silicate minerals. At some point, the AGR and the non-carbonate acid neutralisation rate (ANRnc) will be similar. Matching of the AGR and ANRnc near 10mg H(2)SO(4)/kg/week is demonstrated in data from 10-year columns. This long-term neutralisation is not measured at present in any accepted assessment tests. Methods to estimate ANRnc, based on silicate mineralogy and solution assays from long-term column leach tests, are compared. Good agreement is demonstrated between rates measured from the solution assay data and those calculated from mineralogy using kinetic databases. More rigorous analysis of the leachate chemistry of selected long-term leach tests also suggests possible cover design criteria based on the maximum AGR that will maintain a pH>4 in leachate from ARD materials. The data show a distinct break at an AGR of 3mg H(2)SO(4)/kg/week, below which no leachate pH is less than 4. The results indicate that an AGR of 10t H(2)SO(4)/ha/year is conservative and a suitable cover design target for ARD control that would be matched by ANRnc. PMID:20097405

  5. Neutralisation of an acidic pit lake by alkaline waste products.

    PubMed

    Allard, Bert; Bäckström, Mattias; Karlsson, Stefan; Grawunder, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A former open pit where black shale (alum shale) was excavated during 1942-1965 has been water filled since 1966. The water chemistry was dominated by calcium and sulphate and had a pH of 3.2-3.4 until 1997-1998, when pH was gradually increasing. This was due to the intrusion of leachates from alkaline cement waste deposited close to the lake. A stable pH of around 7.5 was obtained after 6-7 years. The chemistry of the pit lake has changed due to the neutralisation. Concentrations of some dissolved metals, notably zinc and nickel, have gone down, as a result of adsorption/co-precipitation on solid phases (most likely iron and aluminium hydroxides), while other metals, notably uranium and molybdenum, are present at elevated levels. Uranium concentration is reaching a minimum of around pH 6.5 and is increasing at higher pH, which may indicate a formation of neutral and anionic uranyl carbonate species at high pH (and total carbonate levels around 1 mM). Weathering of the water-exposed shale is still in progress. PMID:23913161

  6. Lactobacillli expressing llama VHH fragments neutralise Lactococcus phages

    PubMed Central

    Hultberg, Anna; Tremblay, Denise M; de Haard, Hans; Verrips, Theo; Moineau, Sylvain; Hammarström, Lennart; Marcotte, Harold

    2007-01-01

    Background Bacteriophages infecting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely acknowledged as the main cause of milk fermentation failures. In this study, we describe the surface-expression as well as the secretion of two functional llama heavy-chain antibody fragments, one binding to the major capsid protein (MCP) and the other to the receptor-binding proteins (RBP) of the lactococcal bacteriophage p2, by lactobacilli in order to neutralise lactococcal phages. Results The antibody fragment VHH5 that is directed against the RBP, was fused to a c-myc tag and expressed in a secreted form by a Lactobacillus strain. The fragment VHH2 that is binding to the MCP, was fused to an E-tag and anchored on the surface of the lactobacilli. Surface expression of VHH2 was confirmed by flow cytometry using an anti-E-tag antibody. Efficient binding of both the VHH2 and the secreted VHH5 fragment to the phage antigens was shown in ELISA. Scanning electron microscopy showed that lactobacilli expressing VHH2 anchored at their surface were able to bind lactococcal phages. A neutralisation assay also confirmed that the secreted VHH5 and the anchored VHH2 fragments prevented the adsorption of lactococcal phages to their host cells. Conclusion Lactobacilli were able to express functional VHH fragments in both a secreted and a cell surface form and reduced phage infection of lactococcal cells. Lactobacilli expressing llama heavy-chain antibody fragments represent a novel way to limit phage infection. PMID:17875214

  7. Heat capacities of amino acids, peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Makhatadze, G I

    1998-04-20

    The heat capacity is one of the fundamental parameters describing thermodynamic properties of a system. It has wide applications in a number of areas such as polymer chemistry, protein folding and DNA stability. To aid the scientific community in the analysis of such data, I have compiled a database on the experimentally measured heat capacities of amino acids, polyamino acids, peptides, and proteins in solid state and in aqueous solutions. PMID:9648205

  8. Generation of neutralising antibodies against porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaulitz, Danny; Fiebig, Uwe; Eschricht, Magdalena; Wurzbacher, Christian; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim

    2011-03-01

    Antibodies neutralising porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) were induced in different animal species by immunisation with the transmembrane envelope protein p15E. These antibodies recognised epitopes, designated E1, in the fusion peptide proximal region (FPPR) of p15E, and E2 in the membrane proximal external region (MPER). E2 is localised in a position similar to that of an epitope in the transmembrane envelope protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), recognised by the monoclonal antibody 4E10 that is broadly neutralising. To detect neutralising antibodies specific for PERV, a novel assay was developed, which is based on quantification of provirus integration by real-time PCR. In addition, for the first time, highly effective neutralising antibodies were obtained by immunisation with the surface envelope protein of PERV. These data indicate that neutralising antibodies can be induced by immunisation with both envelope proteins.

  9. Making sense of drinking: the role of techniques of neutralisation and counter-neutralisation in negotiating alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Maria G; Chatzidakis, Andreas; Banister, Emma N

    2012-07-01

    This article contributes to the understanding of how students neutralise potential feelings of guilt and stigmatisation regarding their alcohol consumption. We report findings from two qualitative studies with students at a UK university. The aim of the research was to uncover the range and ways in which neutralisation and counter-neutralisation techniques are used by drinkers and abstainers/near-abstainers in managing their alcohol position. Study 1 consisted of five focus groups with heavy drinkers and Study 2 comprised nine one-to-one interviews with abstainers and near-abstainers. Analysis highlights the importance of alcohol consumption in students' lifestyles, but also the potential identity conflicts experienced by all drinkers, regardless of the amount consumed. Heavy drinkers primarily employ neutralisation techniques as a means to rationalise the negative impacts of their actions, whereas abstainers and near-abstainers mainly use counter-neutralisation techniques as a means to reinforce their commitment to lifestyles which run counter to mainstream student life expectations. However, regardless of the amount of alcohol consumed, all participants employed neutralising and counter-neutralising arguments in some social situations. The article discusses the usefulness of neutralisation theory to account for the adoption of risky health behaviours, such as excessive alcohol consumption, and the potential implications for public health interventions. PMID:22443270

  10. The Breadth of Cross Sub-Type Neutralisation Activity of a Single Domain Antibody to Influenza Hemagglutinin Can Be Increased by Antibody Valency

    PubMed Central

    Hufton, Simon E.; Risley, Paul; Ball, Christina R.; Major, Diane; Engelhardt, Othmar G.; Poole, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The response to the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic has highlighted the need for additional strategies for intervention which preclude the prior availability of the influenza strain. Here, 18 single domain VHH antibodies against the 2009 A(H1N1) hemagglutinin (HA) have been isolated from a immune alpaca phage displayed library. These antibodies have been grouped as having either (i) non-neutralising, (ii) H1N1 restricted neutralising or (iii) broad cross-subtype neutralising activity. The ability to neutralise different viral subtypes, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1), correlated with the absence of hemagglutination inhibition activity, loss of binding to HA at acid pH and the absence of binding to the head domain containing the receptor binding site. This data supports their binding to epitopes in the HA stem region and a mechanism of action other than blocking viral attachment to cell surface receptors. After conversion of cross-neutralising antibodies R1a-B6 and R1a-A5 into a bivalent format, no significant enhancement in neutralisation activity was seen against A(H1N1) and A(H5N1) viruses. However, bivalent R1a-B6 showed an 18 fold enhancement in potency against A(H9N2) virus and, surprisingly, gained the ability to neutralise an A(H2N2) virus. This demonstrates that cross-neutralising antibodies, which make lower affinity interactions with the membrane proximal stem region of more divergent HA sub-types, can be optimised by bivalency so increasing their breadth of anti-viral activity. The broad neutralising activity and favourable characteristics, such as high stability, simple engineering into bivalent molecules and low cost production make these single domain antibodies attractive candidates for diagnostics and immunotherapy of pandemic influenza. PMID:25084445

  11. INFLUENCE OF AQUEOUS ALUMINUM AND ORGANIC ACIDS ON MEASUREMENT OF ACID NEUTRALIZING CAPACITY IN SURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is used to quantify the acid-base status of surface waters. Acidic waters have bean defined as having ANC values less than zero, and acidification is often quantified by decreases in ANC. Measured and calculated values of ANC generally agree, exce...

  12. Does magical thinking produce neutralising behaviour? An experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Bocci, Laura; Gordon, P Kenneth

    2007-08-01

    Magical thinking is of relevance to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and has been most widely investigated in relation to the cognitive bias known as thought-action fusion (TAF). This is seen as playing a role in the formation of fears about responsibility for harm. We suggest that magical thinking may also characterise some types of neutralising behaviour, which arise in response to those fears, and are a hallmark of the disorder. In an experimental study of 51 undergraduate students, we assessed whether the use of neutralising behaviours in response to an induction of fears of increasing likelihood for harm is related to a propensity for magical thinking. The 75.5% of participants demonstrated at least one form of neutralising behaviour in response to a TAF-induction task. Neutralising was associated with stronger and more persistent responses to the task, and with questionnaire measures of magical ideation. Those who neutralised did not report higher levels of OCD symptoms. It appears that neutralising is a common response in circumstances that provoke a sense of responsibility for harm. Its occurrence may be linked to magical thinking, however, the results from this experimental investigation suggested that this process may not be specific to OCD. PMID:17403518

  13. Techniques of Neutralising Wildlife Crime in Rural England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    Within rural studies there have been few attempts to critically analyse crimes against nature. This paper addresses this gap by providing an analysis of farmers' reasons for illegally culling badgers in the United Kingdom. Drawing on Sykes and Matza's (1957) concepts of neutralisation and drift, the paper shows how farmers rationalise this…

  14. Pyromorphite formation and stability after quick lime neutralisation in the presence of soil and clay sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, Mark A.; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2008-06-16

    Soluble Pb is immobilised in pure systems as pyromorphite by adding sources of P, but doubts remain about the effectiveness of this approach in natural soil systems, particularly given the ability of soil humic substances to interfere with Pb-mineral formation. In addition, recent thermodynamic modelling predicts that pyromorphite formed by the addition of phosphoric acid to Pb-contaminated soils, followed by neutralisation with quick lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}) will destabilise the mineral, reverting the Pb back to more soluble species such as cerussite or anglesite. In this paper, we describe experiments to form pyromorphite in the presence of two different sorbents: a reference smectite called Panther Creek Bentonite, and a commercially available, organically rich potting mixture. We present X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidence suggestive of pyromorphite formation, yet, like similar studies, the evidence is less than conclusive. Linear combination fits of Pb X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) data collected at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory show that pyromorphite is the major Pb species formed after the addition of phosphoric acid. Furthermore, XAFS data shows that neutralising with quick lime enhances (as opposed to reducing) pyromorphite content in these systems. These results call into question relying solely on XRD data to confirm or deny the existence of minerals like pyromorphite, whose complex morphology give less intense and more complicated diffraction patterns than some of the simpler Pb minerals.

  15. Buffer capacities of podzolic and peat gleyic podzolic soils to sulfuric and nitric acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, N. B.; Alekseeva, S. A.; Shashkova, G. V.; Dronova, T. Ya.; Sokolova, T. A.

    2007-04-01

    Soil samples from the main genetic horizons of pale podzolic and peat gleyic podzolic soils from the Central Forest Reserve were subjected to a continuous potentiometric titration by sulfuric and nitric acids. The sulfate sorption capacity was determined in soil mineral horizons. The buffer capacity of mineral horizons of both soils to sulfuric acid was found to be higher than that to the nitric acid. This is explained by the sorption of sulfates via the mechanism of ligand exchange with the release of hydroxyl groups from the surfaces of Fe and Al hydroxide particles and edge faces of clay crystallites. The buffer capacity of organic horizons of the pale podzolic soil to sulfuric acid proved to be higher than that to nitric acid; in organic horizons of the peat gleyic podzolic soil, the buffer capacity to sulfuric acid was lower than that to nitric acid. The reasons for this phenomenon have yet to be investigated.

  16. Prevalence of neutralising antibodies against adenoviruses in lizards and snakes.

    PubMed

    Ball, Inna; Ofner, Sabine; Funk, Richard S; Griffin, Chris; Riedel, Ulf; Möhring, Jens; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-10-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are relatively common in lizards and snakes, and several genetically distinct AdVs have been isolated in cell culture. The aims of this study were to examine serological relationships among lizard and snake AdVs and to determine the frequency of AdV infections in these species. Isolates from a boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), a corn snake (Pantherophis gutattus) and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and two isolates from helodermatid lizards (Heloderma horridum and H. suspectum) were used in neutralisation tests for the detection of antibodies in plasma from 263 lizards from seven families (including 12 species) and from 141 snakes from four families (including 28 species) from the USA and Europe. Most lizard and snake samples had antibodies against a range of AdV isolates, indicating that AdV infection is common among these squamates. Neutralisation tests with polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits demonstrated serological cross-reactivity between both helodermatid lizard isolates. However, squamate plasma showed different reactions to each of these lizard isolates in neutralisation tests. PMID:25163614

  17. SHORT-TERM CHANGES IN THE BASE NEUTRALIZING CAPACITY OF AN ACID ADIRONDACK LAKE, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern and controversy over the effects of acidic deposition on low ionic strength surface wa ters has led to much discussion on the nature and extent of proton transformations within acid sensitive ecosystems. The source of base neutralizing capacity(BNC) within acid surface wa...

  18. Turbulent acidic jets and plumes injected into an alkaline environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulpre, Hendrik

    2012-11-01

    The characteristics of a strong acidic turbulent jet or plume injected into an alkaline environment comprising of a weak/strong base are examined theoretically and experimentally. A chemistry model is developed to understand how the pH of a fluid parcel of monoprotic acid changes as it is diluted and reacts with the ambient fluid. A standard fluid model, based on a top-hat model for acid concentration and velocity is used to express how the dilution of acid varies with distance from the point of discharge. These models are applied to estimate the point of neutralisation and the travel time with distance within the jet/plume. An experimental study was undertaken to test the theoretical results. These experiments involved injecting jets or vertical plumes of dilute nitric acid into a large tank containing a variety of base salts dissolved in water. The injected fluid contained litmus indicator dye which showed a change in colour from red to blue close to the point of neutralisation. In order to obtain a range of neutralisation distances, additional basic salts were added to the water to increase its pH buffering capacity. The results are applied to discuss the environmental implications of an acidic jet/plume injected into the sea off the South East coast of Great Britain.

  19. Analysis of the mineral acid-base components of acid-neutralizing capacity in Adirondack Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, R. K.; Gherini, S. A.

    1993-04-01

    Mineral acids and bases influence pH largely through their effects on acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). This influence becomes particularly significant as ANC approaches zero. Analysis of data collected by the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) from 1469 lakes throughout the Adirondack region indicates that variations in ANC in these lakes correlate well with base cation concentrations (CB), but not with the sum of mineral acid anion concentrations (CA). This is because (CA) is relatively constant across the Adirondacks, whereas CB varies widely. Processes that supply base cations to solution are ion-specific. Sodium and silica concentrations are well correlated, indicating a common source, mineral weathering. Calcium and magnesium also covary but do not correlate well with silica. This indicates that ion exchange is a significant source of these cations in the absence of carbonate minerals. Iron and manganese concentrations are elevated in the lower waters of some lakes due to reducing conditions. This leads to an ephemeral increase in CB and ANC. When the lakes mix and oxic conditions are restored, these ions largely precipitate from solution. Sulfate is the dominant mineral acid anion in ALSC lakes. Sulfate concentrations are lowest in seepage lakes, commonly about 40 μeq/L less than in drainage lakes. This is due in part to the longer hydraulic detention time in seepage lakes, which allows slow sulfate reduction reactions more time to decrease lake sulfate concentration. Nitrate typically influences ANC during events such as snowmelt. Chloride concentrations are generally low, except in lakes impacted by road salt.

  20. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Campos, Zilca; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal. PMID:25742272

  1. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Campos, Zilca; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal. PMID:25742272

  2. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  3. High-capacity push-pickling lines and acid recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, E.; Groessl, C. )

    1993-07-01

    High-capacity, 1.2 million ton/year, pushing-pickling lines capable of processing strip up to 76 in. wide in gages between 0.060 and 0.500 in. are a viable alternative in replacing older continuous pickling lines: space requirements are less (up to 40%) and capital costs lower (up to 60%). Installation of an acid regeneration plant provides major reductions in acid purchases as well as minimizing waste acid and rinse water disposal costs.

  4. A field effect spacecraft neutraliser for fundamental physics missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, B. J.; Aplin, K. L.; Feep Neutraliser Team

    Tests of fundamental physics in space make use of the gravitationally quiet environment of a free falling spacecraft. However non-gravitational disturbances can still influence measurements at the highest precision. These disturbances, which include drag from the residual atmosphere in low Earth orbit or solar radiation pressure for heliospheric missions, may be compensated, or nulled by means of a system of sensors and thrusters. The disturbance compensation system, often described as drag free control, achieves the pico-gravity environment required for fundamental physics missions. In drag free systems, disturbances are sensed by the position of a free-floating test mass with respect to the spacecraft. Micropropulsion thrusters, providing thrust in the micro to milli Newton range, are then used to counteract the disturbance and return the test mass to its reference position. In the European context the preferred microthrusters are field effect electric propulsion devices or FEEPs. FEEPs use the field effect process to extract ions from a liquid metal, and then eject them at high velocity using electrostatics. The act of ejecting ions causes the spacecraft to quickly become charged to very high potentials, and thus a neutralising source of electrons is required to maintain spacecraft neutrality. We describe the design, construction and testing of a field effect emitter array, which provides a low power source of electrons providing up to 6mA, for spacecraft neutralisation. The emitter array has been designed and engineered to be suitable for integration into the micro propulsion system of fundamental physics mission such as LISA Pathfinder. The Field Emitter Array uses silicon emitters constructed using microfabrication techniques. Electron beam lithography is used to ensure uniformity and precise control of emitter location on each array. Process control of the remaining techniques including plasma enhanced vapour deposition, wet and dry plasma etch, and various

  5. A new equation for the limiting capacity of the lead/acid cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compagnone, N. F.

    As an alternative to the empirical Peukert equation, whose validity is restricted to intermediate discharge rates, a new equation for the limiting capacity of the lead/acid cell is proposed, formally derived from an approximate closed form solution of a two finite compartment diffusion problem. The four parameters of the equation are evaluated through a non-linear least-squares method. The resulting capacity curve fits the typically undulating experimental data closely throughout their range.

  6. Ligand-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Masi, Matteo; Iannelli, Renato; Losito, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The suitability of electrokinetic remediation for removing heavy metals from dredged marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity was investigated. Laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments were carried out by applying two different voltage gradients to the sediment (0.5 and 0.8 V/cm) while circulating water or two different chelating agents at the electrode compartments. Tap water, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively. The investigated metals were Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cu. In the unenhanced experiment, the acid front could not propagate due to the high acid buffering capacity of the sediments; the production of OH(-) ions at the cathode resulted in a high-pH environment causing the precipitation of CaCO3 and metal hydroxides. The use of citric acid prevented the formation of precipitates, but solubilisation and mobilisation of metal species were not sufficiently achieved. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as the conditioning agent, and the electric potential was raised up to 0.8 V/cm. EDTA led to the formation of negatively charged complexes with metals which migrated towards the anode compartment by electromigration. This result shows that metal removal from sediments with high acid buffering capacity may be achieved by enhancing the electrokinetic process by EDTA addition when the acidification of the medium is not economically and/or environmentally sustainable. PMID:26490900

  7. Influence of phosphate ions on buffer capacity of soil humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguta, P.; Sokołowska, Z.

    2012-02-01

    The object of this study was to determine change of natural buffer capacity of humic acids by strong buffering agents, which were phosphate ions. Studies were carried out on the humic acids extracted from peat soils. Additional information was obtained by determination of water holding capacity, density, ash and pH for peats and optical parameter Q4/6 for humic acids. Humic acid suspensions exhibited the highest buffer properties at low pH and reached maximum at pH ~ 4. Phosphates possessed buffer properties in the pH range from 4.5 to 8.0. The maximum of buffering was at pH~6.8 and increased proportionally with an increase in the concentration of phosphate ions. The study indicated that the presence of phosphate ions may strongly change natural buffer capacity of humic acids by shifting buffering maximum toward higher pH values. Significant correlations were found for the degree of the secondary transformation with both the buffer capacity and the titrant volume used during titration.

  8. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 2. Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing-capacity streams

    SciTech Connect

    Herlihy, A.T.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Mitch, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probable sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern United States. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1180 km of acidic stream length and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands.

  9. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States, 2, Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlihy, Alan T.; Kaufmann, Philip R.; Mitch, Mark E.

    1991-04-01

    We examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probable sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern United States. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small (<30 km2) forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1180 km of acidic stream length and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands.

  10. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  11. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 2. Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity streams

    SciTech Connect

    Herlihy, A.T.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Mitch, M.E. )

    1991-04-01

    The authors examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probably sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern US. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small (<30 km{sup 2}) forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1,950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1,250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1,180 km of acidic stream length, and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4,590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4,380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands.

  12. Influence of organic acids on the pH and acid-neutralizing capacity of Adirondack Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, R. K.; Gherini, S. A.

    1993-04-01

    Past approaches for evaluating the effects of organic acids on the acid-base characteristics of surface waters have typically treated them solely as weak acids. Analysis of data collected by the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) from 1469 lakes throughout the Adirondack region shows that this approach is not valid. While the data indicate that natural organics contain a continuum of acid functional groups, many of which display weak acid characteristics, a significant fraction of the organic acid is strong (pKa < 3). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contributes 4.5-5 μeq/mg DOC of strong acid to solution. The associated anions make a negative contribution to Gran acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). Because organic anions can produce negative Gran ANC values, the common practice of considering negative values of Gran ANC evidence of acidification solely by mineral acids is not valid. The strength of organic acids also influences the observed deviation between Gran ANC values and ANC values calculated as the difference between base cation and mineral acid anion concentrations (CB - CA). Ninety percent of the deviation is due to the presence of strong organics while the remaining 10% is due to DOC-induced curvature in the F1 Gran function. Organic acids can also strongly influence pH. Their largest effects were found in the 0-50 μeq/L Gran ANC range where they depressed pH by up to 1.5 units. In addition, a method for predicting changes in pH in response to changes in mineral acidity, DOC, or both without having to rely on inferred thermodynamic constants and the uncertainties associated with them has been developed. Using the predictive method, the response of representative lakes from four sensitive lake classes to a 15-μeq/L decrease in mineral acidity ranged from +0.17 to +0.38 pH units. If concurrent increases in DOC are considered, the pH changes would be even smaller.

  13. Bile acid binding capacity of fish protein hydrolysates from discard species of the West Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gálvez, Raúl; García-Moreno, Pedro J; Morales-Medina, Rocío; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M

    2015-04-01

    Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH), produced from the six main discard species from the West Mediterranean Sea (sardine, horse mackerel, axillary seabream, bogue, small-spotted catshark and blue whiting) were tested for their bile acid binding capacity. This capacity is directly linked to the ability to inhibit bile reabsorption in the ileum and therefore to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream. From each species, FPH were obtained by three different enzymatic treatments employing two serine endoproteases (subtilisin and trypsin) sequentially or in combination. The results show statistically significant differences among the fish species, attaining interesting average values of bile acid binding capacity for blue whiting (27.32% relative to cholestyramine on an equal protein basis) and horse mackerel (27.42% relative to cholestyramine on an equal protein basis). The enzymatic treatments did not significantly affect the ability of a given species to bind bile acids. These results are similar to other protein sources, such as soy protein or casein, of proven hypocholesterolemic effect. It can be concluded that fish protein hydrolysates from these discard species are suitable as ingredients in the formulation of cholesterol-lowering supplements. PMID:25756593

  14. Eicosapentaenoic acid but not docosahexaenoic acid restores skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity in old mice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew L; Lalia, Antigoni Z; Dasari, Surendra; Pallauf, Maximilian; Fitch, Mark; Hellerstein, Marc K; Lanza, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is often observed in aging skeletal muscle and is implicated in age-related declines in physical function. Early evidence suggests that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) improve mitochondrial function. Here, we show that 10 weeks of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation partially attenuated the age-related decline in mitochondrial function in mice, but this effect was not observed with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The improvement in mitochondrial function with EPA occurred in the absence of any changes in mitochondrial abundance or biogenesis, which was evaluated from RNA sequencing, large-scale proteomics, and direct measurements of muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis rates. We find that EPA improves muscle protein quality, specifically by decreasing mitochondrial protein carbamylation, a post-translational modification that is driven by inflammation. These results demonstrate that EPA attenuated the age-related loss of mitochondrial function and improved mitochondrial protein quality through a mechanism that is likely linked with anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 PUFAs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EPA and DHA exert some common biological effects (anticoagulation, anti-inflammatory, reduced FXR/RXR activation), but also exhibit many distinct biological effects, a finding that underscores the importance of evaluating the therapeutic potential of individual n-3 PUFAs. PMID:26010060

  15. Responses of soil buffering capacity to acid treatment in three typical subtropical forests.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Ying-Ping; Yu, Mengxiao; Li, Kun; Shao, Yijing; Yan, Junhua

    2016-09-01

    Elevated anthropogenic acid deposition can significantly affect forest ecosystem functioning by changing soil pH, nutrient balance, and chemical leaching and so on. These effects generally differ among different forests, and the dominant mechanisms for those observed responses often vary, depending on climate, soil conditions and vegetation types. Using soil monoliths (0-40cm) from pine forest (pioneer), coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (transitional) and broadleaved forest (mature) in southern China, we conducted a leaching experiment with acid treatments at different pH levels (control: pH≈4.5; pH=3.5; pH=2.5). We found that pH3.5 treatment significantly reduced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in leachate from the pioneer forest soil. pH2.5 treatment significantly increased concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the pioneer forest soil, and also concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the transitional forest soil. All acid treatments had no significant effects on concentrations of these chemicals in leachate from the mature forest soil. The responses can be explained by the changes in soil pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and concentrations of Al and Fe. Our results showed that acid buffering capacity of the pioneer or transitional forest soil was lower than that of the mature forest soil. Therefore preserving mature forests in southern China is important for reducing the adverse impacts of high acid deposition on stream water quality at present and into the future. PMID:27185346

  16. Phase-resolved emission spectroscopy of a neutraliser-free gridded ion thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedrick, James; Gibson, Andrew; Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane

    2015-09-01

    Power-efficient electric propulsion systems that operate without an external neutraliser have the potential to increase the longevity of traditional concepts. The Neptune gridded-ion thruster prototype, which uses a single radio-requency (rf) power source for plasma generation, ion acceleration and beam neutralisation, is under development. Previous research has suggested that the time-resolved electron dynamics in the plume are important for maintaining charge neutrality and overall performance. In this study, the electron dynamics in the exhaust beam are investigated within the rf cycle using phase-resolved emission spectroscopy. The results are compared with time-resolved and time-integrated electrical diagnostics to investigate the mechanisms behind beam neutralisation. This work received financial support from the York-Paris CIRC and state aid managed by the laboratory of excellence Plas@Par (ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02).

  17. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks. PMID:24840090

  18. Large discharge capacity from carbon electrodes in sulfuric acid with oxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, M.; Iwashita, N.

    The discharge performance of the graphite intercalation compounds in sulfuric acid containing nitric acid (H 2SO 4-GICs) was studied by focusing on the effects of oxidant and carbon nanotexture. A large discharge capacity from H 2SO 4-GICs synthesized by using an excess amount of HNO 3, more than 150 times of the theoretical value (93 mAh/g carbon), was obtained depending on the amount of oxidant added, the discharge current, and the nanotexture of carbon electrode. The experimental results are explained in terms of competition between the de-intercalation of sulfuric acid due to galvanostatic reduction and the re-intercalation due to chemical oxidation by HN03 during discharging. However, a subsidiary reaction decreases the effective amount of HNO 3 on the discharge by a small current and also on the cycle of chemical charging and electrochemical discharging. The oxidant KMnO 4 gave only a little larger capacity for discharge than the theoretical one, because it was reduced to the manganese oxide precipitates during the oxidation of the carbon electrode.

  19. Magnetic properties, acid neutralization capacity, and net acid production of rocks in the Animas River Watershed Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Yager, Douglas B.; Horton, Radley M.; Diehl, Sharon F.

    2006-01-01

    Federal land managers along with local stakeholders in the Upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado are actively designing and implementing mine waste remediation projects to mitigate the effects of acid mine drainage from several abandoned hard rock metal mines and mills. Local source rocks with high acid neutralization capacity (ANC) within the watershed are of interest to land managers for use in these remediation projects. A suite of representative samples was collected from propylitic to weakly sericitic-altered volcanic and plutonic rocks exposed in outcrops throughout the watershed. Acid-base accounting laboratory methods coupled with mineralogic and geochemical characterization provide insight into lithologies that have a range of ANC and net acid production (NAP). Petrophysical lab determinations of magnetic susceptibility converted to estimates for percent magnetite show correlation with the environmental properties of ANC and NAP for many of the lithologies. A goal of our study is to interpret watershed-scale airborne magnetic data for regional mapping of rocks that have varying degrees of ANC and NAP. Results of our preliminary work are presented here.

  20. Machine learning and hurdle models for improving regional predictions of stream water acid neutralizing capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povak, Nicholas A.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reynolds, Keith M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Salter, R. Brion

    2013-06-01

    In many industrialized regions of the world, atmospherically deposited sulfur derived from industrial, nonpoint air pollution sources reduces stream water quality and results in acidic conditions that threaten aquatic resources. Accurate maps of predicted stream water acidity are an essential aid to managers who must identify acid-sensitive streams, potentially affected biota, and create resource protection strategies. In this study, we developed correlative models to predict the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of streams across the southern Appalachian Mountain region, USA. Models were developed using stream water chemistry data from 933 sampled locations and continuous maps of pertinent environmental and climatic predictors. Environmental predictors were averaged across the upslope contributing area for each sampled stream location and submitted to both statistical and machine-learning regression models. Predictor variables represented key aspects of the contributing geology, soils, climate, topography, and acidic deposition. To reduce model error rates, we employed hurdle modeling to screen out well-buffered sites and predict continuous ANC for the remainder of the stream network. Models predicted acid-sensitive streams in forested watersheds with small contributing areas, siliceous lithologies, cool and moist environments, low clay content soils, and moderate or higher dry sulfur deposition. Our results confirmed findings from other studies and further identified several influential climatic variables and variable interactions. Model predictions indicated that one quarter of the total stream network was sensitive to additional sulfur inputs (i.e., ANC < 100 µeq L-1), while <10% displayed much lower ANC (<50 µeq L-1). These methods may be readily adapted in other regions to assess stream water quality and potential biotic sensitivity to acidic inputs.

  1. Efficient generation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-pseudotypes bearing morbilliviral glycoproteins and their use in quantifying virus neutralising antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Nicola; McMonagle, Elizabeth; Drew, Angharad A.; Takahashi, Emi; McDonald, Michael; Baron, Michael D.; Gilbert, Martin; Cleaveland, Sarah; Haydon, Daniel T.; Hosie, Margaret J.; Willett, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Morbillivirus neutralising antibodies are traditionally measured using either plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNTs) or live virus microneutralisation tests (micro-NTs). While both test formats provide a reliable assessment of the strength and specificity of the humoral response, they are restricted by the limited number of viral strains that can be studied and often present significant biological safety concerns to the operator. In this study, we describe the adaptation of a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔG) based pseudotyping system for the measurement of morbillivirus neutralising antibodies. By expressing the haemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of canine distemper virus (CDV) on VSVΔG pseudotypes bearing a luciferase marker gene, neutralising antibody titres could be measured rapidly and with high sensitivity. Further, by exchanging the glycoprotein expression construct, responses against distinct viral strains or species may be measured. Using this technique, we demonstrate cross neutralisation between CDV and peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). As an example of the value of the technique, we demonstrate that UK dogs vary in the breadth of immunity induced by CDV vaccination; in some dogs the neutralising response is CDV-specific while, in others, the neutralising response extends to the ruminant morbillivirus PPRV. This technique will facilitate a comprehensive comparison of cross-neutralisation to be conducted across the morbilliviruses. PMID:26706278

  2. Efficient generation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-pseudotypes bearing morbilliviral glycoproteins and their use in quantifying virus neutralising antibodies.

    PubMed

    Logan, Nicola; McMonagle, Elizabeth; Drew, Angharad A; Takahashi, Emi; McDonald, Michael; Baron, Michael D; Gilbert, Martin; Cleaveland, Sarah; Haydon, Daniel T; Hosie, Margaret J; Willett, Brian J

    2016-02-01

    Morbillivirus neutralising antibodies are traditionally measured using either plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNTs) or live virus microneutralisation tests (micro-NTs). While both test formats provide a reliable assessment of the strength and specificity of the humoral response, they are restricted by the limited number of viral strains that can be studied and often present significant biological safety concerns to the operator. In this study, we describe the adaptation of a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔG) based pseudotyping system for the measurement of morbillivirus neutralising antibodies. By expressing the haemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of canine distemper virus (CDV) on VSVΔG pseudotypes bearing a luciferase marker gene, neutralising antibody titres could be measured rapidly and with high sensitivity. Further, by exchanging the glycoprotein expression construct, responses against distinct viral strains or species may be measured. Using this technique, we demonstrate cross neutralisation between CDV and peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). As an example of the value of the technique, we demonstrate that UK dogs vary in the breadth of immunity induced by CDV vaccination; in some dogs the neutralising response is CDV-specific while, in others, the neutralising response extends to the ruminant morbillivirus PPRV. This technique will facilitate a comprehensive comparison of cross-neutralisation to be conducted across the morbilliviruses. PMID:26706278

  3. Uranyl ion uptake capacity of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide/maleic acid) copolymeric hydrogels prepared by gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Erol; Taşdelen, Betul; Osmanlioglu, A. Erdal

    2012-06-01

    The effect of gel composition, absorbed dose and pH of the solution on the uranyl ion uptake capacity of N-isopropylacrylamide/maleic acid copolymeric hydrogels containing 0-3 mol% of maleic acid at 48 kGy have been investigated. Uranyl uptake capacity of hydrogels are found to increase from 18.5 to 94.8 mg [UO22+]/g dry gel as the mole % of maleic acid content in the gel structure increased from 0 to 3. The percent swelling, equilibrium swelling and diffusion coefficient values have been evaluated for poly(N-isopropylacrylamide/maleic acid) hydrogels at 500 ppm of uranyl nitrate solution.

  4. Stemflow acid neutralization capacity in a broadleaved deciduous forest: the role of edge effects.

    PubMed

    Shiklomanov, Alexey N; Levia, Delphis F

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway for moisture, nutrient, and pollutant exchange among the atmosphere, forest, and soils. Previous work has shown the importance of proximity to the forest edge to chemical fluxes in throughfall, but far less research has considered stemflow. This study examined the difference in acid neutralization capacity (ANC) of stemflow of nineteen Liriodendron tulipifera L. (yellow poplar) trees between the forest edge and interior in a rural area of northeastern Maryland. We measured ANC directly via potentiometric titration. Stemflow from trees at the forest edge was found to have significantly higher and more variable pH and ANC than in the forest interior (p < 0.01). No mathematical trend between ANC and distance to the forest edge was observed, indicating the importance of individual tree characteristics in stemflow production and chemistry. These results reaffirm the importance of stemflow for acid neutralization by deciduous tree species. PMID:25005886

  5. Chapter A6. Section 6.6. Alkalinity and Acid Neutralizing Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Wilde, Franceska D.

    2002-01-01

    Alkalinity (determined on a filtered sample) and Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) (determined on a whole-water sample) are measures of the ability of a water sample to neutralize strong acid. Alkalinity and ANC provide information on the suitability of water for uses such as irrigation, determining the efficiency of wastewater processes, determining the presence of contamination by anthropogenic wastes, and maintaining ecosystem health. In addition, alkalinity is used to gain insights on the chemical evolution of an aqueous system. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes the USGS field protocols for alkalinity/ANC determination using either the inflection-point or Gran function plot methods, including calculation of carbonate species, and provides guidance on equipment selection.

  6. In vitro buffering capacity of Alka Seltzer Effervescent. A comparison with magnesium trisilicate mixture B.P. and sodium citrate 0.3 M.

    PubMed

    Murrell, G C; Rosen, M

    1986-02-01

    The variety of antacids used as a prophylaxis for acid aspiration syndrome reflects dissatisfaction with each agent. Alka Seltzer Effervescent is a proprietary product without aspirin. We have shown that it can easily be dissolved in a small volume, readily mixes with hydrous fluids, and has a satisfactory neutralising capacity. Its non-particulate nature, storage in individual packages and palatability, indicated by commercial acceptance overseas, show that further trials in vivo as a method of raising gastric pH may be useful. PMID:3006533

  7. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition of different parts of Adenocarpus complicatus (Fabaceae) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Berber, Adnan; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Sanda, Murad Aydin; Uysal, Tuna

    2014-03-01

    Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials). The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20 degrees C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty acid profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g) was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g). The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (microg/mL) (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%). The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061 microg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5). Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing

  8. Improvement of Pro-Oxidant Capacity of Protocatechuic Acid by Esterification

    PubMed Central

    Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Petrônio, Maicon S.; Coelho, Dyovani; Regasini, Luis Octavio; Silva, Dulce H. S.; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Machado, Sergio A. S.; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; Ximenes, Valdecir F.

    2014-01-01

    Pro-oxidant effects of phenolic compounds are usually correlated to the one-electron redox potential of the phenoxyl radicals. Here we demonstrated that, besides their oxidizability, hydrophobicity can also be a decisive factor. We found that esterification of protocatechuic acid (P0) provoked a profound influence in its pro-oxidant capacity. The esters bearing alkyl chains containing two (P2), four (P4) and seven (P7) carbons, but not the acid precursor (P0), were able to exacerbate the oxidation of trolox, α-tocopherol and rifampicin. This effect was also dependent on the catechol moiety, since neither gallic acid nor butyl gallate showed any pro-oxidant effects. A comparison was also made with apocynin, which is well-characterized regarding its pro-oxidant properties. P7 was more efficient than apocynin regarding co-oxidation of trolox. However, P7 was not able to co-oxidize glutathione and NADH, which are targets of the apocynin radical. A correlation was found between pro-oxidant capacity and the stability of the radicals, as suggested by the intensity of the peak current in the differential pulse voltammetry experiments. In conclusion, taking into account that hydroquinone and related moieties are frequently found in biomolecules and quinone-based chemotherapeutics, our demonstration that esters of protocatechuic acid are specific and potent co-catalysts in their oxidations may be very relevant as a pathway to exacerbate redox cycling reactions, which are usually involved in their biological and pharmacological mechanisms of action. PMID:25340774

  9. Improvement of pro-oxidant capacity of protocatechuic acid by esterification.

    PubMed

    Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Petrônio, Maicon S; Coelho, Dyovani; Regasini, Luis Octavio; Silva, Dulce H S; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Machado, Sergio A S; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Ximenes, Valdecir F

    2014-01-01

    Pro-oxidant effects of phenolic compounds are usually correlated to the one-electron redox potential of the phenoxyl radicals. Here we demonstrated that, besides their oxidizability, hydrophobicity can also be a decisive factor. We found that esterification of protocatechuic acid (P0) provoked a profound influence in its pro-oxidant capacity. The esters bearing alkyl chains containing two (P2), four (P4) and seven (P7) carbons, but not the acid precursor (P0), were able to exacerbate the oxidation of trolox, α-tocopherol and rifampicin. This effect was also dependent on the catechol moiety, since neither gallic acid nor butyl gallate showed any pro-oxidant effects. A comparison was also made with apocynin, which is well-characterized regarding its pro-oxidant properties. P7 was more efficient than apocynin regarding co-oxidation of trolox. However, P7 was not able to co-oxidize glutathione and NADH, which are targets of the apocynin radical. A correlation was found between pro-oxidant capacity and the stability of the radicals, as suggested by the intensity of the peak current in the differential pulse voltammetry experiments. In conclusion, taking into account that hydroquinone and related moieties are frequently found in biomolecules and quinone-based chemotherapeutics, our demonstration that esters of protocatechuic acid are specific and potent co-catalysts in their oxidations may be very relevant as a pathway to exacerbate redox cycling reactions, which are usually involved in their biological and pharmacological mechanisms of action. PMID:25340774

  10. Enhanced antiinflammatory capacity of a Lactobacillus plantarum mutant synthesizing modified teichoic acids

    PubMed Central

    Grangette, Corinne; Nutten, Sophie; Palumbo, Emmanuelle; Morath, Siegfried; Hermann, Corinna; Dewulf, Joelle; Pot, Bruno; Hartung, Thomas; Hols, Pascal; Mercenier, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Teichoic acids (TAs), and especially lipoteichoic acids (LTAs), are one of the main immunostimulatory components of pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. Their contribution to the immunomodulatory properties of commensal bacteria and especially of lactic acid bacteria has not yet been investigated in detail. To evaluate the role of TAs in the interaction between lactic acid bacteria and the immune system, we analyzed the antiinflammatory properties of a mutant of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB8826 affected in the TA biosynthesis pathway both in vitro (mononuclear cells stimulation) and in vivo (murine model of colitis). This Dlt- mutant was found to incorporate much less d-Ala in its TAs than the WT strain. This defect significantly impacted the immunomodulation reactions induced by the bacterium, as shown by a dramatically reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocytes stimulated by the Dlt- mutant as compared with the parental strain. Concomitantly, a significant increase in IL-10 production was stimulated by the Dlt- mutant in comparison with the WT strain. Moreover, the proinflammatory capacity of L. plantarum-purified LTA was found to be Toll-like receptor 2-dependent. Consistent with the in vitro results, the Dlt- mutant was significantly more protective in a murine colitis model than its WT counterpart. The results indicated that composition of LTA within the whole-cell context of L. plantarum can modulate proinflammatory or antiinflammatory immune responses. PMID:15985548

  11. Reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation in rats with inherited susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong; Friedman, Mark I

    2007-08-01

    High-fat, energy-dense diets promote weight gain and obesity in humans and other animals, but the mechanisms underlying such diet-induced obesity remain elusive. To determine whether a reduced capacity to oxidize fat is involved in the etiology of diet-induced obesity, we examined different measures of fatty acid oxidation in rats selectively bred for susceptibility (DIO) or resistance (DR) to dietary obesity before and after they were fed a high-fat diet and became obese. DIO rats eating a low-fat diet oxidized less dietary fatty acid in vivo and had lower levels of plasma ketone bodies during fasting compared with DR rats. Lean DIO rats fed a low-fat diet showed reduced liver messenger RNA expression of CD36, which transports fatty acids across cell membranes, and long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADL), which catalyzes the first step in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The deficit in CD36 and ACADL messenger RNA expression was also seen in obese DIO rats that had been eating a high-fat diet and, in addition, was accompanied by reduced expression of liver carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, the enzyme that mediates transport of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria. No differences were found in the expression of liver enzymes involved in fat synthesis; however, in muscle, DIO rats fed the low-fat, but not high-fat, diet showed greater expression of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 and lipoprotein lipase than did DR rats. Expression of muscle enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation was similar in the 2 groups. These findings provide a metabolic mechanism for the development of diet-induced obesity and thus suggest potential targets for intervention strategies to treat or prevent it. PMID:17618960

  12. Dietary fatty acid composition changes mitochondrial phospholipids and oxidative capacities in rainbow trout red muscle.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Kraffe, E; Bureau, W; Bureau, D P

    2008-03-01

    Dietary conditioning of juvenile trout changed the acyl chain composition of mitochondrial phospholipids and the oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria. Trout were fed three diets differing only in fatty acid (FA) composition. The highly unsaturated 22:6 n-3 (DHA) accounted for 0.4, 14, and 30% of fatty acids in Diets 1, 2 and 3. After 10 weeks of growth, the dietary groups differed markedly in FA composition of mitochondrial phospholipids, with significant dietary effects for virtually all FA. Mean mitochondrial DHA levels were 19, 40 and 33% in trout fed Diets 1, 2 and 3. Mitochondrial oxidative capacities changed with diet, while mitochondrial concentrations of cytochromes and of the adenylate nucleotide translocase (nmol mg(1) protein) did not. Mitochondria from fish fed Diet 1 had higher non-phosphorylating (state 4) rates at 5 degrees C than those fed other diets. When phosphorylating (state 3) rates differed between dietary groups, rates at 5 and 15 degrees C were higher for fish fed the more unsaturated diets. Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that FA composition could explain much (42-70%) of the variability of state 4 rates, particularly at 5 degrees C. At 15 degrees C, FA composition explained 16-42% of the variability of states 3 and 4 rates. Similar conclusions were obtained for the complete data set (trout fed diets 1, 2 and 3) and for the data from trout achieving similar growth rates (e.g. those fed Diets 1 and 2). Neither general characteristics of membrane FA, such as % saturates, unsaturation index, n-3, n-6 or n-3/n-6 nor levels of abundant unsaturated FA such as DHA or 18:1(n-9 + n-7), were systematically correlated with mitochondrial capacities even though they differed considerably between trout fed the different diets. Relatively minor FA (20:5n-3, 20:0, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:0 and 15:0) showed better correlations with mitochondrial oxidative capacities. This supports the concept that acyl chain composition modulates mitochondrial

  13. Stemflow Acid Neutralization Capacity in a Broadleaved Deciduous Forest: The Role of Edge Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, D. F., Jr.; Shiklomanov, A.

    2014-12-01

    The fragmentation of forests is occurring at an accelerated rate in parts of the United States. Forest fragmentation creates edge habitat that affects the biogeochemistry of forests. Atmospheric deposition is known to increase at the forest edge in comparison to the forest interior. Past research has demonstrated the critical role of edge effects on throughfall chemistry but no known work has examined the relationship between stemflow chemistry and edge effects. To fill this data gap, we quantified the stemflow acid neutralization capacity (ANC) of nineteen Liriodendron tulipifera L. (yellow poplar) trees between forest edge and interior locations in the Piedmont of the mid-Atlantic USA. ANC was measured directly by potentiometric titration. Both stemflow pH and ANC were higher for L. tulipifera trees on the forest edge as opposed to those in interior locations (p < 0.01), although marked variability was observed among individual trees. It is critical to note that the ANC of stemflow of edge trees is almost certainly contextual, depending on geographic locality. This is to say that stemflow from edge trees may neutralize acid inputs in some locations (as in our case) but lead to enhanced acidification of aqueous inputs to forest soils in other locales where the dry deposition of acid anions is high. The experimental results have ramifications for forest management schema seeking to increase or decrease the extent of edge habitat in forest fragments.

  14. Ability of rabies vaccine strains to elicit cross-neutralising antibodies.

    PubMed

    Brookes, S M; Healy, D M; Fooks, A R

    2006-01-01

    Two European Bat Lyssaviruses (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) have been identified (n > 750 cases) in European bat species. In addition, EBLVs have been detected as "spillover" cases in three humans, one stone marten and four sheep. A further concern is the interaction of companion animals with infected bats and the possibility of subsequent lyssavirus infection. Cat-bat interactions represent approximately 32 % (n = 398) of passive lyssavirus surveillance submissions at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA) (1987-2004). Cats therefore represent a potentially significant spillover host. This study evaluated the ability of rabies vaccine antibodies to neutralise EBLVs using modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation (FAVN) assays (EBLV-1, EBLV-2). We examined vaccinated human, dog and cat sera in two classes; (i) FAVN-CVS titres > or = 0.5-5.0 IU/ml (n = 34, 79 and 54, respectively), and (ii) > 5.0 IU/ml (n = 22, 21 and 32 respectively). Most sera (approximately 80 %) with higher titres were able to neutralise both EBLV-1 and -2 regardless of the vaccine received. Only a proportion of those with low titres were capable of neutralising either EBLV-1 (27-92 %) or EBLV-2 (38-92 %) or both EBLVs (27-79 %). The cat sera constitute the lower end of each range. More animals that had received LEP based vaccines were able to neutralise EBLVs than those that had received PV based vaccines. The continuing occurrence of non-classical lyssaviruses in Europe emphasizes the need for continual surveillance of bats and other species. PMID:16878476

  15. Description of urolithin production capacity from ellagic acid of two human intestinal Gordonibacter species.

    PubMed

    Selma, María V; Beltrán, David; García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Ellagitannin and ellagic acid metabolism to urolithins in the gut shows a large human interindividual variability and this has been associated with differences in the colon microbiota. In the present study we describe the isolation of one urolithin-producing strain from the human faeces of a healthy volunteer and the ellagic acid transformation to different urolithin metabolites by two species of intestinal bacteria. The isolate belongs to a new species described as Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens, sp. nov. The type strain of the Gordonibacter genus, Gordonibacter pamelaeae DSM 19378(T), was also demonstrated to produce urolithins. Both human intestinal bacteria grew similarly in the presence and absence of ellagic acid at 30 μM concentration. Ellagic acid catabolism and urolithin formation occurred during the stationary phase of the growth of the bacteria under anaerobic conditions. The HPLC-MS analyses showed the sequential production of pentahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-5), tetrahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-6) and trihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin C), while dihydroxy-urolithins (urolithin A and isourolithin A), and monohydroxy-urolithin (urolithin B) were not produced in pure cultures. Consequently, either other bacteria from the gut or the physiological conditions found in vivo are necessary for completing metabolism until the final urolithins (dihydroxy and monohydroxy urolithins) are produced. This is the first time that the urolithin production capacity of pure strains has been demonstrated. The identification of the urolithin-producing bacteria is a relevant outcome as urolithin implication in health (cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties) has been supported by different bioassays and urolithins can be used in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This study represents an initial work that opens interesting possibilities of describing enzymatic activities involved in urolithin production that can

  16. Capacity and peak power degradation of lead-acid battery under simulated electric vehicle operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Tummillo, A. F.; Miller, J. F.; Hornstra, F.; Christianson, C. C.

    In a program supported by the Electric Power Research Institute, controlled laboratory tests were conducted at Argonne to evaluate the effects of selected EV application factors on the performance and life of the EV-2300 lead-acid battery. These application factors included simulated driving profile discharges with different levels of peak power demands for vehicle acceleration, long rest times after charge or discharge, and different methods of recharging. The performance and life variations among cells and modules in a full-scale battery pack were also examined. Statistical methods were used to analyze the laboratory test data. The key factors affecting the performance and life of the battery were identified, and the rates of capacity and power degradation were quantified using multiple regression techniques. The analyses show that the most significant factors were peak power demand levels and cell location within the six-cell modules. The effects of charge method and rest times were found to be small.

  17. Aflatoxin B1 binding capacity of autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, Mohammad R; Hajimohammadali, M; Moshkani, Azamossadat; Samadi, Nasrin; Jamalifar, Hossein; Khoshayand, Mohammad R; Vaghari, Elham; Pouragahi, Samieh

    2009-01-01

    Some foods are prone to contamination with aflatoxins, with detrimental effect on human health. Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to bind aflatoxins and remove them from foods and feeds. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from the liquid media by the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus fermentum) isolated from traditional Iranian sourdough and dairy products is reported in the current study. The effect of incubation time on the binding capacity of the strains to AFB1 was also investigated. Duplicates of individual bacteria with population equivalent to 2 X 10(10) CFU/ml were incubated in the presence of AFB1 at 37 degrees C for a period of 72 h, and the amounts of unbound AFB1 were quantitated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. All the strains were capable of removal of AFB1, and the reduction of AFB1 ranged from 25 to 61% throughout the incubation period. Removal of AFB1 was a rapid process, with approximately 61 and 56% of the toxin taken instantly by L. fermentum and L. plantarum, respectively. Binding was of a reversible nature, and some of the bound AFB1 was released into the media by the repeated centrifugation and resuspension of the cell pellets. The stability of the bacteria-toxin complex was strain dependent, and L. casei was a stronger binder of AFB1 compared with the other bacteria. No toxin release was observed after 24 h. These findings tend to suggest that certain novel probiotic bacteria with high aflatoxin binding capacity could be selected for detoxification of foods. PMID:19205485

  18. Hemolytic activity and solubilizing capacity of raffinose and melezitose fatty acid monoesters prepared by enzymatic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luis; Morales, Juan C; Pérez-Victoria, José M; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio

    2015-05-01

    The hemolytic activity and solubilizing capacity of two families of non-reducing trisaccharide fatty acid monoesters have been studied to assess their usefulness as surfactants for pharmaceutical applications. The carbohydrate-based surfactants investigated included homologous series of raffinose and melezitose monoesters bearing C10 to C18 acyl chains prepared by lipase-catalyzed synthesis in organic media. The hemolytic activity was determined in vitro using a static method based on the addition of the surfactants to an erythrocyte suspension and subsequent spectrophotometric determination of the released hemoglobin. The effect of the carbohydrate head group, the acyl chain length and the regioisomeric purity was investigated. In all cases, the carbohydrate monoester surfactants decreased their hemolytic activity (with respect to their critical micelle concentration) when increasing the length of the acyl chain. A very similar behaviour was observed either the carbohydrate head-group (raffinose and melezitose) or regardless of the regioisomeric purity. Interestingly, decanoyl (C10) and lauroyl (C12) monoesters were just marginally hemolytic at their critical micelle concentrations while the longer palmitoyl (C16) and (C18) stearoyl monoesters become hemolytic at concentrations much higher than their respective cmc. The palmitoyl and stearoyl monoesters also displayed higher solubilization capacity than the shorter acyl chain monoesters in a solubilization assay of a hydrophobic dye as a model drug mimic. These results suggest that raffinose and melezitose monoesters with long-chain fatty acids (C16 to C18) are promising surfactants for pharmaceutical applications and could be an alternative to the use of current commercial nonionic polyoxyethylene-based surfactants in parenteral formulations. PMID:25753196

  19. Polysialic acid sustains cancer cell survival and migratory capacity in a hypoxic environment

    PubMed Central

    Elkashef, Sara M.; Allison, Simon J.; Sadiq, Maria; Basheer, Haneen A.; Ribeiro Morais, Goreti; Loadman, Paul M.; Pors, Klaus; Falconer, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Polysialic acid (polySia) is a unique carbohydrate polymer expressed on the surface of NCAM (neuronal cell adhesion molecule) in a number of cancers where it modulates cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis and is strongly associated with poor clinical prognosis. We have carried out the first investigation into the effect of polySia expression on the behaviour of cancer cells in hypoxia, a key source of chemoresistance in tumours. The role of polysialylation and associated tumour cell migration and cell adhesion were studied in hypoxia, along with effects on cell survival and the potential role of HIF-1. Our findings provide the first evidence that polySia expression sustains migratory capacity and is associated with tumour cell survival in hypoxia. Initial mechanistic studies indicate a potential role for HIF-1 in sustaining polySia-mediated migratory capacity, but not cell survival. These data add to the growing body of evidence pointing to a crucial role for the polysialyltransferases (polySTs) in neuroendocrine tumour progression and provide the first evidence to suggest that polySia is associated with an aggressive phenotype in tumour hypoxia. These results have significant potential implications for polyST inhibition as an anti-metastatic therapeutic strategy and for targeting hypoxic cancer cells. PMID:27611649

  20. Dasatinib accelerates valproic acid-induced acute myeloid leukemia cell death by regulation of differentiation capacity.

    PubMed

    Heo, Sook-Kyoung; Noh, Eui-Kyu; Yoon, Dong-Joon; Jo, Jae-Cheol; Park, Jae-Hoo; Kim, Hawk

    2014-01-01

    Dasatinib is a compound developed for chronic myeloid leukemia as a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor against wild-type BCR-ABL and SRC family kinases. Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-epileptic drug that also acts as a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor. The aim of this research was to determine the anti-leukemic effects of dasatinib and VPA in combination and to identify their mechanism of action in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Dasatinib was found to exert potent synergistic inhibitory effects on VPA-treated AML cells in association with G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction involving the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase-3, -7 and -9. Dasatinib/VPA-induced cell death thus occurred via caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, MEK/ERK and p38 MAPK inhibitors efficiently inhibited dasatinib/VPA-induced apoptosis. The combined effect of dasatinib and VPA on the differentiation capacity of AML cells was more powerful than the effect of each drug alone, being sufficiently strong to promote AML cell death through G1 cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. MEK/ERK and p38 MAPK were found to control dasatinib/VPA-induced apoptosis as upstream regulators, and co-treatment with dasatinib and VPA to contribute to AML cell death through the regulation of differentiation capacity. Taken together, these results indicate that combined dasatinib and VPA treatment has a potential role in anti-leukemic therapy. PMID:24918603

  1. High-capacity magnetic hollow porous molecularly imprinted polymers for specific extraction of protocatechuic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Hu, Xin; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqin

    2015-07-24

    Magnetic hollow porous molecularly imprinted polymers (HPMIPs) with high binding capacity, fast mass transfer, and easy magnetic separation have been fabricated for the first time. In this method, HPMIPs was firstly synthesized using protocatechuic acid (PCA) as template, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) as functional monomer, glycidilmethacrylate (GMA) as co-monomer, and MCM-48 as sacrificial support. After that, epoxide ring of GMA was opened for chemisorbing Fe3O4 nanoparticles to prepare magnetic HPMIPs. The results of characterization indicated that magnetic HPMIPs exhibited large surface area (548m(2)/g) with hollow porous structure and magnetic sensitivity (magnetic saturation at 2.9emu/g). The following adsorption characteristics investigation exhibited surprisingly higher adsorption capacity (37.7mg/g), and faster kinetic binding (25min) than any previously reported PCA imprinted MIPs by traditional or surface imprinting technology. The equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir equation and the adsorption process could be described by pseudo-second order model. The selective recognition experiments also demonstrated the high selectivity of magnetic HPMIPs towards PCA over analogues. The results of the real sample analysis confirmed the superiority of the proposed magnetic HPMIPs for selective and efficient enrichment of trace PCA from complex matrices. PMID:26044378

  2. Polysialic acid sustains cancer cell survival and migratory capacity in a hypoxic environment.

    PubMed

    Elkashef, Sara M; Allison, Simon J; Sadiq, Maria; Basheer, Haneen A; Ribeiro Morais, Goreti; Loadman, Paul M; Pors, Klaus; Falconer, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Polysialic acid (polySia) is a unique carbohydrate polymer expressed on the surface of NCAM (neuronal cell adhesion molecule) in a number of cancers where it modulates cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis and is strongly associated with poor clinical prognosis. We have carried out the first investigation into the effect of polySia expression on the behaviour of cancer cells in hypoxia, a key source of chemoresistance in tumours. The role of polysialylation and associated tumour cell migration and cell adhesion were studied in hypoxia, along with effects on cell survival and the potential role of HIF-1. Our findings provide the first evidence that polySia expression sustains migratory capacity and is associated with tumour cell survival in hypoxia. Initial mechanistic studies indicate a potential role for HIF-1 in sustaining polySia-mediated migratory capacity, but not cell survival. These data add to the growing body of evidence pointing to a crucial role for the polysialyltransferases (polySTs) in neuroendocrine tumour progression and provide the first evidence to suggest that polySia is associated with an aggressive phenotype in tumour hypoxia. These results have significant potential implications for polyST inhibition as an anti-metastatic therapeutic strategy and for targeting hypoxic cancer cells. PMID:27611649

  3. Phenolic composition, ascorbic acid content, and antioxidant capacity of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-06-15

    The interest in Ziziphus jujube is growing because it is an excellent source of nutrients and phytochemicals, and can contribute to a healthy diet. Nutritional compounds (phenolic compounds and L-ascorbic acid), and antioxidant capacity of 4 Spanish jujube cultivars were studied. Polyphenols were identified by LC-MS-QTof and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. A total of 25 polyphenolic compounds were identified and classified as 10 flavan-3-ols, 13 flavonols, 1 flavanone, and 1 dihydrochalcone. The content of total polyphenols (TP) ranged from 1442 to 3432 mg/100 g dry matter (dm) in fruits of the cultivars 'DAT' and 'PSI', respectively. Flavan-3-ols, the major group of polyphenols in jujube represented ∼92% of the TP content, whereas flavonols only amounted for about ∼8% each. The content of L-ascorbic acid was very high and took values in the range of 387-555 mg/100 g fresh weight (fw). Some Spanish jujube cultivars, especially 'PSI' and 'MSI', may be selected to promote the growth of cultivars with valuable nutritional and phytochemical beneficial effects on human health. PMID:26868581

  4. Factors contributing to differences in acid-neutralizing capacity among lakes in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Eilers, J.M.; Landers, D.H.; Brakke, D.F.; Linthurst, R.A.

    1987-09-01

    A survey of lakes in mountainous areas of the Western United States was conducted in fall 1985 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cooperation with the USDA - Forest Service. Of the 719 probability sample lakes, only one was acidic; 99% of the lakes were estimated to have pH>6.0. However, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) was < or = 50 microeq L-1 for an estimated 16.8% of the lakes in the study area. Of the five subregions in the West, California had the highest proportion of lakes with ANC < or = 50 microeq L-1 (36.7%) and the Southern Rocky Mountains had the lowest proportion (4.6%). The lakes in the West were post-stratified into geomorphic units corresponding to major mountain ranges. Watershed factors, including watershed area, lake area, watershed area: lake area ratio, lake depth, watershed slope, percent exposed bedrock, elevation, and hydraulic residence time, were examined within six geomorphic units in order to evaluate their relationship to lake ANC. These watershed variables had poor predictive capability with respect to ANC. The results suggest that higher-resolution information for factors such as mineralogy and hydrology are required for prediction of lake ANC within a given geomorphic unit.

  5. KINEMATIC VARIABLES AND BLOOD ACID-BASE STATUS IN THE ANALYSIS OF COLLEGIATE SWIMMERS’ ANAEROBIC CAPACITY

    PubMed Central

    Bielec, G.; Makar, P.; Laskowski, R.

    2013-01-01

    Short duration repeated maximal efforts are often used in swimming training to improve lactate tolerance, which gives swimmers the ability to maintain a high work rate for a longer period of time. The aim of the study was to examine the kinematics of swimming and its relation to the changes in blood acid-base status and potassium level. Seven collegiate swimmers, with at least 6 years of training experience, volunteered to participate in the study. The test consisted of 8 x 25 m front crawl performed with maximum effort. The rest period between repetitions was set to five seconds. Blood samples were taken from the fingertip at rest, after warm-up and in the 3rd minute after completion of the test. The swimming was recorded with a video recorder, for later analysis of time, velocity and technique (stroke index). Based on the swimming velocity results, the obtained curve can be divided into rapid decrease of velocity and relatively stable velocities. The breaking point of repetition in swimming velocity was assumed as the swimming velocity threshold and it was highly correlated with the decrease of the blood acid-base status (pH r=0.82, BE r=0.87, HCO3 - r=0.76; p<0.05 in all cases). There was no correlation between stroke index or fatigue index and blood acid-base status. Analysis of the swimming speed in the 8 x 25 m test seems to be helpful in evaluation of lactate tolerance (anaerobic capacity) in collegiate swimmers. PMID:24744491

  6. The available capacity computation model based on artificial neural network for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. C.; Lo, E. W. C.; Weixiang, Shen

    The available capacity computation model based on the artificial neural network (ANN) for lead-acid batteries in an electric vehicle (EV) is presented. Comparing with the methods based on the Peukert equation, which is often used for the calculation of the available capacity for lead-acid batteries in EVs, this model is more accurate. The results of the experiment have proven the accuracy of the proposed model; the computation values are in good agreement with experimental data, the associated error has been considered acceptable from an engineering point of view.

  7. Short-duration intermittent hypoxia enhances endurance capacity by improving muscle fatty acid metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Junichi

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to (1) investigate the effects of acute short-duration intermittent hypoxia on musclemRNAand microRNAexpression levels; and (2) clarify the mechanisms by which short-duration intermittent hypoxia improves endurance capacity. Experiment-1: Male mice were subjected to either acute 1-h hypoxia (12% O2), acute short-duration intermittent hypoxia (12% O2for 15 min, room air for 10 min, 4 times, Int-Hypo), or acute endurance exercise (Ex). The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-AmRNAwas significantly greater than the control at 0 h post Ex and 6 h post Int-Hypo in the deep red region of the gastrocnemius muscle. miR-16 expression levels were significantly lower at 6 and 10 h post Int-Hypo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α)mRNAlevels were significantly greater than the control at 3 h post Ex and 6 h post Int-Hypo. miR-23a expression levels were lower than the control at 6-24 h post Int-Hypo. Experiment-2: Mice were subjected to normoxic exercise training with or without intermittent hypoxia for 3 weeks. Increases in maximal exercise capacity were significantly greater by training with short-duration intermittent hypoxia (IntTr) than without hypoxia. Both 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase and total carnitine palmitoyl transferase activities were significantly enhanced in IntTr. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta andPGC-1α mRNAlevels were both significantly greater in IntTr than in the sedentary controls. These results suggest that exercise training under normoxic conditions with exposure to short-duration intermittent hypoxia represents a beneficial strategy for increasing endurance performance by enhancing fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle. PMID:27044851

  8. Acid Ceramidase (ASAH1) Is a Global Regulator of Steroidogenic Capacity and Adrenocortical Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lucki, Natasha C.; Bandyopadhyay, Sibali; Wang, Elaine; Merrill, Alfred H.

    2012-01-01

    In H295R human adrenocortical cells, ACTH rapidly activates ceramide (Cer) and sphingosine (SPH) turnover with a concomitant increase in SPH-1-phosphate secretion. These bioactive lipids modulate adrenocortical steroidogenesis, primarily by acting as second messengers in the protein kinase A/cAMP-dependent pathway. Acid ceramidase (ASAH1) directly regulates the intracellular balance of Cer, SPH, and SPH-1-phosphate by catalyzing the hydrolysis of Cer into SPH. ACTH/cAMP signaling stimulates ASAH1 transcription and activity, supporting a role for this enzyme in glucocorticoid production. Here, the role of ASAH1 in regulating steroidogenic capacity was examined using a tetracycline-inducible ASAH1 short hairpin RNA H295R human adrenocortical stable cell line. We show that ASAH1 suppression increases the transcription of multiple steroidogenic genes, including Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP)17A1, CYP11B1/2, CYP21A2, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, hormone-sensitive lipase, 18-kDa translocator protein, and the melanocortin-2 receptor. Induced gene expression positively correlated with enhanced histone H3 acetylation at target promoters. Repression of ASAH1 expression also induced the expression of members of the nuclear receptor nuclear receptor subfamily 4 (NR4A) family while concomitantly suppressing the expression of dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1. ASAH1 knockdown altered the expression of genes involved in sphingolipid metabolism and changed the cellular amounts of distinct sphingolipid species. Finally, ASAH1 silencing increased basal and cAMP-dependent cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone secretion, establishing ASAH1 as a pivotal regulator of steroidogenic capacity in the human adrenal cortex. PMID:22261821

  9. Measurements of the acid-binding capacity of ingredients used in pig diets

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Some feed ingredients bind more acid in the stomach than others and for this reason may be best omitted from pig starter foods if gastric acidity is to be promoted. The objective of this study was to measure the acid-binding capacity (ABC) of ingredients commonly used in pig starter foods. Ingredients were categorised as follows: (i) milk products (n = 6), (ii) cereals (n = 10), (iii) root and pulp products (n = 5), (iv) vegetable proteins (n = 11), (v) meat and fish meal (n = 2), (vi) medication (n = 3), (vii) amino acids (n = 4), (viii) minerals (n = 16), (ix) acid salts (n = 4), (x) acids (n = 10). A 0.5 g sample of food was suspended in 50 ml distilled de-ionised water with continuous stirring. This suspension was titrated with 0.1 mol/L HCl or 0.1 mol/L NaOH so that approximately 10 additions of titrant was required to reach pH 3.0. The pH readings after each addition were recorded following equilibration for three minutes. ABC was calculated as the amount of acid in milliequivalents (meq) required to lower the pH of 1 kg food to (a) pH 4.0 (ABC-4) and (b) pH 3.0 (ABC-3). Categories of food had significantly different (P < 0.01) ABC values. Mean ABC-4 and ABC-3 values of the ten categories were: (i) 623 (s.d. 367.0) and 936 (s.d. 460.2), (ii) 142 (s.d. 79.2) and 324 (s.d. 146.4), (iii) 368 (s.d. 65.3) and 804 (s.d. 126.7), (iv) 381 (s.d. 186.1) and 746 (s.d. 227.0), (v) 749 (s.d. 211.6) and 1508 (s.d. 360.8), (vi) 120 (s.d. 95.6) and 261 (s.d. 163.2), (vii) 177 (s.d. 60.7) and 1078 (s.d. 359.0), (viii) 5064 (s.d. 5525.1) and 7051 (s.d. 5911.6), (ix) 5057 (s.d. 1336.6) and 8945 (s.d. 2654.1) and (x) -5883 (s.d. 4220.5) and -2591 (s.d. 2245.4) meq HCl per kg, respectively. Within category, ABC-3 and ABC- 4 values were highly correlated: R2 values of 0.80 and greater for food categories i, iv, v, vi, vii and viii. The correlation between predicted and observed ABC values of 34 mixed diets was 0.83 for ABC-4 and 0.71 for ABC-3. It was concluded that complete diets

  10. Amoebicidal activity of a preserved contact lens multipurpose disinfecting solution compared to a disinfection/neutralisation peroxide system.

    PubMed

    Buck, S L; Rosenthal, R A; Abshire, R L

    1998-01-01

    The amoebicidal activity of a contact lens multipurpose disinfecting solution (MPDS) containing polyquaternium-1 and myristamidopropyl dimethylamine was compared to a disinfection/neutralisation peroxide system against Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites and cysts. A quantitative microtitre method was used to evaluate the solutions. The MPDS showed similar amoebicidal activity to the disinfection/neutralisation peroxide system against the trophozoites of both species and equal or more rapid activity against the cysts of both species. PMID:16303382

  11. Ditetraalkylammonium amino acid ionic liquids as CO₂ absorbents of high capacity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing-Wen; Zhou, Zheng; Zhang, Feng; Fang, Cheng-Gang; Wu, You-Ting; Zhang, Zhi-Bing; Li, Ai-Min

    2011-12-15

    By grafting butyl or ethyl onto tetramethylethylenediamine, quaternary ammonium salts with two positive charge centers were formed at the first step. Metathesis with Ag(2)O followed. Through neutralization with glycine, l-alanine, or valine, a series of new ditetraalkylammonium amino acid ionic liquids (DILs) for CO(2) capture were generated. The structures of DILs, as shown in Figure 1, were verified by using (1)H NMR and EA. These DILs were found to be of quite high viscosity which militated against their industrial application in CO(2) removal. Drawing on the experience of mixed amines' aqueous solutions, these DILs were blended with water or N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) aqueous solutions to act as special absorbents of CO(2). Using a Double-Tank Absorption System, the absorption performance of these DIL solutions was investigated in detail. The experimental results indicated that among the three aqueous solutions of DILs (20%, 40%, and 80 wt %), the solution of 40% DIL had a higher absorption rate of CO(2) than the other two, demonstrating the different effects of concentration and viscosity on the absorption. The solution of 40% DIL or the 15% DIL + 15% MDEA had much higher capacity for CO(2) than the corresponding monocation tetraalkylammonium AAILs, due to the special structure of the dication which could influence the solubility of CO(2) in the aqueous solution. PMID:22066493

  12. Techno-functional properties and in vitro bile acid-binding capacities of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) hydrocolloids.

    PubMed

    Gannasin, Sri Puvanesvari; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2016-04-01

    Hydrocolloids were extracted from seed mucilage and the pulp fractions from red tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) mesocarp, and characterisation of their techno-functional properties and in vitro bile acid-binding capacities was performed. The seed mucilage hydrocolloids that were extracted, using either 1% citric acid (THC) or water (THW), had a good foaming capacity (32-36%), whereas the pulp hydrocolloids that were extracted, using 72% ethanol (THE) or 20mM HEPES buffer (THH), had no foaming capacity. The pulp hydrocolloid, however, possessed high oil-holding and water-holding capacities in the range of 3.3-3.6 g oil/g dry sample and 25-27 g water/g dry sample, respectively. This enabled the pulp hydrocolloid to entrap more bile acids (35-38% at a hydrocolloid concentration of 2%) in its gelatinous network in comparison to commercial oat fibre and other hydrocolloids studied. The exceptional emulsifying properties (80-96%) of both hydrocolloids suggest their potential applications as food emulsifiers and bile acid binders. PMID:26593571

  13. Analysis of camelid antibodies for antivenom development: Neutralisation of venom-induced pathology.

    PubMed

    Cook, Darren A N; Owen, Timothy; Wagstaff, Simon C; Kinne, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Harrison, Robert A

    2010-09-01

    Camelid IgG has been reported to be less immunogenic, less able to activate the complement cascade and more thermostable than IgG from other mammals, and has the ability to bind antigens that are unreactive with other mammalian IgGs. We are investigating whether these attributes of camelid IgG translate into antivenom with immunological and venom-neutralising efficacy advantages over conventional equine and ovine antivenoms. The objective of this study was to determine the preclinical venom-neutralising effectiveness of IgG from camels immunised with venoms, individually or in combination, of the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus, the puff adder, Bitis arietans and the spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis - the most medically-important snake species in West Africa. Neutralisation of the pathological effects of venoms from E. ocellatus, B. arietans and N. nigricollis by IgG from the venom-immunised camels, or commercial antivenom, was compared using assays of venom lethality (ED(50)), haemorrhage (MHD) and coagulopathy (MCD). The E. ocellatus venom ED(50), MHD and MCD results of the E. ocellatus monospecific camel IgG antivenom were broadly equivalent to comparable ovine (EchiTAbG, MicroPharm Ltd, Wales) and equine (SAIMR Echis, South African Vaccine Producer, South Africa) antivenoms, although the equine antivenom required half the amount of IgG. The B. arietans monospecific camel IgG neutralised the lethal effects of B. arietans venom at one fourth the concentration of the SAIMR polyspecific antivenom (a monospecific B. arietans antivenom is not available). The N. nigricollis camel IgG antivenom was ineffective (at the maximum permitted dose, 100 mul) against the lethal effects of N. nigricollis venom. All the equine polyspecific antivenoms required more than 100 microl to be effective against this venom. The polyspecific camel IgG antivenom, prepared from five camels, was effective against the venom-induced effects of E. ocellatus but not against that of B. arietans

  14. Antioxidant capacity and stability of liposomes containing a triglyceride derivative of lipoic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The multi-functional nutritional agent lipoic acid offers numerous beneficial effects to oxidatively stressed tissues. Lipoic acid was enzymatically incorporated into a triglyceride in conjunction with oleic acid, creating lipoyl dioleoylglycerol, and then chemically reduced to form dihydrolipoyl d...

  15. High fatty acid oxidation capacity and phosphorylation control despite elevated leak and reduced respiratory capacity in northern elephant seal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chicco, Adam J; Le, Catherine H; Schlater, Amber; Nguyen, Alex; Kaye, Spencer; Beals, Joseph W; Scalzo, Rebecca L; Bell, Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Costa, Daniel P; Crocker, Daniel E; Kanatous, Shane B

    2014-08-15

    Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) are extreme, hypoxia-adapted endotherms that rely largely on aerobic metabolism during extended breath-hold dives in near-freezing water temperatures. While many aspects of their physiology have been characterized to account for these remarkable feats, the contribution of adaptations in the aerobic powerhouses of muscle cells, the mitochondria, are unknown. In the present study, the ontogeny and comparative physiology of elephant seal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function was investigated under a variety of substrate conditions and respiratory states. Intact mitochondrial networks were studied by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized fiber bundles obtained from primary swimming muscles of pup, juvenile and adult seals, and compared with fibers from adult human vastus lateralis. Results indicate that seal muscle maintains a high capacity for fatty acid oxidation despite a progressive decrease in total respiratory capacity as animals mature from pups to adults. This is explained by a progressive increase in phosphorylation control and fatty acid utilization over pyruvate in adult seals compared with humans and seal pups. Interestingly, despite higher indices of oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, juvenile and adult seals also exhibit a ~50% greater capacity for respiratory 'leak' compared with humans and seal pups. The ontogeny of this phenotype suggests it is an adaptation of muscle to the prolonged breath-hold exercise and highly variable ambient temperatures experienced by mature elephant seals. These studies highlight the remarkable plasticity of mammalian mitochondria to meet the demands for both efficient ATP production and endothermy in a cold, oxygen-limited environment. PMID:24902742

  16. A novel method for the determination of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in Opuntia ficus indica using in vivo microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Pretti, L; Bazzu, G; Serra, P A; Nieddu, G

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed for in vivo simultaneous determination of ascorbic-acid and antioxidant capacity in microdialysates from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. The method is verified in water-stressed plants, as compared with a well-watered test controls. The microdialysis probe construction and insertion procedure was specifically developed to minimise the tissue trauma of the plant and to obtain optimal dialysis performance. Microdialysis was performed using a flow rate of 3 μL/min and the samples were analysed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection of ascorbic-acid and DPPH-determined antioxidant capacity. Our data indicate exponential decay of the concentrations of the analysed compounds as a function of microdialysis sampling time. Water-stressed Opuntia show decreased ascorbic acid levels and increased the others antioxidants. PMID:24206696

  17. Gallic acid decreases hepatitis C virus expression through its antioxidant capacity

    PubMed Central

    GOVEA-SALAS, MAYELA; RIVAS-ESTILLA, ANA MARIA; RODRÍGUEZ-HERRERA, RAUL; LOZANO-SEPÚLVEDA, SONIA A.; AGUILAR-GONZALEZ, CRISTOBAL N.; ZUGASTI-CRUZ, ALEJANDRO; SALAS-VILLALOBOS, TANYA B.; MORLETT-CHÁVEZ, JESUS ANTONIO

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA) is a natural phenolic compound that possesses various biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, anticancer, antiviral and cardiovascular protection activities. In addition, numerous studies have reported that antioxidants possess antiviral activities. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most important causes of chronic liver diseases worldwide, but until recently, only a small number of antiviral agents had been developed against HCV. Therefore, the present study investigated whether GA exhibits an anti-HCV activity. The effects of GA on HCV expression were examined using a subgenomic HCV replicon cell culture system that expressed HCV nonstructural proteins (NSs). In addition, GA cytotoxicity was evaluated at concentrations between 100–600 mg/ml using an MTT assay. Huh-7 replicon cells were incubated with 300 mg/ml GA for different times, and the HCV-RNA and protein levels were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) was used as an antioxidant control and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured during the exposure. The results indicated that GA did not produce a statistically significant cytotoxicity in parental and HCV replicon cells. Furthermore, GA downregulated the expression levels of NS5A-HCV protein (~55%) and HCV-RNA (~50%) in a time-dependent manner compared with the levels in untreated cells. Notably, GA treatment decreased ROS production at the early time points of exposure in cells expressing HCV proteins. Similar results were obtained upon PDTC exposure. These findings suggest that the antioxidant capacity of GA may be involved in the downregulation of HCV replication in hepatoma cells. PMID:26893656

  18. Effects of standtime on the available capacity of lead-acid and nickel/iron electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Tummillo, A.F.; Biwer, R.L.; Yao, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    In electric vehicle (EV) applications, the battery load typically contains interruptions of various time durations. These standtimes affect the battery's available capacity and must be understood in order to predict and optimize vehicle operation. Laboratory tests were conducted to measure the impact of various standtimes (0-4 h) at different depth-of-discharge (DOD) and state-of-charge (SOC) levels on the capacity retention of both improved lead-acid and nickel/iron (Ni/Fe) EV batteries. The results showed that the Ni/Fe system exhibits a self-discharge capacity loss immediately after charging that increases with both standtime and SOC. Fortunately, the self-discharge rate decreases rapidly with standtime and discharging. Standtimes after charging also decrease the available capacity of the lead-acid system due to reduced battery temperatures. However, standtimes at DOD levels > 50% provide an increase in battery capacity by allowing for the relaxation of electrolyte concentration gradients. This paper describes the test procedures used, presents the test data, and discusses the results.

  19. Fatty Acids Profile, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Elicited Callus ofThevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Pérez, Jack; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ludwi; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Luján-Hidalgo, María Celina; Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; González-Mendoza, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was analyze the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) as elicitors on fatty acids profile (FAP), phenolic compounds (PC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) in callus of Thevetia peruviana. Schenk & Hildebrandt (SH) medium, supplemented with 2 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2, 4-D) and 0.5 mg/L kinetin (KIN) was used for callus induction. The effect of JA (50, 75 and 100 μM) and ABA (10, 55 and 100 μM) on FAP, PC and AC were analyzed using a response surface design. A maximum of 2.8 mg/g of TPC was obtained with 100 plus 10 µM JA and ABA, respectively, whereas AC maximum (2.17 μg/mL) was obtained with 75 plus 100 µM JA and ABA, respectively. The FAP was affected for JA but not for ABA. JA increased cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid and decreased dodecanoic acid. Eight fatty acids were identified by GC-MS analysis and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (18:1) was the principal fatty acid reaching 76 % in treatment with 50 μM JA plus 55 μM ABA. In conclusion, JA may be used in T. peruviana callus culture for obtain oil with different fatty acids profile. PMID:26972464

  20. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Rosana; Zuloeta, Gledy; Pedreschi, Romina; Mignolet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Campos, David

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high α linolenic (α-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (ω3, 12.8-16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (ω6, 12.4-14.1g/100g seed). The ratio ω6/ω3 was within the 0.83-1.09 range. γ- and δ-tocopherols were the most important tocopherols, whereas the most representative phytosterols were β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Contents of total phenolics, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities ranged from 64.6 to 80 mg of gallic acid equivalent/100g seed; from 0.07 to 0.09 mg of β-carotene equivalent/100g of seed; from 4.3 to 7.3 and, from 1.0 to 2.8 μmol of Trolox equivalent/g of seed, respectively, among the evaluated SI cultivars. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the evaluated SI cultivars in the contents of ω3, ω6, antioxidant capacities and other evaluated phytochemicals. SI seeds should be considered as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals. PMID:23870885

  1. Influence of rutin and ascorbic acid in colour, plum anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity stability in model juices.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Herrero, J A; Frutos, M J

    2015-04-15

    Model juices at pH 3.7 were prepared with different combinations of ascorbic acid, rutin (quercetin 3-rutinoside) and concentrated anthocyanin extract of plums (cv. Black Gold). The anthocyanins in the concentrated extract were cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, in a proportion of 76% and 24% respectively. The model juices were stored during 17 weeks in darkness at 20 °C. The colour stability was improved by the presence of rutin and strongly damaged by the ascorbic acid. The fortification of anthocyanin model juices with ascorbic acid originated the degradation of most of anthocyanins. However, anthocyanins improved ascorbic acid stability during storage. The copigmentation of anthocyanin and rutin showed a beneficial effect on colour stability from the 5 weeks of storage. In model juices prepared exclusively with purified plum extract a high correlation (R(2)=0.881) between anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity was found. PMID:25466051

  2. Improved high-throughput virus neutralisation assay for antibody estimation against pandemic and seasonal influenza strains from 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Terletskaia-Ladwig, Elena; Meier, Silvia; Enders, Martin

    2013-05-01

    An automatable focus-reduction neutralisation test (AFRNT) for detecting influenza neutralising antibodies in serum was developed. The assay used immunoperoxidase staining and automated foci counting with AID Diagnostika ViruSpot software. Human serum samples (n=108) were collected before and after vaccination with Pandemrix or Begrivac and were tested by AFRNT and a haemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) using seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine strains from 2009 to 2011. Much attention has been given to the factors that influence detection of neutralising titre, such as viral quantification and the use of receptor destroying enzyme (RDE) for serum treatment. Foci counting enabled precise virus quantification and the development of a highly sensitive assay. Pre-treatment of the human sera with RDE significantly reduced the neutralising titres against all strains, with the exception of the seasonal H1N1 (2009/2010) strain. An HI titre of 1:40, which is associated with a 50% clinical protection against influenza, was equivalent to an AFRNT titre of 1:100-1:200. In conclusion, the AFRNT is rapid, highly sensitive, and fully automatable; therefore, this test is perfectly suitable for the high-throughput detection of influenza-neutralising antibodies. PMID:23518398

  3. Consolidation of a WSN and Minimax method to rapidly neutralise intruders in strategic installations.

    PubMed

    Conesa-Muñoz, Jesus; Ribeiro, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Due to the sensitive international situation caused by still-recent terrorist attacks, there is a common need to protect the safety of large spaces such as government buildings, airports and power stations. To address this problem, developments in several research fields, such as video and cognitive audio, decision support systems, human interface, computer architecture, communications networks and communications security, should be integrated with the goal of achieving advanced security systems capable of checking all of the specified requirements and spanning the gap that presently exists in the current market. This paper describes the implementation of a decision system for crisis management in infrastructural building security. Specifically, it describes the implementation of a decision system in the management of building intrusions. The positions of the unidentified persons are reported with the help of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The goal is to achieve an intelligent system capable of making the best decision in real time in order to quickly neutralise one or more intruders who threaten strategic installations. It is assumed that the intruders' behaviour is inferred through sequences of sensors' activations and their fusion. This article presents a general approach to selecting the optimum operation from the available neutralisation strategies based on a Minimax algorithm. The distances among different scenario elements will be used to measure the risk of the scene, so a path planning technique will be integrated in order to attain a good performance. Different actions to be executed over the elements of the scene such as moving a guard, blocking a door or turning on an alarm will be used to neutralise the crisis. This set of actions executed to stop the crisis is known as the neutralisation strategy. Finally, the system has been tested in simulations of real situations, and the results have been evaluated according to the final state of the intruders

  4. Consolidation of a WSN and Minimax Method to Rapidly Neutralise Intruders in Strategic Installations

    PubMed Central

    Conesa-Muñoz, Jesus; Ribeiro, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Due to the sensitive international situation caused by still-recent terrorist attacks, there is a common need to protect the safety of large spaces such as government buildings, airports and power stations. To address this problem, developments in several research fields, such as video and cognitive audio, decision support systems, human interface, computer architecture, communications networks and communications security, should be integrated with the goal of achieving advanced security systems capable of checking all of the specified requirements and spanning the gap that presently exists in the current market. This paper describes the implementation of a decision system for crisis management in infrastructural building security. Specifically, it describes the implementation of a decision system in the management of building intrusions. The positions of the unidentified persons are reported with the help of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The goal is to achieve an intelligent system capable of making the best decision in real time in order to quickly neutralise one or more intruders who threaten strategic installations. It is assumed that the intruders’ behaviour is inferred through sequences of sensors’ activations and their fusion. This article presents a general approach to selecting the optimum operation from the available neutralisation strategies based on a Minimax algorithm. The distances among different scenario elements will be used to measure the risk of the scene, so a path planning technique will be integrated in order to attain a good performance. Different actions to be executed over the elements of the scene such as moving a guard, blocking a door or turning on an alarm will be used to neutralise the crisis. This set of actions executed to stop the crisis is known as the neutralisation strategy. Finally, the system has been tested in simulations of real situations, and the results have been evaluated according to the final state of the

  5. Effects of standtime on the available capacity of lead-acid and nickel/iron electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Biwer, R.L.; Tummillo, A.F.; Yao, N.P.

    1984-08-01

    In electric vehicle (EV) applications, the battery load typically contains interruptions of various time durations. These standtimes affect the battery's available capacity and must be understood in order to predict and optimize vehicle operation. Laboratory tests were conducted to measure the impact of various standtimes (0-4 h) at different depth-of-discharge (DOD) and state-of-charge (SOC) levels on the capacity retention of both improved lead-acid and nickel/iron (Ni/Fe) EV batteries. The results showed that the Ni/Fe system exhibits a self-discharge capacity loss immediately after charging that increases with both standtime and SOC. Fortunately, the self-discharge rate decreases rapidly with standtime and discharging.

  6. Pressurized water extraction of β-glucan enriched fractions with bile acids-binding capacities obtained from edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Marimuthu; Aldars-García, Laila; Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A pressurized water extraction (PWE) method was developed in order to extract β-glucans with bile acids-binding capacities from cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus) to be used as supplements to design novel foods with hypocholesterolemic properties. Extraction yields were higher in individual than sequential extractions being the optimal extraction parameters: 200°C, 5 cycles of 5 min each at 10.3 MPa. The crude polysaccharide (PSC) fractions, isolated from the PWE extracts contained mainly β-glucans (including chitooligosaccharides deriving from chitin hydrolysis), α-glucans, and other PSCs (hetero-/proteo-glucans) depending on the extraction temperature and mushroom strain considered. The observed bile acids-binding capacities of some extracts were similar to a β-glucan enriched fraction obtained from cereals. PMID:24399760

  7. The influence of temperature on the discharge capacity of positive lead—acid battery plates. Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micka, K.; Koudelka, V.

    1981-10-01

    A theoretical expression has been derived for the dependence of the discharge capacity, C, of the positive plate of the lead—acid battery, on the temperature, T, in the form dln C/d T = ( k - 1)(dlnκ/d T + 1/ T), where k is the coefficient of Peukert's equation and κ is the specific conductivity of the electrolyte. This formula was confirmed by measurements on SLI battery positive plates.

  8. Reversing and nonreversing heat capacity of poly(lactic acid) in the glass transition region by TMDSC

    SciTech Connect

    Pyda, Marek {nmn}; Wunderlich, Bernhard {nmn}

    2005-11-01

    A study of the glass transition of an amorphous and a semicrystalline poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is performed with adiabatic calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC). The reversing, total, and nonreversing apparent heat capacities of samples with different contents of L- and D-lactic acid and with various thermal histories were evaluated. Different modes of TMDSC analyses of amorphous and semicrystalline PLA were compared to the total heat capacity from standard DSC. The enthalpy relaxation and the cold crystallization in the glass transition region are largely irreversible. The melting is largely irreversible, but a 100% reversing fraction is observed at low temperatures from 375 to 420 K, which becomes small inside the major melting peak at about 440 K. From the TMDSC of amorphous PLA, the combined information on endothermic and exothermic enthalpy relaxation and glass transition were deconvoluted into the reversing and nonreversing components. The glass transition temperature from the reversing heat capacity and the enthalpy relaxation peaks from the nonreversing component shift to higher temperature for increasingly annealed PLA. The relaxation times for aging decrease on cooling until the glass transition is reached and then increase. This behavior is linked to cooperativity. All quantitative thermal analyses are based on the heat capacity of the solid and liquid, evaluated earlier with the advanced thermal analysis system (ATHAS).

  9. Antioxidant capacity of hydrolyzed animal by-products and relation to amino acid composition and peptide size distribution.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Trine; Lametsch, René; Otte, Jeanette

    2015-10-01

    The antioxidative capacity of six different tissue hydrolysates (porcine colon, heart and neck and bovine lung, kidney and pancreas) were tested by three different assays monitoring iron chelation, ABTS radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid oxidation in emulsions, respectively. The hydrolysates were also investigated with respect to amino acid composition and peptide size distribution. The hydrolysates contained peptides ranging from 20 kDa to below 100 Da with a predominance of peptides with low molecular weight (53.8 to 89.0 % below 3 kDa). All hydrolysates exhibited antioxidant activity as assessed with all three methods; inhibition of lipid oxidation ranging from 72 to 88 % (at a final protein concentration of 7 mg/mL), iron chelation capacity from 23 to 63 % (at 1.1 mg/mL), and ABTS radical scavenging from 38 to 50 % (at 10 μg /mL). The antioxidant activity did not correlate with the proportion of low molecular weight peptides in the hydrolysed tissues, but with the content of specific amino acid residues. The ABTS radical scavenging capacity of the tissues was found to correlate with the content of Trp, Tyr, Met and Arg, whereas the ability to inhibit the oxidation of lineoleic acid correlated with the content of Glu and His. The chosen animal by-products thus represent a natural source of antioxidants with potential for food application. PMID:26396396

  10. In vitro binding capacities of three dietary fibers and their mixture for four toxic elements, cholesterol, and bile acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Huang, Caihuan; Ou, Shiyi

    2011-02-15

    Water-soluble dietary fibers from apple peels and water-insoluble dietary fibers from wheat bran and soybean-seed hull were used to evaluate their binding capacities for four toxic elements (Pb, Hg, Cd, and As), lard, cholesterol, and bile acids. The water-soluble dietary fibers showed a higher binding capacity for three toxic cations, cholesterol, and sodium cholate; and a lower binding capacity for lard, compared to the water-insoluble ones. A mixture of the dietary fibers from all samples - apple peels, wheat bran, and soybean-seed hull - in the ratio 2:4:4 (w/w) significantly increased the binding capacity of water-insoluble dietary fibers for the three toxic cations, cholesterol, and sodium cholate; moreover, the mixture could lower the concentrations of Pb(2+) and Cd(+) in the tested solutions to levels lower than those occurring in rice and vegetables grown in polluted soils. However, all the tested fibers showed a low binding capacity for the toxic anion, AsO(3)(3-). PMID:21095057

  11. Kinetic study of the secondary plasma created in the ITER neutraliser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dure, F.; Lifschitz, A.; Bretagne, J.; Maynard, G.; Katsonis, K.; Simonin, A.; Minea, T.

    2009-03-01

    The properties of the secondary plasma created inside the ITER Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) neutraliser, through the interaction of the high energetic hydrogen beam with the molecular hydrogen gas, have been analysed. Starting from the results of our OBI-2 PIC Monte-Carlo numerical code, detailed kinetic of the hydrogen plasma has been studied using a Collisional-Radiative model. In this model, the electron distribution function is determined by solving a Boltzmann equation, whereas main plasma species are derived from balance equations. This paper presents preliminary results obtained in a 0D geometry, boundary conditions bing introduced through effective rates for gain and loss of particles at the neutraliser walls. It has been found that the main ion specie is H2+, essentially coming from the ionisation of the target gas. The electron energy distribution function is not maxwellian and its mean energy is about 5 eV. The plasma-wall interactions yield a strong contribution, in particular regarding the density of molecular ion H3+. Assuming several independent slices of plasma along the negative ions beam axis, the axial profile of the secondary plasma has been analysed. It has been found that the density and mean energy profiles of the plasma electrons are directly related to the plasma potential profile, which in turn closely follows the gas density one.

  12. Neutralising antibody response in domestic cats immunised with a commercial feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Harris, Matthew; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Beatty, Julia A; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2015-02-18

    Across human and veterinary medicine, vaccines against only two retroviral infections have been brought to market successfully, the vaccines against feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FeLV vaccines have been a global success story, reducing virus prevalence in countries where uptake is high. In contrast, the more recent FIV vaccine was introduced in 2002 and the degree of protection afforded in the field remains to be established. However, given the similarities between FIV and HIV, field studies of FIV vaccine efficacy are likely to advise and inform the development of future approaches to HIV vaccination. Here we assessed the neutralising antibody response induced by FIV vaccination against a panel of FIV isolates, by testing blood samples collected from client-owned vaccinated Australian cats. We examined the molecular and phenotypic properties of 24 envs isolated from one vaccinated cat that we speculated might have become infected following natural exposure to FIV. Cats vaccinated against FIV did not display broadly neutralising antibodies, suggesting that protection may not extend to some virulent recombinant strains of FIV circulating in Australia. PMID:25613718

  13. Influence of fatty acid on lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ascorbyl esters and their free radical scavenging capacity.

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Marija; Carević, Milica; Mihailović, Mladen; Veličković, Dušan; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Milosavić, Nenad; Bezbradica, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) ascorbyl esters are recently emerging food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical additives, which can be prepared in an eco-friendly way by using lipases as catalysts. Because they are amphiphilic molecules, which possess high free radical scavenging capacity, they can be applied as liposoluble antioxidants as well as emulsifiers and biosurfactants. In this study, the influence of a wide range of acyl donors on ester yield in lipase-catalyzed synthesis and ester antioxidant activity was examined. Among saturated acyl donors, higher yields and antioxidant activities of esters were achieved when short-chain FAs were used. Oleic acid gave the highest yield overall and its ester exhibited a high antioxidant activity. Optimization of experimental factors showed that the highest conversion (60.5%) in acetone was achieved with 5 g L(-1) of lipase, 50 mM of vitamin C, 10-fold molar excess of oleic acid, and 0.7 mL L(-1) of initial water. Obtained results showed that even short- and medium-chain ascorbyl esters could be synthesized with high yields and retained (or even exceeded) free radical scavenging capacity of l-ascorbic acid, indicating prospects of broadening their application in emulsions and liposomes. PMID:25224149

  14. NOVEL POLY-GLUTAMIC ACID FUNCTIONALIZED MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES FOR SORPTION OF HEAVY METALS AT HIGH CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various sorbent/ion exchange materials have been reported in the literature for metal ion entrapment. We have developed a highly innovative and new approach to obtain high metal pick-up utilizing poly-amino acids (poly-L-glutamic acid, 14,000 MW) covalently attached to membrane p...

  15. Simultaneous determination of cation exchange capacity and surface area of acid activated bentonite powders by methylene blue sorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yener, Nilgün; Biçer, Cengiz; Önal, Müşerref; Sarıkaya, Yüksel

    2012-01-01

    To distinguish the ion exchanged and physically adsorbed methylene blue cations (MB+) on ionic surfaces, acid activated bentonite samples were used as porous adsorbents. A natural calcium bentonite (CaB) sample from Enez/Edirne, Turkey, was acid activated at 90 °C for 16 h with various HCl/CaB ratios. The irreversible exchange and physical adsorption of MB+ cations on the ionic solids have simultaneously occurred. The ion exchanged (mex) and physically adsorbed (mad) MB+ contents were obtained as the values of sorption capacity at c = 0 and the increase to a plateaus of adsorption isotherms, respectively. The mad value was taken to be monolayer adsorption capacity. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) and specific surface area (SMB) for each sample were calculated from the mex and mad values, respectively. Also, the BET specific surface areas (SBET) and pore size distribution were determined from low temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption data. A linear correlation between the SMB and SBET values was found.

  16. Pulsed-current charging of lead/acid batteries — a possible means for overcoming premature capacity loss?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Ozgun, H.; Lim, O. V.; Hamilton, J. A.; Vu, L. H.; Vella, D. G.; Rand, D. A. J.

    A pulsed-current technique is evaluated for the rapid charging of lead/acid cells that are prepared with either low-antimony or lead-calcium-tin grids. For comparative purposes, these cells are subjected to repetitive reserve-capacity cycling under either pulsed-current or conventional, invariant-current recharge. Although the latter charging is recommended by the manufacturers of the respective grids, it invokes premature capacity loss when combined with the high-rate discharge of the reserve-capacity test. Two significant benefits are found with the pulsed-current technique, namely, a reduction in recharging time by an order of magnitude (i.e., from ˜10 to ˜1 h), and an increase in cycle life by a factor of three to four. Temperature effects play only a minor role in prolonging battery endurance under pulsed-charging conditions. The technique also has the ability to recover the capacity of cycled cells. As expected, premature capacity loss occurs in both PbSb and PbCaSn cells cycled under invariant-current charging. The phenomenon is more acute in PbCa-based cells. The decline in capacity of PbSb cells is associated with a progressive change in the nature of the positive active material, i.e., from low crystallinity in the precursor material to a more defined crystallinity in the cycled mass. This behaviour reduces both the available surface area and the reactivity of the active material with the battery acid. By contrast, the capacity loss in PbCaSn cells is related to both a progressive increase in the crystallization of the active material during cycling (i.e., development of small crystals) and to the growth of a resistive 'PbO' layer immediately adjacent to the grid member. The latter phenomenon is the more dominant. Pulsed-current charging is found to be an effective means for delaying the crystallization process in the active material, as well as for minimizing the development of the 'PbO' layer during cycling. Thus, pulsed charging

  17. Modulation of FadR binding capacity for acyl-CoA fatty acids through structure-guided mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Bacik, John-Paul; Yeager, Chris M; Twary, Scott N; Martí-Arbona, Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    FadR is a versatile global regulator in Escherichia coli that controls fatty acid metabolism and thereby modulates the ability of this bacterium to grow using fatty acids or acetate as the sole carbon source. FadR regulates fatty acid metabolism in response to intra-cellular concentrations of acyl-CoA lipids. The ability of FadR to bind acyl-CoA fatty acids is thus of significant interest for the engineering of biosynthetic pathways for the production of lipid-based biofuels and commodity chemicals. Based on the available crystal structure of E. coli bound to myristoyl-CoA, we predicted amino acid positions within the effector binding pocket that would alter the ability of FadR to bind acyl-CoA fatty acids without affecting DNA binding. We utilized fluorescence polarization to characterize the in vitro binding properties of wild type and mutant FadR. We found that a Leu102Ala mutant enhanced binding of the effector, likely by increasing the size of the binding pocket for the acyl moiety of the molecule. Conversely, the elimination of the guanidine side chain (Arg213Ala and Arg213Met mutants) of the CoA moiety binding site severely diminished the ability of FadR to bind the acyl-CoA effector. These results demonstrate the ability to fine tune FadR binding capacity. The validation of an efficient method to fully characterize all the binding events involved in the specific activity (effector and DNA operator binding) of FadR has allowed us to increase our understanding of the role of specific amino acids in the binding and recognition of acyl-CoA fatty acids and will greatly facilitate efforts aimed at engineering tunable FadR regulators for synthetic biology. PMID:26385696

  18. Modulation of FadR Binding Capacity for Acyl-CoA Fatty Acids Through Structure-Guided Mutagenesis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bacik, John-Paul; Yeager, Chris M.; Twary, Scott N.; Martí-Arbona, Ricardo

    2015-09-18

    FadR is a versatile global regulator in Escherichia coli that controls fatty acid metabolism and thereby modulates the ability of this bacterium to grow using fatty acids or acetate as the sole carbon source. FadR regulates fatty acid metabolism in response to intra-cellular concentrations of acyl-CoA lipids. The ability of FadR to bind acyl-CoA fatty acids is hence of significant interest for the engineering of biosynthetic pathways for the production of lipid-based biofuels and commodity chemicals. Based on the available crystal structure of E. coli bound to myristoyl- CoA, we predicted amino acid positions within the effector binding pocket thatmore » would alter the ability of FadR to bind acyl-CoA fatty acids without affecting DNA binding. We utilized fluorescence polarization to characterize the in-vitro binding properties of wild type and mutant FadR. We found that a Leu102Ala mutant enhanced binding of the effector, likely by increasing the size of the binding pocket for the acyl moiety of the molecule. Conversely, the elimination of the guanidine side chain (Arg213Ala and Arg213Met mutants) of the CoA moiety binding site severely diminished the ability of FadR to bind the acyl-CoA effector. These results demonstrate the ability to fine tune FadR binding capacity. The validation of an efficient method to fully characterize all the binding events involved in the specific activity (effector and DNA operator binding) of FadR has allowed us to increase our understanding of the role of specific amino acids in the binding and recognition of acyl-CoA fatty acids and will greatly facilitate efforts aimed at engineering tunable FadR regulators for synthetic biology.« less

  19. Modulation of FadR Binding Capacity for Acyl-CoA Fatty Acids Through Structure-Guided Mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bacik, John-Paul; Yeager, Chris M.; Twary, Scott N.; Martí-Arbona, Ricardo

    2015-09-18

    FadR is a versatile global regulator in Escherichia coli that controls fatty acid metabolism and thereby modulates the ability of this bacterium to grow using fatty acids or acetate as the sole carbon source. FadR regulates fatty acid metabolism in response to intra-cellular concentrations of acyl-CoA lipids. The ability of FadR to bind acyl-CoA fatty acids is hence of significant interest for the engineering of biosynthetic pathways for the production of lipid-based biofuels and commodity chemicals. Based on the available crystal structure of E. coli bound to myristoyl- CoA, we predicted amino acid positions within the effector binding pocket that would alter the ability of FadR to bind acyl-CoA fatty acids without affecting DNA binding. We utilized fluorescence polarization to characterize the in-vitro binding properties of wild type and mutant FadR. We found that a Leu102Ala mutant enhanced binding of the effector, likely by increasing the size of the binding pocket for the acyl moiety of the molecule. Conversely, the elimination of the guanidine side chain (Arg213Ala and Arg213Met mutants) of the CoA moiety binding site severely diminished the ability of FadR to bind the acyl-CoA effector. These results demonstrate the ability to fine tune FadR binding capacity. The validation of an efficient method to fully characterize all the binding events involved in the specific activity (effector and DNA operator binding) of FadR has allowed us to increase our understanding of the role of specific amino acids in the binding and recognition of acyl-CoA fatty acids and will greatly facilitate efforts aimed at engineering tunable FadR regulators for synthetic biology.

  20. Impact of Dry Solids and Bile Acid Concentrations on Bile Acid Binding Capacity of Extruded Oat Cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded breakfast cereals (EBC), processed from two oat lines, N979-5-2-4 (N979) and ‘Jim’, with beta-glucan concentrations of 8.7 and 4.9%, respectively, were used to determine the impact of dry solids (DS) and bile acid (BA) concentrations on in vitro BA binding efficiency. A full fractional fact...

  1. Recent new additives for electric vehicle lead-acid batteries for extending the cycle life and capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Kozawa, A.; Sato, A.; Fujita, K.; Brodd, D.

    1997-12-01

    An electrochemically prepared colloidal graphite was found to be an excellent additive for lead-acid batteries. The new additive extends the capacity and cycle life of new and old batteries and can regenerate old, almost dead, batteries. The colloidal graphite is stable in aqueous solution and the extremely fine particles are adsorbed mainly on the positive electrode. This additive has been given the name, {alpha}-Pholon. The amount required is very small: only 6% to 10% of volume of the {alpha}-Pholon solution (about 2% colloidal graphite in water solution). The beneficial effect of the new additive was demonstrated with motorcycle batteries and forklift batteries.

  2. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P < 0.05), indicating the positive effects of n-3 HUFAs on the growth of sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. PMID:27079426

  3. Very-long-chain fatty acids restrict regeneration capacity by confining pericycle competence for callus formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shang, Baoshuan; Xu, Chongyi; Zhang, Xixi; Cao, Huifen; Xin, Wei; Hu, Yuxin

    2016-05-01

    The already differentiated organs in plants have a remarkable capacity to regenerate new individuals under culture conditions. Plant in vitro regeneration practically starts with the induction of a pluripotent cell mass, the callus, from detached organs on auxin-rich callus-inducing medium (CIM), which is generally required for subsequent regeneration of new bodies. Recent studies show that CIM-induced callus formation occurs from the pericycle or pericycle-like cells through a root developmental pathway, whereas the signals involved in governing callus-forming capacity of pericycle cells remain unknown. Here we report that very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) play a critical role in confining the pericycle competence for callus formation and thus the regeneration capacity of Arabidopsis By genetic screening, we identified the callus formation-related 1 (cfr1) mutant, which bypasses the inhibition of callus-forming capacity in roots by solitary-root (slr/iaa14). We show that CFR1 encodes 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 1 (KCS1), which catalyzes a rate-limiting step of VLCFA biosynthesis. Our biochemical and genetic analyses demonstrate that VLCFAs restrict the pericycle competence for callus formation, at least in part, by regulating the transcription of Aberrant Lateral Root Formation 4 (ALF4). Moreover, we provide evidence that VLCFAs act as cell layer signals to mediate the pericycle competence for callus formation. Taken together, our results identify VLCFAs or their derivatives as the confining signals for mediating the pericycle competence for callus formation and thus the regeneration capacity of plant organs. PMID:27092001

  4. Systemic FasL and TRAIL neutralisation reduce leishmaniasis induced skin ulceration.

    PubMed

    Tasew, Geremew; Nylén, Susanne; Lieke, Thorsten; Lemu, Befekadu; Meless, Hailu; Ruffin, Nicolas; Wolday, Dawit; Asseffa, Abraham; Yagita, Hideo; Britton, Sven; Akuffo, Hannah; Chiodi, Francesca; Eidsmo, Liv

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania infection of dermal macrophages and is associated with chronic inflammation of the skin. L. aethiopica infection displays two clinical manifestations, firstly ulcerative disease, correlated to a relatively low parasite load in the skin, and secondly non-ulcerative disease in which massive parasite infiltration of the dermis occurs in the absence of ulceration of epidermis. Skin ulceration is linked to a vigorous local inflammatory response within the skin towards infected macrophages. Fas ligand (FasL) and Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expressing cells are present in dermis in ulcerative CL and both death ligands cause apoptosis of keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania infection. In the present report we show a differential expression of FasL and TRAIL in ulcerative and non-ulcerative disease caused by L. aethiopica. In vitro experiments confirmed direct FasL- and TRAIL-induced killing of human keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania-induced inflammatory microenvironment. Systemic neutralisation of FasL and TRAIL reduced ulceration in a model of murine Leishmania infection with no effect on parasitic loads or dissemination. Interestingly, FasL neutralisation reduced neutrophil infiltration into the skin during established infection, suggesting an additional proinflammatory role of FasL in addition to direct keratinocyte killing in the context of parasite-induced skin inflammation. FasL signalling resulting in recruitment of activated neutrophils into dermis may lead to destruction of the basal membrane and thus allow direct FasL mediated killing of exposed keratinocytes in vivo. Based on our results we suggest that therapeutic inhibition of FasL and TRAIL could limit skin pathology during CL. PMID:20967287

  5. Neutralisation of factor VIII inhibitors by anti-idiotypes isolated from phage-displayed libraries.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anja; Brettschneider, Kerstin; Kahle, Jörg; Orlowski, Aleksander; Becker-Peters, Karin; Stichel, Diana; Schulze, Jörg; Braner, Markus; Tampé, Robert; Schwabe, Dirk; Königs, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Following replacement therapy with coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), up to 30 % of haemophilia A patients develop FVIII-specific inhibitory antibodies (FVIII inhibitors). Immune tolerance induction (ITI) is not always successful, resulting in a need for alternative treatments for FVIII inhibitor-positive patients. As tolerance induction in the course of ITI appears to involve the formation of anti-idiotypes specific for anti-FVIII antibodies, such anti-idiotypes might be used to restore haemostasis in haemophilia A patients with FVIII inhibitors. We isolated anti-idiotypic antibody fragments (scFvs) binding to murine FVIII inhibitors 2-76 and 2-77 from phage-displayed libraries. FVIII inhibitor/anti-idiotype interactions were very specific as no cross-reactivity with other FVIII inhibitors or isotype controls was observed. ScFvs blocked binding of FVIII inhibitors to FVIII and neutralised their cognate inhibitors in vitro and a monoclonal mouse model. In addition, scFv JkH5 specific for FVIII inhibitor 2-76 stained 2-76-producing hybridoma cells. JkH5 residues R52 and Y226, located in complementary determining regions, were identified as crucial for the JkH5/2-76 interaction using JkH5 alanine mutants. SPR spectroscopy revealed that JkH5 interacts with FVIII inhibitor 2-76 with nanomolar affinity. Thus, FVIII inhibitor-specific, high-affinity anti-idiotypes can be isolated from phage-displayed libraries and neutralise their respective inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that anti-idiotypic scFvs might be utilised to specifically target inhibitor-specific B cells. Hence, a pool of anti-idiotypes could enable the reestablishment of haemostasis in the presence of FVIII inhibitors in patients or even allow the depletion of inhibitors by targeting inhibitor-specific B cell populations. PMID:27009573

  6. Modification of vital wheat gluten with phosphoric acid to produce high free-solution capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten reacts with phosphoric acid to produce natural superabsorbent gels. The gel properties are defined by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), and uptake of water, salt solutions, and aqueous ethanol. Temperatures above 120'C and dry cond...

  7. Modification of vital wheat gluten with phosphoric acid to produce high free solution capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten reacts with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea to produce natural superabsorbent gels. Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) reveal chemical changes from the reaction. Temperatures above 120°C and dry conditions create the op...

  8. [Chemico-physical property and bile acid binding capacity of several antacids].

    PubMed

    Salvioli, G; Tambara, E; Gaetti, E; Lugli, R

    1989-01-01

    Liquid alginate (Gaviscon) binds small amount of bile acids. At pH 7 its viscosity (at low shear rate) is higher than that of other antiacids. High viscosity reduces the diffusion rate of bile salts and glucose and this property can play a role in the treatment of gastro-esophageal and duodeno-gastric refluxes. PMID:2548124

  9. Preparation of mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 composite nanofiber membranes having adsorption capacity for indigo carmine dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ran; Jia, Min; Li, Fengting; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Bingru; Qiao, Junlian

    2012-03-01

    Mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 (PAA/SiO2) composite nanofiber membranes functionalized with mercapto groups were fabricated by a sol-gel electrospinning method, and their adsorption capacity for indigo carmine was investigated. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM observation results showed that the PAA/SiO2 fibers had diameters between 400-800 nm and mesopores with an average pore size of 3.88 nm. The specific surface area of the mesoporous nanofiber membranes was 514.89 m2/g. The characteristic peaks for mercapto group vibration in FTIR and Raman spectra demonstrated that the mercapto groups have been incorporated into the silica skeleton. The adsorption isotherm data of indigo carmine on the membranes fit well with Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity calculated was 523.11 mg/g. It was found that the removal rate of indigo carmine by the membranes reached a maximum of 98% in 90 min and the adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The high adsorption capacity of PAA/SiO2 nanofiber membrane makes it a promising adsorbent for indigo carmine removal from the wastewater.

  10. Mesoporous biocompatible and acid-degradable magnetic colloidal nanocrystal clusters with sustainable stability and high hydrophobic drug loading capacity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Xu, Shuai; Luo, An; Wang, Wen-Rui; Wang, Shi-Long; Guo, Jia; Lin, Yao; Zhao, Dong-Yuan; Wang, Chang-Chun

    2011-02-22

    Fabrication of magnetic particles (MPs) with high magnetization and large surface area simultaneously is critical for the application of MPs in bioseparation and drug delivery but remains a challenge. In this article, we describe an unprecedented approach to synthesize mesoporous magnetic colloidal nanocrystal clusters (MCNCs) stabilized by poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) with high magnetization, large surface area (136 m(2)/g) and pore volume (0.57 cm(3)/g), excellent colloidal stability, prominent biocompatibility, and acid degradability. This result provides the important step toward the construction of a new family of MCNCs and demonstrates its capacity in a "magnetic motor" drug delivery system. Here, as an example, we explore the applicability of as-prepared mesoporous MCNCs as hydrophobic drug delivery vehicles (paclitaxel as model drug), and the resultant loading capacity is as high as 35.0 wt %. The antitumor efficacy measured by MTT assay is significantly enhanced, compared with free drugs. Thus, combined with their inherent high magnetization, the mesoporous MCNCs pave the way for applying magnetic targeting drug carriers in antitumor therapeutics. PMID:21284377

  11. A 9-wk docosahexaenoic acid-enriched supplementation improves endurance exercise capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Marie; Chaté, Valérie; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Morio, Béatrice; Pieroni, Gérard; Schlattner, Uwe; Pison, Christophe; Dubouchaud, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    Decline in skeletal muscle mass and function starts during adulthood. Among the causes, modifications of the mitochondrial function could be of major importance. Polyunsaturated fatty (ω-3) acids have been shown to play a role in intracellular functions. We hypothesize that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation could improve muscle mitochondrial function that could contribute to limit the early consequences of aging on adult muscle. Twelve-month-old male Wistar rats were fed a low-polyunsaturated fat diet and were given DHA (DHA group) or placebo (control group) for 9 wk. Rats from the DHA group showed a higher endurance capacity (+56%, P < 0.05) compared with control animals. Permeabilized myofibers from soleus muscle showed higher O2 consumptions (P < 0.05) in the DHA group compared with the control group, with glutamate-malate as substrates, both in basal conditions (i.e., state 2) and under maximal conditions (i.e., state 3, using ADP), along with a higher apparent Km for ADP (P < 0.05). Calcium retention capacity of isolated mitochondria was lower in DHA group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio and PPARδ mRNA content were higher in the DHA group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Results showed that DHA enhanced endurance capacity in adult animals, a beneficial effect potentially resulting from improvement in mitochondrial function, as suggested by our results on permeabilized fibers. DHA supplementation could be of potential interest for the muscle function in adults and for fighting the decline in exercise tolerance with age that could imply energy-sensing pathway, as suggested by changes in phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio. PMID:26646102

  12. Aerosol Disinfection Capacity of Slightly Acidic Hypochlorous Acid Water Towards Newcastle Disease Virus in the Air: An In Vivo Experiment.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Suguro, Atsushi; Ishida, Yuki; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-12-01

    Existence of bioaerosol contaminants in farms and outbreaks of some infectious organisms with the ability of transmission by air increase the need for enhancement of biosecurity, especially for the application of aerosol disinfectants. Here we selected slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW) as a candidate and evaluated its virucidal efficacy toward a virus in the air. Three-day-old conventional chicks were challenged with 25 doses of Newcastle disease live vaccine (B1 strain) by spray with nebulizer (particle size <3 μm in diameter), while at the same time reverse osmosis water as the control and SAHW containing 50 or 100 parts per million (ppm) free available chlorine in pH 6 were sprayed on the treated chicks with other nebulizers. Exposed chicks were kept in separated cages in an isolator and observed for clinical signs. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 2 to 5 days postexposure from each chick, and then the samples were titrated with primary chicken kidney cells to detect the virus. Cytopathic effects were observed, and a hemagglutination test was performed to confirm the result at 5 days postinoculation. Clinical signs (sneezing) were recorded, and the virus was isolated from the control and 50 ppm treatment groups, while no clinical signs were observed in and no virus was isolated from the 100 ppm treatment group. The virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Sato, too, was immediately inactivated by SAHW containing 50 ppm chlorine in the aqueous phase. These data suggest that SAHW containing 100 ppm chlorine can be used for aerosol disinfection of NDV in farms. PMID:26629621

  13. Maternal dietary fat affects milk fatty acid profile and impacts on weight gain and thermogenic capacity of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; García, Ana Paula; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of maternal supplementation with the main fat sources used in the human Western diet (olive oil, butter, margarine) on milk FA composition and on plasma FA profile of offspring, and to determine whether it may influence body-weight-gain (BWG) and adiposity of offspring during the suckling period. Wistar rats were supplemented with the different fat sources from day 14 of gestation and throughout lactation. Olive oil-supplemented dams showed the highest proportion of oleic-acid in milk, with no changes in plasma. Their offspring also showed the highest proportion of this FA in plasma, lower BWG during the suckling period, and higher levels of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) at weaning. Margarine-supplemented dams showed the highest percentage of PUFA in milk, and a similar tendency was found in plasma of their offspring. Butter-supplemented dams displayed higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA) in milk compared to other fat-supplemented dams, but lower than controls. Control offspring also showed higher proportion of SFA in plasma and greater BWG during the suckling period than fat-supplemented groups. Significant correlations were found between the relative content of some milk FA and BWG of offspring, in particular, oleic-acid levels correlated negatively with BWG and positively with UCP1 levels. These results show that maternal dietary source of fat affects milk FA composition and circulating FA profile, as could be expected, but also BWG and thermogenic capacity of offspring during the suckling period. An effect of oleic-acid stimulating BAT thermogenic capacity of suckling pups is proposed. PMID:23417844

  14. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old) immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %), but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP), leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent) and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine. PMID:22691230

  15. Factors affecting acid neutralizing capacity in the Adirondack region of New York: a solute mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mari; Mitchell, Myron J; Driscoll, Charles T; Roy, Karen M

    2005-06-01

    High rates of acidic deposition in the Adirondack region of New York have accelerated acidification of soils and surface waters. Annual input-output budgets for major solutes and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) were estimated for 43 drainage lake-watersheds in the Adirondacks from 1998 to 2000. Sulfate was the predominant anion on an equivalent basis in both precipitation and drainage export. Calcium ion had the largest cation drainage export, followed by Mg2+. While these watersheds showed net nitrogen (N) retention, the drainage losses of SO4(2-), Cl-, base cations, and ANC exceeded their respective inputs from precipitation. Land cover (forest type and wetlands) affected the export of SO4(2-), N solutes, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The relationships of solute export with elevation (negative for base cations and Cl-, positive for NO3- and H+) suggest the importance of the concomitant changes of biotic and abiotic watershed characteristics associated with elevational gradients. The surface water ANC increased with the sum of base cations and was greatest in the lakes with watersheds characterized by thick deposits of glacial till. The surface water ANC was also higher in the lake-watersheds with lower DOC export. Some variation in lake ANC was associated with variability in acidic deposition. Using a classification system previously developed for Adirondack lakes on the basis primarily of surficial geology, lake-watersheds were grouped into five classes. The calculated ANC fluxes based on the major sinks and sources of ANC were comparable with measured ANC for the thick-till (I) and the medium-till lake-watersheds with low DOC (II). The calculated ANC was overestimated for the medium-till with high DOC (III) and the thin-till with high DOC (V) lake-watersheds, suggesting the importance of naturally occurring organic acids as an ANC sink, which was not included in the calculations. The lower calculated estimates than the measured ANC for the thin-till lake

  16. High surface-area amidoxime-based polymer fibers co-grafted with various acid monomers yielding increased adsorption capacity for the extraction of uranium from seawater.

    PubMed

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Uranium is dissolved in the ocean at a uniform concentration of 3.34 ppb, which translates to approximately 4-5 billion tons of uranium. The development of adsorbents that can extract uranium from seawater has been a long term goal, but the extremely dilute uranium concentration along with the competition of other metal salts (which are at higher concentrations) has hindered the development of an economical adsorption process. Several acid monomers were co-grafted with acrylonitrile (AN) to help increase the hydrophilicity of the adsorbent to improve access to the metal adsorption sites. Grafting various acid monomers on PE fibers was found to significantly affect the uranium adsorption in simulated seawater in the following order: acrylic acid (AA) < vinyl sulfonic acid (VSA) < methacrylic acid (MAA) < itaconic acid (ITA) < vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA). Interestingly, the uranium adsorption capacity significantly increased when Mohr's salt was added with acrylic acid, most likely due to the reduction of co-polymerization of the monomers. When testing under more realistic conditions, the acid-grafted PE fiber adsorbents were exposed to natural seawater (more dilute uranium), the uranium adsorption capacity increased in the following order: MAA < AA (Mohr's salt) < VSA < ITA (Mohr's salt) < ITA < VPA, which agreed well with the simulated seawater results. Characterization of the adsorbents indicated that the increase in uranium adsorption capacity with each acid monomer was related to higher grafting of AN and therefore a higher conversion to amidoxime (AO). PMID:27145863

  17. An investigation using atomic force microscopy nanoindentation of dental enamel demineralization as a function of undissociated acid concentration and differential buffer capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Michele E.; Shellis, R. Peter

    2007-02-01

    Acidic drinks and foodstuffs can demineralize dental hard tissues, leading to a pathological condition known as dental erosion, which is of increasing clinical concern. The first step in enamel dissolution is a demineralization of the outer few micrometres of tissue, which results in a softening of the structure. The primary determinant of dissolution rate is pH, but the concentration of undissociated acid, which is related to buffer capacity, also appears to be important. In this study, atomic force microscopy nanoindentation was used to measure the first initial demineralization (softening) induced within 1 min by exposure to solutions with a range of undissociated acid concentration and natural pH of 3.3 or with an undissociated acid concentration of 10 mmol l-1 and pH adjusted to 3.3. The results indicate that differential buffering capacity is a better determinant of softening than undissociated acid concentration. Under the conditions of these experiments, a buffer capacity of >3 mmol l-1 pH-1 does not have any further effect on dissolution rate. These results imply that differential buffering capacity should be used for preference over undissociated acid concentration or titratable acidity, which are more commonly employed in the literature.

  18. Tree species affect cation exchange capacity (CEC) and cation binding properties of organic matter in acid forest soils.

    PubMed

    Gruba, Piotr; Mulder, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) in forest soil is of major importance for cation binding and acid buffering, but its characteristics may differ among soils under different tree species. We investigated acidity, cation exchange properties and Al bonding to SOM in stands of Scots pine, pedunculate oak, Norway spruce, European beech and common hornbeam in southern Poland. The content of total carbon (Ct) was by far the major contributor to total cation exchange capacity (CECt) even in loamy soils and a strong relationship between Ct and CECt was found. The slope of the regression of CECt to Ct increased in the order hornbeam≈oakacid pH range was smallest for hornbeam and oak, and largest for spruce and pine soils. This was supported by the apparent dissociation constant (pKapp) values of SOM, which were largest in soils under oak. The maximum values of Al saturation were similar between the stands. However, maximum Al bonding to SOM occurred at higher pH values in soils under pine and spruce than under oak. Therefore, at any value in the acid pH range, the SOM in pine soil has less Al complexed and more adsorbed H+ than SOM from oak soils. Such differences in Al and H bonding are not only important for pH buffering and metal solubility controls, but also for stabilization of SOM via saturation of functional groups by Al and H. PMID:25596350

  19. Small-capacity valve-regulated lead/acid battery with long life at high ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatanaka, T.; Maeda, M.; Iwata, M.

    Valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries are widely used as back-up power sources for telecommunications and UPS. These applications require high-reliability under severe environmental conditions. To meet this demand, the authors' company have developed small capacity (12 V, 15-65 A h at C 20/20 rate), long-life VRLA batteries which can endure high ambient temperature. These batteries make use of a new alloy and grid design which has improved resistance to corrosion at the positive plate, while at the same time reduce float current at high temperature. As a result, these batteries have a life expectancy of 13 years at 25°C, and inhibited thermal runaway even under ambient temperatures up to 75°C. The batteries can be installed in outdoor and underground environments.

  20. Moderate carnitine depletion and long-chain fatty acid oxidation, exercise capacity, and nitrogen balance in the rat.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, O J; Takala, J

    1994-09-01

    Carnitine plays a central role in lipid metabolism by transporting long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for beta-oxidation. Reduction of carnitine concentration does not automatically imply that functional carnitine deficiency exists with direct consequences on energy metabolism. In our experimental model, we reduced tissue concentrations of carnitine to levels that are comparable to those in patients with various metabolic disorders with secondary carnitine deficiency and did a study on the in vivo effects of moderate carnitine depletion on palmitate oxidation, exercise capacity, and nitrogen balance. Thirty rats were divided into a carnitine-depleted group (group I) and pair-fed controls (group II). Carnitine depletion resulting in a 48% reduction of tissue carnitine concentrations was induced by feeding ad libitum a carnitine-free oral diet consisting of parenteral nutrition solutions. Palmitate oxidation was measured by collecting expired 14CO2 after an intraperitoneal injection of [1-14C]palmitate, and exercise capacity was determined by having the rats swim to exhaustion. Despite the 48% depletion of carnitine in serum, muscle, and liver, there were no differences in cumulative palmitate oxidation in 3 h (group I, 40 +/- 7%; group II, 37 +/- 9% of injected activity), swimming time to exhaustion (group I, 8.1 +/- 2.8 h; group II, 7.7 +/- 3.6 h), or nitrogen balance (group I, 1.1 +/- 0.5 g of nitrogen/kg/d; group II, 1.2 +/- 0.5 g of nitrogen/kg/d). We conclude that carnitine depletion of 48% has no effect on palmitate oxidation, exercise capacity, or nitrogen balance in the rats studied. PMID:7808823

  1. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybeł, Piotr; Wałach, Daniel; Jaskowska-Lemańska, Justyna

    2015-09-01

    The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  2. Net Acid Production, Acid Neutralizing Capacity, and Associated Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Animas River Watershed Igneous Rocks Near Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Choate, LaDonna; Stanton, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents results from laboratory and field studies involving the net acid production (NAP), acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and magnetic mineralogy of 27 samples collected in altered volcanic terrain in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colo., during the summer of 2005. Sampling focused mainly on the volumetrically important, Tertiary-age volcanic and plutonic rocks that host base- and precious-metal mineralization in the study area. These rocks were analyzed to determine their potential for neutralization of acid-rock drainage. Rocks in the study area have been subjected to a regional propylitic alteration event, which introduced calcite, chlorite (clinochlore), and epidote that have varying amounts and rates of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). Locally, hydrothermal alteration has consumed any ANC and introduced minerals, mainly pyrite, that have a high net acid production (NAP). Laboratory studies included hydrogen pyroxide (H2O2) acid digestion and subsequent sodium hydroxide (NaOH) titration to determine NAP, and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) acid titration experiments to determine ANC. In addition to these environmental rock-property determinations, mineralogical, chemical, and petrographic characteristics of each sample were determined through semiquantitative X-ray diffractometry (Rietveld method), optical mineralogy, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence, total carbon-carbonate, and inductively coupled plasma?mass spectrometric analysis. An ANC ranking was assigned to rock samples based on calculated ANC quantity in kilograms/ton (kg/t) calcium carbonate equivalent and ratios of ANC to NAP. Results show that talus near the southeast Silverton caldera margin, composed of andesite clasts of the Burns Member of the Silverton Volcanics, has the highest ANC (>100 kg/t calcium carbonate equivalent) with little to no NAP. The other units found to have moderate to high ANC include (a) andesite lavas and volcaniclastic rocks of the San Juan

  3. A Combination of Amino Acids and Caffeine Enhances Sprint Running Capacity in a Hot, Hypoxic Environment.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Tom R; Potter, Aaron; Billaut, François; Panchuk, Derek; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J; Chen, Ting-Ting; McQuade, Leon; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-02-01

    Heat and hypoxia exacerbate central nervous system (CNS) fatigue. We therefore investigated whether essential amino acid (EAA) and caffeine ingestion attenuates CNS fatigue in a simulated team sport-specific running protocol in a hot, hypoxic environment. Subelite male team sport athletes (n = 8) performed a repeat sprint running protocol on a nonmotorized treadmill in an extreme environment on 4 separate occasions. Participants ingested one of four supplements: a double placebo, 3 mg.kg-1 body mass of caffeine + placebo, 2 x 7 g EAA (Musashi Create)+placebo, or caffeine + EAA before each exercise session using a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Electromyography (EMG) activity and quadriceps evoked responses to magnetic stimulation were assessed from the dominant leg at preexercise, halftime, and postexercise. Central activation ratio (CAR) was used to quantify completeness of quadriceps activation. Oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex was measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. Mean sprint work was higher (M = 174 J, 95% CI [23, 324], p < .05, d = 0.30; effect size, likely beneficial) in the caffeine + EAA condition versus EAAs alone. The decline in EMG activity was less (M = 13%, 95% CI [0, 26]; p < .01, d = 0.58, likely beneficial) in caffeine + EAA versus EAA alone. Similarly, the pre- to postexercise decrement in CAR was significantly less (M = -2.7%, 95% CI [0.4, 5.4]; p < .05, d = 0.50, likely beneficial) when caffeine + EAA were ingested compared with placebo. Cerebral oxygenation was lower (M = -5.6%, 95% CI [1.0, 10.1]; p < .01, d = 0.60, very likely beneficial) in the caffeine + EAA condition compared with LNAA alone. Co-ingestion of caffeine and EAA appears to maintain muscle activation and central drive, with a small improvement in running performance. PMID:26248498

  4. In Vitro Neutralisation of Rotavirus Infection by Two Broadly Specific Recombinant Monovalent Llama-Derived Antibody Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Aladin, Farah; Einerhand, Alexandra W. C.; Bouma, Janneke; Bezemer, Sandra; Hermans, Pim; Wolvers, Danielle; Bellamy, Kate; Frenken, Leon G. J.; Gray, Jim; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren

    2012-01-01

    Rotavirus is the main cause of viral gastroenteritis in young children. Therefore, the development of inexpensive antiviral products for the prevention and/or treatment of rotavirus disease remains a priority. Previously we have shown that a recombinant monovalent antibody fragment (referred to as Anti-Rotavirus Proteins or ARP1) derived from a heavy chain antibody of a llama immunised with rotavirus was able to neutralise rotavirus infection in a mouse model system. In the present work we investigated the specificity and neutralising activity of two llama antibody fragments, ARP1 and ARP3, against 13 cell culture adapted rotavirus strains of diverse genotypes. In addition, immunocapture electron microscopy (IEM) was performed to determine binding of ARP1 to clinical isolates and cell culture adapted strains. ARP1 and ARP3 were able to neutralise a broad variety of rotavirus serotypes/genotypes in vitro, and in addition, IEM showed specific binding to a variety of cell adapted strains as well as strains from clinical specimens. These results indicated that these molecules could potentially be used as immunoprophylactic and/or immunotherapeutic products for the prevention and/or treatment of infection of a broad range of clinically relevant rotavirus strains. PMID:22403728

  5. FTIR investigation of monomer polymerisation and polyacid neutralisation kinetics and mechanisms in various aesthetic dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Young, A M; Rafeeka, S A; Howlett, J A

    2004-02-01

    Diamond ATR FTIR has been used to quantify light catalysed polymerisation and polyacid neutralisation rates in various glass ionomer cements (GIC), resin-modified GICs (RMGIC) and compomers. At 150s after the start of light exposure, levels of methacrylate polymerisation on the lower surfaces of 1mm thick specimens were 97% and 98% for the RMGIC, Vitremer and Fuji II LC and 47% and 37% for the compomers, Compoglass and Dyract. After light exposure, polymerisation rates for the compomers decreased linearly with inverse time. By 50,000s Compoglass and Dyract were 62% and 51% polymerised. Initial rate of polyacid neutralisation in the GIC Shofu HIFI was 0.32 times that of Fuji IX GIC. Those in Vitremer, Fuji II LC, Compoglass and Dyract were 0.16, 0.09, 0.004 and 0.004 times that of Fuji IX. Excluding short initial periods, log of neutralisation rates decreased linearly with log-time. Average gradients were -1.35 for the GIC, -0.80 for the RMGIC and -0.59 for the compomers. By 50,000s, polyacid salt concentrations for the RMGIC and compomers were 0.41 and 0.016 times that of the GIC. Reaction mechanisms have been discussed and used to help interpret material mechanical properties, fluoride release rates and adhesion to tooth structure. PMID:14609671

  6. Immunological Cross-Reactivity and Neutralisation of European Viper Venoms with the Monospecific Vipera berus Antivenom ViperaTAb

    PubMed Central

    Casewell, Nicholas R.; Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Smith, David; Coxon, Ruth; Landon, John

    2014-01-01

    Medically important cases of snakebite in Europe are predominately caused by European vipers of the genus Vipera. The mainstay of snakebite therapy is polyclonal antibody therapy, referred to as antivenom. Here we investigate the capability of the monospecific V. berus antivenom, ViperaTAb®, to cross-react with, and neutralise lethality induced by, a variety of European vipers. Using ELISA and immunoblotting, we find that ViperaTAb® antibodies recognise and bind to the majority of toxic components found in the venoms of the Vipera species tested at comparably high levels to those observed with V. berus. Using in vivo pre-clinical efficacy studies, we demonstrate that ViperaTAb® effectively neutralises lethality induced by V. berus, V. aspis, V. ammodytes and V. latastei venoms and at much higher levels than those outlined by regulatory pharmacopoeial guidelines. Notably, venom neutralisation was found to be superior to (V. berus, V. aspis and V. latastei), or as equally effective as (V. ammodytes), the monospecific V. ammodytes “Zagreb antivenom”, which has long been successfully used for treating European snake envenomings. This study suggests that ViperaTAb® may be a valuable therapeutic product for treating snakebite by a variety of European vipers found throughout the continent. PMID:25153254

  7. Antibodies induced with recombinant VP1 from human rhinovirus exhibit cross-neutralisation.

    PubMed

    Edlmayr, J; Niespodziana, K; Popow-Kraupp, T; Krzyzanek, V; Focke-Tejkl, M; Blaas, D; Grote, M; Valenta, R

    2011-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the major cause of the common cold and account for 30-50% of all acute respiratory illnesses. Although HRV infections are usually harmless and invade only the upper respiratory tract, several studies demonstrate that HRV is involved in the exacerbation of asthma. VP1 is one of the surface-exposed proteins of the viral capsid that is important for the binding of rhinoviruses to the corresponding receptors on human cells. Here we investigated its potential usefulness for vaccination against the common cold. We expressed VP1 proteins from two distantly related HRV strains, HRV89 and HRV14, in Escherichia coli. Mice and rabbits were immunised with the purified recombinant proteins. The induced antibodies reacted with natural VP1 and with whole virus particles as shown by immunoblotting and immunogold electron microscopy. They exhibited strong cross-neutralising activity for different HRV strains. Therefore, recombinant VP1 may be considered a candidate HRV vaccine to prevent HRV-induced asthma exacerbations. PMID:20530036

  8. Stonefish antivenom neutralises the inflammatory and cardiovascular effects induced by scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena L; Menezes, Thiago N; Carnielli, Juliana B T; Andrich, Filipe; Evangelista, Karla S; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Vassallo, Dalton V; Figueiredo, Suely G

    2011-06-01

    Venomous fish are often involved in human accidents and symptoms of envenomation include local (intense pain and swelling) and systemic effects (cardiovascular and neurological disorders). However the only commercially available antivenom is against the Indo-Pacific stonefish Synanceja trachynisStonefish Antivenom (SFAV). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of SFAV in neutralising the in vivo effects of some toxic activities of scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom (SpV), and the in vitro immuno cross-reactivity. The SpV (7.5-100 μg/animal) caused nociceptive and dose-dependent edematogenic responses in the mice footpad. In rats SpV (300 μg/kg, i.v.) produced immediate and transient increase in arterial blood pressure and decrease in heart rate. Prior incubation of SpV with SFAV (1 μg SpV/1 U SFAV) abolished the inflammatory response, and significantly attenuated the cardiovascular effects induced by SPV. Western blotting analysis on two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of S plumieri venom proteins using SFAV proved that the epitopes recognized by SFAV are shared with the ∼98 kDa proteins. This is the first report of venom similarities between Indo-Pacific and Atlantic venomous fish, suggesting that the SpV compound responsible for inflammatory and cardiovascular effects possesses similar biochemical and antigenic properties to those found in stonefish venom. PMID:21510970

  9. The role of vacuolar malate-transport capacity in crassulacean acid metabolism and nitrate nutrition. Higher malate-transport capacity in ice plant after crassulacean acid metabolism-induction and in tobacco under nitrate nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lüttge, U; Pfeifer, T; Fischer-Schliebs, E; Ratajczak, R

    2000-11-01

    Anion uptake by isolated tonoplast vesicles was recorded indirectly via increased H(+)-transport by H(+)-pumping of the V-ATPase due to dissipation of the electrical component of the electrochemical proton gradient, Deltamu(H+), across the membrane. ATP hydrolysis by the V-ATPase was measured simultaneously after the Palmgren test. Normalizing for ATP-hydrolysis and effects of chloride, which was added to the assays as a stimulating effector of the V-ATPase, a parameter, J(mal)(rel), of apparent ATP-dependent malate-stimulated H(+)-transport was worked out as an indirect measure of malate transport capacity. This allowed comparison of various species and physiological conditions. J(mal)(rel) was high in the obligate crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier, it increased substantially after CAM induction in ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), and it was positively correlated with NO(3)(-) nutrition in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). For tobacco this was confirmed by measurements of malate transport energized via the V-PPase. In ice plant a new polypeptide of 32-kD apparent molecular mass appeared, and a 33-kD polypeptide showed higher levels after CAM induction under conditions of higher J(mal)(rel). It is concluded that tonoplast malate transport capacity plays an important role in physiological regulation in CAM and NO(3)(-) nutrition and that a putative malate transporter must be within the 32- to 33-kD polypeptide fraction of tonoplast proteins. PMID:11080309

  10. In vitro bile acid-binding capacity of dietary fibre sources and their effects with bile acid on broiler chicken performance and lipid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Hemati Matin, H R; Shariatmadari, F; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Chiba, L I

    2016-06-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets-containing dietary fibre (DF) sources and a source of bile acid (BA) on growth performance and lipid metabolism. In addition, in vitro BA-binding capacity of fibre sources was investigated. A total of 256 one-d-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to DF sources [maize-soybean meal (control, C), or 30 g/kg of wheat bran (WB), barley bran (BB) or soybean hulls (SH)] and BA (with or without 1.5 g Na-deoxycholate/kg). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with 8 broiler chickens per cage. The highest in vitro BA-binding capacity was observed with BB (8.76 mg/g BB). From 0 to 21 d, with the addition of BA, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C, WB or BB diets, while there was no difference with the SH diet. With added BA, the average daily gain decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C or SH diets, but it did not change in those fed on the other diets. The addition of BA decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chickens fed on the BB or WB diets, but it increased in those fed on the C or SH diets. Interaction results indicated that the apparent ileal digestibility of lipid increased in broiler chickens fed the C and other DF diets with BA compared to those fed the diets without BA. The addition of BA decreased the pancreas lipase activity (PLA) in broiler chickens fed on the C diet compared to those fed the C diet without BA, while no changes observed in those fed the DF diets with or without BA. No interaction was observed in total liver bile acid (TLBA). The WB, BB and SH with little Na-deoxycholate-binding capacity (<10 mg/g of DF) under in vitro conditions had particular effects with BA on the measured criteria in broiler chickens. The magnitude of improvement in digestibility of lipid with the addition of BA depends on the source of fibre used and the addition of BA in DF diets had little effect on growth

  11. Acid neutralizing processes in an alpine watershed front range, Colorado, U.S.A.-1: Buffering capacity of dissolved organic carbon in soil solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iggy, Litaor M.; Thurman, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Soil interstitial waters in the Green Lakes Valley, Front Range, Colorado were studied to evaluate the capacity of the soil system to buffer acid deposition. In order to determine the contribution of humic substances to the buffering capacity of a given soil, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH of the soil solutions were measured. The concentration of the organic anion, Ai-, derived from DOC at sample pH and the concentration of organic anion, Ax- at the equivalence point were calculated using carboxyl contents from isolated and purified humic material from soil solutions. Subtracting Ax- from Ai- yields the contribution of humic substances to the buffering capacity (Aequiv.-). Using this method, one can evaluate the relative contribution of inorganic and organic constituents to the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of the soil solutions. The relative contribution of organic acids to the overall ANC was found to be extremely important in the alpine wetland (52%) and the forest-tundra ecotone (40%), and somewhat less important in the alpine tundra sites (20%). A failure to recognize the importance of organic acids in soil solutions to the ANC will result in erroneous estimates of the buffering capacity in the alpine environment of the Front Range, Colorado. ?? 1988.

  12. Effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of a roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Ramírez-de León, José A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-04-01

    Plant infusions are consumed due to their beneficial effects on health, which is attributed to their bioactive compounds content. However, these compounds are susceptible to degradation during processing and storage. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activity of roselle beverages during storage. The optimum extraction conditions of roselle polyphenolic compounds was of 95 °C/60 min, which was obtained by a second order experimental design. The incorporation of stevia increased the stability of colour and some polyphenols, such as quercetin, gallic acid and rosmarinic acid, during storage. In addition, stevia decreased the loss of ABTS, DPPH scavenging activity and α-amylase inhibitory capacity, whereas the incorporation of citric acid showed no effect. These results may contribute to the improvement of technological processes for the elaboration of hypocaloric and functional beverages. PMID:25442634

  13. Upregulation of capacity for glutathione synthesis in response to amino acid deprivation: regulation of glutamate-cysteine ligase subunits.

    PubMed

    Sikalidis, Angelos K; Mazor, Kevin M; Lee, Jeong-In; Roman, Heather B; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2014-05-01

    Using HepG2/C3A cells and MEFs, we investigated whether induction of GSH synthesis in response to sulfur amino acid deficiency is mediated by the decrease in cysteine levels or whether it requires a decrease in GSH levels per se. Both the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunit mRNA levels were upregulated in response to a lack of cysteine or other essential amino acids, independent of GSH levels. This upregulation did not occur in MEFs lacking GCN2 (general control non-derepressible 2, also known as eIF2α kinase 4) or in cells expressing mutant eIF2α lacking the eIF2α kinase Ser(51) phosphorylation site, indicating that expression of both GCLC and GCLM was mediated by the GCN2/ATF4 stress response pathway. Only the increase in GCLM mRNA level, however, was accompanied by a parallel increase in protein expression, suggesting that the enhanced capacity for GSH synthesis depended largely on increased association of GCLC with its regulatory subunit. Upregulation of both GCLC and GLCM mRNA levels in response to cysteine deprivation was dependent on new protein synthesis, which is consistent with expression of GCLC and GCLM being mediated by proteins whose synthesis depends on activation of the GCN2/ATF4 pathway. Our data suggest that the regulation of GCLC expression may be mediated by changes in the abundance of transcriptional regulators, whereas the regulation of GCLM expression may be mediated by changes in the abundance of mRNA stabilizing or destabilizing proteins. Upregulation of GCLM levels in response to low cysteine levels may serve to protect the cell in the face of a future stress requiring GSH as an antioxidant or conjugating/detoxifying agent. PMID:24557597

  14. Upregulation of capacity for glutathione synthesis in response to amino acid deprivation: regulation of glutamate-cysteine ligase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Sikalidis, Angelos K.; Mazor, Kevin M.; Lee, Jeong-In; Roman, Heather B.; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.; Stipanuk, Martha H.

    2014-01-01

    Using HepG2/C3A cells and MEFs, we investigated whether induction of GSH synthesis in response to sulfur amino acid deficiency is mediated by the decrease in cysteine levels or whether it requires a decrease in GSH levels per se. Both the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunit mRNA levels were upregulated in response to a lack of cysteine or other essential amino acids, independent of GSH levels. This upregulation did not occur in MEFs lacking GCN2 (general control non-derepressible 2, also known as eIF2α kinase 4) or in cells expressing mutant eIF2α lacking the eIF2α kinase Ser51 phosphorylation site, indicating that expression of both GCLC and GCLM was mediated by the GCN2/ATF4 stress response pathway. Only the increase in GCLM mRNA level, however, was accompanied by a parallel increase in protein expression, suggesting that the enhanced capacity for GSH synthesis depended largely on increased association of GCLC with its regulatory subunit. Upregulation of both GCLC and GLCM mRNA levels in response to cysteine deprivation was dependent on new protein synthesis, which is consistent with expression of GCLC and GCLM being mediated by proteins whose synthesis depends on activation of the GCN2/ATF4 pathway. Our data suggest that the regulation of GCLC expression may be mediated by changes in the abundance of transcriptional regulators, whereas the regulation of GCLM expression may be mediated by changes in the abundance of mRNA stabilizing or destabilizing proteins. Upregulation of GCLM levels in response to low cysteine levels may serve to protect the cell in the face of a future stress requiring GSH as an antioxidant or conjugating/detoxifying agent. PMID:24557597

  15. An in vitro study on the antioxidant capacity of usnic acid on human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, M; Jemiola-Rzeminska, M; Astudillo, C; Gallardo, M J; Staforelli, J P; Villena, F; Strzalka, K

    2015-11-01

    Usnic acid (UA) has been associated with chronic diseases through its antioxidant action. Its main target is the cell membrane; however, its effect on that of human erythrocytes has been scarcely investigated. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between UA and cell membranes human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane have been utilized. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) were chosen as representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. Results by X-ray diffraction showed that UA produced structural perturbations on DMPC and DMPE bilayers. DSC studies have indicated that thermotropic behavior of DMPE was most strongly distorted by UA than DMPC, whereas the latter is mainly affected on the pretransition. Scanning electron (SEM) and defocusing microscopy (DM) showed that UA induced alterations to erythrocytes from the normal discoid shape to echinocytes. These results imply that UA molecules were located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Results of its antioxidant properties showed that UA neutralized the oxidative capacity of HClO on DMPC and DMPE bilayers; SEM, DM and hemolysis assays demonstrated the protective effect of UA against the deleterious oxidant effects of HClO upon human erythrocytes. PMID:26299817

  16. The acid-base buffer capacity of podzolic soils and its changes under the impact of treatment with the Mehra-Jackson and Tamm reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimova, Yu. G.; Maryakhina, N. N.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Sokolova, T. A.

    2010-10-01

    The acid-base buffer capacity before and after the treatment with the Mehra-Jackson and Tamm reagents was assessed by continuous potentiometric titration for the main genetic horizons of two profiles of podzolic soils in the Central Forest State Reserve. The total buffer capacity was calculated in the pH range from the initial titration point (ITP) to 3 for the acid titration and from the ITP to 10 for the base titration, as well as the buffer capacities in the pH intervals of 0.25. It was found that both treatments abruptly decreased the base buffer capacity, which reached 70-90% in the E horizons. The high direct linear correlation of the difference between the total base buffer capacities before and after each treatment with the content of Fe in the Tamm extract was revealed. From the results obtained, a conclusion was drawn that finely dispersed Fe hydroxides were the main solid-phase constituents ensuring the base buffer capacity, and the deprotonation of hydroxyl groups on the surface of Fe hydroxides was the essential buffer reaction during the base titration.

  17. A critical review of using the Peukert equation for determining the remaining capacity of lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerffel, Dennis; Sharkh, Suleiman Abu

    In many applications it is essential to predict the remaining capacity of a battery reliably, accurately and simply. Several existing techniques for predicting the remaining capacity of a lead-acid battery discharged with a variable current are based on variants of Peukert's empirical equation, which relates the available capacity to a constant discharge current. This paper presents a critical review of these techniques in the light of experimental tests that were carried out on two lead-acid commercial batteries. The relevance of these Peukert's equation based techniques to lithium-ion batteries is also discussed in the light of tests carried on a lithium-ion power battery. The basic conclusion of the paper is that Peukert's equation cannot be used to predict the state of charge of a battery accurately unless it is discharged at a constant current and constant temperature.

  18. The effect of external stimuli on the uranyl ions uptake capacity of poly( N-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone/itaconic acid) hydrogels prepared by gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantoğlu, Ö.; Şen, M.; Güven, O.

    1999-05-01

    The effect of external stimuli such as pH of the solution, ionic strength and temperature on the uranyl ions uptake capacity of poly( N-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone/itaconic acid) (P(VP/IA)) hydrogels was investigated. Polyelectrolyte P(VP/IA) hydrogels with varying compositions were prepared in the form of rods from ternary mixtures of N-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone/itaconic acid/water. Uranyl adsorption capacity of hydrogels were found to increase from 26.7 to 70 (mg UO 22+ /g dry gel) with decreasing pH of the swelling solution. Adsorption studies have shown that other stimuli, such as temperature and ionic strength of the swelling solution have also influence on the uranyl ions uptake capacity of P(VP/IA) hydrogels.

  19. A study of the metal binding capacity of saccharinic acids formed during the alkali catalysed decomposition of cellulosic materials: nickel complexation by glucoisosaccharinic acids and xyloisosaccharinic acids.

    PubMed

    Almond, Michael; Belton, Daniel; Humphreys, Paul N; Laws, Andrew P

    2016-06-01

    The stoichiometry of the metal complexes formed between nickel and the ligand β-glucoisosaccharinic acid (β-GISA) and a racemic mixture of enantiomers of xyloisosaccharinic acid (XISA) has been determined at both neutral and alkaline pHs. Bjerrum plots, Job's plots and conductance measurements indicated that for each of the systems one to one Ni(ligand) complexes were formed at near neutral pHs (<7.5). At intermediate alkaline pHs (7.5-13) there is evidence to support the formation and precipitation of Ni2(ligand)(OH)3 complexes, finally, at high pH (>13) sparingly soluble Ni2(ligand)(OH)4 complexes were formed. The stability constants for the Ni(β-GISA), Ni(α-GISA) and Ni(XISA) complexes formed at neutral pH were determined under identical conditions using polarographic studies. The measured stability constants for Ni(β-GISA) (log10 β = 1.94 ± 0.15) and for Ni(α-GISA)(log10 β = 2.07 ± 0.13) are very similar; the value measured for the Ni(XISA) complex (log10 β = 0.83) was an order of magnitude smaller. The stability constants for the Ni2(Ligand)(OH)4 complexes formed at highly alkaline pHs were determined using the Schubert method. The measured stability constant for Ni2(β-GISA)(OH)4 (log10 β = 30.6 ± 0.5) was an order of magnitude bigger than the value for Ni2(α-GISA)(OH)4 (log10 β = 29.0 ± 0.5) measured under identical conditions. Attempts to measure the stability constant for Ni2(XISA)(OH)4 were unsuccessful; Ni2(XISA)(OH)4 complexes were not present in significant amounts at high pH to allow the log10β value to be determined by the Schubert method. PMID:27107221

  20. EP217609, a neutralisable dual-action FIIa/FXa anticoagulant, with antithrombotic effects in arterial thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Alame, Ghina; Mangin, Pierre H; Freund, Monique; Riehl, Nadia; Magnenat, Stéphanie; Petitou, Maurice; Hechler, Béatrice; Gachet, Christian

    2015-02-01

    EP217609 is a new synthetic parenteral dual-action anticoagulant combining a direct thrombin inhibitor (α-NAPAP analog), an indirect factor Xa inhibitor (fondaparinux analog) and a biotin moiety allowing its neutralisation. EP217609 exhibited similar in vitro anticoagulant properties as its parent compounds. On the basis of dose-response curves, we identified low and moderate doses of EP217609 resulting in similar ex vivo prolongation of the APTT as α-NAPAP analog and comparable ex vivo anti-FXa activity as fondaparinux. The effects of EP217609 were compared to those of its parent compounds used alone or in combination in two models of experimental thrombosis induced by FeCl3 injury of the carotid artery or mechanical injury of atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-deficient mice. When administered at low doses increasing the APTT by only 1.1 fold, EP217609 significantly reduced the thrombus area in both models as compared to α-NAPAP analog or fondaparinux alone, but not to the combination of these drugs. In contrast, at higher doses increasing the APTT 1.5 times, EP217609 was not superior to either parent compound. Low doses of EP217609 did not prolong the tail bleeding time or increase the volume of blood loss, although a tendency towards an increased blood loss was observed in five out of 12 mice. Finally, the effects of EP217609 could be neutralised in vivo by injection of avidin. The pharmacological profile of EP217609, its performance in arterial thrombosis models and its possible neutralisation make it an interesting molecule and a potential candidate as an antithrombotic drug. PMID:25374268

  1. Immunoenhancing effect of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on the phagocytic capacity and oxidative burst activity of canine peripheral blood phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min-Haeng; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Mhan-Pyo

    2008-10-01

    The effect of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) on the phagocytic capacity and oxidative burst activity (OBA) of canine peripheral blood phagocytes was examined. t10c12-CLA did not directly affect the phagocytic capacity and OBA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), monocytes or polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). However, the phagocytic capacity of PMN and monocytes was enhanced by the culture supernatant from t10c12-CLA-treated PBMC. This supernatant enhanced the latex bead-induced OBA of PMN and monocytes. t10c12-CLA also increased TNF-alpha production by PBMC. Recombinant canine (rc) TNF-alpha also increased the phagocytic capacity and OBA of PMN and monocytes. The ability of the culture supernatant from t10c12-CLA-treated PBMC to stimulate the phagocytic capacity and OBA of phagocytes was inhibited by anti-rcTNF-alpha pAb. These results suggest that t10c12-CLA has an immunoenhancing effect on the phagocytic capacity and OBA of phagocytes, and this effect may be mediated by TNF-alpha released from t10c12-CLA-treated PBMC. PMID:18234254

  2. Production of Human papillomavirus pseudovirions in plants and their use in pseudovirion-based neutralisation assays in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Renate L; Kennedy, Paul; Huddy, Suzanne M; Bethke, Susanne; Hendrikse, Megan; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer and have recently also been implicated in mouth, laryngeal and anogenital cancers. There are three commercially available prophylactic vaccines that show good efficacy; however, efforts to develop second-generation vaccines that are more affordable, stable and elicit a wider spectrum of cross-neutralising immunity are still ongoing. Testing antisera elicited by current and candidate HPV vaccines for neutralizing antibodies is done using a HPV pseudovirion (PsV)-based neutralisation assay (PBNA). PsVs are produced by transfection of mammalian cell cultures with plasmids expressing L1 and L2 capsid proteins, and a reporter gene plasmid, a highly expensive process. We investigated making HPV-16 PsVs in plants, in order to develop a cheaper alternative. The secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene and promoter were cloned into a geminivirus-derived plant expression vector, in order to produce circular dsDNA replicons. This was co-introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana plants with vectors expressing L1 and L2 via agroinfiltration, and presumptive PsVs were purified. The PsVs contained DNA, and could be successfully used for PBNA with anti-HPV antibodies. This is the first demonstration of the production of mammalian pseudovirions in plants, and the first demonstration of the potential of plants to make DNA vaccines. PMID:26853456

  3. A robust lentiviral pseudotype neutralisation assay for in-field serosurveillance of rabies and lyssaviruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wright, Edward; McNabb, Suzanne; Goddard, Trudy; Horton, Daniel L; Lembo, Tiziana; Nel, Louis H; Weiss, Robin A; Cleaveland, Sarah; Fooks, Anthony R

    2009-11-27

    The inflexibility of existing serological techniques for detection of rabies in surveillance constrains the benefit to be gained from many current control strategies. We analysed 304 serum samples from Tanzanian dogs for the detection of rabies antibodies in a pseudotype assay using lentiviral vectors bearing the CVS-11 envelope glycoprotein. Compared with the widely used gold standard fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation assay, a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 94.4% with a strong correlation of antibody titres (r=0.915) were observed with the pseudotype assay. To increase the assay's surveillance specificity in Africa we incorporated the envelope glycoprotein of local viruses, Lagos bat virus, Duvenhage virus or Mokola virus and also cloned the lacZ gene to provide a reporter element. Neutralisation assays using pseudotypes bearing these glycoproteins reveal that they provide a greater sensitivity compared to similar live virus assays and will therefore allow a more accurate determination of the distribution of these highly pathogenic infections and the threat they pose to human health. Importantly, the CVS-11 pseudotypes were highly stable during freeze-thaw cycles and storage at room temperature. These results suggest the proposed pseudotype assay is a suitable option for undertaking lyssavirus serosurveillance in areas most affected by these infections. PMID:19925950

  4. Analysis of the function of IL-10 in chickens using specific neutralising antibodies and a sensitive capture ELISA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiguang; Hu, Tuanjun; Rothwell, Lisa; Vervelde, Lonneke; Kaiser, Pete; Boulton, Kay; Nolan, Matthew J; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P; Hume, David A

    2016-10-01

    In mammals, the inducible cytokine interleukin 10 is a feedback negative regulator of inflammation. To determine the extent to which this function is conserved in birds, recombinant chicken IL-10 was expressed as a secreted human Ig Fc fusion protein (chIL-10-Fc) and used to immunise mice. Five monoclonal antibodies (mAb) which specifically recognise chicken IL-10 were generated and characterised. Two capture ELISA assays were developed which detected native chIL-10 secreted from chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages (chBMMs) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Three of the mAbs detected intracellular IL-10. This was detected in only a subset of the same LPS-stimulated chBMMs. The ELISA assay also detected massive increases in circulating IL-10 in chickens challenged with the coccidial parasite, Eimeria tenella. The same mAbs neutralised the bioactivity of recombinant chIL-10. The role of IL-10 in feedback control was tested in vitro. The neutralising antibodies prevented IL-10-induced inhibition of IFN-γ synthesis by mitogen-activated lymphocytes and increased nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated chBMMs. The results confirm that IL-10 is an inducible feedback regulator of immune response in chickens, and could be the target for improved vaccine efficacy or breeding strategies. PMID:27108075

  5. Production of Human papillomavirus pseudovirions in plants and their use in pseudovirion-based neutralisation assays in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Lamprecht, Renate L; Kennedy, Paul; Huddy, Suzanne M; Bethke, Susanne; Hendrikse, Megan; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer and have recently also been implicated in mouth, laryngeal and anogenital cancers. There are three commercially available prophylactic vaccines that show good efficacy; however, efforts to develop second-generation vaccines that are more affordable, stable and elicit a wider spectrum of cross-neutralising immunity are still ongoing. Testing antisera elicited by current and candidate HPV vaccines for neutralizing antibodies is done using a HPV pseudovirion (PsV)-based neutralisation assay (PBNA). PsVs are produced by transfection of mammalian cell cultures with plasmids expressing L1 and L2 capsid proteins, and a reporter gene plasmid, a highly expensive process. We investigated making HPV-16 PsVs in plants, in order to develop a cheaper alternative. The secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene and promoter were cloned into a geminivirus-derived plant expression vector, in order to produce circular dsDNA replicons. This was co-introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana plants with vectors expressing L1 and L2 via agroinfiltration, and presumptive PsVs were purified. The PsVs contained DNA, and could be successfully used for PBNA with anti-HPV antibodies. This is the first demonstration of the production of mammalian pseudovirions in plants, and the first demonstration of the potential of plants to make DNA vaccines. PMID:26853456

  6. Application of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy To Determine the Chlorogenic Acid Isomer Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ningjian; Lu, Xiaonan; Hu, Yaxi; Kitts, David D

    2016-01-27

    The chlorogenic acid isomer profile and antioxidant activity of both green and roasted coffee beans are reported herein using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric analyses. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantified different chlorogenic acid isomer contents for reference, whereas ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the same coffee bean extracts. FTIR spectral data and reference data of 42 coffee bean samples were processed to build optimized PLSR models, and 18 samples were used for external validation of constructed PLSR models. In total, six PLSR models were constructed for six chlorogenic acid isomers to predict content, with three PLSR models constructed to forecast the free radical scavenging activities, obtained using different chemical assays. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with PLSR, serves as a reliable, nondestructive, and rapid analytical method to quantify chlorogenic acids and to assess different free radical-scavenging capacities in coffee beans. PMID:26725502

  7. Repeated Vaccination of Cows with HIV Env gp140 during Subsequent Pregnancies Elicits and Sustains an Enduring Strong Env-Binding and Neutralising Antibody Response

    PubMed Central

    Center, Rob J.; Gonelli, Christopher; Muller, Brian; Mackenzie, Charlene; Khoury, Georges; Lichtfuss, Marit; Rawlin, Grant; Purcell, Damian F. J.

    2016-01-01

    An important feature of a potential vaccine against HIV is the production of broadly neutralising antibodies (BrNAbs) capable of potentially blocking infectivity of a diverse array of HIV strains. BrNAbs naturally arise in some HIV infected individuals after several years of infection and their serum IgG can neutralise various HIV strains across different subtypes. We previously showed that vaccination of cows with HIV gp140 AD8 trimers resulted in a high titre of serum IgG against HIV envelope (Env) that had strong BrNAb activity. These polyclonal BrNAbs concentrated into the colostrum during the late stage of pregnancy and can be harvested in vast quantities immediately after calving. In this study, we investigated the effect of prolonged HIV gp140 vaccination on bovine colostrum IgG HIV Env-binding and BrNAb activity over subsequent pregnancies. Repeated immunisation led to a maintained high titre of HIV Env specific IgG in the colostrum batches, but this did not increase through repeated cycles. Colostrum IgG from all batches also strongly competed with sCD4 binding to gp140 Env trimer and with human-derived monoclonal VRC01 and b12 BrNAbs that bind the CD4 binding site (CD4bs). Furthermore, competition neutralisation assays using RSC3 Env gp120 protein core and a derivative CD4bs mutant, RSC3 Δ371I/P363N, showed that CD4bs neutralising antibodies contribute to the neutralising activity of all batches of purified bovine colostrum IgG. This result indicates that the high IgG titre/avidity of anti-CD4bs antibodies with BrNAb activity was achieved during the first year of vaccination and was sustained throughout the years of repeated vaccinations in the cow tested. Although IgG of subsequent colostrum batches may have a higher avidity towards the CD4bs, the overall breadth in neutralisation was not enhanced. This implies that the boosting vaccinations over 4 years elicited a polyclonal antibody response that maintained the proportion of both neutralising and non-neutralising

  8. Dependence of protein binding capacity of dimethylamino-γ-butyric-acid (DMGABA)-immobilized porous membrane on composition of solvent used for DMGABA immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanade, Akio; Umeno, Daisuke; Saito, Kyoichi; Sugo, Takanobu

    2013-06-01

    Dimethylamino-γ-butyric acid (DMGABA) as an ampholite was reacted with the epoxy group of the poly-glycidyl methacrylate chain grafted onto the pore surface of a porous hollow-fiber polyethylene membrane by radiation-induced graft polymerization. DMGABA was dissolved in a mixture of dioxane and water at various dioxane volume fractions, defined by dividing the dioxane volume by the total volume. The equilibrium binding capacity (EBC) of the DMGABA-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membrane for lysozyme was evaluated in the permeation mode. The EBC was varied from a 1/50-fold monolayer binding capacity to a 10-fold monolayer binding capacity by controlling the composition of the solvent used for DMGABA immobilization and the molar conversion of the epoxy group into the DMGABA group.

  9. Modeling of the capacity loss of a 12 V automotive lead-acid battery due to ageing and comparison with measurement data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ui Seong; Shin, Chee Burm; Chung, Seung Myun; Kim, Sung Tae; Cho, Byung Won

    One-dimensional modeling was carried-out to predict the capacity loss of a 12 V automotive lead-acid battery due to ageing. The model not only accounted for electrochemical kinetics and ionic mass transfer in a battery cell, but also considered the anodic corrosion of lead in sulfuric acid. In order to validate the modeling, modeling results were compared with the measurement data of the cycling behaviors of the lead-acid batteries having nominal capacity of 68 Ah that are mounted on the automobiles manufactured by Hyundai Motor Company. The cycling was performed under the protocol of the constant-current discharge and the constant-voltage charge. The discharge rate of C/3 was used. The range of state of charge was between 1 and 0.85. The voltage was kept constant at the gassing voltage until the charge current tapered to 10 mA. The retention capacity of the battery was measured with C/3 discharge rate before the beginning of cycling and after every 40 cycles of cycling. The modeling results were in good agreement with the measurement data.

  10. Quality assurance of C. perfringens epsilon toxoid vaccines--ELISA versus mouse neutralisation test.

    PubMed

    Rosskopf-Streicher, Ute; Volkers, Peter; Noeske, Kerstin; Werner, Esther

    2004-01-01

    Clostridium (C.) perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterium. Disease caused by C. perfringens infection is called enterotoxaemia. C. perfringens strains are classified on the basis of the lethal exotoxins formed by the bacteria. Epsilon toxin is one of the major lethal toxins and is formed by C. perfringens types B and D. C. perfringens is an ubiquitous bacterium. Infection occurs via food, water, animal litter or soil. Affected animals include mainly sheep, pigs and cattle. C. perfringens infection manifests as pulpy kidney disease and diarrhoea in suckling lambs. Enterotoxaemia development is peracute in most cases. Animals die suddenly while grazing on the pasture, without any prior signs of disease. Therefore, treatment is possible only in very rare cases. Suitable immunoprophylactic measures are the treatment of choice to combat the disease: Vaccines and immunosera have therefore been used extensively for a long time. The requirements for quality, efficacy and safety testing of the inactivated vaccines are laid down in the Ph. Eur. in the monograph: Clostridium perfringens vaccines for veterinary use. After a marketing authorisation is attained, the product batches must be tested in laboratory animal models for their potency against all vaccine components (Pharmeuropa, 1997). For potency testing (batch control) of C. perfringens types B and D, the induction of specific antibodies against epsilon toxin in rabbits must be verified. For this purpose, 10 rabbits are immunised twice with the product to be tested. Their blood is taken 14 days after the last immunisation and the serum is pooled. The pooled serum is then tested for its protective effect. This is done by means of the toxin neutralisation test in mice (optionally also in guinea pigs) in comparison with an international reference serum. The evaluation criterion is the death rate of the mice in the test and reference groups after administration of lethal doses of epsilon toxin. The

  11. Spontaneous remodeling of HDL particles at acidic pH enhances their capacity to induce cholesterol efflux from human macrophage foam cells[S

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Su Duy; Öörni, Katariina; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam; Pihlajamaa, Tero; Metso, Jari; Jauhiainen, Matti; Kovanen, Petri T.

    2012-01-01

    HDL particles may enter atherosclerotic lesions having an acidic intimal fluid. Therefore, we investigated whether acidic pH would affect their structural and functional properties. For this purpose, HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions were incubated for various periods of time at different pH values ranging from 5.5 to 7.5, after which their protein and lipid compositions, size, structure, and cholesterol efflux capacity were analyzed. Incubation of either subfraction at acidic pH induced unfolding of apolipoproteins, which was followed by release of lipid-poor apoA-I and ensuing fusion of the HDL particles. The acidic pH-modified HDL particles exhibited an enhanced ability to promote cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-laden primary human macrophages. Importantly, treatment of the acidic pH-modified HDL with the mast cell-derived protease chymase completely depleted the newly generated lipid-poor apoA-I, and prevented the acidic pH-dependent increase in cholesterol efflux. The above-found pH-dependent structural and functional changes were stronger in HDL3 than in HDL2. Spontaneous acidic pH-induced remodeling of mature spherical HDL particles increases HDL-induced cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, and therefore may have atheroprotective effects. PMID:22855736

  12. Theoretical Determination of the pK a Values of Betalamic Acid Related to the Free Radical Scavenger Capacity: Comparison Between Empirical and Quantum Chemical Methods.

    PubMed

    Tutone, Marco; Lauria, Antonino; Almerico, Anna Maria

    2016-06-01

    Health benefits of dietary phytochemicals have been suggested in recent years. Among 1000s of different compounds, Betalains, which occur in vegetables of the Cariophyllalae order (cactus pear fruits and red beet), have been considered because of reducing power and potential to affect redox-modulated cellular processes. The antioxidant power of Betalains is strictly due to the dissociation rate of the acid moieties present in all the molecules of this family of phytochemicals. Experimentally, only the pK a values of betanin were determined. Recently, it was evidenced it was evidenced as the acid dissociation, at different environmental pHs, affects on its electron-donating capacity, and further on its free radical scavenging power. The identical correlation was studied on another Betalains family compound, Betalamic Acid. Experimental evidences showed that the free radical scavenging capacity of this compound drastically decreases at pH > 5, but pK a values were experimentally not measured. With the aim to justify the Betalamic Acid behavior as free radical scavenger, in this paper we tried to predict in silico the pK a values by means different approaches. Starting from the known experimental pK as of acid compounds, both phytochemicals and small organic, two empirical approaches and quantum-mechanical calculation were compared to give reliable prediction of the pK as of Betalamic Acid. Results by means these computational approaches are consistent with the experimental evidences. As shown herein, in silico, the totally dissociated species, at the experimental pH > 5 in solution, is predominant, exploiting the higher electron-donating capability (HOMO energy). Therefore, the computational estimated pK a values of Betalamic Acid resulted very reliable. PMID:26253717

  13. Identification of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Monofloral Honey from Bangladesh by High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Determination of Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Yung An, Chua; Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Hawlader, Mohammad Nurul Islam; Azlan, Siti Amirah Binti Mohd; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties of monofloral honey collected from five different districts in Bangladesh. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector method was developed for the identification of the phenolic acids and flavonoids. A total of five different phenolic acids were identified, with the most abundant being caffeic acid, benzoic acid, gallic acid, followed by chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. The flavonoids, kaempferol, and catechin were most abundant, followed by myricetin and naringenin. The mean moisture content, total sugar content, and color characteristics of the honey samples were 18.36 ± 0.95%, 67.40 ± 5.63 g/100 g, and 129.27 ± 34.66 mm Pfund, respectively. The mean total phenolic acids, total flavonoid content, and proline content were 199.20 ± 135.23, 46.73 ± 34.16, and 556.40 ± 376.86 mg/kg, respectively, while the mean FRAP values and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 327.30 ± 231.87 μM Fe (II)/100 g and 36.95 ± 20.53%, respectively. Among the different types of honey, kalijira exhibited the highest phenolics and antioxidant properties. Overall, our study confirms that all the investigated honey samples are good sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids with good antioxidant properties. PMID:25045696

  14. Polyphenols: well beyond the antioxidant capacity: gallic acid and related compounds as neuroprotective agents: you are what you eat!

    PubMed

    Daglia, Maria; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Nabavi, Seyed F; Talas, Zeliha S; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2014-01-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a phenolic acid widely distributed in many different families of higher plants, both in free state, and as a part of more complex molecules, such as ester derivatives or polymers. In nature, gallic acid and its derivatives are present in nearly every part of the plant, such as bark, wood, leaf, fruit, root and seed. They are present in different concentrations in common foodstuffs such as blueberry, blackberry, strawberry, plums, grapes, mango, cashew nut, hazelnut, walnut, tea, wine and so on. After consumption, about 70% of gallic acid is adsorbed and then excreted in the urine as 4-O-methylgallic acid. Differently, the ester derivatives of gallic acid, such as catechin gallate ester or gallotannins, are hydrolyzed to gallic acid before being metabolized to methylated derivatives. Gallic acid is a well known antioxidant compounds which has neuroprotective actions in different models of neurodegeneration, neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. In this review, we discuss about the neuroprotective actions of gallic acid and derivatives and their potential mechanisms of action. PMID:24938889

  15. Reducing Capacity, Chlorogenic Acid Content and Biological Activity in a Collection of Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) Eggplants

    PubMed Central

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties. PMID:25264739

  16. Relationship between the solubility, dosage and antioxidant capacity of carnosic acid in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Vaithiyanathan, S; Muthukumar, M; Sen, A R; Kumar, Y Praveen; Kiran, M; Shaju, V A; Chandran, K Ramesh

    2013-10-01

    Antioxidant capacity of oil soluble and water dispersible carnosic acid (CA) extracted from dried rosemary leaves using HPLC was evaluated at two different dosages (22.5 ppm vs 130 ppm) in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties. Irrespective of total phenolic content, CA extracts reduced (p<0.05) the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by 39%-47% and 37%-40% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties at lower dosage (22.5 ppm) relative to control samples. However, at higher dosage (130 ppm) the TBARS values were reduced (p<0.05) by 86%-96% and 78%-87% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties compared to controls. The CA extracts were also effective in inhibiting (p<0.05) peroxide value and free fatty acids in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties. The CA extracts when used at higher dosage, were also effective in stabilizing raw buffalo meat color. PMID:23743029

  17. Identifying sources of acidity and spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils in the Anglesea River catchment, southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Vanessa; Yau, Chin; Kennedy, David

    2015-04-01

    Globally, coastal and estuarine floodplains are frequently underlain by sulfidic sediments. When exposed to oxygen, sulfidic sediments oxidise to form acid sulfate soils, adversely impacting on floodplain health and adjacent aquatic ecoystems. In eastern Australia, our understanding of the formation of these coastal and estuarine floodplains, and hence, spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils, is relatively well established. These soils have largely formed as a result of sedimentation of coastal river valleys approximately 6000 years BP when sea levels were one to two metres higher. However, our understanding of the evolution of estuarine systems and acid sulfate soil formation, and hence, distribution, in southern Australia remains limited. The Anglesea River, in southern Australia, is subjected to frequent episodes of poor water quality and low pH resulting in closure of the river and, in extreme cases, large fish kill events. This region is heavily reliant on tourism and host to a number of iconic features, including the Great Ocean Road and Twelve Apostles. Poor water quality has been linked to acid leakage from mining activities and Tertiary-aged coal seams, peat swamps and acid sulfate soils in the region. However, our understanding of the sources of acidity and distribution of acid sulfate soils in this region remains poor. In this study, four sites on the Anglesea River floodplain were sampled, representative of the main vegetation communities. Peat swamps and intertidal marshes were both significant sources of acidity on the floodplain in the lower catchment. However, acid neutralising capacity provided by carbonate sands suggests that there are additional sources of acidity higher in the catchment. This pilot study has highlighted the complexity in the links between the floodplain, upper catchment and waterways with further research required to understand these links for targeted acid management strategies.

  18. Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Dark Muscle.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chang-Feng; Hu, Fa-Yuan; Wang, Bin; Li, Zhong-Rui; Luo, Hong-Yu

    2015-05-01

    Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. Two fractions, Fr.A3 and Fr.B2, isolated from ATH and NTH, respectively, showed strong radical scavenging activities toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (EC50 1.08% ± 0.08% and 0.98% ± 0.07%), hydroxyl radicals (EC50 0.22% ± 0.03% and 0.48% ± 0.05%), and superoxide anion radicals (EC50 1.31% ± 0.11% and 1.56% ± 1.03%) and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. Eighteen peptides from Fr.A3 and 13 peptides from Fr.B2 were isolated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and their amino acid sequences were determined. The elevated antioxidant activity of Fr.A3 might be due to its high content of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues (181.1 and 469.9 residues/1000 residues, respectively), small molecular sizes (3-6 peptides), low molecular weights (524.78 kDa), and amino acid sequences (antioxidant score 6.11). This study confirmed that a smaller molecular size, the presence of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues, and the amino acid sequences were the key factors that determined the antioxidant activities of the proteins, hydrolysates and peptides. The results also demonstrated that the derived hydrolysates and fractions from skipjack tuna (K. pelamis) dark muscles could prevent oxidative reactions and might be useful for food preservation and medicinal purposes. PMID:25923316

  19. Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Dark Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Chang-Feng; Hu, Fa-Yuan; Wang, Bin; Li, Zhong-Rui; Luo, Hong-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. Two fractions, Fr.A3 and Fr.B2, isolated from ATH and NTH, respectively, showed strong radical scavenging activities toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (EC50 1.08% ± 0.08% and 0.98% ± 0.07%), hydroxyl radicals (EC50 0.22% ± 0.03% and 0.48% ± 0.05%), and superoxide anion radicals (EC50 1.31% ± 0.11% and 1.56% ± 1.03%) and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. Eighteen peptides from Fr.A3 and 13 peptides from Fr.B2 were isolated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and their amino acid sequences were determined. The elevated antioxidant activity of Fr.A3 might be due to its high content of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues (181.1 and 469.9 residues/1000 residues, respectively), small molecular sizes (3–6 peptides), low molecular weights (524.78 kDa), and amino acid sequences (antioxidant score 6.11). This study confirmed that a smaller molecular size, the presence of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues, and the amino acid sequences were the key factors that determined the antioxidant activities of the proteins, hydrolysates and peptides. The results also demonstrated that the derived hydrolysates and fractions from skipjack tuna (K. pelamis) dark muscles could prevent oxidative reactions and might be useful for food preservation and medicinal purposes. PMID:25923316

  20. Neocosmospora sp.-derived resorcylic acid lactones with in vitro binding capacity for human opioid and cannabinoid receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a fungus Neocosmospora sp. (UM-031509) resulted in the isolation of three new resorcyclic acid lactones, neocosmosin A (2), neocosmosin B (3) and neocosmosin C (4). Three known resorcylic acid lactones, monocillin IV (1), monocillin II (5) and monorden (6) were also ...

  1. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of humic acids using CUPRAC, Folin-Ciocalteu, noble metal nanoparticle- and solid-liquid extraction-based methods.

    PubMed

    Karadirek, Şeyda; Kanmaz, Nergis; Balta, Zeynep; Demirçivi, Pelin; Üzer, Ayşem; Hızal, Jülide; Apak, Reşat

    2016-06-01

    Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of humic acid (HA) samples was determined using CUPRAC (CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity), FC (Folin-Ciocalteu), QUENCHER-CUPRAC, QUENCHER-FC, Ag-NP (Silver nanoparticle)‒ and Au-NP (Gold nanoparticle)‒based methods. Conventional FC and modified FC (MFC) methods were applied to solid samples. Because of decreased solubility of Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent in organic solvents, solvent effect on TAC measurement was investigated using QUENCHER-CUPRAC assay by using ethanol:distilled water and dimethyl sulfoxide:distilled water with varying ratios. To see the combined effect of solubilization (leaching) and TAC measurement of humic acids simultaneously, QUENCHER experiments were performed at 25°C and 50°C; QUENCHER-CUPRAC and QUENCHER-FC methods agreed well and had similar precision in F-statistics. Although the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG°) of the oxidation of HA dihydroxy phenols with the test reagents were negative, the ΔG° was positive only for the reaction of CUPRAC reagent with isolated monohydric phenols, showing CUPRAC selectivity toward polyphenolic antioxidants. This is the first work on the antioxidant capacity measurement of HA having a sparingly soluble matrix where enhanced solubilization of bound phenolics is achieved with coupled oxidation by TAC reagents. PMID:27130098

  2. Neutralisation of the anti-coagulant effects of heparin by histones in blood plasma and purified systems.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, Colin; Hogwood, John; Gray, Elaine; Komorowicz, Erzsebet; Varjú, Imre; Varga, Zoltán; Kolev, Krasimir

    2016-03-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed primarily of DNA and histones are a link between infection, inflammation and coagulation. NETs promote coagulation and approaches to destabilise NETs have been explored to reduce thrombosis and treat sepsis. Heparinoids bind histones and we report quantitative studies in plasma and purified systems to better understand physiological consequences. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) was investigated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and alongside low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) in purified systems with thrombin or factor Xa (FXa) and antithrombin (AT) to measure the sensitivity of UFH or LMWH to histones. A method was developed to assess the effectiveness of DNA and non-anticoagulant heparinoids as anti-histones. Histones effectively neutralised UFH, the IC50 value for neutralisation of 0.2 IU/ml UFH was 1.8 µg/ml histones in APTT and 4.6 µg/ml against 0.6 IU/ml UFH in a purified system. Histones also inhibited the activities of LMWHs with thrombin (IC50 6.1 and 11.0 µg/ml histones, for different LMWHs) or FXa (IC50 7.8 and 7.0 µg/ml histones). Direct interactions of UFH and LMWH with DNA and histones were explored by surface plasmon resonance, while rheology studies showed complex effects of histones, UFH and LMWH on clot resilience. A conclusion from these studies is that anticoagulation by UFH and LMWH will be compromised by high affinity binding to circulating histones even in the presence of DNA. A complete understanding of the effects of histones, DNA and heparins on the haemostatic system must include an appreciation of direct effects on fibrin and clot structure. PMID:26632486

  3. Time evolution of the general characteristics and Cu retention capacity in an acid soil amended with a bentonite winery waste.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The effect of bentonite waste added to a "poor" soil on its general characteristic and copper adsorption capacity was assessed. The soil was amended with different bentonite waste concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1)) in laboratory pots, and different times of incubation of samples were tested (one day and one, four and eight months). The addition of bentonite waste increased the pH, organic matter content and phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the soil, being stable for P and K, whereas the organic matter decreased with time. Additionally, the copper sorption capacity of the soil and the energy of the Cu bonds increased with bentonite waste additions. However, the use of this type of waste in soil presented important drawbacks for waste dosages higher than 20 Mg ha(-1), such as an excessive increase of the soil pH and an increase of copper in the soil solution. PMID:25560662

  4. The risk of developing lung cancer associated with antioxidants in the blood: ascorbic acid, carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and total peroxyl radical absorbing capacity.

    PubMed

    Comstock, G W; Alberg, A J; Huang, H Y; Wu, K; Burke, A E; Hoffman, S C; Norkus, E P; Gross, M; Cutler, R G; Morris, J S; Spate, V L; Helzlsouer, K J

    1997-11-01

    Lung cancer cases diagnosed during the period 1975 through 1993 and matched controls were identified in the rosters of Washington County, Maryland residents who had donated blood for a serum bank in 1974 or 1989. Plasma from participants in the 1989 project was assayed for ascorbic acid; serum or plasma was assayed for participants in either project for alpha- and beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and peroxyl radical absorption capacity. Among the total group of 258 cases and 515 controls, serum/plasma concentrations were significantly lower among cases than controls for cryptoxanthin, beta-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin with case-control differences of -25.5, -17.1, and -10.1%, respectively. Modest nonsignificant case-control differences in a protective direction were noted for alpha-carotene and ascorbic acid. There were only trivial differences for lycopene, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and peroxyl radical absorption capacity. Findings are reported for males and females and for persons who had never smoked cigarettes, former smokers, and current smokers at baseline. These results and those from previous studies suggest that beta-carotene is a marker for some protective factor(s) against lung cancer; that cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, and ascorbic acid need to be investigated further as potentially protective factors or associates of a protective factor; and that lycopene, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and peroxyl radical absorption capacity are unlikely to be associated with lung cancer risk. Until specific preventive factors are identified, the best protection against lung cancer is still the avoidance of airborne carcinogens, especially tobacco smoke; second best is the consumption of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. PMID:9367064

  5. The risk of developing lung cancer associated with antioxidants in the blood: ascorbic acids, carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and total peroxyl radical absorbing capacity.

    PubMed

    Comstock, George W; Alberg, Anthony J; Huang, Han-Yao; Wu, Kana; Burke, Alyce E; Hoffman, Sandra C; Norkus, Edward P; Gross, Myron; Cutler, Richard G; Morris, J Steven; Spate, Vickie L; Helzlsouer, Kathy J

    2008-10-01

    Lung cancer cases diagnosed during the period 1975 through 1993 and matched controls were identified in the rosters of Washington County, Maryland residents who had donated blood for a serum bank in 1974 or 1989. Plasma from participants in the 1989 project was assayed for ascorbic acid; serum or plasma was assayed for participants in either project for alpha- and beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and peroxyl radical absorption capacity. Among the total group of 258 cases and 515 controls, serum/plasma concentrations were significantly lower among cases than controls for cryptoxanthin, beta-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin with case-control differences of -25.5, -17.1, and -10.1%, respectively. Modest nonsignificant case-control differences in a protective direction were noted for alpha-carotene and ascorbic acid. There were only trivial differences for lycopene, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and peroxyl radical absorption capacity. Findings are reported for males and females and for persons who had never smoked cigarettes, former smokers, and current smokers at baseline. These results and those from previous studies suggest that beta-carotene is a marker for some protective factor(s) against lung cancer; that cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, and ascorbic acid need to be investigated further as potentially protective factors or associates of a protective factor; and that lycopene, alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and peroxyl radical absorption capacity are unlikely to be associated with lung cancer risk. Until specific preventive factors are identified, the best protection against lung cancer is still the avoidance of airborne carcinogens, especially tobacco smoke; second best is the consumption of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. PMID:18820277

  6. Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Escriche, Isabel; Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Domenech, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity, physicochemical parameters, and the profile of flavonoids and phenolic acid compounds were evaluated for: their ability to distinguish between the botanical origins of four types of Spanish honey, the impact of industrial thermal treatment, and the effect of the year of collection. Citrus honey had the lowest levels of all the analysed variables, then rosemary and polyfloral, and honeydew the highest ones. Botanical origin affects the profile of flavonoids and phenolic compounds sufficiently to permit discrimination thanks to the predominance of particular compounds such as: hesperetin (in citrus honey); kaempferol, chrysin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid and naringenin (in rosemary honey) and myricetin, quercetin, galangin and particularly p-coumaric acid (in honeydew honey). The impact of industrial thermal treatments is lower than the expected variability as a consequence of the year of collection, though neither factor has enough influence to alter these constituent compounds to the point of affecting the discrimination of honey by botanical origin. PMID:24001823

  7. Low Temperature Heat Capacities and Standard Molar Enthalpy of Formation of 2-Pyrazinecarboxylic Acid (C5H4N2O2)(s).

    PubMed

    Kong, Yu-Xia; Di, You-Ying; Yang, Wei-Wei; Gao, Sheng-Li; Tan, Zhi-Cheng

    2010-06-01

    Low-temperature heat capacities of 2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid (C5H4N2O2)(s) were measured by a precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 78 to 400 K. A polynomial equation of heat capacities as a function of temperature was fitted by least squares method. Based on the fitted polynomial, the smoothed heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of the compound relative to the standard reference temperature 298.15 K were calculated and tabulated at 10 K intervals. The constant-volume energy of combustion of the compound at T = 298.15 K was measured by a precision rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter to be ΔcU = -(17839.40 ± 7.40) J g-1. The standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the compound was determined to be ΔcH0m = -(2211.39 ± 0.92) KJ mol-1, according to the definition of combustion enthalpy. Finally, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound was calculated to be ΔfH0m = -(327.82 ± 1.13) kJ mol-1 in accordance with Hess law. PMID:24061733

  8. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei L9, a new probiotic strain with high lactic acid-producing capacity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunyun; Li, Zhuanyu; Ren, Fazheng; Liu, Songling; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Erna; Zhang, Ming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Lu; Hou, Caiyun

    2015-12-20

    Lactobaillus paracasei L9 (CGMCC No. 9800) is a new strain with probiotic properties originating from healthy human intestine. Previous studies evidenced that the strain regulates immune modulation and contributes to the production of high amounts of lactic acid. The genome of L. paracasei L9 contains a circular 3076,437-bp chromosome, encoding 3044 CDSs, 15 rRNA genes and 59 tRNA genes. PMID:26415658

  9. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

  10. Formation of High-Capacity Protein-Adsorbing Membranes Through Simple Adsorption of Poly(acrylic acid)-Containing Films at low pH

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Somnath; Dong, Jinlan; Ma, Yiding; Hovde, Stacy; Geiger, James H; Baker, Gregory L.; Bruening, Merlin L.

    2012-01-01

    Layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte adsorption is a simple, convenient method for introducing ion-exchange sites in porous membranes. This study demonstrates that adsorption of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-containing films at pH 3 rather than pH 5 increases the protein-binding capacity of such polyelectrolyte-modified membranes 3- to 6-fold. The low adsorption pH generates a high density of –COOH groups that function as either ion-exchange sites or points for covalent immobilization of metal-ion complexes that selectively bind tagged proteins. When functionalized with nitrilotriacetate (NTA)-Ni2+ complexes, membranes containing PAA/polyethyleneimine (PEI)/PAA films bind 93 mg of histidine6-tagged (His-tagged) ubiquitin per cm3 of membrane. Additionally these membranes isolate His-tagged COP9 signalosome complex subunit 8 from cell extracts and show >90% recovery of His-tagged ubiquitin. Although modification with polyelectrolyte films occurs by simply passing polyelectrolyte solutions through the membrane for as little as 5 min, with low-pH deposition the protein binding capacities of such membranes are as high as for membranes modified with polymer brushes and 2–3 fold higher than for commercially available IMAC resins. Moreover, the buffer permeabilities of polyelectrolyte-modified membranes that bind His-tagged protein are ~30% of the corresponding permeabilities of unmodified membranes, so protein capture can occur rapidly with low pressure drops. Even at a solution linear velocity of 570 cm/h, membranes modified with PAA/PEI/PAA exhibit a lysozyme dynamic binding capacity (capacity at 10% breakthrough) of ~ 40 mg/cm3. Preliminary studies suggest that these membranes are stable under depyrogenation conditions (1 M NaOH). PMID:22468687

  11. Updated status of conductance/capacity correlation studies to determine the state-of-health of automotive and stand-by lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feder, D. O.; Hlavac, M. J.; McShane, S. J.

    1994-02-01

    For the past seven years, Midtronics has developed and manufactured battery conductance testers for determining the condition of automotive batteries. This paper presents a further refinement of the technology. Studies by automobile manufacturers, automotive battery manufacturers, as well as testing by Midtronics and an independent test laboratory have established the utility of conductance technology in evaluating the condition of automotive batteries, even at very low states-of-charge. The use of conductance to determine the state-of-health of stand-by batteries has attracted increasing worldwide interest among both battery manufacturers and users. Attention has focused first on the area of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries (VRBs) for which there are no reliable diagnostics other than a cumbersome discharge test. Several recent studies have demonstrated the validity of conductance testing as an accurate predictor of battery capacity in railroad, electric power utility, stand-by power and telecommunications applications. Other benefits includes: (1) for the first time, tests have resulted in the accumulation and publication of large quantities of actual capacity data for individual valve-regulated cells and batteries that will serve as a standard against which conductance results can be compared; (2) results of these capacity tests have shown both unusually wide-spread capacity variation and significant numbers of premature capacity failures in valve-regulated cells over a wide range of applications in telecommunications, UPS, photovoltaic and railroad signaling systems; these failures have appeared to occur without regard to specific manufacturers, design, application or use environment; (3) in addition, both users and manufacturers have generally become more knowledgeable of performance characteristics, ageing mechanisms and failure modes of valve-regulated cells, so that it is now clearly recognized that the number of serious failure modes significantly

  12. [Changes in antioxidant capacity of the guinea pig exposed to noise and the protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid against acoustic trauma].

    PubMed

    Diao, Ming-Fang; Liu, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Yan-Min; Gao, Wen-Yuan

    2003-12-25

    The study was aimed at exploring the effect of noise on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in serum, nitric oxide (NO) level in the cochlea and the protective action of alpha-lipoic acid against noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Sixty guinea pigs (350-400 g) were divided randomly into three groups (control group, noise+saline group and noise+alpha-lipoic acid group). Serum and cochlear tissue were treated immediately after noise exposure (4-kHz octave band, 115 dB SPL 5 h) to determine the level of TAC and NO, respectively. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were measured before and immediately after exposure. The threshold of hearing in the control group was relatively stable, while the hearing threshold in the noise+saline group was significantly higher than those in the noise+alpha-lipoic acid group (P<0.05). TAC level of the noise+saline group was significantly lower than that of the control group P<0.05 . TAC level of the noise+alpha-lipoic acid group was significantly higher than that of the noise+saline group P<0.05 , while there was no significant difference in the levels between the noise+alpha-lipoic acid group and the control group (P>0.05). The NO level of the cochlear tissue in the noise+saline group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). Cochlear NO level in the noise+alpha-lipoic acid group was significantly lower than that of the noise+saline group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in cochlear NO levels between the noise+alpha-lipoic acid group and the control group (P>0.05). The results obtained indicate that noise exposure causes a decrease in serum TAC and an increase in NO in cochlea. alpha-Lipoid acid exerts a protective effect against hearing loss in acoustic trauma through its antioxidant effects. PMID:14695484

  13. Effects of abdominal surgery on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and plasma anti-oxidative capacity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mudron, P; Herzog, K; Höltershinken, M; Rehage, J

    2007-10-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of surgical stress on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in dairy cows. Ten Holstein-Friesian dairy cows, mean age 5.26 years, admitted for treatment of left abomasal displacement (omentopexy), were used in our study. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein prior to surgery, immediately and then 15, 30, 60, 90 min, and 2, 5, 10, and 24 h after reposition of abomasum. Surgical stress resulted in a significant increase in plasma cortisol concentrations (P < 0.001) with the highest mean levels 15 min after surgery (32.4 +/- 18.1 microg/l) as well as in serum levels of glucose (P < 0.001) and non-esterified fatty acids (P < 0.001). Similarly, surgery transiently enhanced the plasma levels of TBARS (P < 0.001). The highest TBARS plasma levels (0.91 +/- 0.18 micromol/l) were recognized 60 min after reposition of abomasums. There were no significant differences in FRAP in dairy cows before and after reposition of abomasum. In conclusion, these data indicate that stress reaction caused by surgical correction of left displacement of abomasum can be associated with higher production of TBARS. PMID:17877587

  14. In vitro antioxidant activities, free radical scavenging capacity, and tyrosinase inhibitory of flavonoid compounds and ferulic acid from Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chung Pin; Chang, Chia Hao; Liang, Chien Cheng; Hung, Kuei Yu; Hsieh, Chang Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and other methods of extracting flavonoid compounds and ferulic acid (FA) from S. sinensis were investigated. Five different extraction methods, including water extraction (W), water extraction using UAE (W+U), 75% ethanol extraction (E), 75% ethanol extraction using UAE (E+U), and supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE) were applied in the extraction of bioactive compounds (flavonoids and ferulic acid) in order to compare their efficiency. The highest yield of flavonoids (4.28 mg/g) and ferulic acid (4.13 mg/g) content was detected in the E+U extract. Furthermore, S. sinensis extracts obtained by E+U show high antioxidant activity, and IC50 values of 0.47 mg/mL for DPPH radicals and 0.205 mg/mL for metal chelating activity. The total antioxidant assay shows superoxide radical scavenging capacity and in vitro mushroom tyrosinase inhibition in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that E+U can be used for extraction of bioactive compounds from S. sinensis. PMID:24739930

  15. Complement-Mediated Virus Infectivity Neutralisation by HLA Antibodies Is Associated with Sterilising Immunity to SIV Challenge in the Macaque Model for HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark; Hassall, Mark; Cranage, Martin; Stott, James; Almond, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Sterilising immunity is a desired outcome for vaccination against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has been observed in the macaque model using inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). This protection was attributed to antibodies specific for cell proteins including human leucocyte antigens (HLA) class I and II incorporated into virions during vaccine and challenge virus preparation. We show here, using HLA bead arrays, that vaccinated macaques protected from virus challenge had higher serum antibody reactivity compared with non-protected animals. Moreover, reactivity was shown to be directed against HLA framework determinants. Previous studies failed to correlate serum antibody mediated virus neutralisation with protection and were confounded by cytotoxic effects. Using a virus entry assay based on TZM-bl cells we now report that, in the presence of complement, serum antibody titres that neutralise virus infectivity were higher in protected animals. We propose that complement-augmented virus neutralisation is a key factor in inducing sterilising immunity and may be difficult to achieve with HIV/SIV Env-based vaccines. Understanding how to overcome the apparent block of inactivated SIV vaccines to elicit anti-envelope protein antibodies that effectively engage the complement system could enable novel anti-HIV antibody vaccines that induce potent, virolytic serological response to be developed. PMID:24551145

  16. The effects of genotype and growing conditions on antioxidant capacity, phenolic compounds, organic acid and individual sugars of strawberry.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Kazim; Ozdemir, Emine

    2014-07-15

    In this study, the genotypic and environmental effects for bioactive compounds in strawberries were partitioned. 13 strawberry genotypes from diverse breeding programs were selected. The genotypes were grown in three growing conditions: greenhouse (GH), plastic tunnel (PT) and open-field (OF) for two growing seasons. The results indicated that the genotypes were significantly different for most of the characteristics tested except the ferric reducing ability assay (FRAP) and Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC) in the second growing season, while the growing conditions were only significant for total phenolic content (TPC) and fructose and total sugar content in the first growing season. Genotype had 71% and 72% of the total variance for total monomeric anthocyanin contents (TMA), while it had only 12% and 13% of the variance for TPC in the first and second year of the experiment. Genotype effect was larger than that from the growing conditions for most of the bioactive component variables in the experiment indicated that breeding for bioactive components may be successful. PMID:24594188

  17. Formulation and characterisation of antibody-conjugated soy protein nanoparticles--implications for neutralisation of snake venom with improved efficiency.

    PubMed

    Renu, Kadali; Gopi, Kadiyala; Jayaraman, Gurunathan

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports the formulation of soy protein nanoparticles and its conjugation to antivenom. The conditions for nanoparticle formation were optimised by considering particle size, count rate, stability and zeta potential. The smallest particle size of 70.9 ± 0.9 nm with a zeta potential of -28.0 ± 1.4 mV was obtained at pH 6.2, with NaOH 5.4 % and 28 μg/mg glutaraldehyde. The nanoparticle was conjugated with antisnake venom immunoglobulins (F(ab')2 fragments) using 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide. TEM analysis indicated the increased size of particle to 600 nm after conjugation to antivenom. Further, in vitro studies indicated that conjugated antibodies inhibited the activity of protease, phospholipase and hyaluronidase enzymes of Bungarus caeruleus venom more efficiently than the free antivenom. This is the first report on the use of protein nanoparticles for conjugating snake venom antibodies and their implications for neutralising snake venom enzymes with increased efficiency. PMID:25185504

  18. Inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine delivered to rat skin via high density microprojection array elicits potent neutralising antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Muller, David A; Pearson, Frances E; Fernando, Germain J P; Agyei-Yeboah, Christiana; Owens, Nick S; Corrie, Simon R; Crichton, Michael L; Wei, Jonathan C J; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Young, Paul R; Kendall, Mark A F

    2016-01-01

    Polio eradication is progressing rapidly, and the live attenuated Sabin strains in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) are being removed sequentially, starting with type 2 in April 2016. For risk mitigation, countries are introducing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into routine vaccination programs. After April 2016, monovalent type 2 OPV will be available for type 2 outbreak control. Because the current IPV is not suitable for house-to-house vaccination campaigns (the intramuscular injections require health professionals), we developed a high-density microprojection array, the Nanopatch, delivered monovalent type 2 IPV (IPV2) vaccine to the skin. To assess the immunogenicity of the Nanopatch, we performed a dose-matched study in rats, comparing the immunogenicity of IPV2 delivered by intramuscular injection or Nanopatch immunisation. A single dose of 0.2 D-antigen units of IPV2 elicited protective levels of poliovirus antibodies in 100% of animals. However, animals receiving IPV2 by IM required at least 3 immunisations to reach the same neutralising antibody titres. This level of dose reduction (1/40th of a full dose) is unprecedented for poliovirus vaccine delivery. The ease of administration coupled with the dose reduction observed in this study points to the Nanopatch as a potential tool for facilitating inexpensive IPV for mass vaccination campaigns. PMID:26911254

  19. Synthetic antimicrobial and LPS-neutralising peptides suppress inflammatory and immune responses in skin cells and promote keratinocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Pfalzgraff, Anja; Heinbockel, Lena; Su, Qi; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Weindl, Günther

    2016-01-01

    The stagnation in the development of new antibiotics and the concomitant high increase of resistant bacteria emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Antimicrobial peptides are promising agents for the treatment of bacterial infections and recent studies indicate that Pep19-2.5, a synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) peptide (SALP), efficiently neutralises pathogenicity factors of Gram-negative (LPS) and Gram-positive (lipoprotein/-peptide, LP) bacteria and protects against sepsis. Here, we investigated the potential of Pep19-2.5 and the structurally related compound Pep19-4LF for their therapeutic application in bacterial skin infections. SALPs inhibited LP-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK and reduced cytokine release and gene expression in primary human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. In LPS-stimulated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and Langerhans-like cells, the peptides blocked IL-6 secretion, downregulated expression of maturation markers and inhibited dendritic cell migration. Both SALPs showed a low cytotoxicity in all investigated cell types. Furthermore, SALPs markedly promoted cell migration via EGFR transactivation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and accelerated artificial wound closure in keratinocytes. Peptide-induced keratinocyte migration was mediated by purinergic receptors and metalloproteases. In contrast, SALPs did not affect proliferation of keratinocytes. Conclusively, our data suggest a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with acute and chronic skin infections. PMID:27509895

  20. Synthetic antimicrobial and LPS-neutralising peptides suppress inflammatory and immune responses in skin cells and promote keratinocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Pfalzgraff, Anja; Heinbockel, Lena; Su, Qi; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Weindl, Günther

    2016-01-01

    The stagnation in the development of new antibiotics and the concomitant high increase of resistant bacteria emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Antimicrobial peptides are promising agents for the treatment of bacterial infections and recent studies indicate that Pep19-2.5, a synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) peptide (SALP), efficiently neutralises pathogenicity factors of Gram-negative (LPS) and Gram-positive (lipoprotein/-peptide, LP) bacteria and protects against sepsis. Here, we investigated the potential of Pep19-2.5 and the structurally related compound Pep19-4LF for their therapeutic application in bacterial skin infections. SALPs inhibited LP-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK and reduced cytokine release and gene expression in primary human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. In LPS-stimulated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and Langerhans-like cells, the peptides blocked IL-6 secretion, downregulated expression of maturation markers and inhibited dendritic cell migration. Both SALPs showed a low cytotoxicity in all investigated cell types. Furthermore, SALPs markedly promoted cell migration via EGFR transactivation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and accelerated artificial wound closure in keratinocytes. Peptide-induced keratinocyte migration was mediated by purinergic receptors and metalloproteases. In contrast, SALPs did not affect proliferation of keratinocytes. Conclusively, our data suggest a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with acute and chronic skin infections. PMID:27509895

  1. Inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine delivered to rat skin via high density microprojection array elicits potent neutralising antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    Muller, David A.; Pearson, Frances E.; Fernando, Germain J.P.; Agyei-Yeboah, Christiana; Owens, Nick S.; Corrie, Simon R.; Crichton, Michael L.; Wei, Jonathan C.J.; Weldon, William C.; Oberste, M. Steven; Young, Paul R.; Kendall, Mark A. F.

    2016-01-01

    Polio eradication is progressing rapidly, and the live attenuated Sabin strains in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) are being removed sequentially, starting with type 2 in April 2016. For risk mitigation, countries are introducing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into routine vaccination programs. After April 2016, monovalent type 2 OPV will be available for type 2 outbreak control. Because the current IPV is not suitable for house-to-house vaccination campaigns (the intramuscular injections require health professionals), we developed a high-density microprojection array, the Nanopatch, delivered monovalent type 2 IPV (IPV2) vaccine to the skin. To assess the immunogenicity of the Nanopatch, we performed a dose-matched study in rats, comparing the immunogenicity of IPV2 delivered by intramuscular injection or Nanopatch immunisation. A single dose of 0.2 D-antigen units of IPV2 elicited protective levels of poliovirus antibodies in 100% of animals. However, animals receiving IPV2 by IM required at least 3 immunisations to reach the same neutralising antibody titres. This level of dose reduction (1/40th of a full dose) is unprecedented for poliovirus vaccine delivery. The ease of administration coupled with the dose reduction observed in this study points to the Nanopatch as a potential tool for facilitating inexpensive IPV for mass vaccination campaigns. PMID:26911254

  2. Enzymatic synthesis, structural characterization and antioxidant capacity assessment of a new lipophilic malvidin-3-glucoside-oleic acid conjugate.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Luis; Fernandes, Iva; Guimarães, Marta; de Freitas, Victor; Mateus, Nuno

    2016-06-15

    The chemical modification of anthocyanins (water-soluble pigments) into more lipophilic compounds is very important to expand their application in the food, medical and cosmetic industries. In this work, the synthesis of a pure malvidin-3-glucoside-oleic acid ester derivative was achieved by enzymatic catalysis. This approach allowed us to synthesize a novel compound, malvidin-3-O-(6''-oleoyl)glucoside (Mv3glc-OA), which was structurally characterized by mass spectrometry and for the first time by NMR spectroscopy. The enzymatic reaction revealed to be regioselective giving only one ester product. Antioxidant features of the malvidin-3-glucoside lipophilic derivative by means of DPPH, FRAP and lipid peroxidation assays were assessed, which confirmed that the structural modification of the genuine malvidin-3-glucoside into a more lipophilic compound did not compromise its antioxidant potential and protected more effectively a lipidic substrate from oxidation, which is an important insight for future technological applications. PMID:27220831

  3. Cell cytotoxicity and serum albumin binding capacity of the morin-Cu(ii) complex and its effect on deoxyribonucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Roy, Atanu Singha; Samanta, Sintu Kumar; Ghosh, Pooja; Tripathy, Debi Ranjan; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Dasgupta, Swagata

    2016-08-16

    The dietary components, flavonoids, are important for their anti-oxidant properties and the ability to act as metal ion chelators. The characterization of the morin-Cu(ii) complex is executed using elemental analysis, FTIR and mass spectroscopy. DNA cleaving and cell cytotoxicity properties followed by serum albumin binding have been investigated in this report. The morin-Cu(ii) complex was found to cleave plasmid pBR322 DNA via an oxidative pathway as revealed by agarose gel based assay performed in the presence of some scavengers and reactive oxygen species. The breaking of the deoxyribose ring of calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was also confirmed by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reacting species (TBARS) between thiobarbituric acid and malonaldehyde. The morin-Cu(ii) complex is able to inhibit the growth of human HeLa cells. Fluorescence studies revealed that the morin-Cu(ii) complex can quench the intrinsic fluorescence of serum albumins (SAs) via a static quenching method. The binding constants were found to be in the order of 10(5) M(-1) and observed to increase with temperature. Both ΔH° and ΔS° are positive for the binding of the morin-Cu(ii) complex with serum albumins which indicated the presence of hydrophobic forces. Site-selectivity studies reveal that the morin-Cu(ii) complex binds to both site 1 (subdomain IIA) and site 2 (subdomain IIIA) of human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Circular dichroism (CD) studies showed the structural perturbation of SAs during binding with the morin-Cu(ii) complex. The results from binding studies confirmed that after complexation with the Cu(ii) ion, morin alters its mode of interaction with SAs which could have differential implications on its other biological and pharmaceutical properties. PMID:27345944

  4. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P < 0.05) higher survival, higher activities of TAS, GSH-Px and CAT, as well as higher transcript levels of GPx and CAT gene in shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. PMID:25600509

  5. ESI-MS investigation of solvent effects on the chiral recognition capacity of tartar emetic towards neutral side-chain amino acids.

    PubMed

    Wijeratne, Aruna B; Yang, Samuel H; Gracia, Jose; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A

    2011-01-01

    The effect of solvent systems on previously-reported ESI-MS based proton-assisted enantioselective molecular recognition phenomena of tartar emetic, L-antimony(III)-tartrate, was evaluated. This was achieved by carrying out a series of competitive binding experiments using chiral selectors, bis(sodium) D- and -L-antimony(III)-tartrates with chiral selectands, neutral side-chain amino acid enantiomeric isotopomers of alanine (Ala), valine (Val), leucine (Leu) and phenylalanine (Phe), in three different solvent systems, ACN/H(2)O (75/25 v/v), H(2)O (100%) and H(2)O/MeOH (25/75 v/v). Observations from these experiments suggest that the effect of solvent systems on previously reported proton-assisted chiral recognition capacity of D,L-antimony(III)-tartrates is small, but not negligible. It was observed that an ACN/H(2)O (75/25 v/v) solvent system facilitates and enhances the chiral discrimination capacity of protonated {[D,L-Sb(2)-tar(2)][H]}(-) ionic species. Further, amino acid enantiomers showed a general trend of increasing selectivity order, Val ≤ Ala < Leu ≈ Phe towards the protonated {[D,L-Sb(2)-tar(2)][H]}(-) ionic species which was independent of the solvent system employed. The lack of enantioselective binding for {[D,L-Sb(2)-tar(2)]}(2-) ionic species was consistently recorded in respective mass spectra from all performed experiments, which suggests that ESI-friendly solvent systems have no effect and do not influence this phenomenon. PMID:21125685

  6. Glycated albumin with loss of fatty acid binding capacity contributes to enhanced arachidonate oxygenation and platelet hyperactivity: relevance in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Blache, Denis; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Salloignon, Pauline; Lucchi, Géraldine; Ducoroy, Patrick; Petit, Jean-Michel; Verges, Bruno; Lagrost, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    High plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), transported bound to serum albumin, are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The effects of albumin on platelet function were investigated in vitro. Modifications of albumin, such as those due to glycoxidation, were found in patients with T2D, and the consequences of these modifications on biological mechanisms related to NEFA handling were investigated. Mass spectrometry profiles of albumin from patients with T2D differed from those from healthy control subjects. Diabetic albumin showed impaired NEFA binding capacity, and both structural and functional alterations could be reproduced in vitro by incubating native albumin with glucose and methylglyoxal. Platelets incubated with albumin isolated from patients with T2D aggregated approximately twice as much as platelets incubated with albumin isolated from healthy control subjects. Accordingly, platelets incubated with modified albumin produced significantly higher amounts of arachidonate metabolites than did platelets incubated with control albumin. We concluded that higher amounts of free arachidonate are made available for the generation of active metabolites in platelets when the NEFA binding capacity of albumin is blunted by glycoxidation. This newly described mechanism, in addition to hypoalbuminemia, may contribute to platelet hyperactivity and increased thrombosis, known to occur in patients with T2D. PMID:25157094

  7. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Ferulic Acid or Vitamin E Individually or in Combination on Meat Quality and Antioxidant Capacity of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. J.; Li, L. Y.; Li, J. L.; Zhang, L.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (VE), ferulic acid (FA) and their combination supplementation on meat quality and antioxidant capacities of finishing pigs. Sixty barrows were randomly allocated to four experimental diets using a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 2 VE supplemental levels (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 FA supplemental levels (0 or 100 mg/kg) in basal diets. After 28 days, six pigs per treatment were slaughtered. The results showed that VE supplementation increased loin eye area of pigs (p<0.05) and FA supplementation increased pH45min value (p<0.05). The interaction of FA×VE was observed in shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Moreover, supplementation with VE decreased hepatic and sarcous malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and sarcous glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (p<0.05). Additionally, supplementation with FA increased hepatic GSH-Px activity and decreased sarcous MDA content (p<0.05). However, dietary treatment did not affect the expression of genes related to nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) pathway. These results suggest that dietary FA and VE could partially improve meat quality and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs, but not by activating NFE2L2 pathway under the normal conditions of farming. PMID:25656211

  8. Cobalt carbonate dumbbells for high-capacity lithium storage: A slight doping of ascorbic acid and an enhancement in electrochemical performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shiqiang; Wei, Shanshan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuxi; Yu, Yue; Shen, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis of materials with desirable nanostructures is a hot research topic owing to their enhanced performances in contrast to the bulk counterparts. Herein, dumbbell-shaped cobalt carbonate (CoCO3) nano architectures and the bulk counterpart of CoCO3 rhombohedra are prepared via a facile hydrothermal route in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA), respectively. By comparison, it has been found that: the addition of AA in the hydrothermal crystallization system changes the shape of the building blocks from Co2CO3(OH)2 nanosheets to CoCO3 nanoparticles, and then further influences the final configuration of the products. When applied as anodes of lithium ion batteries, CoCO3 dumbbells deliver a 100th capacity of 1042 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 and even exhibit a long-term value of 824 mAh g-1 over 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1, which are much higher than the rhombohedral counterparts with corresponding 540 and 481 mAh g-1 respectively. The much higher capacity, better cycling stability and enhanced rate performance of CoCO3 dumbbells can be attributed to the higher specific surface area, smaller charge transport resistance and better structure stability resulting from the slight doping (∼4.6 wt%) of AA, and also relate with a novel lithium storage mechanism in CoCO3.

  9. Nrf2-Mediated HO-1 Induction Coupled with the ERK Signaling Pathway Contributes to Indirect Antioxidant Capacity of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the contributing effect of the nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated signaling pathway on the indirect antioxidant capacity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) against oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The result of an antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase assay showed that CAPE stimulated ARE promoter activity resulting in increased transcriptional and translational activities of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In addition, CAPE treatment enhanced Nrf2 accumulation in the nucleus and the post-translational phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) among several protein kinases tested. Treatment with ERK inhibitor U126 completely suppressed CAPE-induced ERK phosphorylation and HO-1 expression, but it only partly inhibited CAPE-induced Nrf2 accumulation and ARE promoter. Using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) method, the cellular antioxidant capacity of CAPE against 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)- or H2O2-induced oxidative stress also was shown to be partially suppressed by the ERK inhibitor. From the overall results it is proposed that the indirect antioxidant activity of CAPE against oxidative stress in HepG2 cells is partially attributed to induction of HO-1, which is regulated by Kelch-like erythroid-cell-derived protein with CNC homology (ECH)-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-independent Nrf2 activation relying on post-translational phosphorylation of ERK. PMID:25007817

  10. Self-assembly and β-carotene loading capacity of hydroxyethyl cellulose-graft-linoleic acid nanomicelles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Guo, Yanzhu; Sun, Runcang; Wang, Xiaohui

    2016-07-10

    A series of linoleic acid conjugated hydroxyethyl cellulose polymers (HEC-g-LA) were synthesized and characterized. And their solubilities in a variety of solvents were compared. The prepared HEC-g-LA polymers showed typical properties of amphiphilic polymers and were able to self-assemble into spherical nanomicelles in aqueous solution. The micelle sizes and critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were found correlated with the molecular structure of polymers, and were varied in the range of 20-50nm and 1.92-21.76μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrophobic active component β-carotene (β-C) was successfully encapsulated into the HEC-g-LA micelles by sonication-dialysis method. The β-C encapsulation efficiency and loading content were found to be as high as 84.67% (w/w) and 4.23%. The results of in vitro release showed that the encapsulated β-C was continuously released from the micelles in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) medium for about 7days. The self-assembled HEC-g-LA nanomicelles are potential nanocarriers of hydrophobic active compounds for functional food applications. PMID:27106151

  11. Carnosic acid protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by potentiating Nrf2-mediated antioxidant capacity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qi; Shen, Zhiyang; Yu, Hongxia; Lu, Gaofeng; Yu, Yong; Liu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure. The study aimed to investigate the protective effect of carnosic acid (CA) on APAP-induced acute hepatotoxicity and its underlying mechanism in mice. To induce hepatotoxicity, APAP solution (400 mg/kg) was administered into mice by intraperitoneal injection. Histological analysis revealed that CA treatment significantly ameliorated APAP-induced hepatic necrosis. The levels of both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum were reduced by CA treatment. Moreover, CA treatment significantly inhibited APAP-induced hepatocytes necrosis and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) releasing. Western blot analysis showed that CA abrogated APAP-induced cleaved caspase-3, Bax and phosphorylated JNK protein expression. Further results showed that CA treatment markedly inhibited APAP-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1 mRNA expression and the levels of phosphorylated IκBα and p65 protein in the liver. In addition, CA treatment reduced APAP- induced hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Conversely, hepatic glutathione (GSH) level was increased by administration of CA in APAP-treated mice. Mechanistically, CA facilitated Nrf2 translocation into nuclear through blocking the interaction between Nrf2 and Keap1, which, in turn, upregulated anti-oxidant genes mRNA expression. Taken together, our results indicate that CA facilitates Nrf2 nuclear translocation, causing induction of Nrf2-dependent genes, which contributes to protection from acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. PMID:26807019

  12. PGC-1α Coordinates Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity and Muscular Fatty Acid Uptake via Regulation of VEGF-B.

    PubMed

    Mehlem, Annika; Palombo, Isolde; Wang, Xun; Hagberg, Carolina E; Eriksson, Ulf; Falkevall, Annelie

    2016-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) B belongs to the VEGF family, but in contrast to VEGF-A, VEGF-B does not regulate blood vessel growth. Instead, VEGF-B controls endothelial fatty acid (FA) uptake and was identified as a target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The regulatory mechanisms controlling Vegfb expression have remained unidentified. We show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) together with estrogen-related receptor α (ERR-α) regulates expression of Vegfb Mice overexpressing PGC-1α under the muscle creatine kinase promoter (MPGC-1αTG mice) displayed increased Vegfb expression, and this was accompanied by increased muscular lipid accumulation. Ablation of Vegfb in MPGC-1αTG mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) normalized glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. We suggest that VEGF-B is the missing link between PGC-1α overexpression and the development of the diabetes-like phenotype in HFD-fed MPGC-1αTG mice. The findings identify Vegfb as a novel gene regulated by the PGC-1α/ERR-α signaling pathway. Furthermore, the study highlights the role of PGC-1α as a master metabolic sensor that by regulating the expression levels of Vegfa and Vegfb coordinates blood vessel growth and FA uptake with mitochondrial FA oxidation. PMID:26822083

  13. Dietary Supplementation of Benzoic Acid and Essential Oil Compounds Affects Buffering Capacity of the Feeds, Performance of Turkey Poults and Their Antioxidant Status, pH in the Digestive Tract, Intestinal Microbiota and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Giannenas, I.; Papaneophytou, C. P.; Tsalie, E.; Pappas, I.; Triantafillou, E.; Tontis, D.; Kontopidis, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a basal diet with benzoic acid or thymol or a mixture of essential oil blends (MEO) or a combination of benzoic acid with MEO (BMEO) on growth performance of turkey poults. Control groups were fed a basal diet. In trial 1, benzoic acid was supplied at levels of 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. In trial 2, thymol or the MEO were supplied at levels of 30 mg/kg. In trial 3, the combination of benzoic acid with MEO was evaluated. Benzoic acid, MEO and BMEO improved performance, increased lactic acid bacteria populations and decreased coliform bacteria in the caeca. Thymol, MEO and BMEO improved antioxidant status of turkeys. Benzoic acid and BMEO reduced the buffering capacity compared to control feed and the pH values of the caecal content. Benzoic acid and EOs may be suggested as an effective alternative to AGP in turkeys. PMID:25049947

  14. UV erythema reducing capacity of mizolastine compared to acetylsalicylic acid or both combined in comparison to indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, J U; Böckelmann, R; Bonnekoh, B; Gollnick, H P

    2001-10-01

    UV light exerts hazardous effects such as induction of skin cancer and premature skin aging. In this study we evaluated an assumptive anti-inflammatory effect of the nonsedative histamine H1-receptor antagonist, mizolastine, on UV-induced acute sunburn reaction. Therefore, a clinical, randomized, double-blind, four-arm, crossover study was conducted in healthy young female volunteers (skin type II) comparing the UV sensitivity under mizolastine, acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA), indomethacin or a mizolastine/ASA combination. Moreover, HaCaT keratinocytes were incubated with mizolastine under various UV treatment modalities in vitro to study its effect on the release of inflammatory cytokines, i.e. interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). All three drugs were effective in suppressing the UVB-, UVA- and combined UVA/UVB-erythema. However, the strongest effects were observed using the combined treatment with both 250 mg ASA and 10 mg mizolastine. An inhibitory effect in vitro of 10 nM mizolastine upon UV-induced cytokine release from HaCaT keratinocytes was observed for IL-1 alpha at 24 h after 10 J/cm2 UVA1, for IL-6 at 48 h after 10 J/cm2 UVA1 and 30 mJ/cm2 UVB, and also for TNF-alpha at 4 h after 10 J/cm2 UVA, 10 J/cm2 UVA1 and 30 mJ/cm2 UVB, respectively. The combination of mizolastine and ASA can be strongly recommended as a protective measure against UV erythema development with a lower unwanted side effect profile than that of the hitherto treatment modality, i.e. indomethacin. PMID:11683039

  15. Dinuclear copper(II) octaazamacrocyclic complex in a PVC coated GCE and graphite as a voltammetric sensor for determination of gallic acid and antioxidant capacity of wine samples.

    PubMed

    Petković, B B; Stanković, D; Milčić, M; Sovilj, S P; Manojlović, D

    2015-01-01

    A novel efficient differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method for determination gallic acid (GA) was developed by using an electrochemical sensor based on [Cu2tpmc](ClO4)4 immobilized in PVC matrix and coated on graphite (CGE) or classy carbon rod (CGCE). The proposed method is based on the gallic acid oxidation process at formed [Cu2tpmcGA](3+) complex at the electrode surface. The complexation was explored by molecular modeling and DFT calculations. Voltammograms for both sensors, recorded in a HNO3 as a supporting electrolyte at pH 2 and measured in 2.5×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-4) M of GA, resulted with two linear calibration curves (for higher and lower GA concentration range). The detection limit at CGE was 1.48×10(-7) M, while at CGCE was 4.6×10(-6) M. CGE was successfully applied for the determination of the antioxidant capacity based on GA equivalents for white, rosé and red wine samples. PMID:25476338

  16. Interpretation of concentration-discharge patterns in acid-neutralizing capacity during storm flow in three small, forested catchments in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, K.C.; Chanat, J.G.; Hornberger, G.M.; Webb, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Episodic concentration-discharge (c-Q) plots are a popular tool for interpreting the hydrochemical response of small, forested catchments. Application of the method involves assuming an underlying conceptual model of runoff processes and comparing observed c-Q looping patterns with those predicted by the model. We analyzed and interpreted c-Q plots of acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) for 133 storms collected over a 7-year period from three catchments in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Because of their underlying lithologies the catchments represent a gradient in both hydrologic and geochemical behavior, ranging from a flashy, acidic, poorly buffered catchment to a moderate, neutral, well-buffered catchment. The relative frequency of observed anticlockwise c-Q loops in each catchment decreased along this gradient. Discriminant function analysis indicated that prestorm base flow ANC was an important predictor of loop rotation direction; however, the strength of the predictive relationship decreased along the same gradient. The trends were consistent with several equally plausible three-component mixing models. Uncertainty regarding end-member timing and relative volume and possible time variation in end-member concentrations were key factors precluding identification of a unique model. The inconclusive results obtained on this large data set suggest that identification of underlying runoff mechanisms on the basis of a small number of c-Q plots without additional supporting evidence is likely to be misleading.

  17. Acidity control in the North Branch Potomac

    SciTech Connect

    Sheer, D.P.; Harris, D.C.

    1982-11-01

    The North Branch of the Potomac River is polluted by acid drainage from abandoned coal mines. Recent studies have shown an improvement in water quality since the construction of a large dam near Bloomington, MD; the reservoir formed by the dam intercepts and dilutes slugs of acid. In addition, secondary treatment of pulp and paper industry waste waters at Westernport, MD, results in the production of bicarbonate which also helps to neutralise the acid. The authors propose a method for determining the optimal operation of the reservoir to control acidity.

  18. Isoflavones, Flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, total phenolic profiles, and antioxidant capacities of soy milk as affected by ultrahigh-temperature and traditional processing methods.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2009-06-10

    The objectives of this work were to assess antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds of soy milk as affected by traditional and ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) processing. Three soybean varieties were processed into raw soy milk and then cooked soy milk by indirect and direct UHT methods (both at 143 degrees C for 60 s) and traditional cooking (stove cooking and steam injection) methods (both at 100 degrees C for 20 min). Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), phenolic acids, isoflavones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins were quantified. DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were analyzed. As compared to the raw soy milk, all thermal processing significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TPC values and significantly (p < 0.05) increased TFC values for all soybean varieties. All processing methods significantly (p < 0.05) increased DPPH and FRAP values in the soy milk processed from yellow soybean varieties Proto and IA 2032. UHT processing increased their ORAC values, but traditional and steam processing reduced their ORAC values. However, in the case of the soy milk from black soybean, all processing reduced ORAC values as compared to the raw soy milk. None of processing affected total phenolic acids, chlorogenic, and trans-cinnamic acid, as well as (+)-catechin. However, all processing significantly (p < 0.05) affected contents of total isoflavones and individual isoflavones. Thermal processing caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in 7-O-beta-glucosides and acetylglucosides, but caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in malonylglucosides and aglycones. Indirect UHT processing transformed more isoflavones from malonylglucosides into 7-O-beta-glucosides than the direct UHT did. PMID:19425575

  19. Changes in mitochondrial oxidative capacities during thermal acclimation of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: roles of membrane proteins, phospholipids and their fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Kraffe, Edouard; Marty, Yanic; Guderley, Helga

    2007-01-01

    diacylphosphatidylethanolamine/diacylphosphatidylcholine (diacylPE/diacylPC), whereas warm acclimation led to restructuring of fatty acids (FA) and to increases of plasmalogen forms of PE and PC. Modification of overall membrane unsaturation did not appear to be the primary aim of restructuring membrane FA during warm acclimation, as total mitochondrial phospholipids and the major phospholipid classes only showed slight shifts of their acyl composition with warm acclimation. On the other hand, natural lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) showed dramatic changes in FA content, as 16:0 and 18:1n-9 doubled whereas 22:6n-3 decreased from around 50% to 32% in warm acclimated trout. Similarly, in cardiolipin (CL), the levels of 16:0 and 18:1n-7 halved while 18:2n-6 increased to over 20% of the FA with warm acclimation. Given the central role of CL in modulating the activity of CCO, F(0)F(1)-ATPase and ANT, these changes suggest that specific compositional changes in CL are important modulators of mitochondrial capacities. The many structural changes in membrane lipids contrast with the limited modifications of the membrane protein components examined and support the concept of lipid structure modulating mitochondrial capacities. PMID:17170158

  20. Effect of β-hydroxybutyric acid, parity, and body condition score on phenotype and proliferative capacity of colostral mononuclear leukocytes of high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Meganck, V; Goddeeris, B M; De Campeneere, S; Hostens, M; Van Eetvelde, M; Piepers, S; Cox, E; Opsomer, G

    2015-10-01

    In neonatal calves, the ingestion of colostrum is imperative for preventing infectious diseases. Investigations into the transfer of passive immunity of cattle have primarily focused on the importance of colostral immunoglobulins, with a recent increase in focus on understanding the role of colostral leukocytes. The main objective of the present study was to measure the influence of parity, body condition score, serum nonesterified fatty acids, and serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations of periparturient cows on phenotype and mitogen- and antigen-induced proliferative capacity of bovine colostral leukocytes. Holstein-Friesian cows (n=141) were intramuscularly vaccinated at 60 and 30 d before the expected parturition date with a tetanus toxoid vaccine. Of these 141 animals, 28 primiparous and 72 multiparous cows were sampled immediately after parturition. Colostrum mononuclear cell populations were identified by flow cytometry using bovine cluster of differentiation markers, and the proliferative capacity of these cells was determined using a (3)H-thymidine proliferation assay. Under-conditioned cows had a significantly higher percentage of colostral macrophages than normal-conditioned animals, whereas over-conditioned cows had significantly more colostral B-lymphocytes. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate was significantly associated with higher numbers of colostral T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Heifers had significantly higher mitogen- and antigen-induced proliferation of their colostral leukocytes than third parity or older cows. In conclusion, body condition score, parity, and serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of periparturient high-yielding dairy cows were shown to influence the number of colostral macrophages or the mitogen- and antigen-induced proliferation of colostral leukocytes, possibly influencing the cellular immunity of the newborn calf. PMID:26233460

  1. Acid neutralizing capacity and leachate results for igneous rocks, with associated carbon contents of derived soils, Animas River AML site, Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Stanton, Mark R.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Burchell, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Mine planning efforts have historically overlooked the possible acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) that local igneous rocks can provide to help neutralize acidmine drainage. As a result, limestone has been traditionally hauled to mine sites for use in neutralizing acid drainage. Local igneous rocks, when used as part of mine life-cycle planning and acid mitigation strategy, may reduce the need to transport limestone to mine sites because these rocks can contain acid neutralizing minerals. Igneous hydrothermal events often introduce moderately altered mineral assemblages peripheral to more intensely altered rocks that host metal-bearing veins and ore bodies. These less altered rocks can contain ANC minerals (calcite-chlorite-epidote) and are referred to as a propylitic assemblage. In addition, the carbon contents of soils in areas of new mining or those areas undergoing restoration have been historically unknown. Soil organic carbon is an important constituent to characterize as a soil recovery benchmark that can be referred to during mine cycle planning and restoration.
    This study addresses the mineralogy, ANC, and leachate chemistry of propylitic volcanic rocks that host polymetallic mineralization in the Animas River watershed near the historical Silverton, Colorado, mining area. Acid titration tests on volcanic rocks containing calcite (2 – 20 wt %) and chlorite (6 – 25 wt %), have ANC ranging from 4 – 146 kg/ton CaCO3 equivalence. Results from a 6-month duration, kinetic reaction vessel test containing layered pyritic mine waste and underlying ANC volcanic rock (saturated with deionized water) indicate that acid generating mine waste (pH 2.4) has not overwhelmed the ANC of propylitic volcanic rocks (pH 5.8). Sequential leachate laboratory experiments evaluated the concentration of metals liberated during leaching. Leachate concentrations of Cu-Zn-As-Pb for ANC volcanic rock are one-to-three orders of magnitude lower when compared to leached

  2. l-Glutathione enhances antioxidant capacity of hyaluronic acid and modulates expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai-Chiang; Wu, Chang-Chin; Chen, Wei-Yu; Sumi, Shoichiro; Huang, Teng-Le

    2016-08-01

    Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) has been widely accepted for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) in early stage. l-Glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant, has an anti-inflammatory effect on protecting cells from reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). In this study, the therapeutic effects of HA (0.1%) supplemented with GSH (0, 5, 10, and 20% in weight ratios to HA) on human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) were evaluated. The results showed that cell morphology and glycosaminoglycan production of FLSs were not changed under treatments. However, the addition of HA + 20% GSH significantly decreased cell survival (p < 0.001) relative to other groups. Relative to un-stimulated FLSs, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) stimulation significantly decreased the total antioxidant capacity (p < 0.001) of cells. The antioxidant capacity was restored and the intracellular ROS/RNS was decreased in HA or HA + GSH-treated FLSs. Real-time PCR analysis revealed the mRNA levels of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 were down-regulated significantly (all p < 0.05) when FLSs cultured in HA or HA + GSH. IL-6 mRNA expressions were down-regulated significantly in HA and HA + 5% GSH groups (both p < 0.05) but up-regulated when HA supplemented with 10% and 20% GSH (both p < 0.01). In addition, the protein levels of IL-1β were further decreased with significant differences (both p < 0.05) in the HA + 10% GSH and HA + 20% GSH groups when compared to FLSs cultured in normal medium. In conclusion, HA supplemented with GSH improves antioxidant capacity and modulates pro-inflammatory cytokines expressions in FLSs. GSH has the potential to augment the effect of viscosupplementation using HA on OA patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2071-2079, 2016. PMID:27027581

  3. Heterologous protection elicited by candidate monomeric recombinant HIV-1 gp120 vaccine in the absence of cross neutralising antibodies in a macaque model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current data suggest that an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine should elicit both adaptive humoral and cell mediated immune responses. Such a vaccine will also need to protect against infection from a range of heterologous viral variants. Here we have developed a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) based model in cynomolgus macaques to investigate the breadth of protection conferred by HIV-1W61D recombinant gp120 vaccination against SHIVsbg and SHIVSF33 challenge, and to identify correlates of protection. Results High titres of anti-envelope antibodies were detected in all vaccinees. The antibodies reacted with both the homologous HIV-1W61D and heterologous HIV-1IIIB envelope rgp120 which has an identical sequence to the SHIVsbg challenge virus. Significant titres of virus neutralising antibodies were detected against SHIVW61D expressing an envelope homologous with the vaccine, but only limited cross neutralisation against SHIVsbg, SHIV-4 and SHIVSF33 was observed. Protection against SHIVsbg infection was observed in vaccinated animals but none was observed against SHIVSF33 challenge. Transfer of immune sera from vaccinated macaques to naive recipients did not confer protection against SHIVsbg challenge. In a follow-up study, T cell proliferative responses detected after immunisation with the same vaccine against a single peptide present in the second conserved region 2 of HIV-1 W61D and HIV-1 IIIB gp120, but not SF33 gp120. Conclusions Following extended vaccination with a HIV-1 rgp120 vaccine, protection was observed against heterologous virus challenge with SHIVsbg, but not SHIVSF33. Protection did not correlate with serological responses generated by vaccination, but might be associated with T cell proliferative responses against an epitope in the second constant region of HIV-1 gp120. Broader protection may be obtained with recombinant HIV-1 envelope based vaccines formulated with adjuvants that generate

  4. Manipulating Adenovirus Hexon Hypervariable Loops Dictates Immune Neutralisation and Coagulation Factor X-dependent Cell Interaction In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiangtao; Duffy, Margaret R.; Deng, Lin; Dakin, Rachel S.; Uil, Taco; Custers, Jerome; Kelly, Sharon M.; McVey, John H.; Nicklin, Stuart A.; Baker, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are common pathogens, mostly targeting ocular, gastrointestinal and respiratory cells, but in some cases infection disseminates, presenting in severe clinical outcomes. Upon dissemination and contact with blood, coagulation factor X (FX) interacts directly with the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) hexon. FX can act as a bridge to bind heparan sulphate proteoglycans, leading to substantial Ad5 hepatocyte uptake. FX “coating” also protects the virus from host IgM and complement-mediated neutralisation. However, the contribution of FX in determining Ad liver transduction whilst simultaneously shielding the virus from immune attack remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the FX protection mechanism is not conserved amongst Ad types, and identify the hexon hypervariable regions (HVR) of Ad5 as the capsid proteins targeted by this host defense pathway. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we manipulate Ad5 HVR interactions to interrogate the interplay between viral cell transduction and immune neutralisation. We show that FX and inhibitory serum components can co-compete and virus neutralisation is influenced by both the location and extent of modifications to the Ad5 HVRs. We engineered Ad5-derived HVRs into the rare, native non FX-binding Ad26 to create Ad26.HVR5C. This enabled the virus to interact with FX at high affinity, as quantified by surface plasmon resonance, FX-mediated cell binding and transduction assays. Concomitantly, Ad26.HVR5C was also sensitised to immune attack in the absence of FX, a direct consequence of the engineered HVRs from Ad5. In both immune competent and deficient animals, Ad26.HVR5C hepatic gene transfer was mediated by FX following intravenous delivery. This study gives mechanistic insight into the pivotal role of the Ad5 HVRs in conferring sensitivity to virus neutralisation by IgM and classical complement-mediated attack. Furthermore, through this gain-of-function approach we demonstrate the dual

  5. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe₂O₃/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Zheng, Delun; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Zhan, Fengping; Yuan, Xiaoning; Gao, Fei; Wang, Qingxiang

    2015-12-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe2O3 (fFe2O3), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS-fFe2O3-ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS-fFe2O3-ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS-fFe2O3-ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0×10(-6)M to 1.0×10(-4)M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5×10(-7)M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines. PMID:26354265

  6. The influence of ispaghula husk and lactulose on the in vivo and the in vitro production capacity of short-chain fatty acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, H S; Holtug, K; Andersen, J R; Krag, E; Mortensen, P B

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate factors influencing the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in stools, three different experiments were performed: faecal concentrations of SCFA at defecation were determined by gas liquid chromatography in nine healthy volunteers on a free diet. SCFAs were 114 +/- 15.0 mmol/l (means +/- SD). The coefficient of variation (CV) of the assay was 4-15%, the intraindividual CV 12-33%, and the interindividual CV 11-29%. On incubation of faeces at 37 degrees C concentrations of SCFA doubled in 6 h and rose fourfold in 72 h. In three volunteers the experiments were extended by adding ispaghula husk or lactulose to the diet for two 14-day periods each; no change in faecal SCFA concentrations was seen, either at defecation or after incubation. When ispaghula husk or lactulose was added to faeces in an in vitro incubation system, the concentrations of SCFA were five times higher than those of controls. We conclude that instant handling of faeces is essential for determinations of SCFA concentrations to obtain interpretable and comparable results; that determination of total SCFA output is of limited value; that addition of fibre to the diet does not influence faecal SCFA concentrations; and that the capacity for SCFA production in faeces is large provided a sufficient amount of substrate is available. PMID:3037683

  7. High Photosynthetic Capacity in a Shade-Tolerant Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant (Implications for Sunfleck Use, Nonphotochemical Energy Dissipation, and Susceptibility to Photoinhibition).

    PubMed Central

    Skillman, J. B.; Winter, K.

    1997-01-01

    Aechmea magdalenae Andre ex Baker, a constitutive Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant from the shaded Panamanian rain forest understory, has a maximum photosynthesis rate 2 to 3 times that of co-occurring C3 species and a limited potential for photosynthetic acclimation to high light. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated that (a) compared with co-occurring C3 species, photosynthetic electron transport in A. magdalenae responded more rapidly to light flecks of moderate intensity, attained a higher steady-state rate, and maintained a lower reduction state of plastoquinone during light flecks; (b) these characteristics were associated with phase III CO2 fixation of CAM; (c) when grown in full sun, A. magdalenae was chronically photoinhibited despite a remarkably high nonphotochemical quenching capacity, indicating a large potential for photoprotection; and (d) the degree of photoinhibition was inversely proportional to the length of phase III. Results from the light fleck studies suggest that understory A. magdalenae plants can make more efficient use of sun flecks for leaf carbon gain over most of the day than co-occurring C3 species. The association between the duration of phase III and the degree of photoinhibition for A. magdalenae in high light is discussed in relation to the limited photosynthetic plasticity in this species. PMID:12223618

  8. High Photosynthetic Capacity in a Shade-Tolerant Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant (Implications for Sunfleck Use, Nonphotochemical Energy Dissipation, and Susceptibility to Photoinhibition).

    PubMed

    Skillman, J. B.; Winter, K.

    1997-02-01

    Aechmea magdalenae Andre ex Baker, a constitutive Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant from the shaded Panamanian rain forest understory, has a maximum photosynthesis rate 2 to 3 times that of co-occurring C3 species and a limited potential for photosynthetic acclimation to high light. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated that (a) compared with co-occurring C3 species, photosynthetic electron transport in A. magdalenae responded more rapidly to light flecks of moderate intensity, attained a higher steady-state rate, and maintained a lower reduction state of plastoquinone during light flecks; (b) these characteristics were associated with phase III CO2 fixation of CAM; (c) when grown in full sun, A. magdalenae was chronically photoinhibited despite a remarkably high nonphotochemical quenching capacity, indicating a large potential for photoprotection; and (d) the degree of photoinhibition was inversely proportional to the length of phase III. Results from the light fleck studies suggest that understory A. magdalenae plants can make more efficient use of sun flecks for leaf carbon gain over most of the day than co-occurring C3 species. The association between the duration of phase III and the degree of photoinhibition for A. magdalenae in high light is discussed in relation to the limited photosynthetic plasticity in this species. PMID:12223618

  9. Development of myoglobin concentration and acid buffering capacity in harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals from birth to maturity.

    PubMed

    Lestyk, Keri C; Folkow, L P; Blix, A S; Hammill, M O; Burns, J M

    2009-11-01

    Pinnipeds rely on muscle oxygen stores to help support aerobic diving, therefore muscle maturation may influence the behavioral ecology of young pinnipeds. To investigate the pattern of muscle development, myoglobin concentration ([Mb]) and acid buffering ability (beta) was measured in ten muscles from 23 harp and 40 hooded seals of various ages. Adult [Mb] ranged from 28-97 to 35-104 mg g tissue(-1) in harp and hooded seals, respectively, with values increasing from the cervical, non-swimming muscles to the main swimming muscles of the lumbar region. Neonatal and weaned pup muscles exhibited lower (approximately 30% adult values) and less variable [Mb] across the body than adults. In contrast, adult beta showed little regional variation (60-90 slykes), while high pup values (approximately 75% adult values) indicate significant in utero development. These findings suggest that intra-uterine conditions are sufficiently hypoxic to stimulate prenatal beta development, but that [Mb] development requires additional postnatal signal such as exercise, and/or growth factors. However, because of limited development in both beta and [Mb] during the nursing period, pups are weaned with muscles with lower aerobic and anaerobic capacities than those of adults. PMID:19565249

  10. Matching phosphate and maleate buffer systems for dissolution of weak acids: Equivalence in terms of buffer capacity of bulk solution or surface pH?

    PubMed

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2016-06-01

    The development of in vitro dissolution tests able to anticipate the in vivo fate of drug products has challenged pharmaceutical scientists over time, especially in the case of ionizable compounds. In the seminal model proposed by Mooney et al. thirty-five years ago, the pH at the solid-liquid interface (pH0) was identified as a key parameter in predicting dissolution rate. In the current work it is demonstrated that the in vitro dissolution of the weak acid ibuprofen in maleate and phosphate buffer systems is a function of the pH0, which in turn is affected by properties of the drug and the medium. The reported pH0 for ibuprofen dissolution in bicarbonate buffer, the predominant buffer species in the human small intestine under fasting conditions, can be achieved by reducing the phosphate buffer concentration to 5.0mM or the maleate buffer concentration to 2.2mM. Using this approach to identify the appropriate buffer/buffer capacity combination for in vitro experiments in FaSSIF-type media, it would be possible to increase the physiological relevance of this important biopharmaceutics tool. However, the necessity of monitoring and adjusting the bulk pH during the experiments carried out in 5.0mM phosphate or 2.2mM maleate buffers must also be taken into consideration. PMID:27032508

  11. Wittig reaction (with ethylidene triphenylphosphorane) of oxo-hydroxy derivatives of 5β-cholanic acid: Hydrophobicity, haemolytic potential and capacity of derived ethylidene derivatives for solubilisation of cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Poša, Mihalj; Bjedov, Srđan; Sebenji, Ana; Sakač, Marija

    2014-08-01

    Bile acid salts are biosurfactants which form mixed micelles with phospholipids in vertebrates. These mixed micelles are suitable for solubilisation of cholesterol. For therapeutic purposes some bile acid salts as sodium ursocholate are used. However, bile acid anions possess low capacity for solubilisation of cholesterol. Thus, synthesis of more hydrophobic and less membranotoxic bile acid derivatives is of the great interest. In this paper Wittig reaction between ethylidene triphenylphosphorane and different bile acids oxo derivatives is examined. Wittig reaction of bile acids has not been studied much. C12 oxo group is inert in this reaction. If Wittig reaction happens on C7 oxo group stereospecifically E ethylidene stereoisomer is obtained, while the same reaction on C3 oxo group leads to more reactive not sterospecific product. In this paper stereochemical course of investigated Wittig reactions is thoroughly analysed. Hydrophobicity of derived products is determined over the temperature (T) dependence on retention coefficients (k) in reversed phase high resolution chromatography. Using method of principle components on k=f(T) matrix it is found that values of first principle components best describe hydrophobicity of analysed bile acids, while the second principal component is responsible for their hydrophilicity. By in silico molecular descriptors: valence connectivity index of order 3 (X3v) and packing density index (PDI), linear regression equations are obtained that can be used to predict hydrophobicity (over retention coefficient) of bile acids that belong to set of more congeneric groups. Membranotoxicity is determined by haemolytic potential. Monoethylidene derivatives of bile acids (in the form of anions) have lower membranotoxicity than deoxycholic acids anion. Sodium salt of deoxycholic acid 7-ethylidene derivative has 11% greater capacity for solubilisation of cholesterol monohydrate than sodium salt of deoxycholic acid. PMID:24819990

  12. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context

    PubMed Central

    Zambonino Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Dubillot, Emmanuel; Le Delliou, Hervé; Quazuguel, Patrick; Lefrançois, Christel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM) combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C). The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C). At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20) exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities. PMID:26030666

  13. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This listing of fertilizer producers and their production capacities was compiled in February 1993 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. TVA does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of the information. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Information is given on the following types of fertilizers: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, potash, nitric acid, superphosphoric acid, upgraded phosphoric acids, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  14. Charlie-Neutralising Negativism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willings, David; Greenwood, Bill

    1993-01-01

    This article considers the destructive effects of cynicism on creativity in gifted and talented students. It describes the use of a fictional character who responds to everything positive with an excessively cynical remark, to demonstrate to students the value of a more positive attitude. (DB)

  15. Acid Hydrolysis of Wheat Gluten Induces Formation of New Epitopes but Does Not Enhance Sensitizing Capacity by the Oral Route: A Study in “Gluten Free” Brown Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Andersen, Nanna B.; Rasmussen, Tina F.; Madsen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acid hydrolyzed wheat proteins (HWPs) are used in the food and cosmetic industry as emulsifiers. Cases of severe food allergic reactions caused by HWPs have been reported. Recent data suggest that these reactions are caused by HWPs produced by acid hydrolysis. Objectives To examine the sensitizing capacity of gluten proteins per se when altered by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis relative to unmodified gluten in rats naïve to gluten. Methods High IgE-responder Brown Norway (BN) rats bred on a gluten-free diet were sensitized without the use of adjuvant to three different gluten products (unmodified, acid hydrolyzed and enzymatic hydrolyzed). Rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization three times with 200 µg gluten protein/rat or by oral dosing for 35 days with 0.2, 2 or 20 mg gluten protein/rat/day. Sera were analyzed for specific IgG and IgE and IgG-binding capacity by ELISA. IgE functionality was measured by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) assay. Results Regardless of the route of dosing, all products had sensitizing capacity. When sensitized i.p., all three gluten products induced a strong IgG1 response in all animals. Acid hydrolyzed gluten induced the highest level of specific IgE but with a low functionality. Orally all three gluten products induced specific IgG1 and IgE but with different dose-response relations. Sensitizing rats i.p. or orally with unmodified or enzymatic hydrolyzed gluten induced specific IgG1 responses with similar binding capacity which was different from that of acid hydrolyzed gluten indicating that acid hydrolysis of gluten proteins induces formation of ‘new’ epitopes. Conclusions In rats not tolerant to gluten acid hydrolysis of gluten enhances the sensitizing capacity by the i.p. but not by the oral route. In addition, acid hydrolysis induces formation of new epitopes. This is in contrast to the enzymatic hydrolyzed gluten having an epitope pattern similar to unmodified gluten. PMID:25207551

  16. Label-Free LC-MS Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Reveals Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Candidate Biomarker of Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Malik, Zulezwan Ab; Cobley, James N; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L; Edwards, Ben J; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Burniston, Jatin G

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) affords deep mining of the muscle proteome, but differential analysis between samples is challenging due to the greater level of fractionation and the complexities of quantifying proteins based on the abundances of their tryptic peptides. Here we report simple, semi-automated and time efficient (i.e., 3 h per sample) proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n = 5, in each group) bred as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that exhibited a 6.4-fold difference (1,625 ± 112 m vs. 252 ± 43 m, p < 0.0001) in running capacity during a standardized treadmill test. Soluble muscle proteins were extracted, digested with trypsin and individual biological replicates (50 ng of tryptic peptides) subjected to LC-MS profiling. Proteins were identified by triplicate LC-MS/MS analysis of a pooled sample of each biological replicate. Differential expression profiling was performed on relative abundances (RA) of parent ions, which spanned three orders of magnitude. In total, 207 proteins were analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin heavy chain (RA = 5,843 ± 897) and the least abundant protein detected was heat shock 70 kDa protein (RA = 2 ± 0.5). Sixteen proteins were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant in HCR muscle and hierarchal clustering of the profiling data highlighted two protein subgroups, which encompassed proteins associated with either the respiratory chain or fatty acid oxidation. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (FABPH) was 1.54-fold (p

  17. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in January 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Numerical data for the production of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphates is included.

  18. Adiabatic versus diabatic approach to multichannel Coulomb scattering for mutual neutralisation reaction H+ +H- → H2∗ →H (1) +H (n)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, M. V.; Yakovlev, S. L.; Yarevsky, E. A.; Elander, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated that the split-potential driven Schrödinger approach to two-body Coulomb multichannel quantum scattering in a diabatic framework presented by us in a previous paper (Volkov et al., 2011) also can be formulated within an adiabatic framework. The new formulation of the theory is numerically realised using finite element discrete variable representation. The method is applied to a realistic model of the fundamental mutual neutralisation reaction H+ +H- → H2∗ →H (1) +H (n) described in terms of the seven lowest 1 Σg+ electronic states of the H2 molecule. The obtained cross sections are in good agreement with other methods applied to the same model.

  19. Cross‐neutralisation of antibodies elicited by an inactivated split‐virion influenza A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1) vaccine in healthy adults against H5N1 clade 2 strains

    PubMed Central

    Höschler, Katja; Gopal, Robin; Andrews, Nick; Saville, Melanie; Pepin, Stephanie; Wood, John; Zambon, Maria C.

    2008-01-01

    Background  Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses are widespread in different parts of the world and have evolved into clade 1 and 2 lineages. Their continuing circulation represents serious pandemic threat, spurring human vaccine development efforts. Initial clinical trials tested vaccines prepared from clade 1 strains circulating in 2004. Methods  Post‐vaccination sera from a phase I trial of an inactivated split‐virion vaccine based on A/Vietnam/1194/2004/NIBRG14 (H5N1) were analysed in vitro for cross‐reactivity against highly pathogenic, wild‐type clade 2 H5N1 strains isolated from human cases, and their corresponding reverse genetics derived vaccine candidate strains. Results  Neutralisation of clade 1 and 2 wild‐type and reverse‐genetics viruses was seen, with highest titres observed for viruses most closely related to the vaccine strain. There was no consistent relationship between vaccine dose given, or presence of aluminium adjuvant and cross‐neutralising antibody titre, possibly because of small sample size. Use of wild‐type highly pathogenic strains compared with antigenically equivalent reverse‐genetics viruses suggests presence of a higher level of cross‐neutralising antibody. Conclusion  Vaccination with a clade 1 H5N1 virus elicited antibodies capable of neutralising diverse clade 2 H5N1 strains. This data underlines that while a close match between vaccine virus and circulating virus is important to achieve maximum protection, population priming with a ‘pre‐pandemic’ vaccine may be beneficial for the protection of a naïve population. The data suggests that use of reverse‐genetic viruses in neutralisation assays may underestimate the extent of cross‐protective antibody present following H5N1 vaccination. PMID:19453427

  20. Acid deposition, land-use change and global change: MAGIC 7 model applied to Aber, UK (NITREX project) and Risdalsheia, Norway (RAIN and CLIMEX projects)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. F.; Emmett, B. A.; Jenkins, A.

    Nitrogen processes are now included in a new version of MAGIC (version 7), a process-oriented catchment-scale model for simulating runoff chemistry. Net retention of nitrogen (N) is assumed to be controlled by plant uptake and the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio of soil organic matter, the latter as evidenced by empirical data from forest stands in Europe. The ability of this version of MAGIC 7 to simulate and predict inorganic N concentrations in runoff is evaluated by means of data from whole-ecosystem manipulation experiments at Aber, Wales, UK, (nitrogen addition as part of the NITREX project) and Risdalsheia, Norway (exclusion of acid deposition as part of the RAIN project and climate change as part of the CLIMEX project). MAGIC 7 simulated the changes in N leaching satisfactorily as well as changes in base cations and acid neutralising capacity observed at these two sites. MAGIC 7 offers a potential tool for regional assessments and scenario studies of the combined effects of acid deposition, land-use and climate change.

  1. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  2. DNA-LCEB: a high-capacity and mutation-resistant DNA data-hiding approach by employing encryption, error correcting codes, and hybrid twofold and fourfold codon-based strategy for synonymous substitution in amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Ibbad; Khan, Asifullah; Qadir, Abdul

    2014-11-01

    Data-hiding in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences can be used to develop an organic memory and to track parent genes in an offspring as well as in genetically modified organism. However, the main concerns regarding data-hiding in DNA sequences are the survival of organism and successful extraction of watermark from DNA. This implies that the organism should live and reproduce without any functional disorder even in the presence of the embedded data. Consequently, performing synonymous substitution in amino acids for watermarking becomes a primary option. In this regard, a hybrid watermark embedding strategy that employs synonymous substitution in both twofold and fourfold codons of amino acids is proposed. This work thus presents a high-capacity and mutation-resistant watermarking technique, DNA-LCEB, for hiding secret information in DNA of living organisms. By employing the different types of synonymous codons of amino acids, the data storage capacity has been significantly increased. It is further observed that the proposed DNA-LCEB employing a combination of synonymous substitution, lossless compression, encryption, and Bose-Chaudary-Hocquenghem coding is secure and performs better in terms of both capacity and robustness compared to existing DNA data-hiding schemes. The proposed DNA-LCEB is tested against different mutations, including silent, miss-sense, and non-sense mutations, and provides substantial improvement in terms of mutation detection/correction rate and bits per nucleotide. A web application for DNA-LCEB is available at http://111.68.99.218/DNA-LCEB. PMID:25195035

  3. Characterization of 2-(methylamino)alkanoic acid capacity to restrict blood–brain phenylalanine transport in Pahenu2 mice: Preliminary findings✩

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Kara R.; Arning, Erland; Wasek, Brandi L.; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Gibson, K. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Our laboratory seeks a pharmacotherapeutic intervention for PKU that utilizes non-physiological amino acids (NPAAs) to block the accumulation of phenylalanine (Phe) in the brain. In previous studies (Vogel et al. 2013), methylation of the amino group of 2-aminoisobutyrate (AIB) provided an enhanced degree of selectivity for Phe restriction into the brain of Pahenu2 mice in comparison to unmethylated AIB, leading to the hypothesis that 2-(methylamino)alkanoic acid analogs of AIB might represent targeted inhibitors of Phe accretion into the brain. Methods Pahenu2 and control mice were intraperitoneally administered (500–750 mg/kg body weight, once daily; standard 19% protein diet) AIB, methyl AIB (MAIB), isovaline, and two MAIB analogs, 2-methyl-2-(methylamino)butanoic (MeVal) and 3-methyl-2-(methylamino)pentanoic (MePent) acids for one week, followed by brain and blood isolation for amino acid analyses using UPLC. Results In the brain, AIB significantly reduced Phe accretion in Pahenu2 mice, while MeVal significantly improved glutamine and aspartic acids. Four of five test compounds improved brain threonine and arginine levels. AIB, MAIB and IsoVal significantly reduced blood Phe, with no effect of any drug intervention on other sera amino acids. Conclusions Further evaluation of AIB and the 2-(methylamino)alkanoic acids as inhibitors of brain Phe accumulation in Pahenu2 mice is warranted, with more detailed evaluations of route of administration, combinatorial intervention, and detailed toxicity studies. PMID:23999161

  4. Pharmacokinetics of triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) in the beagle dog and rhesus monkey: perspective on the reduced capacity of dogs to excrete this organic acid relative to the rat, monkey, and human.

    PubMed

    Timchalk, C; Nolan, R J

    1997-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) were measured in the beagle dog and rhesus monkey and compared with the kinetics observed in rats and humans. In addition, studies were conducted in anesthetized dogs to better understand the mechanism by which [14C]triclopyr is eliminated in this species. Triclopyr was dissolved in distilled water, and administered as a single oral dose of 0.5, 5, or 20 mg/kg to three male dogs. A single male rhesus monkey was given an intravenous dose of 30 mg [14C]triclopyr/kg body wt on two occasions separated by 10 days. Anesthetized male dogs, were implanted with venous, arterial, and urethral catheters and given increasing amounts of triclopyr to produce plasma triclopyr levels ranging from 0.3 to 27 microg eq/mL. In the monkey, triclopyr was rapidly eliminated from the plasma (t1/2 = 6.3 hr) with >95% of the urinary 14C activity excreted within 24 hr postdosing. In the dog, orally administered triclopyr was rapidly and effectively absorbed at every dose level with virtually all of it excreted in the urine by 72 hr postdosing. However, the kinetics were slightly nonlinear, and the fraction of the dose excreted in the urine decreased with increasing dose. Several nonlinear processes may collectively contribute to the modest nonlinear pharmacokinetics in the dog. Plasma protein binding of triclopyr in the dog ranged from 94 to 99%, was nonlinear, and was an important determinant in the renal clearance of triclopyr. The nonlinear plasma protein binding indicates that glomerular filtration became disproportionately more important as plasma triclopyr concentration increased. There was good evidence for a high-affinity low-capacity active-secretory process that was saturated by low plasma triclopyr concentrations. As plasma triclopyr concentrations increased, tubular reabsorption begins to exceed secretion, resulting in decreased renal clearance. The volume of distribution, normalized for body weight

  5. Cannabinoid-free Cannabis sativa L. grown in the Po valley: evaluation of fatty acid profile, antioxidant capacity and metabolic content.

    PubMed

    Lesma, G; Consonni, R; Gambaro, V; Remuzzi, C; Roda, G; Silvani, A; Vece, V; Visconti, G L

    2014-01-01

    Within a project aimed to reintroduce non-drug hemp cultivars in the Italian Po valley, for fibre but also high added-value nutraceutical production, investigation on locally grown plants has been performed, in order to assess their oil and metabolic content. This study provides useful information regarding three different hemp cultivars, from two sites, in view of their potential industrial application. The oil was characterised by a high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and by an almost perfect balance of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, as requested for healthy foods. The alcoholic extracts, for which a high content of amino acids and phenolic compounds has been highlighted, could provide dietary supplements to help in preventing oxidative stress. By investigating the Carmagnola cultivar, six known and four new lignanamides have been identified, confirming and assessing the general metabolic pattern in the seeds of these locally grown plants. PMID:24934168

  6. Evaluation of sampling methods for measuring exposure to volatile inorganic acids in workplace air. Part 2: Sampling capacity and breakthrough tests for sodium carbonate-impregnated filters.

    PubMed

    Demange, Martine; Oury, Véronique; Rousset, Davy

    2011-11-01

    In France, the MétroPol 009 method used to measure workplace exposure to inorganic acids, such as HF, HCl, and HNO3, consists of a closed-face cassette fitted with a prefilter to collect particles, and two sodium carbonate-impregnated filters to collect acid vapor. This method was compared with other European methods during the development of a three-part standard (ISO 21438) on the determination of inorganic acids in workplace air by ion chromatography. Results of this work, presented in a companion paper, led to a need to go deeper into the performance of the MétroPol 009 method regarding evaluation of the breakthrough of the acids, both alone and in mixtures, interference from particulate salts, the amount of sodium carbonate required to impregnate the sampling filter, the influence of sampler components, and so on. Results enabled improvements to be made to the sampling device with respect to the required amount of sodium carbonate to sample high HCl or HNO3 concentrations (500 μL of 5% Na2CO3 on each of two impregnated filters). In addition, a PVC-A filter used as a prefilter in a sampling device showed a propensity to retain HNO3 vapor so a PTFE filter was considered more suitable for use as a prefilter. Neither the material of the sampling cassette (polystyrene or polypropylene) nor the sampling flowrate (1 L/min or 2 L/min) influenced the performance of the sampling device, as a recovery of about 100% was achieved in all experiments for HNO3, HCl, and HF, as well as HNO3+HF and HNO3+HCl mixtures, over a wide range of concentrations. However, this work points to the possibility of interference between an acid and salts of other acids. For instance, interference can occur through interaction of HNO3 with chloride salts: the stronger the acid, the greater the interference. Methods based on impregnated filters are reliable for quantitative recovery of inorganic volatile acids in workplace atmosphere but are valuable only in the absence of interferents. PMID

  7. Vegetable fiber fermentation by human fecal bacteria: cell wall polysaccharide disappearance and short-chain fatty acid production during in vitro fermentation and water-holding capacity of unfermented residues.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, L D; Titgemeyer, E C; Fahey, G C

    1993-05-01

    Dietary fiber from eight vegetables (broccoli, carrot, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, lettuce, onion and radish) was analyzed for chemical composition and potential in vitro fermentation by human fecal bacteria. Total dietary fiber concentration of substrates ranged from 34.9 (broccoli) to 5.8 (cucumber) g/kg edible matter. Substrate fiber fractions were composed primarily of pectic substances and cellulose with smaller concentrations of hemicelluloses and lignin. Total dietary fiber residues isolated from substrates were fermented in vitro for 24 h with fecal bacteria obtained from each of three human volunteers. Substrate dry matter disappearance during fermentation was highest for carrot (63.7%) and lowest for cucumber (49.4%). Averaged across all substrates, disappearances of arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose and uronic acids during fermentation were 96, 90, 54, 68, 51 and 97%, respectively. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production during substrate fermentation averaged 10.5 mmol SCFA/g dry matter fermented. Averaged across all substrates, production of the major SCFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate, occurred in the molar ratio 76:14:10. Potential water-holding capacity of substrates was not influenced by fiber source and averaged 2.04 g H2O/g original substrate dry matter. Extent of substrate fermentation, SCFA production and substrate potential water-holding capacity were significantly different among inoculum donors, indicating that considerable inter-individual variation exists in the potential in vivo fermentation of vegetable fiber. PMID:8387579

  8. Is alpha-lipoic acid a scavenger of reactive oxygen species in vivo? Evidence for its initiation of stress signaling pathways that promote endogenous antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Petersen Shay, Kate; Moreau, Régis F; Smith, Eric J; Hagen, Tory M

    2008-06-01

    The chemical reduction and oxidation (redox) properties of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) suggest that it may have potent antioxidant potential. A significant number of studies now show that LA and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), directly scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) species and protect cells against a host of insults where oxidative stress is part of the underlying etiology. However, owing to its limited and transient accumulation in tissues following oral intake, the efficacy of nonprotein-bound LA to function as a physiological antioxidant has been questioned. Herein, we review the evidence that the micronutrient functions of LA may be more as an effector of important cellular stress response pathways that ultimately influence endogenous cellular antioxidant levels and reduce proinflammatory mechanisms. This would promote a sustained improvement in cellular resistance to pathologies where oxidative stress is involved, which would not be forthcoming if LA solely acted as a transient ROS scavenger. PMID:18409172

  9. Impacts of low-molecular-weight organic acids on aquatic behavior of graphene nanoplatelets and their induced algal toxicity and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuang; Gao, Yucheng; Wang, Se; Fang, Hao; Xu, Defu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the interaction between graphene-based materials and low-molecular-weight organic acids (LOAs) is essential to understand fate and effects of graphene-based materials in the aquatic environment, but this interaction remains poorly elucidated. In this study, the effects of LOAs on the physicochemical properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in an aqueous medium and on the GNP toxicity to algae were studied. The unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to GNP suspensions in the presence of benzoic acid or gallic acid at various concentrations. The GNPs had smaller hydrodynamic sizes and the GNP suspensions were more stable and had higher or lower surface zeta potentials in the presence of LOAs than when LOAs were not present. The toxic effects in S. obliquus cultures incubated with GNP suspensions containing LOAs were related to the LOA concentration, and the presence of LOAs caused three effects: stimulation, alleviation, and synergistic inhibition. The intensities of the effects mainly correlated with the LOA concentration, the extent of agglomeration, and particle-induced oxidative stress. The results indicate that the environmental fates and toxicities of GNPs are strongly affected by the binding of GNPs to LOAs. PMID:26898932

  10. A linked spatial and temporal model of the chemical and biological status of a large, acid-sensitive river network.

    PubMed

    Evans, Chris D; Cooper, David M; Juggins, Steve; Jenkins, Alan; Norris, Dave

    2006-07-15

    Freshwater sensitivity to acidification varies according to geology, soils and land-use, and consequently it remains difficult to quantify the current extent of acidification, or its biological impacts, based on limited spot samples. The problem is particularly acute for river systems, where the transition from acid to circum-neutral conditions can occur within short distances. This paper links an established point-based long-term acidification model (MAGIC) with a landscape-based mixing model (PEARLS) to simulate spatial and temporal variations in acidification for a 256 km(2) catchment in North Wales. Empirical relationships are used to predict changes in the probability of occurrence of an indicator invertebrate species, Baetis rhodani, across the catchment as a function of changing chemical status. Results suggest that, at present, 27% of the river network has a mean acid neutralising capacity (ANC) below a biologically-relevant threshold of 20 microeq l(-1). At high flows, this proportion increases to 45%. The model suggests that only around 16% of the stream network had a mean ANC < 20 microeq l(-1) in 1850, but that this increased to 42% at the sulphur deposition peak around 1970. By 2050 recovery is predicted, but with some persistence of acid conditions in the most sensitive, peaty headwaters. Stream chemical suitability for Baetis rhodani is also expected to increase in formerly acidified areas, but for overall abundance to remain below that simulated in 1850. The approach of linking plot-scale process-based models to catchment mixing models provides a potential means of predicting the past and future spatial extent of acidification within large, heterogeneous river networks and regions. Further development of ecological response models to include other chemical predictor variables and the effects of acid episodes would allow more realistic simulation of the temporal and spatial dynamics of ecosystem recovery from acidification. PMID:16580046

  11. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2 knockdown leads to decreased fatty acid oxidation in fat body and reduced reproductive capacity in the insect Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Klett, Eric L; De Paula, Iron F; Ramos, Isabela B; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gondim, Katia C

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA esters are important intermediates in lipid metabolism and are synthesized from fatty acids by long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL). The hematophagous insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, produces glycerolipids in the midgut after a blood meal, which are stored as triacylglycerol in the fat body and eggs. We identified twenty acyl-CoA synthetase genes in R. prolixus, two encoding ACSL isoforms (RhoprAcsl1 and RhoprAcsl2). RhoprAcsl1 transcripts increased in posterior midgut on the second day after feeding, and RhoprAcsl2 was highly transcribed on the tenth day. Both enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant RhoprACSL1 and RhoprACSL2 had broad pH optima (7.5-9.5 and 6.5-9.5, respectively), were inhibited by triacsin C, and were rosiglitazone-insensitive. Both showed similar apparent Km for palmitic and oleic acid (2-6 μM), but different Km for arachidonic acid (0.5 and 6 μM for RhoprACSL1-Flag and RhoprACSL2-Flag, respectively). The knockdown of RhoprAcsl1 did not result in noticeable phenotypes. However, RhoprACSL2 deficient insects exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in triacylglycerol content in the fat body, and 90% decrease in fatty acid β-oxidation. RhoprAcsl2 knockdown also resulted in 20% increase in lifespan, delayed digestion, 30% reduced oviposition, and 50% reduction in egg hatching. Laid eggs and hatched nymphs showed remarkable alterations in morphology. In summary, R. prolixus ACSL isoforms have distinct roles on lipid metabolism. Although RhoprACSL1 functions remain unclear, we propose that RhoprACSL2 is the main contributor for the formation of the intracellular acyl-CoA pool channeled for β-oxidation in the fat body, and is also required for normal reproduction. PMID:27091636

  12. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

  13. 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural and derivatives formed during acid hydrolysis of conjugated and bound phenolics in plant foods and the effects on phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peter X; Tang, Yao; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Marcone, Massimo F; Li, Xihong; Tsao, Rong

    2014-05-21

    A common protocol for the extraction of phenolic aglycons or bound phenolics in plants generally involves hydrothermal hydrolysis in an aqueous methanol or ethanol solution containing 2-4 N HCl. However, as shown in the present study, this process also forms 5-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde (HMF) and its derivative products 5-(methoxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde (MMF) and 5-(ethoxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde (EMF), as identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and NMR. These compounds are commonly misidentified as phenolics due to similar UV absorption at 280 nm. In this study, production of HMF, MMF, and EMF was shown to be dependent on the solvent condition and duration and temperature of hydrolysis. Fruits and vegetables produced HMF more readily than grains. HMF and its derivatives were subjected to various spectrophotometric antioxidant assays [2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC)] and displayed antioxidant activity mainly in the ORAC assay. Results of this study help avoid overestimation of phenolic content and antioxidant activities of plant foods. PMID:24796380

  14. Knockdown of a putative alanine aminotransferase gene affects amino acid content and flight capacity in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Wan, Pin-Jun; Fu, Kai-Yun; Lü, Feng-Gong; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-07-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) plays important physiological and biochemical roles in insect. In this study, a full-length Ldalt cDNA was cloned from Leptinotarsa decemlineata. It was ubiquitously expressed in the eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. In the adults, Ldalt mRNA was widely distributed in thorax muscles, fat body, midgut, foregut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, ventral ganglion and epidermis, with the expression levels from the highest to the lowest. Two double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) (dsLdalt1 and dsLdalt2) targeting Ldalt were constructed and bacterially expressed. After adults fed on dsLdalt1- and dsLdalt2-immersed foliage for 3 day, Ldalt mRNA abundance was significantly decreased by 79.5 and 71.1 %, and ALT activities were significantly reduced by 64.5 and 67.6 %, respectively. Moreover, silencing Ldalt affected free amino acid contents. Lysine was decreased by 100.0 and 100.0 %, and arginine was reduced by 87.5 and 89.4 %, respectively, in the hemolymph from dsLdalt1- and dsLdalt2-ingested beetles, compared with control ones. In contrast, proline was increased by 88.7 and 96.4 %. Furthermore, ingestion of dsLdalt1 and dsLdalt2 significantly decreased flight speed, shortened flight duration time and flight distance. In addition, knocking down Ldalt significantly increased adult mortality. These data imply that LdALT plays important roles in amino acid metabolism and in flight in L. decemlineata. PMID:25868655

  15. Correlation between ELISA and pseudovirion-based neutralisation assay for detecting antibodies against human papillomavirus acquired by natural infection or by vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Lin, Zhi-Jie; Huang, Shou-Jie; Li, Juan; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Guo, Meng; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao; Pan, Hui-Rong; Wu, Ting; Li, Chang-Gui

    2014-01-01

    A pseudovirion-based neutralisation assay (PBNA) has been considered the gold standard for measuring specific antibody responses against human papillomavirus (HPV). However, this assay is labor intensive and therefore very difficult to implement in large-scale studies. Previous studies have evaluated the agreement between virus-like particle (VLP)-based ELISA and PBNA for measuring HPV vaccine-induced antibodies. However, the concordance of these assays to detect antibodies induced by natural infection has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, the results of an Escherichia coli (E. coli)-expressed VLP-based ELISA were found to be highly concordant with those of a baculovirus-expressed VLP-based ELISA (r = 0.96 and 0.97 for HPV-16 and HPV-18) when detecing HPV vaccine induced antibodies and the concordance was medium (r = 0.68 and 0.68 for HPV-16 and HPV-18) when assessing natural infection induced antibodies. The results of the E. coli expressed VLP-based ELISA correlated well with those of the PBNA when testing 1020 post-vaccination human sera collected at one month after vaccination with the E. coli expressed VLP-based bivalent HPV vaccine (r = 0.83 and 0.81 for HPV-16 and HPV-18). The agreement and correlation were moderate (kappa < 0.3 for both HPV types 16 and 18, r = 0.59 and 0.68 for HPV-16 and HPV-18, respectively) when assessing 1600 serum samples from unvaccinated women of age 18–25 years. In conclusion, the VLP-based ELISA is an acceptable surrogate for the neutralizing antibody assay in measuring vaccine responses. However, the use of the VLP-based ELISA in epidemiological studies should be carefully considered. PMID:24384608

  16. Simultaneous amperometric detection of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in orange, blueberry and kiwi juice, by a telemetric system coupled with a fullerene- or nanotubes-modified ascorbate subtractive biosensor.

    PubMed

    Barberis, Antonio; Spissu, Ylenia; Fadda, Angela; Azara, Emanuela; Bazzu, Gianfranco; Marceddu, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Sanna, Daniele; Schirra, Mario; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2015-05-15

    Four fullerenes- or nanotubes-modified graphite sensor-biosensor systems (SBs), coupled with a dual-channel telemetric device, based on an ascorbate oxidase (AOx) biosensor, were developed for on line simultaneous amperometric detection of ascorbic acid (AA) and antioxidant capacity in blueberry, kiwi and orange juice. Fullerene C60 (FC60), fullerene C70 (FC70), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCN) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCN) increased the sensitivity of graphite toward AA and phenols 1.2, 1.5, 5.1 and 5.1 times respectively. Fullerenes combined with AOx improved the selectivity toward AA more than nanotubes, being able to hold a higher number of AOx molecules on the biosensor surface. The SBs work at an applied potential of +500 mV, in a concentration range between the LOD and 20 μM, with a response time of two minutes. The LOD is 0.10, 0.13, 0.20 and 0.22 μM for SBs modified with FC60, FC70, SWCN and MWCN respectively. Biosensors register lower AA currents than the sensors due to the enzyme capability to oxidize AA before it reaches the transductor surface. Phenols currents registered by sensors and biosensors did not differ. Based on the difference between sensor and biosensor recorded currents a AA selectivity index was developed as an indicator of specificity toward AA and of the capacity to distinguish between AA and phenols contribution to the antioxidant capacity. This value is almost zero for fullerene-modified SBs, 0.13 and 0.22 for SWCN- and MWCN-modified SBs respectively. The results of juices analysis performed with SBs were in accordance with reference methods. PMID:25155059

  17. The relationship between hypertension and plasma allantoin, uric acid, xanthine oxidase activity and nitrite, and their predictive capacity in severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Elmas, Oguz; Elmas, Onur; Aliciguzel, Yakup; Simsek, Tayyup

    2016-01-01

    It is controversial that uric acid (UA) levels are related to the severity of hypertension in preeclampsia (PE). Our aim in this study was to determine whether UA, xanthine oxidase activity (XOA), allantoin and nitrite levels are related to arterial blood pressure (BP) in PE. We formed a control group (n = 20) and a PE group (n = 20) for the study. Their BPs and plasma UA, XOA, allantoin and nitrite levels were measured. The values from the control and PE pregnant women were assessed via a Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. A Pearson correlation test was also performed. In addition, the diagnostic value of these tests was evaluated via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The BP, UA, XOA and allantoin levels in the PE patients were found to be higher when compared with those of the pregnant controls. The UA, XOA and allantoin levels showed high correlations with BP in cases of PE. However, there was no superiority among the correlations. No differences were observed between the groups in terms of nitrite levels and the relationship between nitrite and BP. UA, XOA and allantoin levels may be high due to placental cell death because of abnormal trophoblastic activity observed in PE. Moreover, the reactive oxygen products that are created during the genetic material degradation may explain how UA, XOA and allantoin levels are related to BP. According to ROC analysis, UA, XOA and allantoin assays are reliable predictors for the determination of PE. PMID:26366935

  18. Capacity Building of MAGDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, K.

    2011-12-01

    Under the framework of the MAGDAS Project of SERC (at Kyushu University), this report will cover the three phases of "Capacity Building": (1) Development of instrument capacity, (2) Development of data analysis capacity, and (3) Development of science capacity. Capacity Building is one of the major goals of IHY and ISWI, as specified by the organizers of IHY and ISWI.

  19. Statistical modelling of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of aqueous poly(methylvinylether-co-maleic acid) networks: Redefining biomedical applications and the relationship between viscoelasticity and mucoadhesion.

    PubMed

    Jones, David S; Laverty, Thomas P; Morris, Caoimhe; Andrews, Gavin P

    2016-08-01

    Poly(methylvinylether-co-maleic acid) (PMVE/MA) is commonly used as a component of pharmaceutical platforms, principally to enhance interactions with biological substrates (mucoadhesion). However, the limited knowledge on the rheological properties of this polymer and their relationships with mucoadhesion has negated the biomedical use of this polymer as a mono-component platform. This study presents a comprehensive study of the rheological properties of aqueous PMVE/MA platforms and defines their relationships with mucoadhesion using multiple regression analysis. Using dilute solution viscometry the intrinsic viscosities of un-neutralised PMVE/MA and PMVE/MA neutralised using NaOH or TEA were 22.32±0.89dLg(-1), 274.80±1.94dLg(-1) and 416.49±2.21dLg(-1) illustrating greater polymer chain expansion following neutralisation using Triethylamine (TEA). PMVE/MA platforms exhibited shear-thinning properties. Increasing polymer concentration increased the consistencies, zero shear rate (ZSR) viscosities (determined from flow rheometry), storage and loss moduli, dynamic viscosities (defined using oscillatory analysis) and mucoadhesive properties, yet decreased the loss tangents of the neutralised polymer platforms. TEA neutralised systems possessed significantly and substantially greater consistencies, ZSR and dynamic viscosities, storage and loss moduli, mucoadhesion and lower loss tangents than their NaOH counterparts. Multiple regression analysis enabled identification of the dominant role of polymer viscoelasticity on mucoadhesion (r>0.98). The mucoadhesive properties of PMVE/MA platforms were considerable and were greater than those of other platforms that have successfully been shown to enhance in vivo retention when applied to the oral cavity, indicating a positive role for PMVE/MA mono-component platforms for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. PMID:27085044

  20. Abscisic acid induced changes in production of primary and secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, antioxidant capability, antioxidant enzymes and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2-, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX)] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM) for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2-, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC) were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05) and O2- (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05). This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals. PMID:23884129

  1. Digestive system development and study of acid and alkaline protease digestive capacities using biochemical and molecular approaches in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae.

    PubMed

    Galaviz, Mario A; López, Lus M; García Gasca, Alejandra; Álvarez González, Carlos Alfonso; True, Conal D; Gisbert, Enric

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to describe and understand the development of the digestive system in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae from hatching to 40 days post-hatch (dph) from morphological and functional perspectives. At hatch, the digestive system of totoaba was undifferentiated. The anus and the mouth opened at 4 and 5 dph, respectively. During exogenous feeding, development of the esophagus, pancreas, liver and intestine was observed with a complete differentiation of all digestive organs. Expression and activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin were observed as early as at 1 dph, and increments in their expression and activity coincided with changes in food items (live and compound diets) and morpho-physiological development of the accessory digestive glands. In contrast, pepsin was detected later during development, which includes the appearance of the gastric glands between 24 and 28 dph. One peak in gene expression was detected at 16 dph, few days before the initial development of the stomach at 20 dph. A second peak of pepsin expression was detected at day 35, followed by a peak of activity at day 40, coinciding with the change from live to artificial food. Totoaba larvae showed a fully morphologically developed digestive system between 24 and 28 dph, as demonstrated by histological observations. However, gene expression and activity of alkaline and acid proteases were detected earlier, indicating the functionality of the exocrine pancreas and stomach before the complete morphological development of the digestive organs. These results showed that integrative studies are needed to fully understand the development of the digestive system from a morphological and functional point of views, since the histological organization of digestive structures does not reflect their real functionality. These results indicate that the digestive system of totoaba develops rapidly during the first days post-hatch, especially for alkaline proteases, and the stomach

  2. Hydrology and water quality of the headwaters of the River Severn: Stream acidity recovery and interactions with plantation forestry under an improving pollution climate.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Robinson, Mark; Reynolds, Brian; Neal, Margaret; Rowland, Philip; Grant, Simon; Norris, David; Williams, Bronwen; Sleep, Darren; Lawlor, Alan

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents new information on the hydrology and water quality of the eroding peatland headwaters of the River Severn in mid-Wales and links it to the impact of plantation conifer forestry further down the catchment. The Upper Hafren is dominated by low-growing peatland vegetation, with an average annual precipitation of around 2650 mm with around 250 mm evaporation. With low catchment permeability, stream response to rainfall is "flashy" with the rising limb to peak stormflow typically under an hour. The water quality is characteristically "dilute"; stormflow is acidic and enriched in aluminium and iron from the acid organic soil inputs. Baseflow is circum-neutral and calcium and bicarbonate bearing due to the inputs of groundwater enriched from weathering of the underlying rocks. Annual cycling is observed for the nutrients reflecting uptake and decomposition processes linked to the vegetation and for arsenic implying seasonal water-logging within the peat soils and underlying glacial drift. Over the decadal scale, sulphate and nitrate concentrations have declined while Gran alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon and iron have increased, indicating a reduction in stream acidification. Within the forested areas the water quality is slightly more concentrated and acidic, transgressing the boundary for acid neutralisation capacity as a threshold for biological damage. Annual sulphate and aluminium concentrations are double those observed in the Upper Hafren, reflecting the influence of forestry and the greater ability of trees to scavenge pollutant inputs from gaseous and mist/cloud-water sources compared to short vegetation. Acidification is decreasing more rapidly in the forest compared to the eroding peatland possibly due to the progressive harvesting of the mature forest reducing the scavenging of acidifying inputs. For the Lower Hafren, long-term average annual precipitation is slightly lower, with lower average altitude, at around 2520mm and evaporation

  3. Kinetics of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-10, and virus neutralising antibodies during acute ephemeral fever virus infections in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Barigye, R; Melville, L F; Davis, S; Walsh, S; Hunt, N; Hunt, R; Elliot, N

    2015-12-15

    While fever and inflammation are hallmark features of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), the cytokine networks that underlie the acute phase of the disease have not been empirically defined in cattle. This study characterised the plasma kinetics of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and IL-10 during acute BEF and elucidated on the relationship between the onset of the virus neutralizing antibody response and resolution of viraemia in natural BEF virus (BEFV) infections in cattle. Plasma from three BEFV-infected and three uninfected cattle was tested for the study cytokines by a cELISA, viraemia monitored by qRT-PCR, and virus neutralizing antibody titres determined using a standard protocol. Unlike the negative controls, plasma concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were consistently increased in the three virus-infected animals. Two of the infected heifers were recumbent and pyrexic on the first day of monitoring and increased cytokine production was already in progress by the time viraemia was detected in all the three infected animals. In all the virus-infected heifers, IL-1β was the most strongly expressed cytokine, IL-6 and IL-10 manifested intermediate plasma concentrations while TNF-α was the least expressed and demonstrated bi-phasic peaks three and five days after the onset of pyrexia. In two of the BEFV-infected heifers, viraemia resolved on the day of seroconversion while in the other infected animal, viral RNA was detectable up to three days after seroconversion. The present data document variable increase in plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 during natural BEFV infections and the fact that upregulation of all but TNF-α precedes seroconversion. In addition to virus neutralising antibodies, it is likely that cytokine-mediated cellular mechanisms may be required for resolution of viraemia in BEF. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of IL-10, its upregulation may potentially antagonise the fever response in BEFV

  4. Understanding, Deriving, and Computing Buffer Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbansky, Edward T.; Schock, Michael R.

    2000-12-01

    The concept of buffer capacity appears in varied disciplines, including bio-, geo-, analytical, and environmental chemistry, physiology, medicine, dentistry, and agriculture. Unfortunately, however, derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems to be neglected in the undergraduate analytical chemistry curriculum. In this work, we give an account of the development of the buffer capacity concept and derive the buffer capacity contribution equations for buffer systems containing mono-, di-, and triprotic weak acids (and their conjugate bases) and aluminum(III), which undergoes hydrolysis. A brief review of pH is provided because pH is involved in applying buffer capacity to the real world. In addition, we discuss evaluation of the equations, numerical approximation of buffer capacity when an analytic solution is not derived, and the mathematical properties of the buffer capacity expressions.

  5. North American fertilizer capacity data. Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  6. In vitro comparison of the antacid potencies of almagate in tablets and suspension with those of other commercially available antacid preparations.

    PubMed

    Prieto, R; Martinez-Tobed, A; Fábregas, J L; Beneyto, J E

    1984-01-01

    Almagate (hydrated aluminium-magnesium hydroxycarbonate, Al2Mg6(OH)14(CO3)2 X 4 H2O, Almax) in the form of tablets and suspension was compared with other commercially available antacid preparations in a battery of tests designed to evaluate antacid activity and related properties. The evaluation of an antacid should take into account, in addition to total acid neutralising capacity, neutralising capacity under dynamic conditions related to in vivo events, bioavailability, speed of action, lack of possible rebound effect and low sodium content. When these considerations are taken into account Almax tablets and suspension can be classified as highly effective antacids retaining a high proportion of their total neutralising capacity under simulated in vivo conditions. As in the case of the active principle, almagate, the enzyme pepsin has a positive effect on acid neutralising activity. PMID:6548920

  7. Building Leadership Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanary, Dick

    2009-01-01

    The NASSP "Breaking Ranks" framework lays out multiple strategies for building capacity within a school, beginning with the leaders. To change an organization and increase its capacity to produce greater results, the people within the organization must change and increase their capacity. School change begins with changes in the principal, the…

  8. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G. L.; Zhang, K. Y.; Ding, X. M.; Zheng, P.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Wang, J. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Zeng, Q. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain (P < 0.001), serum glutathione (GSH) content (day 14, P = 0.02; day 28, P = 0.045), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) at 21 days (P = 0.001, 0.015) and 28 days (P = 0.017, 0.010) and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.001), serum malondialdehyde (day 21, P = 0.000) and protein carbonyl Level (day 14, P = 0.003; day 21, P = 0.035). As for incidence of AS, there were significant effects of LAT on red blood cell (RBC) count (P < 0.05), hematocrit (HCT) (P < 0.05), and the right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV/TV) at 21 days (P = 0.012) and 28 days (P = 0.046). Supplementation of DL-HMTBA markedly decreased RV/TV at day 28 (P = 0.021), RBC (day 21, P = 0.008), HCT (day 21, P < 0.001), mean cell hemoglobin (day 14, P = 0.035; day 21, P = 0.003), and serum protein carbonyl level (day 21, P = 0.009), while significantly increased serum GSH content (day 14, P = 0.022; day 28, P = 0.001), SOD and GSH-Px activities at 21 days of age (P < 0.001 and P = 0.037). The optimal supplemental DL-HMTBA levels in basal diet of broilers aged from 7 to 28 days under low or normal temperatures were similar, so the authors recommended supplemental of DL-HMTBA level was 0.46 %.

  9. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G. L.; Zhang, K. Y.; Ding, X. M.; Zheng, P.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Wang, J. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Zeng, Q. F.

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain ( P < 0.001), serum glutathione (GSH) content (day 14, P = 0.02; day 28, P = 0.045), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) at 21 days ( P = 0.001, 0.015) and 28 days ( P = 0.017, 0.010) and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) ( P < 0.001), serum malondialdehyde (day 21, P = 0.000) and protein carbonyl Level (day 14, P = 0.003; day 21, P = 0.035). As for incidence of AS, there were significant effects of LAT on red blood cell (RBC) count ( P < 0.05), hematocrit (HCT) ( P < 0.05), and the right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV/TV) at 21 days ( P = 0.012) and 28 days ( P = 0.046). Supplementation of DL-HMTBA markedly decreased RV/TV at day 28 ( P = 0.021), RBC (day 21, P = 0.008), HCT (day 21, P < 0.001), mean cell hemoglobin (day 14, P = 0.035; day 21, P = 0.003), and serum protein carbonyl level (day 21, P = 0.009), while significantly increased serum GSH content (day 14, P = 0.022; day 28, P = 0.001), SOD and GSH-Px activities at 21 days of age ( P < 0.001 and P = 0.037). The optimal supplemental DL-HMTBA levels in basal diet of broilers aged from 7 to 28 days under low or normal temperatures were similar, so the authors recommended supplemental of DL-HMTBA level was 0.46 %.

  10. Abscisic acid and aldehyde oxidase activity in maize ear leaf and grain relative to post-flowering photosynthetic capacity and grain-filling rate under different water/nitrogen treatments.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shujun; Zhang, Zongzheng; Ning, Tangyuan; Ren, Shizhong; Su, Licheng; Li, Zengjia

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated changes in leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations and grain ABA concentrations in two maize cultivars and analyzed the following relationships under different water/nitrogen treatments: leaf ABA concentrations and photosynthetic parameters; leaf ABA concentrations and grain ABA concentrations; leaf/grain ABA concentrations and grain-filling parameters; and aldehyde oxidase (AO, EC 1.2.3.1) activities and ABA concentrations. The ear leaf average AO activities and ABA concentrations were lower in the controlled release urea treatments compared with the conventional urea treatments. The average AO activities in the grains were higher in the controlled release urea treatments, and the ABA concentrations were significantly increased at 11-30 DAF. The Pn and ABA concentrations in ear leaves were negatively correlated. And the Gmean were positively correlated with the grain ABA concentrations at 11-30 DAF and negatively correlated with the leaf ABA concentrations at 20 and 40-50 DAF. The grain ABA concentrations and leaf ABA concentrations were positively correlated. Thus, the Gmean were closely related to the AO activities and to the ear leaf and grain ABA concentrations. As compared to other treatments, the subsoiling and controlled release urea treatment promoted the uptake of water and nitrogen by maize, increased the photosynthetic capacity of the ear leaves, increased the grain-filling rate, and improved the movement of photosynthetic assimilates toward the developing grains. In the cultivar Z958, higher ABA concentrations in grains at 11-30 DAF and lower ABA concentrations in ear leaves during the late grain-filling stage, resulted in higher grain-filling rate and increased accumulation of photosynthetic products (relative to the cultivar D3). PMID:23770596

  11. On Gaussian feedback capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dembo, Amir

    1989-01-01

    Pinsker and Ebert (1970) proved that in channels with additive Gaussian noise, feedback at most doubles the capacity. Cover and Pombra (1989) proved that feedback at most adds half a bit per transmission. Following their approach, the author proves that in the limit as signal power approaches either zero (very low SNR) or infinity (very high SNR), feedback does not increase the finite block-length capacity (which for nonstationary Gaussian channels replaces the standard notion of capacity that may not exist). Tighter upper bounds on the capacity are obtained in the process. Specializing these results to stationary channels, the author recovers some of the bounds recently obtained by Ozarow.

  12. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  13. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Yang, G L; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Zheng, P; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Wang, J P; Xuan, Y; Su, Z W; Zeng, Q F

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain (P < 0.001), serum glutathione (GSH) content (day 14, P = 0.02; day 28, P = 0.045), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) at 21 days (P = 0.001, 0.015) and 28 days (P = 0.017, 0.010) and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.001), serum malondialdehyde (day 21, P = 0.000) and protein carbonyl Level (day 14, P = 0.003; day 21, P = 0.035). As for incidence of AS, there were significant effects of LAT on red blood cell (RBC) count (P < 0.05), hematocrit (HCT) (P < 0.05), and the right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV/TV) at 21 days (P = 0.012) and 28 days (P = 0.046). Supplementation of DL-HMTBA markedly decreased RV/TV at day 28 (P = 0.021), RBC (day 21, P = 0.008), HCT (day 21, P < 0.001), mean cell hemoglobin (day 14, P = 0.035; day 21, P = 0.003), and serum protein carbonyl level (day 21, P = 0.009), while significantly increased serum GSH content (day 14, P = 0.022; day 28, P = 0.001), SOD and GSH-Px activities at 21 days of age (P < 0.001 and P = 0.037). The optimal supplemental DL-HMTBA levels in basal diet of broilers aged from 7 to 28 days under low or normal temperatures were similar, so the authors recommended

  14. Variable capacity gasification burner

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, D.I.

    1985-03-05

    A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

  15. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  16. Problems of Excess Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, G.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

  17. Who needs capacity?

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec

    2015-01-01

    The UK Law Commission's Discussion Paper, Criminal Liability: Insanity and Automatism, recommends introducing the concept of capacity to the insanity defence. The concept of capacity has an established role in those parts of the law that concern the validity of the decisions that people make, for instance in composing a will or entering into a contract. Making mental capacity a criterion for criminal responsibility in a mentally disordered defendant, however, is potentially problematic. First, the term capacity already has several different meanings in the literature on the jurisprudence of mental abnormality. Second, using the concept of capacity in the way that the Law Commission proposes poses difficulties that relate to the provision of testimony by expert witnesses. PMID:25939285

  18. Nanofluid heat capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

    2011-12-01

    Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-α olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

  19. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  20. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  1. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  2. Forward capacity market CONEfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, James F.

    2010-11-15

    In ISO New England and PJM it was assumed that sponsors of new capacity projects would offer them into the newly established forward centralized capacity markets at prices based on their levelized net cost of new entry, or ''Net CONE.'' But the FCCMs have not operated in the way their proponents had expected. To clear up the CONEfusion, FCCM designs should be reconsidered to adapt them to the changing circumstances and to be grounded in realistic expectations of market conduct. (author)

  3. Panama Canal capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S.

    1995-04-27

    Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

  4. Heat capacity of alkanolamine aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.F.; Li, M.H.

    1999-12-01

    Heat capacities of monoethanoloamine, diglycolamine, diethanolamine, di-w propanolamine, triethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine, 2-amino-2-methyl-l-propanol, and 2-piperidineethanol aqueous solutions were measured from 30 to 80 C with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The mole fractions of alkanolamines studied are 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8. Heat capacities of N-methyldiethanolamine aqueous solutions have been measured to verify the validity of C{sub p} measurements for alkanolamine aqueous solutions. The estimated uncertainty of the measured heat capacities is {plus{underscore}minus}3%, including the effect of up to 5% impurities in a substance. An excess molar heat capacity expression using the Redlich-Kister equation for the composition dependence is used to represent the measured C{sub p} of alkanolamine aqueous solutions. For a total of 374 data points, the calculation results for eight alkanolamine solutions give the overall average absolute deviations of 11.9% and 0.29% for the excess molar heat capacity and the heat capacity, respectively. The heat capacities presented in this study are, in general, of sufficient accuracy for most engineering-design calculations. Solutions of alkanolamines are industrially important mixtures used in the natural gas industry, oil refineries, petroleum chemical plants, and synthetic ammonia plants for the removal of acidic components such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from gas streams.

  5. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adger, W. Neil; Vincent, Katharine

    2005-03-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. To cite this article: W.N. Adger, K. Vincent, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  6. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  7. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  8. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, R.W.

    1984-10-30

    A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

  9. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  10. Chemical Reaction between Boric Acid and Phosphine Indicates Boric Acid as an Antidote for Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Motahareh; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed F.; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a fumigant pesticide which protects stored grains from insects and rodents. When it comes into contact with moisture, AlP releases phosphine (PH3), a highly toxic gas. No efficient antidote has been found for AlP poisoning so far and most people who are poisoned do not survive. Boric acid is a Lewis acid with an empty p orbital which accepts electrons. This study aimed to investigate the neutralisation of PH3 gas with boric acid. Methods: This study was carried out at the Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between December 2013 and February 2014. The volume of released gas, rate of gas evolution and changes in pH were measured during reactions of AlP tablets with water, acidified water, saturated boric acid solution, acidified saturated boric acid solution, activated charcoal and acidified activated charcoal. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the resulting probable adduct between PH3 and boric acid. Results: Activated charcoal significantly reduced the volume of released gas (P <0.01). Although boric acid did not significantly reduce the volume of released gas, it significantly reduced the rate of gas evolution (P <0.01). A gaseous adduct was formed in the reaction between pure AlP and boric acid. Conclusion: These findings indicate that boric acid may be an efficient and non-toxic antidote for PH3 poisoning. PMID:27606109

  11. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  12. The Moral Capacity Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2011-01-01

    Effective counseling practice continues to be inevitably linked to underlying theories of behavioral causality. In this article, the authors present the Moral Capacity Profile of an individual from the perspective of the Amoral, Moral, Quasi-Moral/Quasi-Immoral, and Immoral Model of Behavior, a model that uniquely expands counseling's theoretical…

  13. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Enhancing capacity management.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan; Houlahan, Beth; Lavrenz, Dennise

    2014-03-01

    It is essential for organizations to be able to accept patients requiring care. Capacity planning and management are necessary to ensure an organization has an accepting physician/service, an available bed, and staff to care for the patient and family. This organization implemented strategies including communication plans, staffing guidelines, morning rounds, proactive planning, and an escalation process to reverse the trend of not being able to accept all patients. PMID:24531280

  15. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  16. CSTI High Capacity Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  17. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  18. The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 μl) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO−3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO−3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO−3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions. PMID:24917822

  19. Sialic acid receptor specificity on erythrocytes affects detection of antibody to avian influenza haemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, I; Wood, J M; Nicholson, K G; Zambon, M C

    2003-07-01

    Haemagglutination-inhibition tests (HI) are used to detect increases in influenza antibody in serum. However, they are relatively insensitive for the detection of human antibody responses to avian haemagglutinin, even in the presence of high titres of neutralising antibody after confirmed infection or vaccination. Human influenza viruses bind preferentially sialic acid containing N-acetylneuraminic acid alpha2,6-galactose (SAalpha2,6Gal) linkages while avian and equine viruses bind preferentially those containing N-acetylneuraminic acid alpha2,3-galactose (SAalpha2,3Gal) linkages. Increasing the proportion of SAalpha2,3Gal linkages on the erythrocytes used, by enzymatic modification or change of species, improves the ability of erythrocytes to bind to avian influenza strains and thereby improves the sensitivity of detection of antibody to avian and equine HA in a range of mammalian and human sera using HI tests. PMID:12767002

  20. U. S. refiners must increase alkylation capacity to meet demand

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.

    1994-08-22

    Alkylation is one of the most important refinery processes for producing conventional gasoline. And alkylate will continue to be a preferred blending stock in the reformulated-gasoline era. US alkylation units are operating at more than 90% of capacity, and additional capacity will be required to meet projected demand in 1998 and beyond. This capacity will come primarily through debottlenecking existing units, but new capacity will be required in the U.S., particularly after the year 2000. This paper briefly discusses industry trends, supply and demand, and solid acid catalyst technology.

  1. Vaccination of dogs with canine parvovirus type 2b (CPV-2b) induces neutralising antibody responses to CPV-2a and CPV-2c.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen; Illambas, Joanna; Siedek, Elisabeth; Stirling, Catrina; Thomas, Anne; Plevová, Edita; Sture, Gordon; Salt, Jeremy

    2014-09-22

    Since the identification of canine parvovirus type 2, three variants have subsequently been observed differing from the historical CPV-2 and each other by 1-2 amino acids only. As a result there has been considerable research into differential diagnostics, with some researchers indicating there is a need for new vaccines containing different strains of CPV-2. In this study we investigated whether vaccination with a CPV-2b containing vaccine would induce cross-reactive antibody responses to the other CPV-2 variants. Two studies where dogs were vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine, subsequently challenged with CPV-2b and sera samples analysed are presented. Six week old pups with defined serological status were vaccinated twice, three weeks apart and challenged either 5 weeks (MDA override study) or one year after vaccination (duration of immunity study). Sera samples were collected before each vaccination and at periods throughout each study. In each study the antibody profiles were very similar; serological responses against CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c were higher than those for CPV-2. Nevertheless, responses against CPV-2 were well above levels considered clinically protective. In each study dogs also showed a rapid increase in antibody titres following vaccination, reached a plateau following second vaccination with a slight decline to challenge after which rapid anamnestic responses were seen. Evaluation of the serological responses suggests vaccination with CPV-2b would cross-protect against CPV-2a and CPV-2c, as well as against CPV-2 which is now extinct in the field. In conclusion we have demonstrated that vaccination of minimum aged dogs with a multivalent vaccine containing the CPV-2b variant strain will induce serological responses which are cross-reactive against all currently circulating field strains, CPV-2a and CPV-2c, and the now extinct field strain CPV-2. PMID:25148778

  2. Antioxidant capacity of hydrolyzed porcine tissues

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Trine D; Otte, Jeanette A H; Meinert, Lene; Jensen, Kirsten; Lametsch, René

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of seven different porcine tissue hydrolysates (colon, appendix, rectum, pancreas, heart, liver, and lung) were tested by four different assays, including iron chelation, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and inhibition of lipid oxidation. All hydrolyzed tissues displayed antioxidant capacity in all four assays, with colon, liver, and appendix as the three most potent inhibitors of lipid oxidation (47, 29, and 27 mmol/L trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity [TEAC], respectively) and liver, colon, pancreas, and appendix as the four most potent iron chelators (92% ± 1.1, 79.3% ± 3.2, 77.1% ± 1.8, and 77% ± 2.3, respectively). Furthermore, colon and appendix showed good radical scavenging capacities with ABTS scavenging of 86.4% ± 2.1 and 84.4% ± 2.9 and DPPH scavenging of 17.6% ± 0.3 and 17.1% ± 0.2, respectively. Our results provide new knowledge about the antioxidant capacity of a variety of animal by-products, which can be transformed into antioxidant hydrolysates, thereby creating added value. PMID:24936298

  3. Surface retention capacity calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of

  4. The role of amino acid electron-donor/acceptor atoms in host-cell binding peptides is associated with their 3D structure and HLA-binding capacity in sterile malarial immunity induction

    SciTech Connect

    Patarroyo, Manuel E.; Almonacid, Hannia; Moreno-Vranich, Armando

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fundamental residues located in some HABPs are associated with their 3D structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-donor atoms present in {beta}-turn, random, distorted {alpha}-helix structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-donor atoms bound to HLA-DR53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-acceptor atoms present in regular {alpha}-helix structure bound to HLA-DR52. -- Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum malaria continues being one of the parasitic diseases causing the highest worldwide mortality due to the parasite's multiple evasion mechanisms, such as immunological silence. Membrane and organelle proteins are used during invasion for interactions mediated by high binding ability peptides (HABPs); these have amino acids which establish hydrogen bonds between them in some of their critical binding residues. Immunisation assays in the Aotus model using HABPs whose critical residues had been modified have revealed a conformational change thereby enabling a protection-inducing response. This has improved fitting within HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator} molecules where amino acid electron-donor atoms present in {beta}-turn, random or distorted {alpha}-helix structures preferentially bound to HLA-DR53 molecules, whilst HABPs having amino acid electron-acceptor atoms present in regular {alpha}-helix structure bound to HLA-DR52. This data has great implications for vaccine development.

  5. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  6. Albermarle boosts MASC capacity

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-07-17

    Albemarle plans to triple capacity for methylaluminum sesquichloride (MASC) at its Houston complex. The move is in response to growing demand for aluminum alkyl catalyst systems, says Greg Lambeth, product manager/organometallics North America. MASC is the key raw material for trimethylaluminum (TMA), a Ziegler-Natta cocatalyst, and for methylaluminoxane (MAO), a cocatalyst for metallocene polyolefin catalysts. {open_quotes}This is a very competitive area because of the growing importance of metallocenes in polyolefin production,{close_quotes} Lambeth says. Several companies-including Exxon Chemical, Dow Chemical, and Hoechst - have invested in metallocene catalysts this year. Others have announced plans either to convert technology from conventional Ziegler-Natta catalyst systems or to build new facilities for metallocene catalyst production. Albemarle, the largest producer of TMA and other aluminum alkyls, completed a debottlenecking project in Houston earlier this year that increased its capacity 50%. The company also expects to complete a TMA expansion project at its Orangeburg, SC facility soon.

  7. Early hominin auditory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  8. Titration of strong and weak acids by sequential injection analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Maskula, S; Nyman, J; Ivaska, A

    2000-05-31

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) titration method has been developed for acid-base titrations. Strong and weak acids in different concentration ranges have been titrated with a strong base. The method is based on sequential aspiration of an acidic sample zone and only one zone of the base into a carrier stream of distilled water. On their way to the detector, the sample and the reagent zones are partially mixed due to the dispersion and thereby the base is partially neutralised by the acid. The base zone contains the indicator. An LED-spectrophotometer is used as detector. It senses the colour of the unneutralised base and the signal is recorded as a typical SIA peak. The peak area of the unreacted base was found to be proportional to the logarithm of the acid concentration. Calibration curves with good linearity were obtained for a strong acid in the concentration ranges of 10(-4)-10(-2) and 0.1-3 M. Automatic sample dilution was implemented when sulphuric acid at concentration of 6-13 M was titrated. For a weak acid, i.e. acetic acid, a linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 3x10(-4)-8x10(-2) M. By changing the volumes of the injected sample and the reagent, different acids as well as different concentration ranges of the acids can be titrated without any other adjustments in the SIA manifold or the titration protocol. PMID:18967966

  9. The capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a carnivorous vertebrate: Functional characterisation and nutritional regulation of a Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase with Δ4 activity and an Elovl5 elongase in striped snakehead (Channa striata).

    PubMed

    Kuah, Meng-Kiat; Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2015-03-01

    The endogenous production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in carnivorous teleost species inhabiting freshwater environments is poorly understood. Although a predatory lifestyle could potentially supply sufficient LC-PUFA to satisfy the requirements of these species, the nutrient-poor characteristics of the freshwater food web could impede this advantage. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterisation of an elongase enzyme in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway from striped snakehead (Channa striata), which is a strict freshwater piscivore that shows high deposition of LC-PUFA in its flesh. We also functionally characterised a previously isolated fatty acyl desaturase cDNA from this species. Results showed that the striped snakehead desaturase is capable of Δ4 and Δ5 desaturation activities, while the elongase showed the characteristics of Elovl5 elongases. Collectively, these findings reveal that striped snakehead exhibits the genetic resources to synthesise docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Both genes are expressed at considerable levels in the brain and the liver. In liver, both genes were up-regulated by dietary C18 PUFA, although this increase did not correspond to a significant rise in the deposition of muscle LC-PUFA. Brain tissue of fish fed with plant oil diets showed higher expression of fads2 gene compared to fish fed with fish oil-based diet, which could ensure DHA levels remain constant under limited dietary DHA intake. This suggests the importance of DHA production from EPA via the ∆4 desaturation step in order to maintain an optimal reserve of DHA in the neuronal tissues of carnivores. PMID:25542509

  10. THE ELECTRICAL CAPACITY OF VALONIA : DIRECT CURRENT MEASUREMENTS.

    PubMed

    Blinks, L R; Skow, R K

    1940-11-20

    Impaled cells of Valonia were balanced in a Wheatstone bridge against a simple series-parallel circuit of two resistances and a capacity, the transient charge and discharge curves at make and break of direct current being recorded with a string galvanometer. With the resistances properly balanced, a series of characteristic deflections resulted when the balancing capacity was varied. With many cells, no complete capacity balance was ever attained over the entire transient time course; but instead either a monophasic or diphasic residual deflection always remained. This behavior is comparable to that of a polarizing electrode in D.C., although not so clearly marked; and it is concluded that Valonia usually has an appreciable polarization component, probably in parallel with a static capacity. However, some cells can be balanced almost completely against a mica condenser of proper value, which indicates that they display a nearly pure static capacity under some conditions. This static state could be produced experimentally by exposure to weak acids (acetic, carbonic, etc.) and by metabolic agents probably inducing internal acidity (low oxygen tension, long exposure to cold, narcotics, etc.). Conversely, penetrating weak bases, such as ammonia, abolished the static capacity, or even any regular polarization. Light acts something like ammonia, after an initial "acid gush" anomaly. Most of these agents likewise affect the P.D. and its response to external ionic alterations, and it seems likely that the change in capacity type reflects altered ionic permeabilities and relative mobilities. PMID:19873211

  11. History of medical understanding and misunderstanding of Acid base balance.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-09-01

    To establish how controversies in understanding acid base balance arose, the literature on acid base balance was reviewed from 1909, when Henderson described how the neutral reaction of blood is determined by carbonic and organic acids being in equilibrium with an excess of mineral bases over mineral acids. From 1914 to 1930, Van Slyke and others established our acid base principles. They recognised that carbonic acid converts into bicarbonate all non-volatile mineral bases not bound by mineral acids and determined therefore that bicarbonate represents the alkaline reserve of the body and should be a physiological constant. They showed that standard bicarbonate is a good measure of acidosis caused by increased production or decreased elimination of organic acids. However, they recognised that bicarbonate improved low plasma bicarbonate but not high urine acid excretion in diabetic ketoacidosis, and that increasing pCO2 caused chloride to shift into cells raising plasma titratable alkali. Both indicate that minerals influence pH. In 1945 Darrow showed that hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis in preterm infants fed milk with 5.7 mmol of chloride and 2.0 mmol of sodium per 100 kcal was caused by retention of chloride in excess of sodium. Similar findings were made but not recognised in later studies of metabolic acidosis in preterm infants. Shohl in 1921 and Kildeberg in 1978 presented the theory that carbonic and organic acids are neutralised by mineral base, where mineral base is the excess of mineral cations over anions and organic acid is the difference between mineral base, bicarbonate and protein anion. The degree of metabolic acidosis measured as base excess is determined by deviation in both mineral base and organic acid from normal. PMID:24179938

  12. Soy protein with and without isoflavones fails to substantially increase postprandial antioxidant capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five methods for the assessment of antioxidant capacity [whole plasma conjugated diene formation, low-density lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility, ferric-reducing ability of plasma, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and perchloric-acid-treated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (PCA-ORAC)] were us...

  13. Antioxidants and Antioxidant Capacity of Biofortified Carrots (Daucus Carota, L.) of Various Colors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of seven colored carrots were determined. Five anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and four carotenoids, were quantified by HPLC. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidant capacities of the hydrophilic and hyd...

  14. High capacity oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrosa, O.A. Jr.; Couto, N.C.; Fanqueiro, R.C.C.

    1983-11-01

    The present invention relates to a high capacity oil burner comprising a cylindrical atomizer completely surrounded by a protective cylindrical housing having a diameter from 2 to 3 times greater than the diameter of said atomizer; liquid fuels being injected under pressure into said atomizer and accumulating within said atomizer in a chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels, and compressed air being injected into a chamber for the accumulation of air; cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels with the outside and cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of air with said cylindrical holes communicating the chamber for the accumulation of liquids with the outside so that the injection of compressed air into said liquid fuel discharge holes atomizes said fuel which is expelled to the outside through the end portions of said discharge holes which are circumferentially positioned to be burnt by a pilot flame; said protecting cylindrical housing having at its ends perforated circular rings into which water is injected under pressure to form a protecting fan-like water curtain at the rear end of the housing and a fan-like water curtain at the flame to reduce the formation of soot; the burning efficiency of said burner being superior to 30 barrels of liquid fuel per day/kg of the apparatus.

  15. First mideast capacity planned

    SciTech Connect

    Fattah, H.

    1996-11-06

    Kuwait catalyst Co.`s (KCC) plans to build a hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts plant in Kuwait will mark the startup of the first refining catalysts production in the Persian Gulf region. KCC, owned by a conglomerate of Kuwait companies and governmental agencies, has licensed catalyst manufacturing technology from Japan Energy in a deal estimated at more than 7 billion ($62 million). Plant design will be based on technology from Orient Catalyst, Japan Energy`s catalysts division. Construction is expected to begin in January 1997 for production startup by January 1998. A source close to the deal says the new plant will eventually reach a capacity of 5,000 m.t./year of HDS catalysts to supply most of Kuwait`s estimated 3,500-m.t./year demand, driven primarily by Kuwait National Petroleum refineries. KCC also expects to supply demand from other catalyst consumers in the region. Alumina supply will be acquired on the open market. KCC will take all production from the plant and will be responsible for marketing.

  16. Advanced work capacity testing.

    PubMed

    Bretz, Károly J; Dános, László; Smudla, Szilvia; Pálosi, Adrienn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe an accurate work capacity testing which can be used in the industry, as well as in rehabilitation process. The first part of this paper is dealing with the NIOSH lifting equation, which is a tool used by occupational health and safety professionals. The second part of this paper summarizes the features and applications of the "ErgoScope" work simulator. Static and dynamic strength of upper and lower limbs, as well as whole body efforts can be measured. The equipment makes it possible to evaluate pushing, pulling, lifting and carrying activities comprising reaching, bending and stooping movements. In the third part of this paper we demonstrate handgrip force data recorded using the "ErgoScope" work simulator comparing with handgrip force data published in the literature. "ErgoScope" work simulator is capable to measure handgrip and pinch forces, suitable to evaluate fine motor skills, hand and finger dexterity, as well as reaction times. PMID:26294589

  17. Reductive Capacity Measurement of Waste Forms for Secondary Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Yang, Jungseok; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-09-28

    The reductive capacities of dry ingredients and final solid waste forms were measured using both the Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) methods and the results were compared. Blast furnace slag (BFS), sodium sulfide, SnF2, and SnCl2 used as dry ingredients to make various waste forms showed significantly higher reductive capacities compared to other ingredients regardless of which method was used. Although the BFS exhibits appreciable reductive capacity, it requires greater amounts of time to fully react. In almost all cases, the Ce(IV) method yielded larger reductive capacity values than those from the Cr(VI) method and can be used as an upper bound for the reductive capacity of the dry ingredients and waste forms, because the Ce(IV) method subjects the solids to a strong acid (low pH) condition that dissolves much more of the solids. Because the Cr(VI) method relies on a neutral pH condition, the Cr(VI) method can be used to estimate primarily the waste form surface-related and readily dissolvable reductive capacity. However, the Cr(VI) method does not measure the total reductive capacity of the waste form, the long-term reductive capacity afforded by very slowly dissolving solids, or the reductive capacity present in the interior pores and internal locations of the solids.

  18. Reductive capacity measurement of waste forms for secondary radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Wooyong; Yang, Jung-Seok; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-12-01

    The reductive capacities of dry ingredients and final solid waste forms were measured using both the Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) methods and the results were compared. Blast furnace slag (BFS), sodium sulfide, SnF2, and SnCl2 used as dry ingredients to make various waste forms showed significantly higher reductive capacities compared to other ingredients regardless of which method was used. Although the BFS exhibits appreciable reductive capacity, it requires greater amounts of time to fully react. In almost all cases, the Ce(IV) method yielded larger reductive capacity values than those from the Cr(VI) method and can be used as an upper bound for the reductive capacity of the dry ingredients and waste forms, because the Ce(IV) method subjects the solids to a strong acid (low pH) condition that dissolves much more of the solids. Because the Cr(VI) method relies on a neutral pH condition, the Cr(VI) method can be used to estimate primarily the waste form surface-related and readily dissolvable reductive capacity. However, the Cr(VI) method does not measure the total reductive capacity of the waste form, the long-term reductive capacity afforded by very slowly dissolving solids, or the reductive capacity present in the interior pores and internal locations of the solids.

  19. Bog bilberry phenolics, antioxidant capacity and nutrient profile.

    PubMed

    Colak, Nesrin; Torun, Hülya; Gruz, Jiri; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet

    2016-06-15

    Phenolics and nutrient profiles of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) collected from high mountain pastures in northeast Anatolia (Turkey) were examined for the first time in this study. The major soluble sugar identified in the berry was fructose, following by glucose, and the main organic acid identified was citric acid, followed by malic acid. Eleven phenolic acids and 17 anthocyanin 3-glycosides were identified and quantified. Caffeic acid in the free and glycoside forms and syringic acid in the ester form were the major phenolic acids, and the major individual anthocyanin present in the berry was malvidin 3-glucoside (24%). The highest total phenolics and anthocyanin contents were obtained from the anthocyanin fraction in conjunction with the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the polyphenolic and aqueous fractions, FRAP, ORAC and DPPH, in that order. Our findings can be used to compare bog bilberry with other Vaccinium berries and to help clarify the relative potential health benefits of different berries. PMID:26868586

  20. Bioethics for clinicians: 3. Capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, E; Sharpe, G; Elliott, C; Singer, P A

    1996-01-01

    In the context of patient consent, "capacity" refers to the patient's ability to understand information relevant to a treatment decision and to appreciate the reasonably foreseeable consequences of a decision or lack of decision. A person may be "capable" with respect to one decision but not with respect to another. Clinicians can usually identify patients who are clearly capable or incapable, but in some cases a clinical capacity assessment is required. Such assessment may consist of cognitive status testing, general impressions of capacity or specific capacity assessment. Specific capacity assessment, in which the clinician evaluates the patient's ability to understand pertinent information and appreciate its implications, is probably the optimal method. When conducting a specific capacity assessment, the clinician must ensure that the disclosure of information is effective and must evaluate the patient's reason for his or her decision. If the assessment suggests that the patient is incapable, further assessment is generally recommended. PMID:8823211

  1. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  2. CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer Software

    2004-11-30

    The CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application that determines the most economic amount of capacity of distributed generation and thermal utilization equipment (e.g., absorption chillers) to install for any user-defined set of load and cost data. Installing the optimum amount of capacity is critical to the life-cycle economic viability of a distributed generation/cooling heat and power (CHP) application. Using advanced optimization algorithms, the software accesses the loads, utility tariffs, equipment costs,more » etc., and provides to the user the most economic amount of system capacity to install.« less

  3. CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer Software

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-30

    The CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application that determines the most economic amount of capacity of distributed generation and thermal utilization equipment (e.g., absorption chillers) to install for any user-defined set of load and cost data. Installing the optimum amount of capacity is critical to the life-cycle economic viability of a distributed generation/cooling heat and power (CHP) application. Using advanced optimization algorithms, the software accesses the loads, utility tariffs, equipment costs, etc., and provides to the user the most economic amount of system capacity to install.

  4. Adaptive capacity and its assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.

    2011-04-20

    This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

  5. The Capacity to Build Organizational Capacity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, M. Bruce; Bouchard, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Reformers, policymakers, and researchers have given considerable attention to organizational capacity in schools, especially in those schools that perpetuate or exacerbate achievement gaps among diverse student groups and reproduce social inequalities. There is an emerging consensus about key dimensions of school capacity and how they can…

  6. Building Organizational Capacity through Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosner, Shelby

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the cultivation of collegial trust as a central feature of the capacity-building work of 11 high school principals, nominated for their expertise with capacity building. This qualitative study examined interview data and school documents collected over 18 months. Principals regarded trust as critical and were motivated to…

  7. Measuring Capacities for Community Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the sets of adaptive capacities for Economic Development and Social Capital in the Norris et al. (2008) community resilience model with publicly accessible population indicators. Our approach involved five steps. First, we conducted a literature review on measurements of the capacities. Second, we created…

  8. Enrollment Capacity and Technology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007-09 Appropriations Act provided funding to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) to study the state's capital facility and technology capacity. Specifically, "...state appropriation is provided solely to implement a capital facility and technology capacity study which will compare the 10-year enrollment projections with the…

  9. Heat capacity, configurational heat capacity and fragility of hydrous magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, D.; Romano, C.; Giordano, D.; Alletti, M.

    2014-10-01

    The glassy and liquid heat capacities of four series of dry and hydrous natural glasses and magma as a function of temperature and water content (up to 19.9 mol%) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analyzed compositions are basalt, latite, trachyte and pantellerite. The results of this study indicate that the measured heat capacity of glasses (Cpg) is a linear function of composition and is well reproduced by the empirical model of Richet (1987). For the investigated glasses, the partial molar heat capacity of water can be considered as independent of composition, in agreement with Bouhifd et al. (2006). For hydrous liquids, the heat capacity (Cpliq) decreases nonlinearly with increasing water content. Previously published models, combined with the partial molar heat capacity of water from the literature, are not able to reproduce our experimental data in a satisfactory way. We estimated the partial molar heat capacity of water (CpH2O) in hydrous magma over a broad compositional range. The proposed value is 41 ± 3 J mol-1 K-1. Water strongly affects the configurational heat capacity at the glass transition temperature [Cpconf (Tg)]. An increases of Cpconf (Tg) with water content was measured for the polymerized liquids (trachyte and pantellerite), while the opposite behavior was observed for the most depolymerized liquids (basalt and latite). Structural and rheological implications of this behavior are discussed in light of the presented results.

  10. Heat capacity of molten halides.

    PubMed

    Redkin, Alexander A; Zaikov, Yurii P; Korzun, Iraida V; Reznitskikh, Olga G; Yaroslavtseva, Tatiana V; Kumkov, Sergey I

    2015-01-15

    The heat capacities of molten salts are very important for their practical use. Experimental investigation of this property is challenging because of the high temperatures involved and the corrosive nature of these materials. It is preferable to combine experimental investigations with empirical relationships, which allows for the evaluation of the heat capacity of molten salt mixtures. The isobaric molar heat capacities of all molten alkali and alkaline-earth halides were found to be constant for each group of salts. The value depends on the number of atoms in the salt, and the molar heat capacity per atom is constant for all molten halide salts with the exception of the lithium halides. The molar heat capacities of molten halides do not change when the anions are changed. PMID:25530462

  11. Phytosteryl sinapates and vanillates: chemoenzymatic synthesis and antioxidant capacity assessment.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhuliang; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2013-06-01

    Phytosterols and their derivatives have attracted much attention because of their health benefits to humans and are widely used in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics in the past decades. While most of the research has focused on free phytosterols and phytosteryl esters of fatty acids, few researches reported on phytosteryl phenolates, the esters of phytosterols with phenolic acids. Two novel group phytosteryl phenolates, namely phytosteryl sinapates and vanillates, were successfully chemoenzymatically synthesised in this work and their structures confirmed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and high performance chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) under both positive and negative ion modes were employed for this purpose. High antioxidant capacity of phytosteryl sinapates was observed using both oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and cooked ground meat model system. Although phytosteryl vanillates showed lower antioxidant capacity than phytosteryl sinapates, they were stronger antioxidants than vanillic acid and vinyl vanillate in both assays employed. Conjugation of phytosterols with sinapic or vanillic acid rendered higher antioxidant capacity. Further studies on health benefits of phytosteryl sinapates and vanillates are necessary. PMID:23411265

  12. To build capacity, build confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    The history of attempts to spread scientific know-how beyond western centres of excellence is littered with failures. Capacity building needs long-term commitment, a critical mass of trainees, and a supportive home environment.

  13. Neuropsychological assessment of mental capacity.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Karen

    2004-09-01

    The assessment of mental capacity to assist legal determinations of competency is potentially a growth area for neuropsychology, although to date neuropsychologists have published relatively little in this area. In this paper a systematic review of methods used to assess capacity is presented, including coverage of specialized tests and interviews used for this purpose. A neuropsychological model for conducting capacity assessments is proposed. This model involves comprehensive assessment of a wide range of cognitive abilities as well as assessment of specific skills and knowledge related to the type of capacity being assessed. The purpose of proposing this model is to stimulate further discussion and debate about the contribution neuropsychologists might make in this area. PMID:15673234

  14. Geochemical changes during biotechnological remediation of an acidic mining lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozau, E.; Frömmichen, R.; Koschorreck, M.; Wendt-Potthoff, K.

    2003-04-01

    Due to lignite mining and pyrite oxidation there are about 100 acidic mining lakes in Lower Lusatia (Germany). Research projects are dealing with the examination of the chemical and ecological state of such mining lakes to assess the possibilities for a natural or an artificial restoration. A biotechnological remediation which accelerates the microbial sulphate and iron reduction (tested by column-experiments) at the water-sediment interface started by addition of lime and straw (enclosure tests) in one of these lakes. Parameters like TRIS (Total reduced inorganic sulphide) and d34S-values indicate first changes in the treated lake sediments. The time dependent development and the stability of reaction products, as well as the interaction between the acidic lake water and the anoxic sediment layer are investigated. Neutralisation rates can be calculated by the amount of accumulated mineral sulphur species. A hydrogeochemical model (based on the code PHREEQC) combined with limnophysical characteristics of the lake is used to understand the geochemical behaviour in more detail and to predict the further development. But there are still some uncertainties (behaviour of littoral lake sediments, groundwater inflow, erosion of acidic dump sediments) in the remediation model.

  15. Working capacity of deaf and visually and mentally handicapped children*

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, G. R.; Goulding, D.; Baggley, G.

    1971-01-01

    Using bicycle ergometers, physical working capacity was determined in 61 deaf, 22 visually handicapped, and 67 mentally retarded children 8 to 17 years of age. Compared to the normal population, the working capacities per kilogram body weight of the deaf children, particularly the girls, were superior to the other groups and to the normal population. The visually handicapped had lower working capacities, while those of the retarded children were similar to the normals. The work efficiency was similar in both groups. For the boys and younger girls, the maximum oxygen uptakes per kilogram body weight were similar in the deaf and visually handicapped, results that were contrary to the working capacity studies. The difference could be explained by postulating that the deaf children did not work to maximal values though lactic acid and respiratory quotient data suggested that they did. The maximum heart rates of the deaf children were lower than the visually handicapped. PMID:5565460

  16. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  17. Maximizing the optical network capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A.; Lavery, Domaniç; Killey, Robert I.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  18. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    PubMed

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  19. Riboflavin Phototransformation on the Changes of Antioxidant Capacities in Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhee; Seol, Nam Gyu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2016-08-01

    Eight phenolic compounds including: p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, trolox, quercetin, curcumin, and resveratrol were treated with riboflavin (RF) photosensitization and in vitro antioxidant capacities of the mixtures were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2' azino bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Mixtures containing p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid under RF photosensitization showed increases in ferric ion reducing ability and radical scavenging activity of DPPH, whereas mixtures of other compounds had decreases in both radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Hydroxycoumaric acid and conjugated hydroxycoumaric and coumaric acids were tentatively identified from RF photosensitized p-coumaric acid, whereas dimmers of vanillic acid were tentatively identified from RF photosensitized vanillic acid. RF photosensitization may be a useful method to enhance antioxidant properties like ferric ion reducing abilities of some selected phenolic compounds. PMID:27387389

  20. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

  1. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  2. The effect of the acidity of rapeseed oil on its transesterification.

    PubMed

    Kwiecien, Jirí; Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the transesterification of vegetable oil with a high acid number at unchanged reaction conditions. Rapeseed oil was used as the raw material and its acid number was changed by the addition of oleic acid (from 0.89 to 12.25 mg KOH/g). Methanol was used for transesterification (molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:6) and potassium hydroxide was used as a catalyst. After the reaction time, the residue of the catalyst was neutralised by gaseous carbon dioxide and the methanol excess was removed. After the separation of two phases, each of them was analyzed (in the ester phase: yield, content of methyl ester and acid number; in the glycerol phase: yield, density, viscosity, content of glycerol, soaps, methyl ester, potassium carbonate and hydrogen carbonate). The obtained data was compared with theoretical material balances and the effect on the saponification of oil was discussed. The results show that the yield of methyl ester (biodiesel) is significantly affected by a higher acid number, as well as enhanced soap formation. On the other hand, the conversion of the oil and acid number of the ester phase remain at constant values in studied borders. PMID:19574043

  3. Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Kong, Kin Weng; Khoo, Hock Eng; Sun, Jian; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Romli, Zulfiki Bin

    2013-01-01

    Nypa fruticans Wurmb. is one of the important underutilized fruit of Malaysia, which lacks scientific attention. Total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities from endosperm extracts of Nypa fruticans (unripe and ripe fruits) were evaluated. Endosperm extract of unripe fruits (EEU) exhibited the highest phenolics (135.6 ± 4.5 mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (68.6 ± 3.1 RE/g), and antioxidant capacity. Free radical scavenging capacity of EEU as assessed by 2-2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals showed inhibitory activity of 78 ± 1.2% and 85 ± 2.6%, respectively. Beta carotene bleaching coefficient of EEU was higher (2550 ± 123), when compared to endosperm extract of ripe fruits (1729 ± 172). Additionally, EEU exhibited high antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Eight phenolic compounds from Nypa fruticans endosperm extracts were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and kaempferol were the major phenolic compounds. Thus this fruit could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23710209

  4. On risk and decisional capacity.

    PubMed

    Checkland, D

    2001-02-01

    Limits to paternalism are, in the liberal democracies, partially defined by the concepts of decision-making capacity/incapacity (mental competence/incompetence). The paper is a response to Ian Wilks's (1997) recent attempt to defend the idea that the standards for decisional capacity ought to vary with the degree of risk incurred by certain choices. Wilks's defense is based on a direct appeal to the logical features of examples and analogies, thus attempting to by-pass earlier criticisms (e.g., Culver & Gert, 1990) of risk-based standards. Wilks's argument is found wanting on the grounds that he misconstrues the logic of such capacity, especially in accounting for conceptual and pragmatic ties with issues of decisional authority. A diagnosis is offered as to the source of Wilks's error (the assumption that mental competence is a species of wider genus of "competence"), and an alternative way of accounting for risk within the predominant contemporary legal framework is sketched. PMID:11262640

  5. THE EQUILIBRIUM FLUORIDE CAPACITY OF ACTIVATED ALUMINA. DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF PH AND COMPETING IONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes research on the determination of the equilibrium fluoride adsorption capacity of small columns of acid pretreated activated alumina (Alcoa F-1 grade). The experimental observations verified the expectation that fluoride is very favorably adsorbed in preferen...

  6. Buffer Capacity: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a quantitative experiment designed to demonstrate buffer action and the measurement of buffer capacity. Discusses how to make acetate buffers, determine their buffer capacity, plot the capacity/pH curve, and interpret the data obtained. (TW)

  7. Spray dryer capacity stretched 50%

    SciTech Connect

    Paraskevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes plant equipment modifications which has resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. The installation of a new atomizer and screening system in NL Chemicals' Newberry Springs plant which produces natural clays for use as rheological additives in industrial coatings, cosmetics and other products, resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. Energy consumption per pound of product was reduced by 7%, and product quality improved. This was achieved in less than three months at an investment of less than 10% of what an additional spray dryer would have cost.

  8. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-yang

    2012-01-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. PMID:22302422

  9. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-yang

    2012-02-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. PMID:22302422

  10. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of modified-lipoxygenase soybeans grown in maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maryland-grown soybean lines modified for low lipoxygenase (LOX) content and a traditional non-modified cultivar were analyzed for fatty acid composition, total phenolic content (TPC), isoflavone composition, relative DPPH• scavenging capacity (RDSC), and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HOSC)....

  11. AccessSTEM: Building Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DO-IT, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A series of activities were undertaken to understand the underrepresentation of people with disabilities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers and increase their participation in these fields. "AccessSTEM" collaborated with key stakeholders to conduct a "Capacity-Building Institute" ("CBI") in April 2009; share…

  12. What limits working memory capacity?

    PubMed

    Oberauer, Klaus; Farrell, Simon; Jarrold, Christopher; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    We review the evidence for the 3 principal theoretical contenders that vie to explain why and how working memory (WM) capacity is limited. We examine the possibility that capacity limitations arise from temporal decay; we examine whether they might reflect a limitation in cognitive resources; and we ask whether capacity might be limited because of mutual interference of representations in WM. We evaluate each hypothesis against a common set of findings reflecting the capacity limit: The set-size effect and its modulation by domain-specificity and heterogeneity of the memory set; the effects of unfilled retention intervals and of distractor processing in the retention interval; and the pattern of correlates of WM tests. We conclude that-at least for verbal memoranda-a decay explanation is untenable. A resource-based view remains tenable but has difficulty accommodating several findings. The interference approach has its own set of difficulties but accounts best for the set of findings, and therefore, appears to present the most promising approach for future development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950009

  13. Capacity Issue Looms for Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    State-level momentum in support of vouchers and tax credits that help students go to private schools highlights what has been a largely theoretical issue: private school capacity to support voucher-financed enrollment. Academics say the national supply of seats in secular and religious private schools is sufficient to meet short-term demand from…

  14. Quantum channel capacities: Multiparty communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demianowicz, Maciej; Horodecki, Paweł

    2006-10-01

    We analyze different aspects of multiparty communication over quantum memoryless channels and generalize some of the key results known from bipartite channels to the multiparty scenario. In particular, we introduce multiparty versions of subspace and entanglement transmission fidelities. We also provide alternative, local, versions of fidelities and show their equivalence to the global ones in context of capacity regions defined. An equivalence of two different capacity notions with respect to two types of fidelities is proven. In analogy to the bipartite case it is shown, via sufficiency of isometric encoding theorem, that additional classical forward side channel does not increase capacity region of any quantum channel with k senders and m receivers which represents a compact unit of general quantum networks theory. The result proves that recently provided capacity region of a multiple access channel [M. Horodecki , Nature 436, 673 (2005); J. Yard , e-print quant-ph/0501045], is optimal also in a scenario of an additional support of forward classical communication.

  15. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  16. Toxicity of acid mine pit lake water remediated with limestone and phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Neil, L.L.; McCullough, C.D.; Lund, M.A.; Evans, L.H.; Tsvetnenko, Y.

    2009-11-15

    Pit lakes are increasingly common worldwide and have potential to provide many benefits. However, lake water toxicity may require remediation before beneficial end uses can be realised. Three treatments to remediate AMD (pH similar to 4.8) pit lake water containing elevated concentrations of Al and Zn from Collie, Western Australia were tested in mesocosms. Treatments were: (a) limestone neutralisation (L), (b) phosphorus amendment (P), and c) combined limestone neutralisation and phosphorus amendment (L+P). Laboratory bioassays with Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetrahymena thermophila assessed remediation. Limestone neutralisation increased pH and reduced heavy metal concentrations by 98% (Al) to 14% (Mg), removing toxicity to the three test species within 2 months. Phosphorus amendment removed toxicity after 6 months of treatment. However, phosphorus amendment to prior limestone neutralisation failed to reduce toxicity more than limestone neutralisation alone. Low concentrations of both phosphorus and nitrogen appear to limit phytoplankton population growth in all treatments.

  17. Protective effect of ellagic acid on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in Cyprinus carpio during malathion exposure.

    PubMed

    Ural, M Ş; Yonar, M E; Mişe Yonar, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine protective efficiency of ellagic acid (EA) on malathion toxicity in carp. The fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1 mg/L), and EA (100 mg per kg of fish weight) was simultaneously administered for 14 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH—Px), and glutathione—S—transferase (GST) activities were evaluated in liver, kidney and gills, which were collected at the end of the experiment. In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrated that malathion caused oxidative stress and negative alterations on the antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish. However, this toxic effect was neutralised by the administration of EA. Thus, the present results suggest that simultaneous treatment with EA (100 mg per kg of fish weight) may alleviate malathion—induced oxidative stress. PMID:26516111

  18. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Heng

    2003-06-01

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.

  19. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  20. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  1. Communication Capacity of Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, S.; Rallan, L.; Vedral, V.

    2000-12-01

    By considering quantum computation as a communication process, we relate its efficiency to its classical communication capacity. This formalism allows us to derive lower bounds on the complexity of search algorithms in the most general context. It enables us to link the mixedness of a quantum computer to its efficiency and also allows us to derive the critical level of mixedness beyond which there is no quantum advantage in computation.

  2. Information capacity of specific interactions.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Miriam H; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael P

    2016-05-24

    Specific interactions are a hallmark feature of self-assembly and signal-processing systems in both synthetic and biological settings. Specificity between components may arise from a wide variety of physical and chemical mechanisms in diverse contexts, from DNA hybridization to shape-sensitive depletion interactions. Despite this diversity, all systems that rely on interaction specificity operate under the constraint that increasing the number of distinct components inevitably increases off-target binding. Here we introduce "capacity," the maximal information encodable using specific interactions, to compare specificity across diverse experimental systems and to compute how specificity changes with physical parameters. Using this framework, we find that "shape" coding of interactions has higher capacity than chemical ("color") coding because the strength of off-target binding is strongly sublinear in binding-site size for shapes while being linear for colors. We also find that different specificity mechanisms, such as shape and color, can be combined in a synergistic manner, giving a capacity greater than the sum of the parts. PMID:27155013

  3. Heat capacity of coal chars

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The selected starting materials were, a North Dakota lignite, an Illinois No. 6 bituminous and a Virginia coking coal. The carbon content of these coals ranged from 59 to 75 wt% (mineral matter included). Half of each of the received coal sample was demineralized using a standard procedure. Chars were prepared from the received and demineralized pulverized coals by pyrolysis. Heating rate of 5/sup 0/C/minute was employed for the pyrolysis under dry nitrogen gas atmosphere. The pyrolysis temperatures were 700, 900 and 1100/sup 0/C for periods of 0.1, 1 and 24. The char samples were characterized by chemical composition analysis, x-ray diffraction and porosimetry. Heat capacity data were collected over 75 to 300/sup 0/K temperature range using an adiabatic calorimeter. The heat capacity of these samples increases, with increasing temperature and moisture content, and its behavior and order of magnitude are similar to that of carbon when compared on a moisture free basis. Due to the uncertainties of the chemical forms of the mineral matter and the water phase below room temperature, all the heat capacity data are analyzed on a dry mineral matter free basis.

  4. Health reform requires policy capacity

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D.; Helms, David

    2015-01-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  5. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-05-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  6. Modified Folin-Ciocalteu antioxidant capacity assay for measuring lipophilic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Berker, Kadriye Isil; Ozdemir Olgun, F Ayca; Ozyurt, Dilek; Demirata, Birsen; Apak, Resat

    2013-05-22

    The Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method of performing a total phenolics assay, originally developed for protein determination, has recently evolved as a total antioxidant capacity assay but was found to be incapable of measuring lipophilic antioxidants due to the high affinity of the FC chromophore, that is, multivalent-charged phospho-tungsto-molybdate(V), toward water. Thus, the FC method was modified and standardized so as to enable simultaneous measurement of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in NaOH-added isobutanol-water medium. Optimal conditions were as follows: dilution ratio of aqueous FC reagent with iso-BuOH (1:2, v/v), final NaOH concentration of 3.5 × 10(-2) M, reaction time of 20 min, and maximum absorption wavelength of 665 nm. The modified procedure was successfully applied to the total antioxidant capacity assay of trolox, quercetin, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, glutathione, and cysteine, as well as of lipophilic antioxidants such as α-tocopherol (vitamin E), butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tertiary butylhydroquinone, lauryl gallate, and β-carotene. The modified FC method reliably quantified ascorbic acid, whereas the conventional method could not. The modified method was reproducible and additive in terms of total antioxidant capacity values of constituents of complex mixtures such as olive oil extract and herbal tea infusion. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of the tested antioxidant compounds correlated well with those found by the Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity reference method. PMID:23627440

  7. Mapping Soil pH Buffering Capacity of Selected Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, A. R.; Kissel, D. E.; Chen, F.; West, L. T.; Adkins, W.; Rickman, D.; Luvall, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity, since it varies spatially within crop production fields, may be used to define sampling zones to assess lime requirement, or for modeling changes in soil pH when acid forming fertilizers or manures are added to a field. Our objective was to develop a procedure to map this soil property. One hundred thirty six soil samples (0 to 15 cm depth) from three Georgia Coastal Plain fields were titrated with calcium hydroxide to characterize differences in pH buffering capacity of the soils. Since the relationship between soil pH and added calcium hydroxide was approximately linear for all samples up to pH 6.5, the slope values of these linear relationships for all soils were regressed on the organic C and clay contents of the 136 soil samples using multiple linear regression. The equation that fit the data best was b (slope of pH vs. lime added) = 0.00029 - 0.00003 * % clay + 0.00135 * % O/C, r(exp 2) = 0.68. This equation was applied within geographic information system (GIS) software to create maps of soil pH buffering capacity for the three fields. When the mapped values of the pH buffering capacity were compared with measured values for a total of 18 locations in the three fields, there was good general agreement. A regression of directly measured pH buffering capacities on mapped pH buffering capacities at the field locations for these samples gave an r(exp 2) of 0.88 with a slope of 1.04 for a group of soils that varied approximately tenfold in their pH buffering capacities.

  8. Rigid separator lead acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cannone, A.G.; Salkind, A.J.; Stempin, J.L.; Wexell, D.R.

    1996-11-01

    Lead acid cells assembled with extruded separators displayed relatively uniform capacity and voltage parameters through 100{sup +} cycles of charge/discharge. This contrasts to failure of control cells with glass mat separators after 60 cycles. The mullite/alumina separators with 50, 60, and 70% porosity separators appear suitable for both flooded and sealed lead acid cell applications. The advantages of the rigid ceramic separators over fiber mat materials are in the uniformity of capacity and voltage, the ease of cell assembly, and the probability that firm stacking pressure on the active material will yield greater cycle life, especially at elevated temperatures.

  9. Antioxidant capacity and antioxidant content in roots of 4 sweetpotato varieties.

    PubMed

    Rautenbach, Fanie; Faber, Mieke; Laurie, Sunette; Laurie, Robert

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant contents (beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, and vitamin C) as well as the antioxidant capacity (ORAC, FRAP, and ABTS) of 4 sweetpotato varieties were measured in this study. The sweetpotato varieties were cultivated under different water regimes and also subjected to thermal processing. The results show that the 2 orange-fleshed varieties (Resisto and W-119) contain significant more beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, and vitamin C than the 2 cream-fleshed varieties (Bosbok and Ndou). Thermal processing decreased the carotenoid and vitamin C content of all the varieties but increased the chlorogenic acid content and antioxidant capacity. Drought stress appears to increase the beta-carotene, vitamin C, and chlorogenic acid contents as well as the antioxidant capacity of some of the sweetpotato varieties, especially W-119. PMID:20629859

  10. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Brazilian Passiflora Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Fernanda Carvalho; Shinagawa, Fernanda Branco; Araujo, Elias da Silva; Costa, Ana Maria; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The seed oils of different varieties of 4 Passiflora species cultivated in Brazil were analyzed and compared regarding their physicochemical parameters, fatty acid composition and the presence of minor components, such as phytosterols, tocopherols, total carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. The antioxidant capacities of the oil extracts were determined using the 2,2'azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] and oxygen radical absorbance capacity methods. The results revealed that all studied Passiflora seed oils possessed similar physicochemical characteristics, except for color, and predominantly contained polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high percentage of linolenic acid (68.75% to 71.54%). Other than the total phytosterol content, the extracted oil from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seeds had higher quantities (% times higher than the average of all samples), of carotenoids (44%), phenolic compounds (282%) and vitamin E (215%, 56%, 398%, and 100% for the α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol isomers, respectively). The methanolic extracts from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seed oil also showed higher antioxidant activity, which was positively correlated with the total phenolic, δ-tocopherol, and vitamin E contents. For the first time, these results indicate that Passiflora species have strong potential regarding the use of their seeds for oil extraction. Due to their interesting composition, the seed oils may be used as a raw material in manufacturing industries in addition to other widely used vegetable oils. PMID:26512548

  11. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  12. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  13. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  14. Lipid binding capacity of spider hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M; Gómez, C; Pollero, R

    1999-09-01

    The spider hemocyanin capacity to bind different lipid classes was evaluated by measuring some binding kinetic parameters. A very high lipoprotein (VHDL) which contains hemocyanin, was isolated from Polybetes pythagoricus hemolymph plasma and delipidated. Hemocyanin was bound separately to labelled palmitic acid, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and triolein resulting in several artificial lipoprotein structures. It was possible to corroborate in vitro the lipid-hemocyanin interactions which had been previously observed and, consequently, the apolipoprotein role played by the respiratory pigment of spiders. Lipoproteins were analysed by gel filtration chromatography, and three subfractions with different hemocyanin structures were obtained. The four lipid classes were only bound to the hexameric structure (420 Kda), possibly to low polarity sites. Upon radioactivity measurements of the protein-associated lipids, maximal binding ratios (Mr), dissociation constants (Kd), and the maximal binding effectiveness at low lipid concentrations (Eo) were calculated. Lipid/protein ratios were increased proportionally to each available lipid concentration, following a hyperbolic binding model. Values of saturation, affinity, and maximal binding efficiency to hemocyanin were found to be different for each lipid class assayed. The highest lipid/protein ratio (41.5) was obtained with the free fatty acid and the lowest (7.2) with triolein. Phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol showed the highest relative affinities for hemocyanin (Kd = 63 x 10(-5) M and 74 x 10(-5) M, respectively). Phosphatidylcholine at low concentrations, similar to the physiological ones, presented the highest Eo value. Maximal lipid/protein ratios reached in vitro, were greater than those in P. pythagoricus VHDL, pointing out that hemocyanin could play the apolipoprotein role even under physiological conditions with a very high plasma lipid concentration. J. Exp. Zool. 284:368-373, 1999. PMID:10451413

  15. Rethinking health research capacity strengthening.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Emily E; Hirsch, Jennifer S; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Health research capacity strengthening (HRCS) is a strategy implemented worldwide to improve the ability of developing countries to tackle the persistent and disproportionate burdens of disease they face. Drawing on a review of existing HRCS literature and our experiences over the course of an HRCS project in Vietnam, we summarise major challenges to the HRCS enterprise at the interpersonal, institutional and macro levels. While over the course of several decades of HRCS initiatives many of these challenges have been well documented, we highlight several considerations that remain underarticulated. We advance critical considerations of the HRCS enterprise by discussing (1) how the organisation of US public health funding shapes the ecology of knowledge production in low- and middle-income country contexts, (2) the barriers US researchers face to effectively collaborate in capacity strengthening for research-to-policy translation, and (3) the potential for unintentional negative consequences if HRCS efforts are not sufficiently reflexive about the limitations of dominant paradigms in public health research and intervention. PMID:23651463

  16. Rethinking health research capacity strengthening

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Emily; Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Health research capacity strengthening (HRCS) is a strategy implemented worldwide to improve the ability of developing countries to tackle the persistent and disproportionate burdens of disease they face. Drawing on a review of existing HRCS literature and our experiences over the course of an NIH-funded HRCS project in Vietnam, we summarise major challenges to the HRCS enterprise at the interpersonal, institutional and macro levels. While over the course of several decades of HRCS initiatives many of these challenges have been well documented, we highlight several considerations that remain under-articulated. We advance critical considerations of the HRCS enterprise by discussing 1) how the organisation of US public health funding shapes the ecology of knowledge production in low- and middle-income country contexts, 2) the barriers US researchers face to effectively collaborating in capacity strengthening for research-to-policy translation, and 3) the potential for unintentional negative consequences if HRCS efforts are not sufficiently reflexive about the limitations of dominant paradigms in public health research and intervention. PMID:23651463

  17. Structural limits for evolutive capacities in complex molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Bergareche, A M; Ostolaza, J F

    1990-01-01

    The possibilities of evolution for a system with and without a code of translation from nucleic acids into proteins are evaluated. Our interest is mainly centred on the enzymatic RNA case since this molecule has, at the same time, reproductive and functional properties. After scanning the evolutive capacities of the enzymatic RNAs, including the possibility to play the role of "synthetase" which would match nucleic acids with amino acids as a transition step towards a code, we will try to show that due to their own functional limitative factors, the matching system (code) is necessary. This would be the only way to transform the formal complexity--complexity which has not entered into action before the translation process--into functional information to drive the instructive self-reproductive process. Once this stage is reached, the system could evolve without a limit. PMID:1707552

  18. U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in reported crude oil distillation capacities and utilization rates among different classes of refineries.

  19. Matching in Vitro Bioaccessibility of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Soluble Coffee by Boosted Regression Trees.

    PubMed

    Podio, Natalia S; López-Froilán, Rebeca; Ramirez-Moreno, Esther; Bertrand, Lidwina; Baroni, María V; Pérez-Rodríguez, María L; Sánchez-Mata, María-Cortes; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in polyphenol profile and antioxidant capacity of five soluble coffees throughout a simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, including absorption through a dialysis membrane. Our results demonstrate that both polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity were characteristic for each type of studied coffee, showing a drop after dialysis. Twenty-seven compounds were identified in coffee by HPLC-MS, while only 14 of them were found after dialysis. Green+roasted coffee blend and chicory+coffee blend showed the highest and lowest content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity before in vitro digestion and after dialysis, respectively. Canonical correlation analysis showed significant correlation between the antioxidant capacity and the polyphenol profile before digestion and after dialysis. Furthermore, boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that only four polyphenol compounds (5-p-coumaroylquinic acid, quinic acid, coumaroyl tryptophan conjugated, and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) appear to be the most relevant to explain the antioxidant capacity after dialysis, these compounds being the most bioaccessible after dialysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report matching the antioxidant capacity of foods with the polyphenol profile by BRT, which opens an interesting method of analysis for future reports on the antioxidant capacity of foods. PMID:26457815

  20. Capacity Reviews for Trades Training in BC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report was commissioned in December 2006 to assess the capacity for trades training in the public post-secondary system with the key objectives to identify current levels of utilization for each of the top trades; identify methods of increasing capacity for top trades; and determine future levels of capacity that can be achieved without…

  1. Understanding Dimensions of Organizational Evaluation Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Isabelle; Cousins, J. Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Organizational evaluation capacity building has been a topic of increasing interest in recent years. However, the actual dimensions of evaluation capacity have not been clearly articulated through empirical research. This study sought to address this gap by identifying the key dimensions of evaluation capacity in Canadian federal government…

  2. Rehabilitation Medicine Summit: Building Research Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frontera, Walter R.; Fuhrer, Marcus J.; Jette, Alan M.; Chan, Leighton; Cooper, Rory A.; Duncan, Pamela W.; Kemp, John D.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Peckham, P. Hunter; Roth, Elliot J.; Tate, Denise G.

    2006-01-01

    The general objective of the "Rehabilitation Medicine Summit: Building Research Capacity" was to advance and promote research in medical rehabilitation by making recommendations to expand research capacity. The 5 elements of research capacity that guided the discussions were (a) researchers; (b) research culture, environment, and infrastructure;…

  3. 25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carrying capacities. 167.6 Section 167.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.6 Carrying capacities. (a) The Commissioner of Indian Affairs on June 26, 1943, promulgated the authorized carrying capacity for each land...

  4. Specific cooling capacity of liquid nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Adcock, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    The assumed cooling process and the method used to calculate the specific cooling capacity of liquid nitrogen are described, and the simple equation fitted to the calculated specific cooling capacity data, together with the graphical form calculated values of the specific cooling capacity of nitrogen for stagnation temperatures from saturation to 350 K and stagnation pressures from 1 to 10 atmospheres, are given.

  5. High current capacity electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Bettis, Edward S.; Watts, Harry L.

    1976-01-13

    An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a "sandwiched" configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces thereof clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with a plurality of contact buttons affixed therein in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors.

  6. The heat capacity mapping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1981-01-01

    The first in a series of low cost Atmospheric Explorer Satellites, the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) was designed to evaluate the utility of thermal inertial and other thermal and reflectance data for: (1) discriminating bedrock and unconsolidated regolith types; (2) mapping soil moisture; (3) measuring plant canopy temperatures; (4) examining thermal circulation in large bodies of water; and (5) monitoring urban heat islands. Final reports from the HCMM investigator's program are beginning to define the utility of day/the night thermal data. Under favorable circumstances, some major rock types can be identified, soil moisture in extensive agricultural and alluvial terrains can be detected and at least semiqualitatively assessed; and circulation of currents in large bodies of water can be followed by noting thermal patterns.

  7. Capacity of the Hopfield model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jianfeng; Tirozzi, Brunello

    1997-05-01

    For a given 0305-4470/30/10/016/img5 if 0305-4470/30/10/016/img6 neurons deviating from the memorized patterns are allowed, we constructively show that if and only if 0305-4470/30/10/016/img7 all stored patterns are fixed points of the Hopfield model. If 0305-4470/30/10/016/img8 neurons are allowed with 0305-4470/30/10/016/img9 then 0305-4470/30/10/016/img10 where 0305-4470/30/10/016/img11 is the distribution function of the normal distribution. The result obtained by Amit and co-workers only formally coincides with the latter case which indicates that the replica trick approach to the capacity of the Hopfield model is only valid in the case 0305-4470/30/10/016/img12.

  8. Partnership to build research capacity.

    PubMed

    Boland, Mary G; Kamikawa, Cindy; Inouye, Jillian; Latimer, Renee W; Marshall, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Today's nursing leaders are setting the stage for the next evolution--bringing together skilled clinicians and administrators with peers in education to create new approaches to leading the profession forward. Partnerships share goals, common purpose, mutual respect, willingness to negotiate and compromise, informed participation, information giving, and shared decision making. The shared practice academia effort between a public university and a private health care system situated in the island state of Hawai'i is described. The medical center and school of nursing pursued individual strategic efforts to build research capacity and used the opportunity to fund academic practice research projects. The mutual need and recognition of the high stakes involved, in concert with stable, committed leaders at all levels, were key to the early success of their efforts. Through the formal research partnership mechanism, a discrete focus was created for efforts and used to move to tactical, operational, and interpersonal integration in this relationship. PMID:21158252

  9. Programming placental nutrient transport capacity

    PubMed Central

    Fowden, A L; Ward, J W; Wooding, F P B; Forhead, A J; Constancia, M

    2006-01-01

    Many animal studies and human epidemiological findings have shown that impaired growth in utero is associated with physiological abnormalities in later life and have linked this to tissue programming during suboptimal intrauterine conditions at critical periods of development. However, few of these studies have considered the contribution of the placenta to the ensuing adult phenotype. In mammals, the major determinant of intrauterine growth is the placental nutrient supply, which, in turn, depends on the size, morphology, blood supply and transporter abundance of the placenta and on synthesis and metabolism of nutrients and hormones by the uteroplacental tissues. This review examines the regulation of placental nutrient transfer capacity and the potential programming effects of nutrition and glucocorticoid over-exposure on placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the role of the Igf2 gene in these processes. PMID:16439433

  10. Total oxidant scavenging capacity of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) seeds and identification of their polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta B; Lichtenthäler, Ramona; Zimmermann, Benno F; Papagiannopoulos, Menelaos; Fabricius, Heinz; Marx, Friedhelm; Maia, José G S; Almeida, Ossalin

    2006-06-14

    The antioxidant capacity of methanol and ethanol seed extracts from Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) against the reactive oxygen species (ROS) peroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radicals was studied with the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay in a modified and automated version. Cold methanol digestion was the most efficient extraction method with respect to the antioxidant capacity. The extracts exhibit good antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, similar to the capacity of the pulp. The antioxidant capacity against peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radicals is even higher. The main antioxidants identified by HPLC-MS and HPLC-CEAD are five different procyanidins (di- through pentamers); furthermore, protocatechuic acid and epicatechin were identified as minor compounds. Determination of TOSC values of HPLC seed extract fractions indicates that the procyanidins contribute substantially to the overall antioxidant capacity. In addition, however, other compounds that have not yet been identified are responsible for a large part of the observed antioxidant capacity. PMID:16756342

  11. Measurement of Antioxidant Capacity by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy Based on Copper(II) Reduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Jiang, Jia; Han, Dandan; Yu, Xinyu; Wang, Kun; Zang, Shuang; Lu, Dayong; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Ziwei

    2016-04-01

    A new method is proposed for measuring the antioxidant capacity by electron spin resonance spectroscopy based on the loss of electron spin resonance signal after Cu(2+) is reduced to Cu(+) with antioxidant. Cu(+) was removed by precipitation in the presence of SCN(-). The remaining Cu(2+) was coordinated with diethyldithiocarbamate, extracted into n-butanol and determined by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Eight standards widely used in antioxidant capacity determination, including Trolox, ascorbic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, caffeic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid were investigated. The standard curves for determining the eight standards were plotted, and results showed that the linear regression correlation coefficients were all high enough (r > 0.99). Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values for the antioxidant standards were calculated, and a good correlation (r > 0.94) between the values obtained by the present method and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity method was observed. The present method was applied to the analysis of real fruit samples and the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of these fruits. PMID:26927869

  12. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  13. Mammalian cell culture capacity for biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Dawn M; Ransohoff, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    : With worldwide sales of biopharmaceuticals increasing each year and continuing growth on the horizon, the manufacture of mammalian biopharmaceuticals has become a major global enterprise. We describe the current and future industry wide supply of manufacturing capacity with regard to capacity type, distribution, and geographic location. Bioreactor capacity and the use of single-use products for biomanufacturing are also profiled. An analysis of the use of this capacity is performed, including a discussion of current trends that will influence capacity growth, availability, and utilization in the coming years. PMID:23748352

  14. Heat Capacity Identification Method Using MT System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Arata; Sugimoto, Kenji

    This paper proposes a heat capacity identification method for cooking household appliances. Cooking household appliances select a cooking flow according to a cooking object capacity, hence the heat capacity identification is a very important function. However, a conventional heat capacity identification method has been based on one variable using “if-then rules”, hence it gives a low accuracy. This paper proposes a new heat capacity identification method that uses Mahalanobis-Taguchi System which is similar to discriminant analysis, and the effectiveness of this method is confirmed by the experiment.

  15. Electrochemical antimony removal from accumulator acid: results from removal trials in laboratory cells.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, M E Henry; Koparal, A Savas

    2011-11-30

    Regeneration of spent accumulator acid could be an alternative process for crystallization, neutralisation and disposal. Therefore, for the first time in a study of the possibilities of electrochemical removal of antimony and accumulator acid regeneration on a laboratory scale, two synthetic and several real systems containing sulfuric acid of concentrations ranging between 28% and 36%, and antimony species were tested. Discontinuous electrochemical reactors with anion exchange membranes were successfully used in these experiments, which were conducted at a temperature of 35°C. Removal of antimony using cells that were not divided by a separator, however, was not possible. In selected experiments, by varying the electrode material, type of electrolyte, and cell current, the concentration of antimony could be reduced from the range of 5 ppm to 0.15 ppm. This resulted in current efficiencies between 0.00002% and 0.001%, and in specific electroenergy demands between 100 Wh L(-1) and 2000 Wh L(-1). In other experiments on substances with antimony contents up to 3500 mg L(-1), the current efficiencies obtained were more than a thousandfold higher. In contrast to the formally high relative energy consumption parameters absolute demand parameters are relatively small and favour the electrochemical method in small scale application. Besides plate electrodes, 3D-cathodes were used. Copper- and graphite cathodes produced the best results. PMID:21978586

  16. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  17. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:25075608

  18. Effects of exercise training on coronary transport capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-02-01

    Coronary transport capacity was estimated in eight sedentary control and eight exercise-trained anesthetized dogs by determining the differences between base line and the highest coronary blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) obtained during maximal adenosine vasodilation with coronary perfusion pressure constant. The anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery was cannulated and pump- perfused under constant-pressure conditions (approximately equal to 100 Torr) while aortic, central venous, and coronary perfusion pressures, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and coronary flow were monitored. Myocardial extraction and PS of /sup 51/Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were determined with the single-injection indicator-diffusion method. The efficacy of the 16 +/- 1 wk exercise training program was shown by significant increases in the succinate dehydrogenase activities of the gastrocnemius, gluteus medialis, and long head of triceps brachii muscles. There were no differences between control and trained dogs for either resting coronary blood flow or PS. During maximal vasodilation with adenosine, the trained dogs had significantly lower perfusion pressures with constant flow and, with constant-pressure vasodilation, greater coronary blood flow and PS. It is concluded that exercise training in dogs induces an increased coronary transport capacity that includes increases in coronary blood flow capacity (26% of control) and capillary diffusion capacity (82% of control).

  19. DRYING AFFECTS ARTEMISININ, DIHYDROARTEMISINIC ACID, ARTEMISINIC ACID, AND THE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L. LEAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anti-parasitic, anti-cancer, and anti-viral sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, commercially extracted from Artemisia annua, is in high demand worldwide. However, limited information is available on how post-harvest drying procedures affect plant biochemistry leading to the biosynthesis of artem...

  20. Antioxidant Capacities of Fractions of Bamboo Shaving Extract and Their Antioxidant Components.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jinyan; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Gongnian; Chen, Feng; Lee, Bolim; Ge, Qing; You, Yuru; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted for evaluation of antioxidant activities of four fractions from bamboo shavings extract (BSE) and their antioxidant components. The antioxidant capacities of BSE and four fractions on ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays exhibited the following descending order: DF > n-butanol fraction (BF) > BSE ≈ ethyl acetate fraction (AF) > water fraction (WF). Among the identified phenolic compounds, caffeic acid exhibited the highest antioxidant capacities on DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays. An extremely significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities with the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids, or total phenolics was observed in this study. The result indicated that the bamboo shaving extract and its solvent fractions could act as natural antioxidants in light of their potent antioxidant activities. PMID:27483230

  1. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Polish Apple Ciders

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, A.; Ruszkiewicz, M.; Biskup, I.

    2015-01-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated. PMID:26798183

  2. The COSPAR Capacity Building Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, C.; Willmore, P.; Méndez, M.; Mathieu, P.-P.; Santolik, O.; Smith, R.

    2011-07-01

    The COSPAR Capacity Building Workshops have been conceived to meet the following objectives: (1) To increase knowledge and use of public archives of space data in order both to broaden the scope of research programs in developing countries and to ensure that scientists in those countries are aware of the full range of facilities that are available to them; (2) To provide highly-practical instruction in the use of these archives and the associated publicly-available software; and (3) To foster personal links between participants and experienced scientists attending the workshops to contribute to reducing the isolation often experienced by scientists in developing countries. Since 2001 a total of twelve workshops have been successfully held in different scientific areas (X-ray, Gamma-ray, Space Optical and UV Astronomy, Magnetospheric Physics, Space Oceanography and Planetary Science) in nine developing countries (Brazil, India, China, South Africa, Morocco, Romania, Uruguay, Egypt and Malaysia). In this contribution we discuss the modalities of the workshops, the experience so-far gained, and the future including collaborations with other institutions sharing the aim of increasing the scientific activities in developing countries.

  3. Visualization of Buffer Capacity with 3-D "Topo" Surfaces: Buffer Ridges, Equivalence Point Canyons and Dilution Ramps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Garon C.; Hossain, Md Mainul

    2016-01-01

    BufCap TOPOS is free software that generates 3-D topographical surfaces ("topos") for acid-base equilibrium studies. It portrays pH and buffer capacity behavior during titration and dilution procedures. Topo surfaces are created by plotting computed pH and buffer capacity values above a composition grid with volume of NaOH as the x axis…

  4. Should the Functional Residual Capacity be Ignored?

    PubMed Central

    Selvi E, Chandra; K.V Rao, Kuppu; Malathi

    2013-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: The functional residual capacity was given the least importance than the other lung volume parameters. Studies have revealed the restrictive pattern of lung disease in patients with liver cirrhosis. We aimed to analyze the importance of the functional residual capacity and other lung volumes of cirrhotic patients. Subjects and Methods: Forty (40) patients with cirrhosis (Child’s-B) were enrolled in this study. The vital capacity was measured by an instrument called V02 Max 22. The other lung volumes which were measured were derived parameters. The functional residual capacity was measured by the nitrogen wash-out method. Results: The measured value of the functional residual capacity was below normal as compared to the reference value. The total lung capacity and the vital capacity were positively correlated with the functional residual capacity. The residual volume was found to be increased in twelve out of forty cirrhotic patients. Conclusion: The functional residual capacity can be determined by the compliance of the lung and the chest wall. The patients with a reduced functional residual capacity may be suffering from dyspnoea, probably due to the restrictive pattern of the lung disease. Hence, the reduced lung volumes of the subjects may be due to the abnormalities in the mechanics of ventilation. PMID:23450122

  5. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  6. Dating human cultural capacity using phylogenetic principles.

    PubMed

    Lind, J; Lindenfors, P; Ghirlanda, S; Lidén, K; Enquist, M

    2013-01-01

    Humans have genetically based unique abilities making complex culture possible; an assemblage of traits which we term "cultural capacity". The age of this capacity has for long been subject to controversy. We apply phylogenetic principles to date this capacity, integrating evidence from archaeology, genetics, paleoanthropology, and linguistics. We show that cultural capacity is older than the first split in the modern human lineage, and at least 170,000 years old, based on data on hyoid bone morphology, FOXP2 alleles, agreement between genetic and language trees, fire use, burials, and the early appearance of tools comparable to those of modern hunter-gatherers. We cannot exclude that Neanderthals had cultural capacity some 500,000 years ago. A capacity for complex culture, therefore, must have existed before complex culture itself. It may even originated long before. This seeming paradox is resolved by theoretical models suggesting that cultural evolution is exceedingly slow in its initial stages. PMID:23648831

  7. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  8. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  9. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  10. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  11. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  12. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  13. Unpacking "Health Reform" and "Policy Capacity"

    PubMed Central

    Legge, David; Gleeson, Deborah H

    2015-01-01

    Health reform is the outcome of dispersed policy initiatives in different sectors, at different levels and across time. Policy work which can drive coherent health reform needs to operate across the governance structures as well as the institutions that comprise healthcare systems. Building policy capacity to support health reform calls for clarity regarding the nature of such policy work and the elements of policy capacity involved; and for evidence regarding effective strategies for capacity building. PMID:26673185

  14. Large capacity cryopropellant orbital storage facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive study was performed to develop the major features of a large capacity orbital propellant storage facility for the space-based cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. Projected propellant usage and delivery schedules can be accommodated by two orbital tank sets of 100,000 lb storage capacity, with advanced missions expected to require increased capacity. Information is given on tank pressurization schemes, propellant transfer configurations, pump specifications, the refrigeration system, and flight tests.

  15. Statistical measures for workload capacity analysis.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Joseph W; Townsend, James T

    2012-10-01

    A critical component of how we understand a mental process is given by measuring the effect of varying the workload. The capacity coefficient (Townsend & Nozawa, 1995; Townsend & Wenger, 2004) is a measure on response times for quantifying changes in performance due to workload. Despite its precise mathematical foundation, until now rigorous statistical tests have been lacking. In this paper, we demonstrate statistical properties of the components of the capacity measure and propose a significance test for comparing the capacity coefficient to a baseline measure or two capacity coefficients to each other. PMID:23175582

  16. Capacity fade of Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevated temperatures. Part II. Capacity fade analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadass, P.; Haran, Bala; White, Ralph; Popov, Branko N.

    A complete capacity fade analysis was carried out for Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevated temperatures. The major causes of capacity loss were identified and a complete capacity fade balance was carried out to account for the total capacity loss of Li-ion battery as a function of cycle number and temperature. The three most significant parameters that cause capacity loss were loss of secondary active material (LiCoO 2/carbon) and primary active material (Li +) and the rate capability losses. Intrinsic capacity measurements for both positive and negative electrode has been used to estimate the capacity loss due to secondary active material and a charge balance gives the capacity lost due to primary active material (Li +). Capacity fade has been quantified with secondary active material loss dominating the other losses.

  17. On the dissolution kinetics of humic acid particles. Effect of monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Brigante, Maximiliano; Zanini, Graciela; Avena, Marcelo

    2008-05-01

    The dissolution kinetics of humic acid particles has been studied in batch experiments, and the effects of monocarboxylic (formic, acetic, and propionic) acids are reported. The dissolution rate of the particles is significantly affected by the presence of monocarboxylic acids in the pH range 4-10. At pH 7, for example, propionic acid increases 30 times this dissolution rate. The capacity of increasing the dissolution rate is in the order formic acidacidacid, and this dissolving capacity of carboxylics seems to be directly related to their affinity for HA molecules located at the surface of the solid particles. The results indicate that carboxylics and related compounds may affect markedly the mobility and transport of humic substances in the environment. PMID:18328533

  18. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  19. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of leaves from 10 Bene (Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Hatamnia, Ali Asghar; Rostamzad, Arman; Hosseini, Mohammadyar; Abbaspour, Nasser; Darvishzadeh, Reza; Malekzadeh, Parviz; Aminzadeh, Bakhtyar Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Leaves of 10 Bene genotypes were collected from six provinces (West Azerbaijan, Kurdistan, Kermanshah, Ilam, Hamedan and Lorestan) in Iran. This study was carried out to better characterise the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition, as well as to evaluate the correlation between content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in 10 genotypes of Bene. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was measured using different assays: ferric reducing antioxidant power, nitric oxide radical scavenging and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The results indicated that the antioxidant capacity can be related to total phenolic and flavonoid content, so that among all the genotypes studied here, the highest and the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant activity were observed in B2 and B10 genotypes, respectively. Analysing the phenolic composition using high performance liquid chromatography, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid were found in all investigated genotypes. PMID:25853287

  20. Emergent Biosynthetic Capacity in Simple Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hsuan-Chao; Levy, Roie; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have an astonishing capacity to transform their environments. Yet, the metabolic capacity of a single species is limited and the vast majority of microorganisms form complex communities and join forces to exhibit capabilities far exceeding those achieved by any single species. Such enhanced metabolic capacities represent a promising route to many medical, environmental, and industrial applications and call for the development of a predictive, systems-level understanding of synergistic microbial capacity. Here we present a comprehensive computational framework, integrating high-quality metabolic models of multiple species, temporal dynamics, and flux variability analysis, to study the metabolic capacity and dynamics of simple two-species microbial ecosystems. We specifically focus on detecting emergent biosynthetic capacity – instances in which a community growing on some medium produces and secretes metabolites that are not secreted by any member species when growing in isolation on that same medium. Using this framework to model a large collection of two-species communities on multiple media, we demonstrate that emergent biosynthetic capacity is highly prevalent. We identify commonly observed emergent metabolites and metabolic reprogramming patterns, characterizing typical mechanisms of emergent capacity. We further find that emergent secretion tends to occur in two waves, the first as soon as the two organisms are introduced, and the second when the medium is depleted and nutrients become limited. Finally, aiming to identify global community determinants of emergent capacity, we find a marked association between the level of emergent biosynthetic capacity and the functional/phylogenetic distance between community members. Specifically, we demonstrate a “Goldilocks” principle, where high levels of emergent capacity are observed when the species comprising the community are functionally neither too close, nor too distant. Taken together, our results

  1. Ion-exchange properties of strontium hydroxyapatite under acidic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Nishioka, Hitoshi; Moriga, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Hiromu; Moffat, J.B.

    1998-09-01

    The ion exchange of strontium hydroxyapatite (SrHAp) with Pb{sup 2+} has been investigated under acidic conditions at 293 K. The addition of various acids to the exchanging solution enhanced the exchange capacity in the order HCl > HBr > HF > HNO{sub 3} > no acid, corresponding to the formation of halogen apatites with the former three acids or hydrogen phosphate with HNO{sub 3}. Since the ion-exchange capacity of SrHAp under nonacidic conditions is higher than that of chlorapatite, the aforementioned observations can be attributed to the participation of the protons introduced by the acids.z

  2. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  3. Synthesis of metal-adeninate frameworks with high separation capacity on C2/C1 hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Nan; Tan, Yan-Xi; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    By introducing isophthalic acid or 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid to assemble with adenine and cadmium salt, two isostructural and anionic porous metal-organic frameworks (1 and 2) possessing the novel (4,8)-connected sqc topology are presented here. 1 shows permanent porosity with Langmuir surface area of 770.1 m2/g and exhibits high separation capacity on C2/C1 hydrocarbons.

  4. Wind Capacity Credit in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Porter, K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an analysis and comparison of recent studies on the capacity credit of wind in the United States. We offer suggestions and recommendations for future studies, based on the recent work. We examine key wind capacity studies in the United States, emphasizing those done in the past three years.

  5. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...

  6. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...

  7. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...

  8. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...

  9. A capacity assessment towards more resilient societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlicke, C.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    Social capacity building for natural hazards is a topic increasingly gaining relevance not only for so-called developing countries but also for European welfare states which are continuously challenged by the social, economic and ecological impacts of natural hazards. Following an outline of recent governance changes with regard to natural hazards, we develop a heuristic model of social capacity building by taking into account a wide range of existing expertise from different fields of research. Particular attention is paid to social vulnerability and its assessment, as well as to risk communication and risk education as specific strategies of social capacity building. We propose to distinguish between interventionist and participatory approaches, thus enabling for a better understanding of existing practices of social capacity building as well as their particular strengths and weaknesses. It is from this typology the presentation will develop two kinds of operational social capacity audits; one for communities and one for organisations. These assessments aim to identify appropriate measures and strategies regarding how to enhance, develop and build different kinds of capacities. By using these assessments participants will be able to identify strong capacities and can refer to the recommendations for tips on how to improve capacities identified as weak. That way deficits and outcomes are defined by those who are most likely to be affected by a future hazard event and most likely to be implementing improvements towards resilience.

  10. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... intelligence, mental illness, incompetence, condition, or disease, is a danger to himself or herself or to... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mental capacity. 1572.109 Section 1572.109... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.109 Mental capacity. (a) An applicant has...

  11. UNDERSTANDING, DERIVING, AND COMPUTING BUFFER CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems often to be neglected in chemistry courses and given minimal treatment in most texts. However, buffer capacity is very important in the chemistry of natural waters and potable water. It affects corro...

  12. REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

    2009-11-30

    The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

  13. Measuring Fiscal Capacity of School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Harry A.

    Ways of measuring the fiscal capacity of school systems are examined in this paper, which presents a representative tax system model. Fiscal capacity is influenced by factors other than tax base size; the "ideal" model should address adjustments for variations in cost across communities and school systems. The first section examines the…

  14. Developing Evaluation Capacity through Process Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to make process use an independent variable in evaluation practice: the purposeful means of building an organization's capacity to conduct and use evaluations in the long run. The goal of evaluation capacity building (ECB) is to strengthen and sustain effective program evaluation practices through a number of activities:…

  15. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  16. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  17. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  20. The Heat Capacity of Ideal Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The heat capacity of an ideal gas has been shown to be calculable directly by statistical mechanics if the energies of the quantum states are known. However, unless one makes careful calculations, it is not easy for a student to understand the qualitative results. Why there are maxima (and occasionally minima) in heat capacity-temperature curves…

  1. Assessment of Capacity in an Aging Society

    PubMed Central

    Moye, Jennifer; Marson, Daniel C.; Edelstein, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the assessment and scientific study of capacity in older adults has emerged as a distinct field of clinical and research activity for psychologists. This new field reflects the convergence of several trends: the aging of American society, the growing incidence and prevalence of dementia, and the patient rights, deinstitutionalization, and disability rights movements. Because of these forces, capacity issues now permeate the fabric of everyday life, whether in the form of guardianship petitions, questions of capacity to consent to treatment, the ability to make a new will, or participation in human research. In seeking to resolve these issues, families, clinicians, and legal professionals increasingly turn to psychologists to assess a capacity and to provide empirically supported judgments that properly balance autonomy and protection for the individual. Psychologists have taken a leading role in the development of functional assessment instruments that measure important aspects of the capacity construct. In addition, psychology has been a major contributor to the scientific study of capacity. In collaboration with colleagues from medicine and law, psychologists have articulated crucial theoretical frameworks that integrate legal, clinical, and ethical dimensions of the capacity problem. This article focuses on the evolution of theory, law, science, and practice in the evaluation of capacity in older adults and its recent culmination in a series of interdisciplinary handbooks sponsored by the American Psychological Association and the American Bar Association. PMID:23586491

  2. 15 CFR 241.1 - Capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.1 Capacities. (a) The capacities of the standard barrel for fruits, vegetables, and other dry commodities, other than cranberries, and its subdivisions, are... standard cranberry barrel and its subdivisions are as follows: Size Cubic inches Bushels 1 Quarts...

  3. 15 CFR 241.1 - Capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.1 Capacities. (a) The capacities of the standard barrel for fruits, vegetables, and other dry commodities, other than cranberries, and its subdivisions, are... standard cranberry barrel and its subdivisions are as follows: Size Cubic inches Bushels 1 Quarts...

  4. 15 CFR 241.1 - Capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.1 Capacities. (a) The capacities of the standard barrel for fruits, vegetables, and other dry commodities, other than cranberries, and its subdivisions, are... standard cranberry barrel and its subdivisions are as follows: Size Cubic inches Bushels 1 Quarts...

  5. 15 CFR 241.1 - Capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.1 Capacities. (a) The capacities of the standard barrel for fruits, vegetables, and other dry commodities, other than cranberries, and its subdivisions, are... standard cranberry barrel and its subdivisions are as follows: Size Cubic inches Bushels 1 Quarts...

  6. 15 CFR 241.1 - Capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.1 Capacities. (a) The capacities of the standard barrel for fruits, vegetables, and other dry commodities, other than cranberries, and its subdivisions, are... standard cranberry barrel and its subdivisions are as follows: Size Cubic inches Bushels 1 Quarts...

  7. Thinking about Community Capacity Building & Asset Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).

    This book describes the mindshift that is the key to successful community capacity building and to the development of social and economic structures that nurture local sustainability. Its focus is how the development of community, through community capacity building, connects, animates, and informs citizens. Chapter I introduces community building…

  8. Assessment of capacity in an aging society.

    PubMed

    Moye, Jennifer; Marson, Daniel C; Edelstein, Barry

    2013-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, the assessment and scientific study of capacity in older adults has emerged as a distinct field of clinical and research activity for psychologists. This new field reflects the convergence of several trends: the aging of American society, the growing incidence and prevalence of dementia, and the patient rights, deinstitutionalization, and disability rights movements. Because of these forces, capacity issues now permeate the fabric of everyday life, whether in the form of guardianship petitions, questions of capacity to consent to treatment, the ability to make a new will, or participation in human research. In seeking to resolve these issues, families, clinicians, and legal professionals increasingly turn to psychologists to assess a capacity and to provide empirically supported judgments that properly balance autonomy and protection for the individual. Psychologists have taken a leading role in the development of functional assessment instruments that measure important aspects of the capacity construct. In addition, psychology has been a major contributor to the scientific study of capacity. In collaboration with colleagues from medicine and law, psychologists have articulated crucial theoretical frameworks that integrate legal, clinical, and ethical dimensions of the capacity problem. This article focuses on the evolution of theory, law, science, and practice in the evaluation of capacity in older adults and its recent culmination in a series of interdisciplinary handbooks sponsored by the American Psychological Association and the American Bar Association. PMID:23586491

  9. On entanglement-assisted classical capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holevo, A. S.

    2002-09-01

    We give a modified proof of the recent result of C. H. Bennett, P. W. Shor, J. A. Smolin, and A. V. Thapliyal concerning entanglement-assisted classical capacity of a quantum channel and discuss the relation between entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities.

  10. Leadership Capacity for Lasting School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Linda

    This book is intended to enable educators to more fully implement the concept of leadership capacity in schools and districts. It begins by outlining the five major prerequisites for high leadership capacity: (1) skillful participation in the work of leadership; (2) inquiry-based use of data to inform decisions and practices; (3) broad involvement…

  11. 14 CFR 25 - Traffic and Capacity Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting part 241, section 25, see the List of CFR Sections... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Traffic and Capacity Elements Section 25... Traffic Reporting Requirements Section 25 Traffic and Capacity Elements General Instructions. (a)...

  12. Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenic Capacity Is Regulated by Elovl6

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chong Yew; Virtue, Samuel; Bidault, Guillaume; Dale, Martin; Hagen, Rachel; Griffin, Julian L.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Although many transcriptional pathways regulating BAT have been identified, the role of lipid biosynthetic enzymes in thermogenesis has been less investigated. Whereas cold exposure causes changes in the fatty acid composition of BAT, the functional consequences of this remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we demonstrate that the enzyme Elongation of Very Long Chain fatty acids 6 (Elovl6) is necessary for the thermogenic action of BAT. Elovl6 is responsible for converting C16 non-essential fatty acids into C18 species. Loss of Elovl6 does not modulate traditional BAT markers; instead, it causes reduced expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain components and lower BAT thermogenic capacity. The reduction in BAT activity appears to be counteracted by increased beiging of scWAT. When beige fat is disabled by thermoneutrality or aging, Elovl6 KO mice gain weight and have increased scWAT mass and impaired carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, our study suggests fatty acid chain length is important for BAT function. PMID:26628376

  13. Dating human cultural capacity using phylogenetic principles

    PubMed Central

    Lind, J.; Lindenfors, P.; Ghirlanda, S.; Lidén, K.; Enquist, M.

    2013-01-01

    Humans have genetically based unique abilities making complex culture possible; an assemblage of traits which we term “cultural capacity”. The age of this capacity has for long been subject to controversy. We apply phylogenetic principles to date this capacity, integrating evidence from archaeology, genetics, paleoanthropology, and linguistics. We show that cultural capacity is older than the first split in the modern human lineage, and at least 170,000 years old, based on data on hyoid bone morphology, FOXP2 alleles, agreement between genetic and language trees, fire use, burials, and the early appearance of tools comparable to those of modern hunter-gatherers. We cannot exclude that Neanderthals had cultural capacity some 500,000 years ago. A capacity for complex culture, therefore, must have existed before complex culture itself. It may even originated long before. This seeming paradox is resolved by theoretical models suggesting that cultural evolution is exceedingly slow in its initial stages. PMID:23648831

  14. Health promotion capacity mapping: the Korean situation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Eun Woo; Engelhardt, Katrin

    2007-06-01

    Ten years ago the Republic of Korea enacted the National Health Promotion Act, setting the stage for health promotion action in the country. A National Health Promotion Fund was established, financed through tobacco taxes, which is now one of the largest in the world. However, despite abundant financial resources, the infrastructure needed to plan, implement, coordinate and evaluate health promotion efforts is still underdeveloped. Currently, health promotion capacity mapping efforts are emerging in Korea. Two international capacity mapping tools have been used to assess the Korean situation, namely HP-Source and the Health Promotion Capacity Profile, which was developed prior to the sixth Global Conference of Health Promotion, held in August 2005 in Bangkok, Thailand. The article summarizes and discusses the results of the capacity mapping exercise, highlights its challenges and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of health promotion capacity mapping. PMID:17341492

  15. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) report containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. The report includes tables detailing working and net available shell storage capacity by type of facility, product, and Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District). Net available shell storage capacity is broken down further to show the percent for exclusive use by facility operators and the percent leased to others. Crude oil storage capacity data are also provided for Cushing, Oklahoma, an important crude oil market center. Data are released twice each year near the end of May (data for March 31) and near the end of November (data for September 30).

  16. Sulfide Capacity in Ladle Slag at Steelmaking Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allertz, Carl; Sichen, Du

    2015-12-01

    Sulfide capacity measurements were conducted at 1823 K and 1873 K (1550 °C and 1600 °C) for the quaternary Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 system, for typical compositions used in the ladle in steelmaking. A copper-slag equilibrium was used under controlled oxygen and sulfur potentials. The sulfide capacity is strongly dependent on the composition and it was found to increase with the basic oxides, while it decreases with increase of the acidic components. It was found that CaO is more effective in holding sulfur in the slag compared to MgO when replacing SiO2. For the present slag compositions, Al2O3 and SiO2 behaved similar with respect to sulfur, and no considerable effect could be recorded when replacing one for the other. The sulfide capacity was also found to be strongly dependent on the temperature, increasing with temperature. The present results were compared with industrial data from the ladle, after vacuum treatment, and they were in good agreement.

  17. Polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of Epilobium species.

    PubMed

    Hevesi Tóth, Barbara; Blazics, Balázs; Kéry, Agnes

    2009-01-15

    Epilobium species (Onagraceae) are commonly used herbal remedies in traditional, adjuvant therapy of benignus prostate hyperplasia (BPH), however the pharmacological and clinical standardization of commercially available Epilobii herba (willow-herb) remains difficult. Willow-herb products usually consist of mixtures from various species, with different phenoloid content, often only partially identified. The present study reports comprehensive LC-MS/MS investigation on the polyphenol composition of the most common Epilobium species, emphasizing the pharmaceutical importance of a uniform standardization protocol in case of their products. The antioxidant capacity of species was evaluated by a simple spectrophotometric method, using ABTS(+) (2,2'azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)). High ratio of macrocyclic tannins, mainly oenothein B was identified in all Epilobium species examined. Flavonoid composition of Epilobium extracts showed several differences, especially comparing E. angustifolium to other species. Myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and their various glycosides were dominant in samples, but their combination and ratio were distinctive in all cases. Epilobium extracts showed high radical-scavenger activity, comparable to that of well-known antioxidants, Trolox and ascorbic acid. Among species examined, extract of Epilobium parviflorum possessed the highest antioxidant capacity (EC(50)=1.71+/-0.05 microg/ml). PMID:19013046

  18. Study on the Korean adult cranial capacity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y I; Lee, K H; Choi, B Y; Lee, K S; Lee, H Y; Sir, W S; Kim, H J; Koh, K S; Han, S H; Chung, M S

    1995-08-01

    Cranial capacity was measured in Korean adult skulls. The cavity was filled with rice seeds and the volume of the seeds were measured in a graduated cylinder. The results were 1470 +/- 107 (mean +/- standard deviation) in male and 1317 +/- 117 cc in female skulls. These values were in good accordance with those previously reported. In addition, regression formulae were obtained with the product of the length, breadth, and height of the skull as an independent parameter and the measured capacity as a dependent one. With known external measurements, the expected cranial capacity was as follows: when using baso-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 307.5 + 333 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) female: capacity = -12.0 + 435 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) and, when using auriculo-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 214.6 + 429 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height) female: capacity = 131.6 + 461 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height). PMID:8593202

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package.

  20. Water stress induces changes in polyphenol profile and antioxidant capacity in poplar plants (Populus spp.).

    PubMed

    Popović, B M; Štajner, D; Ždero-Pavlović, R; Tumbas-Šaponjac, V; Čanadanović-Brunet, J; Orlović, S

    2016-08-01

    This paper is aimed to characterize young poplar plants under the influence of water stress provoked by polyethileneglycol 6000 (PEG 6000). Three polar genotypes (M1, B229, and PE19/66) were grown in hydroponics and subjected to 100 and 200 mOsm PEG 6000 during six days. Polyphenol characterization, two enzymatic markers and antioxidant capacity in leaves and roots were investigated in stressed plants. Total phenol content, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and DPPH antiradical power (DPPH ARP) were determined for estimating total antioxidant capacity. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were determined as enzymatic markers. Polyphenol characterization of poplar samples was performed by HPLC-PDA analysis. All results were subjected to correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Inspite of the decrease of total phenol content in investigated genotypes, as well as total antioxidant capacity, some of polyphenols were affected by stress like flavonoids chrysin, myricetine, kaempferol and isoferulic acid in roots of B229 genotype (Populus deltoides). Genotype B229 also showed the increase of antioxidant capacity and PAL activity in root and leaves under stress what could be the indicator of the adaptability of poplar plants to water stress. Significant positive correlations were obtained between PAL, antioxidant capacity as well as phenolic acids among themselves. Chemometric evaluation showed close interdependence between flavonoids, FRAP, DPPH antiradical power and both investigated enzymes of polyphenol metabolism, PAL and PPO. PMID:27116372

  1. Photovoltaics effective capacity: Interim final report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, R.; Seals, R.

    1997-11-01

    The authors provide solid evidence, based on more than 8 million data points, that regional photovoltaic (PV) effective capacity is largely unrelated to the region`s solar resource. They confirm, however, that effective capacity is strongly related to load-shape characteristics. The load-shape effective-capacity relationship appears to be valid for end-use loads as small as 100 kW, except possibly in the case of electrically heated buildings. This relationship was used as a tool to produce a US map of PV`s effective capacity. The regions of highest effective capacities include (1) the central US from the northern Great Plains to the metropolitan areas of Chicago and Detroit, down to the lower Mississippi Valley, (2) California and western Arizona, and (3) the northeast metropolitan corridor. The features of this map are considerably different from the traditional solar resource maps. They tend to reflect the socio-economic and climatic factors that indirectly drive PV`s effective capacity: e.g., commercial air-conditioning, little use of electric heat, and strong summer heat waves. The map provides a new and significant insight to a comprehensive valuation of the PV resource. The authors assembled preliminary evidence showing that end-use load type may be related to PV`s effective capacity. Highest effective capacities were found for (nonelectrically heated) office buildings, followed by hospitals. Lowest capacities were found for airports and residences. Many more data points are needed, however, to ascertain and characterize these preliminary findings.

  2. FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING CAPACITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN DEERBERRY (Vaccinium stamineum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit from three genotypes (B-76, B-59 and SHF-3A) of deerberry [Vaccinium stamineum L.] were evaluated for fruit quality, total anthocyanin and phenolic contents, antioxidants, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The fruit soluble solids, titratable acids, total anthocyanins, an...

  3. Fugitive gas adsorption capacity of biomass and animal-manure derived biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research characterized and investigated ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gas adsorption capacities of low- and high-temperature biochars made from wood shavings and chicken litter. The biochar samples were activated with steam or phosphoric acid. The specific surface areas and pore volumes of the a...

  4. Ammonia adsorption capacity of biomass and animal-manure derived biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to characterize and investigate ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gas adsorption capacities of low- and high-temperature biochars made from wood shavings and chicken litter. The biochar samples were activated with steam or phosphoric acid. The specific surface areas and...

  5. Assay dilution factors confound measures of total antioxidant capacity in polyphenol-rich juices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent to which sample dilution factor (DF) affects Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) values is poorly understood. Thus, we examined the impact of DF on the ORAC, FRAP, DPPH, and Total Phenols (TP) assays using pomegranate juice (PJ), grape juice (GJ), selected flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and ella...

  6. Roast effects on the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of almonds, cashews, hazelnuts and peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oilseeds generally have excellent nutritional properties, which on a macro-nutritional level are attributed to favorable fatty acid, protein, and fiber profiles, among others. More recently, some oilseed antioxidant capacities have been measured as these properties are important for both nutritiona...

  7. Representation of the Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-08-01

    An important emerging issue is the estimation of renewables' contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly, effective load-carrying capacity (ELCC), are considered to be the most robust techniques for addressing this resource variability. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model and other long-term electricity capacity planning models require an approach to estimating CV for generalized PV and system configurations with low computational and data requirements. In this paper we validate treatment of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity value by ReEDS capacity expansion model by comparing model results to literature for a range of energy penetration levels. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons--despite not being resolved at an hourly scale.

  8. Anacardic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Oleic Acid Differentially Alter Cellular Bioenergetic Function in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Radde, Brandie N; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Price, Stephanie M; Schultz, David J; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2016-11-01

    Anacardic acid is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical that inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Since mitochondrial-targeted anticancer therapy (mitocans) may be useful in breast cancer, we examined the effect of anacardic acid on cellular bioenergetics and OXPHOS pathway proteins in breast cancer cells modeling progression to endocrine-independence: MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ endocrine-sensitive; LCC9 and LY2 ERα+, endocrine-resistant, and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. At concentrations similar to cell proliferation IC50 s, anacardic acid reduced ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate (OCR), mitochondrial reserve capacity, and coupling efficiency while increasing proton leak, reflecting mitochondrial toxicity which was greater in MCF-7 compared to endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells. These results suggest tolerance in endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells to mitochondrial stress induced by anacardic acid. Since anacardic acid is an alkylated 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, the effects of salicylic acid (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety) and oleic acid (OA, monounsaturated alkyl moiety) were tested. SA inhibited whereas OA stimulated cell viability. In contrast to stimulation of basal OCR by anacardic acid (uncoupling effect), neither SA nor OA altered basal OCR- except OA inhibited basal and ATP-linked OCR, and increased ECAR, in MDA-MB-231 cells. Changes in OXPHOS proteins correlated with changes in OCR. Overall, neither the 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety nor the monounsaturated alky moiety of anacardic acid is solely responsible for the observed mitochondria-targeted anticancer activity in breast cancer cells and hence both moieties are required in the same molecule for the observed effects. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2521-2532, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990649

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and aroma quality of anthograin liqueur.

    PubMed

    Li, Wende; Beta, Trust

    2011-08-01

    Moderate consumption of wine, beer, whisky or liqueur is known to be beneficial for improving health because of the radical scavenging action of antioxidants present in them. Thus, antioxidant and aroma properties of anthograin liqueur made from purple wheat grain were evaluated for the added-value processing purpose of that grain. Anthograin liqueur showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in comparison with three control samples Canadian iceberg vodka (CIV), Hiram walker special old rye whisky (HWSORW) and Wiser's De Luxe Canadian whisky (WDLCW). Only anthograin liqueur contained anthocyanins and its total anthocyanin content (TAC) was 81mg/l. In lipid-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 241.1 and 998.6mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 40.0 and 93.6mg/ld for WDLCW, 23.1 and 63.6mg/l for HWSORW, and 1.1 and 12.4mg/l for CIV, respectively. In water-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 685.5 and 1467.7mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 29.0 and 96.0mg/l for WDLCW, 36.4 and 99.2mg/l for HWSORW, and 2.0 and 42.8mg/l for CIV, respectively. Eight types of phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, four types of phenolic acids in WDLCW and three types of phenolic acids in HWSORW were found and no phenolic acid was detectable in CIV. Total phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, WDLCW and HWSORW were 28.8, 10.3 and 5.7mg/l, respectively. Similarity in aroma quality was found between anthograin liqueur and CIV by using the electronic nose. Purple wheat grain may have potential as a novel material for liqueur brewing. PMID:25214085

  10. 33 CFR 183.53 - Horsepower capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Powering § 183.53 Horsepower capacity. The maximum... designated avoidance marker for 42.5 miles per hour or more until the boat fails to complete the...

  11. Low temperature heat capacity of water clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongshan; Hansen, Klavs

    2014-08-01

    Geometry optimization and vibrational frequency calculation are carried out at the MP2/6-31G(d,p) level for 35 low-energy isomers of (H2O)n clusters in the size range n = 6-21. The heat capacities of the clusters are calculated using quantum statistical theories based on the harmonic approximation. The specific heat capacity increases with the cluster size but the difference diminishes gradually with increasing size. The heat capacities divided by the number of intermolecular vibrational modes are very close for all the clusters. The overall picture of the heat capacity of the clusters is bulk-like and it agrees well with the experimental results of size-selected clusters.

  12. Organizational capacity of nonprofit social service agencies.

    PubMed

    Paynter, Sharon; Berner, Marueen

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. social safety net is formed by governmental and nonprofit organizations, which are trying to respond to record levels of need. This is especially true for local level organizations, such as food pantries. The organizational capacity literature has not covered front-line, local, mostly volunteer and low resource organizations in the same depth as larger ones. This analysis is a consideration of whether grassroots nonprofit organizations have the ability to be a strong component of the social safety net. Based on the literature on organizational capacity, a model is developed to examine how service delivery at the local level is affected by organizational capacity. Surprisingly, we find few of the characteristics previously identified as important are statistically significant in this study. Even when so, the material effect is negligible. Current organizational capacity research may apply to larger nonprofits, but not to the tens of thousands of small community nonprofits, a significant limitation to the research to date. PMID:25004709

  13. The Irony of the Capac Nan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents information on the Capac Nan, the highway system of the Incas. Describes its use by the Spanish conquistadors in the destruction of the Incan empire. Includes suggested classroom uses for the article, a homework assignment, and discussion topics. (DK)

  14. Some Underexamined Aspects of Evaluation Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviton, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation capacity building (ECB) has progressed as a concept since it was the conference theme of the American Evaluation Association in the year 2000. This commentary poses some questions about underexamined issues in ECB about organizations, evaluators, and funders.

  15. Acid Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents acid deposition trends in the contiguous U.S. from 1989 to 2007. Data are broken down by wet and dry deposition and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Acid deposition is particularly damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and a...

  16. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  17. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  18. Measuring the capacity impacts of demand response

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, Robert; Kahn, Edward P.; Macan, Edo

    2009-07-15

    Critical peak pricing and peak time rebate programs offer benefits by increasing system reliability, and therefore, reducing capacity needs of the electric power system. These benefits, however, decrease substantially as the size of the programs grows relative to the system size. More flexible schemes for deployment of demand response can help address the decreasing returns to scale in capacity value, but more flexible demand response has decreasing returns to scale as well. (author)

  19. Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Cho, Mi Ran; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yuri; Oh, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:24741403

  20. Increasing ICU bed capacity cuts diversions.

    PubMed

    2006-09-01

    A new study demonstrates a real dollar cost to diversions, which can give ED managers added ammunition when lobbying administration for increased bed capacity hospitalwide. Here are some strategies you can use: Point out the demonstrated link between increased bed capacity in the intensive care unit and reduced diversions. Emphasize the fact that when patients are boarded, staff morale is negatively affected. Because your ED may represent 30% of your hospital's volume, note the connection between improved flow and patient satisfaction. PMID:16981481

  1. Hypercholesterolemia Impairs Exercise Capacity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Andrew J.; Niebauer, Josef; Lin, Patrick S.; Tsao, Philip S.; Bernstein, Daniel; Cooke, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We previously reported an attenuation of both exercise hyperemia and measures of aerobic capacity in hypercholesterolemic mice. In this study we expanded upon the previous findings by examining the temporal and quantitative relationship of hypercholesterolemia to aerobic and anaerobic capacity and by exploring several potential mechanisms of dysfunction. Methods Eight-week old wild type (n=123) and apoE knockout (n=79) C57BL/6J mice were divided into groups with distinct cholesterol levels by feeding regular or high fat diets. At various ages the mice underwent treadmill ergospirometry. To explore mechanisms, aortic ring vasodilator function and nitrate (NOx) activity, urinary excretion of NOx, running muscle microvascular density and citrate synthase activity, as well as myocardial mass and histologic evidence of ischemia were measured. Results At 8 weeks of age, all mice had similar measures of exercise capacity. All indices of aerobic exercise capacity progressively declined at 12 and 20 weeks of age in the hypercholesterolemic mice as cholesterol levels increased while indices of anaerobic capacity remained unaffected. Across the 4 cholesterol groups, the degree of aerobic dysfunction was related to serum cholesterol levels; a relationship that was maintained after correcting for confounding factors. Associated with the deterioration in exercise capacity was a decline in measures of nitric oxide-mediated vascular function while there was no evidence of aberrations in functional or oxidative capacities or in other components of transport capacity. Conclusion Aerobic exercise dysfunction is observed in murine models of genetic and diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and is associated with a reduction in vascular nitric oxide production. PMID:19651675

  2. Adaptability of the oxidative capacity of motoneurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmers, G. R.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that a chronic change in neuronal activation can produce a change in soma oxidative capacity, suggesting that: (i) these 2 variables are directly related in neurons and (ii) ion pumping is an important energy requiring activity of a neuron. Most of these studies, however, have focused on reduced activation levels of sensory systems. In the present study the effect of a chronic increase or decrease in motoneuronal activity on motoneuron oxidative capacity and soma size was studied. In addition, the effect of chronic axotomy was studied as an indicator of whether cytoplasmic volume may also be related to the oxidative capacity of motoneurons. A quantitative histochemical assay for succinate dehydrogenase activity was used as a measure of motoneuron oxidative capacity in experimental models in which chronic electromyography has been used to verify neuronal activity levels. Spinal transection reduced, and spinal isolation virtually eliminated lumbar motoneuron electrical activity. Functional overload of the plantaris by removal of its major synergists was used to chronically increase neural activity of the plantaris motor pool. No change in oxidative capacity or soma size resulted from either a chronic increase or decrease in neuronal activity level. These data indicate that the chronic modulation of ionic transport and neurotransmitter turnover associated with action potentials do not induce compensatory metabolic responses in the metabolic capacity of the soma of lumbar motoneurons. Soma oxidative capacity was reduced in the axotomized motoneurons, suggesting that a combination of axoplasmic transport, intracellular biosynthesis and perhaps neurotransmitter turnover represent the major energy demands on a motoneuron. While soma oxidative capacity may be closely related to neural activity in some neural systems, e.g. visual and auditory, lumbar motoneurons appear to be much less sensitive to modulations in chronic activity levels.

  3. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  4. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  5. [Gastric Acid].

    PubMed

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  6. Capacities, context and moral status of animals.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Sherri

    2004-01-01

    According to a widely shared intuition, normal adult humans require greater moral concern than normal, adult animals in at least some circumstances. Even the most steadfast defenders of animals' moral status attempt to accommodate this intuition, often by holding that humans' higher-level capacities (intellect, linguistic ability, and so on) give rise to a greater number of interests, and thus the likelihood of greater satisfaction, thereby making their lives more valuable. However, the moves from capacities to interests, and from interests to the likelihood of satisfaction, have up to now gone unexamined and undefended. I argue that context plays a morally significant role both in the formation of an individual's capacities, and in the determination of the individual's interests and potential for satisfaction based on those capacities. Claims about an individual's capacities and interests are typically presented as unconditional; but on closer examination, they are revealed to be contingent on tacit assumptions about context. Until we develop an understanding of how to account for the role of context within our moral theories, attempts to defend special moral concern for human beings based on their superior capacities are less firmly grounded than is commonly thought. PMID:15148952

  7. Working Memory Capacity as a Dynamic Process

    PubMed Central

    Simmering, Vanessa R.; Perone, Sammy

    2013-01-01

    A well-known characteristic of working memory (WM) is its limited capacity. The source of such limitations, however, is a continued point of debate. Developmental research is positioned to address this debate by jointly identifying the source(s) of limitations and the mechanism(s) underlying capacity increases. Here we provide a cross-domain survey of studies and theories of WM capacity development, which reveals a complex picture: dozens of studies from 50 papers show nearly universal increases in capacity estimates with age, but marked variation across studies, tasks, and domains. We argue that the full pattern of performance cannot be captured through traditional approaches emphasizing single causes, or even multiple separable causes, underlying capacity development. Rather, we consider WM capacity as a dynamic process that emerges from a unified cognitive system flexibly adapting to the context and demands of each task. We conclude by enumerating specific challenges for researchers and theorists that will need to be met in order to move our understanding forward. PMID:23335902

  8. Groundwater environmental capacity and its evaluation index.

    PubMed

    Xing, Li Ting; Wu, Qiang; Ye, Chun He; Ye, Nan

    2010-10-01

    To date, no unified and acknowledged definition or well-developed evaluation index system of groundwater environment capacity can be found in the academia at home or abroad. The article explores the meaning of water environment capacity, and analyzes the environmental effects caused by the exploitation of groundwater resources. This research defines groundwater environmental capacity as a critical value in terms of time and space, according to which the groundwater system responds to the external influences within certain goal constraint. On the basis of observing the principles of being scientific, dominant, measurable, and applicable, six level 1 evaluation indexes and 11 constraint factors are established. Taking Jinan spring region for a case study, this research will adopt groundwater level and spring flow as constraint factors, and the allowable groundwater yield as the critical value of groundwater environmental capacity, prove the dynamic changeability and its indicating function of groundwater environmental capacity through calculation, and finally point out the development trends of researches on groundwater environmental capacity. PMID:19763854

  9. The heat capacity of titanium disilicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sylla, W. K.; Stillman, S. E.; Sabella, M. S.; Cotts, E. J.

    1994-01-01

    The heat capacity of TiSi2 has been measured in the temperature range 105-500 K. The heat capacity of TiSi2 varies monotonically between temperatures of 100 and 500 K with a reference value of 22.0 +/- 0.2 J/g atom K at 298.15 K. Based upon our heat capacity data, the standard molar entropy of TiSi2 at 298.15 K estimated to be 22.2 +/- 0.8 J/g atom K. Our data support estimates of the higher temperature heat capacity of TiSi2 based upon previously measured heat capacities of different, but similar, substances. A number of TiSi2 samples were prepared by rapidly quenching (greater than 10(exp 5) K/s) from the melt. The structure and the measured heat capacity of these samples were similar to those of well annealed samples, underscoring the thermal stability of this material.

  10. Effects of overnight captivity on antioxidant capacity and clinical chemistry of wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Debrincat, Steven; Taggart, David; Rich, Brian; Beveridge, Ian; Boardman, Wayne; Dibben, Ron

    2014-09-01

    An animal's antioxidant capacity is measured by its ability to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS). During everyday metabolism, antioxidants and ROS are in equilibrium with one another. In times of stress, an animal produces more ROS and therefore uses its antioxidant capacity more readily in order to maintain this equilibrium. When the production of ROS exceeds the antioxidant capacity, an animal will experience extensive oxidative stress, which can ultimately affect that animal's health. During experimental study of wild animals, it is often necessary to capture them for a short period of time. In order to obtain a measurement of the effects of short-term captivity on oxidative capacity in wild animals, a population of southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in Swan Reach, South Australia (34.57 degrees S, 139.60 degrees E), was studied. To assess the variation in antioxidant capacity, two assays, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, were performed. A third assay, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was used to measure the effects of ROS. Measurements of the specific antioxidants uric acid, ascorbic acid, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and superoxide dismutase were also performed. The biochemical parameters albumin, total protein, cholinesterase, creatinine, and urea were measured as indicators for health. Results showed a significant reduction in antioxidant capacity during the overnight period of captivity. PMID:25314812

  11. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  12. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dejian; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

    2005-03-23

    This review summarizes the multifaceted aspects of antioxidants and the basic kinetic models of inhibited autoxidation and analyzes the chemical principles of antioxidant capacity assays. Depending upon the reactions involved, these assays can roughly be classified into two types: assays based on hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions and assays based on electron transfer (ET). The majority of HAT-based assays apply a competitive reaction scheme, in which antioxidant and substrate compete for thermally generated peroxyl radicals through the decomposition of azo compounds. These assays include inhibition of induced low-density lipoprotein autoxidation, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), and crocin bleaching assays. ET-based assays measure the capacity of an antioxidant in the reduction of an oxidant, which changes color when reduced. The degree of color change is correlated with the sample's antioxidant concentrations. ET-based assays include the total phenols assay by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR), Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), "total antioxidant potential" assay using a Cu(II) complex as an oxidant, and DPPH. In addition, other assays intended to measure a sample's scavenging capacity of biologically relevant oxidants such as singlet oxygen, superoxide anion, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radical are also summarized. On the basis of this analysis, it is suggested that the total phenols assay by FCR be used to quantify an antioxidant's reducing capacity and the ORAC assay to quantify peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. To comprehensively study different aspects of antioxidants, validated and specific assays are needed in addition to these two commonly accepted assays. PMID:15769103

  13. Policy Capacity Meets Politics: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    It is difficult to disagree with the general argument that successful health reform requires a significant degree of policy capacity or that all players in the policy game need to move beyond self-interested advocacy. However, an overly broad definition of policy capacity is a problem. More important perhaps, health reform inevitably requires not just policy capacity but political leadership and compromise. PMID:26673186

  14. Refrigerator with variable capacity compressor and cycle priming action through capacity control and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Litch, Andrew D.; Wu, Guolian

    2016-03-15

    A refrigerator appliance (and associated method) that includes a condenser, evaporator and a multi-capacity compressor. The appliance also includes a pressure reducing device arranged within an evaporator-condenser refrigerant circuit, and a valve system for directing or restricting refrigerant flow through the device. The appliance further includes a controller for operating the compressor upon the initiation of a compressor ON-cycle at a priming capacity above a nominal capacity for a predetermined or calculated duration.

  15. Proton production, neutralisation and reduction in a floating water bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammer, Martina; Wexler, Adam D.; Kuntke, Philipp; Wiltsche, Helmar; Stanulewicz, Natalia; Lankmayr, Ernst; Woisetschläger, Jakob; Fuchs, Elmar C.

    2015-10-01

    This work reports on proton production, transport, reduction and neutralization in floating aqueous bridges under the application of a high dc voltage (‘floating water bridge’). Recently possible mechanisms for proton transfer through the bridge were suggested. In this work we visualize and describe the production of protons in the anolyte and their neutralization in the catholyte. Apart from that, protons are reduced to hydrogen due to electrolysis. Microbubbles are detached instantly, due to the electrohydrodynamic flow at the electrode surface. No larger, visible bubbles are formed and the system degasses through the bridge due to its higher local temperature. A detailed analysis of trace elements originating from beaker material, anode or the atmosphere is presented, showing that their influence on the overall conduction compared to the contribution of protons is negligible. Finally, an electrochemical rationale of high voltage electrolysis of low ionic strength solutions is presented.

  16. Neutralisation of antipersonnel mines with an Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luethy, Willy A.; Rothacher, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We report on the possibility to use lasers as a demining tool to dispose mines from a safe distance. Most anti personnel (AP) mines consist of 10 g to 500 g of an explosive, a fuse and a plastic case which makes them very difficult to detect. In 90% of all AP mines trinitrotoluene (TNT) or a combination of TNT and other explosives is used. The interaction of laser radiation with TNT and possible mine wrapping materials is investigated based on spectroscopy and practical considerations. With a CW Nd:YAG laser the desired burning of the explosive is achieved. The interaction is rather based on the absorption of the mine case than on the weak absorption of the explosive. A portable CW Nd:YAG laser is described and experiments with real AP mines are performed. We have investigated the behavior of four different representative blast AP mines under laser irradiation at Bofors test centre in Sweden. Disposal of all available mines from a safe distance up to 50 meters is achieved. Laser incident power was in the range from 20 W to 60 W. Due to partial burning of the explosive charge the resulting detonation of mines is considerably reduced.

  17. The Interpretation and Representation of Neutralisation in Generative Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staun, Jorgen.

    Phonological neutralization from a generative viewpoint is examined, and the process of solving the problems of representing the products of neutralization is described. First, in generative phonological terms, the product must be morphologically irresoluble in order to be considered a true neutralization. This distinguishes neutralization from…

  18. Summary II - Fusion Ion sources, Beam Formation, Acceleration and Neutralisation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T. T. C.

    2007-08-10

    The 11th International Symposium on the Production and Neutralization of Negative Ions and Beams was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on 13th - 15th September 2006 and was hosted by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This summary covers the sessions of the Symposium devoted to the topics listed in the title.

  19. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the blood vessel to keep it open. Bipolar disorder. Taking folic acid does not appear to improve the antidepressant effects of lithium in people with bipolar disorder. However, taking folate with the medication valproate improves ...

  20. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  1. ACID RAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  2. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  3. Carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Birtić, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (∼70 years ago) and its identification (∼50 years ago), numerous articles and patents (∼400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. PMID:25639596

  4. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Amicar® Oral Solution ... Aminocaproic acid comes as a tablet and a solution (liquid) to take by mouth. It is usually ... it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  5. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  6. Chemical composition, oxidative stability and antioxidant capacity of oil extracted from roasted seeds of Sacha-inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Paredes, Daniel; Arana, Adrian; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2014-06-01

    The effect of roasting of Sacha-inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) seeds on the oxidative stability and composition of its oil was investigated. The seeds were subjected to light, medium and high roasting intensities. Oil samples were subjected to high-temperature storage at 60 °C for 30 days and evaluated for oxidation (peroxide value and p-anisidine), antioxidant activity (total phenols and DPPH assay), and composition (tocopherol content and fatty acid profile). Results showed that roasting partially increased oil oxidation and its antioxidant capacity, slightly decreased tocopherol content, and did not affect the fatty acid profile. During storage, oxidation increased for all oil samples, but at a slower rate for oils from roasted seeds, likely due to its higher antioxidant capacity. Also, tocopherol content decreased significantly, and a slight modification of the fatty acid profile suggested that α-linolenic acid oxidized more readily than other fatty acids present. PMID:24823227

  7. Excess capacity: markets regulation, and values.

    PubMed Central

    Madden, C W

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the conceptual bases for the conflicting views of excess capacity in healthcare markets and their application in the context of today's turbulent environment. STUDY SETTING: The policy and research literature of the past three decades. STUDY DESIGN: The theoretical perspectives of alternative economic schools of thought are used to support different policy positions with regard to excess capacity. Changes in these policy positions over time are linked to changes in the economic and political environment of the period. The social values implied by this history are articulated. DATA COLLECTION: Standard library search procedures are used to identify relevant literature. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alternative policy views of excess capacity in healthcare markets rely on differing theoretical foundations. Changes in the context in which policy decisions are made over time affect the dominant theoretical framework and, therefore, the dominant policy view of excess capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In the 1990s, multiple perspectives of optimal capacity still exist. However, our evolving history suggests a set of persistent values that should guide future policy in this area. PMID:10029502

  8. Capacity building in public health nutrition.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review capacity building in public health nutrition (PHN), the need for which has been stressed for many years by a range of academics, national and international organisations. Although great strides have been made worldwide in the science of nutrition, there remain many problems of undernutrition and increasingly of obesity and related chronic diseases. The main emphasis in capacity building has been on the nutrition and health workforce, but the causes of these health problems are multifactorial and require collaboration across sectors in their solution. This means that PHN capacity building has to go beyond basic nutrition and beyond the immediate health workforce to policy makers in other sectors. The present paper provides examples of capacity building activities by various organisations, including universities, industry and international agencies. Examples of web-based courses are given including an introduction to the e-Nutrition Academy. The scope is international but with a special focus on Africa. In conclusion, there remains a great need for capacity building in PHN but the advent of the internet has revolutionised the possibilities. PMID:25604975

  9. Polydisperse suspensions: Erosion, deposition, and flow capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrell, R. M.; Hogg, A. J.; Pritchard, D.

    2013-09-01

    Deposition from particle-laden flows is often described in terms of the capacity and competence of the flow, but robust definitions of these terms have proved elusive. In this paper we provide a mathematical modeling framework within which erosion and deposition of polydisperse sediment, and thus flow capacity and competence, can be rigorously defined. This framework explicitly captures the coupling between the suspension and an active layer of sediment at the top of the bed, and is capable of describing both depositional and erosional flows over both erodible and nonerodible beds. Crucially, the capacity of a flow is shown to depend on the erosional and depositional history because these processes determine the composition of the active layer. This dependence is explored within models of bidisperse and polydisperse suspensions. It is further demonstrated that monodisperse representations of suspended sediment transport may severely underpredict actual flow capacity. The polydisperse model is validated against recent experimental studies of the evolution of suspended material in waning turbulent flows, and is used to demonstrate that loss of capacity is the principal driver of sediment deposition.

  10. Oxidation-reduction capacities of aquifer solids

    SciTech Connect

    Barcelona, M.J.; Holm, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxidation-reduction processes play a major role in the mobility, transport, and fate of inorganic and organic chemical constituents in natural waters. Therefore, the manipulation of redox conditions in natural and treated water systems is assumed to be a common option for the control of contaminant concentrations. Measurements of the oxidation (i.e., of aqueous Cr(2+)) and reduction (i.e., of aqueous Cr2O7(2-) and H2O2) capacities of aquifer solids and groundwater have been made on samples from a sand-and-gravel aquifer. The groundwater contributed less than 1% of the system oxidation or reduction poising capacity. Reduction capacities averaged 0.095, 0.111, and 0.136 mequiv/g of dry solids for oxic, transitional, and reducing Eh conditions, respectively. Measured oxidation capacities averaged 0.4 mequiv/g of dry solids over the range of redox intensity conditions. These capacities represent considerable resistance to the adjustment of redox conditions even at uncontaminated sites. Hydrogen peroxide reduction by aquifer solid samples proceeds rapidly relative to microbially mediated decomposition. The study indicates the need for closer scrutiny of the predictability and cost effectiveness of attempts to manipulate redox conditions in poorly poised aquifer systems.

  11. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  12. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Fu, Xiong; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Youngsheng; Zhu, Yong; Yan, Huaifeng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called “the king of fruits”, is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health. PMID:26075869

  13. Structure-related aspects on water diffusivity in fatty acid-soap and skin lipid model systems.

    PubMed

    Norlén, L; Engblom, J

    2000-01-01

    Simplified skin barrier models are necessary to get a first hand understanding of the very complex morphology and physical properties of the human skin barrier. In addition, it is of great importance to construct relevant models that will allow for rational testing of barrier perturbing/occlusive effects of a large variety of substances. The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of lipid morphology on water permeation through various lipid mixtures (i.e., partly neutralised free fatty acids, as well as a skin lipid model mixture). In addition, the effects of incorporating Azone((R)) (1-dodecyl-azacycloheptan-2-one) into the skin lipid model mixture was studied. Small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used for structure determinations. It is concluded that: (a) the water flux through a crystalline fatty acid-sodium soap-water mixture (s) is statistically significantly higher than the water flux through the corresponding lamellar (L(alpha)) and reversed hexagonal (H(II)) liquid crystalline phases, which do not differ between themselves; (b) the water flux through mixtures of L(alpha)/s decreases statistically significantly with increasing relative amounts of lamellar (L(alpha)) liquid crystalline phase; (c) the addition of Azone((R)) to a skin lipid model system induces a reduction in water flux. However, further studies are needed to more closely characterise the structural basis for the occlusive effects of Azone((R)) on water flux. PMID:10640594

  14. Aviation system capacity improvements through technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. Don

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the impact of technology on capacity improvements in the U.S. air transportation system and, consequently, to assess the areas where NASA's expertise and technical contributions would be the most beneficial. The outlook of the study is considered both near- and long-term (5 to 25 years). The approach was that of actively working with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Flight Transportation Laboratory and included interactions with 'users' outside of both agencies as well as with organizations within. This report includes an overall survey of what are believed to be the causes of the capacity problems, ongoing work with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to alleviate the problems, and identifies improvements in technology that would increase capacity and reduce delays.

  15. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  16. Classical fluids of negative heat capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberg, P.T.; Woodard, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    It is shown that new parameters X can be defined such that the heat capacity C{sub X} {equivalent_to} T({partial_derivative}S/{partial_derivative}T)X is negative, even when the canonical ensemble (i.e. at fixed T = ({partial_derivative}U/{partial_derivative}S) and Y {ne} X) is stable. As examples we treat black body radiation and general gas systems with nonsingular {kappa}{sub T}. For the case of a simple ideal gas we even exhibit an apparatus which enforces a constraint X(p,V) = const. that makes C{sub X} < 0. Since it is possible to invent constraints for which canonically stable systems have negative heat capacity we speculate that it may also be possible to infer the statistical mechanics of canonically unstable systems - for which even the traditional heat capacities are negative - by imposing constraints that stabilize the associated, inoncanonical ensembles.

  17. Classical fluids of negative heat capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberg, P.T. . Faculty of Mathematical Studies); Woodard, R.P. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-06-01

    It is shown that new parameters X can be defined such that the heat capacity C{sub X} {equivalent to} T({partial derivative}S/{partial derivative}T)X is negative, even when the canonical ensemble (i.e. at fixed T = ({partial derivative}U/{partial derivative}S) and Y {ne} X) is stable. As examples we treat black body radiation and general gas systems with nonsingular {kappa}{sub T}. For the case of a simple ideal gas we even exhibit an apparatus which enforces a constraint X(p,V) = const. that makes C{sub X} < 0. Since it is possible to invent constraints for which canonically stable systems have negative heat capacity we speculate that it may also be possible to infer the statistical mechanics of canonically unstable systems - for which even the traditional heat capacities are negative - by imposing constraints that stabilize the associated, inoncanonical ensembles.

  18. SERVIR Science Applications for Capacity Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; Searby, Nancy D.; Irwin, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    SERVIR is a regional visualization and monitoring system using Earth observations to support environmental management, climate adaptation, and disaster response in developing countries. SERVIR is jointly sponsored by NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). SERVIR has been instrumental in development of science applications to support the decision-making and capacity building in the developing countries with the help of SERVIR Hubs. In 2011, NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) included a call for proposals to form SERVIR Applied Sciences Team (SERVIR AST) under Applied Sciences Capacity Building Program. Eleven proposals were selected, the Principal Investigators of which comprise the core of the SERVIR AST. The expertise on the Team span several societal benefit areas including agriculture, disasters, public health and air quality, water, climate and terrestrial carbon assessments. This presentation will cover the existing SERVIR science applications, capacity building components, overview of SERVIR AST projects, and anticipated impacts.

  19. Optimal growth trajectories with finite carrying capacity.

    PubMed

    Caravelli, F; Sindoni, L; Caccioli, F; Ududec, C

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of finding optimal strategies that maximize the average growth rate of multiplicative stochastic processes. For a geometric Brownian motion, the problem is solved through the so-called Kelly criterion, according to which the optimal growth rate is achieved by investing a constant given fraction of resources at any step of the dynamics. We generalize these finding to the case of dynamical equations with finite carrying capacity, which can find applications in biology, mathematical ecology, and finance. We formulate the problem in terms of a stochastic process with multiplicative noise and a nonlinear drift term that is determined by the specific functional form of carrying capacity. We solve the stochastic equation for two classes of carrying capacity functions (power laws and logarithmic), and in both cases we compute the optimal trajectories of the control parameter. We further test the validity of our analytical results using numerical simulations. PMID:27627325

  20. Financial exploitation, financial capacity, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Research in the past decade has documented that financial exploitation of older adults has become a major problem, and psychology is only recently increasing its presence in efforts to reduce exploitation. During the same time period, psychology has been a leader in setting best practices for the assessment of diminished capacity in older adults culminating in the 2008 American Bar Association Commission on Law and Aging and American Psychological Association (ABA/APA) joint publication on a handbook for psychologists. Assessment of financial decision-making capacity is often the cornerstone assessment needed in cases of financial exploitation. This article will examine the intersection of financial exploitation and decision-making capacity and introduce a new conceptual model and new tools for both the investigation and prevention of financial exploitation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27159438