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Sample records for acid nicu family

  1. Recommendations for involving the family in developmental care of the NICU baby

    PubMed Central

    Craig, J W; Glick, C; Phillips, R; Hall, S L; Smith, J; Browne, J

    2015-01-01

    Family involvement is a key to realize the potential for long-lasting positive effects on physical, cognitive and psychosocial development of all babies, including those in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Family-centered developmental care (FCDC) recognizes the family as vital members of the NICU health-care team. As such, families are integrated into decision-making processes and are collaborators in their baby's care. Through standardized use of FCDC principles in the NICU, a foundation is constructed to enhance the family's lifelong relationship with their child and optimize development of the baby. Recommendations are made for supporting parental roles as caregivers of their babies in the NICU, supporting NICU staff participation in FCDC and creating NICU policies that support this type of care. These recommendations are designed to meet the basic human needs of all babies, the special needs of hospitalized babies and the needs of families who are coping with the crisis of having a baby in the NICU. PMID:26597804

  2. Recommendations for involving the family in developmental care of the NICU baby.

    PubMed

    Craig, J W; Glick, C; Phillips, R; Hall, S L; Smith, J; Browne, J

    2015-12-01

    Family involvement is a key to realize the potential for long-lasting positive effects on physical, cognitive and psychosocial development of all babies, including those in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Family-centered developmental care (FCDC) recognizes the family as vital members of the NICU health-care team. As such, families are integrated into decision-making processes and are collaborators in their baby's care. Through standardized use of FCDC principles in the NICU, a foundation is constructed to enhance the family's lifelong relationship with their child and optimize development of the baby. Recommendations are made for supporting parental roles as caregivers of their babies in the NICU, supporting NICU staff participation in FCDC and creating NICU policies that support this type of care. These recommendations are designed to meet the basic human needs of all babies, the special needs of hospitalized babies and the needs of families who are coping with the crisis of having a baby in the NICU. PMID:26597804

  3. Care of the Family of an Infant With a Congenital Heart Defect During the NICU Hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Milford, Cheryl A

    2016-01-01

    The family of an infant born with a congenital heart defect is challenged by both the short- and long-term implications of the diagnosis and the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization. Nurses are in a key position to support these families as they deal with the psychological, emotional, and financial impact of the NICU experience. Understanding how families perceive the NICU environment and their grief in losing the desired healthy baby provides the NICU nurse with the knowledge to engage in self-reflection on her or his interpersonal style and caregiving attitudes. Utilizing the concepts and principles of family-centered care and relationship-based practice, nurses can work together with the families to determine how to best meet the families' needs and to find the resources to support them. Families and colleagues appreciate nurses who demonstrate expertise in this approach to family-centered care. This appreciation leads to greater job satisfaction and decreased job-related stress. PMID:26813393

  4. Family nurture intervention (FNI): methods and treatment protocol of a randomized controlled trial in the NICU

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The stress that results from preterm birth, requisite acute care and prolonged physical separation in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) can have adverse physiological/psychological effects on both the infant and the mother. In particular, the experience compromises the establishment and maintenance of optimal mother-infant relationship, the subsequent development of the infant, and the mother's emotional well-being. These findings highlight the importance of investigating early interventions that are designed to overcome or reduce the effects of these environmental insults and challenges. Methods This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with blinded assessment comparing Standard Care (SC) with a novel Family Nurture Intervention (FNI). FNI targets preterm infants born 26-34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) and their mothers in the NICU. The intervention incorporates elements of mother-infant interventions with known efficacy and organizes them under a new theoretical context referred to collectively as calming activities. This intervention is facilitated by specially trained Nurture Specialists in three ways: 1) In the isolette through calming interactions between mother and infant via odor exchange, firm sustained touch and vocal soothing, and eye contact; 2) Outside the isolette during holding and feeding via the Calming Cycle; and 3) through family sessions designed to engage help and support the mother. In concert with infant neurobehavioral and physiological assessments from birth through 24 months corrected age (CA), maternal assessments are made using standard tools including anxiety, depression, attachment, support systems, temperament as well as physiological stress parameters. Quality of mother-infant interaction is also assessed. Our projected enrolment is 260 families (130 per group). Discussion The FNI is designed to increase biologically important activities and behaviors that enhance maternally-mediated sensory experiences of

  5. Communicating with Chinese American families in the NICU using the Giger and Davidhizar transcultural model.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Having an infant admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be a frightening experience for parents. However, it can be even more frightening for them when they are from a different culture and speak a different language than the health care team. Hence, a nurse needs to be culturally competent in order to provide proper care to a multicultural society. The purpose of this article is to describe how NICU nurses can communicate with one such culture, the Chinese American, the largest Asian group in the United States. A transcultural nursing model will be described to use as a guide to help the nurse. The culture, Chinese Americans, will be described to help nurses provide culturally competent care. Research studies will be presented so the reader can develop an understanding of how parents of Chinese descent perceive the care they receive. Interventions and recommendations will be presented on how to enhance communication between the nurses and this cultural group. PMID:23985471

  6. Urinary Uric Acid/Creatinine Ratio as a Marker of Mortality and Unfavorable Outcome in NICU-Admitted Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Nariman, Shahin; Mosayebi, Ziba; Sagheb, Setareh; Rastad, Hadith; Hosseininodeh, Seyyed Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background The survival of neonates who have been admitted to the NICU, especially premature infants with few mortality and morbidity, is the most important attitude. Objectives We presumed whether urinary uric acid/creatinine (UUA/Cr) ratio can be a marker of mortality and adverse outcome in neonates which were admitted to the NICU. Patients and Methods All preterm infants admitted to our NICU after birth from March 2014 to April 2015 were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. UUA/Cr was measured during the first day of life. The severity of diseases (indicated by the need for high set-up of mechanical ventilation, complications of prematurity, and duration of stay in the NICU) and neonatal death were considered to be the final unfavorable outcomes. The relationship between the Log-transformation (Ln) urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio and the Apgar score at the first and 5th minute after birth and the duration of stay were analyzed by using linear regression. Statistical analysis was done by using STATA version 11 (STATA Corp, TX, USA). A P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results A total of 362 preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 32.7 (± 3.9) weeks were admitted to the NICU, out of whom 64 (17.6%) had severe disease and 43 (11.8%) died. The mean UUA/Cr ratio was significantly higher in the admitted neonates (3.30 ± 1.95 vs. 1.36 ± 0.42. P = 0.0001). There was a negative correlation between the UUA/Cr ratio and the 1-minute Apgar score (r = -0.17, P = 0.006) and the 5-minute Apgar score (r = -0.19, P = 0.003). The 1-minute Apgar scores were negatively correlated with the outcome (OR = 0.68; P < 0.001) and the duration of stay (β = -.28; P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between 5-minute Apgar scores and the outcome. There was a significant positive correlation between the UUA/Cr ratio and an unfavorable outcome (OR = 1.24; CI %95: 1.06 to 1.43, P = 0.006) and increasing duration of stay (β = 0.17; P = 0

  7. NICU staff

    MedlinePlus

    ... reviewed and approved by a doctor. NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (NICU) NURSE This type of nurse has received special training ... Saunders; 2015:chap 95. Levin DL, Todres ID. History of pediatric critical care. In: Fuhrman BP, Zimmerman JJ, eds. Pediatric Critical ...

  8. Five families share their views of ethical decisionmaking in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Pinch, W J

    1990-12-01

    Five families' descriptions of their experiences with neonates in the intensive care nursery provides a glimpse into their perceptions of ethical problems and moral actions. Based on clinical experiences with families of high-risk neonates in the community health setting, a need for parents to share their reflections with a broader audience was identified. Definitions of conflict, identification of moral problems, and determination of right action showed similarities and differences among the families. Future study is suggested to validate these impressions for generalization to additional families.

  9. Psychosocial program standards for NICU parents

    PubMed Central

    Hynan, M T; Hall, S L

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for and brief description of the process of developing recommendations for program standards for psychosocial support of parents with babies in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multidisciplinary workgroup of professional organizations and NICU parents was convened by the National Perinatal Association. Six interdisciplinary committees (family-centered developmental care, peer-to-peer support, mental health professionals in the NICU, palliative and bereavement care, follow-up support and staff education and support) worked to produce the recommendations found in this supplemental issue. NICU parents contributed to the work of each committee. PMID:26597799

  10. Psychosocial program standards for NICU parents.

    PubMed

    Hynan, M T; Hall, S L

    2015-12-01

    This article provides a rationale for and brief description of the process of developing recommendations for program standards for psychosocial support of parents with babies in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multidisciplinary workgroup of professional organizations and NICU parents was convened by the National Perinatal Association. Six interdisciplinary committees (family-centered developmental care, peer-to-peer support, mental health professionals in the NICU, palliative and bereavement care, follow-up support and staff education and support) worked to produce the recommendations found in this supplemental issue. NICU parents contributed to the work of each committee. PMID:26597799

  11. Recommendations for palliative and bereavement care in the NICU: a family-centered integrative approach

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, C; Press, J; Ryan, D

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances have increased our ability to detect a life-threatening, life-limiting or lethal problem early in pregnancy, leaving parents months to anticipate a death or a prematurely born infant. Babies can also be born with unanticipated problems that could lead to death. In either scenario, perinatal palliative care should be offered as a strategy for family support. Since the preponderance of professional training focuses on saving lives, many health professionals are uncomfortable with palliative care. This article's purpose is to define best practices for the provision of family-centered perinatal and neonatal palliative care and provision of support to bereaved families experiencing anticipated and unanticipated life-limiting conditions or death of their infant. An overview of core concepts and values is presented, followed by intervention strategies to promote an integrated family-centered approach to palliative and bereavement care. The concluding section presents evidence-based recommendations. PMID:26597801

  12. Recommendations for palliative and bereavement care in the NICU: a family-centered integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Kenner, C; Press, J; Ryan, D

    2015-12-01

    Technological advances have increased our ability to detect a life-threatening, life-limiting or lethal problem early in pregnancy, leaving parents months to anticipate a death or a prematurely born infant. Babies can also be born with unanticipated problems that could lead to death. In either scenario, perinatal palliative care should be offered as a strategy for family support. Since the preponderance of professional training focuses on saving lives, many health professionals are uncomfortable with palliative care. This article's purpose is to define best practices for the provision of family-centered perinatal and neonatal palliative care and provision of support to bereaved families experiencing anticipated and unanticipated life-limiting conditions or death of their infant. An overview of core concepts and values is presented, followed by intervention strategies to promote an integrated family-centered approach to palliative and bereavement care. The concluding section presents evidence-based recommendations. PMID:26597801

  13. Recommendations for mental health professionals in the NICU

    PubMed Central

    Hynan, M T; Steinberg, Z; Baker, L; Cicco, R; Geller, P A; Lassen, S; Milford, C; Mounts, K O; Patterson, C; Saxton, S; Segre, L; Stuebe, A

    2015-01-01

    This article describes recommended activities of social workers, psychologists and psychiatric staff within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). NICU mental health professionals (NMHPs) should interact with all NICU parents in providing emotional support, screening, education, psychotherapy and teleservices for families. NMHPs should also offer educational and emotional support for the NICU health-care staff. NMHPs should function at all levels of layered care delivered to NICU parents. Methods of screening for emotional distress are described, as well as evidence for the benefits of peer-to-peer support and psychotherapy delivered in the NICU. In the ideal NICU, care for the emotional and educational needs of NICU parents are outcomes equal in importance to the health and development of their babies. Whenever possible, NMHPs should be involved with parents from the antepartum period through after discharge. PMID:26597800

  14. Postpartum Mood Disorders Screening in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Scheans, Patricia; Mischel, Rebecca; Munson, Margi; Bulaevskaya, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Maternal depression is increasingly recognized as the leading complication of childbearing. A mother's mental health impacts the well-being and long-term outcomes of her children. This column will discuss a systematic approach to screening for maternal postpartum mood disorders (PPMDs) and referring women to resources according to an established algorithm. This work was undertaken in a tertiary referral NICU and performed by dedicated NICU personnel with the goals of optimizing NICU infants' outcomes and supporting maternal and family health and well-being. PMID:27461203

  15. Mothers in the NICU: outsider to partner.

    PubMed

    Heermann, Judith A; Wilson, Margaret E; Wilhelm, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    The emerging care delivery model for Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) is family-focused, developmentally supportive care. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe mothers' experience of becoming a mother while their infants were receiving care in the NICU. A qualitative research design was used. Interviews with 15 mothers whose infants were in a Level III NICU were analyzed using Spradley's domain analysis approach. Mothers developed from outsider to engaged parent along four continua: (1) focus: from NICU to baby; (2) ownership: from their baby to my baby; (3) caregiving: from passive to active; and (4) voice: from silence to advocacy. Mothers entered the continua at different points and moved at different rates toward "engaged parenting." The final stage, partnering, required active participation of nurses. Mothers' development evolved in predictable patterns. The results of this study can be considered in implementation and evaluation plans for NICUs moving to family-focused developmental care.

  16. Stronger and More Vulnerable: A Balanced View of the Impacts of the NICU Experience on Parents.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Annie; Lantos, John; Aschner, Judy; Barrington, Keith; Batton, Beau; Batton, Daniel; Berg, Siri Fuglem; Carter, Brian; Campbell, Deborah; Cohn, Felicia; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Ellsbury, Dan; Fanaroff, Avroy; Fanaroff, Jonathan; Fanaroff, Kristy; Gravel, Sophie; Haward, Marlyse; Kutzsche, Stefan; Marlow, Neil; Montello, Martha; Maitre, Nathalie; Morris, Joshua T; Paulsen, Odd G; Prentice, Trisha; Spitzer, Alan R

    2016-09-01

    For parents, the experience of having an infant in the NICU is often psychologically traumatic. No parent can be fully prepared for the extreme stress and range of emotions of caring for a critically ill newborn. As health care providers familiar with the NICU, we thought that we understood the impact of the NICU on parents. But we were not prepared to see the children in our own families as NICU patients. Here are some of the lessons our NICU experience has taught us. We offer these lessons in the hope of helping health professionals consider a balanced view of the NICU's impact on families. PMID:27489297

  17. Depression and anxiety symptoms of mothers of preterm infants are decreased at 4 months corrected age with Family Nurture Intervention in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Welch, Martha G; Halperin, Meeka S; Austin, Judy; Stark, Raymond I; Hofer, Myron A; Hane, Amie A; Myers, Michael M

    2016-02-01

    Preterm delivery can precipitate maternal psychological morbidities. Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) was designed to minimize these by facilitating the emotional connection between mother and infant, beginning early in the infant's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. We examined depression and anxiety symptoms of mothers of preterm infants at 4 months infant corrected age (CA). One hundred fifteen mothers who delivered between 26 and 34 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive standard care (SC) or standard care plus FNI. Mothers' self-reported depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: CES-D) and state anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: STAI) symptoms were assessed at enrollment, near to term age, and 4 months (CA). At 4 months CA, mean CES-D and STAI scores were significantly lower in FNI mothers compared to SC mothers. Effectiveness of FNI can only be evaluated as an integrated intervention strategy as it was not possible to control all aspects of FNI activities. Although there was considerable loss to follow-up, analyses suggest that resulting biases could have masked rather than inflated the measured effect size for depressive symptoms. FNI may be a feasible and practicable way to diminish the impact of premature delivery on maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  18. Recommendations for peer-to-peer support for NICU parents

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S L; Ryan, D J; Beatty, J; Grubbs, L

    2015-01-01

    Peer-to-peer support provided by ‘veteran' neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents to those with current NICU babies is a legitimate and unique form of support that can complement or supplement, but not replace, services provided by professional NICU staff. Peer support can be delivered through hospital- or community-based programs that offer one-to-one in-person or telephone matches, or support groups that meet in-person or via the Internet. Issues in program development, volunteer training and program operation are discussed. Recommendations for offering peer support to all NICU parents as an integral component of family-centered care and comprehensive family support are presented. PMID:26597805

  19. Recommendations for peer-to-peer support for NICU parents.

    PubMed

    Hall, S L; Ryan, D J; Beatty, J; Grubbs, L

    2015-12-01

    Peer-to-peer support provided by 'veteran' neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents to those with current NICU babies is a legitimate and unique form of support that can complement or supplement, but not replace, services provided by professional NICU staff. Peer support can be delivered through hospital- or community-based programs that offer one-to-one in-person or telephone matches, or support groups that meet in-person or via the Internet. Issues in program development, volunteer training and program operation are discussed. Recommendations for offering peer support to all NICU parents as an integral component of family-centered care and comprehensive family support are presented. PMID:26597805

  20. Common Diagnoses in the NICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & ... NICU and be at risk for conditions like cerebral palsy or seizures later in life. previous continue Jaundice ...

  1. Common Parent Reactions to the NICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the early part of their NICU stay. Anger Anger is also a common reaction to the initial ... weeks?”). Most parents of NICU babies feel some anger, and they express it in different ways. Some ...

  2. Longitudinal ABR in the NICU infant.

    PubMed

    Cox, L C; Hack, M; Metz, D A

    1982-08-01

    To assess the reliability of ABR testing of NICU infants, longitudinal ABR testing was accomplished on 50 NICU infants while hospitalized and subsequently at 4 and at 20-24 months of age. The results indicate that ABR testing in the NICU may be a poor predictor of subsequent permanent hearing loss. The implications of these findings are discussed with the recommendation that ABR testing in the NICU be used in concert with follow-up testing.

  3. Facilitating nurturant fathering behavior in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Novak, J C

    1990-09-01

    Many of the roles required of the father of a NICU infant are new and unfamiliar, difficult to carry out, unrehearsed, and yet called for in an unexpected crisis. At a time when they too need nurturing, fathers of high-risk infants are expected to adapt readily and be models of self-control. It is apparent from this investigation that the primary nurse is in a strategic position to assist the new father in his acquaintance with and early adjustment to his infant. Although some of the fathers will become actively involved with their children, others prefer less involvement in infant care taking and display minimal nurturant behaviors. A nurse must be able to recognize these differences and support a father's (and mother's) choice. A couple's sociocultural ideology and perceptions of the father's role, as well as the family dynamics and values, need to be given primary consideration in planning nursing care. In order for the nurse to fulfill an important teaching role for the fathers (parents) of NICU infants, the nurse must meet the needs of each individual father in relation to the family system. This requires systematic and nonjudgmental assessment and caring facilitation of paternal role development and early father-infant and father-mother-infant interactions.

  4. Supporting parental bonding in the NICU: a care plan for nurses.

    PubMed

    Haut, C; Peddicord, K; O'Brien, E

    1994-12-01

    New and improved technology in the NICU has assisted in supporting critically ill neonates, especially those born at very low birth weights. These small patients require the dedicated hand of the NICU staff, but also the love and support of their parents. Family bonding in the NICU is often a very difficult process, which is interrupted by separation of parent and child at birth and continued by the physical constraints of this highly complex critical care environment. Neonatal nurses are most often the front line managers and coordinators of family care in the NICU. They are charged with the challenge of understanding and providing "state of the art" technological care in an environment that must also adapt to the ever changing needs of parents and families who cannot be considered visitors, but an integral part of their infants' care and survival. Each infant and family in the NICU requires individualized assessment and nursing care. This article reviews the process of parental bonding as it relates to the premature or ill infant and provides for nurses a plan of care written to foster and support family bonding in the NICU. Stages of bonding with a sick or premature infant are explored in the context of a theoretical framework of adaptation provided by Sister Callista Roy.

  5. Effect of NICU Department Orientation Program on Mother’s Anxiety: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Leila; Hosseini, Mohammad Bager; Heydarpoor Damanabad, Zhilla; Rahkar Farshi, Mahni; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Ranjbar Kochaksaraie, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neonatal intensive care unit induces the high level of anxiety for mothers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of NICU orientation program on the anxiety of mothers who had preterm newborns hospitalized in NICU. Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial (three parallel groups). Participants included 99 mothers with preterm newborns hospitalized in NICU of Al- Zahra hospital, affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Mothers were randomly assigned to one of three groups (film, booklet, and control). Mothers completed the State- Trait Anxiety Inventory before entering to the NICU, and then mothers in the experiment groups became familiar with the NICU environment through watching a film or reading booklet. After the first NICU visit, all mothers completed the STAI and Cattell's Anxiety Questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 13 software. Results: There was no significant difference between three groups regarding state- trait anxiety before the intervention. After the first NICU visit, a significant reduction in maternal state anxiety was seen in the both experiment groups. There was no statistical significant difference regarding trait anxiety. Data obtained from Cattell's anxiety questionnaire after intervention, showed significant difference in state anxiety between groups. Conclusion: Employing film and booklet orientation strategy after preterm delivery can reduce the mother’s anxiety and beneficent for the mother, baby, family and health care system. PMID:27752486

  6. Counselling skills to improve Nursing Relational System within the NICU.

    PubMed

    Pannacciulli, C

    2012-05-01

    The relationships amongst healthcare providers, as well as between these and the patients/families they care for, are currently experiencing profound changes in Italian hospitals, and--more generally--in the whole Italian health system, thus reproducing similar changes concomitantly occurring in most Western countries. A growing body of evidence suggests that nurses play a central role in the proper development of a healthy and transparent communication between caregivers and patients/families in all neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This article discusses the current knowledge in this area, and provides further evidence supporting the introduction in all NICUs of specific educational and training tools for nurses in order to promote the use of counselling skills. The implementation of specific counselling skills can improve the Nursing Relational System within the NICU, ultimately helping in better addressing the parental relational needs in the NICU.

  7. Feeding Problems of NICU and PICU Graduates: Perceptions of Parents and Providers

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Kristin F.

    2012-01-01

    There is little known about family experiences with pediatric feeding problems after NICU or PICU discharge. The study purposes were to better understand the family experiences with and consequences of feeding problems among NICU and PICU graduates after they transitioned home. Using a qualitative, descriptive design, 15 parents and 10 health professionals completed in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Analysis revealed that feeding problems greatly impacted families. Education and resources were considered important, but generally insufficient. Though some parent-provider partnerships were strong, many others were not, and at-times, partnerships were fraught with conflict, communication problems, and lack of collaboration. System barriers and financial concerns escalated parents’ distress, affecting their emotional responses. Parents’ perceptions of discrepancies between their family situation and those of “normal” families violated their expectations. Understanding the perspectives of parents and providers regarding feeding problems common among NICU and PICU graduates is essential to developing effective interventions. PMID:23204932

  8. Narratives and embodied knowing in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Ringham, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The author draws on narratives as an illustration of embodied knowledge and argues for the importance of using embodied knowing to inform ethical decisions in the neonatal setting. Nurses have a unique perspective of the complex care associated with neonatal intensive care (NIC). NIC nurses listen to parent's stories and share their own practice stories, leading to an intimate appreciation of a family's particular response to their health care experience. These narratives can deepen understanding of how nurses go about doing their everyday work, describe experiences in everyday practice, and help the writer come to terms with traumatic events. Moreover, nurses' narratives provide a voice, an expression of their embodied knowledge. By telling and listening to nurses' stories, we can better understand how embodied knowledge supports families in crisis. The narratives in this article are examples of the challenges neonatal nurses face in using embodied knowing to enhance relationships with families. These narratives may help nurses to reflect on their practice and cultivate relationships with families in the NICU.

  9. In the NICU: Your Family and Friends

    MedlinePlus

    ... mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your personal message: Thank you! Your e-mail was sent. ... your needs and provide immense comfort. You will value having these people in your life. Unfortunately, others ...

  10. "Cohabitation" between NICU and PICU.

    PubMed

    Biban, Paolo; Spaggiari, Stefania

    2011-10-01

    Neonatal and paediatric intensive care are usually provided in distinct units, characterized by highly specialized staffs dedicated either to critically ill newborns (NICUs) or to critically ill children (PICUs). However, such a model may be not suitable or even applicable to all medical organisations or to different local needs. Actually, in Europe there are several PICUs which routinely provide care also to neonatal patients, including extremely preterm infants. Conversely, there are many NICUs which occasionally, or systematically, admit also young infants and toddlers. Whilst many aspects of modern neonatal care do resemble those routinely used in the paediatric intensive care setting, several clinical issues are unique to each respective sector and cannot be easily translated to the other one. In order to guarantee the best quality of care, NICU doctors and nurses should acquire adequate competence and skills, by means of focused multidisciplinary training programmes, as well as extensive exposure to a wide paediatric case mix.

  11. Nurse burnout and stress in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Mercedes

    2008-12-01

    The effects of nurse burnout and stress in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)-high levels of absenteeism, low morale, mental fatigue, and exhaustion-can have detrimental effects on neonatal care. Because of the nature of this highly specialized form of nursing, NICU nurses can experience high levels of psychologic and physical stress. Burnout is a response to workplace stress that results in emotional and mental exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased sense of personal accomplishment. Job satisfaction, emotional support, and self-care are important components for preventing burnout in staff. Therefore, the implications regarding practice and nurse burnout in the NICU are clear. It is the responsibility of both individual nurses and administrative leaders to take the necessary steps to prevent nurse burnout. Preventing this phenomenon in the NICU can lead to better retention and recruitment rates and delivery of safe neonatal care. PMID:19060580

  12. Recommendations for enhancing psychosocial support of NICU parents through staff education and support.

    PubMed

    Hall, S L; Cross, J; Selix, N W; Patterson, C; Segre, L; Chuffo-Siewert, R; Geller, P A; Martin, M L

    2015-12-01

    Providing psychosocial support to parents whose infants are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can improve parents' functioning as well as their relationships with their babies. Yet, few NICUs offer staff education that teaches optimal methods of communication with parents in distress. Limited staff education in how to best provide psychosocial support to families is one factor that may render those who work in the NICU at risk for burnout, compassion fatigue and secondary traumatic stress syndrome. Staff who develop burnout may have further reduced ability to provide effective support to parents and babies. Recommendations for providing NICU staff with education and support are discussed. The goal is to deliver care that exemplifies the belief that providing psychosocial care and support to the family is equal in importance to providing medical care and developmental support to the baby.

  13. Recommendations for enhancing psychosocial support of NICU parents through staff education and support

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S L; Cross, J; Selix, N W; Patterson, C; Segre, L; Chuffo-Siewert, R; Geller, P A; Martin, M L

    2015-01-01

    Providing psychosocial support to parents whose infants are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can improve parents' functioning as well as their relationships with their babies. Yet, few NICUs offer staff education that teaches optimal methods of communication with parents in distress. Limited staff education in how to best provide psychosocial support to families is one factor that may render those who work in the NICU at risk for burnout, compassion fatigue and secondary traumatic stress syndrome. Staff who develop burnout may have further reduced ability to provide effective support to parents and babies. Recommendations for providing NICU staff with education and support are discussed. The goal is to deliver care that exemplifies the belief that providing psychosocial care and support to the family is equal in importance to providing medical care and developmental support to the baby. PMID:26597803

  14. Recommendations for enhancing psychosocial support of NICU parents through staff education and support.

    PubMed

    Hall, S L; Cross, J; Selix, N W; Patterson, C; Segre, L; Chuffo-Siewert, R; Geller, P A; Martin, M L

    2015-12-01

    Providing psychosocial support to parents whose infants are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can improve parents' functioning as well as their relationships with their babies. Yet, few NICUs offer staff education that teaches optimal methods of communication with parents in distress. Limited staff education in how to best provide psychosocial support to families is one factor that may render those who work in the NICU at risk for burnout, compassion fatigue and secondary traumatic stress syndrome. Staff who develop burnout may have further reduced ability to provide effective support to parents and babies. Recommendations for providing NICU staff with education and support are discussed. The goal is to deliver care that exemplifies the belief that providing psychosocial care and support to the family is equal in importance to providing medical care and developmental support to the baby. PMID:26597803

  15. Family Support and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Lou Ann

    2013-01-01

    Family involvement is essential to the developmental outcome of infants born into Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). In this article, evidence has been presented on the parent's perspective of having an infant in the NICU and the context of family. Key points to an educational assessment are also reviewed. Throughout, the parent's concerns and…

  16. Influence of Clinical and Sociodemographic Characteristics on Early Intervention Enrollment after NICU Discharge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Perrin, James M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to characterize participation of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) graduates in early intervention (EI). We used data from the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study. We fit models of days from referral to Individualized Family Service Plan creation (plan time), days from referral to initiation of services (service time),…

  17. Factors Influencing Implementation of Developmental Care Among NICU Nurses in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Lee, Shih-Yu; Chen, Jingli; Liu, Huaping

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of this article is to describe current developmental care nursing practices among registered nurses (RNs) working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China and to explore selected personal and unit characteristics related to developmental care implementation. A convenience sample of 207 RNs participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional exploratory study. A tool of Practice Standards for Individualized, Family-Centered Developmental Care was used to collect the data. The findings indicate that Chinese NICU nurses are not implementing developmental care consistently. Higher patient caseloads, fewer work hours per day, higher level of education, and fewer years worked in NICUs are the significant predictors for lower implementation of developmental care. NICU nurses in China currently carry out developmental care based mainly on their accumulated clinical experience rather than their educational experience. More systematic developmental care training for NICU nurses and more support at both unit and hospital levels are necessary in China.

  18. Isolation and Identification Enterobacter asburiae from Consumed Powdered Infant Formula Milk (PIF) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    PubMed

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study. PMID:26853289

  19. Isolation and Identification Enterobacter asburiae from Consumed Powdered Infant Formula Milk (PIF) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    PubMed

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study.

  20. Visiting your baby in the NICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are having a hard time with your emotions, ask for the social worker in the NICU. Or, talk to your doctor. It is ok to ask for help. By taking care of yourself, you are taking care of your baby too. Your baby needs your love and touch to grow and improve.

  1. Nurses' beliefs and values about doing cue-based care in an NICU in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Chen, Shu-Yueh; Yin, Ying-Ti

    2004-12-01

    Although advances in medical technology have increased the survival rate of preterm infants, science is no cure-all for these high-risk patients. A growing number of studies report that caregiving interventions cause physiological and behavioral distress in such infants. The results have prompted changes in caregiving practices, attempting to reduce stress and strengthen protection for the infants, in order to promote their stability and development in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) . This study uses qualitative research methods to grasp the richness and diversity of nurses' beliefs and experience in the taking care of preterm infants. Ten groups of questions explore how NICU nurses take care of premature infants, nurses' perspectives on cue-based care, and the extent to which NICU nurses practice cue-based care. The results generated three themes: (1) timely and skillful management of the preterm infants; (2) compassionate and holistic care for the infants and their highly stressed families; and (3) the relationship between good nursing care and meeting the needs of preterm infants, families, physicians, units, and the environment. It is apparent that the approach to care delivery in NICU practice is still clinical-based, and that there are some obstacles to the delivery of cue-based care. The reasons for this include lack of knowledge, incomplete collaboration with team members, and insufficient support from the administrative systems. To improve the quality of nursing care and preterm infant outcomes, it will be necessary to educate NICU nurses on cue-based care, to enhance collaboration among all team members, to reduce their non-nursing workload, and to re-design NICUs for optimal cue-based care. PMID:15619178

  2. Policy change for infants born at the "cusp of viability": a Canadian NICU experience.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Linda; van Manen, Michael; Byrne, Paul; Tyebkhan, Juzer M

    2014-11-01

    Resuscitation and life-support treatments for infants born at the "cusp of viability" continue to be subject to clinical and ethical debate. Reported positive outcomes for these infants led our Neonatal Program to critically review our historic practice of discouraging resuscitation of infants born at <24 weeks' gestational age. This practice change required a multifaceted, collaborative approach including neonatal, perinatal, and obstetric efforts. An exceptional experience was the formation of a dedicated working group that included invaluable input from parents who had lived the NICU experience. The inclusion of family members in the development of clinical policy was a novel experience for NICU staff, which we feel ultimately resulted in a more ethically sound approach to the care of these infants and their families. In this article, we explore our experience of the process of policy change, which although detailed and transparent was also complex and challenging in development and implementation.

  3. Maternal Psychological Distress and Visitation to the NICU

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Michelle M; Rossman, Beverly; Patra, Kousiki; Kratovil, Amanda; Khan, Samah; Meier, Paula P

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine associations between maternal NICU visitation rates, maternal psychological distress (“distress”), and preterm infant outcome post-NICU discharge in a contemporary cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods This was a prospective study of 69 mothers and their VLBW infants. Distress was assessed 1 month post-birth, 2 weeks prior to NICU discharge and after NICU discharge at 4 months corrected age [CA]. Maternal NICU visitation rates were calculated for the first 2 weeks and 1 month post-birth as well as for the entire NICU hospitalization. Regression analyses adjusted for the impact of 1. maternal and infant characteristics and distress on maternal visitation rates and 2. the impact of visitation on long-term maternal distress, and rates of infant clinic attendance and rehospitalization. Results Greater number of children in the home, maternal exposure to a greater number of potentially traumatic events prior to childbirth, and lower maternal anxiety consistently predicted lower visitation rate. Lower maternal visitation rate predicted higher maternal depression scores at infants’ 4 month CA visit. Maternal NICU visitation rate did not predict post-NICU discharge infant clinic attendance or rehospitalization. Conclusion Distress is an important predictor of visitation. In turn, visitation is associated with long-term maternal distress. PMID:25684177

  4. Parental needs in infant's end-of-life and bereavement in NICU: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpour, Marzieh; Sadeghi, Narges; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Newborn death is an unexpected outcome for parents. Parents face with several needs in infant end-of-life. The health care team is responsible for meet these needs. This qualitative study aim was to explore of parental needs in infant end-of-life and bereavement. Materials and Methods: For this qualitative study, 24 single semi-structure interviews were done. A qualitative content analysis method was used. Sampling conducted on purposeful with maximum variation in five Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) environments in Isfahan city. Inclusion criteria for nurses and doctors were having at least one experience of caring for an infant and their family at end-of-life. Inclusion criteria for parents and their families were having at least one infant at end-of-life or had lost their infant for 6 months before in NICU. Results: Data analysis uncovered two main themes. Family's support needs with two subthemes (family's support needs before infant's death and family's support needs after infant's death) and family's preparatory needs upon infant's death with two subthemes (management of the bad news of infant's death by treatment team and management of the bad news of infant's death by family). Discussion: Mourning mother's need for her husband's presence by her side, getting hospitalized in a separate room, and management of infant's death news by father and family were among items rarely pointed out in other studies. Exploration of these needs cab be helpful for the health care team for providing care. PMID:27500172

  5. Evaluation of an educational intervention on breastfeeding for NICU nurses.

    PubMed

    Siddell, Erica; Marinelli, Kathleen; Froman, Robin D; Burke, Georgine

    2003-08-01

    The effect of breastfeeding education on breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of nurses in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was evaluated. NICU nurses (intervention) and pediatric nurses (untreated control) working at a northeastern US children's hospital participated in the pretest/posttest design study. Both groups answered the same breastfeeding questionnaire on 2 occasions. NICU nurses completed the questionnaire the second time after attending the education session. Outcome measures evaluated by questionnaire items were (1) breastfeeding knowledge, (2) pro-breastfeeding attitudes, (3) baby-focused care attitudes, and (4) nurse-focused care attitudes. Comparison groups were similar at pretest on demographic variables and remained so despite attrition between pretesting and posttesting. A significant increase (P < .001) occurred in NICU nurses' breastfeeding knowledge after the education session. Findings suggest that an educational intervention has potential for improving NICU nurses' knowledge and certain attitudes about breastfeeding but may not alter other attitudes of interest in the desired direction.

  6. Past and Present Insights on Alpha-linolenic Acid and the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Family.

    PubMed

    Stark, Aliza H; Reifen, Ram; Crawford, Michael A

    2016-10-25

    Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the parent essential fatty acid of the omega-3 family. This family includes docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which has been conserved in neural signaling systems in the cephalopods, fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds, mammals, primates, and humans. This extreme conservation, in spite of wide genomic changes of over 500 million years, testifies to the uniqueness of this molecule in the brain and affirms the importance of omega-3 fatty acids. While DHA and its close precursor, eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), have received much attention by the research community, ALA, as the precursor of both, has been considered of little interest. There are many papers on ALA requirements in experimental animals. Unlike humans, rats and mice can readily convert ALA to EPA and DHA, so it is unclear whether the effect is solely due to the conversion products or to ALA itself. The intrinsic role of ALA has yet to be defined. This paper will discuss both recent and historical findings related to this distinctive group of fatty acids, and will highlight the physiological significance of the omega-3 family.

  7. Targeting Hyaluronic Acid Family for Cancer Chemoprevention and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lokeshwar, Vinata B.; Mirza, Summan; Jordan, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid or hyaluronan (HA) is perhaps one of the most uncomplicated large polymers that regulates several normal physiological processes and, at the same time, contributes to the manifestation of a variety of chronic and acute diseases, including cancer. Members of the HA signaling pathway (HA synthases, HA receptors, and HYAL-1 hyaluronidase) have been experimentally shown to promote tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis, and hence each of them is a potential target for cancer therapy. Furthermore, as these members are also overexpressed in a variety of carcinomas, targeting of the HA family is clinically relevant. A variety of targeted approaches have been developed to target various HA family members, including small-molecule inhibitors and antibody and vaccine therapies. These treatment approaches inhibit HA-mediated intracellular signaling that promotes tumor cell proliferation, motility, and invasion, as well as induction of endothelial cell functions. Being nontoxic, nonimmunogenic, and versatile for modifications, HA has been used in nanoparticle preparations for the targeted delivery of chemotherapy drugs and other anticancer compounds to tumor cells through interaction with cell-surface HA receptors. This review discusses basic and clinical translational aspects of targeting each HA family member and respective treatment approaches that have been described in the literature. PMID:25081525

  8. Family support and family-centered care in the neonatal intensive care unit: origins, advances, impact.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Judith S; Cooper, Liza G; Blaine, Arianna I; Franck, Linda S; Howse, Jennifer L; Berns, Scott D

    2011-02-01

    Family-centered care (FCC) has been increasingly emphasized as an important and necessary element of neonatal intensive care. FCC is conceptualized as a philosophy with a set of guiding principles, as well as a cohort of programs, services, and practices that many hospitals have embraced. Several factors drive the pressing need for family-centered care and support of families of infants in NICUs, including the increase in the number of infants in NICUs; growth in diversity of the population and their concurrent needs; identification of parental and familial stress and lack of parenting confidence; and gaps in support for families, as identified by parents and NICU staff. We explore the origins of and advances in FCC in the NICU and identify various delivery methods and aspects of FCC and family support in the NICU. We examine the research and available evidence supporting FCC in the NICU and offer recommendations for increased dissemination and for future study.

  9. Tomato ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING (ASR) gene family revisited.

    PubMed

    Golan, Ido; Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Konrad, Zvia; Shkolnik-Inbar, Doron; Carrari, Fernando; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2014-01-01

    Tomato ABSCISIC ACID RIPENING 1 (ASR1) was the first cloned plant ASR gene. ASR orthologs were then cloned from a large number of monocot, dicot and gymnosperm plants, where they are mostly involved in response to abiotic (drought and salinity) stress and fruit ripening. The tomato genome encodes five ASR genes: ASR1, 2, 3 and 5 encode low-molecular-weight proteins (ca. 110 amino acid residues each), whereas ASR4 encodes a 297-residue polypeptide. Information on the expression of the tomato ASR gene family is scarce. We used quantitative RT-PCR to assay the expression of this gene family in plant development and in response to salt and osmotic stresses. ASR1 and ASR4 were the main expressed genes in all tested organs and conditions, whereas ASR2 and ASR3/5 expression was two to three orders of magnitude lower (with the exception of cotyledons). ASR1 is expressed in all plant tissues tested whereas ASR4 expression is limited to photosynthetic organs and stamens. Essentially, ASR1 accounted for most of ASR gene expression in roots, stems and fruits at all developmental stages, whereas ASR4 was the major gene expressed in cotyledons and young and fully developed leaves. Both ASR1 and ASR4 were expressed in flower organs, with ASR1 expression dominating in stamens and pistils, ASR4 in sepals and petals. Steady-state levels of ASR1 and ASR4 were upregulated in plant vegetative organs following exposure to salt stress, osmotic stress or the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Tomato plants overexpressing ASR1 displayed enhanced survival rates under conditions of water stress, whereas ASR1-antisense plants displayed marginal hypersensitivity to water withholding. PMID:25310287

  10. Transitioning Newborns from NICU to Home: Family Information Packet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Organization (PSO) Program Quality Measure Tools & Resources Tools & Resources Value Surveys on Patient Safety Culture Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture Nursing Home Survey ...

  11. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  12. Drugs of Choice for Sedation and Analgesia in the NICU

    PubMed Central

    Hall, R. Whit; Shbarou, Rolla M.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Painful procedures in the NICU are common, undertreated, and lead to adverse consequences. The most common drugs used to treat neonatal pain include the opiates, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, ketamine, propofol, acetaminophen, and local and topical anesthetics. The indications, advantages and disadvantages of the commonly used analgesic drugs are discussed. Guidance and references for drugs and dosing for specific neonatal procedures are provided. PMID:19161862

  13. Tensile Properties of Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Ni-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, P. Q.; Zhang, C.; Wen, J. C.; Rao, H. C.; Wang, Q. T.

    2016-02-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni-Cu alloys with a Cu content of 6, 10, 19, and 32 wt.% were prepared by pulse electrodeposition. The microstructure and tensile properties of the nanocrystalline Ni-Cu alloys were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and tensile testing. The x-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the structure of the nanocrystalline Ni-Cu alloys is a face-centered cubic, single-phase solid solution with an average grain size of 18 to 24 nm, and that the average grain size decreased with increasing Cu content. The ultimate tensile strength (~1265 to 1640 MPa) and elongation to failure (~5.8 to 8.9%) of the Ni-Cu alloys increased with increasing Cu content. The increase in tensile strength results from the solid solution and fine-grain strengthening. Elemental Cu addition results in a decrease in stacking fault energy, an increase in work hardening rate, a delay in plasticity instability, and consequently, a higher plasticity.

  14. The NICU Follow-Through Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Forrest C.; Hedlund, Rodd E.

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of the NICU Follow-Through Project, a 3-year project designed to help hospital neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and community developmental centers serving infants with disabilities or very low birth weights (VLBW) replicate the project's innovative and successful training components.…

  15. NICU music therapy: song of kin as critical lullaby in research and practice.

    PubMed

    Loewy, Joanne

    2015-03-01

    Music therapy can improve neonatal function and reduce anxiety in parents during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stays. Live music entrained to an infant's observed vital signs, provided by a certified music therapist with First Sounds RBL (rhythm, breath, and lullaby) training, enhanced bonding for infant-parent dyads and triads. The author's song of kin intervention, which employs parent-selected songs, is compared to the presentation of a well-known folk theme ("Twinkle") in 272 neonates. Culturally based, parent-selected, personalized musical tunes provided in song, as a noninvasive intervention, foster optimal, continuous quality of care. Music psychotherapy sessions for parents before working with their infants can instill a potent means of nonconfrontational support, allowing for expression of fear or anxiety related to the premature birth. Although most attention is typically directed to their infant, using music can support the parents' grief and assist in the expression of hope that can instill a sense of security and containment. From the NICU to home, a familiar thread-line theme can be resourced directly from the family and/or parent and applied effortlessly throughout the growing baby's transitional moments.

  16. Nurses’ Awareness of Preterm Neonates’ Sleep in the NICU

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Nasrin; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Rezaeipoor, Mahmood; Mofrad, Zahra Pishkar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Fetus and neonate spend most of their time sleeping inside and outside the womb. Sleep is considered a crucial action of neonatal period similar to breathing and nutrition. It plays a key role in brain development. Today, it is shown that sleep plays a predominant role in body temperature regulation, energy saving and neuronal detoxification. Sleep is the most important behavioral state of neonates, particularly in preterm ones. Noise, light, invasive treatment and caring activities are among disturbing factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) that leave negative impacts on brain development through disturbing the sleep process. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study assessed all NICU nurses of Ali-ibn-Abitaleb hospital using the census sampling method. Demographic data was collected through a questionnaire with 10 questions about active sleep (AS) cycles, also referred to as REM, methods for inducing AS and AS specifications in neonates. The questionnaire was distributed between the nurses. After completion, data was analyzed using SPSS 16 and descriptive statistics method. Findings: According to analyses, 24%, 20%, 48% and 92% of nurses gave correct answers to questions about AS cycle, AS in neonates, the role of sleep in saving energy and ideal noise level, respectively. Conclusion: According to results, nurses had a low level of knowledge towards neonatal sleep. All nurses need to know the importance of sleep in preterm neonates. The main role of inducing sleep is to protect the development of the neonates’ brain in the NICU. Those nurses who spend a remarkable portion of their time for caring neonates in the NICU play a significant role in neonatal sleep care. PMID:26755487

  17. Parents' experiences of their premature infants' transportation from a university hospital NICU to the NICU at two local hospitals.

    PubMed

    Granrud, Marie Dahlen; Ludvigsen, Elin; Andershed, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how the parents of premature infants experience the transportation of their baby from the neonatal intensive care unit at a university hospital (NICU-U) to such a unit at a local hospital (NICU-L). This descriptive qualitative study comprises interviews with nine sets of parents and two mothers. The qualitative content analysis resulted in one theme: living in uncertainty about whether the baby will survive, and three categories: being distanced from the baby; fearing that something would happen to the baby during transportation; and experiencing closeness to the baby. The results also revealed that the parents experienced developmental, situational and health-illness transitions.

  18. Postdischarge Service Use by Families of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Chia-Ling; Peterson, Carla A.; Shelley, Mack C., II

    2002-01-01

    A study examined patterns and predictors of service use by 85 families of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) graduates, specifically premature infants. Enabling variables (NICU contacts and follow-up services) and parents' perceptions of children's problems were major predictors of service use. No demographic characteristics predicted service…

  19. Review of interventions to reduce stress among mothers of infants in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Chertok, Ilana R Azulay; McCrone, Susan; Parker, Dennelle; Leslie, Nan

    2014-02-01

    Nearly half a million preterm infants are born each year in the United States. Preterm delivery has significant psychosocial implications for mothers, particularly when their baby spends time in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The decrease in length of gestation causes mothers to have to parent prematurely, without the less time for emotional preparation than mothers of full-term infants. Parents of NICU infants experience stress related to feelings of helplessness, exclusion and alienation, and lack sufficient knowledge regarding parenting and interacting with their infants in the NICU. There are a number of interventions that nurses can do that help reduce the stress of mothers of infants in the NICU.

  20. Trichophyton tonsurans-Ringworm in an NICU.

    PubMed

    Sproul, Ann Vivian; Whitehall, John; Engler, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Ringworm is very rarely found in the neonate, especially infants who have been confined from birth to an intensive care unit. We report an infection with the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans, the most common cause of tinea capitis in children but not yet described in a premature baby who has never left the nursery. Our case illustrates the need to consider this diagnosis among the causes of dermatitis in the newborn, especially in at-risk populations such as indigenous Australians. Though our infant's presentation was the classic "ring" shape, a literature review revealed varied presentations. In contrast to the usual need for long-term antifungal medication, our case responded rapidly to a topical azole preparation. Although we did not screen visiting family members, screening would have been appropriate, and those found positive might have benefited from at least antifungal shampoo.

  1. The AID/APOBEC family of nucleic acid mutators

    PubMed Central

    Conticello, Silvestro G

    2008-01-01

    The AID/APOBECs, a group of cytidine deaminases, represent a somewhat unusual protein family that can insert mutations in DNA and RNA as a result of their ability to deaminate cytidine to uridine. The ancestral AID/APOBECs originated from a branch of the zinc-dependent deaminase superfamily at the beginning of the vertebrate radiation. Other members of the family have arisen in mammals and present a history of complex gene duplications and positive selection. All AID/APOBECs have a characteristic zinc-coordination motif, which forms the core of the catalytic site. The crystal structure of human APOBEC2 shows remarkable similarities to that of the bacterial tRNA-editing enzyme TadA, which suggests a conserved mechanism by which polynucleotides are recognized and deaminated. The AID/APOBECs seem to have diverse roles. AID and the APOBEC3s are DNA mutators, acting in antigen-driven antibody diversification processes and in an innate defense system against retroviruses, respectively. APOBEC1 edits the mRNA for apolipoprotein B, a protein involved in lipid transport. A detailed understanding of the biological roles of the family is still some way off, however, and the functions of some members of the family are completely unknown. Given their ability to mutate DNA, a role for the AID/APOBECs in the onset of cancer has been proposed. PMID:18598372

  2. Collaborative Decision Making in the NICU: When Life Is Uncertain, Satisfice [sic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Brian S.; Maroney, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    Collaborative decision making in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) involves negotiation among the parents and medical professionals involved with a premature baby. The authors introduce economist Herbert Simon's concept of "satisficing" as a model for collaborative decision making in the NICU. Satisficing (a hybrid of "satisfy" and…

  3. Chlorogenic acid protects MSCs against oxidative stress by altering FOXO family genes and activating intrinsic pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyong; Bian, Hetao; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Ye; Dai, Jianghua; He, Wenfeng; Liao, Xingen; Liu, Rongrong; Luo, Jun

    2012-01-15

    Chlorogenic acid as an antioxidant exists widely in edible and medicinal plants, and can protect cell against apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. However, its molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that Chlorogenic acid suppressed reactive oxygen species increase by activation of Akt phosphorylation,and increased FOXO family genes and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression in MSCs culturing under oxidative stress. In addition, PI-3Kinase Inhibitor (2-(4-Morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, LY294002) could suppress the Chlorogenic acid-induced: (1) the cellular protective role, (2) the increase of the FOXO family genes expression, (3) increased expression of Bcl-2. These results suggested that Chlorogenic acid protected MSCs against apoptosis via PI3K/AKT signal and FOXO family genes.

  4. P17.26IS NICU MANDATORY AFTER SURGERY IN ADULT HGG? A SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, R.; Agnoletti, A.; Condello, C.; Rivera, A.; Altieri, R.; Garbossa, D.; Lanotte, M.; Ducati, A.

    2014-01-01

    Surgery in high grade gliomas (HGG) is often related to peri-operative complications, that may require neurocritical intensive care unit (NICU) admittance. Actually there is no consensus whether there is real need for NICU for this patients; often the possibility is related to surgeon preferences. In literature there are still little data on clinical parameters associated with long-term outcome after neurocritical care. We retrospectively analyzed 175 patients, that underwent surgical resection for HGG in our division; 15 of which needed NICU admittance after surgery. We compare this group with a homogeneous control group of 15 patients that did not need NICU after surgery. Statistical analysis (p value set at 0.05) did not show any statistical difference between the two groups and we suggest that NICU should not always be used after craniotomy for supratentorial HGG.

  5. Decreasing NICU Costs in the managed care arena: the positive impact of collaborative high-risk OB and NICU disease management programs.

    PubMed

    Diehl-Svrjcek, Beth C; Richardson, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Costs for preterm and critically ill neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be astronomical related to the number of inpatient day's accrued and professional ancillary fees. NICU births are often associated with maternal risk factors such as previous preterm or low birth weight delivery, maternal infections, chronic disease states, substance abuse and/or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Accordingly, Johns Hopkins HealthCare provides a disease management approach for the prevention of NICU births through "Partners With Mom." This maternity disease management program identifies pregnant women that could potentially generate high-dollar claims. The mission of the program is to reduce hospital/NICU admissions related to pregnancy complications and improve maternal/neonatal outcomes. If an NICU birth does occur, multiple avenues are pursued to control costs. By working in concert with Partners With Mom, the NICU Disease Management Program utilizes a multifaceted approach by tracking maternal risk factors, optimizing levels of required inpatient neonatal care and pursuing other avenues of revenue enhancement.

  6. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria: extending the family.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Mu, Dongdong; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that produce lactic acid as the major product during the fermentation process. LAB are Gram-positive bacteria with great biotechnological potential in the food industry. They can produce bacteriocins, which are proteinaceous antimicrobial molecules with a diverse genetic origin, posttranslationally modified or not, that can help the producer organism to outcompete other bacterial species. In this review, we focus on the various types of bacteriocins that can be found in LAB and the organization and regulation of the gene clusters responsible for their production and biosynthesis, and consider the food applications of the prototype bacteriocins from LAB. Furthermore, we propose a revised classification of bacteriocins that can accommodate the increasing number of classes reported over the last years.

  7. Mutations in the nuclear bile acid receptor FXR cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Potter, Carol J.; Xiao, Rui; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Kang Ho; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Picarsic, Jennifer L.; Jacobson, Theodora A.; Zhang, Jing; He, Weimin; Liu, Pengfei; Knisely, A. S.; Finegold, Milton J.; Muzny, Donna M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Lupski, James R.; Plon, Sharon E.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Eng, Christine M.; Yang, Yaping; Washington, Gabriel C.; Porteus, Matthew H.; Berquist, William E.; Kambham, Neeraja; Singh, Ravinder J.; Xia, Fan; Enns, Gregory M.; Moore, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal cholestasis is a potentially life-threatening condition requiring prompt diagnosis. Mutations in several different genes can cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, but known genes cannot account for all familial cases. Here we report four individuals from two unrelated families with neonatal cholestasis and mutations in NR1H4, which encodes the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid-activated nuclear hormone receptor that regulates bile acid metabolism. Clinical features of severe, persistent NR1H4-related cholestasis include neonatal onset with rapid progression to end-stage liver disease, vitamin K-independent coagulopathy, low-to-normal serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity, elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein and undetectable liver bile salt export pump (ABCB11) expression. Our findings demonstrate a pivotal function for FXR in bile acid homeostasis and liver protection. PMID:26888176

  8. A comprehensive classification of nucleic acid structural families based on strand direction and base pairing.

    PubMed Central

    Lavery, R; Zakrzewska, K; Sun, J S; Harvey, S C

    1992-01-01

    We propose a classification of DNA structures formed from 1 to 4 strands, based only on relative strand directions, base to strand orientation and base pairing geometries. This classification and its associated notation enable all nucleic acids to be grouped into structural families and bring to light possible structures which have not yet been observed experimentally. It also helps in understanding transitions between families and can assist in the design of multistrand structures. PMID:1383936

  9. Characterization of glucosylceramides in leaves of the grass family (Poaceae): Pooideae has unsaturated hydroxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Imai, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    The glucosylceramide components were characterized in the 33 species of the grass family (Poaceae). Pooideae contained 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenines [i.e., t18:1(8Z) plus t18:1(8E)] as major components, the relative levels of t18:1(8Z) being higher than those of the 8-E isomers. 2-Hydroxy arachidic acid was a major component in all species other than Pooideae, whereas Pooideae had a high content of 2-hydroxytetracosenoic acid.

  10. Extrauterine growth restriction: a continuing problem in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Coverston, Catherine R; Schwartz, Rosanne

    2005-01-01

    Extrauterine growth restriction (EGR) is an identifiable marker of severe nutritional deficit during the first weeks of life. Infants with EGR have growth values at or below the 10th percentile of intrauterine growth expectation based on estimated gestational age. Although all preterm sick infants are at risk for EGR, risk is greatest for those infants <1500 g at birth. As estimated gestational age and birthweight decrease, the incidence of extrauterine growth restriction increases. The duration of initial weight loss also increases as birthweight decreases, compounding the difficulty of attaining appropriate growth. To decrease the incidence and consequences of nutritional deficit, NICU caregivers should learn more about EGR, implement assessment protocols to identify EGR, seek opportunities to decrease energy needs of at-risk infants, and work toward enhancing nutritional status of VLBW infants through innovative nutritional management.

  11. Hydrogen evolution reaction measurements of dealloyed porous NiCu

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Porous metals are of interest for their high surface area and potential for enhanced catalytic behavior. Electrodeposited NiCu thin films with a range of compositions were electrochemically dealloyed to selectively remove the Cu component. The film structure, composition, and reactivity of these samples were characterized both before and after the dealloying step using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. The catalytic behavior of the dealloyed porous Ni samples towards the hydrogen evolution reaction was measured and compared to that of the as-deposited samples. The dealloyed samples were generally more reactive than their as-deposited counterparts at low overpotentials, making the dealloying procedure a promising area of exploration for improved hydrogen evolution catalysts. PMID:24341569

  12. Hydrogen evolution reaction measurements of dealloyed porous NiCu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koboski, Kyla R.; Nelsen, Evan F.; Hampton, Jennifer R.

    2013-12-01

    Porous metals are of interest for their high surface area and potential for enhanced catalytic behavior. Electrodeposited NiCu thin films with a range of compositions were electrochemically dealloyed to selectively remove the Cu component. The film structure, composition, and reactivity of these samples were characterized both before and after the dealloying step using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. The catalytic behavior of the dealloyed porous Ni samples towards the hydrogen evolution reaction was measured and compared to that of the as-deposited samples. The dealloyed samples were generally more reactive than their as-deposited counterparts at low overpotentials, making the dealloying procedure a promising area of exploration for improved hydrogen evolution catalysts.

  13. A systematic review of bile acid sequestrant therapy in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia, which arises as a result of a mutation in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene, is characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), regardless of dietary and lifestyle modifications. Pharmacological therapy is often required to adequately control the elevated LDL-C levels associated with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, children with this genetic condition present many challenges for physicians, who must weigh the benefits of lipid-lowering therapy against the risks associated with the various treatment options. Furthermore, because familial hypercholesterolemia is a chronic condition, children will likely require long-term lipid-lowering therapy. As such, the potential effect of pharmacological treatment on development is of paramount importance in this population. Bile acid sequestrants represent a unique treatment option for children with familial hypercholesterolemia in that these agents are not systemically absorbed but rather exert their lipid-lowering effects via binding to bile acids within the gastrointestinal tract. A literature search was performed to identify clinical data related to the use of bile acid sequestrant therapy in children (< 18 years of age) with familial hypercholesterolemia. Studies published in English between 1990 and December 2010 that were retrieved from MEDLINE and EMBASE were included in this systematic review. In total, five clinical studies were identified that evaluated bile acid sequestrant monotherapy, whereas two studies were identified that evaluated combination therapy with a bile acid sequestrant and low-dose statin. This review summarizes the clinical data regarding the efficacy and safety of bile acid sequestrants in this specialized population.

  14. Baby-MONITOR: A Composite Indicator of NICU Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kowalkowski, Marc A.; Zupancic, John A. F.; Pietz, Kenneth; Richardson, Peter; Draper, David; Hysong, Sylvia J.; Thomas, Eric J.; Petersen, Laura A.; Gould, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: NICUs vary in the quality of care delivered to very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. NICU performance on 1 measure of quality only modestly predicts performance on others. Composite measurement of quality of care delivery may provide a more comprehensive assessment of quality. The objective of our study was to develop a robust composite indicator of quality of NICU care provided to VLBW infants that accurately discriminates performance among NICUs. METHODS: We developed a composite indicator, Baby-MONITOR, based on 9 measures of quality chosen by a panel of experts. Measures were standardized, equally weighted, and averaged. We used the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative database to perform across-sectional analysis of care given to VLBW infants between 2004 and 2010. Performance on the Baby-MONITOR is not an absolute marker of quality but indicates overall performance relative to that of the other NICUs. We used sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the composite indicator, by varying assumptions and methods. RESULTS: Our sample included 9023 VLBW infants in 22 California regional NICUs. We found significant variations within and between NICUs on measured components of the Baby-MONITOR. Risk-adjusted composite scores discriminated performance among this sample of NICUs. Sensitivity analysis that included different approaches to normalization, weighting, and aggregation of individual measures showed the Baby-MONITOR to be robust (r = 0.89–0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The Baby-MONITOR may be a useful tool to comprehensively assess the quality of care delivered by NICUs. PMID:24918221

  15. High-Pressure Cold-Sprayed Ni and Ni-Cu Coatings: Improved Structures and Corrosion Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivuluoto, Heli; Milanti, Andrea; Bolelli, Giovanni; Lusvarghi, Luca; Vuoristo, Petri

    2014-01-01

    Cold spraying is a promising technique for the production of dense metallic coatings. In cold spraying, coating formation is through high velocity impacts of solid particles with high kinetic energy. During impact, particles deform plastically and adhere to the substrate, gradually building-up the coating. This makes it possible to form pure and dense coating structures. These impermeable coatings are advantageous in many applications such as those where corrosion protection is required. Nickel and nickel-copper alloys have good corrosion resistance and therefore, as dense coatings, have high potential for employment as corrosion barrier layers. In this study, the structural and corrosion properties of high-pressure cold-sprayed (HPCS) Ni and NiCu coatings are characterized. NiCu alloys are known to have good corrosion resistance in sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, whereas Ni is resistant to caustic soda and alkaline salt solutions. This study also shows the effect of heat treatments on coating properties. FESEM studies of cross-sectional samples reveal structural details of the HPCS coatings while corrosion properties are evaluated with polarization measurements. The corrosion behavior of both the bulk and substrate material is determined in order to assess the real corrosion protection potential of the coatings.

  16. Monitoring bacterial community shifts in bioleaching of Ni-Cu sulfide.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiguo; Zhao, Jiancun; Gao, Fengling; Hu, Yuehua; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2010-11-01

    The microbial ecology of the bioleaching of Ni-Cu sulfide is poorly understood and little effort has been made to handle the microbiological components of these processes. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes fragments from bacteria was used to evaluate the changes of the bacterial community in the process of Ni-Cu sulfide bioleaching in a shaken flask system. The results revealed that the bacterial community was disturbed after the addition of Ni-Cu sulfide. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA fragments revealed that the retrieved sequences clustered together with the genera Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and cluster analysis of DGGE-banding patterns revealed that the process of Ni-Cu sulfide bioleaching in 46days was divided into three stages. During the bioleaching process of Ni-Cu sulfide, Leptospirillum was always dominant. The genera Acidithiobacillus was only detected at early and later stages of the bioleaching process. These results extend our knowledge on microbial dynamics in Ni-Cu sulfide bioleaching, a key issue required to improve commercial applications. PMID:20624605

  17. Molecular basis for amino acid sensing by family C G-protein-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wellendorph, P; Bräuner-Osborne, H

    2009-01-01

    Family C of human G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is constituted by eight metabotropic glutamate receptors, two γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB1–2) subunits forming the heterodimeric GABAB receptor, the calcium-sensing receptor, three taste1 receptors (T1R1–3), a promiscuous L-α-amino acid receptor G-protein-coupled receptor family C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A) and seven orphan receptors. Aside from the orphan receptors, the family C GPCRs are dimeric receptors characterized by a large extracellular Venus flytrap domain which bind the endogenous agonists. Except from the GABAB1–2 and T1R2–3 receptor, all receptors are either activated or positively modulated by amino acids. In this review, we outline mutational, biophysical and structural studies which have elucidated the interaction of the amino acids with the Venus flytrap domains, molecular mechanisms of receptor selectivity and the initial steps in receptor activation. PMID:19298394

  18. Growth responses of 53 open-pollinated loblolly pine families to ozone and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Edwards, N.T.; Hanson, P.J.

    1994-03-01

    Field exposures of 9950 containerized 12-wk-old loblolly pine (Pinustaeda L.) seedlings representing 53 commercially important, open-pollinated families were conducted to evaluate individual and interactive effects of acid rain and O{sub 3} on growth response. A 36-plot field research facility comprised of 33 open-top chambers and three open plots was used to test effects of five O{sub 3} levels that included ambient (A) and seasonally integrated levels that were 0.53, 1.10, 1.58, or 2.15 times ambient. Individual effects of three levels of simulated acid rain (pH 3.3, 4.5, and 5.2) as well as their interaction with O{sub 3} at 0.53A, 1.58A, and 2.15A levels were also included. Exposure to ambient air reduced average growth in height (26%), diameter (5%), and volume (14%) compared with growth of seedlings exposed to a 47% lower dose in charcoal filtered (CF) air. Responses to increasing O{sub 3} above ambient levels varied widely between families, became increasingly inhibitory at the highest O{sub 3} levels, but did not significantly exceed growth reductions found in ambient air. Diameter growth was reduced in most families by all levels of O{sub 3} addition. Acid rain caused a general stimulation of height growth at ambient levels (pH 4.5), while both height and diameter growth were reduced at a mean pH of 3.3. Significant antagonism between rainfall acidity and O{sub 3} effects on height and biomass increment was detected with increasing pollutant concentrations. Ozone reduced root/shoot biomass in most families, while acid rain did not. 51 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. A 3D porous Ni-Cu alloy film for high-performance hydrazine electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming; Lu, Zhiyi; Luo, Liang; Chang, Zheng; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Structural design and catalyst screening are two most important factors for achieving exceptional electrocatalytic performance. Herein we demonstrate that constructing a three-dimensional (3D) porous Ni-Cu alloy film is greatly beneficial for improving the hydrazine oxidation reaction (HzOR) performance. A facile electrodeposition process is employed to synthesize a Ni-Cu alloy film with a 3D hierarchical porous structure. As an integrated electrode for HzOR, the Ni-Cu alloy film exhibits superior catalytic activity and stability to the Ni or Cu counterparts. The synthesis parameters are also systematically tuned for optimizing the HzOR performance. The excellent HzOR performance of the Ni-Cu alloy film is attributed to its high intrinsic activity, large electrochemical specific surface area, and 3D porous architecture which offers a ``superaerophobic'' surface to effectively remove the gas product in a small volume. It is believed that the Ni-Cu alloy film electrode has potential application in direct hydrazine fuel cells as well as other catalytic fields.Structural design and catalyst screening are two most important factors for achieving exceptional electrocatalytic performance. Herein we demonstrate that constructing a three-dimensional (3D) porous Ni-Cu alloy film is greatly beneficial for improving the hydrazine oxidation reaction (HzOR) performance. A facile electrodeposition process is employed to synthesize a Ni-Cu alloy film with a 3D hierarchical porous structure. As an integrated electrode for HzOR, the Ni-Cu alloy film exhibits superior catalytic activity and stability to the Ni or Cu counterparts. The synthesis parameters are also systematically tuned for optimizing the HzOR performance. The excellent HzOR performance of the Ni-Cu alloy film is attributed to its high intrinsic activity, large electrochemical specific surface area, and 3D porous architecture which offers a ``superaerophobic'' surface to effectively remove the gas product in a small

  20. Developmental changes in aspartate-family amino acid biosynthesis in pea chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.R.; Cato, L.W.; Stephens, B.W.; Reeves, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Isolated chloroplasts are known to synthesize the asp-derived amino acids (ile, hse, lys and thr) from ({sup 14}C)asp (Mills et al, 1980, Plant Physiol. 65, 1166). Now, we have studied the influence of tissue age on essential amino acid biosynthesis in pea (Pisum sativum) plastids. Chloroplasts from the younger (third and fourth) leaves of 12 day old plants, were 2-3 times more active in synthesizing lys and thr from ({sup 14}C)asp than those from older (first or second) leaves. We also examined two key pathway enzymes (aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase); with each enzyme,a activity in younger leaves was about 2 times that in plastids from older tissue. Both lys- and thr-sensitive forms of aspartate kinase are known in plants; in agreement with earlier work, we found that lys-sensitive activity was about 4 times higher in the younger tissues, while the thr-sensitive activity changed little during development (Davies and Miflin, 1977, Plant Sci. Lett. 9, 323). Recently the role of aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase in controlling asp-family amino acid synthesis has been questioned (Giovanelli et al, 1989, Plant Physiol. 90, 1584); we hope that measurements of amino acid levels in chloroplasts as well as further enzyme studies will help us to better understand the regulation of asp-family amino acid synthesis.

  1. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-13

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on γ-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  2. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-01

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on γ-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N2 adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  3. Magnetic viscosity in Ni/Cu compositionally-modulated alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, L.H.; Swartzendruber, L.J.; Ettedgui, H.; Atzmony, U.; Lashmore, D.S; Watson, R.E.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1989-01-01

    The existence of a magnetic aftereffect ( magnetic viscosity'') in Ni/Cu multilayered alloys was established using a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature and at 86 K. It was shown that the effect is strongly dependent on the step field, H{sub 2} (i.e., the value the field is reduced to after the magnetic moment has been aligned in high field) and exhibits a maximum relaxation rate for values of H{sub 2} around the reverse coercive field, {minus}H{sub c}. Aftereffect behavior of this type has been observed in other materials, though most often for systems composed of superparamagnetic particles, where the relaxation freezes out at low temperatures. In contrast, the relaxation in the CMA was shown to be enhanced at 86 K over its value at room temperature. New measurements over a wider temperature range show that the enhancement in this sample reaches a maximum near 120 K, but below that temperature the relaxation does freeze out. The temperature of maximum enhancement varies from sample to sample. 6 refs.

  4. Characterization of Electrodeposited Nanoporous Ni and NiCu Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koboski, Kyla; Hampton, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films are interesting candidates to catalyze certain reactions because of their large surface areas. This project focuses on the deposition of Ni and NiCu thin films on a Au substrate and further explores the catalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Depositions are created using controlled potential electrolysis. Samples are then dealloyed using linear sweep voltammetry. Before and after the dealloying, all the samples are characterized using multiple techniques. Electrochemical capacitance measurements allow comparisons of sample roughness. HER measurements characterize the reactivity of the sample with respect to the specific catalytic reaction. The Tafel equation is fit to the data to obtain information about the kinetics of the HER of the samples. Other methods for characterizing the samples include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The use of SEM allows images to be taken of the deposition to determine the change in the structure pre- and post- dealloy of the sample. EDS allows the elemental composition of the deposition to be determined before and after the dealloy stage. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under RUI Grant DMR-1104725, MRI Grant CHE-1126462, MRI Grant CHE-0959282, and ARI grant PHY-0963317.

  5. Improved soybean oil quality by targeted mutagenesis of the fatty acid desaturase 2 gene family.

    PubMed

    Haun, William; Coffman, Andrew; Clasen, Benjamin M; Demorest, Zachary L; Lowy, Anita; Ray, Erin; Retterath, Adam; Stoddard, Thomas; Juillerat, Alexandre; Cedrone, Frederic; Mathis, Luc; Voytas, Daniel F; Zhang, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean oil is high in polyunsaturated fats and is often partially hydrogenated to increase its shelf life and improve oxidative stability. The trans-fatty acids produced through hydrogenation pose a health threat. Soybean lines that are low in polyunsaturated fats were generated by introducing mutations in two fatty acid desaturase 2 genes (FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B), which in the seed convert the monounsaturated fat, oleic acid, to the polyunsaturated fat, linoleic acid. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were engineered to recognize and cleave conserved DNA sequences in both genes. In four of 19 transgenic soybean lines expressing the TALENs, mutations in FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B were observed in DNA extracted from leaf tissue; three of the four lines transmitted heritable FAD2-1 mutations to the next generation. The fatty acid profile of the seed was dramatically changed in plants homozygous for mutations in both FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B: oleic acid increased from 20% to 80% and linoleic acid decreased from 50% to under 4%. Further, mutant plants were identified that lacked the TALEN transgene and only carried the targeted mutations. The ability to create a valuable trait in a single generation through targeted modification of a gene family demonstrates the power of TALENs for genome engineering and crop improvement.

  6. The Role of Peer Support in the Development of Maternal Identity for "NICU Moms"

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Beverly; Greene, Michelle M.; Meier, Paula P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine first-time NICU mothers’ perceptions of the initial effect and stress of their birth experiences and hospitalizations of their infants and what facilitated or hindered the development of their maternal roles within the context of the NICU. Design A qualitative descriptive design. Setting A 57 bed, tertiary NICU in Chicago. Participants Twenty-three mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants hospitalized in the NICU. Methods Participants were a subset of a larger longitudinal mixed-method study of psychological distress in 69 mothers of VLBW infants. Mothers were interviewed using an adaptation of the Clinical Interview for Parents of High-Risk Infants (CLIP) approximately six weeks after the births of their infants. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results Mothers characterized the infants’ births and hospitalizations as a time of overwhelming change culminating in a new perspective on life. Primary themes were Loss, Stress and Anxiety; Adapting; Resilience; Peer Support; and “I’m a NICU Mom.” Mothers rated peer support as the most facilitative and supportive aspect of developing the maternal role in the NICU. Conclusion Peer support and role modeling by NICU-based breastfeeding peer counselors helped the mothers throughout every stage of their infants’ hospitalizations, from giving them hope, to helping them begin to develop maternal identity, to providing anticipatory guidance about taking their infants home. Talking points are provided for nurses who work in NICUs without dedicated peer support to help mothers establish a healthy mother-infant relationship. PMID:25580732

  7. Interaction of dietary fatty acids with tumour necrosis factor family cytokines during colon inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Straková, Nicol; Vaculová, Alena Hyršlová; Tylichová, Zuzana; Safaříková, Barbora; Skender, Belma; Kozubík, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is precisely regulated by a number of endogenous regulatory molecules but significantly influenced by dietary compounds. Malfunction of this system may result in chronic inflammation and cancer. Dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and short-chain fatty acid butyrate produced from fibre display anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Both compounds were shown to modulate the production and activities of TNF family cytokines. Cytokines from the TNF family (TNF- α, TRAIL, and FasL) have potent inflammatory activities and can also regulate apoptosis, which plays an important role in cancer development. The results of our own research showed enhancement of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a combination of either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or butyrate with TNF family cytokines, especially by promotion of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and modulation of NF κ B activity. This review is focused mainly on the interaction of dietary PUFAs and butyrate with these cytokines during colon inflammation and cancer development. We summarised recent knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects and outcomes for intestinal cell behaviour and pathologies. Finally, the possible application for the prevention and therapy of colon inflammation and cancer is also outlined.

  8. Interaction of Dietary Fatty Acids with Tumour Necrosis Factor Family Cytokines during Colon Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Straková, Nicol; Vaculová, Alena Hyršlová; Tylichová, Zuzana; Šafaříková, Barbora; Kozubík, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is precisely regulated by a number of endogenous regulatory molecules but significantly influenced by dietary compounds. Malfunction of this system may result in chronic inflammation and cancer. Dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and short-chain fatty acid butyrate produced from fibre display anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Both compounds were shown to modulate the production and activities of TNF family cytokines. Cytokines from the TNF family (TNF-α, TRAIL, and FasL) have potent inflammatory activities and can also regulate apoptosis, which plays an important role in cancer development. The results of our own research showed enhancement of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a combination of either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or butyrate with TNF family cytokines, especially by promotion of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and modulation of NFκB activity. This review is focused mainly on the interaction of dietary PUFAs and butyrate with these cytokines during colon inflammation and cancer development. We summarised recent knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects and outcomes for intestinal cell behaviour and pathologies. Finally, the possible application for the prevention and therapy of colon inflammation and cancer is also outlined. PMID:24876678

  9. Interleukin-1 family members are enhanced in psoriasis and suppressed by vitamin D and retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Balato, Anna; Schiattarella, Maria; Lembo, Serena; Mattii, Martina; Prevete, Nella; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1 family comprise 11 members that play an important role in immune regulation and inflammatory process. Retinoids exert complex effects on the immune system, having anti-inflammatory effects in chronic dermatological diseases. Vitamin D (vitD) and analogs have been shown to suppress TNF-α-induced IL-1α in human keratinocytes (KCs). In the present study, we investigated IL-1 family members in psoriasis and the effects of vitD and retinoic acid (RA) on these members. We analyzed IL-1 family members gene expression in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ culture exposed to TNF-α, IL-17 or broadband UVB; afterwards, treatment with vitD or RA was performed and IL-1 family members mRNA was evaluated. Similarly, KCs were stimulated with IL-17 and subsequently treated with vitD. IL-1 family members were enhanced in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ cultures after pro-inflammatory stimuli (TNF-α, IL-17 and UVB). RA and vitD were able to suppress this enhancement.

  10. Clustering of protein families into functional subtypes using Relative Complexity Measure with reduced amino acid alphabets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic analysis can be used to divide a protein family into subfamilies in the absence of experimental information. Most phylogenetic analysis methods utilize multiple alignment of sequences and are based on an evolutionary model. However, multiple alignment is not an automated procedure and requires human intervention to maintain alignment integrity and to produce phylogenies consistent with the functional splits in underlying sequences. To address this problem, we propose to use the alignment-free Relative Complexity Measure (RCM) combined with reduced amino acid alphabets to cluster protein families into functional subtypes purely on sequence criteria. Comparison with an alignment-based approach was also carried out to test the quality of the clustering. Results We demonstrate the robustness of RCM with reduced alphabets in clustering of protein sequences into families in a simulated dataset and seven well-characterized protein datasets. On protein datasets, crotonases, mandelate racemases, nucleotidyl cyclases and glycoside hydrolase family 2 were clustered into subfamilies with 100% accuracy whereas acyl transferase domains, haloacid dehalogenases, and vicinal oxygen chelates could be assigned to subfamilies with 97.2%, 96.9% and 92.2% accuracies, respectively. Conclusions The overall combination of methods in this paper is useful for clustering protein families into subtypes based on solely protein sequence information. The method is also flexible and computationally fast because it does not require multiple alignment of sequences. PMID:20718947

  11. Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency. "The Family and Delinquency" (LaMar T. Empey) systematically reviews and weighs the evidence to support prominent theories on the origins of…

  12. Molecular basis of essential amino acid transport from studies of insect nutrient amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family (NAT-SLC6)

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.

    2012-01-01

    Two protein families that represent major components of essential amino acid transport in insects have been identified. They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). Members of these families have been identified as important apical and basolateral parts of transepithelial essential amino acid absorption in the metazoan alimentary canal. Synergistically, they play critical physiological roles as essential substrate providers to diverse metabolic processes, including generic protein synthesis. This review briefly clarifies the requirements for amino acid transport and a variety of amino acid transport mechanisms, including the aforementioned families. Further it focuses on the large group of Nutrient Amino acid Transporters (NATs), which comprise a recently identified subfamily of the Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporter family (NSS or SLC6). The first insect NAT, cloned from the caterpillar gut, has a broad substrate spectrum similar to mammalian B0 transporters. Several new NAT-SLC6 members have been characterized in an effort to explore mechanisms for the essential amino acid absorption in model dipteran insects. The identification and functional characterization of new B0-like and narrow specificity transporters of essential amino acids in fruit fly and mosquitoes leads to a fundamentally important insight: that NATs evolved and act together as the integrated active core of a transport network that mediates active alimentary absorption and systemic distribution of essential amino acids. This role of NATs is projected from the most primitive prokaryotes to the most complex metazoan organisms, and represents an interesting platform for unraveling the molecular evolution of amino acid transport and modeling amino acid transport disorders. The comparative study of NATs elucidates important adaptive differences between essential amino acid transportomes

  13. Antibiotic Therapy for Very Low Birth Weigh Newborns in NICU

    PubMed Central

    Afjeh, Seyyed-Abolfazl; Sabzehei, Mohammad-Kazem; Fahimzad, Seyyed-Ali-Reza; Shiva, Farideh; Shamshiri, Ahmad-Reza; Esmaili, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged empiric antibiotics therapy in neonates results in several adverse consequences including widespread antibiotic resistance, late onset sepsis (LOS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), prolonged hospital course (HC) and increase in mortality rates. Objectives To assess the risk factors and the outcome of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. Materials and Methods Prospective study in VLBW neonates admitted to NICU and survived > 2 W, from July 2011 - June 2012. All relevant perinatal and postnatal data including duration of antibiotics therapy (Group I < 2W vs Group II > 2W) and outcome up to the time of discharge or death were documented and compared. Results Out of 145 newborns included in the study, 62 were in group I, and 83 in Group II. Average duration of antibiotic therapy was 14 days (range 3 - 62 days); duration in Group I and Group II was 10 ± 2.3 vs 25.5 ± 10.5 days. Hospital stay was 22.3 ± 11.5 vs 44.3 ± 14.7 days, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed following risk factors as significant for prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy: VLBW especially < 1000 g, (P < 0.001), maternal Illness (P = 0.003), chorioamnionitis (P = 0.048), multiple pregnancy (P = 0.03), non-invasive ventilation (P < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation (P < 0.001). Seventy (48.3%) infants developed LOS; 5 with NEC > stage II, 12 (8.3%) newborns died. Infant mortality alone and with LOS/NEC was higher in group II as compared to group I (P < 0.002 and < 0.001 respectively). Conclusions Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy caused increasing rates of LOS, NEC, HC and infant mortality. PMID:27307961

  14. Global trophic position comparison of two dominant mesopelagic fish families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae) using amino acid nitrogen isotopicanalyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the biogeochemical and ecological mechanisms responsible for variability in bulk tissue and amino acid (AA) stable nitrogen isotope compositions in two groups of important mesopelagic fish families, Myctophidae (lanternfishes) and Stomiidae (dragonfishes), from five d...

  15. Characterisation of the FAD2 gene family from Hiptage benghalensis: a ricinoleic acid accumulating plant.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Rong; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-08-01

    We have characterised the FAD2 gene family from Hiptage benghalensis, a tropical plant that accumulates high levels of ricinoleic acid in its seeds. Functional characterisation of six FAD2 gene family members showed that two of them were capable of functioning as Δ12-hydroxylases while the other FAD2 members were confirmed to be Δ12-desaturases. The Δ12-hydroxylation function of these two genes was confirmed in yeast cells, using C16:1(Δ9) and C18:1(Δ9) monounsaturated fatty acids as substrates. These Δ12-hydroxylases, like the other Δ12-hydroxylases previously cloned from plants Ricinus communis (castor), Physaria fendleri and fungus Claviceps purpurea, also showed some Δ12-desaturase activity. The hydroxylation activity of the two Hiptage hydroxylases was further confirmed by their expression in the Arabidopsis fad2/fae1 double mutant where they were able to produce equivalent or higher levels hydroxylated fatty acids in the seed oil when compared with the other known hydroxylases.

  16. Novel Enzyme Family Found in Filamentous Fungi Catalyzing trans-4-Hydroxylation of l-Pipecolic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Hibi, Makoto; Mori, Ryosuke; Miyake, Ryoma; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Kozono, Shoko; Takahashi, Satomi

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxypipecolic acids are bioactive compounds widely distributed in nature and are valuable building blocks for the organic synthesis of pharmaceuticals. We have found a novel hydroxylating enzyme with activity toward l-pipecolic acid (l-Pip) in a filamentous fungus, Fusarium oxysporum c8D. The enzyme l-Pip trans-4-hydroxylase (Pip4H) of F. oxysporum (FoPip4H) belongs to the Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily, catalyzes the regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation of l-Pip, and produces optically pure trans-4-hydroxy-l-pipecolic acid (trans-4-l-HyPip). Amino acid sequence analysis revealed several fungal enzymes homologous with FoPip4H, and five of these also had l-Pip trans-4-hydroxylation activity. In particular, the homologous Pip4H enzyme derived from Aspergillus nidulans FGSC A4 (AnPip4H) had a broader substrate specificity spectrum than other homologues and reacted with the l and d forms of various cyclic and aliphatic amino acids. Using FoPip4H as a biocatalyst, a system for the preparative-scale production of chiral trans-4-l-HyPip was successfully developed. Thus, we report a fungal family of l-Pip hydroxylases and the enzymatic preparation of trans-4-l-HyPip, a bioactive compound and a constituent of secondary metabolites with useful physiological activities. PMID:26801577

  17. Laser Controllable Growth of Graphene via Ni-Cu Alloy Composition Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Zhang, Hongjun; Zhu, Hongwei; Zhong, Minlin

    2015-12-01

    Graphene has many unique properties, most of them strongly depend on the number of layers. It is significant to develop a facile approach to realize the controllable growth of graphene with specific number of layers. We ever reported an efficient approach to grow graphene rapidly and locally by laser irradiation. In this work, we offers yet another important feature, to control the number of layers of graphene. Ni-Cu alloy has been reported to be used successfully as the catalyst for graphene growth with controllable number of layers. In that case, the Ni-Cu alloys with different compositions were normally formed by thermal evaporation. Here we provide an efficient way to fabricate the Ni-Cu alloy catalysts by laser cladding. Then the high power laser was employed to melt the Ni and Cu mixed powders. Different Ni-Cu alloy catalysts were formed in a high rate of 720 mm2/min with a thickness of 1.2 mm. Then the graphene with controllable layers was rapidly and locally grown on the Ni-Cu catalysts by laser irradiation at a high rate (18 cm2/min) at room temperature. We found that the Ni-Cu catalyst with 15 % Cu could be helpful to grow single layer graphene, which occupied 92.4 % of the entire film. Higher Cu content didn't promote the growth due to the oxygen involved during the growth process. The controllable growth mechanism of graphene by laser processing was discussed. Combining the rapid catalyst fabrication and graphene synthesis make it a cost- and time-efficient method to produce the controllable graphene films.

  18. Biochemical Roles for Conserved Residues in the Bacterial Fatty Acid-binding Protein Family.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Tyler C; Miller, Darcie J; Jackson, Pamela; Nourse, Amanda; White, Stephen W; Rock, Charles O

    2016-03-18

    Fatty acid kinase (Fak) is a ubiquitous Gram-positive bacterial enzyme consisting of an ATP-binding protein (FakA) that phosphorylates the fatty acid bound to FakB. In Staphylococcus aureus, Fak is a global regulator of virulence factor transcription and is essential for the activation of exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids. The 1.2-Å x-ray structure of S. aureus FakB2, activity assays, solution studies, site-directed mutagenesis, and in vivo complementation were used to define the functions of the five conserved residues that define the FakB protein family (Pfam02645). The fatty acid tail is buried within the protein, and the exposed carboxyl group is bound by a Ser-93-fatty acid carboxyl-Thr-61-His-266 hydrogen bond network. The guanidinium of the invariant Arg-170 is positioned to potentially interact with a bound acylphosphate. The reduced thermal denaturation temperatures of the T61A, S93A, and H266A FakB2 mutants illustrate the importance of the hydrogen bond network in protein stability. The FakB2 T61A, S93A, and H266A mutants are 1000-fold less active in the Fak assay, and the R170A mutant is completely inactive. All FakB2 mutants form FakA(FakB2)2 complexes except FakB2(R202A), which is deficient in FakA binding. Allelic replacement shows that strains expressing FakB2 mutants are defective in fatty acid incorporation into phospholipids and virulence gene transcription. These conserved residues are likely to perform the same critical functions in all bacterial fatty acid-binding proteins. PMID:26774272

  19. Biochemical Roles for Conserved Residues in the Bacterial Fatty Acid-binding Protein Family.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Tyler C; Miller, Darcie J; Jackson, Pamela; Nourse, Amanda; White, Stephen W; Rock, Charles O

    2016-03-18

    Fatty acid kinase (Fak) is a ubiquitous Gram-positive bacterial enzyme consisting of an ATP-binding protein (FakA) that phosphorylates the fatty acid bound to FakB. In Staphylococcus aureus, Fak is a global regulator of virulence factor transcription and is essential for the activation of exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids. The 1.2-Å x-ray structure of S. aureus FakB2, activity assays, solution studies, site-directed mutagenesis, and in vivo complementation were used to define the functions of the five conserved residues that define the FakB protein family (Pfam02645). The fatty acid tail is buried within the protein, and the exposed carboxyl group is bound by a Ser-93-fatty acid carboxyl-Thr-61-His-266 hydrogen bond network. The guanidinium of the invariant Arg-170 is positioned to potentially interact with a bound acylphosphate. The reduced thermal denaturation temperatures of the T61A, S93A, and H266A FakB2 mutants illustrate the importance of the hydrogen bond network in protein stability. The FakB2 T61A, S93A, and H266A mutants are 1000-fold less active in the Fak assay, and the R170A mutant is completely inactive. All FakB2 mutants form FakA(FakB2)2 complexes except FakB2(R202A), which is deficient in FakA binding. Allelic replacement shows that strains expressing FakB2 mutants are defective in fatty acid incorporation into phospholipids and virulence gene transcription. These conserved residues are likely to perform the same critical functions in all bacterial fatty acid-binding proteins.

  20. Preparing parents for NICU discharge: an evidence-based teaching tool.

    PubMed

    Schlittenhart, Jean M; Smart, Denise; Miller, Kris; Severtson, Billie

    2011-12-01

    Preparation for discharge and transition to parents' care of infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a process that begins on admission. Identifying parents' educational needs requires thoughtful assessment by experienced nurses. Caring for these infants can be daunting to parents, and participating in a discharge class can be very helpful in easing the transition to home. This article describes a NICU discharge informational DVD/video that was developed to deliver parent education and promote informed and safe transition from hospital to home. PMID:22900689

  1. Genome-wide analysis of the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family in Gossypium

    DOE PAGES

    Yurchenko, Olga P.; Park, Sunjung; Ilut, Daniel C.; Inmon, Jay J.; Millhollon, Jon C.; Liechty, Zach; Page, Justin T.; Jenks, Matthew A.; Chapman, Kent D.; Udall, Joshua A.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The majority of commercial cotton varieties planted worldwide are derived from Gossypium hirsutum, which is a naturally occurring allotetraploid produced by interspecific hybridization of A- and D-genome diploid progenitor species. While most cotton species are adapted to warm, semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions, and thus perform well in these geographical areas, cotton seedlings are sensitive to cold temperature, which can significantly reduce crop yields. One of the common biochemical responses of plants to cold temperatures is an increase in omega-3 fatty acids, which protects cellular function by maintaining membrane integrity. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterizemore » the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD) gene family in G. hirsutum, with an emphasis on identifying omega-3 FADs involved in cold temperature adaptation. Results: Eleven omega-3 FAD genes were identified in G. hirsutum, and characterization of the gene family in extant A and D diploid species (G. herbaceum and G. raimondii, respectively) allowed for unambiguous genome assignment of all homoeologs in tetraploid G. hirsutum. The omega-3 FAD family of cotton includes five distinct genes, two of which encode endoplasmic reticulum-type enzymes (FAD3-1 and FAD3-2) and three that encode chloroplast-type enzymes (FAD7/8-1, FAD7/8-2, and FAD7/8-3). The FAD3-2 gene was duplicated in the A genome progenitor species after the evolutionary split from the D progenitor, but before the interspecific hybridization event that gave rise to modern tetraploid cotton. RNA-seq analysis revealed conserved, gene-specific expression patterns in various organs and cell types and semi-quantitative RT-PCR further revealed that FAD7/8-1 was specifically induced during cold temperature treatment of G. hirsutum seedlings. Conclusions: The omega-3 FAD gene family in cotton was characterized at the genome-wide level in three species, showing relatively ancient establishment of the gene family prior

  2. The acidic domains of the Toc159 chloroplast preprotein receptor family are intrinsically disordered protein domains

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Toc159 family of proteins serve as receptors for chloroplast-destined preproteins. They directly bind to transit peptides, and exhibit preprotein substrate selectivity conferred by an unknown mechanism. The Toc159 receptors each include three domains: C-terminal membrane, central GTPase, and N-terminal acidic (A-) domains. Although the function(s) of the A-domain remains largely unknown, the amino acid sequences are most variable within these domains, suggesting they may contribute to the functional specificity of the receptors. Results The physicochemical properties of the A-domains are characteristic of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Using CD spectroscopy we show that the A-domains of two Arabidopsis Toc159 family members (atToc132 and atToc159) are disordered at physiological pH and temperature and undergo conformational changes at temperature and pH extremes that are characteristic of IDPs. Conclusions Identification of the A-domains as IDPs will be important for determining their precise function(s), and suggests a role in protein-protein interactions, which may explain how these proteins serve as receptors for such a wide variety of preprotein substrates. PMID:20042108

  3. Multiple origins of crassulacean acid metabolism and the epiphytic habit in the Neotropical family Bromeliaceae

    PubMed Central

    Crayn, Darren M.; Winter, Klaus; Smith, J. Andrew C.

    2004-01-01

    The large Neotropical family Bromeliaceae presents an outstanding example of adaptive radiation in plants, containing a wide range of terrestrial and epiphytic life-forms occupying many distinct habitats. Diversification in bromeliads has been linked to several key innovations, including water- and nutrient-impounding phytotelmata, absorptive epidermal trichomes, and the water-conserving mode of photosynthesis known as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). To clarify the origins of CAM and the epiphytic habit, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 51 bromeliad taxa by using the plastid loci matK and the rps16 intron, combined with a survey of photosynthetic pathway determined by carbon-isotope ratios for 1,873 species representing 65% of the family. Optimization of character-states onto the strict consensus tree indicated that the last common ancestor of Bromeliaceae was a terrestrial C3 mesophyte, probably adapted to moist, exposed, nutrient-poor habitats. Both CAM photosynthesis and the epiphytic habit evolved a minimum of three times in the family, most likely in response to geological and climatic changes in the late Tertiary. The great majority of epiphytic forms are now found in two lineages: in subfamily Tillandsioideae, in which C3 photosynthesis was the ancestral state and CAM developed later in the most extreme epiphytes, and in subfamily Bromelioideae, in which CAM photosynthesis predated the appearance of epiphytism. Subsequent radiation of the bromelioid line into less xeric habitats has led to reversion to C3 photosynthesis in some taxa, showing that both gain and loss of CAM have occurred in the complex evolutionary history of this family. PMID:14982989

  4. Cultivating a Culture of Awareness: Nurturing Reflective Practices in the NICU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Zina; Kraemer, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the challenges to nurturing reflective practices in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)--an environment in which life and death hang in fragile balance and where the need to defend against unbearable realities is natural, even an adaptive response. Working as consultants to this acute setting, the authors describe how they…

  5. What Is and What Should Be: Maternal Perceptions of Their Roles in the NICU.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Deborah A.; McCollum, Jeanette A.; Cohen-Addad, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the development of maternal roles in seven mothers of medically fragile, premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of an urban, teaching hospital using data sources such as interviews, observations, and document review. Mothers gradually assumed caregiving roles of worrier, novice, learner and expert and…

  6. Mothers' Perceptions of Their NICU Experience 1 and 7 Months after Discharge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meck, Nancy E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 36 mothers of premature infants concerning their perceptions of their infants' care 1 and 7 months after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) found that mothers received information on their baby's health and routine care but did not receive information about developmental issues or such topics as transfer of…

  7. Heteroresistant Vancomycin Intermediate Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus in the NICU: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Jasmine; Caya, Chelsea; Lévesque, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Context NICUs in the province of Québec have seen an increase in hVICoNS, detected in the clinical laboratory. Objective To investigate the clinical relevance of hVICoNS on the course of infection, and to determine the prevalence of hVICoNS sepsis in the NICU. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed from 1 January 1980 to 1 July 2016. Both observational and interventional studies were considered eligible if they provided data on hVICoNS in the NICU population. Two investigators independently reviewed studies for data extraction. Data extracted included: number of CoNS cultures, prevalence of hVICoNS, and clonality of strains. Results Of the 613 studies identified, 19 studies were reviewed, and 5 studies included in the final review. No studies addressed the clinical significance of hVICoNS in the NICU. The prevalence of hVICoNS in the NICU varied greatly, ranging from 2.3% to 100%. Limitations Publication bias could not be assessed, and risk of bias in some of the included studies due to small sample size and poor methods reporting. The quality of all included studies was low according to GRADE criteria, and the inclusion criteria restricted to either English or French studies. Conclusions Our review suggests that heteroresistance to vancomycin is much more common than previously believed. Our search however did not identify any studies that explicitly assessed any clinical implications of hVICoNS infections, thereby highlighting the need for research to assess the true impact of hVICoNS infection and to determine its significance on patient mortality and morbidity in the NICU. PMID:27716838

  8. The Role of Sleep in the Modulation of Gastroesophageal reflux and Symptoms in NICU Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Aslam; Malkar, Manish; Splaingard, Mark; Khuhro, Abdul; Jadcherla, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    Background Newborns sleep about 80% of the time. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease is prevalent in about 10% of NICU infants. Concurrent polysomnography and pH-impedance studies clarify relationship of GER with sleep. Aims To characterize spatio-temporal and chemical characteristics of impedance-positive GER and define symptom associations in sleep and wake states in symptomatic neonates. We hypothesized that frequency of impedance-positive GER events and their association with cardiorespiratory symptoms is greater during sleep. Methods Eighteen neonates underwent concurrent polysomnography with pH-impedance study. Impedance-positive GER events (weakly acidic or acidic) were categorized between sleep vs. wake states: Symptom Index = # of symptoms with GER/total symptoms*100, Symptom Sensitivity Index = # of GER with symptoms/Total GER*100 and Symptom Association Probability = [(1-Probability of observed association between reflux and symptoms)*100]). Results We analyzed 317 GER events during 116 hours of polysomnography. During wake vs. sleep respectively, the median (interquartile range) frequency of impedance-positive GER was 4.9(3.1–5.8) vs. 1.4(0.7–1.7)events/hour (P<0.001), proximal migration was 2.6(0.8–3.3) vs. 0.2(0.0–0.9)events/hour (P<0.001); Symptom Index for cardiorespiratory symptoms for impedance-positive events was 22.5 (0–55.3) vs. 6.1(0–13), P=0.04 while Symptom Sensitivity Index was 9.1(0–23.1) vs. 18.4 (0–50), P=0.04 though Symptom Association Probability was similar, (P=0.68). Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis, frequency of GER in sleep is lesser; however, spatio-temporal and chemical characteristics of GER and symptom generation mechanisms are distinct. For cardiorespiratory symptoms during sleep, lower Symptom Index entails evaluation for etiologies other than GER disease, higher Symptom Sensitivity Index implies heightened esophageal sensitivity and similar Symptom Association Probability indicates other mechanistic

  9. The glutamate and neutral amino acid transporter family: physiological and pharmacological implications.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Hediger, Matthias A

    2003-10-31

    The solute carrier family 1 (SLC1) is composed of five high affinity glutamate transporters, which exhibit the properties of the previously described system XAG-, as well as two Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporters with characteristics of the so-called "ASC" (alanine, serine and cysteine). The SLC1 family members are structurally similar, with almost identical hydropathy profiles and predicted membrane topologies. The transporters have eight transmembrane domains and a structure reminiscent of a pore loop between the seventh and eighth domains [Neuron 21 (1998) 623]. However, each of these transporters exhibits distinct functional properties. Glutamate transporters mediate transport of L-Glu, L-Asp and D-Asp, accompanied by the cotransport of 3 Na+ and one 1 H+, and the countertransport of 1 K+, whereas ASC transporters mediate Na+-dependent exchange of small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Cys and Thr. Given the high concentrating capacity provided by the unique ion coupling pattern of glutamate transporters, they play crucial roles in protecting neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity in the central nervous system (CNS). The regulation and manipulation of their function is a critical issue in the pathogenesis and treatment of CNS disorders involving glutamate excitotoxicity. Loss of function of the glial glutamate transporter GLT1 (SLC1A2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), resulting in damage of adjacent motor neurons. The importance of glial glutamate transporters in protecting neurons from extracellular glutamate was further demonstrated in studies of the slc1A2 glutamate transporter knockout mouse. The findings suggest that therapeutic upregulation of GLT1 may be beneficial in a variety of pathological conditions. Selective inhibition of the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1 (SLC1A1) but not the glial glutamate transporters may be of therapeutic interest, allowing blockage of glutamate exit from

  10. Onchocerca spp: a "family" of secreted acidic proteins expressed by infective larvae in blackflies.

    PubMed

    Bianco, A E; Wu, Y; Jenkins, R E

    1995-11-01

    Biosynthetic labeling of developing larvae of Onchocerca in blackflies has been used to characterize a group of stage-specific, secreted proteins produced by vector-stage parasites. These are highly acidic molecules (pI 4.4-5.1) present in at least three members of the genus (O. volvulus, O. lienalis, O. ochengi) that exhibit minor heterogeneity among species in apparent molecular mass (between 18 and 23 kDa). In O. volvulus, there are two polypeptides that run as a doublet of 18 and 20 kDa. In O. lienalis and O. ochengi, single polypeptides of 23 and 20 kDa were detected. The processes of synthesis and secretion appear to be temperature-sensitive and dissociated events. Experiments with O. volvulus in Simulium damnosum sl revealed that synthesis is initiated in second stage larvae and increases in infective-stage parasites: Secretion occurs when larvae leave the vector and enter the phase of development associated with the vertebrate host. Third-stage larvae of O. lienalis were shown to continue to express and accumulate the 23-kDa protein with age. The primary organ of secretion, as indicated by dissection, was the glandular esophagus. These data point to an important biological role for this group of molecules and suggest that they may belong to a family of related products. Because they have the distinctive characteristics of being secreted larval acidic proteins, we propose the acronym SLAP pending further insights into their functional properties.

  11. NICU discharge planning and beyond: recommendations for parent psychosocial support.

    PubMed

    Purdy, I B; Craig, J W; Zeanah, P

    2015-12-01

    Parents will interact with a multitude of teams from various disciplines during their child's admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Recognition of the emotional stressors experienced by these parents is a first step in working to provide the crucial support and parenting skills needed for bonding and caring for their infant from admission through discharge and beyond. Family-centered care involves time-sensitive two-way communication between parents and the multidisciplinary team members who coordinate care transition by providing emotional, educational, medical and home visitor support for these families. To do this well, a thoughtful exchange of information between team members and parents is essential to identify psychosocial stress and ameliorate family concerns. Parents will need emotional and educational support and follow-up resources. Establishing individualized, flexible but realistic, pre- and post-discharge plans with parents is needed to start their healthy transition to home and community. PMID:26597802

  12. NICU discharge planning and beyond: recommendations for parent psychosocial support

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, I B; Craig, J W; Zeanah, P

    2015-01-01

    Parents will interact with a multitude of teams from various disciplines during their child's admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Recognition of the emotional stressors experienced by these parents is a first step in working to provide the crucial support and parenting skills needed for bonding and caring for their infant from admission through discharge and beyond. Family-centered care involves time-sensitive two-way communication between parents and the multidisciplinary team members who coordinate care transition by providing emotional, educational, medical and home visitor support for these families. To do this well, a thoughtful exchange of information between team members and parents is essential to identify psychosocial stress and ameliorate family concerns. Parents will need emotional and educational support and follow-up resources. Establishing individualized, flexible but realistic, pre- and post-discharge plans with parents is needed to start their healthy transition to home and community. PMID:26597802

  13. Effects of L-cysteine on Ni-Cu sulfide and marmatite bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus caldus.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiguo; Gao, Fengling; Zhong, Hui; Hu, Yuehua

    2009-02-01

    The effect of L-cysteine in different concentrations on the bioleaching of Ni-Cu sulfide and marmatite were studied with a moderately thermophilic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, strain of Acidithiobacillus caldus. X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations showed the change of bioleached solid residues and the effect of L-cysteine on the surface charges of minerals. It was found that adding certain amounts of L-cysteine to the leaching system of Ni-Cu sulfide largely enhanced the leaching rate, while L-cysteine inhibited the bioleaching of marmatite by A. caldus. The mechanism of L-cysteine interaction with mineral surfaces was studied by means of zeta potential determination and IR spectra. PMID:18829304

  14. Appropriate Use of Vancomycin in NICU Despite Free-for-All Policy

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Benjamin M.; Lardieri, Allison B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Because of increases in antimicrobial resistance, the use of vancomycin in late-onset sepsis has come under scrutiny. The primary outcome of this study was to determine if vancomycin for the treatment of late-onset sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was being discontinued within 72 hours according to the existing protocol. Secondary outcomes included the appropriateness of therapeutic drug monitoring associated with vancomycin, and renal dysfunction associated with the use of vancomycin in the NICU outside of the 72-hour policy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed for patients in the NICU who received vancomycin for the treatment of late-onset sepsis between the dates of January 1, 2014, and July 1, 2014. RESULTS: There were 125 vancomycin treatment courses, of which 97 were included. Appropriate use of vancomycin, per policy, occurred in a total of 87 of 97 courses (89.6%). Therapeutic drug monitoring was evaluated by the number of appropriate troughs, determined using renal function and previous trough concentrations. There was not a statistically significant difference in the number of inappropriate troughs drawn between those that were continued on vancomycin appropriately (n = 17 courses; 4 of 44 inappropriate troughs) versus inappropriately (n = 10 courses; 1 of 22 inappropriate troughs; p = 0.66), despite the large number of troughs drawn. Adverse renal outcomes were not statistically significant in patients continued inappropriately on vancomycin (p = 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: Vancomycin use in the NICU for late-onset sepsis is appropriate per the existing antibiotic policy. Therapeutic drug monitoring could be improved, and adverse renal outcomes due to inappropriate continuation of vancomycin are rare. PMID:27453698

  15. Three-dimensional nanostructured Ni-Cu foams for borohydride oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, D. M. F.; Eugénio, S.; Cardoso, D. S. P.; Šljukić, B.; Montemor, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) foams have been prepared by electrodeposition using a dynamic hydrogen template. These 3D materials were tested as electrodes for the borohydride oxidation reaction (BOR) in alkaline media for possible application as anodes of direct borohydride fuel cells. Their activity in BOR was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and chronopotentiometry and main reaction parameters and electrodes' stability were evaluated.

  16. Refining Neurobehavioral Assessment of the High-Risk Infant Using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Mary C; Miller, Robin J; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Nurses caring for high-risk infants use advanced assessment skills to identify the nature of infant instability and to assure timely intervention. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) is a comprehensive assessment of neurological integrity and behavioral function of infants at risk. Research evidence supports its validity and reliability for clinical and research use. The NNNS offers nurses a neurobehavioral assessment especially suited to high-risk and premature infants.

  17. New functions of the chloroplast Preprotein and Amino acid Transporter (PRAT) family members in protein import.

    PubMed

    Rossig, Claudia; Reinbothe, Christiane; Gray, John; Valdes, Oscar; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells contain distinct compartments such as the nucleus, the endomembrane system comprising the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, vacuoles, as well as mitochondria and chloroplasts. All of these compartments are surrounded by 1 or 2 limiting membranes and need to import proteins from the cytosol. Previous work led to the conclusion that mitochondria and chloroplasts use structurally different protein import machineries in their outer and inner membranes for the uptake of cytosolic precursor proteins. Our most recent data show that there is some unexpected overlap. Three members of the family of preprotein and amino acid transporters, PRAT, were identified in chloroplasts that mediate the uptake of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner plastid envelope membrane. By analogy, mitochondria contain with TIM22 a related PRAT protein that is involved in the import of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner mitochondrial membrane. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts thus make use of similar import mechanisms to deliver some of their proteins to their final place. Because single homologs of HP20- and HP30-like proteins are present in algae such as Chlamydomonas, Ostreococcus, and Volvox, which diverged from land plants approximately 1 billion years ago, it is likely that the discovered PRAT-mediated mechanism of protein translocation evolved concomitantly with the secondary endosymbiotic event that gave rise to green plants. PMID:24476934

  18. Changes in dynamics upon oligomerization regulate substrate binding and allostery in amino acid kinase family members.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Enrique; Crehuet, Ramon; Bahar, Ivet

    2011-09-01

    Oligomerization is a functional requirement for many proteins. The interfacial interactions and the overall packing geometry of the individual monomers are viewed as important determinants of the thermodynamic stability and allosteric regulation of oligomers. The present study focuses on the role of the interfacial interactions and overall contact topology in the dynamic features acquired in the oligomeric state. To this aim, the collective dynamics of enzymes belonging to the amino acid kinase family both in dimeric and hexameric forms are examined by means of an elastic network model, and the softest collective motions (i.e., lowest frequency or global modes of motions) favored by the overall architecture are analyzed. Notably, the lowest-frequency modes accessible to the individual subunits in the absence of multimerization are conserved to a large extent in the oligomer, suggesting that the oligomer takes advantage of the intrinsic dynamics of the individual monomers. At the same time, oligomerization stiffens the interfacial regions of the monomers and confers new cooperative modes that exploit the rigid-body translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the intact monomers. The present study sheds light on the mechanism of cooperative inhibition of hexameric N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase by arginine and on the allosteric regulation of UMP kinases. It also highlights the significance of the particular quaternary design in selectively determining the oligomer dynamics congruent with required ligand-binding and allosteric activities.

  19. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A. Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members. PMID:26042133

  20. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J H

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members. PMID:26042133

  1. Identification of GH15 Family Thermophilic Archaeal Trehalases That Function within a Narrow Acidic-pH Range.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Shimodaira, Satoru; Ishida, Shin-Nosuke; Amemiya, Miko; Honda, Shotaro; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Two glucoamylase-like genes, TVN1315 and Ta0286, from the archaea Thermoplasma volcanium and T. acidophilum, respectively, were expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene products, TVN1315 and Ta0286, were identified as archaeal trehalases. These trehalases belong to the CAZy database family GH15, although they have putative (α/α)6 barrel catalytic domain structures similar to those of GH37 and GH65 family trehalases from other organisms. These newly identified trehalases function within a narrow range of acidic pH values (pH 3.2 to 4.0) and at high temperatures (50 to 60°C), and these enzymes display Km values for trehalose higher than those observed for typical trehalases. These enzymes were inhibited by validamycin A; however, the inhibition constants (Ki) were higher than those of other trehalases. Three TVN1315 mutants, corresponding to E408Q, E571Q, and E408Q/E571Q mutations, showed reduced activity, suggesting that these two glutamic acid residues are involved in trehalase catalysis in a manner similar to that of glucoamylase. To date, TVN1315 and Ta0286 are the first archaeal trehalases to be identified, and this is the first report of the heterologous expression of GH15 family trehalases. The identification of these trehalases could extend our understanding of the relationships between the structure and function of GH15 family enzymes as well as glycoside hydrolase family enzymes; additionally, these enzymes provide insight into archaeal trehalose metabolism.

  2. Global trophic position comparison of two dominant mesopelagic fish families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae) using amino acid nitrogen isotopic analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, C. Anela; Davison, Peter C.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Flynn, Adrian; Gier, Elizabeth J.; Hoffman, Joel C.; McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Miller, Todd W.; Popp, Brian N.; Ross, Steve W.; Sutton, Tracey T.

    2012-01-01

    The δ15N values of organisms are commonly used across diverse ecosystems to estimate trophic position and infer trophic connectivity. We undertook a novel cross-basin comparison of trophic position in two ecologically well-characterized and different groups of dominant mid-water fish consumers using amino acid nitrogen isotope compositions. We found that trophic positions estimated from the δ15N values of individual amino acids are nearly uniform within both families of these fishes across five global regions despite great variability in bulk tissue δ15N values. Regional differences in the δ15N values of phenylalanine confirmed that bulk tissue δ15N values reflect region-specific water mass biogeochemistry controlling δ15N values at the base of the food web. Trophic positions calculated from amino acid isotopic analyses (AA-TP) for lanternfishes (family Myctophidae) (AA-TP ~2.9) largely align with expectations from stomach content studies (TP ~3.2), while AA-TPs for dragonfishes (family Stomiidae) (AA-TP ~3.2) were lower than TPs derived from stomach content studies (TP~4.1). We demonstrate that amino acid nitrogen isotope analysis can overcome shortcomings of bulk tissue isotope analysis across biogeochemically distinct systems to provide globally comparative information regarding marine food web structure.

  3. Global Trophic Position Comparison of Two Dominant Mesopelagic Fish Families (Myctophidae, Stomiidae) Using Amino Acid Nitrogen Isotopic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Choy, C. Anela; Davison, Peter C.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Flynn, Adrian; Gier, Elizabeth J.; Hoffman, Joel C.; McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Miller, Todd W.; Popp, Brian N.; Ross, Steve W.; Sutton, Tracey T.

    2012-01-01

    The δ15N values of organisms are commonly used across diverse ecosystems to estimate trophic position and infer trophic connectivity. We undertook a novel cross-basin comparison of trophic position in two ecologically well-characterized and different groups of dominant mid-water fish consumers using amino acid nitrogen isotope compositions. We found that trophic positions estimated from the δ15N values of individual amino acids are nearly uniform within both families of these fishes across five global regions despite great variability in bulk tissue δ15N values. Regional differences in the δ15N values of phenylalanine confirmed that bulk tissue δ15N values reflect region-specific water mass biogeochemistry controlling δ15N values at the base of the food web. Trophic positions calculated from amino acid isotopic analyses (AA-TP) for lanternfishes (family Myctophidae) (AA-TP ∼2.9) largely align with expectations from stomach content studies (TP ∼3.2), while AA-TPs for dragonfishes (family Stomiidae) (AA-TP ∼3.2) were lower than TPs derived from stomach content studies (TP∼4.1). We demonstrate that amino acid nitrogen isotope analysis can overcome shortcomings of bulk tissue isotope analysis across biogeochemically distinct systems to provide globally comparative information regarding marine food web structure. PMID:23209656

  4. HosA, a MarR Family Transcriptional Regulator, Represses Nonoxidative Hydroxyarylic Acid Decarboxylase Operon and Is Modulated by 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ajit; Ranjan, Akash

    2016-02-23

    Members of the Multiple antibiotic resistance Regulator (MarR) family of DNA binding proteins regulate transcription of a wide array of genes required for virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria. The present study reports the molecular characterization of HosA (Homologue of SlyA), a MarR protein, with respect to its target gene, DNA recognition motif, and nature of its ligand. Through a comparative genomics approach, we demonstrate that hosA is in synteny with nonoxidative hydroxyarylic acid decarboxylase (HAD) operon and is present exclusively within the mutS-rpoS polymorphic region in nine different genera of Enterobacteriaceae family. Using molecular biology and biochemical approach, we demonstrate that HosA binds to a palindromic sequence downstream to the transcription start site of divergently transcribed nonoxidative HAD operon and represses its expression. Furthermore, in silico analysis showed that the recognition motif for HosA is highly conserved in the upstream region of divergently transcribed operon in different genera of Enterobacteriaceae family. A systematic chemical search for the physiological ligand revealed that 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) interacts with HosA and derepresses HosA mediated repression of the nonoxidative HAD operon. Based on our study, we propose a model for molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of nonoxidative HAD operon by HosA in Enterobacteriaceae family. PMID:26818787

  5. Cloning and identification of the human LPAAT-zeta gene, a novel member of the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase family.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Yu, Long; Wu, Hai; Shan, Yuxi; Guo, Jinhu; Dang, Yongjun; Wei, Youheng; Zhao, Shouyuan

    2003-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a naturally occurring component of phospholipid and plays a critical role in the regulation of many physiological and pathophysiological processes including cell growth, survival, and pro-angiogenesis. LPA is converted to phosphatidic acid by the action of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT). Five members of the LPAAT gene family have been detected in humans to date. Here, we report the identification of a novel LPAAT member, which is designated as LPAAT-zeta. LPAAT-zeta was predicted to encode a protein consisting of 456 amino acid residues with a signal peptide sequence and the acyltransferase domain. Northern blot analysis showed that LPAAT-zeta was ubiquitously expressed in all 16 human tissues examined, with levels in the skeletal muscle, heart, and testis being relatively high and in the lung being relatively low. The human LPAAT-zeta gene consisted of 13 exons and is positioned at chromosome 8p11.21. PMID:12938015

  6. The Gibberellic Acid Stimulated-Like gene family in maize and its role in lateral root development.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Roman; Sakai, Hajime; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2010-01-01

    In an approach to study lateral root development in monocots, genome-wide searches for homologs of the Gibberellic Acid Stimulated Transcript-like (GAST-like) gene family in rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays) were carried out. Six novel GAST-like genes in rice and 10 members of the gene family in maize, which were designated ZmGSL (for Z. mays Gibberellic Acid Stimulated-Like), were identified. The ZmGSL family encodes small proteins of 75 to 128 amino acids, which are characterized by a conserved 59 to 64 amino acid C-terminal domain. Within this domain, 17 amino acids, including 12 cysteines, are perfectly conserved. The transcript of the ZmGSL1 gene is differentially spliced into the alternative variants ZmGSL1a and ZmGSL1b, the latter of which is translated into a premature protein that lacks the C-terminal domain. The presence of an additional N-terminal cleavable signal sequence in eight of the 10 ZmGSL proteins suggests that they are secreted into the extracellular matrix. In-depth root-specific gene expression analyses carried out in the wild type and the lateral root mutants lrt1 and rum1 suggest a role for ZmGSL genes in early lateral root development, which is likely regulated by gibberellic acid. Expression patterns of ZmGSL1a and ZmGSL1b propose antagonistic functions of these splice variants during early lateral root formation.

  7. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, K. W.; Berumen, M. L.; Mateo, I.; Elsdon, T. S.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas.

  8. Drugs or diet? – Developing novel therapeutic strategies targeting the free fatty acid family of GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Dranse, H J; Kelly, M E M; Hudson, B D

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) are metabolic intermediates that may be obtained through the diet, synthesized endogenously, or produced via fermentation of carbohydrates by gut microbiota. In addition to serving as an important source of energy, FFAs are known to produce a variety of both beneficial and detrimental effects on metabolic and inflammatory processes. While historically, FFAs were believed to produce these effects only through intracellular targets such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, it has now become clear that FFAs are also agonists for several GPCRs, including a family of four receptors now termed FFA1-4. Increasing evidence suggests that FFA1-4 mediate many of the beneficial properties of FFAs and not surprisingly, this has generated significant interest in the potential of these receptors as therapeutic targets for the treatment of a variety of metabolic and inflammatory disorders. In addition to the traditional strategy of developing small-molecule therapeutics targeting these receptors, there has also been some consideration given to alternate therapeutic approaches, specifically by manipulating endogenous FFA concentrations through alteration of either dietary intake, or production by gut microbiota. In this review, the current state of knowledge for FFA1-4 will be discussed, together with their potential as therapeutic targets in the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory disorders. In particular, the evidence in support of small molecule versus dietary and microbiota-based therapeutic approaches will be considered to provide insight into the development of novel multifaceted strategies targeting the FFA receptors for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory disorders. PMID:23937426

  9. Electrodeposition mechanism and characterization of Ni-Cu alloy coatings from a eutectic-based ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaohua; Guo, Xingwu; Yang, Haiyan; Dai, JiChun; Zhu, Rongyu; Gong, Jia; Peng, Liming; Ding, Wenjiang

    2014-01-01

    The electrodeposition mechanism, microstructures and corrosion resistances of Ni-Cu alloy coatings on Cu substrate were investigated in a choline chloride-urea (1:2 molar ratio) eutectic-based ionic liquid (1:2 ChCl-urea IL) containing nickel and copper chlorides. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the onset reduction potentials for Cu (˜-0.32 V) and for Ni (˜-0.47 V) were close to each other, indicating that Ni-Cu co-deposition could be easily achieved in the absence of complexing agent which was indispensable in aqueous plating electrolyte. Chronoamperometric investigations revealed that Ni-Cu deposits followed the three-dimensional instantaneous nucleation/growth mechanism, thus producing a solid solution. The compositions, microstructures and corrosion resistances of Ni-Cu alloy coatings were significantly dependent on the deposition current densities. Ni-Cu alloy coatings were α-Ni(Cu) solid solutions, and the coating containing ˜17.6 at.% Cu exhibited the best corrosion resistance because of its dense and crack-free structure.

  10. Reaction pathways of furfural, furfuryl alcohol and 2-methylfuran on Cu(111) and NiCu bimetallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ke; Wan, Weiming; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2016-10-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is an important reaction for converting biomass-derived furfural to value-added 2-methylfuran, which is a promising fuel additive. In this work, the HDO of furfural to produce 2-methylfuran occurred on the NiCu bimetallic surfaces prepared on either Ni(111) or Cu(111). The reaction pathways of furfural were investigated on Cu(111) and Ni/Cu(111) surfaces using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) experiments. These studies provided mechanistic insights into the effects of bimetallic formation on enhancing the HDO activity. Specifically, furfural weakly adsorbed on Cu(111), while it strongly adsorbed on Ni/Cu(111) through an η2(C,O) configuration, which led to the HDO of furfural on Ni/Cu(111). The ability to dissociate H2 on Ni/Cu(111) is also an important factor for enhancing the HDO activity over Cu(111).

  11. Principal transcriptional regulation and genome-wide system interactions of the Asp-family and aromatic amino acid networks of amino acid metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Less, Hadar; Angelovici, Ruthie; Tzin, Vered; Galili, Gad

    2010-10-01

    Amino acid metabolism is among the most important and best recognized networks within biological systems. In plants, amino acids serve multiple functions associated with growth. Besides their function in protein synthesis, the amino acids are also catabolized into energy-associated metabolites as well we into numerous secondary metabolites, which are essential for plant growth and response to various stresses. Despite the central importance of amino acids in plants growth, elucidation of the regulation of amino acid metabolism within the context of the entire system, particularly transcriptional regulation, is still in its infancy. The different amino acids are synthesized by a number of distinct metabolic networks, which are expected to possess regulatory cross interactions between them for proper coordination of their interactive functions, such as incorporation into proteins. Yet, individual amino acid metabolic networks are also expected to differentially cross interact with various genome-wide gene expression programs and metabolic networks, in respect to their functions as precursors for various metabolites with distinct functions. In the present review, we discuss our recent genomics, metabolic and bioinformatics studies, which were aimed at addressing these questions, focusing mainly on the Asp-family metabolic network as the main example and also comparing it to the aromatic amino acids metabolic network as a second example (Angelovici et al. in Plant Physiol 151:2058-2072, 2009; Less and Galili in BMC Syst Biol 3:14, 2009; Tzin et al. in Plant J 60:156-167, 2009). Our focus on these two networks is because of the followings: (i) both networks are central to plant metabolism and growth and are also precursors for a wide range of primary and secondary metabolites that are indispensable to plant growth; (ii) the amino acids produced by these two networks are also essential to the nutrition and health of human and farm animals; and (iii) both networks contain

  12. Tuning the magnetic properties of multisegmented Ni/Cu electrodeposited nanowires with controllable Ni lengths.

    PubMed

    Susano, M; Proenca, M P; Moraes, S; Sousa, C T; Araújo, J P

    2016-08-19

    The fabrication of segmented Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs), with tunable structural and magnetic properties, is reported. A potentiostatic electrodeposition method with a single electrolytic bath has been used to fabricate multisegmented Ni/Cu NWs inside a highly hexagonally ordered anodic nanoporous alumina membrane, with diameters of 50 nm and Ni segment lengths (L Ni) tuned from 10 nm up to 140 nm. The x-ray diffraction results evidenced a strong dependence of the Ni NWs crystallographic face-centered-cubic (fcc) texture along the [220] direction on the aspect ratio of the NWs. The magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Ni/Cu NW arrays, as a function of the magnetic field and temperature, is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. Micromagnetic simulations, together with the experimental results, showed a dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between Ni segments along the wire length for small low aspect-ratio magnetic segments. When increasing the Ni segments' length, the magnetic interactions between these along the wire became stronger, favouring a ferromagnetic coupling. The Curie temperature of the NWs was also found to strongly depend on the Ni magnetic segment length. Particularly the Curie temperature was found to be reduced 75 K for the 20 nm Ni segments, following the finite-size scaling relation with ξ 0 = 8.1 Å and γ = 0.48. These results emphasize the advantages of using a template assisted method to electrodeposit multilayer NWs, as it allows an easy tailor of the respective morphological, chemical, structural and magnetic properties.

  13. A new example of the diffusion-limited aggregation: Ni-Cu film patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockar, Hakan; Bayirli, Mehmet; Alper, Mursel

    2010-02-01

    The mechanism of the growth of the dendrites in the Ni-Cu films is studied by comparing them with the aggregates obtained by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations according to the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model. The films were grown by electrodeposition. The structural analysis of the films carried out using the x-ray diffraction showed that the films have a face-centered cubic structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used for morphological observations and the film compositions were determined by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The observed SEM images are compared with the patterns obtained by MC simulations according to DLA model in which the sticking probability, P between the particles is used as a parameter. For all samples between the least and the densest aggregates in the films, the critical exponents of the density-density correlation functions, α were within the interval 0.160 ± 0.005-0.124 ± 0.006, and the fractal dimensions, Df, varies from 1.825 ± 0.006 to 1.809 ± 0.008 according to the method of two-point correlation function. These values are also verified by the mass-radius method. The pattern with α and Df within these intervals was obtained by MC simulations to DLA model while the sticking probability, P was within the interval from 0.35 to 0.40 obtained by varying P (1-0.001). The results showed that the DLA model in this binary system is a possible mechanism for the formation of the ramified pattern of Ni-Cu within the Ni-rich base part of the Ni-Cu films due to the diffusive characteristics of Cu.

  14. Tuning the magnetic properties of multisegmented Ni/Cu electrodeposited nanowires with controllable Ni lengths.

    PubMed

    Susano, M; Proenca, M P; Moraes, S; Sousa, C T; Araújo, J P

    2016-08-19

    The fabrication of segmented Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs), with tunable structural and magnetic properties, is reported. A potentiostatic electrodeposition method with a single electrolytic bath has been used to fabricate multisegmented Ni/Cu NWs inside a highly hexagonally ordered anodic nanoporous alumina membrane, with diameters of 50 nm and Ni segment lengths (L Ni) tuned from 10 nm up to 140 nm. The x-ray diffraction results evidenced a strong dependence of the Ni NWs crystallographic face-centered-cubic (fcc) texture along the [220] direction on the aspect ratio of the NWs. The magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Ni/Cu NW arrays, as a function of the magnetic field and temperature, is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. Micromagnetic simulations, together with the experimental results, showed a dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between Ni segments along the wire length for small low aspect-ratio magnetic segments. When increasing the Ni segments' length, the magnetic interactions between these along the wire became stronger, favouring a ferromagnetic coupling. The Curie temperature of the NWs was also found to strongly depend on the Ni magnetic segment length. Particularly the Curie temperature was found to be reduced 75 K for the 20 nm Ni segments, following the finite-size scaling relation with ξ 0 = 8.1 Å and γ = 0.48. These results emphasize the advantages of using a template assisted method to electrodeposit multilayer NWs, as it allows an easy tailor of the respective morphological, chemical, structural and magnetic properties. PMID:27378738

  15. Tuning the magnetic properties of multisegmented Ni/Cu electrodeposited nanowires with controllable Ni lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susano, M.; Proenca, M. P.; Moraes, S.; Sousa, C. T.; Araújo, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of segmented Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs), with tunable structural and magnetic properties, is reported. A potentiostatic electrodeposition method with a single electrolytic bath has been used to fabricate multisegmented Ni/Cu NWs inside a highly hexagonally ordered anodic nanoporous alumina membrane, with diameters of 50 nm and Ni segment lengths (L Ni) tuned from 10 nm up to 140 nm. The x-ray diffraction results evidenced a strong dependence of the Ni NWs crystallographic face-centered-cubic (fcc) texture along the [220] direction on the aspect ratio of the NWs. The magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Ni/Cu NW arrays, as a function of the magnetic field and temperature, is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. Micromagnetic simulations, together with the experimental results, showed a dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between Ni segments along the wire length for small low aspect-ratio magnetic segments. When increasing the Ni segments’ length, the magnetic interactions between these along the wire became stronger, favouring a ferromagnetic coupling. The Curie temperature of the NWs was also found to strongly depend on the Ni magnetic segment length. Particularly the Curie temperature was found to be reduced 75 K for the 20 nm Ni segments, following the finite-size scaling relation with ξ 0 = 8.1 Å and γ = 0.48. These results emphasize the advantages of using a template assisted method to electrodeposit multilayer NWs, as it allows an easy tailor of the respective morphological, chemical, structural and magnetic properties.

  16. Insight into CH4 dissociation on NiCu catalyst: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyan; Zhang, Riguang; Yan, Ruixia; Li, Jingrui; Wang, Baojun; Xie, Kechang

    2012-08-01

    A density-functional theory method has been conducted to investigate the dissociation of CH4 on NiCu (1 1 1) surface. Two models: uniform surface slab model (Model A) and Cu-rich surface slab model (Model B) have been constructed to represent the NiCu (1 1 1) surface, in which the ratio of Ni/Cu is unit. The obtained results on the two models have been compared with those obtained on pure Ni (1 1 1) and Cu (1 1 1). It is found that the adsorption of CHx(x = 1-3) on Model B are weaker than on Model A. The rate-determining steps of CH4 dissociation on Model A and B both are the dissociation of CH, and the corresponding activation barriers are 1.37 and 1.63 eV, respectively. Obviously, it is approximately equal on Model A to that on pure Ni (1 1 1) [H. Liu, R. Zhang, R. Yan, B. Wang, K. Xie, Applied Surface Science 257 (2011) 8955], while it is lower by 0.58 eV on Model B compared to that on pure Cu (1 1 1). Therefore, the Cu-rich surface has better carbon-resistance ability than the uniform one. Those results well explain the experimental facts that NiCu/SiO2 has excellent catalytic performance and long-term stability [H.-W. Chen, C.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Yu, L.-T. Tseng, P.-H. Liao, Catalysis Today 97 (2004) 173], however, there is serious carbon deposition on NiCu/MgO-Al2O3 in CO2 reforming of methane [J. Zhang, H. Wang, A. K. Dalai, Journal of Catalysis 249 (2007) 300].

  17. Magnetic Properties of Grain Boundaries of Nanocrystalline Ni and of Ni Precipitates in Nanocrystalline NiCu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, H.; Guan, Z.; Li, X.; Wichert, Th.

    2001-11-01

    Perturbed γγ-angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC) was used to investigate nanocrystalline Ni and NiCu alloys, which are prepared by pulsed electrodeposition (PED). Using diffusion for doping nanocrystalline Ni with 111In four different ordered grain boundary structures are observed, which are characterized by unique electric field gradients. The incorporation of 111In on substitutional bulk sites of Ni is caused by moving grain boundaries below 1000 K and by volume diffusion above 1000 K. The nanocrystalline NiCu alloys prepared by PED are microscopically inhomogeneous as observed by PAC. In contrast, this inhomogeneity cannot be detected by X-ray diffraction. The influence of the temperature of the electrolyte, the current density during deposition, and the optional addition of saccharin to the electrolyte on the homogeneity of nanocrystalline NiCu alloys was investigated.

  18. Strategies for prevention of health care-associated infections in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Polin, Richard A; Denson, Susan; Brady, Michael T

    2012-04-01

    Health care-associated infections in the NICU result in increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged lengths of stay, and increased medical costs. Neonates are at high risk of acquiring health care-associated infections because of impaired host-defense mechanisms, limited amounts of protective endogenous flora on skin and mucosal surfaces at time of birth, reduced barrier function of their skin, use of invasive procedures and devices, and frequent exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotic agents. This clinical report reviews management and prevention of health care-associated infections in newborn infants.

  19. Epidemiology and diagnosis of health care-associated infections in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Polin, Richard A; Denson, Susan; Brady, Michael T

    2012-04-01

    Health care-associated infections in the NICU are a major clinical problem resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged length of hospital stays, and increased medical costs. Neonates are at high risk for health care-associated infections because of impaired host defense mechanisms, limited amounts of protective endogenous flora on skin and mucosal surfaces at time of birth, reduced barrier function of neonatal skin, the use of invasive procedures and devices, and frequent exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics. This statement will review the epidemiology and diagnosis of health care-associated infections in newborn infants.

  20. Peptide and amino acid metabolism is controlled by an OmpR-family response regulator in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cristina; Bäuerl, Christine; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Monedero, Vicente; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    A Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain defective in an OmpR-family response regulator encoded by LCABL_18980 (PrcR, RR11), showed enhanced proteolytic activity caused by overexpression of the gene encoding the proteinase PrtP. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that, in addition to prtP expression, PrcR regulates genes encoding peptide and amino acid transporters, intracellular peptidases and amino acid biosynthetic pathways, among others. Binding of PrcR to twelve promoter regions of both upregulated and downregulated genes, including its own promoter, was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays showing that PrcR can act as a transcriptional repressor or activator. Phosphorylation of PrcR increased its DNA binding activity and this effect was abolished after replacement of the phosphorylatable residue Asp-52 by alanine. Comparison of the transcript levels in cells grown in the presence or absence of tryptone in the growth medium revealed that PrcR activity responded to the presence of a complex amino acid source in the growth medium. We conclude that the PrcR plays a major role in the control of the peptide and amino acid metabolism in L. casei BL23. Orthologous prcR genes are present in most members of the Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae families. We hypothesize that they play a similar role in these bacterial groups.

  1. Peptide and amino acid metabolism is controlled by an OmpR-family response regulator in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cristina; Bäuerl, Christine; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Monedero, Vicente; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    A Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain defective in an OmpR-family response regulator encoded by LCABL_18980 (PrcR, RR11), showed enhanced proteolytic activity caused by overexpression of the gene encoding the proteinase PrtP. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that, in addition to prtP expression, PrcR regulates genes encoding peptide and amino acid transporters, intracellular peptidases and amino acid biosynthetic pathways, among others. Binding of PrcR to twelve promoter regions of both upregulated and downregulated genes, including its own promoter, was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays showing that PrcR can act as a transcriptional repressor or activator. Phosphorylation of PrcR increased its DNA binding activity and this effect was abolished after replacement of the phosphorylatable residue Asp-52 by alanine. Comparison of the transcript levels in cells grown in the presence or absence of tryptone in the growth medium revealed that PrcR activity responded to the presence of a complex amino acid source in the growth medium. We conclude that the PrcR plays a major role in the control of the peptide and amino acid metabolism in L. casei BL23. Orthologous prcR genes are present in most members of the Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae families. We hypothesize that they play a similar role in these bacterial groups. PMID:26711440

  2. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

    2011-05-01

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene for

  3. Identification of a family of fatty acid-speciated Sonic Hedgehog proteins, whose members display differential biological properties

    PubMed Central

    Houel, Stephane; Rodgriguez-Blanco, Jezabel; Singh, Samer; Schilling, Neal; J.Capobianco, Anthony; Ahn, Natalie G.; Robbins, David J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Hedgehog (HH) proteins are proteolytically processed into a biologically active form, which is covalently modified by cholesterol and palmitate. However, most studies of HH biogenesis have characterized protein from cells in which HH is over-expressed. We purified Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) from cells expressing physiologically relevant levels, and showed that it was more potent than SHH isolated from over-expressing cells. Furthermore, the SHH in our preparations were modified with a diverse spectrum of fatty acids on their amino-termini, and this spectrum of fatty acids varied dramatically depending on the growth conditions of the cells. The fatty acid composition of SHH affected its trafficking to lipid rafts, as well as its potency. Our results suggest that HH proteins exist as a family of diverse lipid-speciated proteins, which might be altered in different physiological and pathological contexts to regulate distinct properties of HH proteins. PMID:25732819

  4. A nomenclature for the mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase gene family based on amino acid sequence identities.

    PubMed

    Lawton, M P; Cashman, J R; Cresteil, T; Dolphin, C T; Elfarra, A A; Hines, R N; Hodgson, E; Kimura, T; Ozols, J; Phillips, I R

    1994-01-01

    A nomenclature based on comparisons of amino acid sequences is proposed for the members of the mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) gene family. This nomenclature is based on evidence of a single gene family composed of five genes. The percentage identities of the amino acid sequences of the five known forms of mammalian FMO are between 52 and 57% in rabbit and between 50 and 58% across species lines. The identities of all orthologs are greater than 82%. There is no evidence for multiple, highly related forms of the enzyme or for more than one mammalian FMO gene family. In the proposed system, the mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase gene family is designated as "FMO" and the individual genes are distinguished by an Arabic numeral. The FMOs known as the "liver" and "lung" enzymes become FMO1 and FMO2, and the more recently described forms of the enzymes become FMO3, FMO4, and FMO5. Human FMO gene designations, FMO1 and FMO3, remain unchanged, but the gene designated FMO2 becomes FMO4. Following convention, the genes and cDNA designations will be italicized and the mRNA and protein designations will be nonitalicized. The purpose of the proposed nomenclature is to provide for the unambiguous identification of orthologous forms of mammalian FMOs, regardless of the species or tissue in question. The proposed classification considers only members of the mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase gene family and has no bearing on the generally accepted definition of a multisubstrate flavin-containing monooxygenase.

  5. Prediction of novel families of enzymes involved in oxidative and other complex modifications of bases in nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Tahiliani, Mamta; Rao, Anjana; Aravind, L

    2009-06-01

    Modified bases in nucleic acids present a layer of information that directs biological function over and beyond the coding capacity of the conventional bases. While a large number of modified bases have been identified, many of the enzymes generating them still remain to be discovered. Recently, members of the 2-oxoglutarate- and iron(II)-dependent dioxygenase super-family, which modify diverse substrates from small molecules to biopolymers, were predicted and subsequently confirmed to catalyze oxidative modification of bases in nucleic acids. Of these, two distinct families, namely the AlkB and the kinetoplastid base J binding proteins (JBP) catalyze in situ hydroxylation of bases in nucleic acids. Using sensitive computational analysis of sequences, structures and contextual information from genomic structure and protein domain architectures, we report five distinct families of 2-oxoglutarate- and iron(II)-dependent dioxygenase that we predict to be involved in nucleic acid modifications. Among the DNA-modifying families, we show that the dioxygenase domains of the kinetoplastid base J-binding proteins belong to a larger family that includes the Tet proteins, prototyped by the human oncogene Tet1, and proteins from basidiomycete fungi, chlorophyte algae, heterolobosean amoeboflagellates and bacteriophages. We present evidence that some of these proteins are likely to be involved in oxidative modification of the 5-methyl group of cytosine leading to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. The Tet/JBP homologs from basidiomycete fungi such as Laccaria and Coprinopsis show large lineage-specific expansions and a tight linkage with genes encoding a novel and distinct family of predicted transposases, and a member of the Maelstrom-like HMG family. We propose that these fungal members are part of a mobile transposon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a eukaryotic transposable element that encodes its own DNA-modification enzyme with a

  6. Performance Evaluation of New-Generation Pulse Oximeters in the NICU: Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nizami, Shermeen; Greenwood, Kim; Barrowman, Nick; Harrold, JoAnn

    2015-09-01

    This crossover observational study compares the data characteristics and performance of new-generation Nellcor OXIMAX and Masimo SET SmartPod pulse oximeter technologies. The study was conducted independent of either original equipment manufacturer (OEM) across eleven preterm infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The SmartPods were integrated with Dräger Infinity Delta monitors. The Delta monitor measured the heart rate (HR) using an independent electrocardiogram sensor, and the two SmartPods collected arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate (PR). All patient data were non-Gaussian. Nellcor PR showed a higher correlation with the HR as compared to Masimo PR. The statistically significant difference found in their median values (1% for SpO2, 1 bpm for PR) was deemed clinically insignificant. SpO2 alarms generated by both SmartPods were observed and categorized for performance evaluation. Results for sensitivity, positive predictive value, accuracy and false alarm rates were Nellcor (80.3, 50, 44.5, 50%) and Masimo (72.2, 48.2, 40.6, 51.8%) respectively. These metrics were not statistically significantly different between the two pulse oximeters. Despite claims by OEMs, both pulse oximeters exhibited high false alarm rates, with no statistically or clinically significant difference in performance. These findings have a direct impact on alarm fatigue in the NICU. Performance evaluation studies can also impact medical device purchase decisions made by hospital administrators. PMID:26577369

  7. Performance Evaluation of New-Generation Pulse Oximeters in the NICU: Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nizami, Shermeen; Greenwood, Kim; Barrowman, Nick; Harrold, JoAnn

    2015-09-01

    This crossover observational study compares the data characteristics and performance of new-generation Nellcor OXIMAX and Masimo SET SmartPod pulse oximeter technologies. The study was conducted independent of either original equipment manufacturer (OEM) across eleven preterm infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The SmartPods were integrated with Dräger Infinity Delta monitors. The Delta monitor measured the heart rate (HR) using an independent electrocardiogram sensor, and the two SmartPods collected arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate (PR). All patient data were non-Gaussian. Nellcor PR showed a higher correlation with the HR as compared to Masimo PR. The statistically significant difference found in their median values (1% for SpO2, 1 bpm for PR) was deemed clinically insignificant. SpO2 alarms generated by both SmartPods were observed and categorized for performance evaluation. Results for sensitivity, positive predictive value, accuracy and false alarm rates were Nellcor (80.3, 50, 44.5, 50%) and Masimo (72.2, 48.2, 40.6, 51.8%) respectively. These metrics were not statistically significantly different between the two pulse oximeters. Despite claims by OEMs, both pulse oximeters exhibited high false alarm rates, with no statistically or clinically significant difference in performance. These findings have a direct impact on alarm fatigue in the NICU. Performance evaluation studies can also impact medical device purchase decisions made by hospital administrators.

  8. General health status of residents of the Selebi Phikwe Ni-Cu mine area, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Ekosse, Georges

    2005-10-01

    Residents of the Selebi Phikwe area, Botswana where nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) is being exploited often exhibit symptoms of varied degrees of ailments, sicknesses and diseases. A need to investigate their general health status was therefore eminent. Primary data was obtained by means of a questionnaire and structured interviews conducted with individuals, health service providers, business enterprises and educational Institutions. The generated data revealed common ailments, sicknesses and diseases in the area with the four most frequent health complaints being frequent coughing headaches, influenza/common colds and rampant chest pains. Research findings indicated that residents had respiratory tract-related problems, suspected to be linked to the effects of air pollution caused by the emission of sulphur dioxide (SO2) from mining and smelting activities. Residents were frequently in contact with SO2 and related gases and fumes, mineral and silica dust generated from the mining processes. No clearly demarcating differences were noticed in the health status of residents living in the control site from those in the main study area. However, sites most affected were those close to where Ni-Cu is exploited. Environmental factors resulting from mining and smelting activities, among others, could be contributory to the negative health effects occurring at Selebi Phikwe. PMID:16416754

  9. General health status of residents of the Selebi Phikwe Ni-Cu mine area, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Ekosse, Georges

    2005-10-01

    Residents of the Selebi Phikwe area, Botswana where nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) is being exploited often exhibit symptoms of varied degrees of ailments, sicknesses and diseases. A need to investigate their general health status was therefore eminent. Primary data was obtained by means of a questionnaire and structured interviews conducted with individuals, health service providers, business enterprises and educational Institutions. The generated data revealed common ailments, sicknesses and diseases in the area with the four most frequent health complaints being frequent coughing headaches, influenza/common colds and rampant chest pains. Research findings indicated that residents had respiratory tract-related problems, suspected to be linked to the effects of air pollution caused by the emission of sulphur dioxide (SO2) from mining and smelting activities. Residents were frequently in contact with SO2 and related gases and fumes, mineral and silica dust generated from the mining processes. No clearly demarcating differences were noticed in the health status of residents living in the control site from those in the main study area. However, sites most affected were those close to where Ni-Cu is exploited. Environmental factors resulting from mining and smelting activities, among others, could be contributory to the negative health effects occurring at Selebi Phikwe.

  10. Analysis of front metal contact for plated Ni/Cu silicon solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Doo; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Lee, Soo Hong

    2011-12-01

    Commercial solar cells with screen printed front contacts are formed by using Ag paste. This has caused high shading loss and low conductivity because of high contact resistance. One of the front metal contact solar cells is Ni/Cu metal contact, made by using plating that is easily available so as to allow simple and inexpensive production techniques to be applied to mass production. Ni has been shown to be a suitable barrier to Cu diffusion into the silicon. Also, it is possible to use Ni silicide for the sintering process. Ni silicide has been reported have compositions of Ni2Si (200°C ˜ 300°C), NiSi (300°C ˜ 700°C), and NiSi2 (700°C ˜ 900°C). Especially, NiSi has been shown to have low contact resistance (14 ˜ 16 mW·cm) between surface and electrode. Finally, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis show experimental results in which electroless plating of Ni and Ni silicide can be seen. The efficiency of plated Ni/Cu contact solar cells was improved by 0.8% over that of screen printed solar cells.

  11. PAIN--perception and assessment of painful procedures in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Britto, Carl Denis; Rao Pn, Suman; Nesargi, Saudamini; Nair, Sitara; Rao, Shashidhar; Thilagavathy, Theradian; Ramesh, Armugam; Bhat, Swarnarekha

    2014-12-01

    This prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the frequency of procedural pain among 101 neonates in the first 14 days of admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in South India and to study the perception of health-care professionals (HCP) about newborn procedural pain. The total number of painful procedures was 8.09 ± 5.53 per baby per day and 68.32 ± 64.78 per baby during hospital stay. The most common procedure was heel prick (30%). The HCP were administered a questionnaire to assess their perception of pain for various procedures. Procedures were perceived as more painful by nurses than by doctors. Chest tube placements and lumbar puncture were considered most painful. This study shows that the neonates in the NICU in developing countries experience many painful procedures. The awareness about this intensity of pain should provide a valuable tool in formulating pain-reduction protocols for management in low resource settings.

  12. The ETS family member ERM contains an alpha-helical acidic activation domain that contacts TAFII60.

    PubMed Central

    Defossez, P A; Baert, J L; Monnot, M; de Launoit, Y

    1997-01-01

    Transcription factors are modular entities built up of discrete domains, some devoted to DNA binding and others permitting transcriptional modulation. The structure of DNA binding domains has been thoroughly investigated and structural classes clearly defined. In sharp contrast, the structural constraints put on transactivating regions, if any, are mostly unknown. Our investigations focus on ERM, a eukaryotic transcription factor of the ETS family. We have previously shown that ERM harbours two transactivating domains (TADs) with distinct functional features: AD1 lies in the first 72 amino acids of ERM, while AD2 sits in the last 62. Here we show that AD1 is a bona fide acidic TAD, for it activated transcription in yeast cells, while AD2 did not. AD1 contains a 20 amino acid stretch predicted to form an alpha-helix that is found unchanged in the related PEA3 and ER81 transcription factors. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that a 32 amino acid peptide encompassing this region is unstructured in water but folds into a helix when the hydrophobic solvent trifluoroethanol is added. The isolated helix was sufficient to activate transcription and mutations predicted to disrupt it dramatically affected AD1-driven transactivation, whereas mutations decreasing its acidity had more gentle effects. A phenylalanine residue within the helix was particularly sensitive to mutations. Finally, we observed that ERM bound TAFII60 via AD1 and bound TBP and TAFII40, presumably via other activation domains. PMID:9358152

  13. Plasma Amino Acid Levels in Children with Autism and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldred, Sarah; Moore, Kieran M.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Waring, Rosemary H.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma amino acid levels were measured in autistic (n=12), Asperger syndrome (n=11) patients, their parents and siblings. Patients with autism or Asperger syndrome and their siblings and parents all had raised glutamic acid, phenyalanine, asparagine, tyrosine, alanine, and lysine levels than age-matched controls. Results suggest dysregulated amino…

  14. The fatty acid compositions of several plant seed oils belong to Leguminosae and Umbelliferae families.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Meryem; Geçgel, Umit; Duran, Ahmet; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-05-01

    In samples with 1,009, 7,723, 7,618, 7,618, 1,004 and 1,009 number, oleic acid were found as 62.0, 77.0, 74.84, 71.55, 54.52 and 62.30 %, respectively. In other samples, oleic acid content was determined between 17.43 % (1,589) and 34.86 % (1,298). Linoleic acid content of seed oils ranged from 6.52 % (7,727) to 57.29 % (1,501). In addition, linolenic acid content was found between 0.22 % (7,618) and 46.91 % (1,589). Palmitic acid content of samples changed between 2.03 % (7,727) and 19.81 % (1,298). Capric acid was found at high level in 1,009 (8.53 %), 7,727 (37.31 %) and 1,004 (8.28 %) samples. Caproic acid was found in only 7,727 (3.38 %).

  15. The high content of monoene fatty acids in the lipids of some midwater fishes: family Myctophidae.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Murata, M

    1996-07-01

    The total lipids of eleven species of Myctophids caught at depths between 20 and 700 m in the northern Pacific Ocean were analyzed using silicic acid column chromatography (lipid classes) and capillary gas chromatography (fatty acid and fatty alcohol composition). The major components in the lipid classes were triacylglycerols or wax esters; triacylglycerols were the dominant acyl neutral lipids (68.1-96.1%) in eight species, and wax esters were found as the dominant lipid (85.5-87.9%) in three species. The major fatty acids and alcohols contained in the wax esters of the three fishes were 18:1n-9, 20:1n-9, 20:1n-11, and 22:1n-11 for fatty acids, and 16:0, 18:1, 20:1 and 22:1 for fatty alcohols. Fatty acids in the triacylglycerols ranging from C14 to C22 were predominantly of even chain length. The major components were 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9, 20:1n-11, 22:1n-11, 20:5n-3 (icosapentaenoic acid), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). In both the triacylglycerols and the wax esters, the major fatty components were monoenoic acids and alcohols. It is suggested from the lipid chemistry of the Myctophids that they may prey on the same organisms as the certain pelagic fishes such as saury and herring, because the large quantities of monoenoic fatty acids are similar to those of saury, herring, and sprats whose lipids originate from their prey organisms such as zooplanktons which are rich in monoenoic wax esters. PMID:8827699

  16. Discovery of a new family of Dieckmann cyclases essential to tetramic acid and pyridone-based natural products biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gui, Chun; Li, Qinglian; Mo, Xuhua; Qin, Xiangjing; Ma, Junying; Ju, Jianhua

    2015-02-01

    Bioinformatic analyses indicate that TrdC, SlgL, LipX2, KirHI, and FacHI belong to a group of highly homologous proteins involved in biosynthesis of actinomycete-derived tirandamycin B, streptolydigin, α-lipomycin, kirromycin, and factumycin, respectively. However, assignment of their biosynthetic roles has remained elusive. Gene inactivation and complementation, in vitro biochemical assays with synthetic analogues, point mutations, and phylogenetic tree analyses reveal that these proteins represent a new family of Dieckmann cyclases that drive tetramic acid and pyridone scaffold biosynthesis.

  17. BEGINNINGS: An Interim Individualized Family Service Plan for Use in the Intensive Care Nursery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joy V.; Langlois, Aimee; Ross, Erin Sandseth; Smith-Sharp, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    This article describes BEGINNINGS, an interim Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) for use in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). It discusses the rationale that supports the process, the format, and recommendations for its implementation. The program's early intervention services help to identify supports and to facilitate transition to…

  18. Genome-wide analysis of the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family in Gossypium

    SciTech Connect

    Yurchenko, Olga P.; Park, Sunjung; Ilut, Daniel C.; Inmon, Jay J.; Millhollon, Jon C.; Liechty, Zach; Page, Justin T.; Jenks, Matthew A.; Chapman, Kent D.; Udall, Joshua A.; Gore, Michael A.; Dyer, John M.

    2014-11-18

    The majority of commercial cotton varieties planted worldwide are derived from Gossypium hirsutum, which is a naturally occurring allotetraploid produced by interspecific hybridization of A- and D-genome diploid progenitor species. While most cotton species are adapted to warm, semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions, and thus perform well in these geographical areas, cotton seedlings are sensitive to cold temperature, which can significantly reduce crop yields. One of the common biochemical responses of plants to cold temperatures is an increase in omega-3 fatty acids, which protects cellular function by maintaining membrane integrity. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD) gene family in G. hirsutum, with an emphasis on identifying omega-3 FADs involved in cold temperature adaptation. Results: Eleven omega-3 FAD genes were identified in G. hirsutum, and characterization of the gene family in extant A and D diploid species (G. herbaceum and G. raimondii, respectively) allowed for unambiguous genome assignment of all homoeologs in tetraploid G. hirsutum. The omega-3 FAD family of cotton includes five distinct genes, two of which encode endoplasmic reticulum-type enzymes (FAD3-1 and FAD3-2) and three that encode chloroplast-type enzymes (FAD7/8-1, FAD7/8-2, and FAD7/8-3). The FAD3-2 gene was duplicated in the A genome progenitor species after the evolutionary split from the D progenitor, but before the interspecific hybridization event that gave rise to modern tetraploid cotton. RNA-seq analysis revealed conserved, gene-specific expression patterns in various organs and cell types and semi-quantitative RT-PCR further revealed that FAD7/8-1 was specifically induced during cold temperature treatment of G. hirsutum seedlings. Conclusions: The omega-3 FAD gene family in cotton was characterized at the genome-wide level

  19. Corrosion analysis of NiCu and PdCo thermal seed alloys used as interstitial hyperthermia implants.

    PubMed

    Paulus, J A; Parida, G R; Tucker, R D; Park, J B

    1997-12-01

    Ferromagnetic materials with low Curie temperatures are being investigated for use as interstitial implants for fractionated hyperthermia treatment of prostatic disease. Previous investigations of the system have utilized alloys, such as NiCu, with inadequate corrosion resistance, requiring the use of catheters for removal of the implants following treatment or inert surface coatings which may interfere with thermal characteristics of the implants. We are evaluating a palladium-cobalt (PdCo) binary alloy which is very similar to high palladium alloys used in dentistry. Electrochemical corrosion tests and immersion tests at 37 degrees C for both NiCu and PdCo alloy samples in mammalian Ringer's solution were performed. Long-term corrosion rates are 5.8 x 10(-5) microm per year (NiCu) and 7.7 x 10(-8) microm per year (PdCo) from average immersion test results, indicating higher corrosion resistance of PdCo (P < 0.02); immersion corrosion rates were much lower than initial corrosion rates found electrochemically. Both alloys had significantly lower corrosion rates than standard surgical implant rates of 0.04 microm per year (P < 0.001 for both alloys). Scanning electron microscopy illustrates changes in the NiCu alloy surface due to pitting corrosion; no difference is observed for PdCo. The data indicate that the PdCo alloy may be suitable as a long-term implant for use in fractionated hyperthermia.

  20. Neurobehavioral Assessment from Fetus to Infant: The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale and the Fetal Neurobehavior Coding Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Amy L.; Fallone, Melissa Duncan; Lester, Barry

    2005-01-01

    This review provides an overview and definition of the concept of neurobehavior in human development. Two neurobehavioral assessments used by the authors in current fetal and infant research are discussed: the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale and the Fetal Neurobehavior Coding System. This review will present how the two assessments…

  1. The SLC36 family of proton-coupled amino acid transporters and their potential role in drug transport

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, David T; Anderson, Catriona MH

    2011-01-01

    Members of the solute carrier (SLC) 36 family are involved in transmembrane movement of amino acids and derivatives. SLC36 consists of four members. SLC36A1 and SLC36A2 both function as H+-coupled amino acid symporters. SLC36A1 is expressed at the luminal surface of the small intestine but is also commonly found in lysosomes in many cell types (including neurones), suggesting that it is a multipurpose carrier with distinct roles in different cells including absorption in the small intestine and as an efflux pathway following intralysosomal protein breakdown. SLC36A1 has a relatively low affinity (Km 1–10 mM) for its substrates, which include zwitterionic amino and imino acids, heterocyclic amino acids and amino acid-based drugs and derivatives used experimentally and/or clinically to treat epilepsy, schizophrenia, bacterial infections, hyperglycaemia and cancer. SLC36A2 is expressed at the apical surface of the human renal proximal tubule where it functions in the reabsorption of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. SLC36A2 also transports amino acid derivatives but has a narrower substrate selectivity and higher affinity (Km 0.1–0.7 mM) than SLC36A1. Mutations in SLC36A2 lead to hyperglycinuria and iminoglycinuria. SLC36A3 is expressed only in testes and is an orphan transporter with no known function. SLC36A4 is widely distributed at the mRNA level and is a high-affinity (Km 2–3 µM) transporter for proline and tryptophan. We have much to learn about this family of transporters, but from current knowledge, it seems likely that their function will influence the pharmacokinetic profiles of amino acid-based drugs by mediating transport in both the small intestine and kidney. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Transporters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-7 PMID:21501141

  2. Multi-hospital Community NICU Quality Improvement Improves Survival of ELBW Infants.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jack D; Soltau, Thomas; McCaughn, Danny; Miller, Jason; O'Mara, Patrick; Robbins, Kenny; Temple, David M; Wender, David F

    2015-08-01

    Quality improvement or high reliability in medicine is an evolving science where we seek to integrate evidence-based medicine, structural resources, process management, leadership models, culture, and education. Newborn Associates is a community-based neonatology practice that staffs and manages neonatal intensive care units (NICU's) at Central Mississippi Medical Center, Mississippi Baptist Medical Center, River Oaks Hospital, St Dominic's Hospital and Woman's Hospital within the Jackson, Mississippi, metropolitan area. These hospitals participate in the Vermont-Oxford Neonatal Network (VON), which is a voluntary national network of about 1000 NICU groups that submit data allowing them to benchmark their patient outcome. This network currently holds data on 1.5 million infants. Participation may also include the Newborn Improvement Quality Collaborative (NICQ) which is an intensive quality improvement program where 40-60 of the almost 1000 VON centers participate each year or the iNICQ, which is an internet-based collaborative involving about 150 centers per year. From 2008-2009, our group concentrated efforts on quality improvement which included consolidating resources of three corporately managed hospitals to allow focused care of babies under 800-1000 grams at a single center, expanding participation in the VON NICQ to include all physicians and centers, and establishing a group QI focused committee aimed at sharing practice bundles and adopting quality improvement methodology. The goal of this article is to report the impact of these QI activities on survival of the smallest preterm infants who weigh less than 1500 grams at birth. Two epochs were compared: 2006-2009, and 2010-2013. 551 VLBW (< 1 500 grams) infants from epoch I were compared to 583 VLBW infants from epoch 2. Mortality in this group decreased from 18% to 11.1% (OR 0.62,95% CI 0.44-0.88). Mortality in the 501-750 grams birth weight category decreased from 45.7% to 18% (OR 0.39,95% CI 0

  3. Multi-hospital Community NICU Quality Improvement Improves Survival of ELBW Infants.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jack D; Soltau, Thomas; McCaughn, Danny; Miller, Jason; O'Mara, Patrick; Robbins, Kenny; Temple, David M; Wender, David F

    2015-08-01

    Quality improvement or high reliability in medicine is an evolving science where we seek to integrate evidence-based medicine, structural resources, process management, leadership models, culture, and education. Newborn Associates is a community-based neonatology practice that staffs and manages neonatal intensive care units (NICU's) at Central Mississippi Medical Center, Mississippi Baptist Medical Center, River Oaks Hospital, St Dominic's Hospital and Woman's Hospital within the Jackson, Mississippi, metropolitan area. These hospitals participate in the Vermont-Oxford Neonatal Network (VON), which is a voluntary national network of about 1000 NICU groups that submit data allowing them to benchmark their patient outcome. This network currently holds data on 1.5 million infants. Participation may also include the Newborn Improvement Quality Collaborative (NICQ) which is an intensive quality improvement program where 40-60 of the almost 1000 VON centers participate each year or the iNICQ, which is an internet-based collaborative involving about 150 centers per year. From 2008-2009, our group concentrated efforts on quality improvement which included consolidating resources of three corporately managed hospitals to allow focused care of babies under 800-1000 grams at a single center, expanding participation in the VON NICQ to include all physicians and centers, and establishing a group QI focused committee aimed at sharing practice bundles and adopting quality improvement methodology. The goal of this article is to report the impact of these QI activities on survival of the smallest preterm infants who weigh less than 1500 grams at birth. Two epochs were compared: 2006-2009, and 2010-2013. 551 VLBW (< 1 500 grams) infants from epoch I were compared to 583 VLBW infants from epoch 2. Mortality in this group decreased from 18% to 11.1% (OR 0.62,95% CI 0.44-0.88). Mortality in the 501-750 grams birth weight category decreased from 45.7% to 18% (OR 0.39,95% CI 0

  4. New solid acids in the triple-layer Dion-Jacobson layered perovskite family

    SciTech Connect

    Geselbracht, Margret J.; White, Helen K.; Blaine, Jeanette M.; Diaz, Miranda J.; Hubbs, Jennifer L.; Adelstein, Nicole; Kurzman, Joshua A.

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} New triple-layer Dion-Jacobson layered perovskite solid solutions synthesized. {yields} New series of Ta-doped layered perovskite solid acids, HCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 10}. {yields} New series of Sr-doped layered perovskite solid acids, HCa{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}. {yields} Layered perovskites with highest Ta content are weaker solid acids than HCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}. -- Abstract: Dion-Jacobson type layered perovskites such as A'Ca{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10} (A' = K, Rb, H) have continued to be of great interest due to their compositional variability, rich interlayer chemistry, and wide range of physical properties. In this study, we investigated the range and effects of substitutional doping of Ta{sup 5+} for Nb{sup 5+} and of Sr{sup 2+} for Ca{sup 2+} in A'Ca{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}. We have prepared and characterized three new solid solutions: KCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 10}, RbCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 10}, and RbCa{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}. These materials all readily undergo proton exchange to form two new series of hydrated solid acid phases, which in most cases can be dehydrated to form stable HCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 10} and HCa{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10} compounds. Intercalation studies with n-hexylamine and pyridine were carried out to gauge the relative Bronsted acidities across the HCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 10} series, and we determined that materials with the highest tantalum contents are weaker acids than the parent compound HCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}. Preliminary intercalation studies with pyridine for the HCa{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}.yH{sub 2}O solid acids, however, showed no significant difference in acidity with varying strontium content.

  5. Early Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Investigating Interprofessional Best Practices for the NICU Team.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jessica L; Newberry, Desi; Jnah, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Premature neonates delivered <32 completed weeks gestation are unprepared to handle the physiologic demands of extrauterine life. Within the respiratory system, alveolar instability and collapse can cause decreased functional residual capacity, impaired oxygenation, and hypoxemia leading to respiratory distress syndrome. Supportive measures are indicated immediately after birth to establish physiologic stability including bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. CPAP is a noninvasive, gentle mode of ventilation that can mitigate the effects of lung immaturity, but prolonged use can increase the risk for nasal breakdown. Strategies to mitigate this risk must be infused as best practices in the NICU environment. The purpose of this article is to propose an evidence-based best practice care bundle for the early initiation of CPAP in the delivery room and associated skin barrier protection strategies for premature neonates <32 weeks gestation and weighing <1,500 g. PMID:27194606

  6. Hypersonic crystal band gaps in Ni/Cu superlattice nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia-Guang; Shen, Tie

    2016-03-01

    The hexagonal and tetragonal ordered arrays were prepared by Ni/Cu superlattice nanowires on the porous anodic alumina membrane template, and their phonon band structures were calculated by using the plane wave expansion method. Numerical results show that the hypersonic band gaps can be acquired by adjusting the structural parameters. Along the different wave-vector directions, the width and position of band gap would vary. If the nanowires'filling fraction is increased continuously, the width of the first band gap firstly increases and then decreases within a certain range. The height of superlattice nanowire elementary unit can only affect the width of band gap within a quite narrow range. When the height of elementary unit remains unchanged, the decrease of the Cu-component ratio can contribute to the formation of a wider band gap. Additionally, the wide band gap is more easily formed in tetragonal structure than in hexagonal structure.

  7. Parent Health and Functioning 13 Months After Infant or Child NICU/PICU Death

    PubMed Central

    Brooten, Dorothy; Cantwell, G. Patricia; del Moral, Teresa; Totapally, Balagangadhar

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a child’s death, parents may experience depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and increased risk for cancers, diabetes, psychiatric hospitalization, and suicide. Racial/ethnic differences are unknown. This longitudinal study investigated health and functioning of Hispanic, black, and white parents through 13 months after NICU/PICU death. METHODS: Parents (176 mothers, 73 fathers) of 188 deceased infants/children were recruited from 4 NICUs, 4 PICUs, and state death certificates 2 to 3 weeks after death. Deaths occurred after limiting treatment/withdrawing life support (57%), unsuccessful resuscitation (32%), or brain death (11%). Data on parent physical health (hospitalizations, chronic illness), mental health (depression, PTSD, alcohol use), and functioning (partner status, employment) were collected in the home at 1, 3, 6, and 13 months after death. RESULTS: Mean age for mothers was 32 ± 8, fathers 37 ± 9; 79% were Hispanic or black. Thirteen months after infant/child death, 72% of parents remained partnered, 2 mothers had newly diagnosed cancer, alcohol consumption was below problem drinking levels, parents had 98 hospitalizations (29% stress related) and 132 newly diagnosed chronic health conditions, 35% of mothers and 24% of fathers had clinical depression, and 35% of mothers and 30% of fathers had clinical PTSD. At 6 months after infant/child death, 1 mother attempted suicide. Week 1 after infant/child death, 9% of mothers and 32% of fathers returned to employment; 7 parents took no time off. More Hispanic and black mothers than white mothers had moderate/severe depression at 6 months after infant/child death and PTSD at every time point. CONCLUSIONS: Parents, especially minority mothers, have negative physical and mental health outcomes during the first year after NICU/PICU death. PMID:24101760

  8. Predicting G-protein-coupled receptors families using different physiochemical properties and pseudo amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Zia-Ur; Mirza, Muhammad Tayyeb; Khan, Asifullah; Xhaard, Henri

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) initiate signaling pathways via trimetric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. GPCRs are classified based on their ligand-binding properties and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Nonetheless, these later analyses are in most case dependent on multiple sequence alignments, themselves dependent on human intervention and expertise. Alignment-free classifications of GPCR sequences, in addition to being unbiased, present many applications uncovering hidden physicochemical parameters shared among specific groups of receptors, to being used in automated workflows for large-scale molecular modeling applications. Current alignment-free classification methods, however, do not reach a full accuracy. This chapter discusses how GPCRs amino acid sequences can be classified using pseudo amino acid composition and multiscale energy representation of different physiochemical properties of amino acids. A hybrid feature extraction strategy is shown to be suitable to represent GPCRs and to be able to exploit GPCR amino acid sequence discrimination capability in spatial as well as transform domain. Classification strategies such as support vector machine and probabilistic neural network are then discussed in regards to GPCRs classification. The work of GPCR-Hybrid web predictor is also discussed.

  9. Incorporation of alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid as a Fixed Bed Scrubber Media for the Neutralization of Hydrazine Family Hypergolic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVor, R. W.; Santiago-Maldonado, E.; Parkerson, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    A candidate scrubber media, alpha-ketoglutaric acid (aKGA) adsorbed onto a silica-based substrate was examined as a potential alternative to the hydrazine-family hypergolic fuel neutralization techniques currently utilized at NASA/Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Helvenson et. al. has indicated that aKGA will react with hydrazines to produce non-hazardous, possibly biodegradable products. Furthermore, the authors have previously tested and demonstrated the use of aKGA aqueous solutions as a replacement neutralizing agent for citric acid, which is currently used as a scrubbing agent in liquid scrubbers at KSC. Specific properties examined include reaction efficiency, the loading capacity of aKGA onto various silica substrates, and the comparison of aKGA media performance to that of the citric acid vapor scrubber systems at KSC and a commercial vapor scrubber media. Preliminary investigations showed hydrophobic aerogel particles to be an ideal substrate for the deposition of the aKGA. Current studies have shown that the laboratory produced aKGA-Aerogel absorbent media are more efficient and cost effective than a commercially available fixed bed scrubber media, although much less cost effective than liquid-based citric acid scrubbers (although possibly safer and less labor intensive). A comparison of all three alternative scrubber technologies (liquid aKGA, solid-phase aKGA, and commercially available sorbent materials) is given considering both hypergolic neutralization capabilities and relative costs (as compared to the current citric acid scrubbing technology in use at NASA/KSC).

  10. Concentrations of the urinary pyrethroid metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in farm worker families in the MICASA study

    SciTech Connect

    Trunnelle, Kelly J.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Ahn, Ki Chang; Schenker, Marc B.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Gee, Shirley J.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-05-01

    Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly from pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields, and are faced with poor housing conditions, causing higher pest infestation and more pesticide use. We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) levels among 105 women and 103 children. The median urinary 3PBA levels (children=2.56 ug/g creatinine, mothers=1.46 ug/g creatinine) were higher than those reported in population based studies for the United States general population, but similar to or lower than studies with known high levels of pyrethroid exposure. A positive association was evident between poor housing conditions and the urinary metabolite levels, showing that poor housing conditions are a contributing factor to the higher levels of 3PBA seen in the urine of these farm worker families. Further research is warranted to fully investigate sources of exposure. - Highlights: • We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids. • We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary 3PBA levels. • 3PBA levels were higher than those reported for the U.S. general population. • Poor housing conditions may be associated with pyrethroid exposure.

  11. The EZ:Faast family of amino acid analysis kits: application of the GC-FID kit for rapid determination of plasma tryptophan and other amino acids.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Abdulla A-B

    2012-01-01

    Plasma tryptophan (Trp) and other amino acids (AA) can be determined rapidly by gas (GC) or liquid (LC) chromatography using the Phenomenex EZ:Faast(™) family of kits. Three kits are available: (1) GC-FID or -NPD, (2) GC-MS, (3) LC-MS. The two GC kits can determine 32 AA, whereas the LC-MS can determine five additional AA. All three kits, however, share the same experimental procedure up to and including the preparation of derivatised AA. The method is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE), thus saving time on prior removal of plasma or other proteins and interfering substances, and can be applied to other body fluids and experimental media and to supernatants of extracts of solid material. Briefly, SPE is performed using a proprietary cation-exchange mechanism. The acid solution of the internal standard ensures that the free amino acids are in an anionic form suitable for cationic binding. The alkaline nature of the elution medium ensures that the AA cations are released prior to derivatisation. The latter involves production of chloroformate derivatives of both the amino and carboxylic acid groups. With experience, six plasma samples can be so processed within 12 min. The shortest analytical run is <7 min per sample using the GC-FID/NPD kit. Despite its many steps, the procedure becomes second nature and an enjoyable task. I have now used the GC-FID kit with manual injection to process >1,600 plasma and other samples. Limit of detection of AA is 1 μM or less. The procedure has been validated and optimised for Trp and its main five brain uptake competitors. PMID:22125144

  12. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  13. GPR109A, GPR109B and GPR81, a family of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Kashan; Tunaru, Sorin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2009-11-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most versatile receptor family as they have the ability to respond to chemically diverse ligands. Despite intensive efforts during the past two decades, there are still more than 100 orphan GPCRs for which endogenous ligands are unknown. Recently, GPR109A, GPR109B and GPR81, which form a GPCR subfamily, have been deorphanized. The physiological ligands of these receptors are the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyrate, the metabolite 2-hydroxy-propanoate (lactate) as well as the beta-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoate. Thus, this receptor subfamily is activated by hydroxy-carboxylic acid ligands which are intermediates of energy metabolism. All three receptors are predominantly expressed in adipocytes and mediate antilipolytic effects. In this article, we propose that the hydroxy-carboxylic acid structure of their endogenous ligands is the defining property of this receptor subfamily and that hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors function as metabolic sensors which fine-tune the regulation of metabolic pathways.

  14. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-20

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  15. Acidic Amino Acids Impart Enhanced Ca2+ Permeability and Flux in Two Members of the ATP-gated P2X Receptor Family

    PubMed Central

    Samways, Damien S.K.; Egan, Terrance M.

    2007-01-01

    P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels expressed in nerve, muscle, bone, glands, and the immune system. The seven family members display variable Ca2+ permeabilities that are amongst the highest of all ligand-gated channels (Egan and Khakh, 2004). We previously reported that polar residues regulate the Ca2+ permeability of the P2X2 receptor (Migita et al., 2001). Here, we test the hypothesis that the formal charge of acidic amino acids underlies the higher fractional Ca2+ currents (Pf%) of the rat and human P2X1 and P2X4 subtypes. We used patch-clamp photometry to measure the Pf% of HEK-293 cells transiently expressing a range of wild-type and genetically altered receptors. Lowering the pH of the extracellular solution reduced the higher Pf% of the P2X1 receptor but had no effect on the lower Pf% of the P2X2 receptor, suggesting that ionized side chains regulate the Ca2+ flux of some family members. Removing the fixed negative charges found at the extracellular ends of the transmembrane domains also reduced the higher Pf% of P2X1 and P2X4 receptors, and introducing these charges at homologous positions increased the lower Pf% of the P2X2 receptor. Taken together, the data suggest that COO− side chains provide an electrostatic force that interacts with Ca2+ in the mouth of the pore. Surprisingly, the glutamate residue that is partly responsible for the higher Pf% of the P2X1 and P2X4 receptors is conserved in the P2X3 receptor that has the lowest Pf% of all family members. We found that neutralizing an upstream His45 increased Pf% of the P2X3 channel, suggesting that this positive charge masks the facilitation of Ca2+ flux by the neighboring Glu46. The data support the hypothesis that formal charges near the extracellular ends of transmembrane domains contribute to the high Ca2+ permeability and flux of some P2X receptors. PMID:17325195

  16. Neonatal ethical issues: viability, advance directives, family centered care.

    PubMed

    Sudia-Robinson, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Ethical issues in perinatal and NICU settings can arise from a variety of situations. This article focuses on issues surrounding viability and the incorporation of advance directives and family-centered care. Prenatal education about infant viability, probable scenarios, and parental involvement in decision-making are addressed. Considerations for advance directives for complex births and critical decisions at the time of birth are also discussed. Implications for nurses and suggested dialogue strategies are provided. PMID:21407121

  17. ASSOCIATION OF HYALURONIC ACID FAMILY MEMBERS (HAS1, HAS2 and HYAL-1) WITH BLADDER CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Mario W.; Escudero, Diogo O.; Lokeshwar, Soum D.; Golshani, Roozbeh; Ekwenna, Obi O.; Acosta, Kristell; Mersegurger, Axel S.; Soloway, Mark; Lokeshwar, Vinata B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer biomarkers are the backbone for the implementation of individualized approaches to bladder cancer (BCa). Hyaluronic acid (HA) and all seven members of the HA-family i.e., HA-synthases (1,2,3), HYAL-1 hyaluronidase and HA-receptors (CD44s, CD44v and RHAMM) function in tumor growth and progression. However, the diagnostic and prognostic potential of these seven HA family members has not been compared simultaneously in any cancer. We evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic potential of HA-family members in BCa. Methods Using quantitative-PCR and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HA family members was evaluated in prospectively collected bladder tissues (n=72); mean and median follow-up: 29.6 ± 5.3; and 24 months, respectively. Transcript levels were also measured in exfoliated urothelial cells from urine specimens (n=148). Results Among HA family members, HA-synthase(s), HYAL-1, CD44v and RHAMM transcript levels were 4–16-fold elevated in BCa tissues when compared to normal tissues (P<0.0001), however, CD44s levels were lower. In univariate and multivariate analyses, tumor-stage (P=0.003), lymph node invasion (P=0.033), HYAL-1 (P=0.019) and HAS1 (P=0.027) transcript levels and HYAL-1 staining (P=0.021) independently associated with metastasis. Tumor-stage (p=0.019) and HYAL-1 (p=0.046) transcript levels also associated with disease specific mortality. While HA-synthase and HYAL-1 transcript levels were elevated in exfoliated urothelial cells from BCa patients, the combined HAS2-HYAL-1 expression detected BCa with overall 85.4% sensitivity and 79.5% specificity and predicted BCa recurrence within 6-months (P=0.004; RR=6.7). Conclusion HYAL-1 and HAS1 expression predicted BCa metastasis and HYAL-1 expression also predicted disease-specific survival. Furthermore, the combined HAS2-HYAL-1 biomarker detected BCa and significantly predicted its recurrence. PMID:20960509

  18. Two Amino Acid Residues Confer Different Binding Affinities of Abelson Family Kinase Src Homology 2 Domains for Phosphorylated Cortactin*

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Stacey M.; Liu, Weizhi; Mader, Christopher C.; Halo, Tiffany L.; Machida, Kazuya; Boggon, Titus J.; Koleske, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    The closely related Abl family kinases, Arg and Abl, play important non-redundant roles in the regulation of cell morphogenesis and motility. Despite similar N-terminal sequences, Arg and Abl interact with different substrates and binding partners with varying affinities. This selectivity may be due to slight differences in amino acid sequence leading to differential interactions with target proteins. We report that the Arg Src homology (SH) 2 domain binds two specific phosphotyrosines on cortactin, a known Abl/Arg substrate, with over 10-fold higher affinity than the Abl SH2 domain. We show that this significant affinity difference is due to the substitution of arginine 161 and serine 187 in Abl to leucine 207 and threonine 233 in Arg, respectively. We constructed Abl SH2 domains with R161L and S187T mutations alone and in combination and find that these substitutions are sufficient to convert the low affinity Abl SH2 domain to a higher affinity “Arg-like” SH2 domain in binding to a phospho-cortactin peptide. We crystallized the Arg SH2 domain for structural comparison to existing crystal structures of the Abl SH2 domain. We show that these two residues are important determinants of Arg and Abl SH2 domain binding specificity. Finally, we expressed Arg containing an “Abl-like” low affinity mutant Arg SH2 domain (L207R/T233S) and find that this mutant, although properly localized to the cell periphery, does not support wild type levels of cell edge protrusion. Together, these observations indicate that these two amino acid positions confer different binding affinities and cellular functions on the distinct Abl family kinases. PMID:24891505

  19. Abscisic Acid Mediates Wound Induction but Not Developmental-Specific Expression of the Proteinase Inhibitor II Gene Family.

    PubMed Central

    Pena-Cortes, H; Willmitzer, L; Sanchez-Serrano, JJ

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the potato and tomato proteinase inhibitor II (pin2) gene family is subject to both developmental and environmental control, being constitutively expressed in potato tubers while only being present in the foliage of the potato or tomato plants after mechanical damage. There is evidence that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in this wound induction of pin2 gene expression. This paper describes experiments that demonstrate that ABA is able to induce the expression of the pin2 gene family, both locally and systemically, at physiological concentrations. The significance of the ABA involvement in the pin2 induction upon wounding has been further strengthened by analyzing the expression of a pin2 promoter-[beta]-glucuronidase gene fusion in transgenic ABA-deficient mutant potato plants. We have analyzed the developmental regulation of pin2 gene expression in wild-type and ABA-deficient potato and tomato plants. The pin2 mRNA level is identical in mutant and wild-type parental Solanum phureja tubers. In addition, evidence is presented for pin2 also being constitutively expressed at certain stages in the development of both tomato and potato flowers. Again, the ABA deficiency appears to have little influence in this tissue-specific expression in the mutants. These results suggest the action of separate pathways for the developmental and environmental regulation of pin2 gene expression. PMID:12324624

  20. Phlebotomy Treatment for Elimination of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in a Highly Exposed Family: A Retrospective Case-Series

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Liu, Yanna; Genuis, Quentin I. T.; Martin, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of commonly used synthetic chemicals that have become widespread environmental contaminants. In human serum, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perflurooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are most frequently detected, in part owing to their long elimination half-lives of between 3.8 yrs (PFOA) and 8.5 yrs (PFHxS). These PFAAs also cross the placenta and have been associated with developmental toxicity, and some are considered likely human carcinogens. Interventions to eliminate PFAAs in highly contaminated individuals would reduce future health risks, but minimal research has been conducted on methods to facilitate accelerated human clearance of these persistent substances. Methods Six patients with elevated serum concentrations from a single family were treated by intermittent phlebotomy over a 4–5 year period at intervals similar to, or less frequent than what is done for routine blood donation at Canadian Blood Services. The apparent elimination half-life (HLapp) for PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA in this treated population was calculated in each patient and compared to the intrinsic elimination half-lives (HLin) from a literature reference population of untreated fluorochemical manufacturing plant retirees (n = 26, age >55 yrs). Results For all three PFAAs monitored during phlebotomy, HLapp in each of the family members (except the mother, who had a low rate of venesection) was significantly shorter than the geometric mean HL measured in the reference population, and in some cases were even shorter compared to the fastest eliminator in the reference population. Conclusion This study suggests significantly accelerated PFAA clearance with regular phlebotomy treatment, but the small sample size and the lack of controls in this clinical intervention precludes drawing firm conclusions. Given the minimal risks of intermittent phlebotomy, this may be an effective and safe clinical intervention to

  1. Eicosanoids Derived From Arachidonic Acid and Their Family Prostaglandins and Cyclooxygenase in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Kunio; Imataka, George; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Naoki; Naito, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived lipid mediators are called eicosanoids. Eicosanoids have emerged as key regulators of a wide variety of physiological responses and pathological processes, and control important cellular processes. AA can be converted into biologically active compounds by metabolism by cyclooxygenases (COX). Beneficial effect of COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib add-on therapy has been reported in early stage of schizophrenia. Moreover, add-on treatment of celecoxib attenuated refractory depression and bipolar depression. Further, the COX/prostaglandin E pathway play an important role in synaptic plasticity and may be included in pathophysiology in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this regard, plasma transferrin, which is an iron mediator related to eicosanoid signaling, may be related to social impairment of ASD. COX-2 is typically induced by inflammatory stimuli in the majority of tissues, and the only isoform responsible for propagating the inflammatory response. Thus, COX-2 inhibitors considered as the best target for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26521945

  2. Grandchild of the NBAS: The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) A Review of the Research Using the NNNS

    PubMed Central

    Tronick, Ed; Lester, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    A review of the research on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) is presented. The NNNS has good psychometric properties and reliability. Standardized norms are available for it. It was found to be sensitive to a wide variety of medical, exposure and demographic variables and has robust predictive validity. It will be useful for nurses for detecting neurobehavioral problems and management of the young infant. PMID:23909942

  3. Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Analysis of Amino Acid Transporter Gene Family in Glycine Max.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Yuan, Hong-Yu; Ren, Ren; Zhao, Shi-Qi; Han, Ya-Peng; Zhou, Qi-Ying; Ke, Dan-Xia; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATs) play important roles in transporting amino acid across cellular membranes and are essential for plant growth and development. To date, the AAT gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.) has not been characterized. In this study, we identified 189 AAT genes from the entire soybean genomic sequence, and classified them into 12 distinct subfamilies based upon their sequence composition and phylogenetic positions. To further investigate the functions of these genes, we analyzed the chromosome distributions, gene structures, duplication patterns, phylogenetic tree, tissue expression patterns of the 189 AAT genes in soybean. We found that a large number of AAT genes in soybean were expanded via gene duplication, 46 and 36 GmAAT genes were WGD/segmental and tandemly duplicated, respectively. Further comprehensive analyses of the expression profiles of GmAAT genes in various stages of vegetative and reproductive development showed that soybean AAT genes exhibited preferential or distinct expression patterns among different tissues. Overall, our study provides a framework for further analysis of the biological functions of AAT genes in either soybean or other crops.

  4. Amino acid sequences of lysozymes newly purified from invertebrates imply wide distribution of a novel class in the lysozyme family.

    PubMed

    Ito, Y; Yoshikawa, A; Hotani, T; Fukuda, S; Sugimura, K; Imoto, T

    1999-01-01

    Lysozymes were purified from three invertebrates: a marine bivalve, a marine conch, and an earthworm. The purified lysozymes all showed a similar molecular weight of 13 kDa on SDS/PAGE. Their N-terminal sequences up to the 33rd residue determined here were apparently homologous among them; in addition, they had a homology with a partial sequence of a starfish lysozyme which had been reported before. The complete sequence of the bivalve lysozyme was determined by peptide mapping and subsequent sequence analysis. This was composed of 123 amino acids including as many as 14 cysteine residues and did not show a clear homology with the known types of lysozymes. However, the homology search of this protein on the protein or nucleic acid database revealed two homologous proteins. One of them was a gene product, CELF22 A3.6 of C. elegans, which was a functionally unknown protein. The other was an isopeptidase of a medicinal leech, named destabilase. Thus, a new type of lysozyme found in at least four species across the three classes of the invertebrates demonstrates a novel class of protein/lysozyme family in invertebrates. The bivalve lysozyme, first characterized here, showed extremely high protein stability and hen lysozyme-like enzymatic features.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Analysis of Amino Acid Transporter Gene Family in Glycine Max

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lin; Yuan, Hong-Yu; Ren, Ren; Zhao, Shi-Qi; Han, Ya-Peng; Zhou, Qi-Ying; Ke, Dan-Xia; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATs) play important roles in transporting amino acid across cellular membranes and are essential for plant growth and development. To date, the AAT gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.) has not been characterized. In this study, we identified 189 AAT genes from the entire soybean genomic sequence, and classified them into 12 distinct subfamilies based upon their sequence composition and phylogenetic positions. To further investigate the functions of these genes, we analyzed the chromosome distributions, gene structures, duplication patterns, phylogenetic tree, tissue expression patterns of the 189 AAT genes in soybean. We found that a large number of AAT genes in soybean were expanded via gene duplication, 46 and 36 GmAAT genes were WGD/segmental and tandemly duplicated, respectively. Further comprehensive analyses of the expression profiles of GmAAT genes in various stages of vegetative and reproductive development showed that soybean AAT genes exhibited preferential or distinct expression patterns among different tissues. Overall, our study provides a framework for further analysis of the biological functions of AAT genes in either soybean or other crops. PMID:27148336

  6. Amino acid sequences of lysozymes newly purified from invertebrates imply wide distribution of a novel class in the lysozyme family.

    PubMed

    Ito, Y; Yoshikawa, A; Hotani, T; Fukuda, S; Sugimura, K; Imoto, T

    1999-01-01

    Lysozymes were purified from three invertebrates: a marine bivalve, a marine conch, and an earthworm. The purified lysozymes all showed a similar molecular weight of 13 kDa on SDS/PAGE. Their N-terminal sequences up to the 33rd residue determined here were apparently homologous among them; in addition, they had a homology with a partial sequence of a starfish lysozyme which had been reported before. The complete sequence of the bivalve lysozyme was determined by peptide mapping and subsequent sequence analysis. This was composed of 123 amino acids including as many as 14 cysteine residues and did not show a clear homology with the known types of lysozymes. However, the homology search of this protein on the protein or nucleic acid database revealed two homologous proteins. One of them was a gene product, CELF22 A3.6 of C. elegans, which was a functionally unknown protein. The other was an isopeptidase of a medicinal leech, named destabilase. Thus, a new type of lysozyme found in at least four species across the three classes of the invertebrates demonstrates a novel class of protein/lysozyme family in invertebrates. The bivalve lysozyme, first characterized here, showed extremely high protein stability and hen lysozyme-like enzymatic features. PMID:9914527

  7. Outbreak of Ampicillin/Piperacillin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU): Investigation and Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Giuliana; Panico, Manuela; Dallolio, Laura; Suzzi, Roberta; Ciccia, Matilde; Sandri, Fabrizio; Farruggia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of infectious outbreaks in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The aim of this paper is to describe an outbreak occurred in a 13-bed NICU and the control measures adopted in order to interrupt the chain of transmission. We described the microbiological investigations, the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures by means of a specifically designed check-list and the control measures adopted. Six cases of primary bloodstream infections sustained by ampicillin/piperacillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were observed over a two-month period. One culture obtained from a 12% saccarose multiple-dose solution allowed the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the inspections performed by the Hospital Infection Control Team, using the check-list for the evaluation of the NICU staff compliance to the infection control measures, several breaches in the infection control policy were identified and control measures were adopted. In our case the definition of a specific check-list led to the adoption of the correct control measures. Further studies would be helpful in order to develop a standard check-list able to identify critical flows in the adhesion to the guidelines. It could be used in different NICUs and allow to obtain reproducible levels of infection control. PMID:23442560

  8. Crystal Chemistry of the Potassium and Rubidium Uranyl Borate Families Derived from Boric Acid Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2010-07-19

    The reaction of uranyl nitrate with a large excess of molten boric acid in the presence of potassium or rubidium nitrate results in the formation of three new potassium uranyl borates, K{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 12}O{sub 19}(OH){sub 4}]·0.3H{sub 2}O (KUBO-1), K[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 10}O{sub 15}(OH){sub 5}] (KUBO-2), and K[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 10}O{sub 16}(OH){sub 3}]·0.7H{sub 2}O (KUBO-3) and two new rubidium uranyl borates Rb{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 13}O{sub 20}(OH){sub 5}] (RbUBO-1) and Rb[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 10}O{sub 16}(OH){sub 3}]·0.7H{sub 2}O (RbUBO-2). The latter is isotypic with KUBO-3. These compounds share a common structural motif consisting of a linear uranyl, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, cation surrounded by BO{sub 3} triangles and BO{sub 4} tetrahedra to create an UO{sub 8} hexagonal bipyramidal environment around uranium. The borate anions bridge between uranyl units to create sheets. Additional BO{sub 3} triangles extend from the polyborate layers and are directed approximately perpendicular to the sheets. All of these compounds adopt layered structures. With the exception of KUBO-1, the structures are all centrosymmetric. All of these compounds fluoresce when irradiated with long-wavelength UV light. The fluorescence spectrum yields well-defined vibronically coupled charge-transfer features.

  9. Characterization of carbon nanofibers grown over Ni and Ni-cu catalysts.

    PubMed

    Echegoyen, Y; Suelves, I; Lázaro, M J; Moliner, R; Palacios, J M; Müller, J O; Su, D; Schlögl, R

    2009-07-01

    Carbon nanofibers were obtained by thermo-catalytic decomposition of methane at 700 degrees C over Ni and Ni-Cu catalysts prepared by different methods (co-precipitation, impregnation and fusion) and using either Al or Mg as textural promoter. Characterization of the carbon thus obtained was performed by N2 adsorption isotherms (BET surface area), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrometry, and electron microscopy SEM and TEM. The carbon obtained possesses high crystallinity and poor surface chemistry. The crystallinity is enhanced when using Mg as textural promoter and in the presence of copper. SEM and TEM examinations show that the fibers have fishbone structure and they grow generally from one nickel particle (tip growing) although there are some bidirectional growing. Copper-doping lead to the formation of thicker filaments and promotes the formation of bamboo-like structures. Catalyst particles higher than 100 nm do not promote the formation of nanofibers and the carbon deposits as uniform coatings.

  10. Assessment and Evaluation of the High Risk Neonate: The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Barry M.; Andreozzi-Fontaine, Lynne; Tronick, Edward; Bigsby, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in the assessment of the neurobehavioral integrity of the newborn infant. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. These are infants who are at increased risk for poor developmental outcome because of insults during prenatal development, such as substance exposure or prematurity or factors such as poverty, poor nutrition or lack of prenatal care that can have adverse effects on the intrauterine environment and affect the developing fetus. The NNNS assesses the full range of infant neurobehavioral performance including neurological integrity, behavioral functioning, and signs of stress/abstinence. The NNNS is a noninvasive neonatal assessment tool with demonstrated validity as a predictor, not only of medical outcomes such as cerebral palsy diagnosis, neurological abnormalities, and diseases with risks to the brain, but also of developmental outcomes such as mental and motor functioning, behavior problems, school readiness, and IQ. The NNNS can identify infants at high risk for abnormal developmental outcome and is an important clinical tool that enables medical researchers and health practitioners to identify these infants and develop intervention programs to optimize the development of these infants as early as possible. The video shows the NNNS procedures, shows examples of normal and abnormal performance and the various clinical populations in which the exam can be used. PMID:25177897

  11. Magnetic behavior of NiCu nanowire arrays: Compositional, geometry and temperature dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Palmero, E. M. Bran, C.; Real, R. P. del; Vázquez, M.; Magén, C.

    2014-07-21

    Arrays of Ni{sub 100−x}Cu{sub x} nanowires ranging in composition 0 ≤ x ≤ 75, diameter from 35 to 80 nm, and length from 150 nm to 28 μm have been fabricated by electrochemical co-deposition of Ni and Cu into self-ordered anodic aluminum oxide membranes. As determined by X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy, the crystalline structure shows fcc cubic symmetry with [111] preferred texture and preferential Ni or Cu lattice depending on the composition. Their magnetic properties such as coercivity and squareness have been determined as a function of composition and geometry in a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer in the temperature range from 10 to 290 K for applied magnetic fields parallel and perpendicular to the nanowires axis. Addition of Cu into the NiCu alloy up to 50% enhances both parallel coercivity and squareness. For the higher Cu content, these properties decrease and the magnetization easy axis becomes oriented perpendicular to the wires. In addition, coercivity and squareness increase by decreasing the diameter of nanowires which is ascribed to the increase of shape anisotropy. The temperature dependent measurements reflect a complex behavior of the magnetic anisotropy as a result of energy contributions with different evolution with temperature.

  12. Axially adjustable magnetic properties in arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires with variable segment sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi Tehrani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs) with variable segment sizes were fabricated into anodic aluminum oxide templates using a pulsed electrodeposition method in a single bath for designated potential pulse times. Increasing the pulse time between 0.125 and 2 s in the electrodeposition of Ni enabled the formation of segments with thicknesses ranging from 25 to 280 nm and 10-110 nm in 42 and 65 nm diameter NWs, respectively, leading to disk-shaped, rod-shaped and/or near wire-shaped geometries. Using hysteresis loop measurements at room temperature, the axial and perpendicular magnetic properties were investigated. Regardless of the segment geometry, the axial coercivity and squareness significantly increased with increasing Ni segment thickness, in agreement with a decrease in calculated demagnetizing factors along the NW length. On the contrary, the perpendicular magnetic properties were found to be independent of the pulse times, indicating a competition between the intrawire interactions and the shape demagnetizing field.

  13. NiCu Alloy Nanoparticle-Loaded Carbon Nanofibers for Phenolic Biosensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dawei; Lv, Pengfei; Zhu, Jiadeng; Lu, Yao; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xiangwu; Wei, Qufu

    2015-01-01

    NiCu alloy nanoparticle-loaded carbon nanofibers (NiCuCNFs) were fabricated by a combination of electrospinning and carbonization methods. A series of characterizations, including SEM, TEM and XRD, were employed to study the NiCuCNFs. The as-prepared NiCuCNFs were then mixed with laccase (Lac) and Nafion to form a novel biosensor. NiCuCNFs successfully achieved the direct electron transfer of Lac. Cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry were used to study the electrochemical properties of the biosensor. The finally prepared biosensor showed favorable electrocatalytic effects toward hydroquinone. The detection limit was 90 nM (S/N = 3), the sensitivity was 1.5 µA µM−1, the detection linear range was 4 × 10−7–2.37 × 10−6 M. In addition, this biosensor exhibited satisfactory repeatability, reproducibility, anti-interference properties and stability. Besides, the sensor achieved the detection of hydroquinone in lake water. PMID:26610505

  14. Magnetic behavior of NiCu nanowire arrays: Compositional, geometry and temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmero, E. M.; Bran, C.; del Real, R. P.; Magén, C.; Vázquez, M.

    2014-07-01

    Arrays of Ni100-xCux nanowires ranging in composition 0 ≤ x ≤ 75, diameter from 35 to 80 nm, and length from 150 nm to 28 μm have been fabricated by electrochemical co-deposition of Ni and Cu into self-ordered anodic aluminum oxide membranes. As determined by X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy, the crystalline structure shows fcc cubic symmetry with [111] preferred texture and preferential Ni or Cu lattice depending on the composition. Their magnetic properties such as coercivity and squareness have been determined as a function of composition and geometry in a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer in the temperature range from 10 to 290 K for applied magnetic fields parallel and perpendicular to the nanowires axis. Addition of Cu into the NiCu alloy up to 50% enhances both parallel coercivity and squareness. For the higher Cu content, these properties decrease and the magnetization easy axis becomes oriented perpendicular to the wires. In addition, coercivity and squareness increase by decreasing the diameter of nanowires which is ascribed to the increase of shape anisotropy. The temperature dependent measurements reflect a complex behavior of the magnetic anisotropy as a result of energy contributions with different evolution with temperature.

  15. Seasonal Mapping of NICU Temperature Study conducted at the University of Washington Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Karen A.; Magbalot, Almita; Shinabarger, Kelley; Mokhnach, Larisa; Anderson, Marilyn; Diercks, Kristi; Millar, April; Thorngate, Lauren; Walker, Wendy; Dilbeck, Nancy; Berken, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To create a thermal map of ambient air, radiant, and evaporative temperatures and humidity throughout the NICU nursery by season across a calendar year. Subjects Each of the 32 bed cubicles distributed in five rooms in a Level III nursery was measured. Methods Temperatures were recorded at a consistent time on one day during January, April, July, and October. Main outcome measures An electronic monitor (QUESTemp° 34, Quest Technologies, Oconomowoc, WI) was used to measure dry bulb, wet bulb, and globe thermometer temperatures. Results ANOVA revealed statistically significant (p < .000) differences in season, room, and season by room interaction. Room ambient air temperatures differed < 2 °F across season. Radiant temperature paralleled air temperature. Humidity, the predominant difference across season, produced evaporative temperatures considerably lower than room air temperature, and the gradient between mean nursery dry bulb and wet bulb temperature was 9.3 °F in summer and 16.8 °F in winter. Conclusions The thermal map revealed seasonal thermal differences, particularly in humidity level and evaporative temperature. Room temperature alone does not reflect the total thermal environment. Recommendations include periodic assessment of nurseries including air, evaporative, and radiant temperatures as well as humidity to more fully appreciate the impact of the thermal environment on infants. PMID:20386373

  16. [Identification of new conserved and variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene of acetic acid bacteria and acetobacteraceae family].

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, S; Sarkar, S; Gachhui, R

    2015-01-01

    The Acetobacteraceae family of the class Alpha Proteobacteria is comprised of high sugar and acid tolerant bacteria. The Acetic Acid Bacteria are the economically most significant group of this family because of its association with food products like vinegar, wine etc. Acetobacteraceae are often hard to culture in laboratory conditions and they also maintain very low abundances in their natural habitats. Thus identification of the organisms in such environments is greatly dependent on modern tools of molecular biology which require a thorough knowledge of specific conserved gene sequences that may act as primers and or probes. Moreover unconserved domains in genes also become markers for differentiating closely related genera. In bacteria, the 16S rRNA gene is an ideal candidate for such conserved and variable domains. In order to study the conserved and variable domains of the 16S rRNA gene of Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Acetobacteraceae family, sequences from publicly available databases were aligned and compared. Near complete sequences of the gene were also obtained from Kombucha tea biofilm, a known Acetobacteraceae family habitat, in order to corroborate the domains obtained from the alignment studies. The study indicated that the degree of conservation in the gene is significantly higher among the Acetic Acid Bacteria than the whole Acetobacteraceae family. Moreover it was also observed that the previously described hypervariable regions V1, V3, V5, V6 and V7 were more or less conserved in the family and the spans of the variable regions are quite distinct as well.

  17. Transition From Hospital to Home in Preterm Infants and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Boykova, Marina

    2016-01-01

    When the day of discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) comes for the parents of newborn infants, they are filled with long-awaited joy and happiness. They go home feeling as parents, away from scheduled routines of the hospital, monitor alarms, clinical rounds, numerous tests, and so on. What do we know about what happens after these little patients and their families leave the NICU? What happens from the point of leaving the hospital until when things get settled and life becomes perceived as normal? This article presents a short summary of research conducted with the vulnerable population of high-risk and preterm infants and their families postdischarge. Available evidence suggests that transition to home after hospital discharge, a phenomenon that many families experience, is challenging and requires attention from clinicians and researchers if we are to provide effective, efficient, and high-quality care. PMID:27465464

  18. The crystal structure of Helicobacter pylori HP1029 highlights the functional diversity of the sialic acid-related DUF386 family.

    PubMed

    Vallese, Francesca; Percudani, Riccardo; Fischer, Wolfgang; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The proteins of the YhcH/YjgK/YiaL (DUF386) family have been implicated in the bacterial metabolism of host-derived sialic acids and biofilm formation, although their precise biochemical function remains enigmatic. We present here the crystal structure of protein HP1029 from Helicobacter pylori. The protein is a homodimer, in which each monomer comprises a molecular core formed by 12 antiparallel β-strands arranged in two β-sheets flanked by helices. The sandwich formed by the sheets assumes the shape of a funnel opened at one end, with a zinc ion present at the bottom of the funnel. The crystal structure unequivocally shows that HP1029 belongs to the DUF386 family. Although no bioinformatics evidence has been found for sialic acid catabolism in H. pylori, the genomic context of HP1029 in Helicobacter and related organisms suggests a possible role in the metabolism of bacterial surface saccharides, such as pseudaminic acid and its derivatives.

  19. A Family of Negative Regulators Targets the Committed Step of de Novo Fatty Acid Biosynthesis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Salie, Matthew J.; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Dong; Thelen, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) catalyzes the committed step of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. In prokaryotes, green algae, and most plants, this enzyme is a heteromeric complex requiring four different subunits for activity. The plant complex is recalcitrant to conventional purification schemes and hence the structure and composition of the full assembly have been unclear. In vivo coimmunoprecipitation using subunit-specific antibodies identified a novel family of proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana annotated as biotin/lipoyl attachment domain containing (BADC) proteins. Results from yeast two-hybrid and coexpression in Escherichia coli confirmed that all three BADC isoforms interact with the two biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) isoforms of Arabidopsis ACCase. These proteins resemble BCCP subunits but are not biotinylated due to a mutated biotinylation motif. We demonstrate that BADC proteins significantly inhibit ACCase activity in both E. coli and Arabidopsis. Targeted gene silencing of BADC isoform 1 in Arabidopsis significantly increased seed oil content when normalized to either mass or individual seed. We conclude the BADC proteins are ancestral BCCPs that gained a new function as negative regulators of ACCase after initial loss of the biotinylation motif. A functional model is proposed. PMID:27559025

  20. Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Carotid Plaques: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    NEOGI, TUHINA; ELLISON, R. CURTIS; HUNT, STEVEN; TERKELTAUB, ROBERT; FELSON, DAVID T.; ZHANG, YUQING

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of serum uric acid (SUA) with a marker of preclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), carotid atherosclerotic plaques (PLQ), where early evidence of risk may be evident, focusing on individuals without CV risk factors. Methods The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study is a multicenter study designed to assess risk factors for heart disease. PLQ were assessed with carotid ultrasound. We conducted sex-specific logistic regression to assess the association of SUA with presence of PLQ, including analyses among persons without risk factors related to both CVD and hyperuricemia. Results In total, 4866 participants had both SUA and carotid ultrasound assessed (54% women, mean age 52 yrs, mean body mass index 27.6). The association of SUA with PLQ increased with increasing SUA levels, demonstrating a dose-response relation for men [OR 1.0, 1.29, 1.61, 1.75, for SUA categories < 5 (reference), 5 to < 6, 6 to < 6.8, ≥ 6.8 mg/dl, respectively; p = 0.002]. Similar associations were found in men without CV risk factors. We found no relation of SUA with PLQ in women. Conclusion In this large study, SUA was associated with carotid atherosclerotic plaques in men. Results were similar in the absence of CV risk factors. These results suggest that SUA may have a pathophysiologic role in atherosclerosis in men. (J Rheumatol First Release Nov 15 2008; doi:10.3899/jrheum.080646) PMID:19012359

  1. Aspartic acid at position 57 of the HLA-DQ beta chain protects against type I diabetes: a family study.

    PubMed Central

    Morel, P A; Dorman, J S; Todd, J A; McDevitt, H O; Trucco, M

    1988-01-01

    One hundred seventy-two members from 27 randomly selected multiple case Caucasian families of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) were studied at the DNA level to ascertain the reliability of codon 57 of the HLA-DQ beta-chain gene as a disease protection/susceptibility marker. The analysis was carried out by polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA encoding the first domain of the DQ beta chain and by dot blot analysis of the amplified material with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. One hundred twenty-three randomly selected healthy Caucasian donors were also tested. The results demonstrated that haplotypes carrying an aspartic acid in position 57 (Asp-57) of their DQ beta chain were significantly increased in frequency among nondiabetic haplotypes (23/38), while non-Asp-57 haplotypes were significantly increased in frequency among diabetic haplotypes (65/69). Ninety-six percent of the diabetic probands in our study were homozygous non-Asp/non-Asp as compared to 19.5% of healthy unrelated controls. This conferred a relative risk of 107 (chi 2 = 54.97; P = 0.00003) for non-Asp-57 homozygous individuals. Even though the inheritance and genetic features of IDDM are complex and are not necessarily fully explained by DQ beta chain polymorphism, this approach is much more sensitive than HLA serolog in assessing risk for IDDM. PMID:3186714

  2. Family-Focussed Developmental Care and Intervention for the Very Low Birthweight Preterm Infant at High Risk for Severe Medical Complications and Developmental Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Als, Heidelise; Gilkerson, Linda

    This federally funded project was designed to achieve three goals: (1) to test the effectiveness of an individualized behaviorally based developmental approach to providing early intervention services to very low birthweight preterm infants (and their families) in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU); (2) to evaluate this approach with low-risk,…

  3. Morphology-Control Synthesis of a Core-Shell Structured NiCu Alloy with Tunable Electromagnetic-Wave Absorption Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Biao; Zhao, Wanyu; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Zhang, Rui

    2015-06-17

    In this work, dendritelike and rodlike NiCu alloys were prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal process at various reaction temperatures (120, 140, and 160 °C). The structure and morphology were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy, which that demonstrate NiCu alloys have core-shell heterostructures with Ni as the shell and Cu as the core. The formation mechanism of the core-shell structures was also discussed. The uniform and perfect dendritelike NiCu alloy obtained at 140 °C shows outstanding electromagnetic-wave absorption properties. The lowest reflection loss (RL) of -31.13 dB was observed at 14.3 GHz, and the effective absorption (below -10 dB, 90% attenuation) bandwidth can be adjusted between 4.4 and 18 GHz with a thin absorber thickness in the range of 1.2-4.0 mm. The outstanding electromagnetic-wave-absorbing properties are ascribed to space-charge polarization arising from the heterogeneous structure of the NiCu alloy, interfacial polarization between the alloy and paraffin, and continuous micronetworks and vibrating microcurrent dissipation originating from the uniform and perfect dendritelike shape of NiCu prepared at 140 °C. PMID:26018739

  4. Morphology-Control Synthesis of a Core-Shell Structured NiCu Alloy with Tunable Electromagnetic-Wave Absorption Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Biao; Zhao, Wanyu; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Zhang, Rui

    2015-06-17

    In this work, dendritelike and rodlike NiCu alloys were prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal process at various reaction temperatures (120, 140, and 160 °C). The structure and morphology were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy, which that demonstrate NiCu alloys have core-shell heterostructures with Ni as the shell and Cu as the core. The formation mechanism of the core-shell structures was also discussed. The uniform and perfect dendritelike NiCu alloy obtained at 140 °C shows outstanding electromagnetic-wave absorption properties. The lowest reflection loss (RL) of -31.13 dB was observed at 14.3 GHz, and the effective absorption (below -10 dB, 90% attenuation) bandwidth can be adjusted between 4.4 and 18 GHz with a thin absorber thickness in the range of 1.2-4.0 mm. The outstanding electromagnetic-wave-absorbing properties are ascribed to space-charge polarization arising from the heterogeneous structure of the NiCu alloy, interfacial polarization between the alloy and paraffin, and continuous micronetworks and vibrating microcurrent dissipation originating from the uniform and perfect dendritelike shape of NiCu prepared at 140 °C.

  5. Spread of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Large Tertiary NICU: Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geva, Alon; Wright, Sharon B.; Baldini, Linda M.; Smallcomb, Jane A.; Safran, Charles

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in NICUs increases the risk of nosocomial infection. Network analysis provides tools to examine the interactions among patients and staff members that put patients at risk of colonization. METHODS: Data from MRSA surveillance cultures were combined with patient room locations, nursing assignments, and sibship information to create patient- and unit-based networks. Multivariate models were constructed to quantify the risk of incident MRSA colonization as a function of exposure to MRSA-colonized infants in these networks. RESULTS: A MRSA-negative infant in the NICU simultaneously with a MRSA-positive infant had higher odds of becoming colonized when the colonized infant was a sibling, compared with an unrelated patient (odds ratio: 8.8 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.3–14.8]). Although knowing that a patient was MRSA-positive and was placed on contact precautions reduced the overall odds of another patient becoming colonized by 35% (95% CI: 20%–47%), having a nurse in common with that patient still increased the odds of colonization by 43% (95% CI: 14%–80%). Normalized group degree centrality, a unitwide network measure of connectedness between colonized and uncolonized patients, was a significant predictor of incident MRSA cases (odds ratio: 18.1 [95% CI: 3.6–90.0]). CONCLUSIONS: Despite current infection-control strategies, patients remain at significant risk of MRSA colonization from MRSA-positive siblings and from other patients with whom they share nursing care. Strategies that minimize the frequency of staff members caring for both colonized and uncolonized infants may be beneficial in reducing the spread of MRSA colonization. PMID:22007011

  6. Effect of Depth and Duration of Cooling on Deaths in the NICU Among Neonates With Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; Pappas, Athina; McDonald, Scott. A.; Das, Abhik; Tyson, Jon E.; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Schibler, Kurt; Bell, Edward F.; Heyne, Roy J.; Pedroza, Claudia; Bara, Rebecca; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Grisby, Cathy; Petrie Huitema, Carolyn M.; Garg, Meena; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Shepherd, Edward G.; Chalak, Lina F.; Hamrick, Shannon E. G.; Khan, Amir M.; Reynolds, Anne Marie; Laughon, Matthew M.; Truog, William E.; Dysart, Kevin C.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Walsh, Michele C.; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Hypothermia at 33.5°C for 72 hours for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy reduces death or disability to 44% to 55%; longer cooling and deeper cooling are neuroprotective in animal models. OBJECTIVE To determine if longer duration cooling (120 hours), deeper cooling (32.0°C), or both are superior to cooling at 33.5°C for 72 hours in neonates who are full-term with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Arandomized, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial performed in 18 US centers in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network between October 2010 and November 2013. INTERVENTIONS Neonates were assigned to 4 hypothermia groups; 33.5°C for 72 hours, 32.0°C for 72 hours, 33.5°C for 120 hours, and 32.0°C for 120 hours. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome of death or disability at 18 to 22 months is ongoing. The independent data and safety monitoring committee paused the trial to evaluate safety (cardiac arrhythmia, persistent acidosis, major vessel thrombosis and bleeding, and death in the neonatal intensive care unit [NICU]) after the first 50 neonates were enrolled, then after every subsequent 25 neonates. The trial was closed for emerging safety profile and futility analysis after the eighth review with 364 neonates enrolled (of 726 planned). This report focuses on safety and NICU deaths by marginal comparisons of 72 hours’ vs 120 hours’ duration and 33.5°C depth vs 32.0°C depth (predefined secondary outcomes). RESULTS The NICU death rates were 7 of 95 neonates (7%) for the 33.5°C for 72 hours group, 13 of 90 neonates (14%) for the 32.0°C for 72 hours group, 15 of 96 neonates (16%) for the 33.5°C for 120 hours group, and 14 of 83 neonates (17%) for the 32.0°C for 120 hours group. The adjusted risk ratio (RR) for NICU deaths for the 120 hours group vs 72 hours group was 1.37 (95% CI, 0.92–2.04) and for

  7. Approaches to supporting lactation and breastfeeding for very preterm infants in the NICU: a qualitative study in three European regions

    PubMed Central

    Bonet, Mercedes; Forcella, Emanuela; Blondel, Béatrice; Draper, Elizabeth S; Agostino, Rocco; Cuttini, Marina; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore differences in approaches to supporting lactation and breastfeeding for very preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in 3 European regions. Design Qualitative cross-sectional study carried out by means of face-to-face semistructured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were coded using a theoretical framework derived from the literature and supplemented by data-driven concepts and codes. Setting 4 purposively selected NICUs in each of 3 European regions in 2010 (Ile-de-France in France, Lazio in Italy, and the former Trent region in the UK). Participants NICU staff members (n=22). Results Policies and practices for managing mother's own milk for very preterm babies differed between regions, and were much more complex in Ile-de-France than in the Trent or Lazio regions. Staff approaches to mothers to initiate lactation differed by region, with an emphasis on the nutritional and immunological value of human milk in the Trent region and on the ‘normalising’ effect of breastfeeding on the mother-child relationship in Lazio. French and English staff expressed conflicting opinions about the use of bottles, which was routine in Italy. Italian informants stressed the importance of early maternal milk expression and feeding, but also mentioned discharging infants home before feeding at the breast was established. In Ile-de-France and Trent, successful feeding from the breast was achieved before discharge, although this was seen as a factor that could prolong hospitalisation and discourage continued breastfeeding for some women. Conclusions Targeted health promotion policies in the NICU are necessary to increase the number of infants receiving their mother's milk and to support mothers with transfer of the infant to the breast. Integrating knowledge about the different approaches to lactation and breastfeeding in European NICUs could improve the relevance of recommendations in multiple cultural settings. PMID:26129632

  8. Transition from NICU to Home: Are the Parents Ready to Manage Any Emergency? An Evidence-Based Project.

    PubMed

    Murray, Chantel H; Joseph, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    Transitioning the care of a previously critically ill infant to home poses many challenges for the parents. Prior to the infant's discharge, the parents undergo rigorous training to continue the care of their infants at home. Even after training, parents may feel overwhelmed by the thought of managing an emergency at home. This evidence-based practice project aims to provide parents with additional hands-on practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) prior to their infant's discharge. Based on this project, a program of teaching CPR regularly is established currently in the NICU at Nemours Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children. PMID:27194609

  9. Media Stories on NICU Outbreaks Lead to an Increased Prescription Rate of Third-Line Antibiotics in the Community of Neonatal Care.

    PubMed

    Härtel, Christoph; Hartz, Annika; Bahr, Lina; Gille, Christian; Gortner, Ludwig; Simon, Arne; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Müller, Andreas; Körner, Thorsten; Henneke, Philipp; Haase, Roland; Zemlin, Michael; Viemann, Dorothee; Gebauer, Corinna; Thome, Ulrich; Ziegler, Andreas; Rupp, Jan; Herting, Egbert; Göpel, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    BACKGROUND Between 2010 and 2012, 3 outbreaks of nosocomial infections in German neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) attracted considerable public interest. Headlines on national television channels and in newspapers had important consequences for the involved institutions and a negative impact on the relationship between families and staff in many German NICUs. OBJECTIVE To determine whether NICU outbreaks reported in the media influenced provider behavior in the community of neonatal care and led to more third-line antibiotic prescribing. DESIGN Observational cohort study. METHODS To investigate secular trends, we evaluated data for very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs, birth weight <1,500 g) enrolled in the German Neonatal Network (GNN) between 2009 and 2014 (N=10,253). For outbreak effects, we specifically analyzed data for VLBWIs discharged 6 months before (n=2,428) and 6 months after outbreaks (n=2,508). RESULTS The exposure of all VLBWIs to third-line antibiotics increased after outbreaks (19.4% before vs 22.5% after; P=.007). This trend particularly affected male infants (4.6% increase; P=.005) and infants with a birth weight between 1,000 and 1,499 g (3.5% increase; P=.001) In a logistic regression analysis, month of discharge as linear variable of time was associated with increased exposure to third-line antibiotics (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.009-1.014; P<.001), and discharge within the 6-month period after outbreak reports independently contributed to this long-term trend (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.017-1.270; P=.024). CONCLUSIONS Media reports directly affect medical practice, eg, overuse of third-line antibiotics. Future communication and management strategies must be based on objective dialogues between the scientific community and investigative journalists. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:924-930.

  10. Systemic Concentrations of Short Chain Fatty Acids Are Elevated in Salmonellosis and Exacerbation of Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Ktsoyan, Zhanna A.; Mkrtchyan, Mkhitar S.; Zakharyan, Magdalina K.; Mnatsakanyan, Armine A.; Arakelova, Karine A.; Gevorgyan, Zaruhi U.; Sedrakyan, Anahit M.; Hovhannisyan, Alvard I.; Arakelyan, Arsen A.; Aminov, Rustam I.

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota-produced short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play an important role in the normal human metabolism and physiology. Although the gradients of SCFAs from the large intestine, where they are largely produced, to the peripheral blood as well as the main routes of SCFA metabolism by different organs are known well for the healthy state, there is a paucity of information regarding how these are affected in disease. In particular, how the inflammation caused by infection or autoinflammatory disease affect the concentration of SCFAs in the peripheral venous blood. In this work, we revealed that diseases caused either by infectious agents (two Salmonella enterica serovars, S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium) or by the exacerbation of an autoinflammatory disease, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), both result in a significantly elevated systemic concentration of SCFAs. In the case of salmonellosis the concentration of SCFAs in peripheral blood was significantly and consistently higher, from 5- to 20-fold, compared to control. In the case of FMF, however, a significant increase of SCFAs in the peripheral venous blood was detected only in the acute phase of the disease, with a lesser impact in remission. It seems counterintuitive that the dysbiotic conditions, with a reduced number of gut microorganisms, produce such an effect. This phenomenon, however, must be appraised within the context of how the inflammatory diseases affect the normal physiology. We discuss a number of factors that may contribute to the “leak” and persistence of gut-produced SCFAs into the systemic circulation in infectious and autoinflammatory diseases. PMID:27252692

  11. Purification an α-galactosidase from Coriolus versicolor with acid-resistant and good degradation ability on raffinose family oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Liu, Qin; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, TziBin

    2014-04-01

    An acid-tolerant α-galactosidase (CVGI) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Coriolus versicolor with a 229-fold of purification and a specific activity of 398.6 units mg⁻¹. It was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme gave a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 40 kDa in SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The α-galactosidase was identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and its inner peptides were sequenced by ESI-MS/MS. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were determined as 60 °C and 3.0, respectively. The enzyme was very stable at a temperature range of 4-50 °C and at a pH range of 2-5. Among the metal ions tested, Cu²⁺, Cd²⁺ and Hg²⁺ ions have been shown to partially inhibit the activity of α-galactosidase, while the activity of CVGI was completely inactivated by Ag⁺ ions. N-bromosuccinamide inhibited enzyme activity by 100 %, indicating the importance of tryptophan residue(s) at or near the active site. CVGI had wide substrate specificity (p-nitrophenyl galactoside, melidiose, raffinose and stachyose). After treatment with CVGI, raffinose family oligosaccharide was hydrolyzed effectively to yield galactose and sucrose. The results showed that the general properties of the enzyme offer potential for use of this α-galactosidase in several production processes.

  12. Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and transposases of an unusual family of insertion elements.

    PubMed Central

    Lenich, A G; Glasgow, A C

    1994-01-01

    Deletion analysis of the subcloned DNA inversion region of Moraxella lacunata indicates that Piv is the only M. lacunata-encoded factor required for site-specific inversion of the tfpQ/tfpI pilin segment. The predicted amino acid sequence of Piv shows significant homology solely with the transposases/integrases of a family of insertion sequence elements, suggesting that Piv is a novel site-specific recombinase. Images PMID:8021196

  13. In vitro assessment of potential intestinal absorption of some phenolic families and carboxylic acids from commercial instant coffee samples.

    PubMed

    López-Froilán, R; Ramírez-Moreno, E; Podio, N S; Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Cámara, M; Baroni, M V; Wunderlin, D A; Sánchez-Mata, M C

    2016-06-15

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, being a source of bioactive compounds as well as flavors. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and carboxylic acids have been studied in the samples of instant coffee commercialized in Spain. The studies about contents of food components should be complemented with either in vitro or in vivo bioaccessibility studies to know the amount of food components effectively available for functions in the human body. In this sense, a widely used in vitro model has been applied to assess the potential intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds and organic acids. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were higher in instant regular coffee samples than in the decaffeinated ones. Bioaccessible phenolic compounds in most analyzed samples account for 20-25% of hydroxycinnamic acids and 17-26% of flavonols. This could mean that a great part of them can remain in the gut, acting as potential in situ antioxidants. Quinic, acetic, pyroglutamic, citric and fumaric acids were identified in commercial instant coffee samples. Succinic acid was found in the coffee blend containing chicory. All carboxylic acids showed a very high bioaccessibility. Particularly, acetic acid and quinic acid were found in higher contents in the samples treated with the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal processes, compared to the original ones, which can be explained by their cleavage from chlorogenic acid during digestion. This is considered as a positive effect, since quinic acid is considered as an antioxidant inducer.

  14. In vitro assessment of potential intestinal absorption of some phenolic families and carboxylic acids from commercial instant coffee samples.

    PubMed

    López-Froilán, R; Ramírez-Moreno, E; Podio, N S; Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Cámara, M; Baroni, M V; Wunderlin, D A; Sánchez-Mata, M C

    2016-06-15

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, being a source of bioactive compounds as well as flavors. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and carboxylic acids have been studied in the samples of instant coffee commercialized in Spain. The studies about contents of food components should be complemented with either in vitro or in vivo bioaccessibility studies to know the amount of food components effectively available for functions in the human body. In this sense, a widely used in vitro model has been applied to assess the potential intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds and organic acids. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were higher in instant regular coffee samples than in the decaffeinated ones. Bioaccessible phenolic compounds in most analyzed samples account for 20-25% of hydroxycinnamic acids and 17-26% of flavonols. This could mean that a great part of them can remain in the gut, acting as potential in situ antioxidants. Quinic, acetic, pyroglutamic, citric and fumaric acids were identified in commercial instant coffee samples. Succinic acid was found in the coffee blend containing chicory. All carboxylic acids showed a very high bioaccessibility. Particularly, acetic acid and quinic acid were found in higher contents in the samples treated with the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal processes, compared to the original ones, which can be explained by their cleavage from chlorogenic acid during digestion. This is considered as a positive effect, since quinic acid is considered as an antioxidant inducer. PMID:27191052

  15. [Single-family rooms for neonatal intensive care units impacts on preterm newborns, families, and health-care staff. A systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Servel, A-C; Rideau Batista Novais, A

    2016-09-01

    The quality of the environment is an essential point in the care of preterm newborns. The design of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) (open-bay, single-patient room, single-family room) directly affects both the preterm newborns and their caregivers (parents, healthcare staff). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of single-family rooms on the preterm newborn, its parents, and the staff. Single-family rooms improve outcome for the preterm newborn, with increasing parental involvement and better control of the environment (fewer inappropriate stimulations such as high levels of noise and illumination). This kind of NICU design also improves parental and staff satisfaction.

  16. Regulatory structure of the biosynthetic pathway for the aspartate family of amino acids in Lemna paucicostata Hegelm. 6746, with special reference to the role of aspartokinase

    SciTech Connect

    Giovanelli, J.; Mudd, S.H.; Datko, A.H. )

    1989-08-01

    Comprehensive studies were made with Lemna paucicostate Hegelm. 6746 of the effects of combinations of lysine, methionine, and threonine on growth rates, soluble amino acid contents, aspartokinase activities, and fluxes of 4-carbon moieties from aspartate through the aspartokinase step into the amino acids of the aspartate family. These studies show that flux in vitro through the aspartokinase step is insensitive to inhibition by lysine or threonine, and confirm previous in vitro data in establishing that aspartokinase in vivo is present in two orders of magnitude excess of its requirements. No evidence of channeling of the products of the lysine- and threonine-sensitive aspartokinases was obtained, either form of the enzyme along being more than adequate for the combined in vivo flux through the aspartokinase step. The marked insensitivity of flux through the aspartokinase step to inhibition by lysine or threonine strongly suggests that inhibition of aspartokinase by these amino acids is not normally a major factor in regulation of entry of 4-carbon units into the aspartate family of amino acids. Direct measurement of fluxes of 4-carbon units demonstrated that: (a) Lysine strongly feedback regulates its own synthesis, probably at the step catalyzed by dihydrodipicolinate synthase. (b) Threonine alone does not regulate its own synthesis in vivo, thereby confirming previous studies of the metabolism of ({sup 14}C)threonine and ({sup 14}C)homoserine in Lemna.

  17. Transcriptional profiling of the PDR gene family in rice roots in response to plant growth regulators, redox perturbations and weak organic acid stresses.

    PubMed

    Moons, Ann

    2008-12-01

    The role of plant pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters remains poorly understood. We characterized the expression of the rice pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) gene family in roots, where PDR transporters are believed to have major functions. A prototypical oligonucleotide array was developed containing 70-mers chosen in the gene-specific 3' untranslated regions of the rice PDR genes, other full-molecule rice ABC transporter genes and relevant marker genes. Jasmonates, which are involved in plant defense and secondary metabolism, proved major inducers of PDR gene expression. Over half of the PDR genes were JA-induced in roots of rice; OsPDR9 to the highest level. Salicylic acid, involved in plant pathogen defense, markedly induced the expression of OsPDR20. OsPDR20 was cDNA cloned and characterized. Abscisic acid, typically involved in water deficit responses, particularly induced OsPDR3 in roots and shoot and OsPDR6 in rice leaves. OsPDR9 and OsPDR20 were furthermore up-regulated in response to dithiothreitol- or glutathione-induced redox perturbations. Exogenous application of the weak organic acids lactic acid, malic acid, and citric acid differentially induced the expression of OsPDR3, OsPDR8, OsPDR9 and OsPDR20 in rice seedling roots. This transcriptional survey represents a guide for the further functional analysis of individual PDR transporters in roots of rice.

  18. Transcriptional profiling of the PDR gene family in rice roots in response to plant growth regulators, redox perturbations and weak organic acid stresses.

    PubMed

    Moons, Ann

    2008-12-01

    The role of plant pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters remains poorly understood. We characterized the expression of the rice pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) gene family in roots, where PDR transporters are believed to have major functions. A prototypical oligonucleotide array was developed containing 70-mers chosen in the gene-specific 3' untranslated regions of the rice PDR genes, other full-molecule rice ABC transporter genes and relevant marker genes. Jasmonates, which are involved in plant defense and secondary metabolism, proved major inducers of PDR gene expression. Over half of the PDR genes were JA-induced in roots of rice; OsPDR9 to the highest level. Salicylic acid, involved in plant pathogen defense, markedly induced the expression of OsPDR20. OsPDR20 was cDNA cloned and characterized. Abscisic acid, typically involved in water deficit responses, particularly induced OsPDR3 in roots and shoot and OsPDR6 in rice leaves. OsPDR9 and OsPDR20 were furthermore up-regulated in response to dithiothreitol- or glutathione-induced redox perturbations. Exogenous application of the weak organic acids lactic acid, malic acid, and citric acid differentially induced the expression of OsPDR3, OsPDR8, OsPDR9 and OsPDR20 in rice seedling roots. This transcriptional survey represents a guide for the further functional analysis of individual PDR transporters in roots of rice. PMID:18830621

  19. Family Nurture Intervention in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Improves Social-Relatedness, Attention, and Neurodevelopment of Preterm Infants at 18 Months in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Martha G.; Firestein, Morgan R.; Austin, Judy; Hane, Amie A.; Stark, Raymond I.; Hofer, Myron A.; Garland, Marianne; Glickstein, Sara B.; Brunelli, Susan A.; Ludwig, Robert J.; Myers, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preterm infants are at high risk for adverse neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes. Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is designed to counteract adverse effects of separation of mothers and their preterm infants. Here, we evaluate effects of FNI on neurobehavioral outcomes. Methods: Data…

  20. Integrating family-centered developmental assessment and intervention into routine care in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J M; Conliffe-Torres, S

    1996-06-01

    Incorporating developmental intervention into routine practices requires time available during caregiving for continued infant assessment and intervention and requires time after and between caregiving for relief of infant distress. In an era of health-care reform, reorganization, and restructuring, this added caregiver time appears unavailable. However, nurses need to work together in meeting the developmental challenges of the NICU. Further research needs to be done to validate which interventions are appropriate for which babies and with what medical procedures. In addition, collaboration and sharing of responsibilities and resources with all care providers needs to be investigated. Moreover, research needs to be done that acknowledges that the environment of the NICU is also a world in which many adults work and live a large portion of their daily life. This environment must be supportive of their social needs as well as the needs of the high-risk infant. There are many pieces to the puzzle of providing developmentally supportive caregiving in the NICU. The number of different issues increases the complexity of changing the standard of care: Infant, family, environment. Each has its own challenges. However, with sensitivity, a collaborative approach, and a sincere effort to change, neonatal health-care professionals can integrate developmental practices into the NICU. PMID:8637813

  1. The crystal structure of Helicobacter pylori HP1029 highlights the functional diversity of the sialic acid-related DUF386 family.

    PubMed

    Vallese, Francesca; Percudani, Riccardo; Fischer, Wolfgang; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The proteins of the YhcH/YjgK/YiaL (DUF386) family have been implicated in the bacterial metabolism of host-derived sialic acids and biofilm formation, although their precise biochemical function remains enigmatic. We present here the crystal structure of protein HP1029 from Helicobacter pylori. The protein is a homodimer, in which each monomer comprises a molecular core formed by 12 antiparallel β-strands arranged in two β-sheets flanked by helices. The sandwich formed by the sheets assumes the shape of a funnel opened at one end, with a zinc ion present at the bottom of the funnel. The crystal structure unequivocally shows that HP1029 belongs to the DUF386 family. Although no bioinformatics evidence has been found for sialic acid catabolism in H. pylori, the genomic context of HP1029 in Helicobacter and related organisms suggests a possible role in the metabolism of bacterial surface saccharides, such as pseudaminic acid and its derivatives. PMID:26096900

  2. Occurrence of lipid A variants with 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid in lipopolysaccharides from members of the family Rhizobiaceae

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, U.R.; Carlson, R.W. ); Mayer, H. ); Yokota, A. ); Hollingsworth, R.I. )

    1991-04-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) isolated from several strains of Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Agrobacterium, and Azorhizobium were screened for the presence of 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid. The LPSs from all strains, with the exception of Azorhizobium caulinodans, contained various amounts of this long-chain hydroxy fatty acid in the lipid A fractions. Analysis of the lipid A sugars revealed three types of backbones: those containing glucosamine (as found in Rhizobium meliloti and Thizobium fredii), those containing glucosamine and galacturonic acid (as found in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, trifolii, and viciae), and those containing clucosamine and galacturonic acid (as found in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, trifolii, and viciae), and those containing 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxyglucose either alone or in combination with glucosamine (as found in Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) strain DSM 30140). The distribution of 27-hydroxyoctacosamoic acid as well as analysis of lipid A backbone sugars revealed the taxonomic relatedness of various strains of the Rhizobiaceae.

  3. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF3) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  4. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2015-01-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF₃) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  5. The AlkB Family of Fe(II)/α-Ketoglutarate-dependent Dioxygenases: Repairing Nucleic Acid Alkylation Damage and Beyond*

    PubMed Central

    Fedeles, Bogdan I.; Singh, Vipender; Delaney, James C.; Li, Deyu; Essigmann, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The AlkB family of Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases is a class of ubiquitous direct reversal DNA repair enzymes that remove alkyl adducts from nucleobases by oxidative dealkylation. The prototypical and homonymous family member is an Escherichia coli “adaptive response” protein that protects the bacterial genome against alkylation damage. AlkB has a wide variety of substrates, including monoalkyl and exocyclic bridged adducts. Nine mammalian AlkB homologs exist (ALKBH1–8, FTO), but only a subset functions as DNA/RNA repair enzymes. This minireview presents an overview of the AlkB proteins including recent data on homologs, structural features, substrate specificities, and experimental strategies for studying DNA repair by AlkB family proteins. PMID:26152727

  6. The ALMT Family of Organic Acid Transporters in Plants and Their Involvement in Detoxification and Nutrient Security

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo; Kochian, Leon; Piñeros, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    About a decade ago, members of a new protein family of anion channels were discovered on the basis of their ability to confer on plants the tolerance toward toxic aluminum ions in the soil. The efflux of Al3+-chelating malate anions through these channels is stimulated by external Al3+ ions. This feature of a few proteins determined the name of the entire protein family as Aluminum-activated Malate Transporters (ALMT). Meanwhile, after several years of research, it is known that the physiological roles of ALMTs go far beyond Al-detoxification. In this review article we summarize the current knowledge on this transporter family and assess their involvement in diverse physiological processes. PMID:27757118

  7. Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the "Americano do Brasil" layered intrusion, central Brazil, and its Ni-Cu sulfide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E Silva, Jonas Mota; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Bühn, Bernhard; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2011-01-01

    The "Americano do Brasil" Complex (ABC) is part of a cluster of coeval synorogenic mafic-ultramafic intrusions emplaced during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogenic Cycle in Brazil. The medium-sized ABC consists of interlayered dunite, peridotite, websterite, and gabbronorite. High Fo values of olivine (up to Fo88) and the crystallization sequence of the ABC (Ol + Chr ≥ Ol + Opx + Chr ≥ Cpx + Opx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx + Ilm + Mag) suggest crystallization from tholeiitic high-MgO parental magmas. Light rare earth element (REE)-enriched mantle-normalized REE profiles and ɛNd(T) values of +2.4 for cumulate rocks from the ABC suggest a depleted mantle source for the parental magma. The ABC Ni-Cu sulfide deposit (3.1 Mt at 1.12 wt.% Ni and 1.02 wt.% Cu) consists of three distinctively different orebodies (S1, S2, and G2). The S2 orebody, an unusual occurrence of stratiform massive sulfide hosted by dunite and peridotite in the interior of a layered intrusion, results from sulfides accumulated at the transient base of the magma chamber following a new influx of parental magma. The G2 orebody has an irregular and roughly cylindrical shape, consisting mainly of net-textured sulfides. The G2 orebody is hosted by peridotite and pyroxenite and located stratigraphically below the S1 orebody. S2 and G2 orebodies are characterized by low Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly below 0.4). The S1 orebody, hosted by websterite and gabbronorite in the more fractionated sequence of the ABC, is a cluster of several irregular discontinuous orebodies of Ni-Cu disseminated sulfides. The sulfides of the S1 orebody have high Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly between 0.5 and 0.8) and are highly depleted in PGE. The S1 orebody is interpreted to result from a later event of sulfide segregation in the magma chamber, possibly following the event that originated the G2 orebody. The bulk of δ34S values for sulfides of the ABC orebodies and their host rocks fall in the range of 0 ± 2‰. Higher

  8. Safe sleep practices and sudden infant death syndrome risk reduction: NICU and well-baby nursery graduates.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Aja J; Evans, Patricia W; Etchegaray, Jason M; Ottenbacher, Allison; Arnold, Cody

    2013-11-01

    Our primary objective was to compare parents of infants cared for in newborn intensive care units (NICUs) and infants cared for in well-baby ("general") nurseries with regard to knowledge and practice of safe sleep practices/sudden infant death syndrome risk reduction measures and guidelines. Our secondary objective was to obtain qualitative data regarding reasons for noncompliance in both populations. Sixty participants (30 from each population) completed our survey measuring safe sleep knowledge and practice. Parents of NICU infants reported using 2 safe sleep practices-(a) always placing baby in crib to sleep and (b) always placing baby on back to sleep-significantly more frequently than parents of well infants. Additional findings and implications for future studies are discussed. PMID:24137040

  9. The effectiveness of a standardised positioning tool and bedside education on the developmental positioning proficiency of NICU nurses.

    PubMed

    Spilker, Arlene; Hill, Constance; Rosenblum, Ruth

    2016-08-01

    In order to improve the developmental proficiency of neonatal intensive care unit nurses, a standardised infant positioning assessment tool and a bedside education programme were introduced to the registered nurses in a 46 bed level III neonatal intensive care unit in the western United States. A developmental positioning team collected pre-intervention positioning scores on 54 preterm infants. This was followed by a survey of the registered nurses beliefs and attitudes, the introduction of the standardised assessment tool and an informal education programme. Post-intervention positioning scores were collected on 55 preterm infants, and analysis of the data indicated there was a statistically significant change in mean positioning scores. Additionally, the registered nurses identified several barriers to the implementation of developmental positioning. This research indicates the use of a standardised infant positioning assessment tool and bedside education may be useful strategies for improving the developmental positioning proficiency of NICU nurses.

  10. Safe sleep practices and sudden infant death syndrome risk reduction: NICU and well-baby nursery graduates.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Aja J; Evans, Patricia W; Etchegaray, Jason M; Ottenbacher, Allison; Arnold, Cody

    2013-11-01

    Our primary objective was to compare parents of infants cared for in newborn intensive care units (NICUs) and infants cared for in well-baby ("general") nurseries with regard to knowledge and practice of safe sleep practices/sudden infant death syndrome risk reduction measures and guidelines. Our secondary objective was to obtain qualitative data regarding reasons for noncompliance in both populations. Sixty participants (30 from each population) completed our survey measuring safe sleep knowledge and practice. Parents of NICU infants reported using 2 safe sleep practices-(a) always placing baby in crib to sleep and (b) always placing baby on back to sleep-significantly more frequently than parents of well infants. Additional findings and implications for future studies are discussed.

  11. Association between SLC2A9 transporter gene variants and uric acid phenotypes in African American and white families

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Mariza; Matsumoto, Martha; Mosley, Tom H.; Kardia, Sharon; Turner, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. SLC2A9 gene variants associate with serum uric acid in white populations, but little is known about African American populations. Since SLC2A9 is a transporter, gene variants may be expected to associate more closely with the fractional excretion of urate, a measure of renal tubular transport, than with serum uric acid, which is influenced by production and extrarenal clearance. Methods. Genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the SLC2A9 gene were obtained in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy cohorts. The associations of SNPs with serum uric acid, fractional excretion of urate and urine urate-to-creatinine ratio were assessed with adjustments for age, sex, diuretic use, BMI, homocysteine and triglycerides. Results. We identified SLC2A9 gene variants that were associated with serum uric acid in 1155 African American subjects (53 SNPs) and 1132 white subjects (63 SNPs). The most statistically significant SNPs in African American subjects (rs13113918) and white subjects (rs11723439) were in the latter half of the gene and explained 2.7 and 2.8% of the variation in serum uric acid, respectively. After adjustment for this SNP in African Americans, 0.9% of the variation in serum uric acid was explained by an SNP (rs1568318) in the first half of the gene. Unexpectedly, SLC2A9 gene variants had stronger associations with serum uric acid than with fractional excretion of urate. Conclusions. These findings support two different loci by which SLC2A9 variants affect uric acid levels in African Americans and suggest SLC2A9 variants affect serum uric acid level via renal and extrarenal clearance. PMID:21186168

  12. Midkine (MK), the product of a retinoic acid responsive gene, and pleiotrophin constitute a new protein family regulating growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, T

    1993-03-01

    Using mouse teratocarcinoma system, we found a novel retinoic acid responsive gene. Midkine (MK), the product of the gene is a secreted, heparin-binding protein of molecular weight 14,000. MK gene is intensely expressed in the midgestation period, and in the adult mouse, the kidney is the principal site of its expression. MK and pleiotrophin have 50% sequence identity and constitute a new protein family regulating growth and differentiation. They share neurite outgrowth activity; other activities, either specific for one or common to both, have been reported. Furthermore, MK is of significant interest in cancer biology.

  13. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS.

  14. A genome-wide analysis of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Linyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Han, Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Xin; Zhan, Haixian; Ma, Jian; Luo, Peigao; Zhang, Wenping; Cui, Lei; Li, Xiaoyan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family plays key roles in the primary auxin-response process and controls a number of important traits in plants. However, the characteristics of the Aux/IAA gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have long been unknown. In this study, a comprehensive identification of the Aux/IAA gene family was performed using the latest draft genome sequence of the bread wheat “Chinese Spring.” Thirty-four Aux/IAA genes were identified, 30 of which have duplicated genes on the A, B or D sub-genome, with a total of 84 Aux/IAA sequences. These predicted Aux/IAA genes were non-randomly distributed in all the wheat chromosomes except for chromosome 2D. The information of wheat Aux/IAA proteins is also described. Based on an analysis of phylogeny, expression and adaptive evolution, we prove that the Aux/IAA family in wheat has been replicated twice in the two allopolyploidization events of bread wheat, when the tandem duplication also occurred. The duplicated genes have undergone an evolutionary process of purifying selection, resulting in the high conservation of copy genes among sub-genomes and functional redundancy among several members of the TaIAA family. However, functional divergence probably existed in most TaIAA members due to the diversity of the functional domain and expression pattern. Our research provides useful information for further research into the function of Aux/IAA genes in wheat. PMID:26483801

  15. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS. PMID:25873685

  16. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS. PMID:25873685

  17. The ALMT family of organic acid transporters in plants and their involvement in detoxification and nutrient security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About a decade ago, members of a new protein family of anion channels were discovered on the basis of their ability to confer on plants the tolerance towards toxic aluminum ions in the soil. The efflux of Al3+ chelating malate anions through these channels is stimulated by external Al3+ ions. This f...

  18. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P < .05). They also reported a higher level of empowerment (P < .05). Three months after discharge, the mothers in the FC group had a higher self-reported skill level for interpretation of the infant's signals and knowledge about breast-feeding (P < .05). Despite similar rate of breast-feeding at discharge, more infants in the FC group were breastfed 3 months after discharge (P < .05). An FC program in the NICU promoted better maternal confidence during the hospital stay and 3 months after discharge compared with traditional care.

  19. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the fatty acid desaturase gene family in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q M; Cheng, D J; Liu, S P; Ma, Z G; Tan, X; Zhao, P

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases exist in all living organisms and play important roles in many different biologic processes, such as fatty acid metabolism, lipid biosynthetic processes, and pheromone biosynthetic processes. Using the available silkworm genome sequence, we identified 14 candidate fatty acid desaturase genes. Eleven genes contain 3 conserved histidine cluster motifs and 4 transmembrane domains, but their N-terminal residues exhibit obvious diversity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there are 6 groups; Bmdesat1 and Bmdesat5-8 were clustered into group 2, which is involved in Δ11 desaturation activity, and Bmdesat3-4 were grouped in group 1, which is involved in Δ9 desaturation activity. Twelve of the 14 genes have expressed sequence tag evidence. Microarray data and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that Bmdesat3-4 and Bmdesat10 were expressed from the larval to moth stages and in multiple tissues on day 3 of 5th instar larvae. Bmdesat9, Bmdesat11, and Bmdesat14 were expressed during the pupal and late-embryonic stage, suggesting that they may take part in fatty acid metabolism to provide energy. These results provide some insights into the functions of individual fatty acid desaturases in silkworm. PMID:24854660

  20. Structural, Biochemical, and Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest That Indole-3-Acetic Acid Methyltransferase Is an Evolutionarily Ancient Member of the SABATH Family1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Ross, Jeannine; Guan, Ju; Yang, Yue; Pichersky, Eran; Noel, Joseph P.; Chen, Feng

    2008-01-01

    The plant SABATH protein family encompasses a group of related small-molecule methyltransferases (MTs) that catalyze the S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methylation of natural chemicals encompassing widely divergent structures. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) methyltransferase (IAMT) is a member of the SABATH family that modulates IAA homeostasis in plant tissues through methylation of IAA's free carboxyl group. The crystal structure of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IAMT (AtIAMT1) was determined and refined to 2.75 Å resolution. The overall tertiary and quaternary structures closely resemble the two-domain bilobed monomer and the dimeric arrangement, respectively, previously observed for the related salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase from Clarkia breweri (CbSAMT). To further our understanding of the biological function and evolution of SABATHs, especially of IAMT, we analyzed the SABATH gene family in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. Forty-one OsSABATH genes were identified. Expression analysis showed that more than one-half of the OsSABATH genes were transcribed in one or multiple organs. The OsSABATH gene most similar to AtIAMT1 is OsSABATH4. Escherichia coli-expressed OsSABATH4 protein displayed the highest level of catalytic activity toward IAA and was therefore named OsIAMT1. OsIAMT1 exhibited kinetic properties similar to AtIAMT1 and poplar IAMT (PtIAMT1). Structural modeling of OsIAMT1 and PtIAMT1 using the experimentally determined structure of AtIAMT1 reported here as a template revealed conserved structural features of IAMTs within the active-site cavity that are divergent from functionally distinct members of the SABATH family, such as CbSAMT. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that IAMTs from Arabidopsis, rice, and poplar (Populus spp.) form a monophyletic group. Thus, structural, biochemical, and phylogenetic evidence supports the hypothesis that IAMT is an evolutionarily ancient member of the SABATH family likely to play a critical role in IAA

  1. Structural, Biochemical, and Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest That Indole-3-Acetic Acid Methyltransferase Is an Evolutionarily Ancient Member of the SABATH Family

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao,N.; Ferrer, J.; Ross, J.; Guan, J.; Yang, Y.; Pichersky, E.; Noel, J.; Chen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The plant SABATH protein family encompasses a group of related small-molecule methyltransferases (MTs) that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of natural chemicals encompassing widely divergent structures. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) methyltransferase (IAMT) is a member of the SABATH family that modulates IAA homeostasis in plant tissues through methylation of IAA's free carboxyl group. The crystal structure of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IAMT (AtIAMT1) was determined and refined to 2.75 Angstroms resolution. The overall tertiary and quaternary structures closely resemble the two-domain bilobed monomer and the dimeric arrangement, respectively, previously observed for the related salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase from Clarkia breweri (CbSAMT). To further our understanding of the biological function and evolution of SABATHs, especially of IAMT, we analyzed the SABATH gene family in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. Forty-one OsSABATH genes were identified. Expression analysis showed that more than one-half of the OsSABATH genes were transcribed in one or multiple organs. The OsSABATH gene most similar to AtIAMT1 is OsSABATH4. Escherichia coli-expressed OsSABATH4 protein displayed the highest level of catalytic activity toward IAA and was therefore named OsIAMT1. OsIAMT1 exhibited kinetic properties similar to AtIAMT1 and poplar IAMT (PtIAMT1). Structural modeling of OsIAMT1 and PtIAMT1 using the experimentally determined structure of AtIAMT1 reported here as a template revealed conserved structural features of IAMTs within the active-site cavity that are divergent from functionally distinct members of the SABATH family, such as CbSAMT. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that IAMTs from Arabidopsis, rice, and poplar (Populus spp.) form a monophyletic group. Thus, structural, biochemical, and phylogenetic evidence supports the hypothesis that IAMT is an evolutionarily ancient member of the SABATH family likely to play a critical role in

  2. Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member B (ANP32B) contributes to retinoic acid-induced differentiation of leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yun; Shen, Shao-Ming; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Wu, Zhao-Xia; Han, Bin; Wang, Li-Shun

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANP32B was down-regulated during ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of ANP32B enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of ANP32B inhibited ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANP32B inhibited ATRA activated transcriptional activity of RAR{alpha}. -- Abstract: The acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32B (ANP32B) is a member of a conserved superfamily of nuclear proteins whose functions are largely unknown. In our previous work, ANP32B was identified as a novel direct substrate for caspase-3 and acted as a negative regulator for leukemic cell apoptosis. In this work, we provided the first demonstration that ANP32B expression was down-regulated during differentiation induction of leukemic cells by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Knockdown of ANP32B expression by specific shRNA enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation, while ectopic expression of ANP32B attenuated it, indicating an inhibitory role of ANP32B against leukemic cell differentiation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay revealed that ANP32B might exert this role through inhibiting the ATRA dependent transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptor (RAR{alpha}). These data will shed new insights into understanding the biological functions of ANP32B protein.

  3. Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Bouhairie, Victoria Enchia; Goldberg, Anne Carol

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common, inherited disorder of cholesterol metabolism that leads to early cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Statins, ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants, niacin, lomitapide, mipomersen and LDL apheresis are treatments that can lower LDL cholesterol levels. Early treatment can lead to substantial reduction of cardiovascular events and death in patients with FH. It is important to increase awareness of this disorder in physicians and patients in order to reduce the burden of this disorder. PMID:25939291

  4. Providing a Seamless Service System from Hospital to Home: The NICU Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyly, M. Virginia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A training model is described that promotes collaboration between neonatal intensive care unit professionals and early intervention staff regarding the care of premature infants. The goal is to train service providers to implement a seamless system of family-centered interventions and to transition from inpatient to community services. (Author/SW)

  5. InReach: Connecting NICU Infants and Their Parents with Community Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akers, Adrienne L.; Boyce, Glenna; Mabey, Vanya; Boyce, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Infants who are born prematurely may experience developmental delays and impairments during infancy and beyond. Those who are born at extremely low birthweight face the greatest challenges. Many families could benefit from early intervention services through their local Part C of Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) programs, but…

  6. Defining Eligibility Criteria for Preventive Early Intervention in an NICU Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Marion; Rice, Mabel; Roy, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of perinatal medical status, environmental risk, and infant developmental status as predictors of low IQ at age 4 among 70 4-year-olds who had been in a neonatal intensive care unit at birth. It found family environment the most predictive, 18-month developmental assessments somewhat useful, and perinatal health…

  7. Boswellic acid exerts antitumor effects in colorectal cancer cells by modulating expression of the let-7 and miR-200 microRNA family

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disease with genetic and epigenetic alterations in many key oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The active principle of a gum resin from Boswellia serrata, 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), has recently gained attention as a chemopreventive compound due to its ability to target key oncogenic proteins such as 5-lipoxygenase and nuclear factor-kappaB. AKBA has been shown to inhibit the growth of CRC cells; however, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying its anticancer activities in CRC remain unclear. We hypothesized that boswellic acids may achieve their chemopreventive effects by modulating specific microRNA (miRNA) pathways. We found that AKBA significantly up-regulated expression of the let-7 and miR-200 families in various CRC cell lines. Both let-7 and miR-200 are putative tumor-suppressive miRNAs. AKBA modulated the expression of several downstream targets of the let-7 and miR-200 families, such as CDK6, vimentin and E-cadherin. These data were further strengthened by miRNA knockdown studies, which revealed that inhibition of let-7i facilitated enhanced cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, AKBA also induced similar modulation of the let-7 and miR-200 downstream genes in CRC tumors orthotopically implanted in nude mice. These results indicate that AKBA-induced antitumor effects in CRC occur, at least partly through the up-regulation of specific miRNA pathways. Our data provide novel evidence that anticancer effects of boswellic acids are due in part to their ability to regulate cellular epigenetic machinery and further highlight the promise for this phytochemical in the preventative and therapeutic applications of CRC. PMID:22983985

  8. The structure and functional properties of Ti2 NiCu alloy rapidly quenched ribbons with different fractions of crystalline phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, S. P.; Istomin-Kastrovskiy, V. V.; Koledov, V. V.; Kuchin, D. S.; Resnina, N. N.; Shavrov, V. G.; Shelyakov, A. V.; Ivanov, S. E.

    The samples of Ti2NiCu rapidly quenched alloy with different fractions of crystalline phase have been prepared by electric pulse technique from as spun amorphous ribbons. The structure and thermomechanical properties of these samples have been studied. The mixture of amorphous and nanocrystalline structures with mean grains size less than 10 nm has been observed by HRTEM. The remarkable thermomechanical properties of the samples with the ratio of crystalline fraction in the range of r = 0.4 - 0.6 (determined by electrical resistivity measurements) have been found. The two-way shape memory effect with the reverse deformation Δε = 0.31 % has been induced in the sample with r = 0.46 by single deformation at cooling below the temperature of martensite transformation. The prototype of microtweezers based on amorphous-nanocrystalline Ti2NiCu melt-spun ribbon alloy with two-way shape memory effect has been designed and tested.

  9. N-Acetylglucosaminidases from CAZy Family GH3 Are Really Glycoside Phosphorylases, Thereby Explaining Their Use of Histidine as an Acid/Base Catalyst in Place of Glutamic Acid*

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Spencer S.; Blaukopf, Markus; Withers, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    CAZy glycoside hydrolase family GH3 consists primarily of stereochemistry-retaining β-glucosidases but also contains a subfamily of β-N-acetylglucosaminidases. Enzymes from this subfamily were recently shown to use a histidine residue within a His-Asp dyad contained in a signature sequence as their catalytic acid/base residue. Reasons for their use of His rather than the Glu or Asp found in other glycosidases were not apparent. Through studies on a representative member, the Nag3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Cellulomonas fimi, we now show that these enzymes act preferentially as glycoside phosphorylases. Their need to accommodate an anionic nucleophile within the enzyme active site explains why histidine is used as an acid/base catalyst in place of the anionic glutamate seen in other GH3 family members. Kinetic and mechanistic studies reveal that these enzymes also employ a double-displacement mechanism involving a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, which was directly detected by mass spectrometry. Phosphate has no effect on the rates of formation of the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, but it accelerates turnover of the N-acetylglucosaminyl-enzyme intermediate ∼3-fold, while accelerating turnover of the glucosyl-enzyme intermediate several hundredfold. These represent the first reported examples of retaining β-glycoside phosphorylases, and the first instance of free β-GlcNAc-1-phosphate in a biological context. PMID:25533455

  10. N-acetylglucosaminidases from CAZy family GH3 are really glycoside phosphorylases, thereby explaining their use of histidine as an acid/base catalyst in place of glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Spencer S; Blaukopf, Markus; Withers, Stephen G

    2015-02-20

    CAZy glycoside hydrolase family GH3 consists primarily of stereochemistry-retaining β-glucosidases but also contains a subfamily of β-N-acetylglucosaminidases. Enzymes from this subfamily were recently shown to use a histidine residue within a His-Asp dyad contained in a signature sequence as their catalytic acid/base residue. Reasons for their use of His rather than the Glu or Asp found in other glycosidases were not apparent. Through studies on a representative member, the Nag3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Cellulomonas fimi, we now show that these enzymes act preferentially as glycoside phosphorylases. Their need to accommodate an anionic nucleophile within the enzyme active site explains why histidine is used as an acid/base catalyst in place of the anionic glutamate seen in other GH3 family members. Kinetic and mechanistic studies reveal that these enzymes also employ a double-displacement mechanism involving a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, which was directly detected by mass spectrometry. Phosphate has no effect on the rates of formation of the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate, but it accelerates turnover of the N-acetylglucosaminyl-enzyme intermediate ∼3-fold, while accelerating turnover of the glucosyl-enzyme intermediate several hundredfold. These represent the first reported examples of retaining β-glycoside phosphorylases, and the first instance of free β-GlcNAc-1-phosphate in a biological context.

  11. Mutational analysis of amino acid residues involved in catalytic activity of a family 18 chitinase from tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Suzukawa, Keisuke; Yamagami, Takeshi; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kuhara, Satoru; Aso, Yoichi; Ishiguro, Masatsune

    2003-02-01

    We expressed chitinase-1 (TBC-1) from tulip bulbs (Tulipa bakeri) in E. coli cells and used site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues essential for catalytic activity. Mutations at Glu-125 and Trp-251 completely abolished enzyme activity, and activity decreased with mutations at Asp-123 and Trp-172 when glycolchitin was the substrate. Activity changed with the mutations of Trp-251 to one of several amino acids with side-chains of little hydrophobicity, suggesting that hydrophobic interaction of Trp-251 is important for the activity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis with hevamine as the model compound showed that the distance between Asp-123 and Glu-125 was extended by mutation of Trp-251. Kinetic studies of Trp-251-mutated chitinases confirmed these various phenomena. The results suggested that Glu-125 and Trp-251 are essential for enzyme activity and that Trp-251 had a direct role in ligand binding.

  12. Characterization of the Branched-Chain Amino Acid Aminotransferase Enzyme Family in Tomato1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Gregory S.; Kochevenko, Andrej; Tieman, Denise M.; Tohge, Takayuki; Krieger, Uri; Zamir, Dani; Taylor, Mark G.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Klee, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are synthesized in plants from branched-chain keto acids, but their metabolism is not completely understood. The interface of BCAA metabolism lies with branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT) that catalyze both the last anabolic step and the first catabolic step. In this study, six BCAT genes from the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were identified and characterized. SlBCAT1, -2, -3, and -4 are expressed in multiple plant tissues, while SlBCAT5 and -6 were undetectable. SlBCAT1 and -2 are located in the mitochondria, SlBCAT3 and -4 are located in chloroplasts, while SlBCAT5 and -6 are located in the cytosol and vacuole, respectively. SlBCAT1, -2, -3, and -4 were able to restore growth of Escherichia coli BCAA auxotrophic cells, but SlBCAT1 and -2 were less effective than SlBCAT3 and -4 in growth restoration. All enzymes were active in the forward (BCAA synthesis) and reverse (branched-chain keto acid synthesis) reactions. SlBCAT3 and -4 exhibited a preference for the forward reaction, while SlBCAT1 and -2 were more active in the reverse reaction. While overexpression of SlBCAT1 or -3 in tomato fruit did not significantly alter amino acid levels, an expression quantitative trait locus on chromosome 3, associated with substantially higher expression of Solanum pennellii BCAT4, did significantly increase BCAA levels. Conversely, antisense-mediated reduction of SlBCAT1 resulted in higher levels of BCAAs. Together, these results support a model in which the mitochondrial SlBCAT1 and -2 function in BCAA catabolism while the chloroplastic SlBCAT3 and -4 function in BCAA synthesis. PMID:20435740

  13. Proteomic Analyses Reveal an Acidic Prime Side Specificity for the Astacin Metalloprotease Family Reflected by Physiological Substrates*

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Barré, Olivier; Schilling, Oliver; auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Ohler, Anke; Broder, Claudia; Schütte, André; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Stöcker, Walter; Overall, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Astacins are secreted and membrane-bound metalloproteases with clear associations to many important pathological and physiological processes. Yet with only a few substrates described their biological roles are enigmatic. Moreover, the lack of knowledge of astacin cleavage site specificities hampers assay and drug development. Using PICS (proteomic identification of protease cleavage site specificity) and TAILS (terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates) degradomics approaches >3000 cleavage sites were proteomically identified for five different astacins. Such broad coverage enables family-wide determination of specificities N- and C-terminal to the scissile peptide bond. Remarkably, meprin α, meprin β, and LAST_MAM proteases exhibit a strong preference for aspartate in the peptide (P)1′ position because of a conserved positively charged residue in the active cleft subsite (S)1′. This unparalleled specificity has not been found for other families of extracellular proteases. Interestingly, cleavage specificity is also strongly influenced by proline in P2′ or P3′ leading to a rare example of subsite cooperativity. This specificity characterizes the astacins as unique contributors to extracellular proteolysis that is corroborated by known cleavage sites in procollagen I+III, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-A, IL (interleukin)-1β, and pro-kallikrein 7. Indeed, cleavage sites in VEGF-A and pro-kallikrein 7 identified by terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates matched those reported by Edman degradation. Moreover, the novel substrate FGF-19 was validated biochemically and shown to exhibit altered biological activity after meprin processing. PMID:21693781

  14. An acoustic gap between the NICU and womb: a potential risk for compromised neuroplasticity of the auditory system in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Lahav, Amir; Skoe, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The intrauterine environment allows the fetus to begin hearing low-frequency sounds in a protected fashion, ensuring initial optimal development of the peripheral and central auditory system. However, the auditory nursery provided by the womb vanishes once the preterm newborn enters the high-frequency (HF) noisy environment of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The present article draws a concerning line between auditory system development and HF noise in the NICU, which we argue is not necessarily conducive to fostering this development. Overexposure to HF noise during critical periods disrupts the functional organization of auditory cortical circuits. As a result, we theorize that the ability to tune out noise and extract acoustic information in a noisy environment may be impaired, leading to increased risks for a variety of auditory, language, and attention disorders. Additionally, HF noise in the NICU often masks human speech sounds, further limiting quality exposure to linguistic stimuli. Understanding the impact of the sound environment on the developing auditory system is an important first step in meeting the developmental demands of preterm newborns undergoing intensive care. PMID:25538543

  15. Celecoxib and tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid co-treatment inhibits cell growth in familial adenomatous polyposis derived LT97 colon adenoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Heumen, Bjorn W.H. van; Roelofs, Hennie M.J.; Morsche, Rene H.M. te; Marian, Brigitte; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Peters, Wilbert H.M.

    2012-04-15

    Chemoprevention would be a desirable strategy to avoid duodenectomy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) suffering from duodenal adenomatosis. We investigated the in vitro effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and COX-2 expression of the potential chemopreventives celecoxib and tauro-ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). HT-29 colon cancer cells and LT97 colorectal micro-adenoma cells derived from a patient with FAP, were exposed to low dose celecoxib and UDCA alone or in combination with tauro-cholic acid (CA) and tauro-chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), mimicking bile of FAP patients treated with UDCA. In HT-29 cells, co-treatment with low dose celecoxib and UDCA resulted in a decreased cell growth (14-17%, p < 0.01). A more pronounced decrease (23-27%, p < 0.01) was observed in LT97 cells. Cell growth of HT-29 cells exposed to 'artificial bile' enriched with UDCA, was decreased (p < 0.001), either in the absence or presence of celecoxib. In LT97 cells incubated with 'artificial bile' enriched with UDCA, cell growth was decreased only in the presence of celecoxib (p < 0.05). No clear evidence was found for involvement of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, caspase-3, or COX-2 in the cellular processes leading to the observed changes in cell growth. In conclusion, co-treatment with low dose celecoxib and UDCA has growth inhibitory effects on colorectal adenoma cells derived from a patient with FAP, and further research on this combination as promising chemopreventive strategy is desired. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Celecoxib and UDCA acid co-treatment decreases cell growth in colon tumor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UDCA enriched 'artificial bile' decreases LT-97 cell growth only in presence of celecoxib. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCNA, caspase-3, nor COX-2 seem to be involved in the observed changes in cell growth.

  16. Hepatic transcriptome analysis of inter-family variability in flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic selection of Atlantic salmon families better adapted to alternative feed formulations containing high levels of vegetable ingredients has been suggested to ensure sustainable growth of aquaculture. The present study aimed to identify molecular pathways that could underlie phenotypic differences in flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels when fish are fed vegetable oil diets. Liver transcriptome was analyzed and compared in four families presenting higher or lower n-3 LC-PUFA contents at two contrasting flesh total lipid levels. Results The main effect of n-3 LC-PUFA contents was in the expression of immune response genes (38% of all significantly affected genes), broadly implicated in the modulation of inflammatory processes and innate immune response. Although genetic evaluations of traits used in the breeding program revealed that the chosen families were not balanced for viral disease resistance, this did not fully explain the preponderance of immune response genes in the transcriptomic analysis. Employing stringent statistical analysis no lipid metabolism genes were detected as being significantly altered in liver when comparing families with high and low n-3 LC-PUFA flesh contents. However, relaxing the statistical analysis enabled identification of potentially relevant effects, further studied by RT-qPCR, in cholesterol biosynthesis, lipoprotein metabolism and lipid transport, as well as eicosanoid metabolism particularly affecting the lipoxygenase pathway. Total lipid level in flesh also showed an important effect on immune response and 8% of significantly affected genes related to lipid metabolism, including a fatty acyl elongase (elovl2), an acyl carrier protein and stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Conclusions Inter-family differences in n-3 LC-PUFA content could not be related to effects on lipid metabolism, including transcriptional modulation of the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway. An association was found between flesh

  17. Management of familial Mediterranean fever by colchicine does not normalize the altered profile of microbial long chain fatty acids in the human metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Ktsoyan, Zhanna A.; Beloborodova, Natalia V.; Sedrakyan, Anahit M.; Osipov, George A.; Khachatryan, Zaruhi A.; Manukyan, Gayane P.; Arakelova, Karine A.; Hovhannisyan, Alvard I.; Arakelyan, Arsen A.; Ghazaryan, Karine A.; Zakaryan, Magdalina K.; Aminov, Rustam I.

    2013-01-01

    In our previous works we established that in an autoinflammatory condition, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), the gut microbial diversity is specifically restructured, which also results in the altered profiles of microbial long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) present in the systemic metabolome. The mainstream management of the disease is based on oral administration of colchicine to suppress clinical signs and extend remission periods and our aim was to determine whether this therapy normalizes the microbial LCFA profiles in the metabolome as well. Unexpectedly, the treatment does not normalize these profiles. Moreover, it results in the formation of new distinct microbial LCFA clusters, which are well separated from the corresponding values in healthy controls and FMF patients without the therapy. We hypothesize that the therapy alters the proinflammatory network specific for the disease, with the concomitant changes in gut microbiota and the corresponding microbial LCFAs in the metabolome. PMID:23373011

  18. In vitro activities of fleroxacin, cefetamet, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against rare members of the family Enterobacteriaceae primarily of human (clinical) origin.

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, P; Lüthy-Hottenstein, J; Zollinger-Iten, J; Altwegg, M

    1990-01-01

    Fleroxacin and cefetamet were evaluated in vitro against 38 infrequently encountered species (250 strains) of the family Enterobacteriaceae and compared with four established compounds. For all the strains tested, the fleroxacin MIC was less than or equal to 0.5 mg/liter, and for 98% of strains the cefetamet MIC was less than or equal to 8 mg/liter; even though the two new compounds did not quite reach the activities (on a weight-by-weight basis) of ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone, respectively, they nonetheless clearly surpassed trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazole and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. The very potent new oral compounds tested in this study appear to be promising for the treatment of clinically relevant infections due to uncommon species of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:2121095

  19. A novel abscisic acid- and dehydration-responsive gene family from the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum encodes a plastid-targeted protein with DNA-binding activity.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jonathan R; Hilbricht, Tobias; Salamini, Francesco; Bartels, Dorothea

    2002-06-01

    In the desiccation-tolerant resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum Hochst. the chloroplasts undergo major ultrastructural changes during dehydration, which are reversible upon rehydration. Such alterations argue the need for efficient protective/stabilising mechanisms to exist. Here we describe a novel gene family that is rapidly and transiently expressed in response to both dehydration and exogenously applied abscisic acid, mostly in the chloroplast-rich palisade layer on the adaxial side of the leaf. Analysis of the putative coding region suggests that the resulting protein is plastid-targeted. This was confirmed using a chimeric green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct in transgenic tobacco plants - hence the gene family is termed Plastid Targeted Protein ( CpPTP). Fluorescence microscopy also revealed that CpPTP was localised in structures similar to proplastid nucleoids in transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 cells. The ability of CpPTP to interact with DNA was demonstrated through a DNaseI protection assay. A structure-prediction programme suggests that the mature CpPTP is composed almost entirely of a pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues that form heptad repeats, which are the hallmarks of a coiled-coil domain. Given the localisation and DNA-binding property of the protein, we propose that CpPTP plays a role during the early stages of dehydration-induced chloroplast remodelling.

  20. Effect of magnetism on the vibrational properties of the Ni-Cu alloy: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Pena-Seaman, Omar; Bustamante-Romero, Ivan; Heid, Rolf; Bohnen, Klaus-Peter

    2013-03-01

    We have studied the lattice dynamical properties of the Ni1-xCux magnetic alloy within the framework of density functional perturbation theory, using a mixed-basis pseudopotential method and the virtual crystal approximation for modeling the alloy. The system has been investigated for both non-magnetic (NM) and ferromagnetic (FM) phases. The performance of LDA and GGA exchange-correlation functionals on the properties under study was analyzed. The structural optimization for each magnetic phase, NM and FM, in the full range of concentrations (0 <= x <= 1) was performed. By studying the electronic structure and its evolution as a function of x, we determined the FM-NM phase transition at x ~ 0 . 45 . The calculated full phonon dispersion for NM and FM phases are compared between each other and with experimental data available in the literature at different concentrations. In addition, a detailed analysis of the force constants average coupling was performed, finding a clear signature of the magnetism effects on the vibrational properties for the Ni-Cu alloy. This research was supported by PROMEP/103.5/12/4367 under project BUAP-PTC-299

  1. Biliary bile acids in birds of the Cotingidae family: taurine-conjugated (24R,25R)-3α,7α,24-trihydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid and two epimers (25R and 25S) of 3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid.

    PubMed

    Hagey, Lee R; Iida, Takashi; Ogawa, Shoujiro; Adachi, Yuuki; Une, Mizuho; Mushiake, Kumiko; Maekawa, Masamitsu; Shimada, Miki; Mano, Nariyasu; Hofmann, Alan F

    2011-01-01

    Three C(27) bile acids were found to be major biliary bile acids in the capuchinbird (Perissocephalus tricolor) and bare-throated bellbird (Procnias nudicollis), both members of the Cotingidae family of the order Passeriformes. The individual bile acids were isolated by preparative RP-HPLC, and their structures were established by RP-HPLC, LC/ESI-MS/MS and NMR as well as by a comparison of their chromatographic properties with those of authentic reference standards of their 12α-hydroxy derivatives. The most abundant bile acid present in the capuchinbird bile was the taurine conjugate of C(27) (24R,25R)-3α,7α,24-trihydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid, a diastereomer not previously identified as a natural bile acid. The four diastereomers of taurine-conjugated (24ξ,25ξ)-3α,7α,24-trihydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid could be distinguished by NMR and were resolved by RP-HPLC. The RRT of the diastereomers (with taurocholic acid as 1.0) were found to be increased in the following order: (24R,25R)<(24S,25R)<(24S,25S)<(24R,25S). Two epimers (25R and 25S) of C(27) 3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid were also present (as the taurine conjugates) in both bird species. Epimers of the two compounds could be distinguished by their NMR spectra and resolved by RP-HPLC with the (25S)-epimer eluting before the (25R)-epimer. Characterization of the taurine-conjugated (24R,25R)-3α,7α,24-trihydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid and two epimers (25R and 25S) of 3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid should facilitate their detection in peroxisomal disease and inborn errors of bile acid biosynthesis.

  2. 4-O-methylation of glucuronic acid in Arabidopsis glucuronoxylan is catalyzed by a domain of unknown function family 579 protein

    PubMed Central

    Urbanowicz, Breeanna R.; Peña, Maria J.; Ratnaparkhe, Supriya; Avci, Utku; Backe, Jason; Steet, Heather F.; Foston, Marcus; Li, Hongjia; O’Neill, Malcolm A.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Darvill, Alan G.; Wyman, Charles; Gilbert, Harry J.; York, William S.

    2012-01-01

    The hemicellulose 4-O-methyl glucuronoxylan is one of the principle components present in the secondary cell walls of eudicotyledonous plants. However, the biochemical mechanisms leading to the formation of this polysaccharide and the effects of modulating its structure on the physical properties of the cell wall are poorly understood. We have identified and functionally characterized an Arabidopsis glucuronoxylan methyltransferase (GXMT) that catalyzes 4-O-methylation of the glucuronic acid substituents of this polysaccharide. AtGXMT1, which was previously classified as a domain of unknown function (DUF) 579 protein, specifically transfers the methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to O-4 of α-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid residues that are linked to O-2 of the xylan backbone. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme indicates that GXMT1 is localized in the Golgi apparatus and requires Co2+ for optimal activity in vitro. Plants lacking GXMT1 synthesize glucuronoxylan in which the degree of 4-O-methylation is reduced by 75%. This result is correlated to a change in lignin monomer composition and an increase in glucuronoxylan release during hydrothermal treatment of secondary cell walls. We propose that the DUF579 proteins constitute a previously undescribed family of cation-dependent, polysaccharide-specific O-methyl-transferases. This knowledge provides new opportunities to selectively manipulate polysaccharide O-methylation and extends the portfolio of structural targets that can be modified either alone or in combination to modulate biopolymer interactions in the plant cell wall. PMID:22893684

  3. Sensitivity and Reproducibility of a Family-level Macroinvertebrate Index used to Assess Acid Mine Impacts on Streams in the Western Allegheny Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.

    2005-05-01

    We report on the performance of a family-level multimetric index, the MAIS (Macroinvertebrate Aggregate Index for Streams) for assessing acid mine impaired (AMD) sites in the Western Allegheny Plateau (Ohio). Two sampling protocols were compared, one utilizing three collection techniques (kick net, dip net and Surber samples), the other using two (kick and dip net). Including Surber samples tended to increase the MAIS score, changing the classification of four out of 52 sampling events (7.7%), but substantially increased processing time. MAIS scores were positively correlated with water pH (R = -0.77) and other indicators of AMD (acidity, sulfates, conductivity, total Al, total Mn). MAIS scores at some sites were consistent over 2-3 years of repeated sampling, others were more variable. Nineteen of the 26 sites that were sampled multiple times were categorized the same each year (73%), whereas 7 were classified differently in at least one year (27%). Since rainfall, flow regime and disturbance events varied over the three years, we cannot identify whether this variation reflects sampling error or actual changes in the assemblages at each site. Nevertheless, a benefit of repeated, annual evaluation is a statistically strong baseline condition against which future changes can be assessed.

  4. Palliative care delivery in the NICU: what barriers do neonatal nurses face?

    PubMed

    Kain, Victoria J

    2006-01-01

    Despite the existence of a universal protocol in palliative care for dying babies and their families, provision of this type of care remains ad hoc in contemporary neonatal settings. Influential bodies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics and the World Health Organization support palliative care to this patient population, so why are such measures not universally adopted? Are there barriers that prevent neonatal nurses from delivering this type of care? A search of the literature reveals that such barriers may be significant and that they have the potential to prevent dying babies from receiving the care they deserve. The goal of this literature review is to identify these barriers to providing palliative care in neonatal nursing. Results of the research have been used to determine item content for a survey to conceptualize and address these barriers.

  5. The Kalatongke magmatic Ni-Cu deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China: product of slab window magmatism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Zhang, Mingjie; Fu, Piaoer; Qian, Zhuangzhi; Hu, Peiqing; Ripley, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    The Permian Kalatongke Ni-Cu deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt are among the most important Ni-Cu deposits in northern Xinjiang, western China. The deposits are hosted by three small mafic intrusions comprising mainly norite and diorite. Its tectonic context, petrogenesis, and ore genesis have been highly contested. In this paper, we present a new model involving slab window magmatism for the Kalatongke intrusions. The origin of the associated sulfide ores is explained in the context of this new model. Minor amounts of olivine in the intrusions have Fo contents varying between 71 and 81.5 mol%, which are similar to the predicted values for olivine crystallizing from coeval basalts in the region. Analytic modeling based on major element concentrations suggests that the parental magma of the Kalatongke intrusions and the coeval basalts represent fractionated liquids produced by ˜15% of olivine crystallization from a primary magma, itself produced by 7-8% partial melting of depleted mantle peridotite. Positive ɛ Nd values (+4 to +10) and significant negative Nb anomalies for both intrusive and extrusive rocks can be explained by the mixing of magma derived from depleted mantle with 6-18% of a partial melt derived from the lower part of a juvenile arc crust with a composition similar to coeval A-type granites in the region, plus up to 10% contamination with the upper continental crust. Our model suggests that a slab window was created due to slab break-off during a transition from oceanic subduction to arc-arc or arc-continent collision in the region in the Early Permian. Decompression melting in the upwelling oceanic asthenosphere produced the primary magma. When this magma ascended to pond in the lower parts of a juvenile arc crust, it underwent olivine crystallization and at the same time triggered partial melting of the arc crust. Mixing between these two magmas followed by contamination with the upper crust after the magma ascended to higher crustal

  6. Mucilaginibacter paludis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Mucilaginibacter gracilis sp. nov., pectin-, xylan- and laminarin-degrading members of the family Sphingobacteriaceae from acidic Sphagnum peat bog.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Timofei A; Tindall, Brian J; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2007-10-01

    Two facultatively aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria capable of degrading pectin, xylan, laminarin and some other polysaccharides were obtained from the acidic Sphagnum peat bog Bakchar, in western Siberia, Russia, and were designated strains TPT18(T) and TPT56(T). Cells of these isolates are Gram-negative, non-motile, long rods that are covered by large capsules. On ageing, they transform into spherical L-forms. Strains TPT18(T) and TPT56(T) are acido- and psychrotolerant organisms capable of growth at pH 4.2-8.2 (with an optimum at pH 6.0-6.5) and at 2-33 degrees C (with an optimum at 20 degrees C). The major fatty acids are iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH and summed feature 3 (iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c); the quinones are MK-7 and MK-6. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the novel strains share 97 % sequence similarity and belong to the family Sphingobacteriaceae; however, they are related only distantly to members of the genera Pedobacter (91.8-93.3 % similarity) and Sphingobacterium (89.6-91.2 % similarity). The DNA G+C content of strains TPT18(T) and TPT56(T) is 42.4 and 46.1 mol%, respectively. The low DNA-DNA hybridization value (42 %) and a number of phenotypic differences between strains TPT18(T) and TPT56(T) indicated that they represent two separate species. Since the two isolates are clearly distinct from all currently described members of the family Sphingobacteriaceae, we propose a novel genus, Mucilaginibacter gen. nov., containing two novel species, Mucilaginibacter gracilis sp. nov. and Mucilaginibacter paludis sp. nov. The type strains of Mucilaginibacter gracilis and Mucilaginibacter paludis are respectively TPT18(T) (=ATCC BAA-1391(T) =VKM B-2447(T)) and TPT56(T) (=ATCC BAA-1394(T) =VKM B-2446(T)).

  7. The family of ferrocene-stabilized silylium ions: synthesis, 29Si NMR characterization, Lewis acidity, substituent scrambling, and quantum-chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Müther, Kristine; Hrobárik, Peter; Hrobáriková, Veronika; Kaupp, Martin; Oestreich, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this systematic experimental and theoretical study is to deeply understand the unique bonding situation in ferrocene-stabilized silylium ions as a function of the substituents at the silicon atom and to learn about the structure parameters that determine the (29)Si NMR chemical shift and electrophilicity of these strong Lewis acids. For this, ten new members of the family of ferrocene-stabilized silicon cations were prepared by a hydride abstraction reaction from silanes with the trityl cation and characterized by multinuclear (1)H and (29)Si NMR spectroscopy. A closer look at the NMR spectra revealed that additional minor sets of signals were not impurities but silylium ions with substitution patterns different from that of the initially formed cation. Careful assignment of these signals furnished experimental proof that sterically less hindered silylium ions are capable of exchanging substituents with unreacted silane precursors. Density functional theory calculations provided mechanistic insight into that substituent transfer in which the migrating group is exchanged between two silicon fragments in a concerted process involving a ferrocene-bridged intermediate. Moreover, the quantum-chemical analysis of the (29)Si NMR chemical shifts revealed a linear relationship between δ((29)Si) values and the Fe···Si distance for subsets of silicon cations. An electron localization function and electron localizability indicator analysis shows a three-center two-electron bonding attractor between the iron, silicon, and C'(ipso) atoms, clearly distinguishing the silicon cations from the corresponding carbenium ions and boranes. Correlations between (29)Si NMR chemical shifts and Lewis acidity, evaluated in terms of fluoride ion affinities, are seen only for subsets of silylium ions, sometimes with non-intuitive trends, indicating a complicated interplay of steric and electronic effects on the degree of the Fe···Si interaction.

  8. Phosphorylation and glycosylation interplay: protein modifications at hydroxy amino acids and prediction of signaling functions of the human beta3 integrin family.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ishtiaq; Hoessli, Daniel C; Walker-Nasir, Evelyne; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Rafik, Saleem M; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

    2006-10-15

    Protein functions are determined by their three-dimensional structures and the folded 3-D structure is in turn governed by the primary structure and post-translational modifications the protein undergoes during synthesis and transport. Defining protein functions in vivo in the cellular and extracellular environments is made very difficult in the presence of other molecules. However, the modifications taking place during and after protein folding are determined by the modification potential of amino acids and not by the primary structure or sequence. These post-translational modifications, like phosphorylation and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modifications, are dynamic and result in temporary conformational changes that regulate many functions of the protein. Computer-assisted studies can help determining protein functions by assessing the modification potentials of a given protein. Integrins are important membrane receptors involved in bi-directional (outside-in and inside-out) signaling events. The beta3 integrin family, including, alpha(IIb)beta3 and alpha(v)beta3, has been studied for its role in platelet aggregation during clot formation and clot retraction based on hydroxyl group modification by phosphate and GlcNAc on Ser, Thr, or Tyr and their interplay on Ser and Thr in the cytoplasmic domain of the beta3 subunit. An antagonistic role of phosphate and GlcNAc interplay at Thr758 for controlling both inside-out and outside-in signaling events is proposed. Additionally, interplay of GlcNAc and phosphate at Ser752 has been proposed to control activation and inactivation of integrin-associated Src kinases. This study describes the multifunctional behavior of integrins based on their modification potential at hydroxyl groups of amino acids as a source of interplay.

  9. The effect of intermetallic compound morphology on Cu diffusion in Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder bump on the Ni/Cu Under-bump metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic Sn-Ag solder alloy is one of the candidates for the Pb-free solder, and Sn-Pb solder alloys are still widely used in today’s electronic packages. In this tudy, the interfacial reaction in the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder joints was investigated with an assembly of a solder/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structures. In the Sn-3.5Ag solder joints reflowed at 260°C, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder/Ni interface. For the Sn-37Pb solder reflowed at 225°C for one to ten cycles, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 IMC formed between the solder and the Ni/Cu under-bump metallization (UBM). Nevertheless, the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC was observed in joints reflowed at 245°C after five cycles and at 265°C after three cycles. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution between the solder and Ni/Cu UBM, it was revealed that Cu content in the solder near the solder/IMC interface played an important role in the formation of the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC. In addition, the diffusion behavior of Cu in eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solders with the Ni/Cu UBM were probed and discussed. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated by detailed quantitative analysis in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1016-1017 atoms/cm2sec in both the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb systems.

  10. Unraveling the roles of thermal annealing and off-time duration in magnetic properties of pulsed electrodeposited NiCu nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji jamali, Z.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic alloy nanowires (ANWs) have long been studied owing to both their fundamental aspects and possible applications in magnetic storage media and magnetoresistance devices. Here, we report on the roles of thermal annealing and duration of off-time between pulses (toff) in crystalline characteristics and magnetic properties of arrays of pulsed electrodeposited NiCu ANWs (35 nm in diameter and a length of 1.2 μm), embedded in porous anodic alumina template. Increasing toff enabled us to increase the Cu content thereby fabricating NiCu ANWs with different crystallinity and alloy compositions. Although major hysteresis curve measurements showed no considerable change in magnetic properties before and after annealing, the first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis provided new insights into the roles of thermal annealing and toff. In other words, FORC diagrams indicated the presence of low and high coercive field regions in annealed Ni-rich ANWs, coinciding with the increase in toff in as-deposited ANWs. The former has a small coercivity with strong demagnetizing magnetostatic interactions from neighboring NWs and may correspond to a soft magnetic phase. The latter has a greater coercivity with weak interactions, corresponding to a hard magnetic phase. On the other hand, for as-deposited and annealed Cu-rich NiCu ANWs, a mixed phase of the soft and hard segments could be found. Furthermore, a transition from the interacting Ni-rich to non-interacting Cu-rich ANWs took place with a magnetic field applied parallel to the NW axis. Thus, these arrays of ANWs with tunable magnetic phases and interactions may have potential applications in the nanoscale devices.

  11. Hemoglobin Yoshizuka (G10(108)β asparagine→aspartic acid): a new variant with a reduced oxygen affinity from a Japanese family

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Takashi; Fujita, Shigeru; Ohta, Yoshiro; Hanada, Motosuke; Yanase, Toshiyuki

    1969-01-01

    During the course of a survey, a new hemoglobin, designated hemoglobin Yoshizuka, has been encountered in a Japanese family. Clinically, mild anemia was noted in five of six heterozygous individuals but no other significant abnormalities were found. Hemoglobin Yoshizuka is characterized by the substitution of aspartic acid for asparagine at the tenth residue of the G helix in the β-chain. Reduced oxygen affinity with almost normal heme-heme interaction was found to be a property of this abnormal hemoglobin. The asparagine residue G10(108)β lies in the internal cavity of the tetrameric molecule and its main chain carbonyl is thought to be hydrogen bonded to histidine G10(103)α at the region of contact between α- and β-chains. It would appear likely that the introduction of a carboxyl group into the central cavity might result in interactions between the polar groups and the substituted side chain, disrupting the system of hydrogen bonds which contribute to the stability of the contacts between unlike subunits. Images PMID:5355345

  12. Control of salicylic acid synthesis and systemic acquired resistance by two members of a plant-specific family of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaxi; Xu, Shaohua; Ding, Pingtao; Wang, Dongmei; Cheng, Yu Ti; He, Jing; Gao, Minghui; Xu, Fang; Li, Yan; Zhu, Zhaohai; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2010-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a defense hormone required for both local and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. Pathogen infections induce SA synthesis through up-regulating the expression of Isochorismate Synthase 1 (ICS1), which encodes a key enzyme in SA production. Here we report that both SAR Deficient 1 (SARD1) and CBP60g are key regulators for ICS1 induction and SA synthesis. Whereas knocking out SARD1 compromises basal resistance and SAR, overexpression of SARD1 constitutively activates defense responses. In the sard1-1 cbp60g-1 double mutant, pathogen-induced ICS1 up-regulation and SA synthesis are blocked in both local and systemic leaves, resulting in compromised basal resistance and loss of SAR. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that SARD1 and CBP60g represent a plant-specific family of DNA-binding proteins. Both proteins are recruited to the promoter of ICS1 in response to pathogen infections, suggesting that they control SA synthesis by regulating ICS1 at the transcriptional level. PMID:20921422

  13. Amino acid sequence of Coprinus macrorhizus peroxidase and cDNA sequence encoding Coprinus cinereus peroxidase. A new family of fungal peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Baunsgaard, L; Dalbøge, H; Houen, G; Rasmussen, E M; Welinder, K G

    1993-04-01

    Sequence analysis and cDNA cloning of Coprinus peroxidase (CIP) were undertaken to expand the understanding of the relationships of structure, function and molecular genetics of the secretory heme peroxidases from fungi and plants. Amino acid sequencing of Coprinus macrorhizus peroxidase, and cDNA sequencing of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase showed that the mature proteins are identical in amino acid sequence, 343 residues in size and preceded by a 20-residue signal peptide. Their likely identity to peroxidase from Arthromyces ramosus is discussed. CIP has an 8-residue, glycine-rich N-terminal extension blocked with a pyroglutamate residue which is absent in other fungal peroxidases. The presence of pyroglutamate, formed by cyclization of glutamine, and the finding of a minor fraction of a variant form lacking the N-terminal residue, indicate that signal peptidase cleavage is followed by further enzymic processing. CIP is 40-45% identical in amino-acid sequence to 11 lignin peroxidases from four fungal species, and 42-43% identical to the two known Mn-peroxidases. Like these white-rot fungal peroxidases, CIP has an additional segment of approximately 40 residues at the C-terminus which is absent in plant peroxidases. Although CIP is much more similar to horseradish peroxidase (HRP C) in substrate specificity, specific activity and pH optimum than to white-rot fungal peroxidases, the sequences of CIP and HRP C showed only 18% identity. Hence, CIP qualifies as the first member of a new family of fungal peroxidases. The nine invariant residues present in all plant, fungal and bacterial heme peroxidases are also found in CIP. The present data support the hypothesis that only one chromosomal CIP gene exists. In contrast, a large number of secretory plant and fungal peroxidases are expressed from several peroxidase gene clusters. Analyses of three batches of CIP protein and of 49 CIP clones revealed the existence of only two highly similar alleles indicating less

  14. The complete amino acid sequence of R-phycocyanin-I alpha and beta subunits from the red alga Porphyridium cruentum. Structural and phylogenetic relationships of the phycocyanins within the phycobiliprotein families.

    PubMed

    Ducret, A; Sidler, W; Frank, G; Zuber, H

    1994-04-01

    We present here the complete primary structure of R-phycocyanin-I alpha and beta subunits from the red alga Porphyridium cruentum. The alpha chain is composed of 162 amino acid residues (18049 Da, calculated from sequence, including chromophore) and carries a phycocyanobilin pigment covalently linked to Cys84. The beta chain contains 172 amino acids (19344Da, calculated from sequence, including chromophores) and carries a phycocyanobilin pigment covalently linked at Cys82 and a phycoerythrobilin pigment at Cys153. A gamma-N-methyl asparagine residue was also characterised at position beta 72 similar to other phycobiliprotein beta subunits. R-phycocyanin-I from Porphyridium cruentum shares high sequence identity with C-phycocyanins (69-83%), R-phycocyanins (66-70%) and in a less extent with phycoerythrocyanins (57-65%) from various sources. The presented phylogenetic trees are based on a comparison of all phycobiliprotein amino acid sequences known so far and confirm the clear affiliation of the R-phycocyanins in the phycocyanin family. In spite of their particular phycobilin pattern, they do not represent intermediate forms between the phycocyanin and the phycoerythrin family. Phycoerythrocyanin, a phycocyanin-related phycobiliprotein adapted to green light harvesting, is also shown to belong to the phycocyanin family. However, the phycoerythrocyanins diverge from phycocyanins in their different function and it is suggested that they should be assigned to a separate group within the phycocyanin family.

  15. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Influence of a Combined Inpatient/Outpatient Methadone Treatment Regimen on the Average Length of Stay of a Medicaid NICU Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jerry; Hulman, Sonia; Musci, Michael; Stang, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Prescription opioid and heroin abuse have been increasing steadily year after year, and continue to be a serious national problem. A sequela of the increase in opioid abuse has been an increase in the number of infants born with opioid dependence. These infants often require costly, prolonged stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for drug withdrawal treatment. The authors studied a population of infants from a large Medicaid health plan who were born with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) secondary to in utero opioid exposure to assess the average length of stay in the NICU, and to determine the variables that may account for differences in interinstitutional lengths of stay. The overall average length of stay for NAS was 21.1 days for the 139 infants included in the study. Analysis of the medication used for treatment revealed that infants who were treated with a combined inpatient/outpatient regimen with methadone had an average length of stay of 11.4 days versus 25.1 days for infants who were treated entirely as inpatients (P<0.001), a 55% reduction in average length of stay. In 2009 there were an estimated 13,600 cases of NAS in the United States at a cost of $53,000 per case. A 55% reduction in length of stay corresponds to $396 million in annual savings for the treatment of NAS. Development of successful combined inpatient/outpatient management programs for NAS warrants further consideration.

  16. Crustal contamination and sulfide immiscibility history of the Permian Huangshannan magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, East Tianshan, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Tang, Dong-Mei; Feng, Hong-Ye; Xue, Sheng-Chao

    2016-11-01

    The Huangshannan mafic-ultramafic intrusion is a Permian Ni-Cu sulfide-bearing intrusion in the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The intrusion consists of an ultramafic unit, which is composed of lherzolite and olivine websterite, and a mafic unit, which is composed of olivine gabbronorite, gabbronorite and leuco-gabbronorite. This intrusion was formed by two separate pulses of magma: a more primitive magma for the early ultramafic unit and a more evolved magma for the late mafic unit. U-Pb isotope geochronology of zircon from the mafic unit yields an age of 278 ± 2 Ma. According to its olivine and Cr-rich spinel compositions, the estimated parental magma of lherzolite for the Huangshannan intrusion has 12.4 wt.% MgO, indicating picritic affinity. Fractional crystallization modeling results and the presence of rounded sulfide inclusions in an olivine crystal (Fo 86.7) indicate that sulfide immiscibility was achieved at the beginning of olivine fractionation. Co-magmatic zircon crystals from gabbronorite have a δ18O value close to 6.5‰, which is 1.2‰ higher than the typical mantle value and suggests significant crustal contamination (∼20%). The positive εHf(t) values of co-magmatic zircon (which vary from +9.2 to +15.3) and positive whole rock εNd(t) values (which vary from +4.7 to +7.8) also indicate that the parental magma was derived from a depleted mantle source and contaminated by 5-20% juvenile arc crust and then by ∼5% upper crustal materials. However, modeling results of sulfur content at sulfide saturation reveal that such a large amount of crustal contamination is not sufficient to trigger sulfide saturation in the parental magma, which strongly suggests that external sulfur addition, probably during contamination, has played a critical role in causing sulfide immiscibility. Furthermore, the arc magmatism geochemical signatures of the Huangshannan intrusion, such as significant Nb and Ta depletion relative to La and low Ca

  17. Variable mineralization processes during the formation of the Permian Hulu Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, Xinjiang, Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun; Zu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    The Permian Hulu Ni-Cu sulfide deposit is located at the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Northern Xinjiang, Northwestern China. The host intrusion of the Hulu deposit is composed of a layered mafic-ultramafic sequence and a dike-like unit. The layered sequence is composed of harzburgite, lherzolite, pyroxenite, gabbro, gabbrodiorite and diorite. The dike-like body comprises lherzolite and gabbro. Sulfide orebodies occur mainly within the harzburgite, pyroxenite and lherzolite at the base of the layered sequence and within the lherzolite in the dike-like body. Sulfide mineralization from the Hulu deposit shows significant depletion of PGE relative to Cu and Ni. These elements show good positive correlations with S in the sulfide mineralization from the dike-like unit but relatively weak correlations in the sulfide mineralization from the layered sequence. The sulfide mineralization from the layered unit shows excellent positive correlations between Ir and Os, Ru or Rh, and poor relationships between Ir and Pt or Pd. On the contrary, sulfide mineralization from the dike-like unit shows good correlations in the diagrams of Os, Ru, Rh, Pt and Pd against Ir. Both high Cu/Pd ratios (8855-481,398) and our modeling indicate that PGE depletion resulted from sulfide removal in a deep staging magma chamber. The evolved PGE-depleted magmas then ascended to the shallower magma chamber and became sulfide saturation due to crustal contamination. Both low Se/S ratios (33.5 × 10-6-487.5 × 10-6) and a negative correlation between Se/S and Cu/Pd ratios are consistent with the addition of crustal S. A large number of sulfide liquids segregated with minor crystallization of monosulfide solid solution (MSS) in the shallower magma chamber. When new magma pulses with unfractionated sulfide droplets entered the shallower magma chamber, the sulfide slurry containing crystallized MSS may be disrupted and mixed with the unfractionated sulfide droplets. The

  18. Glutathione transferase supergene family in tomato: Salt stress-regulated expression of representative genes from distinct GST classes in plants primed with salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Csiszár, Jolán; Horváth, Edit; Váry, Zsolt; Gallé, Ágnes; Bela, Krisztina; Brunner, Szilvia; Tari, Irma

    2014-05-01

    A family tree of the multifunctional proteins, glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) was created in Solanum lycopersicum based on homology to known Arabidopsis GSTs. The involvement of selected SlGSTs was studied in salt stress response of tomato primed with salicylic acid (SA) or in un-primed plants by real-time qPCR. Selected tau GSTs (SlGSTU23, SlGSTU26) were up-regulated in the leaves, while GSTs from lambda, theta, dehydroascorbate reductase and zeta classes (SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2, SlDHAR5, SlGSTZ2) in the root tissues under salt stress. Priming with SA exhibited a concentration dependency; SA mitigated the salt stress injury and caused characteristic changes in the expression pattern of SlGSTs only at 10(-4) M concentration. SlGSTF4 displayed a significant up-regulation in the leaves, while the abundance of SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2 and SlGSTZ2 transcripts were enhanced in the roots of plants primed with high SA concentration. Unexpectedly, under high salinity the SlDHAR2 expression decreased in primed roots as compared to the salt-stressed plants, however, the up-regulation of SlDHAR5 isoenzyme contributed to the maintenance of DHAR activity in roots primed with high SA. The members of lambda, theta and zeta class GSTs have a specific role in salt stress acclimation of tomato, while SlGSTU26 and SlGSTF4, the enzymes with high glutathione conjugating activity, characterize a successful priming in both roots and leaves. In contrast to low concentration, high SA concentration induced those GSTs in primed roots, which were up-regulated under salt stress. Our data indicate that induction of GSTs provide a flexible tool in maintaining redox homeostasis during unfavourable conditions.

  19. Family Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  20. Family Arguments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  1. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  2. Common NICU Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... A machine that tracks the baby's heart and breathing rates. It is connected to the baby by small ... printed onto paper. If the baby's heart or breathing rate becomes too fast or too slow, an alarm ...

  3. Grandparents and the NICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... help your grandchild or ease your child's distress Pride and joy over the latest addition to your ... help your grandchild or ease your child's distress Pride and joy over the latest addition to your ...

  4. Association of polymorphisms in solute carrier family 27, isoform A6 (SLC27A6) and fatty acid-binding protein-3 and fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP3 and FABP4) with fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Nafikov, R A; Schoonmaker, J P; Korn, K T; Noack, K; Garrick, D J; Koehler, K J; Minick-Bormann, J; Reecy, J M; Spurlock, D E; Beitz, D C

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop tools for genetic selection of animals producing milk with a lower concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The reasons for changing milk fatty acid (FA) composition were to improve milk technological properties, such as for production of more spreadable butter, and milk nutritional value with respect to the potentially adverse effects of SFA on human health. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in solute carrier family 27, isoform A6 (SLC27A6) fatty acid transport protein gene and fatty acid binding protein (FABP)-3 and FABP-4 (FABP3 and FABP4) would affect the selectivity of FA uptake into, and FA redistribution inside, mammary epithelial cells, resulting in altered FA composition of bovine milk. The objectives of our study were to discover genetic polymorphisms in SLC27A6, FABP3, and FABP4, and to test those polymorphisms for associations with milk FA composition. The results showed that after pairwise comparisons between SLC27A6 haplotypes for significantly associated traits, haplotype H3 was significantly associated with 1.37 weight percentage (wt%) lower SFA concentration, 0.091 lower SFA:UFA ratio, and 0.17 wt% lower lauric acid (12:0) concentration, but 1.37 wt% higher UFA and 1.24 wt% higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations compared with haplotype H1 during the first 3 mo of lactation. Pairwise comparisons between FABP4 haplotypes for significantly associated traits showed that haplotype H3 was significantly associated with 1.04 wt% lower SFA concentration, 0.079 lower SFA:UFA ratio, 0.15 wt% lower lauric acid (12:0), and 0.27 wt% lower myristic acid (14:0) concentrations, but 1.04 wt% higher UFA and 0.91 wt% higher MUFA concentrations compared with haplotype H1 during the first 3 mo of lactation. Percentages of genetic variance explained by H3 versus H1 haplotype substitutions for SLC27A6 and FABP4 ranged from 2.50 to 4.86% and

  5. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  6. Family Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Charles W., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on the impact of learning disabilities within families, specifically families with low literacy skills. It explores the effectiveness of family literacy programs, examines the connection between the field of family literacy and learning disabilities (LD), and offers suggestions on how to work with students with…

  7. Asteroid families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.

    1991-01-01

    More than 100 asteroid families are presented in Williams. Several examples of cratering events are known including family numbers 150, 162, 169, and 189. These are recognizable as many small fragments adjacent to and to one side (in three dimensions) of a much larger cratered body. Family numbers 138 and 140 are adjacent in proper element space. In population they are an intermediate step between the long recognizable families and the more frequent less populated families. Family number 164 is the fifth most populous family in the belt. All members are faint and nothing is known of the physical properties.

  8. Structure and magnetism of S = 1/2 kagome antiferromagnets NiCu3(OH)6Cl2 and CoCu3(OH)6Cl2.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-sheng; Zhang, Qing-ming

    2013-01-16

    We have successfully synthesized S = 1/2 kagome antiferromagnets MCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2) (M = Ni and Co) by a hydrothermal method with a rotating pressure vessel. Structural characterization shows that both compounds have similar crystal structure to ZnCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2) with R3m symmetry. As with ZnCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2), the compounds show no obvious hysteresis at 2 K. A spin-glass transition is found in both NiCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2) and CoCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2) at low temperatures (6.0 and 3.5 K respectively) by AC susceptibility measurements. This indicates no long-range magnetic order and a strong spin frustration. The substitution of Zn(2+) by magnetic ions Ni(2+) or Co(2+) effectively enhances the interlayer exchange coupling and changes the ground state of the kagome spin system.

  9. Structure and magnetism of S = 1/2 kagome antiferromagnets NiCu3(OH)6Cl2 and CoCu3(OH)6Cl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue-sheng; Zhang, Qing-ming

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully synthesized S = 1/2 kagome antiferromagnets MCu3(OH)6Cl2 (M = Ni and Co) by a hydrothermal method with a rotating pressure vessel. Structural characterization shows that both compounds have similar crystal structure to ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2 with R\\bar {3}m symmetry. As with ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2, the compounds show no obvious hysteresis at 2 K. A spin-glass transition is found in both NiCu3(OH)6Cl2 and CoCu3(OH)6Cl2 at low temperatures (6.0 and 3.5 K respectively) by AC susceptibility measurements. This indicates no long-range magnetic order and a strong spin frustration. The substitution of Zn2+ by magnetic ions Ni2+ or Co2+ effectively enhances the interlayer exchange coupling and changes the ground state of the kagome spin system.

  10. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Influence of a Combined Inpatient/Outpatient Methadone Treatment Regimen on the Average Length of Stay of a Medicaid NICU Population

    PubMed Central

    Hulman, Sonia; Musci, Michael; Stang, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prescription opioid and heroin abuse have been increasing steadily year after year, and continue to be a serious national problem. A sequela of the increase in opioid abuse has been an increase in the number of infants born with opioid dependence. These infants often require costly, prolonged stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for drug withdrawal treatment. The authors studied a population of infants from a large Medicaid health plan who were born with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) secondary to in utero opioid exposure to assess the average length of stay in the NICU, and to determine the variables that may account for differences in interinstitutional lengths of stay. The overall average length of stay for NAS was 21.1 days for the 139 infants included in the study. Analysis of the medication used for treatment revealed that infants who were treated with a combined inpatient/outpatient regimen with methadone had an average length of stay of 11.4 days versus 25.1 days for infants who were treated entirely as inpatients (P<0.001), a 55% reduction in average length of stay. In 2009 there were an estimated 13,600 cases of NAS in the United States at a cost of $53,000 per case. A 55% reduction in length of stay corresponds to $396 million in annual savings for the treatment of NAS. Development of successful combined inpatient/outpatient management programs for NAS warrants further consideration. (Population Health Management 2015;18:392–397) PMID:25803316

  11. Positive Effect of Human Milk Feeding during NICU Hospitalization on 24 Month Neurodevelopment of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Italian Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibertoni, Dino; Corvaglia, Luigi; Vandini, Silvia; Rucci, Paola; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Sansavini, Alessandra; Fantini, Maria Pia; Faldella, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g) was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. The effect of human milk nutrition on neurodevelopment was first investigated using a multiple linear regression model, to adjust for the effects of gestational age, small for gestational age, complications at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and socio-economic status. Path analysis was then used to refine the multiple regression model, taking into account the relationships among predictors and their temporal sequence. Human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization and higher socio-economic status were associated with better neurodevelopment at 24 months in both models. In the path analysis model intraventricular hemorrhage—periventricular leukomalacia and growth restriction at discharge proved to be directly and independently associated with poorer neurodevelopment. Gestational age and growth restriction at birth had indirect significant effects on neurodevelopment, which were mediated by complications that occurred at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and type of feeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mother’s human milk feeding during hospitalization can be encouraged because it may improve neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age. PMID:25590630

  12. Treating Parents to Reduce NICU Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus (TREAT PARENTS) trial: protocol of a multisite randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Milstone, Aaron M; Koontz, Danielle W; Voskertchian, Annie; Popoola, Victor O; Harrelson, Kathleen; Ross, Tracy; Aucott, Susan W; Gilmore, Maureen M; Carroll, Karen C; Colantuoni, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction More than 33 000 healthcare-associated infections occur in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) each year in the USA. Parents, rather than healthcare workers, may be a reservoir from which neonates acquire Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonisation in the NICU. This study looks to measure the effect of treating parents with short course intranasal mupirocin and topical chlorhexidine antisepsis on acquisition of S. aureus colonisation and infection in neonates. Methods and analysis The TREAT PARENTS trial (Treating Parents to Reduce Neonatal Transmission of S. aureus) is a multicentre randomised, masked, placebo-controlled trial. Shortly after a neonate is admitted to the NICU, parents will be tested for S. aureus colonisation. If either parent screens positive for S. aureus, then both parents as a pair will be enrolled and randomised to one of the two possible masked treatment arms. Arm 1 will include assignment to intranasal 2% mupirocin plus topical antisepsis with chlorhexidine gluconate impregnated cloths for 5 days. Arm 2 will include assignment to placebo ointment and placebo cloths for skin antisepsis for 5 days. The primary outcome will be neonatal acquisition of an S. aureus strain that is concordant to the parental baseline S. aureus strain as determined by periodic surveillance cultures or a culture collected during routine clinical care that grows S. aureus. Secondary outcomes will include neonatal acquisition of S. aureus, neonatal S. aureus infection, eradication of S. aureus colonisation in parents, natural history of S. aureus colonisation in parents receiving placebo, adverse reactions to treatment, feasibility of intervention, and attitudes and behaviour in consented parents. Four hundred neonate-parent pairs will be enrolled. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by Johns Hopkins University IRB in June 2014 (IRB number 00092982). Protocol V.7 was approved in November 2014. Findings will be published in peer

  13. Goals for Human Milk Feeding in Mothers of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: How Do Goals Change and Are They Achieved During the NICU Hospitalization?

    PubMed Central

    Bigger, Harold; Patel, Aloka L.; Rossman, Beverly; Fogg, Louis F.; Meier, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Little is known about human milk (HM) feeding goals for mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1,500 g birth weight) infants, especially for black mothers, for whom rates of VLBW birth are higher and lactation rates lower. This study examined the establishment, modification, and achievement of HM feeding goals during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization for mothers of VLBW infants and the influence of maternal race and income. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study measured maternal HM feeding goals (exclusive [EHM], partial, none) predelivery and during three time intervals: day of life (DOL) 1–14, 15–28, and 29–72. Goal achievement compared the goal for the time interval with the proportion of HM feedings received by the infant. Goal establishment, modification, and achievement were examined using chi-squared and contingency tables. Results: Three hundred fifty-two mother–infant dyads (53% black; 70% low-income; mean birth weight, 1,048 g) were studied. Predelivery, 55% of mothers planned to provide EHM; fewer black and low-income mothers chose EHM. During DOL 1–14, 63% of mothers chose EHM, and predelivery racial differences disappeared. Only 10% of mothers chose exclusive at-breast EHM feedings. EHM feeding goals decreased during NICU hospitalization, especially for black mothers. Whereas most mothers met their HM feeding goals initially, achievement rates declined during hospitalization. Mothers' EHM goal achievement was not influenced by race or income. Conclusions: Mothers changed their predelivery HM feeding goals after birth of a VLBW infant. Longitudinally, HM feeding goals and achievement reflected less HM use, highlighting the need to target lactation maintenance in this population. PMID:26110439

  14. Muslim Families and Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneshpour, Manijeh

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of the Anglo-American models of family therapy to Muslim immigrant families. The differences in value systems are the Muslim families' preferences for greater connectedness, a less flexible and more hierarchical family structure, and an implicit communication style. Suggests that directions for change for Muslims need to…

  15. Cancer, Families, and Family Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maureen; Gillig, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of the family counselor in working with cancer patients and their families. Suggests ways in which the family counselor can work proactively with families in the area of cancer prevention and helping them cope more effectively with its impact on their lives. Uses a clinical case example to illustrate intervention with cancer…

  16. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  17. The Obstacles against Nurse-Family Communication in Family-Centered Care in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hadian Shirazi, Zahra; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Rakhshan, Mahnaz; Pishva, Narjes; Jahanpour, Faezeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Communication is one of the key principles in Family-Centered Care (FCC). Studies have shown some drawbacks in communication between families and nurses. Therefore, the present study aimed to recognize the obstacles against nurse-family communication in FCC in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Methods: This qualitative study was conducted on 8 staff nurses in 2 NICUs affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences selected through purposive sampling. The data were collected using 8 deep semi-structured interviews and 3 observations. Then, they were analyzed through inductive content analysis. Results: Data analysis resulted in identification of 3 main categories and 7 subcategories. The first category was organizational factors with 2 subcategories of educational domain (inadequate education, lack of a system for nursing student selection, and poor professionalization) and clinical domain (difficult working conditions, lack of an efficient system for ongoing education and evaluation, and authoritarian management). The second category was familial factors with socio-cultural, psychological, and economic subcategories. The last category was the factors related to nurses with socio-cultural and psycho-physical subcategories. Conclusion: Identification of the obstacles against nurse-family communication helps managers of healthcare systems to plan and eliminate the challenges of effective communication. Besides, elimination of these factors leads to appropriate strategies in NICUs for effective application of FCC. PMID:26464837

  18. Increased Crystalline Cellulose Activity via Combinations of Amino Acid Changes in the Family 9 Catalytic Domain and Family 3c Cellulose Binding Module of Thermobifida fusca Cel9A ▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongchao; Irwin, Diana C.; Wilson, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid modifications of the Thermobifida fusca Cel9A-68 catalytic domain or carbohydrate binding module 3c (CBM3c) were combined to create enzymes with changed amino acids in both domains. Bacterial crystalline cellulose (BC) and swollen cellulose (SWC) assays of the expressed and purified enzymes showed that three combinations resulted in 150% and 200% increased activity, respectively, and also increased synergistic activity with other cellulases. Several other combinations resulted in drastically lowered activity, giving insight into the need for a balance between the binding in the catalytic cleft on either side of the cleavage site, as well as coordination between binding affinity for the catalytic domain and CBM3c. The same combinations of amino acid variants in the whole enzyme, Cel9A-90, did not increase BC or SWC activity but did have higher filter paper (FP) activity at 12% digestion. PMID:20173060

  19. Mitochondrial genome depletion in human liver cells abolishes bile acid-induced apoptosis: role of the Akt/mTOR survival pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jose J G; Hernandez, Alicia; Revuelta, Isabel E; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ester; Gonzalez-Buitrago, Jose M; Perez, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    Acute accumulation of bile acids in hepatocytes may cause cell death. However, during long-term exposure due to prolonged cholestasis, hepatocytes may develop a certain degree of chemoresistance to these compounds. Because mitochondrial adaptation to persistent oxidative stress may be involved in this process, here we have investigated the effects of complete mitochondrial genome depletion on the response to bile acid-induced hepatocellular injury. A subline (Rho) of human hepatoma SK-Hep-1 cells totally depleted of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was obtained, and bile acid-induced concentration-dependent activation of apoptosis/necrosis and survival signaling pathways was studied. In the absence of changes in intracellular ATP content, Rho cells were highly resistant to bile acid-induced apoptosis and partially resistant to bile acid-induced necrosis. In Rho cells, both basal and bile acid-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, was decreased. Bile acid-induced proapoptotic signals were also decreased, as evidenced by a reduction in the expression ratios Bax-α/Bcl-2, Bcl-xS/Bcl-2, and Bcl-xS/Bcl-xL. This was mainly due to a downregulation of Bax-α and Bcl-xS. Moreover, in these cells the Akt/mTOR pathway was constitutively activated in a ROS-independent manner and remained similarly activated in the presence of bile acid treatment. In contrast, ERK1/2 activation was constitutively reduced and was not activated by incubation with bile acids. In conclusion, these results suggest that impaired mitochondrial function associated with mtDNA alterations, which may occur in liver cells during prolonged cholestasis, may activate mechanisms of cell survival accounting for an enhanced resistance of hepatocytes to bile acid-induced apoptosis. PMID:23597504

  20. Familial gigantism.

    PubMed

    Herder, Wouter W de

    2012-01-01

    Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas. PMID:22584702

  1. Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the 1990s" (James Knoll);…

  2. Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special focus" journal issue consists of 13 individual articles on the theme of rural family programs relating to school, health services, church, and other institutions. It includes: (1) "Towards a Rural Family Policy" (Judith K. Chynoweth and Michael D. Campbell); (2) "Montana: Council for Families Collaborates for Prevention (Jean…

  3. Amino acid substitutions of conserved residues in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the [alpha]I(X) chain of type X collagen occur in two unrelated families with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, G.A.; Rash, B.; Sweetman, W.A.; Thomas, J.T.; Grant, M.E.; Boot-Handford, R.P. ); Super, M. ); Evans, G. )

    1994-02-01

    Type X collagen is a homotrimeric, short-chain, nonfibrillar extracellular-matrix component that is specifically and transiently synthesized by hypertrophic chondrocytes at the site of endochondral ossification. The precise function of type X collagen is not known, but its specific pattern of expression suggests that mutations within the encoding gene (COL10A1) that alter the structure or synthesis of the protein may cause heritable forms of chondrodysplasia. The authors used the PCR and the SSCP techniques to analyze the coding and upstream promoter regions of the COL10A1 gene in a number of individuals with forms of chondrodysplasia. Using this approach, they identified two individuals with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS) with SSCP changes in the region of the gene encoding the carboxyl-terminal domain. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the individuals were heterozygous for two unique single-base-pair transitions that led to the substitution of the highly conserved amino acid residue tyrosine at position 598 by aspartic acid in one person and of leucine at position 614 by proline in the other. The substitution at residue 598 segregated with the phenotype in a family of eight (five affected and three unaffected) related persons. The substitutions at residue 614 occurred in a sporadically affected individual but not in her unaffected mother and brother. Additional members of this family were not available for further study. These results suggest that certain amino acid substitutions within the carboxyl-terminal domain of the chains of the type X collagen molecule cause MCDS. These amino acid substitutions are likely to alter either chain recognition or assembly of the type X collagen molecule, thereby depleting the amount of normal type X collagen deposited in the extracellular matrix, with consequent aberrations in bone growth and development. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Characterization of the sporulation-related gamma-D-glutamyl-(L)meso-diaminopimelic-acid-hydrolysing peptidase I of Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602 as a member of the metallo(zinc) carboxypeptidase A family. Modular design of the protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hourdou, M L; Guinand, M; Vacheron, M J; Michel, G; Denoroy, L; Duez, C; Englebert, S; Joris, B; Weber, G; Ghuysen, J M

    1993-01-01

    The sporulation-related gamma-D-glutamyl-(L)meso-diaminopimelic-acid-hydrolysing peptidase I of Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602 has been analysed by proton-induced X-ray emission. It contains 1 equivalent Zn2+ per mol of protein. As derived from gene cloning and sequencing, the B. sphaericus Zn peptidase I is a two-module protein. A 100-amino-acid-residue N-terminal domain consisting of two tandem segments of similar sequences, is fused to a 296-amino-acid-residue C-terminal catalytic domain. The catalytic domain belongs to the Zn carboxypeptidase A family, the closest match being observed with the Streptomyces griseus carboxypeptidase [Narahashi (1990) J. Biochem. 107, 879-886] and with the family prototype, bovine carboxypeptidase A. The catalytic domain of the B. sphaericus peptidase I possesses, distributed along the amino-acid sequence, peptide segments, a triad His162-Glu165-His307 and a dyad Tyr347-Glu366 that are equivalent to secondary structures, the zinc-binding triad His69-Glu72-His196 and the catalytic dyad Tyr248-Glu270 of bovine carboxypeptidase A respectively. The N-terminal repeats of the B. sphaericus peptidase I have similarity with the C-terminal repeats of the Enterococcus hirae muramidase 2, the Streptococcus (now Enterococcus) faecalis autolysin and the Bacillus phi PZA and phi 29 lysozymes, to which a role in the recognition of a particular moiety of the bacterial cell envelope has been tentatively assigned. Detergents enhance considerably the specific activity of the B. sphaericus peptidase I. Images Figure 1 PMID:8503890

  5. Xanthomonas campestris FabH is required for branched-chain fatty acid and DSF-family quorum sensing signal biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Hong; Hu, Zhe; Dong, Hui-Juan; Ma, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), a Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium, causes black rot disease of cruciferous vegetables. Although Xcc has a complex fatty acid profile comprised of straight-chain fatty acids and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs), and encodes a complete set of genes required for fatty acid synthesis, there is still little known about the mechanism of BCFA synthesis. We reported that expression of Xcc fabH restores the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum fabH mutant, and this allows the R. solanacearum fabH mutant to produce BCFAs. Using in vitro assays, we demonstrated that Xcc FabH is able to condense branched-chain acyl-CoAs with malonyl-ACP to initiate BCFA synthesis. Moreover, although the fabH gene is essential for growth of Xcc, it can be replaced with Escherichia coli fabH, and Xcc mutants failed to produce BCFAs. These results suggest that Xcc does not have an obligatory requirement for BCFAs. Furthermore, Xcc mutants lost the ability to produce cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid, a diffusible signal factor (DSF) required for quorum sensing of Xcc, which confirms that the fatty acid synthetic pathway supplies the intermediates for DSF signal biosynthesis. Our study also showed that replacing Xcc fabH with E. coli fabH affected Xcc pathogenesis in host plants. PMID:27595587

  6. Xanthomonas campestris FabH is required for branched-chain fatty acid and DSF-family quorum sensing signal biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong-Hong; Hu, Zhe; Dong, Hui-Juan; Ma, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), a Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium, causes black rot disease of cruciferous vegetables. Although Xcc has a complex fatty acid profile comprised of straight-chain fatty acids and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs), and encodes a complete set of genes required for fatty acid synthesis, there is still little known about the mechanism of BCFA synthesis. We reported that expression of Xcc fabH restores the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum fabH mutant, and this allows the R. solanacearum fabH mutant to produce BCFAs. Using in vitro assays, we demonstrated that Xcc FabH is able to condense branched-chain acyl-CoAs with malonyl-ACP to initiate BCFA synthesis. Moreover, although the fabH gene is essential for growth of Xcc, it can be replaced with Escherichia coli fabH, and Xcc mutants failed to produce BCFAs. These results suggest that Xcc does not have an obligatory requirement for BCFAs. Furthermore, Xcc mutants lost the ability to produce cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid, a diffusible signal factor (DSF) required for quorum sensing of Xcc, which confirms that the fatty acid synthetic pathway supplies the intermediates for DSF signal biosynthesis. Our study also showed that replacing Xcc fabH with E. coli fabH affected Xcc pathogenesis in host plants. PMID:27595587

  7. Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies of the Limahe mafic-ultramatic intrusion and associated Ni-Cu sulfide ores, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yan; Li, Chusi; Song, Xie-Yan; Ripley, Edward M.

    2008-11-01

    The Limahe Ni-Cu sulfide deposit is hosted by a small mafic-ultramafic intrusion (800 × 200 × 300 m) that is temporally associated with the voluminous Permian flood basalts in SW China. The objective of this study is to better understand the origin of the deposit in the context of regional magmatism which is important for the ongoing mineral exploration in the region. The Limahe intrusion is a multiphase intrusion with an ultramafic unit at the base and a mafic unit at the top. The two rock units have intrusive contacts and exhibit similar mantle-normalized trace element patterns and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions but significantly different cumulus mineralogy and major element compositions. The similarities suggest that they are related to a common parental liquid, whereas the differences point to magma differentiation by olivine crystallization at depth. Sulfide mineralization is restricted to the ultramafic unit. The abundances of sulfides in the ultramafic unit generally increase towards the basal contacts with sedimentary footwall. The δ 34S values of sulfide minerals from the Limahe deposit are elevated, ranging from +2.4 to +5.4‰. These values suggest the involvement of external S with elevated δ 34S values. The mantle-normalized platinum-group element (PGE) patterns of bulk sulfide ores are similar to those of picrites associated with flood basalts in the region. The abundances of PGE in the sulfide ores, however, are significantly lower than that of sulfide liquid expected to segregate from undepleted picrite magma. Cr-spinel and olivine are present in the Limahe ultramafic rocks as well as in the picrites. Mantle-normalized trace element patterns of the Limahe intrusion generally resemble those of the picrites. However, negative Nb-Ta anomalies, common features of contamination with the lower or middle crust, are present in the intrusion but absent in the picrites. Sr-Nd isotopes suggest that the Limahe intrusion experienced higher degrees of

  8. Systematic targeted mutagenesis of the MarR/SlyA family members of Dickeya dadantii 3937 reveals a role for MfbR in the modulation of virulence gene expression in response to acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Sylvie; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique; Effantin, Géraldine; Zghidi-Abouzid, Ouafa; Nasser, William

    2010-11-01

    Pathogenicity of Dickeya dadantii is a process involving several factors, such as plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and adaptation systems to adverse conditions encountered in the apoplast. Regulators of the MarR family control a variety of biological processes, including adaptation to hostile environments and virulence. Analysis of the members of this family in D. dadantii led to the identification of a new regulator, MfbR, which controls virulence. MfbR represses its own expression but activates genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Purified MfbR increases the binding of RNA polymerase at the virulence gene promoters and inhibits transcription initiation at the mfbR promoter. MfbR activity appeared to be modulated by acidic pH, a stress encountered by pathogens during the early stages of infection. Expression of mfbR and its targets, during infection, showed that MfbR is unable to activate virulence genes in acidic conditions at an early step of infection. In contrast, alkalinization of the apoplast, during an advanced stage of infection, led to the potentialization of MfbR activity resulting in plant cell wall degrading enzyme production. This report presents a new example of how pathogens adjust virulence-associated factors during the time-course of an infection. PMID:21062374

  9. Geochronology, petrology and Hf-S isotope geochemistry of the newly-discovered Xiarihamu magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Wenyuan; Wang, Yalei; Sun, Tao; Ripley, Edward M.

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the first set of data for the newly-discovered Xiarihamu magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in the Eastern Kunlun Paleozoic arc terrane which is located in the northern part of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. An on-going drilling campaign reveals ~ 100 million tons of sulfide mineralization with the average grade of 0.8 wt.% Ni and 0.1 wt.% Cu for the deposit. This makes the Xiarihamu deposit one of the 20 largest magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits in the world and the largest ever found in arc settings. The deposit is hosted in a small ultramafic body intruding older gabbroic and metamorphic rocks. New zircon U-Pb isotope age data reveal that the ultramafic body (411.6 ± 2.4 Ma) is ~ 20 Ma younger than the host gabbroic intrusion (431.3 ± 2.1 Ma). The ultramafic body is composed predominantly of lherzolite and olivine websterite, with minor dunite, websterite and orthopyroxenite. Mineralization mainly occurs as sub-horizontal to gently dipping (< 30°) disseminated sulfide zones that are generally concordant with the lithological structure of the ultramafic intrusion. The lateral extension and thickness of individual mineralized zones are up to ~ 200 m and ~ 100 m, respectively. Sulfide mineral assemblages are composed of pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite. The Xiarihamu ultramafic rocks show light REE enrichments and pronounced negative Nb anomalies, plus significant Ca-depletion in olivine (< 700 ppm Ca), which are characteristic of many arc basalts in the world. Olivine crystals in the Xiarihamu ultramafic rocks have relatively primitive compositions, with Fo contents up to 90 mol%, close to the mantle value. The contrasting Ni contents of olivine crystals with similar Fo contents from different sulfide-mineralized zones in a single drill core indicate that at least two pulses of sulfide-laden magma with different Ni compositions were involved in the development of the deposit. Estimated parental magma for the Xiarihamu lherzolites contains 52

  10. A third MRX family (MRX68) is the result of mutation in the long chain fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 (FACL4) gene: proposal of a rapid enzymatic assay for screening mentally retarded patients

    PubMed Central

    Longo, I; Frints, S; Fryns, J; Meloni, I; Pescucci, C; Ariani, F; Borghgraef, M; Raynaud, M; Marynen, P; Schwartz, C; Renieri, A; Froyen, G

    2003-01-01

    Background: The gene encoding fatty acid CoA ligase 4 (FACL4) is mutated in families with non-specific X linked mental retardation (MRX) and is responsible for cognitive impairment in the contiguous gene syndrome ATS-MR (Alport syndrome and mental retardation), mapped to Xq22.3. This finding makes this gene a good candidate for other mental retardation disorders mapping in this region. Methods: We have screened the FACL4 gene in eight families, two MRX and six syndromic X linked mental retardation (MRXS), mapping in a large interval encompassing Xq22.3. Results: We have found a missense mutation in MRX68. The mutation (c.1001C>T in the brain isoform) cosegregates with the disease and changes a highly conserved proline into a leucine (p.P375L) in the first luciferase domain, which markedly reduces the enzymatic activity. Furthermore, all heterozygous females showed completely skewed X inactivation in blood leucocytes, as happens in all reported females with other FACL4 point mutations or deletions. Conclusions: Since the FACL4 gene is highly expressed in brain, where it encodes a brain specific isoform, and is located in hippocampal and cerebellar neurones, a role for this gene in cognitive processes can be expected. Here we report the third MRX family with a FACL4 mutation and describe the development of a rapid enzymatic assay on peripheral blood that we propose as a sensitive, robust, and efficient diagnostic tool in mentally retarded males. PMID:12525535

  11. Simultaneous lipidomic analysis of three families of bioactive lipid mediators leukotrienes, resolvins, protectins and related hydroxy-fatty acids by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Masoodi, Mojgan; Mir, Adnan A.; Petasis, Nicos A.; Serhan, Charles N.; Nicolaou, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and exhibit a range of tissue and cell-specific activities in many physiological and pathological processes. Electrospray tandem mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (LC/ESI-MS/MS) is a sensitive, versatile analytical methodology for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipid mediators. Here we present an LC/ESI-MS/MS assay for the simultaneous analysis of twenty mono- and poly-hydroxy fatty acid derivatives of linoleic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. The assay was linear over the concentration range 1-100 pg/μL, whilst the limits of detection and quantitation were 10-20 and 20-50 pg respectively. The recovery of the extraction methodology varied from 76-122% depending on the metabolite. This system is useful for profiling a range of biochemically-related potent mediators including the newly discovered resolvins and protectins, and their precursor hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic and hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acids, and, consequently, advance our understanding of the role of PUFA in health and disease. PMID:18059001

  12. [The effect of diet ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids of omega-3 and omega-6 families on activity of aminotransferases and gamma-glutamyltransferase in rat blood serum].

    PubMed

    Ketsa, O V; Marchenko, M M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of diet fat compositions with various ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities in blood serum of 45 white mongrel rats weighing 90-110 g (9 animals in group) has been investigated. Fat components in the semi-synthetic diet, compiled on the basis of AIN-93 diet, and sources of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA were presented by sunflower oil, soybean oil and fish oil. It has been shown that four-week inclusion of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA) in a ratio of 7:1 into the diet (soybean oil) as well as use of only omega-6 PUFA (sunflower oil) has lead to an increase in the activity of ALT and GGT in rat blood serum compared to control animals treated with the complex of linolenic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid through the mixture of sunflower oil and fish oil (9:1) with the ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA 7:1. Along with this, the AST:ALT ratio (de Ritis ratio) was lower (p < 0.05) as compared with the control group of rat, amounting respectively 0.92 +/- 0.08 and 0.79 +/- 0.12 vs 1.26 +/- 0.10. The use of high doses of omega-3 fatty acids (600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA per kg of animal weight per day coming through fish oil) did not affect the activity of ALT and GGT, but increased AST serum activity (0.47 +/- 0.04 micromoles/min per mg protein) and the de Ritis ratio (2.53 +/- 0.23). The diet deprived with fat increased enzyme activity of ALT, AST and GGT in rat blood serum.

  13. Solidification Behavior and Weldability of Dissimilar Welds Between a Cr-Free, Ni-Cu Welding Consumable and Type 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowards, Jeffrey W.; Liang, Dong; Alexandrov, Boian T.; Frankel, Gerald S.; Lippold, John C.

    2012-04-01

    The solidification behavior of a Cr-free welding consumable based on the Ni-Cu system was evaluated in conjunction with Type 304L stainless steel. The weld metal microstructure evolution was evaluated with optical and secondary electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, button melting, and thermodynamic (CALPHAD-based) modeling. Solidification partitioning patterns showed that higher dilutions of the filler metal by Type 304L increased segregation of Ti, Cu, and Si to interdendritic regions. Button melting experiments showed a widening of the solidification temperature range with increasing dilution because of the expansion of the austenite solidification range and formation of Ti(C,N) via a eutectic reaction. The model predictions showed good correlation with button melting experiments and were used to evaluate the nature of the Ti(C,N) precipitation reaction. Solidification cracking susceptibility of the weld metal was shown to increase with dilution of 304L stainless steel based on testing conducted with the cast pin tear test. The increase in cracking susceptibility is associated with expansion of the solidification temperature range and the presence of eutectic liquid at the end of solidification that wets solidification grain boundaries.

  14. Cytochrome P450 (CYP2D6) Genotype is Associated with Elevated Systolic Blood Pressure in Preterm Infants Following NICU Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Dagle, John M; Fisher, Tyler J; Haynes, Susan E; Berends, Susan K; Brophy, Patrick D; Morriss, Frank H; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine genetic and clinical risk factors associated with elevated systolic blood pressure (ESBP) in preterm infants following discharge. Study design A convenience cohort of infants <32 weeks gestational age was followed after discharge; we retrospectively identified a subgroup of subjects with ESBP (SBP > 90th percentile for term infants). Genetic testing identified alleles associated with ESBP. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed for the outcome ESBP with clinical characteristics and genotype as independent variables. Results Predictors of ESBP were: CYP2D6 (rs28360521) CC genotype (OR 2.92; 95% CI 1.48, 5.79), adjusted for outpatient oxygen therapy (OR 4.53, 95%CI 2.23, 8.81) and history of urinary tract infection (OR 4.68, 95% CI 1.47, 14.86). Maximum SBP was modeled by multivariable linear regression analysis: Maximum SBP = 84.8 mmHg + 6.8 mmHg (if CYP2D6 CC genotype) + 6.8 mmHg (if discharged on supplemental oxygen) + 4.4 mmHg (if received inpatient glucocorticoids) (p=0.0002). Conclusion ESBP is common among preterm infants with residual lung disease following NICU discharge. This study reveals clinical factors associated with ESBP, identifies a candidate gene for further testing, and supports the recommendation that BP be monitored sooner than at age 3 years as suggested for term infants. PMID:21353244

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Welded Ti3Al/Ni-Based Superalloy Joint Using a Ni-Cu Filler Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing-Qing; Xiong, Hua-Ping; Guo, Shao-Qing; Sun, Bing-Bing; Chen, Bo; Tang, Si-Yi

    2015-02-01

    Dissimilar welding of a Ti3Al-based alloy and a Ni-based superalloy (Inconel 718) was successfully carried out using gas tungsten arc welding technology in this study. With a Ni-Cu alloy as filler material, sound joints have been obtained. The microstructure evolution along the cross section of the dissimilar joint has been revealed based on the results of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffractometer. It is found that the weld/Ti3Al interface is composed of Ti2AlNb matrix dissolved with Ni and Cu, Al(Cu, Ni)2Ti, (Cu, Ni)2Ti, (Nb, Ti) solid solution, and so on. The weld and In718/weld interface mainly consist of (Cu, Ni) solid solutions. The weld exhibits higher microhardness than the two base materials. The average room-temperature tensile strength of the joints reaches 242 MPa and up to 73.6 pct of the value can be maintained at 873 K (600 °C). The brittle intermetallic phase of Ti2AlNb matrix dissolved with Ni and Cu at the weld/Ti3Al interface is the weak link of the joint.

  16. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  17. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  18. Family Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This feature issue of IMPACT focuses on the empowerment of families with a member who has a developmental disability. It presents strategies and models for a collaborative, respectful approach to service provision, and presents the experiences of families in seeking support and assistance. Feature articles include "Two Generations of Disability: A…

  19. Family, Extended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jessica Rae

    2006-01-01

    Parents are a child's first and most influential teacher. People hear this truism often, yet nowhere has the author seen it more taken to heart than at Tower Street Elementary School. The school's efforts to form a true partnership with students' families--from involving families in the first day of school, to the principal making home visits, to…

  20. Family Potyviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Potyviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 9th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of viral sp...

  1. FAMILY EMPIDIDAE.

    PubMed

    Rafael, José Albertino; Câmara, Josenir Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Empididae is one of the biggest families of Diptera with around 3,000 known species. The family is poorly known in Colombia, with only six species reported and this work provides information on their distribution. No endemic genera or species have been recorded to date from Colombia. PMID:27395282

  2. Natural and synthetic poly(malic acid)-based derivates: a family of versatile biopolymers for the design of drug nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Loyer, Pascal; Cammas-Marion, Sandrine

    2014-08-01

    The field of specific drug delivery is an expanding research domain. Besides the use of liposomes formed from various lipids, natural and synthetic polymers have been developed to prepare more efficient drug delivery systems either under macromolecular prodrugs or under particulate nanovectors. To ameliorate the biocompatibility of such nanocarriers, degradable natural or synthetic polymers have attracted the interest of many researchers. In this context, poly(malic acid) (PMLA) extracted from microorganisms or synthesized from malic or aspartic acid was used to prepare water-soluble drug carriers or nanoparticles. Within this review, both the preparation and the applications of PMLA derivatives are described emphasizing the in vitro and in vivo assays. The results obtained by several groups highlight the interest of such polyesters in the field of drug delivery.

  3. iDPF-PseRAAAC: A Web-Server for Identifying the Defensin Peptide Family and Subfamily Using Pseudo Reduced Amino Acid Alphabet Composition.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yongchun; Lv, Yang; Wei, Zhuying; Yang, Lei; Li, Guangpeng; Fan, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    Defensins as one of the most abundant classes of antimicrobial peptides are an essential part of the innate immunity that has evolved in most living organisms from lower organisms to humans. To identify specific defensins as interesting antifungal leads, in this study, we constructed a more rigorous benchmark dataset and the iDPF-PseRAAAC server was developed to predict the defensin family and subfamily. Using reduced dipeptide compositions were used, the overall accuracy of proposed method increased to 95.10% for the defensin family, and 98.39% for the vertebrate subfamily, which is higher than the accuracy from other methods. The jackknife test shows that more than 4% improvement was obtained comparing with the previous method. A free online server was further established for the convenience of most experimental scientists at http://wlxy.imu.edu.cn/college/biostation/fuwu/iDPF-PseRAAAC/index.asp. A friendly guide is provided to describe how to use the web server. We anticipate that iDPF-PseRAAAC may become a useful high-throughput tool for both basic research and drug design. PMID:26713618

  4. iDPF-PseRAAAC: A Web-Server for Identifying the Defensin Peptide Family and Subfamily Using Pseudo Reduced Amino Acid Alphabet Composition

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Yongchun; Lv, Yang; Wei, Zhuying; Yang, Lei; Li, Guangpeng; Fan, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    Defensins as one of the most abundant classes of antimicrobial peptides are an essential part of the innate immunity that has evolved in most living organisms from lower organisms to humans. To identify specific defensins as interesting antifungal leads, in this study, we constructed a more rigorous benchmark dataset and the iDPF-PseRAAAC server was developed to predict the defensin family and subfamily. Using reduced dipeptide compositions were used, the overall accuracy of proposed method increased to 95.10% for the defensin family, and 98.39% for the vertebrate subfamily, which is higher than the accuracy from other methods. The jackknife test shows that more than 4% improvement was obtained comparing with the previous method. A free online server was further established for the convenience of most experimental scientists at http://wlxy.imu.edu.cn/college/biostation/fuwu/iDPF-PseRAAAC/index.asp. A friendly guide is provided to describe how to use the web server. We anticipate that iDPF-PseRAAAC may become a useful high-throughput tool for both basic research and drug design. PMID:26713618

  5. Family Theory and Family Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Different family theories can be applied to different aspects of how families experience health and illness. The family health and illness cycle describes the phases of a family's experience, beginning with health promotion and risk reduction, then family vulnerability and disease onset or relapse, family illness appraisal, family acute response, and finally family adaptation to illness and recovery. For each phase, specific family theories that are most appropriate for guiding family and health research are discussed. PMID:21229056

  6. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  7. Evolution of Substrate Specificity within a Diverse Family of [beta/alpha]-Barrel-fold Basic Amino Acid Decarboxylases X-ray Structure Determination of Enzymes with Specificity for L-Arginine and Carboxynorspermidine

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xiaoyi; Lee, Jeongmi; Michael, Anthony J.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Phillips, Margaret A.

    2010-08-26

    Pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (PLP)-dependent basic amino acid decarboxylases from the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel-fold class (group IV) exist in most organisms and catalyze the decarboxylation of diverse substrates, essential for polyamine and lysine biosynthesis. Herein we describe the first x-ray structure determination of bacterial biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase (CANSDC) to 2.3- and 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, solved as product complexes with agmatine and norspermidine. Despite low overall sequence identity, the monomeric and dimeric structures are similar to other enzymes in the family, with the active sites formed between the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel domain of one subunit and the {beta}-barrel of the other. ADC contains both a unique interdomain insertion (4-helical bundle) and a C-terminal extension (3-helical bundle) and it packs as a tetramer in the asymmetric unit with the insertions forming part of the dimer and tetramer interfaces. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies confirmed that the ADC solution structure is a tetramer. Specificity for different basic amino acids appears to arise primarily from changes in the position of, and amino acid replacements in, a helix in the {beta}-barrel domain we refer to as the 'specificity helix.' Additionally, in CANSDC a key acidic residue that interacts with the distal amino group of other substrates is replaced by Leu{sup 314}, which interacts with the aliphatic portion of norspermidine. Neither product, agmatine in ADC nor norspermidine in CANSDC, form a Schiff base to pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate, suggesting that the product complexes may promote product release by slowing the back reaction. These studies provide insight into the structural basis for the evolution of novel function within a common structural-fold.

  8. A fifth member of the tomato 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase gene family harbours a leucine zipper and is anaerobically induced.

    PubMed

    Sell, Simone; Hehl, Reinhard

    2005-02-01

    Using the leucine zipper domain of a small anaerobically induced bZIP transcription factor in a yeast two hybrid screen, anaerobically induced genes were identified. One peptide corresponds to an anaerobically induced IDS4-like protein that maybe involved in G-protein signaling. Surprisingly, another interacting peptide corresponds to a novel anaerobically induced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase, designated ACO5. ACO5 harbours a leucine zipper and transcription is mainly induced in fruits and to a lesser extend in leaves. The role of ACO5 in the low oxygen response of tomato is discussed. PMID:16040352

  9. Family Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... not mean that everyone gets along all the time. Conflicts are a part of family life. Many things can lead to conflict, such as illness, disability, addiction, job loss, school problems, and marital issues. Listening to ...

  10. Unusual families.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan

    2005-03-01

    The introduction of assisted reproduction has led to unusual forms of procreation. This article describes the social consequences of lesbian motherhood and of families headed by single heterosexual mothers. PMID:15819999

  11. Familial hypercholesterolemia

    MedlinePlus

    A diet low in cholesterol and saturated fat and rich in unsaturated fat may help to control your LDL level. People with a family history of this condition, particularly if both parents carry the defective ...

  12. Tomorrow's Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Robert S.

    1977-01-01

    Author states that "...the traditional form of family which has been the norm in recent times in the West will persist, but will be forced to "move over" to accommodate other forms of domestic life." (Author)

  13. FAMILY PIOPHILIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Pérez, Sandra; Grisales, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Piophilidae is a little family poorly known in Colombia, with only Piophila casei (L.) and Stearibia nigriceps Meigen reported so far. This catalogue expands the distribution of these species to other localities in the country. PMID:27395294

  14. FAMILY BIBIONIDAE.

    PubMed

    Falaschi, Rafaela Lopes; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-06-14

    The Bibionidae are a family belonging to the suborder Bibionomorpha with four genera and 17 species known from Colombia. This work expands the distribution of these species to other localities in the country.

  15. FAMILY RHAGIONIDAE.

    PubMed

    Santos, Charles Morphy D; Carmo, Daniel D D

    2016-01-01

    The family Rhagionidae is one of the oldest Brachyeran lineages. Its monophyly is still uncertain. There are four rhagionid genera distributed in Neotropical Region but only three species of Chrysopilus are found in Colombia. PMID:27395270

  16. FAMILY PLATYSTOMATIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Lisiane Dilli

    2016-01-01

    Platystomatidae (Signal Flies) are one of the largest families of Tephritoidea, with about 1200 species and four subfamilies, worldwide distributed. However, Platystomatidae are not well represented in the New World, and in the Neotropical Region only four genera and 26 species, belonging to Platystomatinae, are recorded. The family is a group understudied in Colombia and only one species is recorded to the country. PMID:27395295

  17. The AP-3 adaptor complex mediates sorting of yeast and mammalian PQ-loop-family basic amino acid transporters to the vacuolar/lysosomal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Llinares, Elisa; Barry, Abdoulaye Oury; André, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The limiting membrane of lysosomes in animal cells and that of the vacuole in yeast include a wide variety of transporters, but little is known about how these proteins reach their destination membrane. The mammalian PQLC2 protein catalyzes efflux of basic amino acids from the lysosome, and the similar Ypq1, −2, and −3 proteins of yeast perform an equivalent function at the vacuole. We here show that the Ypq proteins are delivered to the vacuolar membrane via the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) trafficking pathway, which requires the AP-3 adaptor complex. When traffic via this pathway is deficient, the Ypq proteins pass through endosomes from where Ypq1 and Ypq2 properly reach the vacuolar membrane whereas Ypq3 is missorted to the vacuolar lumen via the multivesicular body pathway. When produced in yeast, PQLC2 also reaches the vacuolar membrane via the ALP pathway, but tends to sort to the vacuolar lumen if AP-3 is defective. Finally, in HeLa cells, inhibiting the synthesis of an AP-3 subunit also impairs sorting of PQLC2 to lysosomes. Our results suggest the existence of a conserved AP-3-dependent trafficking pathway for proper delivery of basic amino acid exporters to the yeast vacuole and to lysosomes of human cells. PMID:26577948

  18. GmCYP82A3, a Soybean Cytochrome P450 Family Gene Involved in the Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene Signaling Pathway, Enhances Plant Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoxia; Lin, Shuai; Gan, Shuping; Xing, Han; Dou, Daolong

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) represent a large and important enzyme superfamily in plants. They catalyze numerous monooxygenation/hydroxylation reactions in biochemical pathways, P450s are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways and participate in the homeostasis of phytohormones. The CYP82 family genes specifically reside in dicots and are usually induced by distinct environmental stresses. However, their functions are largely unknown, especially in soybean (Glycine max L.). Here, we report the function of GmCYP82A3, a gene from soybean CYP82 family. Its expression was induced by Phytophthora sojae infection, salinity and drought stresses, and treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or ethephon (ETH). Its expression levels were consistently high in resistant cultivars. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants overexpressing GmCYP82A3 exhibited strong resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora parasitica, and enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. Furthermore, transgenic plants were less sensitive to jasmonic acid (JA), and the enhanced resistance was accompanied with increased expression of the JA/ET signaling pathway-related genes. PMID:27588421

  19. GmCYP82A3, a Soybean Cytochrome P450 Family Gene Involved in the Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene Signaling Pathway, Enhances Plant Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoxia; Lin, Shuai; Gan, Shuping; Xing, Han; Dou, Daolong

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) represent a large and important enzyme superfamily in plants. They catalyze numerous monooxygenation/hydroxylation reactions in biochemical pathways, P450s are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways and participate in the homeostasis of phytohormones. The CYP82 family genes specifically reside in dicots and are usually induced by distinct environmental stresses. However, their functions are largely unknown, especially in soybean (Glycine max L.). Here, we report the function of GmCYP82A3, a gene from soybean CYP82 family. Its expression was induced by Phytophthora sojae infection, salinity and drought stresses, and treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or ethephon (ETH). Its expression levels were consistently high in resistant cultivars. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants overexpressing GmCYP82A3 exhibited strong resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora parasitica, and enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. Furthermore, transgenic plants were less sensitive to jasmonic acid (JA), and the enhanced resistance was accompanied with increased expression of the JA/ET signaling pathway-related genes. PMID:27588421

  20. PPARgamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism in relation to free fatty acids concentration and composition in lean healthy Czech individuals with and without family history of diabetes type 2.

    PubMed

    Bendlová, B; Vejrazková, D; Vcelák, J; Lukásová, P; Burkonová, D; Kunesová, M; Vrbíková, J; Dvoráková, K; Vondra, K; Vanková, M

    2008-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) are natural ligands of the PPARgamma2 receptor. FFA plasma concentration and composition may represent one of the factors accounting for high heterogeneity of conclusions concerning the effect of the Pro12Ala on BMI, insulin sensitivity or diabetes type 2 (DM2) susceptibility. Our objective was to investigate the relation and possible interactions between the Pro12Ala polymorphism and FFA status, metabolic markers, and body composition in 324 lean nondiabetic subjects (M/F: 99/225; age 32+/-11 years; BMI 23.9+/-4.0 kg/m(2)) with and without family history of DM2. Family history of DM2 was associated with lower % PUFA and slightly higher % MUFA. The presence of Pro12Ala polymorphism was not associated with fasting plasma FFA concentration or composition, anthropometric or metabolic markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in tested population. However, the interaction of carriership status with FFA levels influenced the basal glucose levels, insulin sensitivity and disposition indices, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and leptin levels, especially in women. The metabolic effects of 12Ala carriership were influenced by FFA levels - the beneficial role of 12Ala was seen only in the presence of low concentration of plasma FFA. Surprisingly, a high PUFA/SFA ratio was associated with lower insulin sensitivity, the protective effect of 12Ala allele was apparent in subjects with family history of DM2. On the basis of our findings and published data we recommend the genotyping of diabetic patients for Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARgamma2 gene before treatment with thiazolidinediones and education of subjects regarding diet and physical activity, which modulate metabolic outcomes.

  1. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  2. The occurrences of chest pains and frequent coughing among residents living within the Selebi Phikwe Ni-Cu mine area, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Ekosse, Georges; de Jager, Linda; van den Heever, Dawid J

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing occurrences of chest pains and frequent coughing among different classes of residents within Selebi Phikwe, Botswana where there are on going nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) mining and smelting activities. Through the administration of questionnaires and structured questions to 600 individuals, 7 health service providers, 200 business enterprises, and 30 educational institutions, attempts were made to establish and verify the existing human health status at Selebi Phikwe by focusing on chest pains and frequent coughing which are considered to be some of the respiratory tract related symptoms of sicknesses and diseases. With the aid of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), interpreted results from respondents indicated that 33 % of the individuals complained of persistent chest pains; and 27 % of educational institutions, 45 % business enterprises, and all health service providers had learners, workers, and patients who complained of chest pains. Furthermore, 49 % of the individuals complained of persistent frequent coughing; and 70 % of educational institutions, 45 % business enterprises, and all health service providers had learners, workers, and patients who complained of frequent coughing. According to study sites, respondents living in sites closest to the mine and smelter / concentrator plant reported a higher incidence of chest pains and frequent coughing, compared to those living in other parts of the study area. Residents associate fumes and dust from mining activities to the frequent coughing and persistent chest pains, which could be symptoms of respiratory tract diseases. This baseline investigation calls for further studies to establish relations of mining activities to human health at Selebi Phikwe. PMID:17298138

  3. The occurrences of chest pains and frequent coughing among residents living within the Selebi Phikwe Ni-Cu mine area, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Ekosse, Georges; de Jager, Linda; van den Heever, Dawid J

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing occurrences of chest pains and frequent coughing among different classes of residents within Selebi Phikwe, Botswana where there are on going nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) mining and smelting activities. Through the administration of questionnaires and structured questions to 600 individuals, 7 health service providers, 200 business enterprises, and 30 educational institutions, attempts were made to establish and verify the existing human health status at Selebi Phikwe by focusing on chest pains and frequent coughing which are considered to be some of the respiratory tract related symptoms of sicknesses and diseases. With the aid of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), interpreted results from respondents indicated that 33 % of the individuals complained of persistent chest pains; and 27 % of educational institutions, 45 % business enterprises, and all health service providers had learners, workers, and patients who complained of chest pains. Furthermore, 49 % of the individuals complained of persistent frequent coughing; and 70 % of educational institutions, 45 % business enterprises, and all health service providers had learners, workers, and patients who complained of frequent coughing. According to study sites, respondents living in sites closest to the mine and smelter / concentrator plant reported a higher incidence of chest pains and frequent coughing, compared to those living in other parts of the study area. Residents associate fumes and dust from mining activities to the frequent coughing and persistent chest pains, which could be symptoms of respiratory tract diseases. This baseline investigation calls for further studies to establish relations of mining activities to human health at Selebi Phikwe.

  4. Composition-dependent morphostructural properties of Ni-Cu oxide nanoparticles confined within the channels of ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica.

    PubMed

    Ungureanu, Adrian; Dragoi, Brindusa; Chirieac, Alexandru; Ciotonea, Carmen; Royer, Sébastien; Duprez, Daniel; Mamede, Anne Sophie; Dumitriu, Emil

    2013-04-24

    NiO and NiO-CuO polycrystalline rodlike nanoparticles were confined and stabilized within the channels of ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica by a simple and viable approach consisting in incipient wetness impregnation of the calcined support with aqueous solutions of metal nitrates followed by a mild drying step at 25 °C and calcination. As revealed by low- and high-angle XRD, N2 adsorption/desorption, HRTEM/EDXS and H2 TPR analyses, the morphostructural properties of NiO-CuO nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting their chemical composition, creating the prerequisites to obtain high performance bimetallic catalysts. Experimental evidence by in situ XRD monitoring during the thermoprogrammed reduction indicates that the confined NiO-CuO nanoparticles evolve into thermostable and well-dispersed Ni-Cu heterostructures. The strong Cu-Ni and Ni-support interactions demonstrated by TPR and XPS were put forward to explain the formation of these new bimetallic structures. The optimal Ni-Cu/SBA-15 catalyst (i.e., Cu/(Cu+Ni) atomic ratio of 0.2) proved a greatly enhanced reducibility and H2 chemisorption capacity, and an improved activity in the hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde, as compared with the monometallic Ni/SBA-15 or Cu/SBA-15 counterparts, which can be associated with the synergism between nickel and copper and high dispersion of active components on the SBA-15 host. The unique structure and controllable properties of both oxidic and metallic forms of Ni-Cu/SBA-15 materials make them very attractive for both fundamental research and practical catalytic applications. PMID:23496429

  5. Health Worker Opinion/perception of health services provided to patients in the Selebi Phikwe Ni-Cu Mine Area, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Ekosse, Georges; de Jager, Linda; van den Heever, Dawid J

    2006-01-01

    This study determines the prevalence of types of sicknesses and diseases affecting patients visiting health service facilities and the available health services within the Selebi Phikwe Ni-Cu mine area, Botswana. Through the administration of questionnaires and structured questions, attempts were made to establish and verify the existing human health problems at the study area by focusing on respiratory tract related symptoms of sicknesses and diseases. With the aid of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), interpreted results from respondents indicated that all the health service providers served patients suffering from headaches, persistent coughing, chest pains, lower abdominal pains, pain when passing out urine, genital discharge and diarrhea. Seventy one percent of the health service providers indicated that their patients suffered from body weakness, 86 % indicated that they had patients who suffered from recent loss of body weight, and another 86 % pointed out that their patients had influenza/common cold. Other health complaints reported included unusual spitting, shortness of breath, palpitations, nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea, and constipation. Moreover the health service providers indicated that they had patients who suffered from significant illnesses of which some passed away. However if there are lacking facilities, patients are referred to bigger health service providers in the country. The findings of the study do not in general depict demarcating differences of health status of residents of the study area to those of the control site. A need therefore for further investigations to be conducted to establish relations of mining activities to human health at Selebi Phikwe is called for. PMID:17348749

  6. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  7. Conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase belonged to motif B′ methyltransferase family in Coffea arabica

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Kouichi; Matsuzaki, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Shiho; Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Yoshizawa, Yuko; Kato, Misako

    2014-10-03

    Graphical abstract: Trigonelline synthase catalyzes the conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline. We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene(s) from Coffea arabica. - Highlights: • Trigonelline is a major compound in coffee been same as caffeine is. • We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene. • Coffee trigonelline synthases are highly homologous with coffee caffeine synthases. • This study contributes the fully understanding of pyridine alkaloid metabolism. - Abstract: Trigonelline (N-methylnicotinate), a member of the pyridine alkaloids, accumulates in coffee beans along with caffeine. The biosynthetic pathway of trigonelline is not fully elucidated. While it is quite likely that the production of trigonelline from nicotinate is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase, as is caffeine synthase (CS), the enzyme(s) and gene(s) involved in N-methylation have not yet been characterized. It should be noted that, similar to caffeine, trigonelline accumulation is initiated during the development of coffee fruits. Interestingly, the expression profiles for two genes homologous to caffeine synthases were similar to the accumulation profile of trigonelline. We presumed that these two CS-homologous genes encoded trigonelline synthases. These genes were then expressed in Escherichiacoli, and the resulting recombinant enzymes that were obtained were characterized. Consequently, using the N-methyltransferase assay with S-adenosyl[methyl-{sup 14}C]methionine, it was confirmed that these recombinant enzymes catalyzed the conversion of nicotinate to trigonelline, coffee trigonelline synthases (termed CTgS1 and CTgS2) were highly identical (over 95% identity) to each other. The sequence homology between the CTgSs and coffee CCS1 was 82%. The pH-dependent activity curve of CTgS1 and CTgS2 revealed optimum activity at pH 7.5. Nicotinate was the specific methyl acceptor for CTgSs, and no activity was detected with any other nicotinate derivatives, or

  8. Multigene families in African swine fever virus: family 505.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, J M; Yañez, R J; Pan, R; Rodriguez, J F; Salas, M L; Viñuela, E

    1994-01-01

    Sequencing of restriction fragment EcoRI A-SalI C of African swine fever virus has revealed the existence of a multigene family, designated family 505 because of the average number of amino acids in the proteins, composed of seven homologous and tandemly arranged genes. All the genes of family 505 are expressed during infection. Primer extension analysis showed that transcription is initiated a short distance (3 to 62 nucleotides) from the start codon of the corresponding open reading frame. The proteins of family 505 showed similarity to those of family 360 from African swine fever virus. In particular, a striking conservation of three regions at the amino terminus of the polypeptides was observed. Images PMID:8139051

  9. Safety and effectiveness of skin-to-skin contact in the NICU to support neurodevelopment in vulnerable preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Carbasse, Aurélia; Kracher, Sylvie; Hausser, Martine; Langlet, Claire; Escande, Benoît; Donato, Lionel; Astruc, Dominique; Kuhn, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is a cornerstone of neurodevelopmentally supportive and family-oriented care for very low-birth-weight preterm infants (VPIs). However, performing SSC with unstable and/or ventilated VPIs remains challenging for caregiving teams and/or controversial in the literature. We first aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of SSC with vulnerable VPIs in a neonatal intensive care unit over 12 months. Our second aim was to evaluate the impact of the respiratory support (intubation or not) and of the infant's weight (above or below 1000 g) on the effects of SSC. Vital signs, body temperature, and oxygen requirement data were prospectively recorded by each infant's nurse before (baseline), during (3 time points), and after their first or first 2 SSC episodes. We compared the variations of each parameter from baseline (analysis of variance for repeated measures with post hoc analysis when appropriate). We studied 141 SSCs in 96 VPIs of 28 (24-33) weeks' gestational age, at 12 (0-55) days of postnatal age, and at a postmenstrual age of 30.5 (±1.5) weeks. During SSC, there were statistically significant increases in oxygen saturation (Sao2) (P < .001) with decreases in oxygen requirement (P = .043), a decrease in heart rate toward stability (P < .01) but a transient and moderate decrease in mean axillary temperature following the transfer from bed to mother (P < .05). Apneas/bradycardias requiring minor intervention occurred in 19 (13%) SSCs, without need for SSC termination. These variations were similar for intubated newborns (18%) as compared with newborns on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (52%) or breathing room air (30%). However, ventilated infants exhibited a significant increase in transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (TcPco2) (P = .01), although remaining in a clinically acceptable range, and a greater decrease in oxygen requirements during SSC (P < .001) than nonventilated infants. Skin-to-skin contact in the

  10. FAMILY HYBOTIDAE.

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; De Freitas-Silva, Rafael Augusto Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Hybotidae is a diverse family of the order Diptera, suborder Brachycera, superfamily Empidoidea. Hybotid flies are generally yellow to black, are morphologically diverse, and are distributed worldwide. The monophyly of the family is based on: palpifer and fore tibial gland present, laterotergite bare and R4+5 unbranched. Hybotids are mainly predators and are usually found on the vegetation, logs and other surfaces, or in flight during displacement and forage. This catalogue, based on the study of specimens and available literature records, summarizes and updates the information on the Colombian fauna of Hybotidae, which includes 19 species distributed in six genera. PMID:27395283

  11. Use of antireflection layers to avoid ghost plating on Ni/Cu plated crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Myeong Sang; Choi, Sung Jin; Chang, Hyo Sik; In Lee, Jeong; Kang, Min Gu; Kim, Donghwan; Song, Hee-eun

    2016-03-01

    Screen printing is a method commonly used for making electrodes for crystalline silicon solar cells. Although the screen-printing method is fast and easy, screen-printed electrodes have a porous structure, high contact resistance, and low aspect ratio. On the other hand, plated electrodes have low contact resistance and narrow electrode width. Therefore, the plating method could be substituted for the screen-printing method in crystalline silicon solar cells. During the plating process, ghost plating can appear at the surface when the quality of the passivation layer is poor, causing an increase in the recombination rate. In this paper, light-induced plating was applied to the fabrication of electrodes, and various passivation layers were investigated to remove ghost plating in crystalline silicon solar cells. These included, (1) SiNx deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), (2) a double SiNx layer formed by PECVD, (3) a double layer with thermal silicon oxide and SiNx deposited by PECVD, and (4) a double layer comprising SiNx and SiOx formed by PECVD. For the plated solar cells, a laser was used to remove various antireflection coating (ARC) layers and phosphoric acid was spin-coated onto the doped silicon wafer prior to laser ablation. Also, a screen-printed solar cell was fabricated to compare plated solar cells with screen-printed solar cells. As a result, we found that a thermal SiO2/PECVD SiNx layer showed the lowest pinhole density and its wet vapor transmission rate was characterized. The solar cell with the thermal SiO2/PECVD SiNx layer showed the lowest J02 value, as well as improved Voc and Jsc.

  12. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  13. Conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase belonged to motif B' methyltransferase family in Coffea arabica.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kouichi; Matsuzaki, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Shiho; Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Yoshizawa, Yuko; Kato, Misako

    2014-10-01

    Trigonelline (N-methylnicotinate), a member of the pyridine alkaloids, accumulates in coffee beans along with caffeine. The biosynthetic pathway of trigonelline is not fully elucidated. While it is quite likely that the production of trigonelline from nicotinate is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase, as is caffeine synthase (CS), the enzyme(s) and gene(s) involved in N-methylation have not yet been characterized. It should be noted that, similar to caffeine, trigonelline accumulation is initiated during the development of coffee fruits. Interestingly, the expression profiles for two genes homologous to caffeine synthases were similar to the accumulation profile of trigonelline. We presumed that these two CS-homologous genes encoded trigonelline synthases. These genes were then expressed in Escherichiacoli, and the resulting recombinant enzymes that were obtained were characterized. Consequently, using the N-methyltransferase assay with S-adenosyl[methyl-(14)C]methionine, it was confirmed that these recombinant enzymes catalyzed the conversion of nicotinate to trigonelline, coffee trigonelline synthases (termed CTgS1 and CTgS2) were highly identical (over 95% identity) to each other. The sequence homology between the CTgSs and coffee CCS1 was 82%. The pH-dependent activity curve of CTgS1 and CTgS2 revealed optimum activity at pH 7.5. Nicotinate was the specific methyl acceptor for CTgSs, and no activity was detected with any other nicotinate derivatives, or with any of the typical substrates of B'-MTs. It was concluded that CTgSs have strict substrate specificity. The K(m) values of CTgS1 and CTgS2 were 121 and 184μM with nicotinic acid as a substrate, and 68 and 120μM with S-adenosyl-L-methionine as a substrate, respectively.

  14. Familial hypertriglyceridemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoiding excess calories and foods high in saturated fats and carbohydrates . You may need to take medicine if your triglyceride levels stay high even after making diet changes. Nicotinic acid, gemfibrozil, and fenofibrate have been ...

  15. Familial leukemias.

    PubMed

    Wiernik, Peter H

    2015-02-01

    Familial leukemia has been described for more than 50 years but only recently have modern genetic techniques allowed for the investigation of the genome. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic sites that appear to relate to susceptibility to leukemia in certain families and occasionally to susceptibility to a specific leukemia in general. Many questions remain, including susceptibility to what? An oncogenic virus? An environmental chemical? Mutation of another gene induced by a heritable mutation-promoting gene?.Clinically important facts have been learned. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is by far the most common familial leukemia. Patients with CLL have approximately a 10% chance of a first-degree relative developing CLL, and even a greater chance of one developing monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis which may be an asymptomatic forme fruste of the neoplasm. Furthermore, there may be an increased incidence of breast cancer in familial CLL pedigrees which raises the question of a common etiology for neoplasms in general, or at least a previously unrecognized relationship among them.

  16. Family Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  17. FAMILY SCIARIDAE.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    Sciaridae are a widely distributed family with high number of species. They are known as black fungus gnats due to their dark color and feeding activity. This catalogue presents 17 species from Colombia distributed in eight genera, and for each species the geographical distribution is provided.

  18. FAMILY CECIDOMYIIDAE.

    PubMed

    Maia, Valéria Cid

    2016-01-01

    This large family is poorly known in Colombia, where only 44 species have been recorded in 20 genera. All of them are included in Cecidomyiinae, which is the most diverse subfamily of gall midges in number of species and feeding habits, including phytophagous, predaceous and fungivorous species. Most of them are galler. The other subfamilies have never been recorded in this country.

  19. FAMILY SCATHOPHAGIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Grisales, Diana; Nihei, Silvio S

    2016-01-01

    Scathophagidae (Diptera, Calyptratae) is an uncommon group of flies. In Colombia there was no scientific record of this family until now. In this paper we report for the first time the genus Scatogera and the species S. primogenita Albuquerque, collected over 3000m. and previously collected in Ecuador. PMID:27395319

  20. Family Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on family caregiving. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children, dementia and…

  1. FAMILY SCIARIDAE.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    Sciaridae are a widely distributed family with high number of species. They are known as black fungus gnats due to their dark color and feeding activity. This catalogue presents 17 species from Colombia distributed in eight genera, and for each species the geographical distribution is provided. PMID:27395255

  2. FAMILY CECIDOMYIIDAE.

    PubMed

    Maia, Valéria Cid

    2016-01-01

    This large family is poorly known in Colombia, where only 44 species have been recorded in 20 genera. All of them are included in Cecidomyiinae, which is the most diverse subfamily of gall midges in number of species and feeding habits, including phytophagous, predaceous and fungivorous species. Most of them are galler. The other subfamilies have never been recorded in this country. PMID:27395254

  3. FAMILY ROPALOMERIDAE.

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly

    2016-01-01

    Ropalomeridae is a small family with most species distributed in the Neotropical Region, from Mexico to Argentina, and only one Nearctic species. In Colombia, eight species distributed in four genera have been found. This catalogue, based on the study of specimens and available literature records, summarizes and updates the information on the Colombian fauna. PMID:27395300

  4. FAMILY RICHARDIIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Lisiane Dilli; Ale-Rocha, Rosaly

    2016-01-01

    Richardiidae are a family of "acalyptrate" Diptera represented by ca. 180 species distributed in the New World, mostly in the Neotropical region. The species that occur in Colombia have received little attention from taxonomists, and the great majority of them are known only from their type localities. Currently, 14 genera and 23 species are known to occur in the country. PMID:27395297

  5. Family Disruptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Returns Do you or your spouse frequently travel on business? These can be disruptive times for your child and for the family as ... these out-of-town trips. Spend as much time as it takes to explain where you are ... before and during your travels. You need to acknowledge and accept her feelings: " ...

  6. Cloning and characterization of phosphorus starvation inducible Brassica napus PURPLE ACID PHOSPHATASE 12 gene family, and imprinting of a recently evolved MITE-minisatellite twin structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun; Chai, You-Rong; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Rui; Chen, Li; Lei, Bo; Lu, Jun; Xu, Xin-Fu; Li, Jia-Na

    2008-10-01

    Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) is important for phosphorus assimilation and in planta redistribution. In this study, seven Brassica napus PAP12 (BnPAP12) genes orthologous to Arabidopsis thaliana PAP12 (AtPAP12) are isolated and characterized. NCBI BLASTs, multi-alignments, conserved domain prediction, and featured motif/residue characterization indicate that all BnPAP12 members encode dimeric high molecular weight plant PAPs. BnPAP12-1, BnPAP12-2, BnPAP12-3 and BnPAP12-7 (Group I) have six introns and encode 469-aa polypeptides structurally comparable to AtPAP12. BnPAP12-4 and BnPAP12-6 (Group II) have seven introns and encode 526-aa PAP12s. Encoding a 475-aa polypeptide, BnPAP12-5 (Group III) is evolved from a chimera of 5' part of Group I and 3' part of Group II. Sequence characterization and Southern detection suggest that there are about five BnPAP12 alleles. Homoeologous non-allelic fragment exchanges exist among BnPAP12 genes. BnPAP12-4 and BnPAP12-6 are imprinted with a Tourist-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) which is tightly associated with a novel minisatellite composed of four 36-bp tandem repeats. Existing solely in B. rapa/oleracea lineage, this recently evolved MITE-minisatellite twin structure does not impair transcription and coding capacity of the imprinted genes, and could be used to identify close relatives of B. rapa/oleracea lineage within Brassica. It is also useful for studying MITE activities especially possible involvement in minisatellite formation and gene structure evolution. BnPAP12-6 is silent in transcription. All other BnPAP12 genes basically imitate AtPAP12 in tissue specificity and Pi-starvation induced expression pattern, but divergence and complementation are distinct among them. Alternative polyadenylation and intron retention also exist in BnPAP12 mRNAs.

  7. [Correction of polyhypovitaminosis in rats, having standard and enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids family omega-3 diets with different doses of vitamins].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Preverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of the correction of combined alimentary vitamin deficit in male Wistar rats (body weight 90-121 g) fed standard diet or enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids diet (by replacing sunflower oil (4.5% of the diet) with linseed oil) with different doses (physiological and enhanced) of vitamins has been investigated. The control group of animals (n = 12) received a complete semisynthetic diet during all experimental period (42 d). The animals of the test groups (each of 20 rats) received vitamin-deficient diet containing sunflower or linseed oil and 20% per cent of vitamin mixture amount in control diet from which vitamin E had been excluded. After 28 days of such feeding each of test groups was divided into two subgroups (6-8 rats in each), and the next 14 days the animals of subgroups received the diet with different degree of vitamin compensation (50 or 180% percent of vitamin content in the diet of the control group). The addition of both low and high vitamin dose in deficient diet based on standard fat component did not compensate the reduced liver vitamin A content, which amounted to 47.4% of the level in the liver of the control group. The lack of vitamin E in animals was eliminated only after adding of the enhanced dose of vitamin E to the ration. Recovering of decreased plasma and liver B2 level, plasma 25(OH)D and liver vitamin B1 content have been occurred after addition of the low dose of these vitamins to rat diet. Increasing of omega-3 PUFA diet level improved vitamins A and D sufficiency to some extent, but was accompanied by the significant reduction of rat liver alfa-tocopherol content both under combined vitamin deficiency (by 14%) and increased vitamins consumption (by 43%). PUFA enrichment of the diet of rats with vitamin deficiency had no impact on vitamin B1 and B2 liver level. The use of high doses of vitamins for a long time to eliminate a combined deficiency of vitamins has been proved.

  8. Family Therapy and Disturbed Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Gerald H., Ed.; Boszormenyi-Nagy, Ivan, Ed.

    Presented at a conference at which authors represented major theoretical positions in the field, most of the papers use family therapy as an important source of observations or ideas, or as a means to pinpoint methodological problems. Papers are grouped in sections as follows: four which introduce the reader to the field of specialization, provide…

  9. Structural models of the bimetallic subunit at the A-cluster of acetyl coenzyme a synthase/CO dehydrogenase: binuclear sulfur-bridged Ni-Cu and Ni-Ni complexes and their reactions with CO.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Todd C; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2004-11-17

    The Ni(II)-dicarboxamido-dithiolato complexes (Et4N)2[Ni(NpPepS)] (1) and (Et4N)2[Ni(PhPepS)] (2) were used as Nid metallosynthons in the construction of higher nuclearity dinuclear Ni-Cu and Ni-Ni species to model the bimetallic Mp-Nid site of the A-cluster of acetyl coenzyme A synthase/CO dehydrogenase (ACS/CODH). Reaction of 1 with [Cu(neo)Cl] and [Ni(terpy)Cl2] in MeCN affords the dinuclear complexes (Et4N)[Cu(neo)Ni(NpPepS)] (3) and [Ni(terpy)Ni(NpPepS)] (4), respectively. Reaction of 2 with [Ni(dppe)Cl2] in MeCN yields [Ni(dppe)Ni(PhPepS)] (6). The Ni-Cu complex 3 exhibits no redox chemistry at the Nid site and no reaction with CO. In contrast, the Nip sites in 4 and 6 are readily reduced (characterized by their Ni(I) EPR spectra) and bind CO, exhibiting nuco bands at 2044 and 1997 cm-1, respectively, indicating terminal CO binding. The present Ni-Ni systems replicate the structural and chemical properties of the A-cluster site in ACS/CODH and support the presence of Ni at Mp in the catalytically active enzyme.

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Plastic Wrap for Prevention of Hypothermia after Birth and during NICU in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaojun; Guo, Pengfei; Zou, Qing; He, Fuxiang; Xu, Feng; Tan, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Objective This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of plastic wrap applied after birth and during NICU in preterm infants for prevention of heat loss in preterm infants. Study Methods The Medline (1950 to August 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 7, 2015), CINAHL (1982 to August 2015) and the Embase (1974 to August 2015) databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs with main outcomes related to the core temperature (baseline temperature and/or post-stabilization temperature), hypothermia, mortality rate and hyperthermia. Result The included studies were of low to moderate quality. Compared with unwrapped infants, plastic wrap was associated with a significantly higher baseline temperature and post-stabilization temperature both in infants < 28 weeks of gestation (mean difference [MD] = 0.62, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.85; MD = 0.41, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.50, respectively), and in infants between 28 to 34 weeks of gestation (MD = 0.54, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.87; MD = 0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.82, respectively). Use of plastic wrap was associated with lower incidence of hypothermia (relative risk [RR] = 0.70, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.78). However, use of plastic wrap in preterm infants was not associated with decrease in mortality (RR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.12, P = 0.31). Incidence of hyperthermia was significantly higher in the plastic wrap group as compared to that in the control group (RR = 2.55, 95% CI: 1.56 to 4.15, P = 0.0002). Hyperthermia in the plastic wrap group was resolved within one or two hours after unwrapping the babies. Conclusion Plastic wrap can be considered an effective and safe additional intervention to prevent hypothermia in preterm infants. However, its cost-effectiveness and long-term effect on mortality needs to be ascertained by conducting well-designed studies with longer follow-up period. PMID:27281027

  11. FAMILY BOMBYLIIDAE.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Carlos José Einicker; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2016-01-01

    Bombyliidae is one of the largest Diptera families with more than 4,500 recognized species worldwide. Their species vary from robust to thin, and may be small to large (2-20mm) and looks like bees or wasps. They also present great variation in color. Adults can often be seen either resting and sunning themselves on trails, rocks or twigs or feeding on flowering plants as they are nectar feeders. All reared bee flies are predators or parasitoids of arthropods. The Colombian fauna of bombyliids comprises at the moment 22 species, and 12 genera, of which, six are endemic species. Nonetheless, this number may be much higher, as Colombia is a megadiverse country and there are not many specimens of this family deposited in collections all over the world. PMID:27395279

  12. The "putative" role of transcription factors from HlWRKY family in the regulation of the final steps of prenylflavonid and bitter acids biosynthesis in hop (Humulus lupulus L.).

    PubMed

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Kocábek, Tomáš; Patzak, Josef; Bříza, Jindřich; Siglová, Kristýna; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Duraisamy, Ganesh Selvaraj; Týcová, Anna; Ono, Eiichiro; Krofta, Karel

    2016-10-01

    Lupulin glands localized in female hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cones are valuable source of bitter acids, essential oils and polyphenols. These compounds are used in brewing industry and are important for biomedical applications. In this study we describe the potential effect of transcription factors from WRKY family in the activation of the final steps of lupulin biosynthesis. In particular, lupulin gland-specific transcription factor HlWRKY1 that shows significant similarity to AtWRKY75, has ability to activate the set of promoters driving key genes of xanthohumol and bitter acids biosynthesis such as chalcone synthase H1, valerophenone synthase, prenyltransferase 1, 1L and 2 and O-methyltransferase-1. When combined with co-factor HlWDR1 and silencing suppressor p19, HlWRKY1 is able to enhance transient expression of gus gene driven by Omt1 and Chs_H1 promoters to significant level as compared to 35S promoter of CaMV in Nicotiana. benthamiana. Transformation of hop with dual Agrobacterium vector bearing HlWRKY1/HlWDR1 led to ectopic overexpression of these transgenes and further activation of lupulin-specific genes expression in hop leaves. It was further showed that (1) HlWRKY1 is endowed with promoter autoactivation; (2) It is regulated by post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) mechanism; (3) It is stimulated by kinase co-expression. Since HlWRKY1 promotes expression of lupulin-specific HlMyb3 gene therefore it can constitute a significant component in hop lupulin regulation network. Putative involvement of HlWRKY1 in the regulation of lupulin biosynthesis may suggest the original physiological function of lupulin components in hop as flower and seed protective compounds. PMID:27392499

  13. Characterization of the fatty acyl elongase (elovl) gene family, and hepatic elovl and delta-6 fatty acyl desaturase transcript expression and fatty acid responses to diets containing camelina oil in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Xue, Xi; Feng, Charles Y; Hixson, Stefanie M; Johnstone, Kim; Anderson, Derek M; Parrish, Christopher C; Rise, Matthew L

    2014-09-01

    For aquaculture to become sustainable, there is a need to substitute fish oil [FO, rich in ω3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as 20:5ω3 (EPA) and 22:6ω3 (DHA)] in aquafeed with plant oils such as camelina oil [CO, rich in C18 PUFA such as 18:3ω3 (ALA) and 18:2ω6 (LNA)]. The LC-PUFA are essential components in fish diets for maintaining optimal health, physiology and growth. However, most marine fish including Atlantic cod are inefficient at producing LC-PUFA from shorter chain precursors. Since elovl genes encode enzymes that play key roles in fatty acid biosynthesis, we hypothesized that they may be involved in Atlantic cod responses to diets rich in 18:3ω3 and 18:2ω6. Ten members of the cod elovl gene family were characterized at the mRNA level. RT-PCR was used to study constitutive expression of elovl transcripts in fifteen tissues. Some transcripts (e.g. elovl5) were ubiquitously expressed, while others had tissue-specific expression (e.g. elovl4a in brain and eye). Cod fed a CO-containing diet (100% CO replacement of FO and including solvent-extracted fish meal) had significantly lower weight gain, with significant up-regulation of elovl5 and fadsd6 transcripts in the liver as shown by QPCR analysis, compared with cod on a FO control diet after a 13-week trial. Multivariate statistical analyses (SIMPER and PCA) indicated that high 18:3ω3 and/or low ω3 LC-PUFA levels in the liver were associated with the up-regulation of elovl5 and fadsd6, which are involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in cod.

  14. Familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Ricky D.; Barry, Arden R.; Pearson, Glen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the pathophysiology, epidemiology, screening, diagnosis, and treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Quality of evidence A PubMed search was conducted (inception to July 2014) for articles on pathophysiology, screening, diagnosis, and management of FH, supplemented with hand searches of bibliographies of guidelines and reviews. A supporting level of evidence for each recommendation was categorized as level I (randomized controlled trial or systematic review of randomized controlled trials), level II (observational study), or level III (expert opinion). The best available evidence is mostly level II or III. Main message Familial hypercholesterolemia affects 1 in 500 Canadians. Risk of a coronary event is high in these patients and is underestimated by risk calculators (eg, Framingham). Clinicians should screen patients according to guidelines and suspect FH in any patient with a premature cardiovascular event, physical stigmata of hypercholesterolemia, or an elevated plasma lipid level. Physicians should diagnose FH using either the Simon Broome or Dutch Lipid Network criteria. Management of heterozygous FH includes reducing low-density lipoprotein levels by 50% or more from baseline with high-dose statins and other lipid-lowering agents. Clinicians should refer any patient with homozygous FH to a specialized centre. Conclusion Familial hypercholesterolemia represents an important cause of premature cardiovascular disease in Canadians. Early identification and aggressive treatment of individuals with FH reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26796832

  15. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  16. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  17. FAMILY MYCETOPHILIDAE.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-06-14

    The Mycetophilidae include small fungus-gnats which life cycle is associated with fungi, especially of the larvae. The known diversity of the family in the Neotropical region is 1,145 species, but only some very few papers have been published on the Colombian species of Mycetophilidae, with records for the genera Docosia Winnertz, Paraleia Tonnoir, and Dziedzickia Johannsen. This catalogue gathers the information available on mycetophilids from Colombia, including genera and some species that for the first time are mentioned to occur in the country-as Leiella unicincta Edwards and Leiella zonalis Edwards.

  18. NICU consultants and support staff

    MedlinePlus

    ... x-rays and other imaging tests, such as barium enemas and ultrasounds. Pediatric radiologists have extra training ... make body parts easier to see, as with barium enemas. X-rays of bones are also commonly ...

  19. Family and family therapy in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Karin; Baars, Jan

    2012-04-01

    This article describes how families are functioning in the Netherlands, and how family therapy is used in mental healthcare. In the open Dutch society, new ideas are easily incorporated, as exemplified by the rapid introduction and growth of family therapy in the 1980s. In recent decades, however, family therapy has lost ground to other treatment models that are more individually orientated, and adhere to stricter protocols. This decline of family therapy has been exacerbated by recent budget cuts in mental healthcare. In regular healthcare institutes family therapy now has a marginal position at best, although family treatment models are used in specific areas such as forensic treatments. In addition, the higher trained family therapists have found their own niches to work with couples and families. We argue that a stronger position of family therapy would be beneficial for patients and for families, in order to counteract the strong individualization of Dutch society. PMID:22515464

  20. Roles within the Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Text Size Email Print Share Roles Within the Family Page Content Article Body Families are not democracies. ...

  1. Central-metal exchange, improved catalytic activity, photoluminescence properties of a new family of d(10) coordination polymers based on the 5,5'-(1H-2,3,5-triazole-1,4-diyl)diisophthalic acid ligand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huarui; Huang, Chao; Han, Yanbing; Shao, Zhichao; Hou, Hongwei; Fan, Yaoting

    2016-05-01

    The rigid and planar tetracarboxylic acid 5,5'-(1H-2,3,5-triazole-1,4-diyl)diisophthalic acid (H4L), incorporating a triazole group, has been used with no or different pyridine-based linkers to construct a family of d(10) coordination polymers, namely, {[H2N(CH3)2]3[Cd3(L)2(HCOO)]}n (), {[Cd2(L)(py)6]·H2O}n (), {[H2N(CH3)2] [Cd2(L)(HCOO)(H2O)4]}n (), {[Zn(H2L)]·H2O}n (), and {[Zn(H2L)(4,4'-bipy)0.5]·C2H5OH·H2O}n () (py = pyridine, 4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine). constructs a 3D porous network containing two kinds of channels: one is filled with coordinated HCOO(-) anions, and the other with [H2N(CH3)2](+) cations. The framework of can be described as a rare (5,6,7)-connected net with the Schläfli symbol of (4(12)·5·6(2))(4(5)·5(3)·6(2))2(4(8)·5(3)·6(8)·8(2))2. The Cd(ii) ions in are connected through the carboxylate ligands to form a 2D layer, with aperture dimensions of ∼15.1 Å × 16.2 Å. The network of features a 3D (3,4)-connected (6·8·10)2(6·8(3)·10(2)) topology. A 3D network with the (4(2)·6·8(3)) topology of possesses an open 1D channel with the free volume of 29.2%. is a 2D layer structure with the (4(2)·6(3)·8)(4(2)·6) topology. The fluorescence lifetime τ values of are on the nanosecond timescale at room temperature. In particular, central-metal exchange in leads to a series of isostructural M(ii)-Cd frameworks [M = Cu (), Co (), Ni ()] showing improved catalytic activity for the synthesis of 1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives. Based on this, a plausible mechanism for the catalytic reaction has been proposed and the reactivity-structure relationship has been further clarified. PMID:27063339

  2. The Family Hero in Black Alcoholism Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisbane, Francis L.

    1989-01-01

    Uses data from 20 case studies of Black adult female children of alcoholic parents to discuss Family Hero role often assumed by oldest or only female child in Black alcoholism families. Explains how female-dominated survival role of Family Hero in Black families is significantly more related to racial and cultural factors than numbers alone may…

  3. Integrating Family Resilience and Family Stress Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.

    2002-01-01

    The construct, family resilience, is defined differently by practitioners and researchers. This study tries to clarify the concept of family resilience. The foundation is family stress and coping theory, particularly the stress models that emphasize adaptation processes in families exposed to major adversities. (JDM)

  4. Whole Family: Whole Child. Broken Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVaul, Sue; Davis, John U.

    A literature review on the family environments of gifted students found that gifted children are more likely to be living in intact families than in divorced families. Children of single parents were more likely to be low-achieving, tardy, absent, truant, discipline problems, suspended, expelled, and dropouts than students in two-parent families.…

  5. Final Evaluation Report: Family to Family Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Luellen; Meyer, David P.

    This evaluation report of the Family to Family Program assesses parental attitudes towards their Family to Family experience and the functioning of their emotionally impaired children. It reviews issues of goal achievement; the impact on the targeted problem; service population demographics; and sustainability. Related topics include…

  6. Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

  7. Reclaiming Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John

    2012-01-01

    The pull for family is strong, almost primeval, most likely it is evolutionary, and for those lacking the benefit of family or Family Privilege, the loss of family is painful and profoundly sad. Young people who struggle to cope without stable family connections are profoundly aware of their lack of "Family Privilege." In this article, the author…

  8. Apoptosis of HL-60 human leukemia cells induced by Asiatic acid through modulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 family proteins and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiuling; Lv, Tingting; Chen, Yan; Wen, Lu; Zhang, Junli; Jiang, Xudong; Liu, Fang

    2015-07-01

    The toxicities of conventional chemotherapeutic agents to normal cells restrict their dosage and clinical efficacy in acute leukemia; therefore, it is important to develop novel chemotherapeutics, including natural products, which selectively target cancer-specific pathways. The present study aimed to explore the effect of the chemopreventive agent asiatic acid (AA) on the proliferation and apoptotic rate of the leukemia cell line HL-60 and investigated the mechanisms underlying its anti-tumor activity. The effect of AA on the proliferation of HL-60 cells was evaluated using the MTT assay. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining followed by flow cytometric analysis as well as Hoechst 33258 staining were used to analyze the apoptotic rate of the cells. Furthermore, changes of survivin, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 expressions were detected by western blot analysis. AA blocked the growth of HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50-value of AA on HL-60 cells was 46.67 ± 5.08 µmol/l for 24 h. AA induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited in the presence of Z-DEVD-FMK, a specific inhibitor of caspase. The anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and survivin were downregulated by AA in a dose-dependent manner. Concurrently, AA inhibited ERK and p38 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, while JNK phosphorylation was not affected. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the p38 and ERK pathways, as well as modulation of Bcl-2 family and survivin proteins were key regulators of apoptosis induced in HL-60 cells in response to AA.

  9. Ligand-field theory applied to diatomic transition metals. Results for the dA9dB9σ2 states of Ni2, the dNi9dCu10σ2 states of NiCu, and the dNi8(3F)dCu10σ2σ*1 excited states of NiCu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spain, Eileen M.; Morse, Michael D.

    1992-10-01

    A ligand-field theory has been developed for transition-metal diatomics having electronic configurations of dA9dB10σ2, dA9dB9σ2, and dA8(3F)dB10σ2σ*1. The theory treats each atom as a point charge and includes spin-orbit interactions. No contributions due to d-orbital chemical bonding are included. Since the d orbitals are quite small compared to the bond lengths in these molecules, the only inputs to the theory are the ligand charges (ZA and ZB), the radial expectation values NiCu, and on the dA9dB9σ2 manifold of states in Ni2. This demonstrates that the ligand-field model has some validity for metal molecules containing nickel, primarily because of the compact nature of the 3d orbitals in this element. Similar calculations of the dA9dB9σ2 manifold of states in Pt2 and the dNi9dPt9σ2 manifold of states in NiPt are presented for comparison to future ab initio or experimental measurements, although the possibility of d-orbital contributions to the bonding in these species makes the ligand-field model less favorable in these examples. The dNi8(3F)dCu10σ2σ*1 excited electronic states of NiCu, which are well known from resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy, are also investigated in the ligand-field model. As a final example, the dNi8(3F)σ2σ*1 excited electronic states of NiH are also examined using the same treatment as that employed for the dNi8(3F)dCu10σ2σ*1 excited manifold of NiCu.

  10. Family and family therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized. PMID:22515460

  11. Family and family therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized.

  12. The Changing Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue contains feature articles and short reports on how and why family structures are undergoing substantial change in many parts of the world. These articles include: (1) "The Changing Family Structure," a review of how families are changing and why; (2) "Peru: Families in the Andes"; (3) "Thailand: Families of the Garbage Dump";…

  13. Family Literacy and ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Red, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses family literacy and English as a Second Language, focusing on types of family literacy programs, issues in family literacy, and future directions in family literacy. Highlights one program and lists the components of three approaches to family literacy: intervention prevention, multiple literacies, and social change. (Author/VWL)

  14. Family Reading Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  15. Developmental Toxicity of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Mixtures in CD-1 Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) belong to a family of fluoro-organic compounds known as perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). PFAAs have been widely used in industrial and commercial applications, and have been found to be...

  16. Family Capital: Implications for Interventions with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, John R.; Peckuonis, Edward V.; Deforge, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Social capital has been extensively discussed in the literature as building blocks that individuals and communities utilize to leverage system resources. Similarly, some families also create capital, which can enable members of the family, such as children, to successfully negotiate the outside world. Families in poverty confront serious…

  17. Improving Family Communications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Improving Family Communications Page Content Article Body How can I ...

  18. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  19. Family Reunion Health Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Phone (Continued) 1. Send a Kidney Health Message Hi Family, I came across this information and thought ... mails to family members. Before the Reunion 1. Hi family! Taking care of your kidneys is important. ...

  20. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  1. Developing Strengths in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ted

    1976-01-01

    There are few descriptions of growth experiences for total families. This paper describes one such model. It expresses the conviction that families need opportunities to come together with other families to identify strengths, sharpen communication skills, and establish goals. (Author)

  2. Evolutionary families of peptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Neil D; Tolle, Dominic P; Barrett, Alan J

    2004-01-01

    The proteins that inhibit peptidases are of great importance in medicine and biotechnology, but there has never been a comprehensive system of classification for them. Some of the terminology currently in use is potentially confusing. In the hope of facilitating the exchange, storage and retrieval of information about this important group of proteins, we now describe a system wherein the inhibitor units of the peptidase inhibitors are assigned to 48 families on the basis of similarities detectable at the level of amino acid sequence. Then, on the basis of three-dimensional structures, 31 of the families are assigned to 26 clans. A simple system of nomenclature is introduced for reference to each clan, family and inhibitor. We briefly discuss the specificities and mechanisms of the interactions of the inhibitors in the various families with their target enzymes. The system of families and clans of inhibitors described has been implemented in the MEROPS peptidase database (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk/), and this will provide a mechanism for updating it as new information becomes available. PMID:14705960

  3. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families.

  4. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families. PMID:22515459

  5. Making Time for Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rita

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Covey's "7 Habits of Effective Families," noting that time plays an important part in each habit. Discusses several important "time" issues for families: time to plan for time, time for awareness of quality time, time to have two-way communication, time for family moments, and time to reflect. Includes suggestions for family activities in…

  6. Families in Transition .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

  7. Black Families. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

    The chapters of this collection explore the experiences of black families in the United States and Africa, today and in the past. They are: (1) "African American Families: A Historical Note" (John Hope Franklin); (2) "African American Families and Family Values" (Niara Sudarkasa); (3) "Old-Time Religion: Benches Can't Say 'Amen'" (William Harrison…

  8. Gavin Families. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Paul Neufeld; And Others

    The Family Literacy Project at the Dr. Charles E. Gavin School in Chicago Heights, Illinois, brings together a community college adult education program, an early childhood program, and a local school district. This report of the Prairie State College Family Literacy Project assesses the needs for family literacy among the families in the Gavin…

  9. Familial Ebstein's anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenmann, A; Arad, I; Simcha, A; Schaap, T

    1976-01-01

    A family is described in which both a father and son are affected with Ebstein's anomaly, while several other family members manifest different cardiac malformations. Five additional instances of familial Ebstein's anomaly were found in the literature and compared with our family. Inspection of possible modes of inheritance in this group of families suggests that Ebstein's anomaly is probably inherited as a polygenic character with a threshold phenomenon. PMID:1018315

  10. The somatostatin receptor family.

    PubMed

    Patel, Y C; Greenwood, M T; Panetta, R; Demchyshyn, L; Niznik, H; Srikant, C B

    1995-01-01

    The diverse biological effects of somatostatin (SST) are mediated through a family of G protein coupled receptors of which 5 members have been recently identified by molecular cloning. This review focuses on the molecular biology, pharmacology, expression, and function of these receptors with particular emphasis on the human (h) homologs. hSSTRs are encoded by a family of 5 genes which map to separate chromosomes and which, with one exception, are intronless. SSTR2 gives rise to spliced variants, SSTR2A and 2B. hSSTR1-4 display weak selectivity for SST-14 binding whereas hSSTR5 is SST-28 selective. Based on structural similarity and reactivity for octapeptide and hexapeptide SST analogs, hSSTR2,3, and 5 belong to a similar SSTR subclass. hSSTR1 and 4 react poorly with these analogs and belong to a separate subclass. All 5 hSSTRs are functionally coupled to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase via pertussis toxin sensitive GTP binding proteins. Some of the subtypes are also coupled to tyrosine phosphatase (SSTR1,2), Ca2+ channels (SSTR2), Na+/H+ exchanger (SSTR1), PLA-2 (SSTR4), and MAP kinase (SSTR4). mRNA for SSTR1-5 is widely expressed in brain and peripheral organs and displays an overlapping but characteristic pattern that is subtype-selective, and tissue- and species-specific. Pituitary and islet tumors express several SSTR genes suggesting that multiple SSTR subtypes are coexpressed in the same cell. Structure-function studies indicate that the core residues in SST-14 ligand Phe6-Phe11 dock within a ligand binding pocket located in TMDs 3-7 which is lined by hydrophobic and charged amino acid residues.

  11. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration. PMID:19560175

  12. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration.

  13. Nontraditional family romance.

    PubMed

    Corbett, K

    2001-07-01

    Family stories lie at the heart of psychoanalytic developmental theory and psychoanalytic clinical technique, but whose family? Increasingly, lesbian and gay families, multiparent families, and single-parent families are relying on modern reproductive technologies to form families. The contemplation of these nontraditional families and the vicissitudes of contemporary reproduction lead to an unknowing of what families are, including the ways in which psychoanalysts configure the family within developmental theory. This article focuses on the stories that families tell in order to account for their formation--stories that include narratives about parental union, parental sexuality, and conception. The author addresses three constructs that inform family stories and that require rethinking in light of the category crises posed by and for the nontraditional family: (1) normative logic, (2) family reverie and the construction of a family romance, and (3) the primal scene. These constructs are examined in tandem with detailed clinical material taken from the psychotherapy of a seven-year-old boy and his two mothers.

  14. Nontraditional family romance.

    PubMed

    Corbett, K

    2001-07-01

    Family stories lie at the heart of psychoanalytic developmental theory and psychoanalytic clinical technique, but whose family? Increasingly, lesbian and gay families, multiparent families, and single-parent families are relying on modern reproductive technologies to form families. The contemplation of these nontraditional families and the vicissitudes of contemporary reproduction lead to an unknowing of what families are, including the ways in which psychoanalysts configure the family within developmental theory. This article focuses on the stories that families tell in order to account for their formation--stories that include narratives about parental union, parental sexuality, and conception. The author addresses three constructs that inform family stories and that require rethinking in light of the category crises posed by and for the nontraditional family: (1) normative logic, (2) family reverie and the construction of a family romance, and (3) the primal scene. These constructs are examined in tandem with detailed clinical material taken from the psychotherapy of a seven-year-old boy and his two mothers. PMID:11491437

  15. Putting the "family" back into family therapy.

    PubMed

    Breunlin, Douglas C; Jacobsen, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we examine the field of family therapy by drawing a distinction between two forms of practice: Whole Family Therapy (WFT), defined as treating the whole family, and Relational Family Therapy (RFT), defined as working with a subsystem of the family or an individual while retaining a systemic lens. Our thesis is that the practice of WFT has been in decline for some time and steps must be taken to keep it from becoming a defunct practice. We consider the trajectory of WFT and RFT throughout the development of family therapy through reference to the people, the literature, training, and practice patterns associated with family therapy. We remind the reader of the many benefits of WFT and suggest that today WFT is likely to be practiced in conjunction with RFT and individual therapy. Since training of family therapists today is largely located in degree-granting programs, we identify constraints to including WFT in such programs. We conclude by offering suggestions that can enhance a program's ability to train students in WFT.

  16. Family Synergy, A Variant Family Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFollette, Patrick

    1975-01-01

    This article describes "Family Synergy" which is a non-profit organization for people interested in or exploring nontraditional marriage and family forms. It acts as a clearinghouse for the exchange of ideas and also provides a supportive community for people actually exploring these new lifestyles. (Author)

  17. Families and Family Study in International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Bert N.

    2004-01-01

    Many changes are occurring in the world's families. Some observers feel that the changes are destructive, whereas others see them as leading to new opportunities and understanding. Issues in international family studies include regional limitations and the various aspects of doing research cross-culturally. Knowledge regarding certain categories…

  18. General consideration on sialic acid chemistry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Sialic acids, also known as neuraminic acids, are a family of negatively charged α-keto acids with a nine-carbon backbone. These unique sugars have been found at the termini of many glycan chains of vertebrate cell surface, which play pivotal roles in mediating or modulating a variety of physiological and pathological processes. This brief review covers general approaches for synthesizing sialic acid containing structures. Recently developed synthetic methods along with structural diversities and biological functions of sialic acid are discussed.

  19. 1-Ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-quinoline-3-carb oxylic acid, a new fluorinated compounds of oxacin family with high broad-spectrum antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Stefancich, G; Artico, M; Corelli, F; Massa, S; Panico, S; Simonetti, N

    1985-04-01

    The synthesis of 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)quinoline-3-carboxy lic acid, a new fluorinated high broad-spectrum antibacterial agent related to nalidixic acid is described. The title compound has been prepared by the reaction of 4-fluoro-3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate, cyclization of the malonate obtained to the quinolinecarboxylate ester, ethylation of the ester, followed by hydrolysis with aqueous sodium hydroxide. The new derivative proved very active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Its activities in comparison with those of nalidixic acid, pipemidic acid, piromidic acid and enoxacin were found to be greatly superior with regard to the unfluorinated compounds and somewhat superior also to enoxacin. The known 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)quinoline-3- carboxylic acid, here prepared by catalytic hydrogenation of the pyrrole moiety of the title compound, has been found to be less active as an antibacterial agent. PMID:3926533

  20. Structures of Cvnh Family Lectins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronenborn, Angela M.

    Members of the CVNH family are found in a restricted range of eukaryotic organisms as diverse as filamentous ascomycetes and seedless plants. All CVNH proteins so far exhibit a fold that matches the unique fold of the cyanobacterial protein. The CVNH domain is a versatile protein module, and, with some exceptions, comprises 101-150 aa with two sequential repeats of 50 amino acids. We determined high resolution structures of CVNHs from Tuber borchii, Ceratopteris richardii, Neurospora crassa, and Gibberella zeae, representing different phylogenetic groups. All proteins exhibit the same fold and the overall structures resemble that of the founding member of the family, CVN, albeit with noteworthy differences in loop conformation and detailed local structure.

  1. Invest in Family*

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nilesh; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The family is an integral part of one's life. It is very essential that every individual employed or unemployed invests time therein. The family is a source of support and growth for an individual, and the lack of family support or loneliness may be a causative factor in the genesis of psychiatric disorders, especially depression. In India, family plays a paramount role when it comes to mental health of the individual. Tips on how one should invest time in one's family along with the role of a family in one's personal and social structure are discussed. PMID:25838732

  2. Familial myeloproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, H S

    1998-12-01

    The occurrence of one or more myeloproliferative disease (MPD) syndromes in 42 families is described. MPD appeared in a single generation in 10 families, two generations in 30 families and three generations in two families. In contrast to sparse case reports of familial polycythaemia vera, familial essential thrombocythaemia, or familial agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, in which all the involved members presented with the same MPD, 21 of the 42 families in the present series had members who presented with different MPD variants. The occurrence of multiple disease phenotypes in 'MPD families' is entirely consistent with the accepted theory of MPD as a disease arising from clonal expansion of a pluripotential haematopoietic precursor cell (PHPC) that retains its pluripotentiality and produces an array of inter-related syndromes, each named for the predominant haematic cell type involved in the proliferation. Changes in disease phenotype during the course of MPD and 'hybrid' phenotypes at the time of diagnosis are common. This report challenges the previously accepted belief that PV and other MPD variants are sporadic and randomly-occurring, and that familial occurrence of MPD is rare. The ability to identify 'MPD families' by surveying a large population of patients with MPD through the Internet, as was done in this study, and heightened awareness of familial occurrence and its phenotypic heterogeneity, should facilitate further characterization of the mode of inheritance in familial MPD and the nature of the gene mutations responsible for the dysregulation of haematopoiesis.

  3. Forcefield_NCAA: ab initio charge parameters to aid in the discovery and design of therapeutic proteins and peptides with unnatural amino acids and their application to complement inhibitors of the compstatin family.

    PubMed

    Khoury, George A; Smadbeck, James; Tamamis, Phanourios; Vandris, Andrew C; Kieslich, Chris A; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2014-12-19

    We describe the development and testing of ab initio derived, AMBER ff03 compatible charge parameters for a large library of 147 noncanonical amino acids including β- and N-methylated amino acids for use in applications such as protein structure prediction and de novo protein design. The charge parameter derivation was performed using the RESP fitting approach. Studies were performed assessing the suitability of the derived charge parameters in discriminating the activity/inactivity between 63 analogs of the complement inhibitor Compstatin on the basis of previously published experimental IC50 data and a screening procedure involving short simulations and binding free energy calculations. We found that both the approximate binding affinity (K*) and the binding free energy calculated through MM-GBSA are capable of discriminating between active and inactive Compstatin analogs, with MM-GBSA performing significantly better. Key interactions between the most potent Compstatin analog that contains a noncanonical amino acid are presented and compared to the most potent analog containing only natural amino acids and native Compstatin. We make the derived parameters and an associated web interface that is capable of performing modifications on proteins using Forcefield_NCAA and outputting AMBER-ready topology and parameter files freely available for academic use at http://selene.princeton.edu/FFNCAA . The forcefield allows one to incorporate these customized amino acids into design applications with control over size, van der Waals, and electrostatic interactions.

  4. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here: Health Information > Condition Information Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis: Overview When two or more members within the ... Associate Professor View full profile More Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Information Forms Causes Genetic Counseling Print Page Email ...

  5. Evaluation of family therapy.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Because children of mentally disordered parents have an increased risk of becoming subjects of mental disorder and psychological problems, adult psychiatry has increasingly paid attention to the patients' parental skills. This study includes 31 families with children younger than 18 years of age where the parents were admitted to family therapy in an open psychiatric ward. The average number of sessions was seven, and the diagnoses of severe stress and of adjustment disorder were the most common. The aim of the study was to measure changes in the family climate during the period of therapy. The instrument used was the Family Environment Scale (FES), a self-rating questionnaire that measures the parents' experience of family environment. The change of family environment is related to its influence on children's well-being and development. The study finds that family therapy has resulted in positive changes of the parents' experience of the family climate.

  6. Normative Family Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcai, Avner

    1981-01-01

    Describes the sequentially developmental life stages of healthy, normal families. Provides an exposition of these developmental stages and forms as a guide or normative framework within which to test for dysfunction and pathology in the family process. (Author/JAC)

  7. MSUD Family Support Group

    MedlinePlus

    ... Group The MSUD Family Support Group is a non-profit 501 (c)(3) organization for those with MSUD ... Family Support Group is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with no paid staff. Funds are needed ...

  8. Assessing postpartum family functioning.

    PubMed

    Midmer, D; Talbot, Y

    1988-09-01

    The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals.

  9. Assessing Postpartum Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Midmer, Deana; Talbot, Yves

    1988-01-01

    The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals. PMID:21253238

  10. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  11. Importance of Family Routines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share The Importance of Family Routines Page Content ​Every family needs ... child to sleep. These rituals can include storytelling, reading aloud, conversation, and songs. Try to avoid exciting ...

  12. Year of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Agriculture, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This special issue focuses on problems and challenges confronting the California family and on research and extension efforts to provide at least partial answers. Research briefs by staff include "Challenges Confront the California Family" (state trends in poverty, divorce, single-parent families, child abuse, delinquency, teen births, limited…

  13. The Family Leukemia Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Eleanor

    1976-01-01

    An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

  14. Focus on the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, James M.

    This research attempts to evaluate the YMCA's program in terms of its effect upon the family members it serves. The study was designed to: (1) classify, by descriptive types, the various kinds of YMCA operations which serve the family, identifying their characteristic differences; (2) examine and describe operating practices of family YMCAs…

  15. Families in Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingoldsby, Bron B., Ed.; Smith, Suzanna, Ed.

    Covering contemporary Third World as well as Western families, this teaching text addresses topics essential for developing a multicultural perspective on the family. It is an ideal text for comparative family courses and includes exercises (as well as exercise guidelines for instructors) developed to challenge students' existing viewpoints and…

  16. Valuing Families. Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glashagel, Jerry; Glashagel, Char

    Developed as a resource for family life education, this activity guide can be used to lead experiential learning situations for intergenerational groups by a counselor, in a course, in a family organization like the YMCA, or in the home. The goals of this guide are to increase the self-esteem of each person and to strengthen the family as a human…

  17. Family Planning & Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This publication is an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) annotated bibliography of books and articles concerned with family planning and literacy. The subject is divided into four major listings: (1) Literacy; (2) Education; (3) Literacy and Family Planning; and (4) Functional Literacy/Family Planning Projects and Programs.…

  18. Fatherhood and Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    On the assumption that fathers have been relatively absent from family support programs, this publication of the Family Resource Coalition addresses the role of fathers in family support programs, examines the impact of fathers on their children, and describes programs involving fathers successfully. Articles include: (1) "What's Behind the…

  19. Doing Better for Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    All OECD governments want to give parents more choice in their work and family decisions. This book looks at the different ways in which governments support families. It seeks to provide answers to questions like: Is spending on family benefits going up, and how does it vary by the age of the child? Has the crisis affected public support for…

  20. Changing Family Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, M. Therese; Willetts, Marion C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the definition of family. Considers three facets of the contemporary family measured by U.S. Census statistics: (1) marriage and divorce trends; (2) declining fertility; and (3) the rise in single-headed families. Addresses the societal changes (economic, cultural, legal, and technological) that have influenced the changes in family…

  1. The Resiliency of Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, T. R.

    According to researchers, the family may be changing but it is still one of the central institutions in society. Studies report a shift in more than 20 attitudes and values, most of which relate to the context of family life. Specifically, these include attitudes toward marriage, divorce, childbearing, childrearing, working women, family violence,…

  2. Rape: A Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Priscilla N.; Rollins, Judith C.

    1981-01-01

    Rape is a crisis shared by the victim and her family. The family's reaction is influenced by cultural views such as viewing rape as sex rather than violence. Adaptive responses can be supported by open expression, education, and family, as well as individual counseling. (JAC)

  3. Therapy with African Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwadiora, Emeka

    1996-01-01

    Informs helping professionals about the unique history and challenges of African families to guide them toward providing ethnically sensitive psychological services to African immigrant families in need. African families undergo great stress when faced with the alienation of being Black and African in a Euro-American culture. (SLD)

  4. Treatment of violent families.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C. C.; Chance-Hill, G.

    1991-01-01

    Family violence is responsible for a significant proportion of homicides, a major cause of premature deaths in African-Americans. This article reviews the prevalence of family violence and explores associated risk factors. Principles and tips of treatment, along with a cognitive framework to guide the actual therapy, are outlined. Finally, issues of preventing family violence are discussed. PMID:2038079

  5. Rape: A Family Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinauer, Leslie

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that, although a young woman who has been sexually assaulted may experience pain and alienation as an individual, family members also experience trauma, often left unresolved while retaining an impact on the family's ability to function. Introduces family therapy as a desirable approach to treatment of the rape victim. (Author/JAC)

  6. Strengths of Remarried Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaub, Patricia Kain; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on remarried families' (N=80) perceptions of family strengths, marital satisfaction, and adjustment to the remarried situation. Results indicated that although most would like to make some changes, scores on the measurements used were high. A supportive environment was the most important predictor of family strength and success. (JAC)

  7. Families in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This issue of "Emphasis" deals with families in transition, providing some model programs for the new family and some historical perspectives on how families have developed over time. Articles include: (1) "Nostalgia on the Right" (Nancy Theriot); (2) "Heart to Heart" (Nancy Harrington-MacLennan); (3) "The Media Get the Message" (Janet Alyn); (4)…

  8. Family Violence: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    Family violence is a widespread problem; research has shown multiple factors are associated with family violence. Types of family violence include spouse abuse; elder abuse and neglect; child abuse and neglect; parent abuse; and sibling abuse. There are three types of spouse abuse: physical abuse, sexual violence, and psychological/emotional…

  9. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  10. Family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Valman, H. B.; Patrick, A. D.; Seakins, J. W. T.; Platt, J. W.; Gompertz, D.

    1973-01-01

    A family is described in which the 3 children presented with episodes of severe metabolic acidosis secondary to minor infections. 2 of them died, and 1 of these was severely retarded. The sole surviving child is 6 years old and is normal with respect to physical and mental development. Gas chromatography of the urine obtained during episodes of ketoacidosis showed the keto and hydroxy acids characteristic of maple syrup urine disease, and thin layer chromatography of the plasma and urine showed greatly increased concentrations of the branched chain amino acids. The urine and plasma of the surviving child was chromatographically normal between episodes. The leucocyte branched chain keto acid decarboxylase activity in this patient and her father was reduced. The range of features in this family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease illustrates the necessity for prompt and careful investigation of metabolic acidosis of unknown aetiology. PMID:4693464

  11. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1) Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2) the acidless "Sucreña" orange showed unusually high levels

  12. One-Pot 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran Production from Levulinic Acid in Green Solvents Using Ni-Cu/Al2 O3 Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Obregón, Iker; Gandarias, Iñaki; Miletić, Nemanja; Ocio, Ainhoa; Arias, Pedro L

    2015-10-26

    The one-pot hydrogenation of levulinic acid to 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF) was performed using a series of Ni-Cu/Al2 O3 catalysts in green solvents, such as water and biomass-derived alcohols. Ni/Al2 O3 provided the highest activity, whereas Cu/Al2 O3 was the most selective, reaching a 75 % MTHF yield at 250 °C after 24 h reaction time. Synergetic effects were observed when bimetallic Ni-Cu/Al2 O3 catalysts were used, reaching a 56 % MTHF yield in 5 h at 250 °C for the optimum Ni/Cu ratio. Remarkably, these high yields were obtained using non-noble metal-based catalysts and 2-propanol as the solvent. The catalytic activity and selectivity results are correlated to temperature programmed reduction (TPR), XRD, and STEM characterization data, identifying the role associated with mixed Ni-Cu particles in addition to monometallic Cu and Ni.

  13. [Men and family planning].

    PubMed

    Vieira, J G

    1993-01-01

    Family planning programs since their beginnings have focused exclusively on women. The importance of male participation in family planning has not been recognized. Today's society demands greater understanding and empathy between spouses, if they are to meet the new and difficult challenges of modern life. Incorporation of men into family planning programs is needed because of the deteriorating live conditions of a large segment of the population and the accelerating decomposition of social structures. Persuading men to participate in family planning should strengthen the couple and increase the probability that decisions about family size will be responsible. Strategies should be designed to interest men in family planning and increase their awareness of their role in fathering happy children who enter the world in more just and humane conditions. Such strategies must combat sex role socialization that begins in infancy. The assignment of responsibility for family planning to the woman excludes men from what should be a fundamental role.

  14. [Health and disadvantaged families.].

    PubMed

    Thibaudeau, M F

    1985-01-01

    Using data obtained from an evaluative study of experimental , health care given to families in two C.L.S.C, this article describes the functioning of a group on under priviledged families in two C.L.S.C. and the health both of the parents and their children below 10 years old. The sample of 85 families comprises an equal number of biparental and monoparental families. Three quarters of those families are on welfare and most of their living conditions are pitiable, half of the mothers come from broken families. Events of daily life involving stress are met with difficulty by most families. The shows that the mothers are under stress throughout the project. The children below 10 years old have high levels of school absenteism and display physical and psychological problems.

  15. [Familial pituitary tumors].

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, K; Saito, S

    1995-11-01

    Familial pituitary tumors are relatively rare. Most commonly, they occur as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). However, familial pituitary adenomas unrelated MEN 1 (familial pituitary adenomas) are extremely rare. In review of MEN 1 in Japan, 60% of the patients with MEN 1 had pituitary tumors. Only 45 cases of familial pituitary adenomas have been reported from 20 families. In our review of familial pituitary adenomas, 30 (67%) of 45 reported cases are acromegaly or gigantism. This incidence is much higher than 28% in MEN 1 patients with pituitary tumors. Allelic deletions at 11q13 were identified in MEN 1 associated pituitary adenomas and familial pituitary adenomas in two gigantism brothers. PMID:8538028

  16. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  17. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  18. Multi-element variations in olivine as geochemical signatures of Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization in mafic magma systems—examples from Voisey's Bay and Pants Lake intrusions, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulle, Florian; Layne, Graham D.

    2016-01-01

    Olivine from the olivine gabbro to troctolite intrusions at Voisey's Bay and at Pants Lake, Labrador, was analyzed for multiple elements (Ca, Sc, Mg, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, and Zr) with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Both intrusions have similar lithologies and petrographic characteristics and are approximately coeval (1.34 and 1.32 Ga, respectively) members of the Mesoproterozoic Nain Plutonic Suite. The Voisey's Bay intrusion hosts a producing economic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, whereas the Pants Lake intrusion displays evidence of Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization, but, to date, a viable ore deposit has not been discovered. Olivine from both barren and mineralized lithologies was analyzed to assess the potential of the olivine composition for providing a record of silicate melt evolution and sulfide saturation related to formation of a massive sulfide deposit. Two detailed transects were sampled, using five diamond drill holes that laterally approach the basal massive sulfide in the Eastern Deeps portion of the Voisey's Bay intrusion from the barren central part. Olivine displays distinct trace element distributions that vary coherently with host lithology and proximity to sulfide mineralization. In particular, olivine shows an increase in Fe (˜Fo80 to ˜Fo60), Mn (˜2500 to 5000 ppm), and Zn (˜280 to 700 ppm), generally coupled with a decrease in Ni (˜1600 to ˜900 ppm), Co (˜270 to ˜190 ppm), and Cr (˜110 to 45 ppm), from barren troctolite (normal troctolite—NT) and weakly mineralized troctolite (variable-textured troctolite—VTT) towards the heavily mineralized, brecciated basal succession (basal breccia sequence—BBS). The enrichment in Fe-Mn-Zn is most pronounced in samples that laterally approach, but do not directly intersect, the massive sulfide deposit at the base of the intrusion, particularly in samples from the lower variable-textured troctolite and the basal breccia. Olivine from gabbro lithologies within the basal

  19. Monoligated monovalent Ni: the 3d(Ni)9 manifold of states of NiCu and comparison to the 3d9 States of AlNi, NiH, NiCl, and NiF.

    PubMed

    Rothschopf, Gretchen K; Morse, Michael D

    2005-12-22

    A dispersed fluorescence investigation of the low-lying electronic states of NiCu has allowed the observation of four out of the five states that derive from the 3d(Ni)9 3d(Cu)10 sigma2 manifold. Vibrational levels of the ground X2delta(5/2) state corresponding to v = 0-11 are observed and are fit to provide omega(e) = 275.93 +/- 1.06 cm(-1) and omega(e)x(e) = 1.44 +/- 0.11 cm(-1). The v = 0 levels of the higher lying states deriving from the 3d(Ni)9 3d(Cu)10 sigma2 manifold are located at 912, 1466, and 1734 cm(-1), and these states are assigned to omega values of 3/2, 1/2, and 3/2, respectively. The last of these assignments is based on selection rules and is unequivocal; the first two are based on a comparison to ab initio and ligand field calculations and could conceivably be in error. It is also possible that the v = 0 level of the state found at 912 cm(-1) is not observed, so that T0 for the lowest excited state actually lies near 658 cm(-1). These results are modeled using a matrix Hamiltonian based on the existence of a ground manifold of states deriving from the 3d9 configuration on nickel. This matrix Hamiltonian is also applied to the spectroscopically well-known molecules AlNi, NiH, NiCl, and NiF. The term energies of the 2sigma+, 2pi, and 2delta states of these molecules, which all derive from a 3d9 configuration on the nickel atom, display a clear and understandable trend as a function of the electronegativity of the ligands.

  20. The role of crustal contamination in the formation of Ni-Cu sulfide deposits in Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, Northwest China: Evidence from trace element geochemistry, Re-Os, Sr-Nd, zircon Hf-O, and sulfur isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dong-Mei; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Sun, He; Su, Ben-Xun; Xiao, Qing-Hua

    2012-04-01

    Tulaergen, Xiangshan, Huangshan, Tianyu, and Baishiquan magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits, which are all located in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, and associated with small mafic-ultramafic intrusions with high-grade Cu and Ni orebodies have similar ages of formation. Their magma sources are MORB-like and OIB-like depleted mantle. Modeling calculations of Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic data show that about 10-15% of oceanic slab components are added into the source of Baishiquan and Tianyu intrusions, but only less than 5% are in the three other intrusions. The higher degree of subduction metasomatism in the Baishiquan and Tianyu magma sources is likely the result of the Paleozoic multiple-stage subduction. Moreover, the relative enrichment of LILE, depletion of HFSE, and lower Ce/Pb ratios indicate that these intrusions experienced crustal contaminations. The effects of crustal contamination are also identified in the magmatic sulfide deposits by the higher zircon δ18O, higher sulfide γOs, and δ34S values observed. We propose a two-stage crustal contamination model of the Tulaergen, Xiangshan, Tianyu, and Baishiquan intrusions. However, the Huangshan intrusion, which has the highest degree of crustal contamination, likely experienced only single-stage upper crustal contamination (˜14.2%). The addition of crustal S appears to be directly related to triggering S saturation in these deposits. According to a simple S isotopic modeling calculation, 11%, 2.9%, 1.2% and 2.1% of the crustal sulfur addition into the parental magma would be required to form the Tianyu, Baishiquan, Xiangshan, and Tulaergen deposits, respectively.

  1. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  2. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family share: Family responsibility... Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The family share is calculated by subtracting the amount of the housing assistance payment from the gross rent. (b) The family rent to owner...

  3. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Family share: Family responsibility... Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The family share is calculated by subtracting the amount of the housing assistance payment from the gross rent. (b) The family rent to owner...

  4. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Family share: Family responsibility... Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The family share is calculated by subtracting the amount of the housing assistance payment from the gross rent. (b) The family rent to owner...

  5. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family share: Family responsibility... Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The family share is calculated by subtracting the amount of the housing assistance payment from the gross rent. (b) The family rent to owner...

  6. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family share: Family responsibility... Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The family share is calculated by subtracting the amount of the housing assistance payment from the gross rent. (b) The family rent to owner...

  7. Rethinking family power.

    PubMed

    Kranichfeld, M L

    1987-03-01

    The family power literature, in its macrolevel focus on marital decision-making, has emphasized the kind of family power that is generally conferred on men and is based on extrafamilial roles and performances. Kranichfeld argues that for the last 2 decades, reviews of family power literature have been fundamentally shaped by the abiding interest in the relative power of men and women, rather than in power in the family per se. Researchers have continued to assume that family power is generated by acquiring skills, resources, and status outside the family rather than by acquiring skills for relating to others within the family. Much of the family power literature has focused on marriage and marital decision-making, but Kranichfeld argues that it is power within the parent-child relationship that is more complex, enduring, and significant. An understanding of the depth and reach of the kind of power that women hold, taken together without knowledge of how men's relationships to families are changing in our society, allows the possibility that women's positions are more secure than they sometimes seem. Many of the painful life situations that women experience because their powerlessness at a more macro level of society (desertion, physical abuse, teenage pregnancy) occur within the context of the romantic tie, and women's investment and power in vertical bonds are a source of support that reduces women's dependence on and vulnerability to the horizontal tie. Women occupy positions at the very center of the family, in contrast to men, who are becoming increasingly isolated from the family. From this perspective, the normally male power to make the decision about what kind of car to buy or where to spend the family vacation is nearly reduced to insignificance. The message seems to be that when it comes to securing family power, nothing can substitute for investment, attention, connection, and care.

  8. Developmental Toxicity of Perfluorinated Phosphonic Acids in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated phosphonic acids (PFPAs) are a third member of the perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) family, and are structurally similar to the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates. PFPAs are used primarily as a surfactant defoaming agent in pesticide production. Re...

  9. Nurses' and Parents' Perceptions of Parental Guidance on Using Nonpharmacological Pain-Relieving Methods Among Neonates in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Pölkki, Tarja; Laukkala, Helena; Korhonen, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Despite growing knowledge of parents' important role in their infants' pain management, the extent to which nurses in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) provide guidance to parents on nonpharmacological methods is unclear. This study aimed to describe and compare the perceptions of parental guidance in using nonpharmacological pain-relieving methods among neonates in NICUs from the viewpoints of nurses and parents, and to examine the participants' demographics related to the guidance. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study using questionnaire surveys was conducted. Eight NICUs of 5 university hospitals in Finland. A total of 427 participants, including 294 nurses and 178 parents. The participants indicated that the methods of touching and holding were the most commonly introduced strategies in infants' pain alleviation, as they were given as an alternative "nearly always/always" (nurses 91%, 87% and parents 61%, 58%, respectively). In contrast, music and breast-feeding were the less commonly introduced nonpharmacological methods (nurses 11%, 6% and parents 1%, 6%, respectively). A significant difference (p < .001) was found between the parents' and nurses' perceptions of parental guidance; nurses reported providing more guidance about all nonpharmacological methods compared with parents. In addition, many demographic factors of the nurses, the parents, and their infants were related to the parental guidance. Our findings indicate that parental guidance should not be based on nurses' evaluations of their activities without taking into account parents' perspectives. When counseling parents to use nonpharmacological methods, neonatal nurses should actively interact with families and discuss parents' individual needs. PMID:27287760

  10. A single amino acid substitution in the exoplasmic domain of the human growth hormone (GH) receptor confers familial GH resistance (Laron syndrome) with positive GH-binding activity by abolishing receptor homodimerization.

    PubMed Central

    Duquesnoy, P; Sobrier, M L; Duriez, B; Dastot, F; Buchanan, C R; Savage, M O; Preece, M A; Craescu, C T; Blouquit, Y; Goossens, M

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) elicits a variety of biological activities mainly mediated by the GH receptor (GHR), a transmembrane protein that, based on in vitro studies, seemed to function as a homodimer. To test this hypothesis directly, we investigated patients displaying the classic features of Laron syndrome (familial GH resistance characterized by severe dwarfism and metabolic dysfunction), except for the presence of normal binding activity of the plasma GH-binding protein, a molecule that derives from the exoplasmic-coding domain of the GHR gene. In two unrelated families, the same GHR mutation was identified, resulting in the substitution of a highly conserved aspartate residue by histidine at position 152 (D152H) of the exoplasmic domain, within the postulated interface sequence involved in homodimerization. The recombinant mutated receptor protein was correctly expressed at the plasma membrane. It displayed subnormal GH-binding activity, a finding in agreement with the X-ray crystal structure data inferring this aspartate residue outside the GH-binding domain. However, mAb-based studies suggested the critical role of aspartate 152 in the proper folding of the interface area. We show that a recombinant soluble form of the mutant receptor is unable to dimerize, the D152H substitution also preventing the formation of heterodimers of wild-type and mutant molecules. These results provide in vivo evidence that monomeric receptors are inactive and that receptor dimerization is involved in the primary signalling of the GH-associated growth-promoting and metabolic actions. Images PMID:8137822

  11. Creating a Family Health History

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health History? Click for more information A Family Tree for Health A family health history is a ... family members grew up. It's like a family tree for health. Click for more information What a ...

  12. Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids prevent astrocyte-mediated toxicity to motor neurons in a cell model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor activation.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Amarilla, Pablo; Miquel, Ernesto; Trostchansky, Andrés; Trias, Emiliano; Ferreira, Ana M; Freeman, Bruce A; Cassina, Patricia; Barbeito, Luis; Vargas, Marcelo R; Rubbo, Homero

    2016-06-01

    Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FA) are electrophilic signaling mediators formed in tissues during inflammation, which are able to induce pleiotropic cytoprotective and antioxidant pathways including up regulation of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) responsive genes. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motor neurons associated to an inflammatory process that usually aggravates the disease progression. In ALS animal models, the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 in astrocytes confers protection to neighboring neurons. It is currently unknown whether NO2-FA can exert protective activity in ALS through Nrf2 activation. Herein we demonstrate that nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA) or nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA) administrated to astrocytes expressing the ALS-linked hSOD1(G93A) induce antioxidant phase II enzyme expression through Nrf2 activation concomitant with increasing intracellular glutathione levels. Furthermore, treatment of hSOD1(G93A)-expressing astrocytes with NO2-FA prevented their toxicity to motor neurons. Transfection of siRNA targeted to Nrf2 mRNA supported the involvement of Nrf2 activation in NO2-FA-mediated protective effects. Our results show for the first time that NO2-FA induce a potent Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in astrocytes capable of preventing motor neurons death in a culture model of ALS. PMID:27012417

  13. Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids prevent astrocyte-mediated toxicity to motor neurons in a cell model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor activation.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Amarilla, Pablo; Miquel, Ernesto; Trostchansky, Andrés; Trias, Emiliano; Ferreira, Ana M; Freeman, Bruce A; Cassina, Patricia; Barbeito, Luis; Vargas, Marcelo R; Rubbo, Homero

    2016-06-01

    Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FA) are electrophilic signaling mediators formed in tissues during inflammation, which are able to induce pleiotropic cytoprotective and antioxidant pathways including up regulation of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) responsive genes. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motor neurons associated to an inflammatory process that usually aggravates the disease progression. In ALS animal models, the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 in astrocytes confers protection to neighboring neurons. It is currently unknown whether NO2-FA can exert protective activity in ALS through Nrf2 activation. Herein we demonstrate that nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA) or nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA) administrated to astrocytes expressing the ALS-linked hSOD1(G93A) induce antioxidant phase II enzyme expression through Nrf2 activation concomitant with increasing intracellular glutathione levels. Furthermore, treatment of hSOD1(G93A)-expressing astrocytes with NO2-FA prevented their toxicity to motor neurons. Transfection of siRNA targeted to Nrf2 mRNA supported the involvement of Nrf2 activation in NO2-FA-mediated protective effects. Our results show for the first time that NO2-FA induce a potent Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in astrocytes capable of preventing motor neurons death in a culture model of ALS.

  14. The Growth of a Family

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Biringer, Anne

    1991-01-01

    Caring for a family during pregnancy and birth is an ideal opportunity for family physicians to assess family functioning and help the family adjust to the birth of a new child. Stress and support systems can influence the course of pregnancy, including obstetric and perinatal outcomes. A family-centered approach can help patients during this critical stage of family development. PMID:21229107

  15. Strengthening family systems.

    PubMed

    Starn, J

    1993-01-01

    The childbearing year is a psychosocial transition that involves changes in roles and status for each member of the family. This change is perhaps most significant in the transition that occurs with the birth of the first child. Thus, childbirth education can be looked upon as an opportunity to strengthen family systems through anticipatory guidance and skill building that family members may use throughout the life cycle.

  16. State of family planning.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Courtney A; Traxler, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Family planning and reproductive health services are uniquely impacted by policy and politics in the United States. Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented number of abortion restrictions, and research funding has decreased in related areas. Despite this, both the science and the implementation of improved family planning and abortion methods have progressed in the past decade. This article reviews the current state of family planning, as well as technologies and patient care opportunities for the future. PMID:25860324

  17. Asteroid family ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoto, Federica; Milani, Andrea; Knežević, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    A new family classification, based on a catalog of proper elements with ∼384,000 numbered asteroids and on new methods is available. For the 45 dynamical families with >250 members identified in this classification, we present an attempt to obtain statistically significant ages: we succeeded in computing ages for 37 collisional families. We used a rigorous method, including a least squares fit of the two sides of a V-shape plot in the proper semimajor axis, inverse diameter plane to determine the corresponding slopes, an advanced error model for the uncertainties of asteroid diameters, an iterative outlier rejection scheme and quality control. The best available Yarkovsky measurement was used to estimate a calibration of the Yarkovsky effect for each family. The results are presented separately for the families originated in fragmentation or cratering events, for the young, compact families and for the truncated, one-sided families. For all the computed ages the corresponding uncertainties are provided, and the results are discussed and compared with the literature. The ages of several families have been estimated for the first time, in other cases the accuracy has been improved. We have been quite successful in computing ages for old families, we have significant results for both young and ancient, while we have little, if any, evidence for primordial families. We found 2 cases where two separate dynamical families form together a single V-shape with compatible slopes, thus indicating a single collisional event. We have also found 3 examples of dynamical families containing multiple collisional families, plus a dubious case: for these we have obtained discordant slopes for the two sides of the V-shape, resulting in distinct ages. We have found 2 cases of families containing a conspicuous subfamily, such that it is possible to measure the slope of a distinct V-shape, thus the age of the secondary collision. We also provide data on the central gaps appearing in

  18. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  19. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report has four parts: they discuss acid rain in relation to acid soils, agriculture, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Among findings: modern sources of acid deposition from the atmosphere for all the acid soils in the world, nor even chiefly responsible for those of northern U.S. Agriculture has its problems, but acid precipitation is probably not one of them. More research is needed to determine to what extent acid precipitation is responsible for forest declines and for smaller detrimental effects on forest growth where no damage to the foliage is evident. Many lakes and streams are extremely sensitive to added acids.

  20. Strengthening Families: Exploring the Impacts of Family Camp Experiences on Family Functioning and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy K.; Seidel, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that family camp experiences can enhance family relationships. Families often participate in family camp experiences for a vacation, as part of a therapeutic and/or intervention strategy, or to gain general enrichment or engagement. To better understand the impacts of family camp experiences on family functioning, a mixed-methods…

  1. Targeting tumor acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

  2. Treatment of Bile Acid Amidation Defects with Glycocholic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Heubi, James E.; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.; Jha, Pinky; Buckley, Donna; Zhang, Wujuan; Rosenthal, Philip; Potter, Carol; Horslen, Simon; Suskind, David

    2014-01-01

    Bile acid amidation defects were predicted to present with fat/fat soluble vitamin malabsorption with minimal cholestasis. We identified and treated 5 patients (1 male/4 females) from 4 families with defective bile acid amidation due to a genetically confirmed deficiency in bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyl transferase (BAAT) with the conjugated bile acid, glycocholic acid (GCA). Fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry analysis of urine and bile at baseline revealed predominantly unconjugated cholic acid and absence of the usual glycine and taurine conjugated primary bile acids. Treatment with 15 mg/kg GCA resulted in total duodenal bile acid concentrations of 23.3 ± 19.1 mmol/L (mean ± SD) and 63.5 ± 4.0% of the bile acids were secreted in bile in the conjugated form of which GCA represented 59.6 ± 9.3% of the total biliary bile acids. Unconjugated cholic acid continued to be present in high concentrations in bile because of partial intestinal deconjugation of orally administered GCA. Serum total bile acid concentrations did not significantly differ between pretreatment and post-treatment samples and serum contained predominantly unconjugated cholic acid. These findings confirmed efficient intestinal absorption, hepatic extraction and biliary secretion of the administered GCA. Oral tolerance tests for vitamin D2 (1000 IU vitamin D2/kg) and tocopherol (100 IU/kg tocopherol acetate) demonstrated improvement in fat-soluble vitamin absorption after GCA treatment. Growth improved in 3/3 growth-delayed prepubertal patients. Conclusions: Oral glycocholic acid therapy is safe and effective in improving growth and fat-soluble vitamin absorption in children and adolescents with inborn errors of bile acid metabolism due to amidation defects. PMID:25163551

  3. The Family Constellation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemire, David

    The Family Constellation Scale (FC Scale) is an instrument that assesses perceived birth order in families. It can be used in counseling to help initiate conversations about various traits and assumptions that tend to characterize first-born, middle-born children, youngest-born, and only children. It provides both counselors and clients insights…

  4. America's Family Time Famine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattox, Jr., William R.

    1990-01-01

    Parents spend increasingly less time with their children because of the pressures of dual careers and single parenthood. Economic pressures and social values have affected sharing of family time. Studies show both parents and children consider spending time together the most important element in improving family life. (BC)

  5. A Family Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Virginia Clarke

    1983-01-01

    Discusses alcoholism, its effect upon the children in the family, and what teachers can do to help children of alcoholics. Suggests that teachers be caring, nonjudgmental, and empathetic; learn what alcoholism is, how it affects the family, and how to identify affected children in classroom; and provide information on alcoholic help groups. (DMM)

  6. Families Falling Apart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Daniel Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Reviews trends in Black male unemployment, out-of-wedlock births, and the number of Aid to Families with Dependent Children cases over the past 25 years. Argues that family breakdown is creating a state of urban social chaos that could lead to martial law. (FMW)

  7. Uninsured Rural Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, Erika C.; Coburn, Andrew F.; Anderson, Nathaniel J.; Loux, Stephenie L.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Although research shows higher uninsured rates among rural versus urban individuals, prior studies are limited because they do not examine coverage across entire rural families. Purpose: This study uses the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to compare rural and urban insurance coverage within families, to inform the design of…

  8. Marriage or Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the differences between family therapy and marriage counseling in terms of professional organization, theory, and practice. Suggests that training in marriage therapy does not appear adequate for family therapy. The goal of the therapy field should be more consensus in theory and a single profession of therapists. (JAC)

  9. Balancing Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson Community Junior Coll., KS.

    This curriculum is based on what students need to know, to be able to do, and to be like in order to be competent in the work of the family. Each of the 12 units follows a uniform format that includes the following: perennial problem (one faced over and over by successive generations of families); practical problem (the organizing scheme for how…

  10. THE URBAN NEGRO FAMILY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOUGLASS, JOSEPH H.

    IN TRACING THE MOVEMENT OF THE NEGRO FAMILY TOWARD A MIDDLE-CLASS ORIENTATION AND TOWARD URBANIZATION, THIS ARTICLE NOTES THAT THE PATTERN IS BECOMING SIMILAR TO THAT OF THE GENERAL AMERICAN FAMILY. NEGROES HAVE LEFT THEIR SOUTHERN RURAL FARMS FOR BOTH SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN URBAN AREAS AND HAVE TENDED TO SETTLE IN THE INNER CORE OF THE LARGEST…

  11. Balancing Family and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Sally; And Others

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a series of activities designed to teach strategies needed for effectively managing the multiple responsibilities of family and work. The guide contains 11 lesson plans dealing with balancing family and work that can be used in any home economics class, from middle school through college. The lesson…

  12. Therapy for Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmann, Michael R.

    A family therapy model, based on a conceptualization of the family as a behavioral system whose members interact adaptively so that an optimal level of functioning is maintained within the system, is described. The divergent roots of this conceptualization are discussed briefly, as are the treatment approaches based on it. The author's model,…

  13. Marinating the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Karen A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the New York Aquarium's program specifically designed for family learning and teaching. The program's goal is to create an environment where child-parent roles are dropped and where the philosophy that no one of us is as smart as all of us prevails. Strategies for family involvement are outlined. (MH)

  14. Selecting Family Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Richard E.

    Just as counseling approaches designed for individuals have their theory-specific techniques, family counseling approaches also have theory-specific interventions and strategies. Whatever presenting problem the family brings to counseling, one or more of four essential components (communication, problem solving, roles and boundaries) is typically…

  15. Closure Issues with Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Steven E.; Bischof, Gary H.

    Closure of the counseling relationship constitutes both an ending and a beginning. Although closure signifies the ending of the present counseling relationship, many family counselors conceptualize closure as the start of a working relationship between counselor and family that may be summoned in future times of crisis or during a difficult life…

  16. Family History Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookmark, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue focus on the theme of family history resources: (1) "Introduction: Family History Resources" (Joseph F. Shubert); (2) "Work, Credentials, and Expectations of a Professional Genealogist" (Coreen P. Hallenbeck and Lewis W. Hallenbeck); (3) "Computers and Genealogy" (Theresa C. Strasser); (4) "Finding Historical Records…

  17. Family/Individual Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a six-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on personal and family health. The units cover: (1) personal health and wellness (including the decisions and other factors that influence health, principles of personal health, and stress management); (2) family health (including coping…

  18. Patent Family Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Edlyn S.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table noting country…

  19. Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

    Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du Bois and…

  20. Explaining Family Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Mary Anne, Ed.; Vangelisti, Anita L., Ed.

    A detailed review of current research and state-of-the-art ideas concerning both communication processes and family functioning is presented in this collection of articles. The volume is organized around three sections. Part 1, "The Development of Family Communication Patterns," contains: (1) "Communication in Infancy" (Marguerite Stevenson…