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Sample records for acid o-methyl transferase

  1. The putative-farnesoic acid O-methyl transferase (FAMeT) gene of Ceratitis capitata: characterization and pre-imaginal life expression.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Laura; Ciolfi, Silvia; Spinsanti, Giacomo; Panti, Cristina; Frati, Francesco; Dallai, Romano

    2010-02-01

    Farnesoic acid O-methyl transferase (FAMeT) is the enzyme involved in the penultimate step of insect juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis and is thus a key regulator in insect development and reproduction. We report the characterization of the putative-FAMeT in the medfly or Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. This gene was identified by suppressive subtractive hybridization and completely sequenced by the screening of a medfly cDNA library. The obtained sequence was analyzed for conserved protein domain identification and its expression profile was evaluated by quantitative Real-Time PCR in medfly pre-imaginal life. The tissue expression of the isolated gene was verified by in situ hybridization on third instar larvae sections. The characterization of the isolated gene pointed out several typical features of methyl transferase genes. The pre-imaginal putative-FAMeT expression levels were consistent with JH titer change in Diptera. As recognized in some crustaceans, this gene seems to be widely expressed in the medfly as well. Ceratitis capitata is one of the most relevant agricultural pests against which insecticides and the sterile insect technique (SIT) are extensively used in spite of the well-known limitations of these approaches. Although results are not conclusive for the physiological role of the isolated gene, they suggest the characterization of a new gene in the Mediterranean fruit fly potentially involved in JH biosynthesis and may, therefore, have implications for pest control.

  2. Effects of Catechol O-Methyl Transferase Inhibition on Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Luteolin Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sang Keun; Lee, Jin-Ah; Cho, Eun Jung; Choi, Inwook

    2017-02-01

    Although luteolin is known to have potent anti-inflammatory activities, much less information has been provided on such activities of its hepatic metabolites. Luteolin was subjected to hepatic metabolism in HepG2 cells either without or with catechol O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor. To identify hepatic metabolites of luteolin without (luteolin metabolites, LMs) or with COMT inhibitor (LMs+CI), metabolites were treated by β-glucuronidase and sulfatase, and found that they were composed of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of diosmetin in LMs or these conjugates of luteolin in LMs+CI. LMs and LMs+CI were examined for their anti-inflammatory activities on LPS stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Expression of iNOS and production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were suppressed more effectively by the treatment with LMs+CI than LMs. Our data provide a new insight on possible improvement in functional properties of luteolin on target cells by modifying their metabolic pathway in hepatocytes.

  3. Methionine sulfoxide reductase regulates brain catechol-O-methyl transferase activity

    PubMed Central

    Moskovitz, Jackob; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Cruz, Dianne A; Thompson, Peter M.; Bortolato, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) plays a key role in the degradation of brain dopamine (DA). Specifically, low COMT activity results in higher DA levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), thereby reducing the vulnerability for attentional and cognitive deficits in both psychotic and healthy individuals. COMT activity is markedly reduced by a non-synonymous SNP that generates a valine-to-methionine substitution on the residue 108/158, by means of as-yet incompletely understood posttranslational mechanisms. One posttranslational modification is methionine sulfoxide, which can be reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) A and B enzymes. We used recombinant COMT proteins (Val/Met108) and mice (wild-type (WT) and MsrA knockout) to determine the effect of methionine oxidation on COMT activity and COMT interaction with Msr, through a combination of enzymatic activity and Western blot assays. Recombinant COMT activity is positively regulated by MsrA, especially under oxidative conditions, while brains of MsrA knockout mice exhibited lower COMT activity (as compared with their WT counterparts). These results suggest that COMT activity may be reduced by methionine oxidation, and point to Msr as a key molecular determinant for the modulation of COMT activity in the brain. The role of Msr in modulating cognitive functions in healthy individuals and schizophrenia patients is yet to be determined. PMID:24735585

  4. Sildenafil citrate rescues fetal growth in the catechol-O-methyl transferase knockout mouse model.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Joanna L; Andersson, Irene J; Poudel, Rajan; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Sibley, Colin P; Davidge, Sandra T; Baker, Philip N

    2012-05-01

    Preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction are responsible for the majority of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with complicated pregnancies. Although their etiologies are complex and multifactorial, both are associated with increased uterine artery resistance. Sildenafil citrate is able to rescue the dysfunction observed ex vivo in uterine arteries of women with preeclampsia. The ability of sildenafil citrate to increase uterine artery vasodilation, thereby decreasing uterine artery resistance and, hence, ameliorated preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, was tested in a mouse model of preeclampsia, the catechol-O-methyl transferase knockout mouse (COMT(-/-)). COMT(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice were treated (0.2 mg/mL in drinking water, n=6-12) from gestational day 12.5 to 18.5. Measures of pup growth, including body weight, crown/rump length, and abdominal circumference, were reduced in COMT(-/-) mice; this was normalized after treatment with Sildenafil. COMT(-/-) mice also demonstrated abnormal umbilical Doppler waveforms, including reverse arterial blood flow velocity. This was normalized after treatment with Sildenafil. Abnormal uterine artery Doppler waveforms were not demonstrated in COMT(-/-) mice, although ex vivo responses of uterine arteries to phenylephrine were increased; moreover, treatment with Sildenafil did improve ex vivo sensitivity to an endothelium-dependent vasodilator. The data presented here demonstrate that Sildenafil can rescue pup growth and improve abnormal umbilical Doppler waveforms, providing support for a potential new therapeutic strategy targeting fetal growth restriction.

  5. Evidence for tryptophan hydroxylase and hydroxy-indol-O-methyl-transferase mRNAs in human blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Champier, J; Claustrat, B; Besançon, R; Eymin, C; Killer, C; Jouvet, A; Chamba, G; Fèvre-Montange, M

    1997-01-01

    Human blood platelets were tested for the presence of mRNAs coding for tryptophan hydroxylase (TPOH) and hydroxy-indol-o-methyl-transferase (HIOMT). Total RNA was extracted from platelets (12.9 +/- 3.3 mg RNA/100 ml blood, mean +/- SEM of 6 preparations) and cDNA synthesized by reverse transcription using random hexamers, oligo-dT or TPOH- or HIOMT-specific primers, designed to amplify a 254 bp fragment for TPOH and a 301 bp fragment for HIOMT. Positive controls were performed using RNA extracted from human normal or tumoral pineal glands. The PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis, transferred to a nylon membrane and hybridized with a 32P-labeled internal probe. When random hexamers, oligo-dT or specific primers were used for reverse transcription, amplification products of the predicted sizes were detectable following electrophoresis in the case of pineal glands and following transfer and hybridization in the case of platelets. These results show TPOH and HIOMT mRNAs to be present in human blood and support the hypothesis that serotonin and melatonin may be synthesized in blood and, more particularly, in platelets.

  6. 4-O-methylation of glucuronic acid in Arabidopsis glucuronoxylan is catalyzed by a domain of unknown function family 579 protein.

    PubMed

    Urbanowicz, Breeanna R; Peña, Maria J; Ratnaparkhe, Supriya; Avci, Utku; Backe, Jason; Steet, Heather F; Foston, Marcus; Li, Hongjia; O'Neill, Malcolm A; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Darvill, Alan G; Wyman, Charles; Gilbert, Harry J; York, William S

    2012-08-28

    The hemicellulose 4-O-methyl glucuronoxylan is one of the principle components present in the secondary cell walls of eudicotyledonous plants. However, the biochemical mechanisms leading to the formation of this polysaccharide and the effects of modulating its structure on the physical properties of the cell wall are poorly understood. We have identified and functionally characterized an Arabidopsis glucuronoxylan methyltransferase (GXMT) that catalyzes 4-O-methylation of the glucuronic acid substituents of this polysaccharide. AtGXMT1, which was previously classified as a domain of unknown function (DUF) 579 protein, specifically transfers the methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to O-4 of α-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid residues that are linked to O-2 of the xylan backbone. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme indicates that GXMT1 is localized in the Golgi apparatus and requires Co(2+) for optimal activity in vitro. Plants lacking GXMT1 synthesize glucuronoxylan in which the degree of 4-O-methylation is reduced by 75%. This result is correlated to a change in lignin monomer composition and an increase in glucuronoxylan release during hydrothermal treatment of secondary cell walls. We propose that the DUF579 proteins constitute a previously undescribed family of cation-dependent, polysaccharide-specific O-methyl-transferases. This knowledge provides new opportunities to selectively manipulate polysaccharide O-methylation and extends the portfolio of structural targets that can be modified either alone or in combination to modulate biopolymer interactions in the plant cell wall.

  7. Chronic pain after lower abdominal surgery: do catechol-O-methyl transferase/opioid receptor μ-1 polymorphisms contribute?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preoperative pain, type of operation and anesthesia, severity of acute postoperative pain, and psychosocial factors have been identified as risk factors for chronic postsurgical pain (CPP). Recently, it has been suggested that genetic factors also contribute to CPP. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and opioid receptor μ-1 (OPRM1) common functional polymorphisms rs4680 and rs1799971 were associated with the incidence, intensity, or duration of CPP in patients after lower abdominal surgery. Methods One hundred and two patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I/II underwent either abdominal radical prostatectomy (n = 45) or hysterectomy (n = 57). The incidences of CPP in the pelvic and scar areas were evaluated in all patients three months after surgery. Results Thirty-five (34.3%) patients experienced CPP after lower abdominal surgery. Within this group, six (17.1%) patients demonstrated symptoms of neuropathic pain. For COMT rs4680, 22 (21.6%) patients had Met158Met, 55 (53.9%) patients had Val158Met, and 25 (24.5%) patients had Val158Val. No association was found between CPP phenotypes (incidence, intensity, and duration) and different rs4680 genotypes. For OPRM1 rs1799971, only CPP patients carrying at least one copy of the G allele had higher pain intensity than A118A carriers (p=0.02). No associations with other phenotypes were found. No combined effect of COMT/OPRM1 polymorphisms on CPP phenotypes was observed. Conclusions OPRM1 genotype influences CPP following lower abdominal surgery. COMT didn’t affect CPP, suggesting its potential modality-specific effects on human pain. PMID:23566343

  8. Generation of membrane-bound catechol-O-methyl transferase deficient mice with disctinct sex dependent behavioral phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tammimaki, A; Aonurm-Helm, A; Zhang, F P; Poutanen, M; Duran-Torres, G; Garcia-Horsman, A; Mannisto, P T

    2016-12-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has two isoforms: soluble (S-COMT), which resides in the cytoplasm, and membrane-bound (MB-MT), anchored to intracellular membranes. COMT is involved in the O-methylation of L-DOPA, dopamine and other catechols. The exact role of MB-COMT is still mostly unclear. We wanted to create a novel genetically modified mouse model that specifically lacks MB-COMT activity and to study their behavioral phenotype. MB-COMT knock-in mutant mice were generated by introducing two point mutations in exon 2 of the Comt gene (ATGCTG->GAGCTC disabling the function of the P2 promoter and allowing only the P1-regulated S-COMT transcription. The first mutation changes methionine to glutamic acid whereas the second one does not affect coding. The expression of the two COMT isoforms, total COMT activity in several areas of the brain and peripheral tissues and extracellular dopamine concentrations after L-DOPA (10 mg/kg) and carbidopa (30 mg/kg) subcutaneous administration were assessed. A battery of behavioral tests was performed to compare MB-COMT deficient mice and their wild type littermates of both sexes. MB-COMT deficient mice were seemingly normal, bred usually and had unaltered COMT activity in the brain and periphery despite a complete lack of the MB-COMT protein. MB-COMT deficient male mice showed higher extracellular dopamine levels than their wild-type littermates in the striatum, but not in the mPFC. In addition, the MB-COMT deficient male mice exhibited a distinct endophenotype characterized by schizophrenia-related behaviors like aggressive behavior and reduced prepulse inhibition. They also had prolonged immobility in the tail suspension test. Both sexes were sensitized to acute pain and had normal motor activity but disturbed short-term memory. Hence the behavioral phenotype was not limited to schizophrenia-related endophenotype and some behavioural findings were not sex-dependent. Our findings indicate that MB-COMT is critical for

  9. Differential expression and activity of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) in a generalist (Neotoma albigula) and juniper specialist (Neotoma stephensi) woodrat.

    PubMed

    Skopec, Michele M; Dearing, M Denise

    2011-11-01

    Mammalian herbivores, particularly dietary specialists must have an efficient means to metabolize the high doses of plant secondary compounds they consume. We found previously that Neotoma stephensi, a juniper specialist, upregulated catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) mRNA almost seven fold in response to an ecologically relevant diet (70% juniper). To further investigate the relevance of this enzyme with respect to juniper metabolism, we compared the protein expression, activity and kinetics of the two forms of COMT, soluble (S-COMT) and membrane bound (MB-COMT), in the blood, kidneys and liver of N. stephensi on its natural juniper diet to that of N. stephensi fed an experimental diet of 70% juniper as well as a non-toxic control diet under laboratory conditions. In addition, we compared these results to that of Neotoma albigula, a generalist species, which consumes a diet of 25% juniper in the wild. The specialist consuming juniper under both field and laboratory conditions had increased S-COMT expression and activity in their livers and kidneys, and increased S-COMT activity in their blood compared to the specialist and generalist fed the control diet. The specialist showed expression and activity of S-COMT in their kidneys that was as high as or higher than that in their livers. The generalist had an elevated V(max) for MB-COMT compared to the specialist that resulted in higher activity for MB-COMT than the specialist despite lower expression of MB-COMT in the generalist's livers and kidneys. This high activity MB-COMT may be in part responsible for differences in the behaviors of the generalist compared to the specialist. We conclude that S-COMT is important in the specialist's ability to consume high levels of juniper. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of catechol-O-methyl-transferase polymorphism Val158Met on functional connectivity in healthy young females: a resting EEG study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tien-Wen; Yu, Younger W-Y; Hong, Chen-Jee; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Wu, Hung-Chi; Chen, Tai-Jui

    2011-03-04

    The catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) gene has been linked to a wide spectrum of human phenotypes, including cognition, affective response, pain sensitivity, anxiety and psychosis. This study examined the modulatory effects of COMT Val158Met on neural interactions, indicated by connectivity strengths. Blood samples and resting state eyes-closed EEG signals were collected in 254 healthy young females. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism was decoded into 3 groups: Val/Val, Val/Met and Met/Met. The values of mutual information of 20 frontal-related channel pairs across delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies were analyzed based on the time-frequency mutual information method. Our one-way ANOVA analyses revealed that the significant connection-frequency pairs were relatively left lateralized (P<0.01) and included F7-T3 and F7-C3 at delta frequency, and F3-F4, F7-T3, F7-C3, F7-P3, F3-C3, F3-F7 and F4-F8 at theta frequency. The F-test at F7-T3 and F7-C3 theta surpassed the statistical threshold of P<0.003 (after Bonferroni correction). For all the above connection-frequency pairs, there was a dose-dependent trend in the connectivity strengths of the alleles as follows: Val/Val>Val/Met>Met/Met. Our analyses complemented previous literature regarding neural modulation by the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. The implication to the pathogenesis in schizophrenia was also discussed. Further studies are needed to clarify whether there is gender difference on this gene-brain interaction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preservation of urine free catecholamines and their free O-methylated metabolites with citric acid as an alternative to hydrochloric acid for LC-MS/MS-based analyses.

    PubMed

    Peitzsch, Mirko; Pelzel, Daniela; Lattke, Peter; Siegert, Gabriele; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of urinary fractionated metadrenalines provide a useful screening test to diagnose phaeochromocytoma. Stability of these compounds and their parent catecholamines during and after urine collection is crucial to ensure accuracy of the measurements. Stabilisation with hydrochloric acid (HCl) can promote deconjugation of sulphate-conjugated metadrenalines, indicating a need for alternative preservatives. Urine samples with an intrinsically acidic or alkaline pH (5.5-6.9 or 7.1-8.7, respectively) were used to assess stability of free catecholamines and their free O-methylated metabolites over 7 days of room temperature storage. Stabilisation with HCl was compared with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/metabisulphite and monobasic citric acid. Catecholamines and metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Free catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites were stable in acidic urine samples over 7 days of room temperature storage, independent of the presence or absence of any stabilisation method. In contrast, free catecholamines, but not the free O-methylated metabolites, showed rapid degradation within 24 h and continuing degradation over 7 days in urine samples with an alkaline pH. Adjustment of alkaline urine samples to a pH of 3-5 with HCl or 4.8-5.4 with citric acid completely blocked degradation of catecholamines. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/metabisulphite, although reducing the extent of degradation of catecholamines in alkaline urine, was largely ineffectual as a stabiliser. Citric acid is equally effective as HCl for stabilisation of urinary free catecholamines and minimises hazards associated with use of strong inorganic acids while avoiding deconjugation of sulphate-conjugated metabolites during simultaneous LC-MS/MS measurements of free catecholamines and their free O-methylated metabolites.

  12. Copper-catalyzed N-methylation of amides and O-methylation of carboxylic acids by using peroxides as the methylating reagents.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qinqin; Liu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yuejiao; Chen, Chao; Chen, Wanzhi

    2013-07-05

    The copper-catalyzed N-methylation of amides and O-methylation of carboxylic acids by using peroxides as the methylating reagent are described. Various amides and carboxylic acids were methylated affording N-substituted amides and esters. Tentative mechanistic studies suggest that this reaction is likely to involve a radical process.

  13. 2'-O-Methyl RNA/Ethylene-Bridged Nucleic Acid Chimera Antisense Oligonucleotides to Induce Dystrophin Exon 45 Skipping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tomoko; Awano, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Mariko; Matsumoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Goda, Ryoya; Koizumi, Makoto; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2017-02-10

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle-wasting disease characterized by dystrophin deficiency from mutations in the dystrophin gene. Antisense oligonucleotide (AO)-mediated exon skipping targets restoration of the dystrophin reading frame to allow production of an internally deleted dystrophin protein with functional benefit for DMD patients who have out-of-frame deletions. After accelerated US approval of eteplirsen (Exondys 51), which targets dystrophin exon 51 for skipping, efforts are now focused on targeting other exons. For improved clinical benefits, this strategy requires more studies of the delivery method and modification of nucleic acids. We studied a nucleotide with a 2'-O,4'-C-ethylene-bridged nucleic acid (ENA), which shows high nuclease resistance and high affinity for complementary RNA strands. Here, we describe the process of developing a 2'-O-methyl RNA(2'-OMeRNA)/ENA chimera AO to induce dystrophin exon 45 skipping. One 18-mer 2'-OMeRNA/ENA chimera (AO85) had the most potent activity for inducing exon 45 skipping in cultured myotubes. AO85 was administered to mdx mice without significant side effects. AO85 transfection into cultured myotubes from 13 DMD patients induced exon 45 skipping in all samples at different levels and dystrophin expression in 11 patients. These results suggest the possible efficacy of AO-mediated exon skipping changes in individual patients and highlight the 2'-OMeRNA/ENA chimera AO as a potential fundamental treatment for DMD.

  14. 2′-O-Methyl RNA/Ethylene-Bridged Nucleic Acid Chimera Antisense Oligonucleotides to Induce Dystrophin Exon 45 Skipping

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tomoko; Awano, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Mariko; Matsumoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Goda, Ryoya; Koizumi, Makoto; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle-wasting disease characterized by dystrophin deficiency from mutations in the dystrophin gene. Antisense oligonucleotide (AO)-mediated exon skipping targets restoration of the dystrophin reading frame to allow production of an internally deleted dystrophin protein with functional benefit for DMD patients who have out-of-frame deletions. After accelerated US approval of eteplirsen (Exondys 51), which targets dystrophin exon 51 for skipping, efforts are now focused on targeting other exons. For improved clinical benefits, this strategy requires more studies of the delivery method and modification of nucleic acids. We studied a nucleotide with a 2′-O,4′-C-ethylene-bridged nucleic acid (ENA), which shows high nuclease resistance and high affinity for complementary RNA strands. Here, we describe the process of developing a 2′-O-methyl RNA(2′-OMeRNA)/ENA chimera AO to induce dystrophin exon 45 skipping. One 18-mer 2′-OMeRNA/ENA chimera (AO85) had the most potent activity for inducing exon 45 skipping in cultured myotubes. AO85 was administered to mdx mice without significant side effects. AO85 transfection into cultured myotubes from 13 DMD patients induced exon 45 skipping in all samples at different levels and dystrophin expression in 11 patients. These results suggest the possible efficacy of AO-mediated exon skipping changes in individual patients and highlight the 2′-OMeRNA/ENA chimera AO as a potential fundamental treatment for DMD. PMID:28208626

  15. Layered Calcium Structures of p-Phosphonic Acid O-Methyl-Calix[6]arene

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Thomas E.; Martin, Adam; Makha, Mohamed; Sobolev, Alexandre N.; Su, Dian; Rohrs, Henry W.; Gross, Michael L.; Raston, Colin L.

    2010-01-01

    Hexamethoxy-calix[6]arene has been fully functionalized with p-phosphonic acid groups on the upper rim in 57% yield over three steps, and has been authenticated in the solid state by X-ray diffraction as either a nitrate salt or one of two calcium complexes. The latter differ by the ratio of calcium ions per calixarene, either 3:1 or 4:1. In both structures the coordination sphere of the calcium ions is made up of oxygen atoms from the phosphonic acid groups and from water of crystallization, as part of extended polymeric layers in the extended 3D packing. Hirshfeld surface analysis shows extensive O…H and O…Ca interactions for the phosphonic acid moieties in both calcium structures. MALDI-TOF MS of the hexaphosphonic acid shows nano-arrays consisting of up to a maximum of 28 calixarene units. PMID:20657793

  16. Inhibition of Catechol-O-methyl Transferase (COMT) by Tolcapone Restores Reductions in Microtubule-associated Protein 2 (MAP2) and Synaptophysin (SYP) Following Exposure of Neuronal Cells to Neurotropic HIV

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ting Ting; Chana, Gursharan; Gorry, Paul R.; Ellett, Anne; Bousman, Chad A.; Churchill, Melissa J.; Gray, Lachlan R.; Everall, Ian P.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation aimed to assess whether inhibition of cathecol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) by Tolcapone could provide neuroprotection against HIV-associated neurodegenerative effects. This study was conducted based on previous work, which showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 158 (val158met) in COMT, resulted in 40% lower COMT activity. Importantly, this reduction confers a protective effect against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which have been linked to HIV-associated brain changes. SH-SY5Y differentiated neurons were exposed to macrophage-propagated HIV (neurotropic MACS2-Br strain) in the presence or absence of Tolcapone for 6 days. RNA was extracted and qPCR was performed using Qiagen RT2-custom-array consisting of genes for neuronal and synaptic integrity, COMT and pro-inflammatory markers. Immunofluorescence was conducted to validate the gene expression changes at the protein level. Our findings demonstrated that HIV significantly increased the mRNA expression of COMT while reduced the expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) (p=0.0015) and synaptophysin (SYP) (p=0.012) compared to control. A concomitant exposure of Tolcapone ameliorated the perturbed expression of MAP2 (p=0.009) and COMT (p=0.024) associated with HIV. Immunofluorescence revealed a trend reduction of SYP and MAP2 with exposure to HIV, and that concomitant exposure of Tolcapone increased SYP (p=0.016) compared to HIV alone. Our findings demonstrated in vitro that inhibition of COMT can ameliorate HIV-associated neurodegenerative changes that resulted in the decreased expression of the structural and synaptic components MAP2 and SYP. As HIV-associated dendritic and synaptic damage are contributors to HAND, inhibition of COMT may represent a potential strategy for attenuating or preventing some of the symptoms of HAND. PMID:26037113

  17. Inhibition of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) by tolcapone restores reductions in microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin (SYP) following exposure of neuronal cells to neurotropic HIV.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting Ting; Chana, Gursharan; Gorry, Paul R; Ellett, Anne; Bousman, Chad A; Churchill, Melissa J; Gray, Lachlan R; Everall, Ian P

    2015-10-01

    This investigation aimed to assess whether inhibition of cathecol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) by tolcapone could provide neuroprotection against HIV-associated neurodegenerative effects. This study was conducted based on a previous work, which showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 158 (val158met) in COMT, resulted in 40 % lower COMT activity. Importantly, this reduction confers a protective effect against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which have been linked to HIV-associated brain changes. SH-SY5Y-differentiated neurons were exposed to macrophage-propagated HIV (neurotropic MACS2-Br strain) in the presence or absence of tolcapone for 6 days. RNA was extracted, and qPCR was performed using Qiagen RT2 custom array consisting of genes for neuronal and synaptic integrity, COMT and pro-inflammatory markers. Immunofluorescence was conducted to validate the gene expression changes at the protein level. Our findings demonstrated that HIV significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of COMT while reducing the expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) (p = 0.0015) and synaptophysin (SYP) (p = 0.012) compared to control. A concomitant exposure of tolcapone ameliorated the perturbed expression of MAP2 (p = 0.009) and COMT (p = 0.024) associated with HIV. Immunofluorescence revealed a trend reduction of SYP and MAP2 with exposure to HIV and that concomitant exposure of tolcapone increased SYP (p = 0.016) compared to HIV alone. Our findings demonstrated in vitro that inhibition of COMT can ameliorate HIV-associated neurodegenerative changes that resulted in the decreased expression of the structural and synaptic components MAP2 and SYP. As HIV-associated dendritic and synaptic damage are contributors to HAND, inhibition of COMT may represent a potential strategy for attenuating or preventing some of the symptoms of HAND.

  18. The Role of Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase Val(108/158)Met Polymorphism (rs4680) in the Effect of Green Tea on Resting Energy Expenditure and Fat Oxidation: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hursel, Rick; Janssens, Pilou L. H. R.; Bouwman, Freek G.; Mariman, Edwin C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Green tea(GT) is able to increase energy expenditure(EE) and fat oxidation(FATox) via inhibition of catechol-O-methyl transferase(COMT) by catechins. However, this does not always appear unanimously because of large inter-individual variability. This may be explained by different alleles of the functional COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism that are associated with COMT enzyme activity; high-activity enzyme, COMTH(Val/Val genotype), and low-activity COMTL(Met/Met genotype). Methods Fourteen Caucasian subjects (BMI: 22.2±2.3 kg/m2, age: 21.4±2.2 years) of whom 7 with the COMTH-genotype and 7 with the COMTL-genotype were included in a randomized, cross-over study in which EE and substrate oxidation were measured with a ventilated-hood system after decaffeinated GT and placebo(PL) consumption. Results At baseline, EE, RQ, FATox and carbohydrate oxidation(CHOox) did not differ between groups. Significant interactions were observed between COMT genotypes and treatment for RQ, FATox and CHOox (p<0.05). After GT vs. PL, EE(GT: 62.2 vs. PL: 35.4 kJ.3.5 hrs; p<0.01), RQ(GT: 0.80 vs. PL: 0.83; p<0.01), FATox(GT: 18.3 vs. PL: 15.3 g/d; p<0.001) and CHOox(GT: 18.5 vs. PL: 24.3 g/d; p<0.001) were significantly different for subjects carrying the COMTH genotype, but not for subjects carrying the COMTL genotype (EE, GT: 60.3 vs. PL: 51.7 kJ.3.5 hrs; NS), (RQ, GT: 0.81 vs. PL: 0.81; NS), (FATox, GT: 17.3 vs. PL: 17.0 g/d; NS), (CHOox, GT: 22.1 vs. PL: 21.4 g/d; NS). Conclusion Subjects carrying the COMTH genotype increased energy expenditure and fat-oxidation upon ingestion of green tea catechins vs, placebo, whereas COMTL genotype carriers reacted similarly to GT and PL ingestion. The differences in responses were due to the different responses on PL ingestion, but similar responses to GT ingestion, pointing to different mechanisms. The different alleles of the functional COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism appear to play a role in the inter-individual variability for EE

  19. Observation of the side chain O-methylation of glutamic acid or aspartic acid containing model peptides by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Atik, A Emin; Guray, Melda Z; Yalcin, Talat

    2017-03-15

    O-methylation of the side chains of glutamic acid (E) and aspartic acid (D) residues is generally observed modification when an acidified methanol/water (MeOH/dH2O) mixture is used as a solvent system during sample preparation for proteomic research. This chemical modification may result misidentification with endogenous protein methylation; therefore, a special care should be taken during sample handling prior to mass spectrometric analysis. In the current study, we systematically examined the extent of E/D methylation and C-terminus carboxyl group of synthetic model peptides in terms of different incubation temperatures, storage times, and added acid types as well as its percentages. To monitor these effects, C-terminus amidated and free acid forms of synthetic model peptides comprised of E or D residue(s) have been analyzed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Additionally, LC-MS/MS experiments were performed to confirm the formation of methylated peptide product. The results showed that the rate of methylation was increased as the temperature increases along with prolong incubation times. Moreover, the extent of methylation was remarkably high when formic acid (FA) used as a protonation agent instead of acetic acid (AA). In addition, it was found that the degree of methylation was significantly decreased by lowering acid percentages in ESI solution. More than one acidic residue containing model peptides have been also used to explore the extent of multiple methylation reaction. Lastly, the ethanol (EtOH) and isopropanol (iPrOH) have been substituted separately with MeOH in sample preparation step to investigate the extent of esterification reaction under the same experimental conditions. However, in the positive perspective of view, this method can be used as a simple, rapid and cheap method for methylation of acidic residues under normal laboratory conditions.

  20. Antiviral Activity of Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid and Its Derivative Tetra-O-Methyl Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid against West Nile Virus and Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Jiménez de Oya, Nereida; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A

    2017-08-01

    Flaviviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses distributed all over the world that infect millions of people every year and for which no specific antiviral agents have been approved. These viruses include the mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV), which is responsible for outbreaks of meningitis and encephalitis. Considering that nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been previously shown to inhibit the multiplication of the related dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, we have evaluated the effect of NDGA, and its methylated derivative tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (M4N), on the infection of WNV. Both compounds inhibited the infection of WNV, likely by impairing viral replication. Since flavivirus multiplication is highly dependent on host cell lipid metabolism, the antiviral effect of NDGA has been previously related to its ability to disturb the lipid metabolism, probably by interfering with the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) pathway. Remarkably, we observed that other structurally unrelated inhibitors of the SREBP pathway, such as PF-429242 and fatostatin, also reduced WNV multiplication, supporting that the SREBP pathway may constitute a druggable target suitable for antiviral intervention against flavivirus infection. Moreover, treatment with NDGA, M4N, PF-429242, and fatostatin also inhibited the multiplication of the mosquito-borne flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV), which has been recently associated with birth defects (microcephaly) and neurological disorders. Our results point to SREBP inhibitors, such as NDGA and M4N, as potential candidates for further antiviral development against medically relevant flaviviruses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Peripheral Aromatic L-Amino Acids Decarboxylase Inhibitor in Parkinsonism. I. EFFECT ON O-METHYLATED METABOLITES OF L-DOPA-2-14C

    PubMed Central

    Messiha, F. S.; Hsu, T. H.; Bianchine, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of MK-486, an inhibitor of peripheral aromatic L-amino acids decarboxylase, on the urinary metabolites derived from orally administered L-Dopa-2-14C were studied in three Parkinsonian patients. Treatment with MK-486 before L-Dopa-2-14C markedly reduced radioactivity found in catecholamines fraction by 70-80% during 48 hr, but increased 3-O-methyldopa fraction by threefold, as compared with a nonpretreated base line value. Pretreatment with MK-486 for a period of 1 wk resulted in less inhibition of O-methylated amine and acid metabolite fractions than that measured after a single dose of the inhibitor. PMID:5009125

  2. Chemical synthesis of guanosine diphosphate mannuronic acid (GDP-ManA) and its C-4-O-methyl and C-4-deoxy congeners.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingju; Howell, P Lynne; Overkleeft, Herman S; Filippov, Dmitri V; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; Codée, Jeroen D C

    2017-10-10

    Described is the first synthesis of guanosine diphosphate mannuronic acid (GDP-ManA), the sugar donor used by algae and bacteria for the production of alginate, an anionic polysaccharide composed of β-d-mannuronic acid (ManA) and α-l-guluronic acid (GulA). Understanding the biosynthesis of these polyanionic polysaccharides on the molecular level, opens up avenues to use and modulate the biosynthesis machinery for biotechnological and therapeutic applications. The synthesis reported here delivers multi-milligram amounts of the GDP-ManA donor that can be used to study the polymerase (Alg8 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa) that generates the poly-ManA chain. Also reported is the assembly of two close analogues of GDP-ManA: the first bears a C-4-O-methyl group, while the second has been deoxygenated at this position. Both molecules may be used as "chain stoppers" in future enzymatic ManA polymerisation reactions. The crucial pyrophosphate linkage of the GDP-mannuronic acids has been constructed by the phosphorylation of the appropriate ManA-1-phosphates with a guanosine phosphoramidite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mapping of amino acid substitutions conferring herbicide resistance in wheat glutathione transferase.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Sridhar; Mannervik, Bengt; Silverman, Joshua A; Wright, Kathy; Regitsky, Drew; Hegazy, Usama; Purcell, Thomas J; Welch, Mark; Minshull, Jeremy; Gustafsson, Claes

    2015-03-20

    We have used design of experiments (DOE) and systematic variance to efficiently explore glutathione transferase substrate specificities caused by amino acid substitutions. Amino acid substitutions selected using phylogenetic analysis were synthetically combined using a DOE design to create an information-rich set of gene variants, termed infologs. We used machine learning to identify and quantify protein sequence-function relationships against 14 different substrates. The resulting models were quantitative and predictive, serving as a guide for engineering of glutathione transferase activity toward a diverse set of herbicides. Predictive quantitative models like those presented here have broad applicability for bioengineering.

  4. Tetra-O-Methyl Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Broadly Suppresses Cancer Metabolism and Synergistically Induces Strong Anticancer Activity in Combination with Etoposide, Rapamycin and UCN-01.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kotohiko; Huang, Ru Chih C

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (M4N) to induce rapid cell death in combination with Etoposide, Rapamycin, or UCN-01 was examined in LNCaP cells, both in cell culture and animal experiments. Mice treated with M4N drug combinations with either Etoposide or Rapamycin showed no evidence of tumor and had a 100% survival rate 100 days after tumor implantation. By comparison all other vehicles or single drug treated mice failed to survive longer than 30 days after implantation. This synergistic improvement of anticancer effect was also confirmed in more than 20 cancer cell lines. In LNCaP cells, M4N was found to reduce cellular ATP content, and suppress NDUFS1 expression while inducing hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. M4N-treated cells lacked autophagy with reduced expression of BNIP3 and ATG5. To understand the mechanisms of this anticancer activity of M4N, the effect of this drug on three cancer cell lines (LNCaP, AsPC-1, and L428 cells) was further examined via transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. Metabolomic results showed that there were reductions of 26 metabolites essential for energy generation and/or production of cellular components in common with these three cell lines following 8 hours of M4N treatment. Deep RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that there were sixteen genes whose expressions were found to be modulated following 6 hours of M4N treatment similarly in these three cell lines. Six out of these 16 genes were functionally related to the 26 metabolites described above. One of these up-regulated genes encodes for CHAC1, a key enzyme affecting the stress pathways through its degradation of glutathione. In fact M4N was found to suppress glutathione content and induce reactive oxygen species production. The data overall indicate that M4N has profound specific negative impacts on a wide range of cancer metabolisms supporting the use of M4N combination for cancer treatments.

  5. Tetra-O-Methyl Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Broadly Suppresses Cancer Metabolism and Synergistically Induces Strong Anticancer Activity in Combination with Etoposide, Rapamycin and UCN-01

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Kotohiko; Huang, Ru Chih C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (M4N) to induce rapid cell death in combination with Etoposide, Rapamycin, or UCN-01 was examined in LNCaP cells, both in cell culture and animal experiments. Mice treated with M4N drug combinations with either Etoposide or Rapamycin showed no evidence of tumor and had a 100% survival rate 100 days after tumor implantation. By comparison all other vehicles or single drug treated mice failed to survive longer than 30 days after implantation. This synergistic improvement of anticancer effect was also confirmed in more than 20 cancer cell lines. In LNCaP cells, M4N was found to reduce cellular ATP content, and suppress NDUFS1 expression while inducing hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. M4N-treated cells lacked autophagy with reduced expression of BNIP3 and ATG5. To understand the mechanisms of this anticancer activity of M4N, the effect of this drug on three cancer cell lines (LNCaP, AsPC-1, and L428 cells) was further examined via transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. Metabolomic results showed that there were reductions of 26 metabolites essential for energy generation and/or production of cellular components in common with these three cell lines following 8 hours of M4N treatment. Deep RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that there were sixteen genes whose expressions were found to be modulated following 6 hours of M4N treatment similarly in these three cell lines. Six out of these 16 genes were functionally related to the 26 metabolites described above. One of these up-regulated genes encodes for CHAC1, a key enzyme affecting the stress pathways through its degradation of glutathione. In fact M4N was found to suppress glutathione content and induce reactive oxygen species production. The data overall indicate that M4N has profound specific negative impacts on a wide range of cancer metabolisms supporting the use of M4N combination for cancer treatments. PMID:26886430

  6. The synthesis of ethacrynic acid thiazole derivatives as glutathione S-transferase pi inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Liu, Guyue; Li, Hongcai; Yang, Xinmei; Jing, Yongkui; Zhao, Guisen

    2012-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) is a phase II enzyme which protects cells from death and detoxifies chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) is a weak GSTpi inhibitor. Structure modifications were done to improve the ability of EA to inhibit GSTpi activity. Eighteen EA thiazole derivatives were designed and synthesized. Compounds 9a, 9b and 9c with a replacement of carboxyl group of EA by a heterocyclic thiazole exhibited improvement over EA to inhibit GSTpi activity.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis, homology modelling, molecular dynamics and docking studies of caffeoyl-CoA-O- methyl transferase (CCoAOMT 1 and 2) isoforms isolated from subabul (Leucaena leucocephala).

    PubMed

    Sekhar Pagadala, Nataraj; Arha, Manish; Reddy, P S; Kumar, Ranadheer; Sirisha, V L; Prashant, S; Janardhan Reddy, K; Khan, Bashir; Rawal, S K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2009-02-01

    Caffeoyl coenzyme A O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is an important enzyme that participates in lignin biosynthesis especially in the formation of cell wall ferulic esters of plants. It plays a pivotal role in the methylation of the 3-hydroxyl group of caffeoyl CoA. Two cDNA clones that code CCoAOMT were isolated earlier from subabul and in the present study; 3D models of CCoAOMT1 and CCoAOMT2 enzymes were built using the MODELLER7v7 software to find out the substrate binding sites. These two proteins differed only in two amino acids and may have little or no functional redundancy. Refined models of the proteins were obtained after energy minimization and molecular dynamics in a solvated water layer. The models were further assessed by PROCHECK, WHATCHECK, Verify_3D and ERRAT programs and the results indicated that these models are reliable for further active site and docking analysis. The refined models showed that the two proteins have 9 and 10 alpha-helices, 6 and 7 beta-sheets respectively. The models were used for docking the substrates CoA, SAM, SAH, caffeoyl CoA, feruloyl CoA, 5-hydroxy feruloyl CoA and sinapyl CoA which showed that CoA and caffeoyl CoA are binding with high affinity with the enzymes in the presence and absence of SAM. It appears therefore that caffeoyl CoA is the substrate for both the isoenzymes. The results also indicated that CoA and caffeoyl CoA are binding with higher affinity to CCoAOMT2 than CCoAOMT1. Therefore, CCoAOMT2 conformation is thought to be the active form that exists in subabul. Docking studies indicated that conserved active site residues Met58, Thr60, Val63, Glu82, Gly84, Ser90, Asp160, Asp162, Thr169, Asn191 and Arg203 in CCoAOMT1 and CCoAOMT2 enzymes create the positive charge to balance the negatively charged caffeoyl CoA and play an important role in maintaining a functional conformation and are directly involved in donor-substrate binding.

  8. Vaccination of buffaloes with Fasciola gigantica recombinant glutathione S-transferase and fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Niranjan; Anju, Varghese; Gaurav, Nagar; Chandra, Dinesh; Samanta, S; Gupta, S C; Adeppa, J; Raina, O K

    2012-01-01

    Fasciola gigantica, causative agent of tropical fasciolosis, inflicts substantial economic losses on the livestock industry, affecting severely buffalo productivity in the tropical countries. Very few vaccination trials with different target antigens against F. gigantica infection have been conducted in this host. Present study describes a vaccination trial in buffaloes with F. gigantica recombinant glutathione S-transferase and fatty acid binding protein. The two recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated for their immunoprophylactic potential in buffalo calves, using montanide 70 M-VG, a mineral oil-based adjuvant, for delivering the antigens. Buffalo calves were distributed in three groups, with group I, II and III calves immunized with recombinant glutathione S-transferase, fatty acid binding protein and a cocktail of these two antigens, respectively. Immunization of the calves evoked a mixed IgG1 and IgG2 antibody response. Present vaccination trial in these animals achieved a maximum protection level of 35%, when the two antigens were used in combination. Eosinophils were measured in both immunized and non-immunized challenge control animals, which showed a steady increase in their count in response to immunization with both the antigens and infection with F. gigantica, respectively.

  9. Characterization of a Bvg-regulated fatty acid methyl-transferase in Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Millot, Alex; Lesne, Elodie; Solans, Luis; Coutte, Loic; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Froguel, Philippe; Dhennin, Véronique; Hot, David; Locht, Camille; Antoine, Rudy

    2017-01-01

    The whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis controls the expression of its large virulence regulon in a coordinated manner through the two-component signal transduction system BvgAS. In addition to the genes coding for bona fide virulence factors, the Bvg regulon comprises genes of unknown function. In this work, we characterized a new Bvg-activated gene called BP2936. Homologs of BP2936 are found in other pathogenic Bordetellae and in several other species, including plant pathogens and environmental bacteria. We showed that the gene product of BP2936 is a membrane-associated methyl-transferase of free fatty acids. We thus propose to name it FmtB, for fatty acid methyl-transferase of Bordetella. The role of this protein was tested in cellular and animal models of infection, but the loss of BP2936 did not appear to affect host-pathogen interactions in those assays. The high level of conservation of BP2936 among B. pertussis isolates nevertheless argues that it probably plays a role in the life cycle of this pathogen. PMID:28493897

  10. Potent and sustained cellular inhibition of miR-122 by lysine-derivatized peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and phosphorothioate locked nucleic acid (LNA)/2'-O-methyl (OMe) mixmer anti-miRs in the absence of transfection agents

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Adrian G.; Threlfall, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient cell delivery of antisense oligonucleotides (ONs) is a key issue for their potential therapeutic use. It has been shown recently that some ONs can be delivered into cells without the use of transfection agents (gymnosis), but this generally requires cell incubation over several days and high amounts of ONs (micromolar concentrations). Here we have targeted microRNA 122 (miR-122), a small non-coding RNA involved in regulation of lipid metabolism and in the replication of hepatitis C virus, with ONs of different chemistries (anti-miRs) by gymnotic delivery in cell culture. Using a sensitive dual-luciferase reporter assay, anti-miRs were screened for their ability to enter liver cells gymnotically and inhibit miR-122 activity. Efficient miR-122 inhibition was obtained with cationic PNAs and 2'-O-methyl (OMe) and Locked Nucleic Acids (LNA)/OMe mixmers containing either phosphodiester (PO) or phosphorothioate (PS) linkages at sub-micromolar concentrations when incubated with cells for just 4 hours. Furthermore, PNA and PS-containing anti-miRs were able to sustain miR-122 inhibitory effects for at least 4 days. LNA/OMe PS anti-miRs were the most potent anti-miR chemistry tested in this study, an ON chemistry that has been little exploited so far as anti-miR agents towards therapeutics. PMID:22567190

  11. A pseudaminic acid or a legionaminic acid derivative transferase is strain-specifically implicated in the general protein O-glycosylation system of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Tomek, Markus B; Janesch, Bettina; Maresch, Daniel; Windwarder, Markus; Altmann, Friedrich; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2017-03-16

    The occurrence of nonulosonic acids in bacteria is wide-spread and linked to pathogenicity. However, the knowledge of cognate nonulosonic acid transferases is scarce. In the periodontopathogen Tannerella forsythia, several proposed virulence factors carry strain-specifically either a pseudaminic or a legionaminic acid derivative as terminal sugar on an otherwise structurally identical, protein-bound oligosaccharide. This study aims to shed light on the transfer of either nonulosonic acid derivative on a proximal N-acetylmannosaminuronic acid residue within the O-glycan structure, exemplified with the bacterium's abundant S-layer glycoproteins. Bioinformatic analyses provided the candidate genes Tanf_01245 (strain ATCC 43037) and TFUB4_00887 (strain UB4), encoding a putative pseudaminic and a legionaminic acid derivative transferase, respectively. These transferases have identical C-termini and contain motifs typical of glycosyltransferases (DXD) and bacterial sialyltransferases (D/E-D/E-G and HP). They share homology to type B glycosyltransferases and TagB, an enzyme catalyzing glycerol transfer to an N-acetylmannosamine residue in teichoic acid biosynthesis. Analysis of a cellular pool of nucleotide-activated sugars confirmed the presence of the CMP-activated nonulosonic acid derivatives, which are most likely serving as substrates for the corresponding transferase. Single gene knock-out mutants targeted at either transferase were analyzed for S-layer O-glycan composition by ESI-MS, confirming the loss of the nonulosonic acid derivative. Cross-complementation of the mutants with the nonnative nonulosonic acid transferase was not successful indicating high stringency of the enzymes. This study identified plausible candidates for a pseudaminic and a legionaminic acid derivative transferase; these may serve as valuable tools for engineering of novel sialoglycoconjugates.

  12. Understanding the effect of locked nucleic acid and 2'-O-methyl modification on the hybridization thermodynamics of a miRNA-mRNA pair in the presence and absence of AfPiwi protein.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Mapa, Koyeli; Maiti, Souvik

    2014-03-18

    miRNAs are some of the key epigenetic regulators of gene expression. They act through hybridization with their target mRNA and modulate the level of respective proteins via different mechanisms. Various cancer conditions are known to be associated with up- and downregulation of the oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs, respectively. The levels of aberrantly expressed oncogenic miRNAs can be downregulated in different ways. Similarly, restoration of tumor suppressor miRNAs to their normal levels can be achieved using miRNA mimics. However, the use of miRNA mimics is limited by their reduced biostability and function. We have studied the hybridization thermodynamics of the miRNA 26a (11-mer, including the seed sequence) guide strand with the mRNA (11-mer) target strand in the absence and presence of AfPiwi protein. We have also inserted locked nucleic acids (LNAs) and 2'-O-methyl-modified nucleotides into the guide strand, in a walk-through manner, to assess their effect on the binding efficiency between guide and target RNA. Insertion of LNA and 2'-O-methyl-modified nucleotides into the guide strand helped to strengthen the binding affinity irrespective of the position of insertion. However, in the presence of AfPiwi protein, these modifications reduced the binding affinity to different extents depending on the position of insertion. Insertion of a modification leads to an increase in the enthalpic contribution with an increased unfavorable entropic contribution, which negatively compensates for the higher favorable enthalpy.

  13. Three CoA Transferases Involved in the Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mitsunari; Yoshida, Yasuo; Nagano, Keiji; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Jun; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

    2016-01-01

    Butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, which produces butyrate and acetyl-CoA from butyryl-CoA and acetate, is responsible for the final step of butyrate production in bacteria. This study demonstrates that in the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis this reaction is not catalyzed by PGN_1171, previously annotated as butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, but by three distinct CoA transferases, PGN_0725, PGN_1341, and PGN_1888. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and spectrophotometric analyses were performed using crude enzyme extracts from deletion mutant strains and purified recombinant proteins. The experiments revealed that, in the presence of acetate, PGN_0725 preferentially utilized butyryl-CoA rather than propionyl-CoA. By contrast, this preference was reversed in PGN_1888. The only butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase activity was observed in PGN_1341. Double reciprocal plots revealed that all the reactions catalyzed by these enzymes follow a ternary-complex mechanism, in contrast to previously characterized CoA transferases. GC-MS analysis to determine the concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in culture supernatants of P. gingivalis wild type and mutant strains revealed that PGN_0725 and PGN_1888 play a major role in the production of butyrate and propionate, respectively. Interestingly, a triple deletion mutant lacking PGN_0725, PGN_1341, and PGN_1888 produced low levels of SCFAs, suggesting that the microorganism contains CoA transferase(s) in addition to these three enzymes. Growth rates of the mutant strains were mostly slower than that of the wild type, indicating that many carbon compounds produced in the SCFA synthesis appear to be important for the biological activity of this microorganism. PMID:27486457

  14. Rat spleen glutathione transferases. A new acidic form belonging to the Alpha class.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchida, S; Sato, K

    1990-01-01

    Cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) were purified from the rat spleen by S-hexyl-GSH-Sepharose chromatography, and two major forms were identified as GSTs 2-2 and 7-7 (GST P). Besides these forms an acidic form (pI 5.8) was purified by chromatofocusing at pH 7-4 and it accounted for about 1% of the total GST activity bound to S-hexyl-GSH-Sepharose. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that it is a homodimer (subunit Mr 26,000 with pI 5.8). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that it was immunologically related to GSTs 2-2 and 1-1, and its N-terminal amino acid was apparently blocked, similarly to other forms of the class Alpha. This form had a low activity towards cumene hydroperoxide or 4-hydroxynon-2-enal, indicating that this form differed from GSTs 10-10 and 8-8 as well as from GSTs 1-1 and 2-2. These results suggest that it is a new form of GST belonging to the class Alpha. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2317200

  15. 3-O-Methyl-d-mannose from Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D. J.; Baddiley, J.

    1966-01-01

    1. Streptomyces griseus was grown in a medium containing l-[Me-14C]methionine, and the labelled products from an ethanolic extract of the cells were examined. 2. Acid hydrolysis of one of the products gave a compound identified as 3-O-[Me-14C]-methylmannose by a series of degradative reactions. 3. Reduction of the radioactive compound gave 3-O-methyl-d-mannitol, indistinguishable from a synthetic sample. PMID:5938638

  16. Stereoselectivity of rat liver glutathione transferase isoenzymes for alpha-bromoisovaleric acid and alpha-bromoisovalerylurea enantiomers.

    PubMed Central

    Te Koppele, J M; Coles, B; Ketterer, B; Mulder, G J

    1988-01-01

    The stereoselectivity of purified rat GSH transferases towards alpha-bromoisovaleric acid (BI) and its amide derivative alpha-bromoisovalerylurea (BIU) was investigated. GSH transferase 2-2 was the only enzyme to catalyse the conjugation of BI and was selective for the (S)-enantiomer. The conjugation of (R)- and (S)-BIU was catalysed by the isoenzymes 2-2, 3-3 and 4-4. Transferase 1-1 was less active, and no catalytic activity was observed with transferase 7-7. Isoenzymes 1-1 and 2-2 of the Alpha multigene family preferentially catalysed the conjugation of the (S)-enantiomer of BIU (and BI), whereas isoenzymes 3-3 and 4-4 of the Mu multigene family preferred (R)-BIU. The opposite stereoselectivity of conjugation of BI and BIU previously observed in isolated rat hepatocytes and the summation of activities of enzymes known to be present in hepatocytes on the basis of present data are in accord. PMID:3421896

  17. Uric acid and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity are associated with left ventricular remodeling indices in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Slavica; Savic-Radojevic, Ana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Markovic, Olivera; Memon, Lidija; Jelic, Svetlana; Simic, Dragan; Radic, Tanja; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Simic, Tatjana

    2014-08-01

    Uric acid and gamma-glutamyl transferase are prognostic indicators in chronic heart failure. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the association between uric acid, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and chronic heart failure progression and prognosis remains largely unknown. The association of uric acid and gamma-glutamyl transferase with flow-mediated dilation and echocardiographic indices of cardiac remodeling was addressed in 120 patients with chronic ischemic heart failure. To determine the independent contribution of uric acid and gamma-glutamyl transferase to the flow-mediated dilation and echocardiographic indices of remodeling, a series of multiple linear regression models, based on traditional and nontraditional risk factors impacting upon these parameters, were constructed. Uric acid, but not gamma-glutamyl transferase, was an independent predictor of flow-mediated dilation. Uric acid was associated with all the echocardiographic indices of left ventricular dysfunction tested in 3 multiple-regression models. Uric acid correlated with left ventricular end-systolic diameter, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left ventricular end-systolic volume, and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (r = 0.337; r = 0.340; r = 0.321; r = 0.294; P = .001, respectively). Gamma-glutamyl transferase was an independent predictor of left ventricular end-systolic volume and left ventricular end-diastolic volume, after adjustment for all variables. Gamma-glutamyl transferase correlated with left ventricular end-systolic diameter, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left ventricular end-systolic volume, and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (r = 0.238, P = .009; r = 0.219, P = .016; r = 0.359, P < .001; r = 0.369, P = .001, respectively). Serum uric acid and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels are associated with left ventricular remodeling in patients with chronic ischemic heart failure. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana

  18. Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase, the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of juvenile hormone III, exhibits substrate control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report on the cloning, sequencing, characterization, 3D modeling and docking of Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the enzyme that converts juvenile hormone acid (JHA) into juvenile hormone (JH). Purified recombinant AeaJHAMT was extensively characterized for enzym...

  19. Participation of analogues of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA): oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (L-alpha-LPA) and 1-oleoyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerophosphothionate (OMPT) in uterine smooth muscle contractility of the pregnant pigs.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, W; Kamińska, K; Bogacki, M; Maślanka, T; Jaroszewski, J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show that a representative of phospholipids, namely lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its receptors (LPA1.3) play a significant role in the reproductive processes, i. a, in the modulation of the uterine contractility. The participation of LPA3 in the reproductive processes has been revealed in mice and has not been studied in gilts. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the role/action of LPA and its receptors LPA1, LPA2 and LPA3 on the contraction activity in the porcine uterus. The study was conducted on an experimental model in which the pig uterus consisted of the one whole uterine horn and a part of the second horn, both connected with the uterine corpus. Uterine strips consisting of the endometrium with the myometrium (ENDO/MYO) and myometrium (MYO) alone were collected on days 12-14 of the estrous cycle (control group; n = 5) or pregnancy (experimental group; n = 5). Two analogues of LPA at increasing doses were used: oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (L-alpha-LPA, a selective agonist of LPA1 and LPA2 receptors; 10(-7) M; 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M) and 1-oleoyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerophosphothionate (OMPT, a selective agonist of LPA3 receptor; 68 nM; 136 nM and 680 nM). L-alpha-LPA caused an increase in the contraction tension, amplitude and frequency of ENDO/MYO from the uterine horn with the developing embryos. This effect was not observed in MYO in both groups examined. In the ENDO/MYO strips of the uterine horn with developing embryos, OMPT significantly increased the contraction tension at the highest dose (680 nM) and amplitude at all doses examined, while frequency of contractions was decreased at doses of 136 nM and 680 nM. In the MYO strips of the uterine horn with embryos a significant increase in the contraction tension and amplitude after the highest dose of OMPT was observed. The results obtained imply the important role of receptors LPA1, LPA2 and LPA3 in the contraction activity of the porcine uterus during early pregnancy.

  20. In vitro binding of acetic acid and its chlorinated derivatives by the soluble glutathione S-transferases from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, P J

    1984-05-01

    The in vitro interaction of acetic acid and its chlorinated derivatives with rat liver glutathione S-transferases (GST) was studied, using glutathione (GSH) and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as substrates. The investigated compounds inhibited the GST activity in crude extracts in a dose dependent manner. Each of the different GST isoenzymes was inhibited by each of the compounds under study, albeit at very different degrees. Kinetic studies never revealed competitive inhibition kinetics, with GSH nor CDNB as the variable substrate. Titration of remaining GSH in appropriate incubation mixtures revealed no GST catalyzed conjugation with GSH. It is concluded that acetic acid and its chlorinated derivatives interact with GST by direct binding to these proteins. This binding could have a protective function against these compounds.

  1. Purification and properties of an O-acetyl-transferase from Escherichia coli that can O-acetylate polysialic acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Higa, H.; Varki, A.

    1986-05-01

    Certain strains of bacteria synthesize an outer polysialic acid (K1) capsule. Some strains of K1/sup +/ E.coli are also capable of adding O-acetyl-esters to the exocyclic hydroxyl groups of the sialic acid residues. Both the capsule and the O-acetyl modification have been correlated with differences in antigenicity and pathogenicity. The authors have developed an assay for an O-acetyl-transferase in E.coli that transfers O-(/sup 3/H)acetyl groups from (/sup 3/H)acetyl-Coenzyme A to colominic acid (fragments of the polysialic acid capsule). Using this assay, the enzyme was solubilized, and purified approx. 600-fold using a single affinity chromatography step with Procion Red-A Agarose. The enzyme also binds to Coenzyme A Sepharose, and can be eluted with high salt or Coenzyme A. The partially purified enzyme has a pH optimum of 7.0 - 7.5, is unaffected by divalent cations, is inhibited by high salt concentrations, is inhibited by Coenzyme A (50% inhibition at 100 ..mu..M), and shows an apparent Km for colominic acid of 3.7 mM (sialic acid concentration). This enzyme could be involved in the O-acetyl +/- form variation seen in some strains of K1/sup +/ E.coli.

  2. Arabidopsis Deficient in Cutin Ferulate encodes a transferase required for feruloylation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids in cutin polyester.

    PubMed

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Ouellet, Mario; Nafisi, Majse; Baidoo, Edward E K; Benke, Peter; Stranne, Maria; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2012-02-01

    The cuticle is a complex aliphatic polymeric layer connected to the cell wall and covers surfaces of all aerial plant organs. The cuticle prevents nonstomatal water loss, regulates gas exchange, and acts as a barrier against pathogen infection. The cuticle is synthesized by epidermal cells and predominantly consists of an aliphatic polymer matrix (cutin) and intracuticular and epicuticular waxes. Cutin monomers are primarily C(16) and C(18) unsubstituted, ω-hydroxy, and α,ω-dicarboxylic fatty acids. Phenolics such as ferulate and p-coumarate esters also contribute to a minor extent to the cutin polymer. Here, we present the characterization of a novel acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acyl-transferase that is encoded by a gene designated Deficient in Cutin Ferulate (DCF). The DCF protein is responsible for the feruloylation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids incorporated into the cutin polymer of aerial Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) organs. The enzyme specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acids using ω-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs, preferentially feruloyl-CoA and sinapoyl-CoA, as acyl donors in vitro. Arabidopsis mutant lines carrying DCF loss-of-function alleles are devoid of rosette leaf cutin ferulate and exhibit a 50% reduction in ferulic acid content in stem insoluble residues. DCF is specifically expressed in the epidermis throughout all green Arabidopsis organs. The DCF protein localizes to the cytosol, suggesting that the feruloylation of cutin monomers takes place in the cytoplasm.

  3. Regiocomplementary O-Methylation of Catechols by Using Three-Enzyme Cascades.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Jutta; Aschwanden, Simon; Mordhorst, Silja; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael; Andexer, Jennifer N

    2015-12-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent enzymes have great potential for selective alkylation processes. In this study we investigated the regiocomplementary O-methylation of catechols. Enzymatic methylation is often hampered by the need for a stoichiometric supply of SAM and the inhibitory effect of the SAM-derived byproduct on most methyltransferases. To counteract these issues we set up an enzyme cascade. Firstly, SAM was generated from l-methionine and ATP by use of an archaeal methionine adenosyltransferase. Secondly, 4-O-methylation of the substrates dopamine and dihydrocaffeic acid was achieved by use of SafC from the saframycin biosynthesis pathway in 40-70 % yield and high selectivity. The regiocomplementary 3-O-methylation was catalysed by catechol O-methyltransferase from rat. Thirdly, the beneficial influence of a nucleosidase on the overall conversion was demonstrated. The results of this study are important milestones on the pathway to catalytic SAM-dependent alkylation processes.

  4. Brain-specific carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1c: role in CNS fatty acid metabolism, food intake, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, Michael J; Cha, Seung Hun; Millington, David S; Cline, Gary; Shulman, Gerald I; Suwa, Akira; Asaumi, Makoto; Kurama, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Teruhiko; Lane, M Daniel

    2008-05-01

    While the brain does not utilize fatty acids as a primary energy source, recent evidence shows that intermediates of fatty acid metabolism serve as hypothalamic sensors of energy status. Increased hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, an intermediate in fatty acid synthesis, is indicative of energy surplus and leads to the suppression of food intake and increased energy expenditure. Malonyl-CoA functions as an inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1 (CPT1), a mitochondrial outer membrane enzyme that initiates translocation of fatty acids into mitochondria for oxidation. The mammalian brain expresses a unique homologous CPT1, CPT1c, that binds malonyl-CoA tightly but does not support fatty acid oxidation in vivo, in hypothalamic explants or in heterologous cell culture systems. CPT1c knockout (KO) mice under fasted or refed conditions do not exhibit an altered CNS transcriptome of genes known to be involved in fatty acid metabolism. CPT1c KO mice exhibit normal levels of metabolites and of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA and fatty acyl-CoA levels either in the fasted or refed states. However, CPT1c KO mice exhibit decreased food intake and lower body weight than wild-type littermates. In contrast, CPT1c KO mice gain excessive body weight and body fat when fed a high-fat diet while maintaining lower or equivalent food intake. Heterozygous mice display an intermediate phenotype. These findings provide further evidence that CPT1c plays a role in maintaining energy homeostasis, but not through altered fatty acid oxidation.

  5. Sulfur amino acid restriction induces the pi class of glutathione S-transferase expression in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chen, Haw-Wen; Yang, Jaw-Ji; Liu, Kai-Li; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2005-05-01

    The regulation of genes by amino acids is attracting increasing attention. In the present study, we investigated the restriction of expression of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase (GST Yp) by sulfur amino acids. Hepatocytes isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured with L-15-based medium containing low (LSAA; 0.1 mmol/L L-methionine and 0.1 mmol/L L-cysteine) or high (HSAA; 0.5 mmol/L L-methionine and 0.2 mmol/L L-cysteine) amounts of sulfur amino acids for up to 6 d. Cellular protein contents did not differ between LSAA- and HSAA-treated cells over the entire period. In contrast, glutathione concentrations were suppressed by the LSAA medium and on d 6 were only 20% of those of HSAA-treated cells (P < 0.05). As shown by immunoblot analysis, GST Yp protein levels were greater in LSAA-treated cells than in HSAA-treated cells (P < 0.05). The induction of GST Yp by L-methionine and L-cysteine restriction was not affected by insulin and dexamethasone, but the latter suppressed GST Yp expression (P < 0.05). LSAA increased GST Yp mRNA levels and GST activity toward ethacrynic acid (P < 0.05). GST Yp induction occurred only in cells with a limited supply of L-methionine; restriction of L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-lysine, and L-phenylalanine had no significant effect. In contrast with the induction of GST Yp, the expression of the GST isoforms Ya and Yb was not changed by amino acid restriction. In conclusion, hepatic GST Yp gene expression is upregulated by a limited availability of sulfur amino acids.

  6. Clinical usefulness of alterations in sialic acid, sialyl transferase and sialoproteins in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Raval, G N; Parekh, L J; Patel, D D; Jha, F P; Sainger, R N; Patel, P S

    2004-07-01

    Sialic acid, the end moieties of the carbohydrate chains are biologically important and essential for functions of glycoconjugates and are reported to be altered in cancer patients. Two hundred and twenty five breast cancer (BC) patients, 100 patients with benign breast disease (BBD) and 100 healthy females (controls) were enrolled for the study. Eight hundred and twenty four follow-up samples of 225 breast carcinoma patients were also evaluated. The association of sialic acid forms, sialyltransferase and α-2-6 sialoproteins levels with presence and extent as well as prognosis of breast carcinoma was studied. Serum sialic acid forms and sialyltransferase revealed significantly elevated levels among untreated breast cancer patients as compared to the controls, patients with BBD as well as cancer patients in remission. Non-responders showed comparable levels of the markers with those found in breast cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. Higher levels of sialic acid forms at diagnosis were associated with poor prognosis. A positive correlation between serum levels of different forms of sialic acids and extent of malignant disease was observed. The changes in serum proteins with terminal α-2-6 sialic acid correlated well with alterations in the levels of sialic acid forms and sialyltransferase. Malignant tissues showed elevated levels of sialic acid and sialyltransferase as compared to surrounding normal tissues.The results suggested potential utility of these markers in evaluation of clinical outcome.

  7. Inactivation of mouse liver glutathione S-transferase YfYf (Pi class) by ethacrynic acid and 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, M F; Mantle, T J

    1993-01-01

    Mouse liver glutathione S-transferase YfYf (Pi class) reacts with [14C]ethacrynic acid to form a covalent adduct with a stoichiometry of 1 mol per mol of subunit. Proteolytic digestion of the enzyme-[14C]ethacrynic acid adduct with V8 protease produced an 11 kDa fragment containing radioactivity. Sequencing revealed this to be an N-terminal peptide (minus the first 15 residues, terminating at Glu-112) which contains only one cysteine residue (Cys-47). This is tentatively identified as the site of ethacrynic attachment. Kinetic studies reveal that glutathione S-conjugates protect against inactivation by ethacrynic acid, but the level of protection is not consistent with their potency as product inhibitors. A model is proposed in which glutathione S-conjugates and ethacrynic acid compete for the free enzyme, and a second molecule of ethacrynic acid reacts covalently with the enzyme-ethacrynic acid complex. The native protein contains one thiol reactive with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) at neutral pH. The resultant mixed disulphide, like the ethacrynic acid adduct, is inactive, but treatment with cyanide (which incorporates on a mol for mol basis) restores activity to 35% of that of the native enzyme. Images Figure 4 PMID:8363586

  8. Rapid development of glutathione-S-transferase-dependent drug resistance in vitro and its prevention by ethacrynic acid.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, P B; Zhu, M; Zhang, Y; Chinen, N; Frenkel, G D

    1999-02-08

    Exposure of A2780 human ovarian tumor cells to a low concentration of melphalan in vitro for 7 days resulted in the development of melphalan resistance. This resistance was not a stable characteristic of the cells since it was lost after 2 weeks in culture in the absence of drug. The melphalan-resistant cells exhibited significant cross-resistance to cisplatin but only minor cross-resistance to doxorubicin. The resistant cells had elevated levels of glutathione-S-transferase activity and mRNA. Exposure of the cells to the ethacrynic acid resulted in a decrease in enzyme activity as well as a reversal of their drug-resistant phenotype, indicating that the enzyme is involved in the resistance. When ethacrynic acid was present during the 7-day exposure of the cells to melphalan, the development of drug resistance was prevented. This system may serve as a useful preliminary step in screening for agents which can prevent the development of chemotherapy-induced drug resistance in human cancer.

  9. Influence of chemical treatments on glutathione S-transferases of maize with activity towards metolachlor and cinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, C K; Hatzios, K K; Meredith, S

    1998-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity extracted from shoots of 3-day-old etiolated seedlings of maize (Zea mays L., Northrup-King 9283 hybrid) and the induction of soluble and membrane-bound GST activity by the safener benoxacor, the herbicide metolachlor and their combination (CGA-180937) were investigated. GST activity extracted from maize shoots was detected in both cytosolic and microsomal fractions and utilized 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), metolachlor, and trans-cinnamic acid (CA) as substrates. Soluble GST activity extracted from maize shoots was greater than microsomal with CDNB or metolachlor as substrate. Membrane-bound GST activity was greater than soluble with cinnamic acid as substrate. Washing the microsomal preparations from maize shoots with Triton X-100 increased GST(CA) activity. Pretreatment with the safener benoxacor or a formulated combination of the herbicide metolachlor with benoxacor induced soluble GST(CDNB), GST(metolachlor) and GST(CA) activities in maize shoots. Benoxacor and CGA-180937 induced also membrane-bound GST(CDNB) and GST(CA) activities in maize shoots, but did not affect membrane-bound GST(metolachlor) activity. These results confirm that maize contains multiple GST isozymes that differ in their substrate specificity and inducibility by safeners or other chemicals.

  10. Control of larval and egg development in Aedes aegypti with RNA interference against juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Van Ekert, Evelien; Powell, Charles A; Shatters, Robert G; Borovsky, Dov

    2014-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including mosquitoes and many other insects. Little has been done, however, to harness this approach in order to control adult and larval mosquitoes. Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction in adults and metamorphism in larval mosquitoes. This report describes an approach to control Aedes aegypti using RNAi against JH acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of JH III that converts JH acid III (JHA III) into JH III. In female A. aegypti that were injected or fed jmtA dsRNA targeting the AeaJHAMT gene (jmtA) transcript, egg development was inhibited in 50% of the treated females. In mosquito larvae that were fed transgenic Pichia pastoris cells expressing long hair pin (LHP) RNA, adult eclosion was delayed by 3 weeks causing high mortality. Northern blot analyses and qPCR studies show that jmtA dsRNA causes inhibition of jmtA transcript in adults and larvae, which is consistent with the observed inhibition of egg maturation and larval development. Taken together, these results suggest that jmtA LHP RNA expressed in heat inactivated genetically modified P. pastoris cells could be used to control mosquito populations in the marsh.

  11. Induced fit of the peptidyl-transferase center of the ribosome and conformational freedom of the esterified amino acids.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Jean

    2017-02-01

    The catalytic site of most enzymes can efficiently handle only one substrate. In contrast, the ribosome is capable of polymerizing at a similar rate at least 20 different kinds of amino acids from aminoacyl-tRNA carriers while using just one catalytic site, the peptidyl-transferase center (PTC). An induced-fit mechanism has been uncovered in the PTC, but a possible connection between this mechanism and the uniform handling of the substrates has not been investigated. We present an analysis of published ribosome structures supporting the hypothesis that the induced fit eliminates unreactive rotamers predominantly populated for some A-site aminoacyl esters before induction. We show that this hypothesis is fully consistent with the wealth of kinetic data obtained with these substrates. Our analysis reveals that induction constrains the amino acids into a reactive conformation in a side-chain independent manner. It allows us to highlight the rationale of the PTC structural organization, which confers to the ribosome the very unusual ability to handle large as well as small substrates. © 2017 Lehmann; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  12. Separation of catechins and O-methylated (-)-epigallocatechin gallate using polyamide thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kunbo; Chen, Qincao; Lin, Yong; Yu, Shuangshang; Lin, Haiyan; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method for the separation and quantitative determination of seven related compounds: (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3″Me) and (-)-epigallocatechin- 3-O-(4-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG4″Me) has been developed. The above-mentioned seven compounds have been resolved using polyamide TLC plates using a double-development with methanol followed by acetone/acetic acid (2:1, v/v). In addition, separation of the phenolic acids namely gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid was achieved using the same solvent system. The applicability of the method was checked by screening of extracts of green, black, oolong, white tea and tea cultivars leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase activity and accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    Many plants accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl esters to protect against abiotic and biotic stresses. Caffeoyl esters in particular can be substrates for endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Recently, we showed that perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain PPO and identified one PPO substrate, caftaric acid (trans-caffeoyl-tartaric acid). Additional compounds were believed to be cis- and trans-p-coumaroyl tartaric acid and cis- and trans-feruloyl-tartaric acid, but lack of standards prevented definitive identifications. Here we characterize enzymatic activities in peanut leaves to understand how caftaric acid and related hydroxycinnamoyl esters are made in this species. We show that peanut leaves contain a hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HTT) activity capable of transferring p-coumaroyl, caffeoyl, and feruloyl moieties from CoA to tartaric acid (specific activities of 11 ± 2.8, 8 ± 1.8, 4 ± 0.8 pkat mg(-1) crude protein, respectively). The HTT activity was used to make cis- and trans-p-coumaroyl- and -feruloyl-tartaric acid in vitro. These products allowed definitive identification of the corresponding cis- and trans-hydroxycinnamoyl esters extracted from leaves. We tentatively identified sinapoyl-tartaric acid as another major phenolic compound in peanut leaves that likely participates in secondary reactions with PPO-generated quinones. These results suggest hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters are made by an acyltransferase, possibly a BAHD family member, in perennial peanut. Identification of a gene encoding HTT and further characterization of the enzyme will aid in identifying determinants of donor and acceptor substrate specificity for this important class of biosynthetic enzymes. An HTT gene could also provide a means by genetic engineering for producing caffeoyl- and other hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters in forage crops that lack them.

  14. Induction of glutathione-S-transferase-pi by short-chain fatty acids in the intestinal cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Stein, J; Schröder, O; Bonk, M; Oremek, G; Lorenz, M; Caspary, W F

    1996-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multigene family of detoxification and metabolizing enzymes that have been linked with the susceptibility of tissues to environmental carcinogens. In addition to their role as the main energy source in the colonic mucosa, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been found to act as potent antiproliferative and differentiating agents in various cancer cell lines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCFAs on the induction of GSTpi in the intestine as a possible new anticarcinogenic mechanism of SCFAs. Studies were performed in Caco-2 cells, a cell line resembling functionally normal enterocytes. Cells, cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, were studied from day 0 dpc (days post confluence) until 21 dpc and culture. SCFAs (acetate, propionate, butyrate) were added to give a final concentration of 5 mmol L(-1). At 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, and 21 dpc, protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and GSTpi were measured. Butyrate supplementation significantly (P < or = 0.01) increased GSTpi levels compared with controls in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect was detectable within 3 dpc with a maximum at 15 dpc. In contrast to butyrate, the other SCFAs tested had no (acetate) or little effect (propionate). In conclusion, the data suggest that the anticancer effect of butyrate in part may be based on the induction of GSTpi activity, resulting in an enhanced detoxification capacity of the gut.

  15. The metabolic bioactivation of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) mediated by tyrosinase selectively inhibits glutathione S-transferase

    PubMed Central

    Kudugunti, Shashi K.; Thorsheim, Helen; Yousef, Mohammad S.; Guan, Lan; Moridani, Majid Y.

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) play major roles in drug resistance in melanoma. In this study, we investigated caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) as a selective GST inhibitor in the presence of tyrosinase, which is abundant in melanoma cells. Tyrosinase bioactivates CAPE to an o-quinone, which reacts with glutathione to form CAPE-SG conjugate. Our findings indicate that 90% CAPE was metabolized by tyrosinase after a 60-min incubation. LC–MS/MS analyses identified a CAPE-SG conjugate as a major metabolite. In the presence of tyrosinase, CAPE (10–25 µM) showed 70–84% GST inhibition; whereas in the absence of tyrosinase, CAPE did not inhibit GST. CAPE-SG conjugate and CAPE-quinone (25 µM) demonstrated ≥85% GST inhibition via reversible and irreversible mechanisms, respectively. Comparing with CDNB and GSH, the non-substrate CAPE acted as a weak, reversible GST inhibitor at concentrations >50 µM. Furthermore, MK-571, a selective MRP inhibitor, and probenecid, a non-selective MRP inhibitor, decrease the IC50 of CAPE (15 µM) by 13% and 21%, apoptotic cell death by 3% and 13%, and mitochondrial membrane potential in human SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells by 10% and 56%, respectively. Moreover, computational docking analyses suggest that CAPE binds to the GST catalytic active site. Caffeic acid, a hydrolyzed product of CAPE, showed a similar GST inhibition in the presence of tyrosinase. Although, as controls, 4-hydroxyanisole and l-tyrosine were metabolized by tyrosinase to form quinones and glutathione conjugates, they exhibited no GST inhibition in the absence and presence of tyrosinase. In conclusion, both CAPE and caffeic acid selectively inhibited GST in the presence of tyrosinase. Our results suggest that intracellularly formed quinones and glutathione conjugates of caffeic acid and CAPE may play major roles in the selective inhibition of GST in SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells. Moreover, the inhibition of MRP

  16. The three-dimensional structure of the human Pi class glutathione transferase P1-1 in complex with the inhibitor ethacrynic acid and its glutathione conjugate.

    PubMed

    Oakley, A J; Rossjohn, J; Lo Bello, M; Caccuri, A M; Federici, G; Parker, M W

    1997-01-21

    The potent diuretic drug ethacrynic acid has been tested in clinical trials as an adjuvant in chemotherapy. Its target is the detoxifying enzyme glutathione transferase which is often found overexpressed in cancer tissues. We have solved the crystal structures of human pi class glutathione transferase P1-1 in complex with the inhibitor ethacrynic acid and its glutathione conjugate. Ethacrynic acid is found to bind in a nonproductive mode to one of the ligand binding sites of the enzyme (the H site) while the glutathione binding site (G site) is occupied by solvent molecules. There are no structural rearrangements of the G site in the absence of ligand. The structure indicates that bound glutathione is required for ethacrynic acid to dock into the H site in a productive binding mode. The binding of the ethacrynic acid-glutathione conjugate shows that the contacts of the glutathione moiety with the protein are identical to those observed in crystal structures of the enzyme with other glutathione-based substrates and inhibitors. The ethacrynic acid moiety of the conjugate binds in the H site in a fashion that has not been observed in crystal structures of other glutathione-based inhibitor complexes. The crystal structures implicate Tyr 108 as an electrophilic participant in the Michael addition of glutathione to ethacrynic acid.

  17. Hibiscus cannabinus feruloyl-coa:monolignol transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-11-15

    The invention relates to isolated nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzymes. The isolated nucleic acids and/or the enzymes enable incorporation of monolignol ferulates into the lignin of plants, where such monolignol ferulates include, for example, p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and/or sinapyl ferulate. The invention also includes methods and plants that include nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme and/or feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzymes.

  18. Nucleoside-O-Methyl-(H)-Phosphinates: Novel Monomers for the Synthesis of Methylphosphonate Oligonucleotides Using H-Phosphonate Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kostov, Ondřej; Páv, Ondřej; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2017-09-18

    This unit comprises the straightforward synthesis of protected 2'-deoxyribonucleoside-O-methyl-(H)-phosphinates in both 3'- and 5'-series. These compounds represent a new class of monomers compatible with the solid-phase synthesis of oligonucleotides using H-phosphonate chemistry and are suitable for the preparation of both 3'- and 5'-O-methylphosphonate oligonucleotides. The synthesis of 4-toluenesulfonyloxymethyl-(H)-phosphinic acid as a new reagent for the preparation of O-methyl-(H)-phosphinic acid derivatives is described. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Perfluorooctanoic acid induces gene promoter hypermethylation of glutathione-S-transferase Pi in human liver L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Meiping; Peng, Siyuan; Martin, Francis L; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Wang, Zhanlin; Dong, Sijun; Shen, Heqing

    2012-06-14

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is one of the most commonly used perfluorinated compounds. Being a persistent environmental pollutant, it can accumulate in human tissues via various exposure routes. PFOA may interfere in a toxic fashion on the immune system, liver, development, and endocrine systems. In utero human exposure had been associated with cord serum global DNA hypomethylation. In light of this, we investigated possible PFOA-induced DNA methylation alterations in L02 cells in order to shed light into its epigenetic-mediated mechanisms of toxicity in human liver. L02 cells were exposed to 5, 10, 25, 50 or 100 mg/L PFOA for 72h. Global DNA methylation levels were determined by LC/ESI-MS, glutathione-S-transferase Pi (GSTP) gene promoter DNA methylation was investigated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with bisulfite sequencing, and consequent mRNA expression levels were measured with quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. A dose-related increase of GSTP promoter methylation at the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) binding site was observed. However, PFOA did not significantly influence global DNA methylation; nor did it markedly alter the promoter gene methylation of p16 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A), ERα (estrogen receptor α) or PRB (progesterone receptor B). In addition, PFOA significantly elevated mRNA transcript levels of DNMT3A (which mediates de novo DNA methylation), Acox (lipid metabolism) and p16 (cell apoptosis). Considering the role of GSTP in detoxification, aberrant methylation may be pivotal in PFOA-mediated toxicity response via the inhibition of SP1 binding to GSTP promoter.

  20. The glutathione conjugate of ethacrynic acid can bind to human pi class glutathione transferase P1-1 in two different modes.

    PubMed

    Oakley, A J; Lo Bello, M; Mazzetti, A P; Federici, G; Parker, M W

    1997-12-08

    The diuretic drug ethacrynic acid, an inhibitor of pi class glutathione S-transferase, has been tested in clinical trials as an adjuvant in chemotherapy. We recently solved the crystal structure of this enzyme in complex with ethacrynic acid and its glutathione conjugate. Here we present a new structure of the ethacrynic-glutathione conjugate complex. In this structure the ethacrynic moiety of the complex is shown to bind in a completely different orientation to that previously observed. Thus there are at least two binding modes possible, an observation of great importance to the design of second generation inhibitors of the enzyme.

  1. Control of larval and egg development in Aedes aegypti with Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) against juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including mosquitoes and many other insects. Little has been done, however, to harness this approach in order to control adult and larval mosquitoes. Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a pi...

  2. Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P.; Edwards, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The 55 Arabidopsis glutathione transferases (GSTs) are, with one microsomal exception, a monophyletic group of soluble enzymes that can be divided into phi, tau, theta, zeta, lambda, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and TCHQD classes. The populous phi and tau classes are often highly stress inducible and regularly crop up in proteomic and transcriptomic studies. Despite much study on their xenobiotic-detoxifying activities their natural roles are unclear, although roles in defence-related secondary metabolism are likely. The smaller DHAR and lambda classes are likely glutathione-dependent reductases, the zeta class functions in tyrosine catabolism and the theta class has a putative role in detoxifying oxidised lipids. This review describes the evidence for the functional roles of GSTs and the potential for these enzymes to perform diverse functions that in many cases are not “glutathione transferase” activities. As well as biochemical data, expression data from proteomic and transcriptomic studies are included, along with subcellular localisation experiments and the results of functional genomic studies. PMID:22303257

  3. Two Pear Glutathione S-Transferases Genes Are Regulated during Fruit Development and Involved in Response to Salicylic Acid, Auxin, and Glucose Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Li, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Yu-Xing; Chen, Liang; Xiang, Di-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Two genes encoding putative glutathione S-transferase proteins were isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated PpGST1 and PpGST2. The deduced PpGST1 and PpGST2 proteins contain conserved Glutathione S-transferase N-terminal domain (GST_N) and Glutathione S-transferase, C-terminal domain (GST_C). Using PCR amplification technique, the genomic clones corresponding to PpGST1 and PpGST2 were isolated and shown to contain two introns and a singal intron respectively with typical GT/AG boundaries defining the splice junctions. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that PpGST1 belonged to Phi class of GST superfamilies and had high homology with apple MdGST, while PpGST2 was classified into the Tau class of GST superfamilies. The expression of PpGST1 and PpGST2 genes was developmentally regulated in fruit. Further study demonstrated that PpGST1 and PpGST2 expression was remarkably induced by glucose, salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-aceticacid (IAA) treatments in pear fruit, and in diseased fruit. These data suggested that PpGST1 and PpGST2 might be involved in response to sugar, SA, and IAA signaling during fruit development of pear. PMID:24587129

  4. Two pear glutathione S-transferases genes are regulated during fruit development and involved in response to salicylic acid, auxin, and glucose signaling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Li, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Yu-Xing; Chen, Liang; Xiang, Di-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Two genes encoding putative glutathione S-transferase proteins were isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated PpGST1 and PpGST2. The deduced PpGST1 and PpGST2 proteins contain conserved Glutathione S-transferase N-terminal domain (GST_N) and Glutathione S-transferase, C-terminal domain (GST_C). Using PCR amplification technique, the genomic clones corresponding to PpGST1 and PpGST2 were isolated and shown to contain two introns and a singal intron respectively with typical GT/AG boundaries defining the splice junctions. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that PpGST1 belonged to Phi class of GST superfamilies and had high homology with apple MdGST, while PpGST2 was classified into the Tau class of GST superfamilies. The expression of PpGST1 and PpGST2 genes was developmentally regulated in fruit. Further study demonstrated that PpGST1 and PpGST2 expression was remarkably induced by glucose, salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-aceticacid (IAA) treatments in pear fruit, and in diseased fruit. These data suggested that PpGST1 and PpGST2 might be involved in response to sugar, SA, and IAA signaling during fruit development of pear.

  5. Identification of O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-O-sulphate metabolites by mass-spectrometry after O-methylation with trimethylsilyldiazomethane.

    PubMed

    Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Lévèques, Antoine; Giuffrida, Francesca; Destaillats, Frédéric; Nagy, Kornél

    2012-07-06

    (-)-Epicatechin, an abundant dietary polyphenol found mainly in cocoa and tea, is known to extensively undergo metabolism after ingestion giving rise to a complex series of conjugated metabolites including numerous isomers. In the present study, the combination of fractionation, chemical derivatization and various mass spectrometric approaches is described to determine the exact position of sulphate group in methylated epicatechin metabolites. Four O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-O-sulphate metabolites isolated from human urine samples were derivatized under mild condition using trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSD) in the presence of methanol. The resulting methylated reaction products were then analyzed by high resolution and multistage mass spectrometry for the subsequent identification of the sulphate positional isomers. Results show that O-methylation affects the charge delocalization in negatively charged ions and hereby the fragmentation pattern of the sulphate isomers allowing the identification of diagnostic ions. In addition, this study demonstrates that methoxy derivatives of polyphenol metabolites can be prepared using TMSD. Subsequently, the localization of the sulphate group in the polyphenol metabolites can be achieved by analyzing the methoxy derivatives by multistage mass spectrometry. Using an enzymatic reaction for identification of the O-methyl position, and a chemical O-methylation with TMSD follow by high resolution and multistage tandem MS for the identification of the sulphate group position, we were able to identify the previously unknown O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-O-sulphate. Accordingly, we identified 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-5-O-sulphate and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-7-O-sulphate as the main O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-sulfates(-)-epicatechin metabolites in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacological profile of opicapone, a thirdgeneration nitrocatechol catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor, in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Bonifácio, M J; Torrão, L; Loureiro, A I; Palma, P N; Wright, L C; Soares-da-Silva, P

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an important target in the levodopa treatment of Parkinson's disease; however, the inhibitors available have problems, and not all patients benefit from their efficacy. Opicapone was developed to overcome those limitations. In this study, opicapone's pharmacological properties were evaluated as well as its potential cytotoxic effects. Experimental Approach The pharmacodynamic effects of opicapone were explored by evaluating rat COMT activity and levodopa pharmacokinetics, in the periphery through microdialysis and in whole brain. The potential cytotoxicity risk of opicapone was explored in human hepatocytes by assessing cellular ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential. Key Results Opicapone inhibited rat peripheral COMT with ED50 values below 1.4 mg⋅kg−1 up to 6 h post-administration. The effect was sustained over the first 8 h and by 24 h COMT had not returned to control values. A single administration of opicapone resulted in increased and sustained plasma levodopa levels with a concomitant reduction in 3-O-methyldopa from 2 h up to 24 h post-administration, while tolcapone produced significant effects only at 2 h post-administration. The effects of opicapone on brain catecholamines after levodopa administration were sustained up to 24 h post-administration. Opicapone was also the least potent compound in decreasing both the mitochondrial membrane potential and the ATP content in human primary hepatocytes after a 24 h incubation period. Conclusions and Implications Opicapone has a prolonged inhibitory effect on peripheral COMT, which extends the bioavailability of levodopa, without inducing toxicity. Thus, it exhibits some improved properties compared to the currently available COMT inhibitors. PMID:25409768

  7. Assessment of O-methylated catecholamine levels in plasma and urine for diagnosis of autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Oeltmann, Timothy; Carson, Robert; Shannon, John R; Ketch, Terry; Robertson, David

    2004-11-30

    The term 'metanephrines' is used to indicate the two catechol 3-O-methylated metabolites of epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE): metanephrine and normetanephrine (NMN). The corresponding 3-O-methylated metabolite of dopamine is usually referred to as 3-methoxytyramine rather than 3-methoxydopamine and is not generally considered a "metanephrine". O-Methylation occurs outside the sympathetic neuron and neuroeffector junction. Metanephrines are products of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Subsequent conjugation with sulfate or deamination by monoamine oxidase (MAO) followed by reduction to vanilmandelic acid (VMA) facilitates urinary excretion. For the clinician, measurement of normetanephrine provides an index of norepinephrine released during sympathetic nervous system activity, whereas metanephrine concentration provides an indication of adrenal medullary metabolism of epinephrine prior to its discharge into the circulation. Plasma epinephrine concentration is the preferable index of adrenal medullary epinephrine discharge. Pheochromocytomas, with their protean clinical manifestations, may be diagnostic challenges, but assay of metanephrines, especially plasma metanephrine, can be particularly helpful in diagnosis. These COMT metabolites may also help in elucidation of still undiscovered genetic and acquired disorders of catecholamine metabolism.

  8. Driving carbon flux through exogenous butyryl-CoA: Acetate CoA-transferase to produce butyric acid at high titer in Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Mao, Yin; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2015-12-20

    Butyric acid, a 4-carbon short chain fatty acid, is widely used in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. The low activity of butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase in Thermobifida fusca muS, a thermophilic actinobacterium whose optimal temperature was 55°C, was found to hinder the accumulation of high yield of butyric acid. In order to solve this problem, an exogenous butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene (actA) from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM571 was integrated into the chromosome of T. fusca muS by replacing celR gene, forming T. fusca muS-1. We demonstrated that on 5g/L cellulose, the yield of butyric acid by the engineered muS-1 strain was increased by 42.9 % compared to the muS strain. On 100g/L of cellulose, the muS-1 strain could consume 90.5% of total cellulose in 144h, with 33.2g/L butyric acid produced. Furthermore, on the mix substrates including the major components of biomass: cellulose, xylose, mannose and galactose, 70.4g/L butyric acid was produced in 168h by fed-batch fermentation. To validate the ability of fermenting biomass, the muS-1 strain was grown on the milled corn stover ranging from 200 to 250μm. The muS-1 strain had the highest butyrate titer 17.1g/L on 90g/L corn stover.

  9. Feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase

    DOEpatents

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and the feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme that enables incorporation of monolignol ferulates, for example, including p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and sinapyl ferulate, into the lignin of plants.

  10. Feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase

    DOEpatents

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-09-13

    The invention relates to nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and the feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme that enables incorporation of monolignol ferulates, for example, including p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and sinapyl ferulate, into the lignin of plants.

  11. Precocious leaf senescence by functional loss of PROTEIN S-ACYL TRANSFERASE14 involves the NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Ying; Wang, Jia-Gang; Song, Shi-Jian; Wang, Qun; Kang, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha

    2016-02-04

    We report here that Arabidopsis PROTEIN S-ACYL TRANSFERASE14 (PAT14), through its palmitate transferase activity, acts at the vacuolar trafficking route to repress salicylic acid (SA) signaling, thus mediating age-dependent but not carbon starvation-induced leaf senescence. Functional loss of PAT14 resulted in precocious leaf senescence and its transcriptomic analysis revealed that senescence was dependent on salicylic acid. Overexpressing PAT14 suppressed the expression of SA responsive genes. Introducing the SA deficient mutants, npr1-5 and NahG, but not other hormonal mutants, completely suppressed the precocious leaf senescence of PAT14 loss-of-function, further supporting the epistatic relation between PAT14 and the SA pathway. By confocal fluorescence microscopy, we showed that PAT14 is localized at the Golgi, the trans-Golg network/early endosome, and prevacuolar compartments, indicating its roles through vacuolar trafficking. By reporter analysis and real time PCRs, we showed that the expression PAT14, unlike most of the senescence associated genes, is not developmentally regulated, suggesting post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms on its functionality. We further showed that the maize and wheat homologs of PAT14 fully rescued the precocious leaf senescence of pat14-2, demonstrating that the role of PAT14 in suppressing SA signaling during age-dependent leaf senescence is evolutionarily conserved between dicots and monocots.

  12. Cloning and characterization of a glutathione S-transferase that can be photolabeled with 5-azido-indole-3-acetic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Bilang, J; Sturm, A

    1995-01-01

    Previously, we identified a soluble protein from Hyoscyamus muticus that was photolabeled by 5-azido-indole-3-acetic acid. This protein was determined to be a glutathione S-transferase (GST; J. Bilang, H. Macdonald, P.J. King, and A. Sturm [1993] Plant Physiol 102: 29-34). We have examined the effect of auxin on the activity of this H. muticus GST. Auxins reduced enzyme activity only at high concentrations, with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid being more effective than indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and naphthylacetic acid. IAA was a noncompetitive inhibitor, whereas inhibition by 2,4-D was competitive with respect to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitro-benzene. We also present the sequence of a full-length cDNA clone that codes for a GST and contains all partial amino acid sequences of the purified protein. The auxin-binding GST was found in high amounts in roots and stems and low amounts in leaves and flower buds. The steady-state mRNA level was not regulated by IAA or naphthylacetic acid, whereas 2,4-D and 2,3-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid increased mRNA levels. We propose a model in which 2,4-D is a substrate for GST, whereas IAA binds at a second site, known as a ligandin-binding site for the purpose of intracellular transport. PMID:7480325

  13. Inhibition of human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated O-methylation of catechol estrogens by major polyphenolic components present in coffee.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao Ting; Wang, Pan; Nagai, Mime; Wen, Yujing; Bai, Hyoung-Woo

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of three catechol-containing coffee polyphenols, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), on the O-methylation of 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol (2-OH-E(2) and 4-OH-E(2), respectively) catalyzed by the cytosolic catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) isolated from human liver and placenta. When human liver COMT was used as the enzyme, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid each inhibited the O-methylation of 2-OH-E(2) in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 1.3-1.4 and 6.3-12.5 microM, respectively, and they also inhibited the O-methylation of 4-OH-E(2), with IC(50) values of 0.7-0.8 and 1.3-3.1 microM, respectively. Similar inhibition pattern was seen with human placental COMT preparation. CAPE had a comparable effect as caffeic acid for inhibiting the O-methylation of 2-OH-E(2), but it exerted a weaker inhibition of the O-methylation of 4-OH-E(2). Enzyme kinetic analyses showed that chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid inhibited the human liver and placental COMT-mediated O-methylation of catechol estrogens with a mixed mechanism of inhibition (competitive plus noncompetitive). Computational molecular modeling analysis showed that chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid can bind to human soluble COMT at the active site in a similar manner as the catechol estrogen substrates. Moreover, the binding energy values of these two coffee polyphenols are lower than that of catechol estrogens, which means that coffee polyphenols have higher binding affinity for the enzyme than the natural substrates. This computational finding agreed perfectly with our biochemical data.

  14. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of ethacrynic acid analogues on glutathione-s-transferase P1-1 activity inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guisen; Yu, Tao; Wang, Rui; Wang, Xiaobing; Jing, Yongkui

    2005-06-02

    Ethacrynic acid (EA) is a glutathione-s-transferase pi (GSTP1-1) inhibitor. Fifteen of EA analogues were designed and synthesized and their inhibition on GSTP1-1 activity was tested in lysate of human leukemia HL-60 cells. These compounds were synthesized using substituted phenol as precursors through reacting with 2-chlorocarboxylic acid and acylation. Structure-activity analysis indicates that replacements of chlorides of EA by methyl, bromide, and fluoride at 3' position remain the GSTP1-1 inhibitory effect. The compounds without any substitute at 3' position lose the activity on GSTP1-1 inhibition. These data suggest that the substitution of 3' position of EA is necessary for inhibiting GSTP1-1 activity.

  15. Biological Roles of the O-Methyl Phosphoramidate Capsule Modification in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Michele R.; Fodor, Christopher; Ashmus, Roger A.; Stahl, Martin; Karlyshev, Andrey V.; Wren, Brendan W.; Stintzi, Alain; Miller, William G.; Lowary, Todd L.; Szymanski, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of this organism is required for persistence and disease. C. jejuni produces over 47 different capsular structures, including a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modification present on most C. jejuni isolates. Although the MeOPN structure is rare in nature it has structural similarity to some synthetic pesticides. In this study, we have demonstrated, by whole genome comparisons and high resolution magic angle spinning NMR, that MeOPN modifications are common to several Campylobacter species. Using MeOPN biosynthesis and transferase mutants generated in C. jejuni strain 81–176, we observed that loss of MeOPN from the cell surface correlated with increased invasion of Caco-2 epithelial cells and reduced resistance to killing by human serum. In C. jejuni, the observed serum mediated killing was determined to result primarily from activation of the classical complement pathway. The C. jejuni MeOPN transferase mutant showed similar levels of colonization relative to the wild-type in chickens, but showed a five-fold drop in colonization when co-infected with the wild-type in piglets. In Galleria mellonella waxmoth larvae, the MeOPN transferase mutant was able to kill the insects at wild-type levels. Furthermore, injection of the larvae with MeOPN-linked monosaccharides or CPS purified from the wild-type strain did not result in larval killing, indicating that MeOPN does not have inherent insecticidal activity. PMID:24498018

  16. Effect of ethacrynic acid, a glutathione-S-transferase inhibitor, on nitroglycerin-mediated cGMP elevation and vasorelaxation of rabbit aortic strips.

    PubMed

    Kenkare, S R; Benet, L Z

    1993-07-20

    The effects of ethacrynic acid (ECA), an inhibitor of glutathione-S-transferase, on both the pharmacologic and biochemical responses of aortic tissue to nitroglycerin (GTN) were evaluated. Using the rabbit aortic strip model, relaxation responses to 0.6 microM GTN were measured with and without ECA (0.2 mM) pretreatment. These same strips were frozen, and the concentrations of cGMP in the strips were measured using a 3H-labeled radioimmunoassay. Both the relaxation response and the increase in cGMP upon GTN treatment were reduced significantly by pretreatment of the strips with ECA. A correlation was observed between the decreases in the pharmacodynamic and biochemical responses upon ECA pretreatment. cGMP levels in strips treated with sodium nitroprusside, which generates nitric oxide by mechanisms distinct from that for organic nitrates, were not decreased by ECA pretreatment. These observations suggest that the mechanism of GTN action involves a glutathione-S-transferase-mediated metabolic step for GTN and that the isozyme(s) involved in this activation process may be inhibited by ECA.

  17. Engineering Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii for enhanced propionic acid fermentation: effects of overexpressing propionyl-CoA:Succinate CoA transferase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongqiang; Ammar, Ehab M; Zhang, An; Wang, Liqun; Lin, Meng; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii naturally forms propionic acid as the main fermentation product with acetate and succinate as two major by-products. In this study, overexpressing the native propionyl-CoA:succinate CoA transferase (CoAT) in P. shermanii was investigated to evaluate its effects on propionic acid fermentation with glucose, glycerol, and their mixtures as carbon source. In general, the mutant produced more propionic acid, with up to 10% increase in yield (0.62 vs. 0.56g/g) and 46% increase in productivity (0.41 vs. 0.28g/Lh), depending on the fermentation conditions. The mutant also produced less acetate and succinate, with the ratios of propionate to acetate (P/A) and succinate (P/S) in the final product increased 50% and 23%, respectively, in the co-fermentation of glucose/glycerol. Metabolic flux analysis elucidated that CoAT overexpression diverted more carbon fluxes toward propionic acid, resulting in higher propionic acid purity and a preference for glycerol over glucose as carbon source. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Formyl-coenzyme A (CoA):oxalate CoA-transferase from the acidophile Acetobacter aceti has a distinctive electrostatic surface and inherent acid stability

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Elwood A; Starks, Courtney M; Francois, Julie A; Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke; Kappock, T Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial formyl-CoA:oxalate CoA-transferase (FCOCT) and oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase work in tandem to perform a proton-consuming decarboxylation that has been suggested to have a role in generalized acid resistance. FCOCT is the product of uctB in the acidophilic acetic acid bacterium Acetobacter aceti. As expected for an acid-resistance factor, UctB remains folded at the low pH values encountered in the A. aceti cytoplasm. A comparison of crystal structures of FCOCTs and related proteins revealed few features in UctB that would distinguish it from nonacidophilic proteins and thereby account for its acid stability properties, other than a strikingly featureless electrostatic surface. The apparently neutral surface is a result of a “speckled” charge decoration, in which charged surface residues are surrounded by compensating charges but do not form salt bridges. A quantitative comparison among orthologs identified a pattern of residue substitution in UctB that may be a consequence of selection for protein stability by constant exposure to acetic acid. We suggest that this surface charge pattern, which is a distinctive feature of A. aceti proteins, creates a stabilizing electrostatic network without stiffening the protein or compromising protein–solvent interactions. PMID:22374910

  19. Arabidopsis Deficient in Cutin Ferulate Encodes a Transferase Required for Feruloylation of ω-Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Cutin Polyester1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Ouellet, Mario; Nafisi, Majse; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Benke, Peter; Stranne, Maria; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2012-01-01

    The cuticle is a complex aliphatic polymeric layer connected to the cell wall and covers surfaces of all aerial plant organs. The cuticle prevents nonstomatal water loss, regulates gas exchange, and acts as a barrier against pathogen infection. The cuticle is synthesized by epidermal cells and predominantly consists of an aliphatic polymer matrix (cutin) and intracuticular and epicuticular waxes. Cutin monomers are primarily C16 and C18 unsubstituted, ω-hydroxy, and α,ω-dicarboxylic fatty acids. Phenolics such as ferulate and p-coumarate esters also contribute to a minor extent to the cutin polymer. Here, we present the characterization of a novel acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acyl-transferase that is encoded by a gene designated Deficient in Cutin Ferulate (DCF). The DCF protein is responsible for the feruloylation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids incorporated into the cutin polymer of aerial Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) organs. The enzyme specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acids using ω-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs, preferentially feruloyl-CoA and sinapoyl-CoA, as acyl donors in vitro. Arabidopsis mutant lines carrying DCF loss-of-function alleles are devoid of rosette leaf cutin ferulate and exhibit a 50% reduction in ferulic acid content in stem insoluble residues. DCF is specifically expressed in the epidermis throughout all green Arabidopsis organs. The DCF protein localizes to the cytosol, suggesting that the feruloylation of cutin monomers takes place in the cytoplasm. PMID:22158675

  20. Conformational analysis and dipole moments of tetra-O-methyl-(+)-catechin and tetra-O-methyl_(-)-epicatechin

    Treesearch

    W.L. Mattice; F.L. Tobiason; K. Houghlum; A. Shanafelt

    1982-01-01

    A conformational energy analysis has been performed for tetra-0-methyl-(+)-catechin and tetra-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin. Rotation was permitted about five C-O bonds and about the single bond connecting two rings. Eighteen rotational isomers each were assigned for tetra-0-methyl-(-)-epicatechin. Relative...

  1. Effects of mace (Myristica fragrans, Houtt.) on cytosolic glutathione S-transferase activity and acid soluble sulfhydryl level in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Kumari, M V; Rao, A R

    1989-07-15

    The aril of plant Myristica fragrans Houtt. commonly known as mace, which is consumed as a spice as well as used as a folk-medicine, was screened for its effects on the levels of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acid-soluble sulfhydryl (SH) groups in the liver of young adult male and female Swiss albino mice. Animals were assorted into 4 groups comprised of either sex and received either normal diet (negative control), 1% 2,3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) diet (positive control), 1% mace diet or 2% mace diet for 10 days. There was a significant increase in the GST activity in the liver of mice exposed to BHA or mace. In addition, there was a significant increase in the SH content in the liver of mice fed on 1% BHA and 2% mace diets.

  2. Drought and salt stress tolerance of an Arabidopsis glutathione S-transferase U17 knockout mutant are attributed to the combined effect of glutathione and abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jui-Hung; Jiang, Han-Wei; Hsieh, En-Jung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chien, Ching-Te; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2012-01-01

    Although glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are thought to play major roles in oxidative stress metabolism, little is known about the regulatory functions of GSTs. We have reported that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE U17 (AtGSTU17; At1g10370) participates in light signaling and might modulate various aspects of development by affecting glutathione (GSH) pools via a coordinated regulation with phytochrome A. Here, we provide further evidence to support a negative role of AtGSTU17 in drought and salt stress tolerance. When AtGSTU17 was mutated, plants were more tolerant to drought and salt stresses compared with wild-type plants. In addition, atgstu17 accumulated higher levels of GSH and abscisic acid (ABA) and exhibited hyposensitivity to ABA during seed germination, smaller stomatal apertures, a lower transpiration rate, better development of primary and lateral root systems, and longer vegetative growth. To explore how atgstu17 accumulated higher ABA content, we grew wild-type plants in the solution containing GSH and found that they accumulated ABA to a higher extent than plants grown in the absence of GSH, and they also exhibited the atgstu17 phenotypes. Wild-type plants treated with GSH also demonstrated more tolerance to drought and salt stresses. Furthermore, the effect of GSH on root patterning and drought tolerance was confirmed by growing the atgstu17 in solution containing l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis. In conclusion, the atgstu17 phenotype can be explained by the combined effect of GSH and ABA. We propose a role of AtGSTU17 in adaptive responses to drought and salt stresses by functioning as a negative component of stress-mediated signal transduction pathways.

  3. Analysis of phenanthrene diol epoxide mercapturic acid detoxification products in human urine: relevance to molecular epidemiology studies of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Villalta, Peter W; Hochalter, J Bradley

    2008-05-01

    Many studies have investigated the effects of glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms on cancer incidence in people exposed to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The basis for this is that the carcinogenic bay region diol epoxide metabolites of several PAH are detoxified by GSTs in in vitro studies. However, there are no reports in the literature on the identification in urine of the mercapturic acid metabolites that would result from this process in humans. We addressed this by developing a method for quantitation in human urine of mercapturic acids which would be formed from angular ring diol epoxides of phenanthrene (Phe), the simplest PAH with a bay region, and a common environmental pollutant. We prepared standard mercapturic acids by reactions of syn- or anti-Phe-1,2-diol-3,4-epoxide and syn- or anti-Phe-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide with N-acetylcysteine. Analysis of human urine conclusively demonstrated that the only detectable mercapturic acid of this type--N-acetyl-S-(r-4,t-2,3-trihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-c/t-1-phenanthryl)-L-cysteine (anti-PheDE-1-NAC)--was derived from the 'reverse diol epoxide', anti-Phe-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide, and not from the bay region diol epoxides, syn- or anti-Phe-1,2-diol-3,4-epoxide. Levels of anti-PheDE-1-NAC in the urine of 36 smokers were (mean +/- SD) 728 +/- 859 fmol/ml urine. The results of this study provide the first evidence for a mercapturic acid of a PAH diol epoxide in human urine, but it was not derived from a bay region diol epoxide as molecular epidemiologic studies have presumed, but rather from a reverse diol epoxide, representative of metabolites with little if any carcinogenic activity. These results demonstrate the need for integration of genotyping and phenotyping information in molecular epidemiology studies.

  4. The potato suberin feruloyl transferase FHT which accumulates in the phellogen is induced by wounding and regulated by abscisic and salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Marçal; Molinas, Marisa; Figueras, Mercè

    2013-01-01

    The present study provides new insights on the role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) suberin feruloyl transferase FHT in native and wound tissues, leading to conclusions about hitherto unknown properties of the phellogen. In agreement with the enzymatic role of FHT, it is shown that its transcriptional activation and protein accumulation are specific to tissues that undergo suberization such as the root boundary layers of the exodermis and the endodermis, along with the tuber periderm. Remarkably, FHT expression and protein accumulation within the periderm is restricted to the phellogen derivative cells with phellem identity. FHT levels in the periderm are at their peak near harvest during periderm maturation, with the phellogen becoming meristematically inactive and declining thereafter. However, periderm FHT levels remain high for several months after harvest, suggesting that the inactive phellogen retains the capacity to synthesize ferulate esters. Tissue wounding induces FHT expression and the protein accumulates from the first stages of the healing process onwards. FHT is up-regulated by abscisic acid and down-regulated by salicylic acid, emphasizing the complex regulation of suberin synthesis and wound healing. These findings open up new prospects important for the clarification of the suberization process and yield important information with regard to the skin quality of potatoes. PMID:23918964

  5. The potato suberin feruloyl transferase FHT which accumulates in the phellogen is induced by wounding and regulated by abscisic and salicylic acids.

    PubMed

    Boher, Pau; Serra, Olga; Soler, Marçal; Molinas, Marisa; Figueras, Mercè

    2013-08-01

    The present study provides new insights on the role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) suberin feruloyl transferase FHT in native and wound tissues, leading to conclusions about hitherto unknown properties of the phellogen. In agreement with the enzymatic role of FHT, it is shown that its transcriptional activation and protein accumulation are specific to tissues that undergo suberization such as the root boundary layers of the exodermis and the endodermis, along with the tuber periderm. Remarkably, FHT expression and protein accumulation within the periderm is restricted to the phellogen derivative cells with phellem identity. FHT levels in the periderm are at their peak near harvest during periderm maturation, with the phellogen becoming meristematically inactive and declining thereafter. However, periderm FHT levels remain high for several months after harvest, suggesting that the inactive phellogen retains the capacity to synthesize ferulate esters. Tissue wounding induces FHT expression and the protein accumulates from the first stages of the healing process onwards. FHT is up-regulated by abscisic acid and down-regulated by salicylic acid, emphasizing the complex regulation of suberin synthesis and wound healing. These findings open up new prospects important for the clarification of the suberization process and yield important information with regard to the skin quality of potatoes.

  6. Studies of the development of basic, neutral and acidic isoenzymes of glutathione S-transferase in human liver, adrenal, kidney and spleen.

    PubMed Central

    Faulder, C G; Hirrell, P A; Hume, R; Strange, R C

    1987-01-01

    The ontogeny of basic, near-neutral and acidic glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes was studied by using chromatofocusing and ion-exchange chromatography. These isoenzyme sets demonstrated tissue-specific patterns of expression. For example, whereas basic isoenzymes were identified in all liver and adrenal cytosols obtained after 10 weeks gestation, these forms were not detected in kidney until 10 weeks post-natal age and in spleen until about 40 weeks post-natal age. Our data indicate that the basic monomers B1 and B2 are present in liver cytosol at 21 weeks gestation. Expression of the near-neutral isoenzymes was usually weak; for example, they were not generally expressed in liver until 30 weeks gestation, and no developmental patterns in their expression could be identified in adrenal, kidney and spleen. The acidic isoenzymes were usually strongly expressed in adrenal, kidney and spleen, although there was a decline in the level of expression in kidney after birth. PMID:3566710

  7. The gene coding for 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase and the rfaQ gene are transcribed from divergently arranged promoters in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Clementz, T

    1992-01-01

    The gene kdtA in Escherichia coli codes for 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase, the enzyme responsible for attachment of the two 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid residues that constitute the link between lipid A and the core oligosaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide. Cloning and subsequent sequencing of the region upstream of kdtA revealed an open reading frame identified as the first gene (rfaQ) in an rfa gene cluster. The kdtA and rfaQ transcripts were identified, and the 5' ends of the transcripts were mapped by primer extension. Two main, divergently arranged promoters were found. These promoters generated transcripts with 5' ends separated by 289 bases. That the two divergent transcripts from the identified promoters represent the kdtA and rfaQ transcripts was confirmed by fusing different parts of the intergenic region between the promoterless lacZ and phoA genes in promoter-screening plasmid pCB267. Images PMID:1447141

  8. Post-translational enzyme modification by the phosphopantetheinyl transferase is required for lysine and penicillin biosynthesis but not for roquefortine or fatty acid formation in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    García-Estrada, Carlos; Ullán, Ricardo V; Velasco-Conde, Tania; Godio, Ramiro P; Teijeira, Fernando; Vaca, Inmaculada; Feltrer, Raúl; Kosalková, Katarina; Mauriz, Elba; Martín, Juan F

    2008-10-15

    NRPSs (non-ribosomal peptide synthetases) and PKSs (polyketide synthases) require post-translational phosphopantetheinylation to become active. This reaction is catalysed by a PPTase (4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase). The ppt gene of Penicillium chrysogenum, encoding a protein that shares 50% similarity with the stand-alone large PPTases, has been cloned. This gene is present as a single copy in the genome of the wild-type and high-penicillin-producing strains (containing multiple copies of the penicillin gene cluster). Amplification of the ppt gene produced increases in isopenicillin N and benzylpenicillin biosynthesis. A PPTase-defective mutant (Wis54-PPT(-)) was obtained. It required lysine and lacked pigment and penicillin production, but it still synthesized normal levels of roquefortine. The biosynthesis of roquefortine does not appear to involve PPTase-mediated modification of the synthesizing enzymes. The PPT(-) mutant did not require fatty acids, which indicates that activation of the fatty acid synthase is performed by a different PPTase. Complementation of Wis54-PPT(-) with the ppt gene restored lysine biosynthesis, pigmentation and penicillin production, which demonstrates the wide range of processes controlled by this gene.

  9. Specific synthesis of neurostatin and gangliosides O-acetylated in the outer sialic acids using a sialate transferase.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ramírez, Lorenzo; García-Álvarez, Isabel; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Gilbert, Michel; Goneau, Marie-France; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Gangliosides are sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, commonly found on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. O-acetylation of sialic acid hydroxyl groups is one of the most common modifications in gangliosides. Studies on the biological activity of O-acetylated gangliosides have been limited by their scarcity in nature. This comparatively small change in ganglioside structure causes major changes in their physiological properties. When the ganglioside GD1b was O-acetylated in the outer sialic acid, it became the potent inhibitor of astroblast and astrocytoma proliferation called Neurostatin. Although various chemical and enzymatic methods to O-acetylate commercial gangliosides have been described, O-acetylation was nonspecific and produced many side-products that reduced the yield. An enzyme with O-acetyltransferase activity (SOAT) has been previously cloned from the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni. This enzyme catalyzed the acetylation of oligosaccharide-bound sialic acid, with high specificity for terminal alpha-2,8-linked residues. Using this enzyme and commercial gangliosides as starting material, we have specifically O-acetylated the gangliosides' outer sialic acids, to produce the corresponding gangliosides specifically O-acetylated in the sialic acid bound in alpha-2,3 and alpha-2,8 residues. We demonstrate here that O-acetylation occurred specifically in the C-9 position of the sialic acid. In summary, we present a new method of specific O-acetylation of ganglioside sialic acids that permits the large scale preparation of these modified glycosphingolipids, facilitating both, the study of their mechanism of antitumoral action and their use as therapeutic drugs for treating glioblastoma multiform (GBM) patients.

  10. Cytosolic glutathione transferases from rat liver. Primary structure of class alpha glutathione transferase 8-8 and characterization of low-abundance class Mu glutathione transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Alin, P; Jensson, H; Cederlund, E; Jörnvall, H; Mannervik, B

    1989-01-01

    Six GSH transferases with neutral/acidic isoelectric points were purified from the cytosol fraction of rat liver. Four transferases are class Mu enzymes related to the previously characterized GSH transferases 3-3, 4-4 and 6-6, as judged by structural and enzymic properties. Two additional GSH transferases are distinguished by high specific activities with 4-hydroxyalk-2-enals, toxic products of lipid peroxidation. The most abundant of these two enzymes, GSH transferase 8-8, a class Alpha enzyme, has earlier been identified in rat lung and kidney. The amino acid sequence of subunit 8 was determined and showed a typical class Alpha GSH transferase structure including an N-acetylated N-terminal methionine residue. PMID:2775231

  11. Engineering alfalfa to accumulate useful caffeic acid derivatives and characterization of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA transferases from legumes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some forages crops, such as red clover, accumulate high levels of caffeic acid derivatives. Oxidation of these o-diphenols to quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) and the subsequent reactions of these quinones (probably with endogenous plant proteases) result in a significant reduction ...

  12. Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-met...

  13. Rapid quantification of O-acetyl and O-methyl residues in pectin extracts.

    PubMed

    Bédouet, Laurent; Courtois, Bernard; Courtois, Josiane

    2003-02-07

    A rapid method for the determination of the degrees of methylation (DM) and acetylation (DA) of pectins was developed. The polymer substitution degree as determined after saponification at 80 degrees C with NaOD during 1H NMR analysis. Under alkaline conditions, the cleavage of O-acetyl and O-methyl linkages allows the detection and the integration of the H-4 signal from galacturonic acid residues in the newly unesterified pectins. So, after a 10-min NMR recording, sodium acetate and sodium methanolate can be easily quantified relative to the clearly identified H-4 signal in galacturonic acid residues. Protons signals from pectin neutral sugars do not interfere with H-4. During the analysis, a limited (<3%) methanol evaporation leading to a weak reduced signal from the methanolate protons was observed. The proposed method allows in few minutes an accurate simultaneous quantification of DM and DA from few mg of pectin extracts, without the need of external standards.

  14. Modeling the E. coli 4-hydroxybenzoic acid oligoprenyltransferase ( ubiA transferase) and characterization of potential active sites.

    PubMed

    Bräuer, Lars; Brandt, Wolfgang; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2004-12-01

    4-hydroxybenzoate oligoprenyltransferase of E. coli, encoded in the gene ubiA, is an important key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway to ubiquinone. It catalyzes the prenylation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in position 3 using an oligoprenyl diphosphate as a second substrate. Up to now, no X-ray structure of this oligoprenyltransferase or any structurally related enzyme is known. Knowledge of the tertiary structure and possible active sites is, however, essential for understanding the catalysis mechanism and the substrate specificity. With homology modeling techniques, secondary structure prediction tools, molecular dynamics simulations, and energy optimizations, a model with two putative active sites could be created and refined. One active site selected to be the most likely one for the docking of oligoprenyl diphosphate and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is located near the N-terminus of the enzyme. It is widely accepted that residues forming an active site are usually evolutionary conserved within a family of enzymes. Multiple alignments of a multitude of related proteins clearly showed 100% conservation of the amino acid residues that form the first putative active site and therefore strongly support this hypothesis. However, an additional highly conserved region in the amino acid sequence of the ubiA enzyme could be detected, which also can be considered a putative (or rudimentary) active site. This site is characterized by a high sequence similarity to the aforementioned site and may give some hints regarding the evolutionary origin of the ubiA enzyme. Semiempirical quantum mechanical PM3 calculations have been performed to investigate the thermodynamics and kinetics of the catalysis mechanism. These results suggest a near S(N)1 mechanism for the cleavage of the diphosphate ion from the isoprenyl unit. The 4-hydroxybenzoic acid interestingly appears not to be activated as benzoate anion but rather as phenolate anion to allow attack of the isoprenyl cation to the

  15. CmaE: a transferase shuttling aminoacyl groups between carrier protein domains in the coronamic acid biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Strieter, Eric R; Vaillancourt, Frédéric H; Walsh, Christopher T

    2007-06-26

    During the biosynthesis of the cyclopropyl amino acid coronamic acid from l-allo-Ile by the phytotoxic Pseudomonas syringae, the aminoacyl group covalently attached to the pantetheinyl arm of CmaA is shuttled to the HS-pantetheinyl arm of the protein CmaD by the aminoacyltransferase CmaE. CmaE will only recognize deacylated CmaA for initial complexation. The aminoacyl group becomes covalently attached to the active site Cys of CmaE and can then be transferred out to the holo pantetheinylated form of CmaD. Both l-Val/l-[14C]Val exchange studies and MALDI-TOF support a reversible shuttling process. Aminoacylated-S-CmaE will transfer the l-Val moiety to the HS-pantetheinyl arm of other T domains, including CytC2, BarA, and ArfA C2-A2-T2 but not to free HS-pantetheine. CmaD could be loaded with other amino acids, for example, l-Leu and l-Thr, by the action of heterologous donor T domains containing alternative aminoacyl groups. Additionally, CmaE is able to accept l-Phe as a substrate when presented on CmaD and is able to load this aminoacyl moiety onto heterologous T domains, expanding the potential for CmaE to be used as a tool for generating chemical diversity within an NRPS assembly line.

  16. Induction of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase by carnosic acid in rat Clone 9 cells via the p38/Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yuan; Wu, Chi-Rei; Chang, Shu-Wei; Wang, Yu-Jung; Wu, Jia-Jiuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Induction of phase II enzymes is important in cancer chemoprevention. We compared the effect of rosemary diterpenes on the expression of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) in rat liver Clone 9 cells and the signaling pathways involved. Culturing cells with 1, 5, 10, or 20 μM carnosic acid (CA) or carnosol (CS) for 24 h in a dose-dependent manner increased the GSTP expression. CA was more potent than CS. The RNA level and the enzyme activity of GSTP were also enhanced by CA treatment. Treatment with 10 μM CA highly induced the reporter activity of the enhancer element GPEI. Furthermore, CA markedly increased the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) from the cytosol to the nucleus after 30 to 60 min. CA the stimulated the protein induction of p38, nuclear Nrf2, and GSTP was diminished in the presence of SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor). In addition, SB203580 pretreatment or silencing of Nrf2 by siRNA suppressed the CA-induced GPEI-DNA binding activity and GSTP protein expression. Knockdown of p38 or Nrf2 by siRNA abolished the activation of p38 and Nrf2 as well as the protein induction and enzyme activity of GSTP by CA. These results suggest that CA up-regulates the expression and enzyme activity of GSTP via the p38/Nrf2/GPEI pathway.

  17. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kap; Ho, Joseph X.; Keeling, Kim; Gilliland, Gary L.; Ji, Xinhua; Rueker, Florian; Carter, Daniel C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(sub 3)2(sub 1)2 with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  18. A Second Galacturonic Acid Transferase Is Required for Core Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis and Complete Capsule Association with the Cell Surface in Klebsiella pneumoniae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Fresno, Sandra; Jiménez, Natalia; Canals, Rocío; Merino, Susana; Corsaro, Maria Michela; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Pieretti, Giuseppina; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2007-01-01

    The core lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Klebsiella pneumoniae contains two galacturonic acid (GalA) residues, but only one GalA transferase (WabG) has been identified. Data from chemical and structural analysis of LPS isolated from a wabO mutant show the absence of the inner core β-GalA residue linked to l-glycero-d-manno-heptose III (l,d-Hep III). An in vitro assay demonstrates that the purified WabO is able to catalyze the transfer of GalA from UDP-GalA to the acceptor LPS isolated from the wabO mutant, but not to LPS isolated from waaQ mutant (deficient in l,d-Hep III). The absence of this inner core β-GalA residue results in a decrease in virulence in a capsule-dependent experimental mouse pneumonia model. In addition, this mutation leads to a strong reduction in cell-bound capsule. Interestingly, a K66 Klebsiella strain (natural isolate) without a functional wabO gene shows reduced levels of cell-bound capsule in comparison to those of other K66 strains. Thus, the WabO enzyme plays an important role in core LPS biosynthesis and determines the level of cell-bound capsule in Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:17142396

  19. Increased Expression of a myo-Inositol Methyl Transferase in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Is Part of a Stress Response Distinct from Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Induction 1

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Daniel M.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    1992-01-01

    The facultative halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum responds to osmotic stress by switching from C3 photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). This shift to CAM involves the stress-initiated up-regulation of mRNAs encoding CAM enzymes. The capability of the plants to induce a key CAM enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, is influenced by plant age, and it has been suggested that adaptation to salinity in M. crystallinum may be modulated by a developmental program that controls molecular responses to stress. We have compared the effects of plant age on the expression of two salinity-induced genes: Gpdl, which encodes the photosynthesis-related enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and Imtl, which encodes a methyl transferase involved in the biosynthesis of a putative osmoprotectant, pinitol. Imtl mRNA accumulation and the accompanying increase in pinitol in stressed Mesembryanthemum exhibit a pattern of induction distinct from that observed for CAM-related genes. We conclude that the molecular mechanisms that trigger Imtl and pinitol accumulation in response to salt stress in M. crystallinum differ in some respects from those that lead to CAM induction. There may be multiple signals or pathways that regulate inducible components of salinity tolerance in this facultative halophyte. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16669095

  20. Functional analysis of a tomato salicylic acid methyl transferase and its role in synthesis of the flavor volatile methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Tieman, Denise; Zeigler, Michelle; Schmelz, Eric; Taylor, Mark G; Rushing, Sarah; Jones, Jeffrey B; Klee, Harry J

    2010-04-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile plant secondary metabolite that is an important contributor to taste and scent of many fruits and flowers. It is synthesized from salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone that contributes to plant pathogen defense. MeSA is synthesized by members of a family of O-methyltransferases. In order to elaborate the mechanism of MeSA synthesis in tomato, we screened a set of O-methyltransferases for activity against multiple substrates. An enzyme that specifically catalyzes methylation of SA, SlSAMT, as well as enzymes that act upon jasmonic acid and indole-3-acetic acid were identified. Analyses of transgenic over- and under-producing lines validated the function of SlSAMT in vivo. The SlSAMT gene was mapped to a position near the bottom of chromosome 9. Analysis of MeSA emissions from an introgression population derived from a cross with Solanum pennellii revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) linked to higher fruit methyl salicylate emissions. The higher MeSA emissions associate with significantly higher SpSAMT expression, consistent with SAMT gene expression being rate limiting for ripening-associated MeSA emissions. Transgenic plants that constitutively over-produce MeSA exhibited only slightly delayed symptom development following infection with the disease-causing bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). Unexpectedly, pathogen-challenged leaves accumulated significantly higher levels of SA as well as glycosylated forms of SA and MeSA, indicating a disruption in control of the SA-related metabolite pool. Taken together, the results indicate that SlSAMT is critical for methyl salicylate synthesis and methyl salicylate, in turn, likely has an important role in controlling SA synthesis.

  1. The in vitro biological activities of synthetic 18-O-methyl mycalamide B, 10-epi-18-O-methyl mycalamide B and pederin.

    PubMed

    Richter, A; Kocienski, P; Raubo, P; Davies, D E

    1997-04-01

    Mycalamides A and B, which were originally isolated from a marine sponge, show close structural similarity to the insect toxin pederin, and exhibit potent cytotoxicity and antitumour activity. Detailed investigation of the clinical potential of these compounds has been hampered because they are available in only minute quantities from natural sources. We now describe the biological activities of 18-O-methyl mycalamide B, 10-epi-18-O-methyl mycalamide and pederin, all prepared by total synthesis. The activities of 18-O-methyl mycalamide B and pederin were virtually indistinguishable when evaluated in DNA or protein synthesis assays, and in cytotoxicity assays using human carcinoma cell lines (IC50s 0.2-0.6 nM). In all assays, 10-epi-18-O-methyl mycalamide B was 10(3) times less toxic than its diastereoisomer, demonstrating that the cytotoxicity of 18-O-methyl mycalamide B is inseparable from its ability to inhibit protein synthesis. Short-term exposure of squamous carcinoma cells to 18-O-methyl mycalamide B or pederin caused an irreversible inhibition of cellular proliferation and induced cellular necrosis. In contrast, the antiproliferative effects of the compounds on human fibroblasts were reversible and there was no evidence of necrosis. Demonstration that 18-O-methyl mycalamide B and the synthetically less complex molecule, pederin, show some tumour cell toxicity indicates that this novel class of compounds should be subjected to preclinical evaluation.

  2. Identification, characterization, and developmental expression of a novel alpha 2-->8-KDN-transferase which terminates elongation of alpha 2-->8-linked oligo-polysialic acid chain synthesis in trout egg polysialoglycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Angata, T; Kitazume, S; Terada, T; Kitajima, K; Inoue, S; Troy, F A; Inoue, Y

    1994-10-01

    A novel glycosyltransferase which catalyses transfer of deaminated neuraminic acid, KDN (2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid) from CMP-KDN to the non-reducing termini of oligo-polysialyl chains of polysialoglycoprotein (PSGP), was discovered in the ovary of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The KDN-transferase activity was optimal at neutral pH, and stimulated 2 to 2.5-fold by 2-5 mM Mg2+ or Mn2+. Expression of KDN-transferase was developmentally regulated in parallel with expression of the alpha 2-->8-polysialyltransferase, which catalyses synthesis of the oligo-polysialyl chains in PSGP. Incorporation of the KDN residues into the oligo-polysialyl chains prevented their further elongation, resulting in 'capping' of the oligo-polysialyl chains. This is the first example of a glycosyltransferase that catalyses termination of alpha 2-->8-polysialylation in glycoproteins.

  3. Genetic Analysis of Natural Variation in Antirrhinum Scent Profiles Identifies BENZOIC ACID CARBOXYMETHYL TRANSFERASE As the Major Locus Controlling Methyl Benzoate Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Hernández, Victoria; Hermans, Benjamin; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    The Antirrhinum genus has a considerable complexity in the scent profiles produced by different species. We have analyzed the genetic differences between A. majus and A. linkianum, two species divergent in the emission of methyl benzoate, methyl cinnamate, acetophenone, and ocimene. The genetic analysis showed that all compounds segregated in a Mendelian fashion attributable to one or two loci with simple or epistatic interactions. Several lines lacked methyl benzoate, a major Volatile Organic Compound emitted by A. majus but missing in A. linkianum. Using a candidate gene approach, we found that the BENZOIC ACID CARBOXYMETHYL TRANSFERASE from A. linkianum appeared to be a null allele as we could not detect mRNA expression. The coding region did not show significant differences that could explain the loss of expression. The intron-exon boundaries was also conserved indicating that there is no alternative splicing in A. linkianum as compared to A. majus. However, it showed multiple polymorphisms in the 5' promoter region including two insertions, one harboring an IDLE MITE transposon with additional sequences with high homology to the PLENA locus and a second one with somewhat lower homology to the regulatory region of the VENOSA locus. It also had a 778 bp deletion as compared to the A. majus BAMT promoter region. Our results show that the differences in scent emission between A. majus and A. linkianum may be traced back to single genes involved in discrete biosynthetic reactions such as benzoic acid methylation. Thus, natural variation of this complex trait maybe the result of combinations of wild type, and loss of function alleles in different genes involved in discrete VOCs biosynthesis. Furthermore, the presence of active transposable elements in the genus may account for rapid evolution and instability, raising the possibility of adaptation to local pollinators.

  4. Genetic Analysis of Natural Variation in Antirrhinum Scent Profiles Identifies BENZOIC ACID CARBOXYMETHYL TRANSFERASE As the Major Locus Controlling Methyl Benzoate Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Hernández, Victoria; Hermans, Benjamin; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    The Antirrhinum genus has a considerable complexity in the scent profiles produced by different species. We have analyzed the genetic differences between A. majus and A. linkianum, two species divergent in the emission of methyl benzoate, methyl cinnamate, acetophenone, and ocimene. The genetic analysis showed that all compounds segregated in a Mendelian fashion attributable to one or two loci with simple or epistatic interactions. Several lines lacked methyl benzoate, a major Volatile Organic Compound emitted by A. majus but missing in A. linkianum. Using a candidate gene approach, we found that the BENZOIC ACID CARBOXYMETHYL TRANSFERASE from A. linkianum appeared to be a null allele as we could not detect mRNA expression. The coding region did not show significant differences that could explain the loss of expression. The intron-exon boundaries was also conserved indicating that there is no alternative splicing in A. linkianum as compared to A. majus. However, it showed multiple polymorphisms in the 5′ promoter region including two insertions, one harboring an IDLE MITE transposon with additional sequences with high homology to the PLENA locus and a second one with somewhat lower homology to the regulatory region of the VENOSA locus. It also had a 778 bp deletion as compared to the A. majus BAMT promoter region. Our results show that the differences in scent emission between A. majus and A. linkianum may be traced back to single genes involved in discrete biosynthetic reactions such as benzoic acid methylation. Thus, natural variation of this complex trait maybe the result of combinations of wild type, and loss of function alleles in different genes involved in discrete VOCs biosynthesis. Furthermore, the presence of active transposable elements in the genus may account for rapid evolution and instability, raising the possibility of adaptation to local pollinators. PMID:28154577

  5. Identification of an optimized 2'-O-methylated trinucleotide RNA motif inhibiting Toll-like receptors 7 and 8.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Felix C F; Freund, Isabel; Weigand, Markus A; Helm, Mark; Dalpke, Alexander H; Eigenbrod, Tatjana

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial RNA serves an important function as activator of the innate immune system. In humans bacterial RNA is sensed by the endosomal receptors TLR7 and TLR8. Differences in the posttranscriptional modification profile of prokaryotic when compared with eukaryotic RNA allow innate immune cells to discriminate between "host" and "foreign" RNA. Ribose 2'-O-methylation is of particular importance and has been reported to antagonize TLR7/8 activation. Yet, the exact sequence context in which 2'-O-methylation has to occur to mediate its inhibitory activity remains largely undefined. On the basis of a naturally occurring 2'-O-methylated RNA sequence, we performed a systematic permutation of the methylated nucleotide as well as adjacent bases and hereby identify two minimal trinucleotide motifs within a 9-mer oligoribonucleotide that are necessary and sufficient to antagonize TLR7 and TLR8 activation, respectively. Given the growing interest in the development of inhibitors of nucleic acid-sensing TLRs for therapeutic purposes, these results will facilitate the rational design of such antagonists in the future. © 2017 Schmitt et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Ruker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  7. Ethacrynic acid butyl-ester induces apoptosis in leukemia cells through a hydrogen peroxide mediated pathway independent of glutathione S-transferase P1-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Li, Chunmin; Song, Dandan; Zhao, Guisen; Zhao, Linxiang; Jing, Yongkui

    2007-08-15

    Ethacrynic acid (EA), a glutathione S-transferase inhibitor and diuretic agent, inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. To improve the activities, the structure of EA has been modified, and it has been shown that EA esters had an increased cell growth inhibitory ability compared with nonesterified analogue. EA butyl-ester (EABE) was synthesized, and its apoptosis induction ability was studied. The efficacy of EABE was compared with that of EA, and the mechanisms of action were studied in HL-60 leukemia cells. EABE exhibited greater cell growth inhibitory and apoptosis induction abilities than did EA. EABE-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells correlated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, the death receptor 5 (DR5), and caspase activation and decreased levels of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment with antioxidants, either N-acetylcysteine or catalase, completely blocked EABE-induced apoptosis, H2O2 accumulation, and up-regulation of DR5 levels. RG19, a subclone of Raji cells stably transfected with a GSTpi expression vector, and K562 cells with high endogenous GSTP1-1 activity were less sensitive to EABE-induced apoptosis. EABE was more rapidly taken up than EA by HL-60 cells as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements of intracellular concentrations. These results suggest that (a) H2O2 production is a mediator of EABE and EA-induced apoptosis; (b) GSTP1-1 plays a negative role in EABE and EA-induced apoptosis; and (c) the activity of EABE is greater than EA due to its more rapid entry into cells.

  8. Benzene Uptake and Glutathione S-transferase T1 Status as Determinants of S-Phenylmercapturic Acid in Cigarette Smokers in the Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Haiman, Christopher A.; Patel, Yesha M.; Stram, Daniel O.; Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Le Marchand, Loic; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Research from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) demonstrated that, for the same quantity of cigarette smoking, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher lung cancer risk than Whites, while Latinos and Japanese Americans are less susceptible. We collected urine samples from 2,239 cigarette smokers from five different ethnic groups in the MEC and analyzed each sample for S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), a specific biomarker of benzene uptake. African Americans had significantly higher (geometric mean [SE] 3.69 [0.2], p<0.005) SPMA/ml urine than Whites (2.67 [0.13]) while Japanese Americans had significantly lower levels than Whites (1.65 [0.07], p<0.005). SPMA levels in Native Hawaiians and Latinos were not significantly different from those of Whites. We also conducted a genome-wide association study in search of genetic risk factors related to benzene exposure. The glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) deletion explained between 14.2–31.6% (p = 5.4x10-157) and the GSTM1 deletion explained between 0.2%-2.4% of the variance (p = 1.1x10-9) of SPMA levels in these populations. Ethnic differences in levels of SPMA remained strong even after controlling for the effects of these two deletions. These results demonstrate the powerful effect of GSTT1 status on SPMA levels in urine and show that uptake of benzene in African American, White, and Japanese American cigarette smokers is consistent with their lung cancer risk in the MEC. While benzene is not generally considered a cause of lung cancer, its metabolite SPMA could be a biomarker for other volatile lung carcinogens in cigarette smoke. PMID:26959369

  9. Effects of cadmium alone and in combination with low molecular weight chitosan on metallothionein, glutathione-S-transferase, acid phosphatase, and ATPase of freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruijin; Zhou, Yanying; Wang, Lan; Ren, Guorui; Zou, Enmin

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant showing a variety of deleterious effects, including the potential threat for the ecological environment and human health via food chains. Low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) has been demonstrated to be an effective antioxidant. Metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels and activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the gills of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense were analyzed in vivo in order to determine the injury of Cd exposure on the gill tissues as well as the protective effect of LMWC against this injury. The results showed that there was an apparent accumulation of Cd in the gills, which was lessened by the presence of LMWC. Moreover, Cd(2+) significantly increased the gill MT mRNA levels, ACP activity and MDA content while decreasing the activities of SOD, GST, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the crabs relative to the control. Cotreatment with LMWC reduced the levels of MT mRNA and ACP but raised the activities of GST, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase in gill tissues compared with the crabs exposed to Cd(2+) alone. These results suggest that LMWC may exert its protective effect through chelating Cd(2+) to form LMWC-Cd(2+) complex, elevating the antioxidative activities of GST, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase as well as alleviating the stress pressure on MT and ACP, consequently protecting the cell from the adverse effects of Cd. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Ruker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  11. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Rüker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed. PMID:7538846

  12. Glutathione transferase supergene family in tomato: Salt stress-regulated expression of representative genes from distinct GST classes in plants primed with salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Csiszár, Jolán; Horváth, Edit; Váry, Zsolt; Gallé, Ágnes; Bela, Krisztina; Brunner, Szilvia; Tari, Irma

    2014-05-01

    A family tree of the multifunctional proteins, glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) was created in Solanum lycopersicum based on homology to known Arabidopsis GSTs. The involvement of selected SlGSTs was studied in salt stress response of tomato primed with salicylic acid (SA) or in un-primed plants by real-time qPCR. Selected tau GSTs (SlGSTU23, SlGSTU26) were up-regulated in the leaves, while GSTs from lambda, theta, dehydroascorbate reductase and zeta classes (SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2, SlDHAR5, SlGSTZ2) in the root tissues under salt stress. Priming with SA exhibited a concentration dependency; SA mitigated the salt stress injury and caused characteristic changes in the expression pattern of SlGSTs only at 10(-4) M concentration. SlGSTF4 displayed a significant up-regulation in the leaves, while the abundance of SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2 and SlGSTZ2 transcripts were enhanced in the roots of plants primed with high SA concentration. Unexpectedly, under high salinity the SlDHAR2 expression decreased in primed roots as compared to the salt-stressed plants, however, the up-regulation of SlDHAR5 isoenzyme contributed to the maintenance of DHAR activity in roots primed with high SA. The members of lambda, theta and zeta class GSTs have a specific role in salt stress acclimation of tomato, while SlGSTU26 and SlGSTF4, the enzymes with high glutathione conjugating activity, characterize a successful priming in both roots and leaves. In contrast to low concentration, high SA concentration induced those GSTs in primed roots, which were up-regulated under salt stress. Our data indicate that induction of GSTs provide a flexible tool in maintaining redox homeostasis during unfavourable conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Chromatofocusing of glutathione S-transferases from human kidney.

    PubMed

    Koskelo, K; Icén, A

    1984-04-01

    The glutathione S-transferase isoenzyme patterns of four human kidneys have been determined by chromatofocusing. The elution profiles were essentially similar in each tissue. Two major basic transferases and one acidic were partially characterized. All three were inhibited by bilirubin but considerable differences were found in the rate and extent of inactivation. The molecular weights, KM values and pH optima were similar to the values for transferases from other tissues. Chromatofocusing was found to be effective for the separation and purification of human glutathione transferases.

  14. A specialized citric acid cycle requiring succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) confers acetic acid resistance on the acidophile Acetobacter aceti.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Elwood A; Francois, Julie A; Kappock, T Joseph

    2008-07-01

    Microbes tailor macromolecules and metabolism to overcome specific environmental challenges. Acetic acid bacteria perform the aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and are generally resistant to high levels of these two membrane-permeable poisons. The citric acid cycle (CAC) is linked to acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti by several observations, among them the oxidation of acetate to CO2 by highly resistant acetic acid bacteria and the previously unexplained role of A. aceti citrate synthase (AarA) in acetic acid resistance at a low pH. Here we assign specific biochemical roles to the other components of the A. aceti strain 1023 aarABC region. AarC is succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase, which replaces succinyl-CoA synthetase in a variant CAC. This new bypass appears to reduce metabolic demand for free CoA, reliance upon nucleotide pools, and the likely effect of variable cytoplasmic pH upon CAC flux. The putative aarB gene is reassigned to SixA, a known activator of CAC flux. Carbon overflow pathways are triggered in many bacteria during metabolic limitation, which typically leads to the production and diffusive loss of acetate. Since acetate overflow is not feasible for A. aceti, a CO(2) loss strategy that allows acetic acid removal without substrate-level (de)phosphorylation may instead be employed. All three aar genes, therefore, support flux through a complete but unorthodox CAC that is needed to lower cytoplasmic acetate levels.

  15. Dual Catalytic Activity of Hydroxycinnamoyl-Coenzyme A Quinate Transferase from Tomato Allows It to Moonlight in the Synthesis of Both Mono- and Dicaffeoylquinic Acids1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Moglia, Andrea; Lanteri, Sergio; Comino, Cinzia; Hill, Lionel; Knevitt, Daniel; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bornemann, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), like other Solanaceous species, accumulates high levels of antioxidant caffeoylquinic acids, which are strong bioactive molecules and protect plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Among these compounds, the monocaffeoylquinic acids (e.g. chlorogenic acid [CGA]) and the dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs) have been found to possess marked antioxidative properties. Thus, they are of therapeutic interest both as phytonutrients in foods and as pharmaceuticals. Strategies to increase diCQA content in plants have been hampered by the modest understanding of their biosynthesis and whether the same pathway exists in different plant species. Incubation of CGA with crude extracts of tomato fruits led to the formation of two new products, which were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as diCQAs. This chlorogenate:chlorogenate transferase activity was partially purified from ripe fruit. The final protein fraction resulted in 388-fold enrichment of activity and was subjected to trypsin digestion and mass spectrometric sequencing: a hydroxycinnamoyl-Coenzyme A:quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) was selected as a candidate protein. Assay of recombinant HQT protein expressed in Escherichia coli confirmed its ability to synthesize diCQAs in vitro. This second activity (chlorogenate:chlorogenate transferase) of HQT had a low pH optimum and a high Km for its substrate, CGA. High concentrations of CGA and relatively low pH occur in the vacuoles of plant cells. Transient assays demonstrated that tomato HQT localizes to the vacuole as well as to the cytoplasm of plant cells, supporting the idea that in this species, the enzyme catalyzes different reactions in two subcellular compartments. PMID:25301886

  16. Cathecol-O-methyl transferase Val158Met genotype is not a risk factor for conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Armagan, E; Almacıoglu, M L; Yakut, T; Köse, A; Karkucak, M; Köksal, O; Görükmez, O

    2013-03-19

    Alterations in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity are involved in various types of neurological disorders. We examined a possible association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and conversion disorder in a study of 48 patients with conversion disorder and 48 control patients. In the conversion disorder group, 31 patients were Val/Met heterozygotes, 15 patients were Val/Val homozygotes and 2 patients were Met/Met homozygotes. In the control group, 32 patients were Val/Met heterozygotes and 16 patients were Val/Val homozygotes. There was no significant difference between the groups. We conclude that the COMT Val158Met genotype is quite common in Turkey and that it is not a risk factor for conversion disorder in the Turkish population.

  17. Characterisation of the Broadly-Specific O-Methyl-transferase JerF from the Late Stages of Jerangolid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Steffen; Hemmerling, Franziska; Lindner, Frederick; Warnke, Anna; Wunderlich, Johannes; Berkhan, Gesche; Hahn, Frank

    2016-10-29

    We describe the characterisation of the O-methyltransferase JerF from the late stages of jerangolid biosynthesis. JerF is the first known example of an enzyme that catalyses the formation of a non-aromatic, cyclic methylenolether. The enzyme was overexpressed in E. coli and the cell-free extracts were used in bioconversion experiments. Chemical synthesis gave access to a series of substrate surrogates that covered a broad structural space. Enzymatic assays revealed a broad substrate tolerance and high regioselectivity of JerF, which makes it an attractive candidate for an application in chemoenzymatic synthesis with particular usefulness for late stage application on 4-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one-containing natural products.

  18. Cytidine-5'-monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid. Asialoglycoprotein sialic acid transferase activity in liver and serum of patients with juvenile hepatic cirrhosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kuhlenschmidt, M S; Peters, S P; Pinkard, O D; Glew, R H; Sharp, H

    1976-04-08

    The molecular basis for the accumulation of a substance which displays the immunological reactivity of alpha-1-antitrypsin within vesicles of liver parenchymal cells of individuals with hepatic cirrhosis and serum alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency remains unclear. We recently reported that serum from a patient with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and hepatic cirrhosis was substantially deficient in sialyltransferease (EC 2.4.99.1) an enzyme which transfers sialic acid from cytidine 5'-monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid to a variety of asialoglycoprotein acceptors. In the present report we have extended these studies to include serum from five additional patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and juvenile hepatic cirrhosis as well as a liver specimen obtained at autopsy of one of these patients. We find the sialytransferase activity in serum from six patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and hepatic cirrhosis to be 50% of healthy pediatric control values and 30% of pediatric patients with liver disease. However, serum from family members homozygous for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency but without hepatic cirrhosis, and serum from patients with a variety of other kinds of liver disease, failed to exhibit the marked sialytransferase deficiency. Similar assays carried out on a homogenate of a liver sample from one patient with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and hepatic cirrhosis indicated that the deficiency of sialyltransferase activity was not demonstrable in liver. Furthermore, a comparative kinetic analysis of serum and liver sialytransferase in normal and afflicted individuals failed to detect differences in substrate affinities which might account for a decrease in functional sialyltransferase capacity in individuals with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and hepatic cirrhosis. These observations suggest that the serum sialyltransferase deficiency in such patients probably arises after chronic and extensive liver disease involving hepatic accumulation of

  19. Predicting heterocyclic ring coupling constants through a conformational search of tetra-O-methyl-(+)-catechin

    Treesearch

    Fred L. Tobiason; Richard W. Hemingway

    1994-01-01

    A GMMX conformational search routine gives a family of conformations that reflects the Boltzmann-averaged heterocyclic ring conformation as evidenced by accurate prediction of all three coupling constants observed for tetra-O-methyl-(+)-catechin.

  20. Structural elucidation of polysaccharide containing 3-O-methyl galactose from fruiting bodies of Pleurotus citrinopileatus.

    PubMed

    He, Pengfei; Zhang, Anqiang; Zhou, Saijing; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Sun, Peilong

    2016-11-03

    A water-soluble polysaccharide containing 3-O-methyl galactose (PCP60W) was isolated from fruiting bodies of Pleurotus citrinopileatus and purified by anion-exchange and gel column chromatography. This polysaccharide has an average molecular weight of 2.74 × 10(4) Da and its structure was elucidated using monosaccharide composition and methylation analysis combined with one- and two-dimensional (COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy. PCP60W was shown to be a linear partially 3-O-methylated α-galactopyranan comprised of 6-linked galactose, 6-linked 3-O-methyl galactose and 4-linked glucose in a ratio of 3.0:1.0:0.6. This work provides additional evidence for the view that 3-O-methyl galactose is common to the genus Pleurotus.

  1. Predicting heterocyclic ring coupling constants through a conformational search of tetra-o-methyl-(+)-catechin

    Treesearch

    Fred L. Tobiason; Richard w. Hemingway

    1994-01-01

    A GMMXe conformational search routine gives a family a conformations that reflects the boltzmann-averaged heterocyclic ring conformation as evidence by accurate prediction of all three coupling constants observed for tetra-O-methyl-(+)-catechin.

  2. Structural basis for m7G recognition and 2'-O-methyl discrimination in capped RNAs by the innate immune receptor RIG-I

    SciTech Connect

    Devarkar, Swapnil C.; Wang, Chen; Miller, Matthew T.; Ramanathan, Anand; Jiang, Fuguo; Khan, Abdul G.; Patel, Smita S.; Marcotrigiano, Joseph

    2016-01-05

    The cytosolic innate immune receptor Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene-I (RIG-I) is the principal detector of pathogenic RNAs carrying a 5'-triphosphate (5'ppp). Self RNAs like mRNAs evade recognition by RIG-I due to posttranscriptional modifications like 5'-end capping with 7-methyl guanosine (m7G) and 2'-O-methylation of 5'-end nucleotides. Viruses have also evolved mechanisms to mimic these modifications, which in part is believed to aid in immune evasion. Currently, it is unclear how these modifications modulate RIG-I recognition. This paper provides structural and mechanistic insights into the roles of the m7G cap and 2'-O-methylation in RIG-I evasion. We show that RIG-I accommodates the m7G base while maintaining the 5'ppp contacts and can recognize Cap-0 RNAs but not Cap-1.

  3. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Haluska, P; Dy, G K; Adjei, A A

    2002-09-01

    Protein farnesylation catalysed by the enzyme farnesyl protein transferase involves the addition of a 15-carbon farnesyl group to conserved amino acid residues at the carboxyl terminus of certain proteins. Protein substrates of farnesyl transferase include several G-proteins, which are critical intermediates of cell signalling and cytoskeletal organisation such as Ras, Rho, PxF and lamins A and B. Activated Ras proteins trigger a cascade of phosphorylation events through sequential activation of the PI3 kinase/AKT pathway, which is critical for cell survival, and the Raf/Mek/Erk kinase pathway that has been implicated in cell proliferation. Ras mutations which encode for constitutively activated proteins are found in 30% of human cancers. Because farnesylation of Ras is required for its transforming and proliferative activity, the farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors were designed as anticancer agents to abrogate Ras function. However, current evidence suggests that the anticancer activity of the farnesyl transferase inhibitors may not be simply due to Ras inhibition. This review will discuss available clinical data on three of these agents that are currently undergoing clinical trials.

  4. Identification of a novel glutathione transferase in human skin homologous with class alpha glutathione transferase 2-2 in the rat.

    PubMed

    Del Boccio, G; Di Ilio, C; Alin, P; Jörnvall, H; Mannervik, B

    1987-05-15

    Six forms of glutathione transferase with pI values of 4.6, 5.9, 6.8, 7.1, 8.5 and 9.9 have been isolated from the cytosol fraction of normal skin from three human subjects. The three most abundant enzymes were an acidic Class Pi transferase (pI 4.6; apparent subunit Mr 23,000), a basic Class Alpha transferase (pI 8.5; apparent subunit Mr 24,000) and an even more basic glutathione transferase of Class Alpha (pI 9.9; apparent subunit Mr 26,500). The last enzyme, which was previously unknown, accounts for 10-20% of the glutathione transferase in human skin. The novel transferase showed greater similarities with rat glutathione transferase 2-2, another Class Alpha enzyme, than with any other known transferase irrespective of species. The most striking similarities included reactions with antibodies, amino acid compositions and identical N-terminal amino acid sequences (16 residues). The close relationship between the human most basic and the rat glutathione transferase 2-2 supports the classification of the transferases previously proposed and indicates that the similarities between enzymes isolated from different species are more extensive than had been assumed previously.

  5. Identification of a novel glutathione transferase in human skin homologous with class alpha glutathione transferase 2-2 in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Del Boccio, G; Di Ilio, C; Alin, P; Jörnvall, H; Mannervik, B

    1987-01-01

    Six forms of glutathione transferase with pI values of 4.6, 5.9, 6.8, 7.1, 8.5 and 9.9 have been isolated from the cytosol fraction of normal skin from three human subjects. The three most abundant enzymes were an acidic Class Pi transferase (pI 4.6; apparent subunit Mr 23,000), a basic Class Alpha transferase (pI 8.5; apparent subunit Mr 24,000) and an even more basic glutathione transferase of Class Alpha (pI 9.9; apparent subunit Mr 26,500). The last enzyme, which was previously unknown, accounts for 10-20% of the glutathione transferase in human skin. The novel transferase showed greater similarities with rat glutathione transferase 2-2, another Class Alpha enzyme, than with any other known transferase irrespective of species. The most striking similarities included reactions with antibodies, amino acid compositions and identical N-terminal amino acid sequences (16 residues). The close relationship between the human most basic and the rat glutathione transferase 2-2 supports the classification of the transferases previously proposed and indicates that the similarities between enzymes isolated from different species are more extensive than had been assumed previously. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3117035

  6. Nonintracellular, cell-associated O-methylation of isoproterenol in the isolated rabbit thoracic aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Head, R.J.; Irvine, R.J.; Barone, S.; Stitzel, R.E.; de la Lande, I.S.

    1985-07-01

    The present study examines the subcellular site of catecholamine O-methylation in extraneuronal tissue. S-Adenosyl-l-methionine, a methyl donor that does not diffuse across biological membranes, was used to assess the participation of plasma membrane bound catechol-O-methyltransferase vs. cytoplasmic catechol-O-methyltransferase in the catecholamine O-methylating process. Segments of rabbit thoracic aorta incubated with (methyl-/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-l-methionine and isoproterenol generate (/sup 3/H)methoxy-isoproterenol. The formation of (/sup 3/H)methoxy-isoproterenol from (methyl-/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-l-methionine was proportional to the isoproterenol concentrations in the range of 0.1 to 1.0 microM. There was a marked preference for the O-methylation of the (+)- rather than the (-)-isomer of isoproterenol. The O-methylation of isoproterenol in the presence of (methyl-/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-l-methionine was stimulated as much as 8-fold by the removal of calcium ions from the incubation solutions. In contrast, the O-methylation of (+)-(/sup 3/H)isoproterenol by endogenous, intracellular S-adenosyl-l-methionine was only slightly inhibited by the removal of calcium ions from incubation solutions. The formation of (/sup 3/H)methoxy-isoproterenol from (methyl-/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-l-methionine and isoproterenol was not inhibited by pretreatment of tissues with phenoxybenzamine (32 microM) or treatment with metanephrine (27 mumol 1(-1) or deoxycorticosterone acetate (27 microM), i.e., drug treatments that inhibit the extraneuronal uptake and O-methylation of (/sup 3/H)-isoproterenol by endogenous intracellular S-adenosyl-l-methionine. The results of this study provide evidence for a nonintracellular, cell-associated site of O-methylation of isoproterenol in the rabbit aorta.

  7. Production of 7-O-methyl aromadendrin, a medicinally valuable flavonoid, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Malla, Sailesh; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2012-02-01

    7-O-Methyl aromadendrin (7-OMA) is an aglycone moiety of one of the important flavonoid-glycosides found in several plants, such as Populus alba and Eucalyptus maculata, with various medicinal applications. To produce such valuable natural flavonoids in large quantity, an Escherichia coli cell factory has been developed to employ various plant biosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the generation of 7-OMA from its precursor, p-coumaric acid, in E. coli for the first time. Primarily, naringenin (NRN) (flavanone) synthesis was achieved by feeding p-coumaric acid and reconstructing the plant biosynthetic pathway by introducing the following structural genes: 4-coumarate-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase from Petroselinum crispum, chalcone synthase from Petunia hybrida, and chalcone isomerase from Medicago sativa. In order to increase the availability of malonyl-CoA, a critical precursor of 7-OMA, genes for the acyl-CoA carboxylase α and β subunits (nfa9890 and nfa9940), biotin ligase (nfa9950), and acetyl-CoA synthetase (nfa3550) from Nocardia farcinica were also introduced. Thus, produced NRN was hydroxylated at position 3 by flavanone-3-hydroxylase from Arabidopsis thaliana, which was further methylated at position 7 to produce 7-OMA in the presence of 7-O-methyltransferase from Streptomyces avermitilis. Dihydrokaempferol (DHK) (aromadendrin) and sakuranetin (SKN) were produced as intermediate products. Overexpression of the genes for flavanone biosynthesis and modification pathways, along with malonyl-CoA overproduction in E. coli, produced 2.7 mg/liter (8.9 μM) 7-OMA upon supplementation with 500 μM p-coumaric acid in 24 h, whereas the strain expressing only the flavanone modification enzymes yielded 30 mg/liter (99.2 μM) 7-OMA from 500 μM NRN in 24 h.

  8. Synthesis, chiral high performance liquid chromatographic resolution and enantiospecific activity of a potent new geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor, 2-hydroxy-3-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl-2-phosphonopropionic acid.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Charles E; Kashemirov, Boris A; Błazewska, Katarzyna M; Mallard-Favier, Isabelle; Stewart, Charlotte A; Rojas, Javier; Lundy, Mark W; Ebetino, Frank H; Baron, Rudi A; Dunford, James E; Kirsten, Marie L; Seabra, Miguel C; Bala, Joy L; Marma, Mong S; Rogers, Michael J; Coxon, Fraser P

    2010-05-13

    3-(3-Pyridyl)-2-hydroxy-2-phosphonopropanoic acid (3-PEHPC, 1) is a phosphonocarboxylate (PC) analogue of 2-(3-pyridyl)-1-hydroxyethylidenebis(phosphonic acid) (risedronic acid, 2), an osteoporosis drug that decreases bone resorption by inhibiting farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) in osteoclasts, preventing protein prenylation. 1 has lower bone affinity than 2 and weakly inhibits Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGGT), selectively preventing prenylation of Rab GTPases. We report here the synthesis and biological studies of 2-hydroxy-3-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl-2-phosphonopropionic acid (3-IPEHPC, 3), the PC analogue of minodronic acid 4. Like 1, 3 selectively inhibited Rab11 vs. Rap 1A prenylation in J774 cells, and decreased cell viability, but was 33-60x more active in these assays. After resolving 3 by chiral HPLC (>98% ee), we found that (+)-3-E1 was much more potent than (-)-3-E2 in an isolated RGGT inhibition assay, approximately 17x more potent (LED 3 microM) than (-)-3-E2 in inhibiting Rab prenylation in J774 cells and >26x more active in the cell viability assay. The enantiomers of 1 exhibited a 4-fold or smaller potency difference in the RGGT and prenylation inhibition assays.

  9. A phosphoethanolamine transferase specific for the outer 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid residue of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Identification of the eptB gene and Ca2+ hypersensitivity of an eptB deletion mutant.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C Michael; Kalb, Suzanne R; Cotter, Robert J; Raetz, Christian R H

    2005-06-03

    Addition of a phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) moiety to the outer 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) residue of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in WBB06, a heptose-deficient Escherichia coli mutant, occurs when cells are grown in 5-50 mM CaCl2 (Kanipes, M. I., Lin, S., Cotter, R. J., and Raetz, C. R. H. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 1156-1163). A Ca2+-induced, membrane-bound enzyme was responsible for the transfer of the pEtN unit to the Kdo domain. We now report the identification of the gene encoding the pEtN transferase. E. coli yhjW was cloned and overexpressed, because it is homologous to a putative pEtN transferase implicated in the modification of the beta-chain heptose residue of Neisseria meningitidis lipo-oligosaccharide (Mackinnon, F. G., Cox, A. D., Plested, J. S., Tang, C. M., Makepeace, K., Coull, P. A., Wright, J. C., Chalmers, R., Hood, D. W., Richards, J. C., and Moxon, E. R. (2002) Mol. Microbiol. 43, 931-943). In vitro assays with Kdo2-4'-[32P]lipid A as the acceptor showed that YhjW (renamed EptB) utilizes phosphatidylethanolamine in the presence of Ca2+ to transfer the pEtN group. Stoichiometric amounts of diacylglycerol were generated during the EptB-catalyzed transfer of pEtN to Kdo2-lipid A. EptB is an inner membrane protein of 574 amino acid residues with five predicted trans-membrane segments within its N-terminal region. An in-frame replacement of eptB with a kanamycin resistance cassette rendered E. coli WBB06 (but not wild-type W3110) hypersensitive to CaCl2 at 5 mM or higher. Ca2+ hypersensitivity was suppressed by excess Mg2+ in the medium or by restoring the LPS core of WBB06. The latter was achieved by reintroducing the waaC and waaF genes, which encode LPS heptosyl transferases I and II, respectively. Our data demonstrate that pEtN modification of the outer Kdo protected cells containing heptose-deficient LPS from damage by high concentrations of Ca2+. Based on its sequence similarity to EptA(PmrC), we propose that the active site of Ept

  10. Detection and quantification of RNA 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation

    PubMed Central

    Karijolich, John

    2016-01-01

    RNA-guided RNA modification is a naturally occurring process that introduces 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation into rRNA, spliceosomal snRNA and several other types of RNA. The Box C/D ribonucleoproteins (RNP) and Box H/ACA RNP, each containing one unique guide RNA (Box C/D RNA or Box H/ACA RNA) and a set of core proteins, are responsible for 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation respectively. Box C/D RNA and Box H/ACA RNA provide the modification specificity through base pairing with their RNA substrate. These post-transcriptional modifications could profoundly alter the properties and functions of substrate RNAs. Thus it is desirable to establish reliable and standardized modification methods to study biological functions of modified nucleotides in RNAs. Here, we present several sensitive and efficient methods and protocols for detecting and quantifying post-transcriptional 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation. PMID:26853326

  11. Recognition of 2'-O-methylated 3'-end of piRNA by the PAZ domain of a Piwi protein.

    PubMed

    Simon, Bernd; Kirkpatrick, John P; Eckhardt, Stephanie; Reuter, Michael; Rocha, Elsa A; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Sehr, Peter; Pillai, Ramesh S; Carlomagno, Teresa

    2011-02-09

    Piwi proteins are germline-specific Argonautes that associate with small RNAs called Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and together with these RNAs are implicated in transposon silencing. The PAZ domain of Argonaute proteins recognizes the 3'-end of the RNA, which in the case of piRNAs is invariably modified with a 2'-O-methyl group. Here, we present the solution structure of the PAZ domain from the mouse Piwi protein, MIWI, in complex with an 8-mer piRNA mimic. The methyl group is positioned in a hydrophobic cavity made of conserved amino acids from strand β7 and helix α3, where it is contacted by the side chain of methionine-382. Our structure is similar to that of Ago-PAZ, but subtle differences illustrate how the PAZ domain has evolved to accommodate distinct 3' ends from a variety of RNA substrates.

  12. Effect of 2′-O-methyl/thiophosphonoacetate-modified antisense oligonucleotides on huntingtin expression in patient-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Masayuki; Threlfall, Richard N; Caruthers, Marvin H; Corey, David R

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Optimizing oligonucleotides as therapeutics will require exploring how chemistry can be used to enhance their effects inside cells. To achieve this goal it will be necessary to fully explore chemical space around the native DNA/RNA framework to define the potential of diverse chemical modifications. In this report we examine the potential of thiophosphonoacetate (thioPACE)-modified 2′-O-methyl oligoribonucleotides as inhibitors of human huntingtin (HTT) expression. Inhibition occurred, but was less than with analogous locked nucleic acid (LNA)-substituted oligomers lacking the thioPACE modification. These data suggest that thioPACE oligonucleotides have the potential to control gene expression inside cells. However, advantages relative to other modifications were not demonstrated. Additional modifications are likely to be necessary to fully explore any potential advantages of thioPACE substitutions. PMID:26865404

  13. Cocaine inhibits extraneuronal O-methylation of exogenous norepinephrine in nasal and oral tissues of the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    de la Lande, I.S.; Parker, D.A.S.; Proctor, C.H.; Marino, V.; Mackay-Sim, A.

    1987-11-30

    Nasal mucosa (respirator and olfactory) and lingual gingiva of the rabbit were depleted of their sympathetic nerves by superior cervical ganglionectomy. In the innervated nasal mucosa, exogenous tritiated norepinephrine (/sup 3/H-NE) was metabolized mainly to tritiated 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol (/sup 3/HDOPEG) and 3,4-dihydroxy mandelic acid (/sup 3/HDOMA), whereas after denervation it was metabolized mainly to tritiated normetanephrine (/sup 3/HNMN). In the denervated mucosa, cocaine(30umol/l) inhibited /sup 3/HNMN formation by 50-60%. Cocaine also inhibited /sup 3/HNMN formation by 60% in the denervated lingual gingiva. It is concluded that the tissues metabolize /sup 3/H-NE via a cocaine-sensitive extraneuronal uptake and O-methylating system similar to that which has been shown to be present in dental pulp. 17 references, 1 table.

  14. Plant glutathione transferases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P; Lapthorn, Adrian; Edwards, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are encoded by a large and diverse gene family in plants, which can be divided on the basis of sequence identity into the phi, tau, theta, zeta and lambda classes. The theta and zeta GSTs have counterparts in animals but the other classes are plant-specific and form the focus of this article. The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains 48 GST genes, with the tau and phi classes being the most numerous. The GST proteins have evolved by gene duplication to perform a range of functional roles using the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) as a cosubstrate or coenzyme. GSTs are predominantly expressed in the cytosol, where their GSH-dependent catalytic functions include the conjugation and resulting detoxification of herbicides, the reduction of organic hydroperoxides formed during oxidative stress and the isomerization of maleylacetoacetate to fumarylacetoacetate, a key step in the catabolism of tyrosine. GSTs also have non-catalytic roles, binding flavonoid natural products in the cytosol prior to their deposition in the vacuole. Recent studies have also implicated GSTs as components of ultraviolet-inducible cell signaling pathways and as potential regulators of apoptosis. Although sequence diversification has produced GSTs with multiple functions, the structure of these proteins has been highly conserved. The GSTs thus represent an excellent example of how protein families can diversify to fulfill multiple functions while conserving form and structure. PMID:11897031

  15. Rubber transferase in guayule plants. [Parthenium argentatum

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfield, C.L.; Foster, M.A.; Benedict, C.R.

    1986-04-01

    Rubber transferase catalyzes the transfer of cis-1,4-polyprenyl-PP to isopentenyl-PP (IPP) with the elimination of PP/sub i/. Rubber transferase activity in guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) stems was localized in the lipid fraction of the homogenate following centrifugation in buffer and 0.4M Mannitol. Washed rubber particles were obtained by the chromatography of the lipid fraction on Ultrogel columns with an exclusion limit of 750,000 daltons by the procedure of B.G. Audley (private communication). The rubber particles catalyzed the incorporation of /sup 14/C-IPP into cis-polyisoprene. The radioactive cis-polyisoprene was identified by ozonolysis and chromatography of the resulting /sup 14/C-levulinic acid. The synthesis of cis-polyisoprene in the rubber particles required Mg/sup 2 +/ and IPP and was stimulated 2-fold with the addition of DMAPP. Rubber synthesis in guayule plants growing in the Permian Basin of West Texas does not occur during summer months but is induced by the cold night temperatures of the fall and winter. From August to December individual plants (which were transplanted in May) accumulated from 66mg to 11,800mg or rubber. During this period there was a 4-fold increase in rubber transferase activity in stem homogenates induced by the low temperatures.

  16. Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance of an Arabidopsis Glutathione S-Transferase U17 Knockout Mutant Are Attributed to the Combined Effect of Glutathione and Abscisic Acid1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jui-Hung; Jiang, Han-Wei; Hsieh, En-Jung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chien, Ching-Te; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2012-01-01

    Although glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are thought to play major roles in oxidative stress metabolism, little is known about the regulatory functions of GSTs. We have reported that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE U17 (AtGSTU17; At1g10370) participates in light signaling and might modulate various aspects of development by affecting glutathione (GSH) pools via a coordinated regulation with phytochrome A. Here, we provide further evidence to support a negative role of AtGSTU17 in drought and salt stress tolerance. When AtGSTU17 was mutated, plants were more tolerant to drought and salt stresses compared with wild-type plants. In addition, atgstu17 accumulated higher levels of GSH and abscisic acid (ABA) and exhibited hyposensitivity to ABA during seed germination, smaller stomatal apertures, a lower transpiration rate, better development of primary and lateral root systems, and longer vegetative growth. To explore how atgstu17 accumulated higher ABA content, we grew wild-type plants in the solution containing GSH and found that they accumulated ABA to a higher extent than plants grown in the absence of GSH, and they also exhibited the atgstu17 phenotypes. Wild-type plants treated with GSH also demonstrated more tolerance to drought and salt stresses. Furthermore, the effect of GSH on root patterning and drought tolerance was confirmed by growing the atgstu17 in solution containing l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis. In conclusion, the atgstu17 phenotype can be explained by the combined effect of GSH and ABA. We propose a role of AtGSTU17 in adaptive responses to drought and salt stresses by functioning as a negative component of stress-mediated signal transduction pathways. PMID:22095046

  17. De Novo Biosynthesis of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide in Escherichia coli: Excretion of Quinolinic Acid by Mutants Lacking Quinolinate Phosphoribosyl Transferase1

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Jerry Lr.; Gholson, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    The excretion of quinolinic acid was studied in growing and resting cells of Escherichia coli K-12 nadC13. Under optimal conditions, this organism could synthesize quinolinic acid in several-fold excess of the amount which would be required for normal growth. The excretion of quinolinic acid was controlled by the concentration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) precursors available to the organism either during growth or during incubation in dense cell suspensions. These observations suggest that biosynthesis of NAD de novo is regulated by both repression and feedback inhibition. Analogues of niacin which inhibit bacterial growth also inhibited and repressed the synthesis (excretion) of quinolinic acid. The pH optimum for quinolinic acid excretion agreed favorably with the optimum observed for its synthesis in vitro. The rate of quinolinic acid excretion was strongly influenced by the concentration of ribose or glycerol in the medium. PMID:4360223

  18. Characterization of oligosaccharyl transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, H.A.; Lennarz, W.J.

    1987-05-01

    Oligosaccharyl transferase (OT), the enzyme catalyzing the transfer of oligosaccharide from dolichol-PP-GlcNAc2Man9Glc3 to asparagine residues of -Asn-X-Thr/Ser- sequences in nascent polypeptides, was characterized in hen oviduct microsomes using an active site-directed photoaffinity probe, N/sup /-( SVI)-3-(4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl)-Asn-Lys(N/sup epsilon/-p-azidobenzoyl)-Thr-NH2. Kinetic experiments revealed that the labeled probe interacted with a 57 kDa Coomassie Blue stainable protein at short incubation intervals; the radioactive probe was found linked to a 60 kDa protein after longer incubations. Endo H digestion of the 60 kDa SVI-photolabeled OT decreased the molecular mass to 57 kDa. The 57 kDa Coomassie Blue stainable protein was not endo H sensitive. When dolichol-PP-oligosaccharide was depleted by preincubating the microsomes with excess acceptor peptide, only the 57 kDa SVI-labeled OT was formed. These data suggest that 1) OT is a 57 kDa protein, and 2) the appearance of the 60 kDa SVI-labeled OT is the result of covalent attachment of glycosylated tripeptide probe. The molecular mass of photolabeled OT was found to be similar in a variety of eukaryotes except in yeast, where it was larger. OT isolated by liquid chromatographic and 2-D gel electrophoretic techniques was used as immunogen to prepare monospecific polyclonal antisera. The specificity of the antibody was based on its ability to 1) recognize OT by immunblotting following electrophoretic transfer to nitrocellulose, 2) immunoprecipitate photolabeled enzyme, and 3) block active-site photolabeling of the enzyme.

  19. Hydrogen bond formation in regioselectively functionalized 3-mono-O-methyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tetsuo; Koschella, Andreas; Heublein, Brigitte; Klemm, Dieter; Heinze, Thomas

    2008-10-13

    The hydrogen bond systems of cellulose and its derivatives are one of the most important factors regarding their physical- and chemical properties such as solubility, crystallinity, gel formation, and resistance to enzymatic degradation. In this paper, it was attempted to clarify the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bond formation in regioselectively functionalized 3-mono-O-methyl cellulose (3MC). First, the 3MC was synthesized and the cast film thereof was characterized in comparison to 2,3-di-O-methyl cellulose, 6-mono-O-methyl cellulose, and 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl cellulose by means of wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and (13)C cross polarization/magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. Second, the hydrogen bonds in the 3MC film were analyzed by means of FTIR spectroscopy in combination with a curve fitting method. After deconvolution, the resulting two main bands (Fig. 3) indicated that instead of intramolecular hydrogen bonds between position OH-3 and O-5 another intramolecular hydrogen bond between OH-2 and OH-6 may exist. The large deconvoluted band at 3340cm(-1) referred to strong interchain hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl groups at C-6. The crystallinity of 54% calculated from the WAXD supports also the dependency of the usually observed crystallization in cellulose of the hydroxyl groups at C-6 to engage in interchain hydrogen bonding.

  20. Biological roles of the O-methyl phosphoramidate capsule modification in Campylobacter jejuni

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of this organism is required for persistence and disease. C. jejuni produces over 47 different capsular structures, including a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modification pre...

  1. Biosynthesis of 8-O-methylated benzoxazinoid defense compounds in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Benzoxazinoids are important defense compounds in grasses. Here, we investigated the biosynthesis and biological roles of the 8-O-methylated benzoxazinoids, DIM2BOA-Glc and HDM2BOA-Glc. Using quantitative trait locus mapping and heterologous expression, we identified a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxy...

  2. Inhibition of glutathione S-transferase activity in human melanoma cells by alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives. Effects of acrolein, cinnamaldehyde, citral, crotonaldehyde, curcumin, ethacrynic acid, and trans-2-hexenal.

    PubMed

    Iersel, M L; Ploemen, J P; Struik, I; van Amersfoort, C; Keyzer, A E; Schefferlie, J G; van Bladeren, P J

    1996-10-21

    The glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in intact human IGR-39 melanoma cells was determined by the quantification by HPLC-analysis of the excreted glutathione (GSH) conjugate (S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione; DNPSG). The major GST subunit expressed in these melanoma cells is the pi-class GST subunit P1. Using this system, the effect of exposure for 1 h to a series of alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds at non-toxic concentrations was studied. Curcumin was the most potent inhibitor (96% inhibition at 25 microM), while 67 and 61% inhibition at 25 microM was observed for ethacrynic acid and trans-2-hexenal, respectively. Moderate inhibition was observed for cinnamaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, while no inhibition was found for citral. The reactive acrolein did not inhibit the DNPSG-excretion at 2.5 microM, the highest non-toxic concentration. Up to about 50% GSH-depletion was found after treatment with crotonaldehyde, curcumin and ethacrynic acid, however the consequences for GST conjugation are presumably small. Reversible inhibition of GST was the major mechanism of inhibition of DNPSG-excretion in melanoma cells, except in the cases of curcumin and ethacrynic acid, which compounds also inactivated GSTP1-1 by covalent modification. This was clear from the fact that depending on the dose between 30 and 80% inhibition was still observed after lysis of the cells, under which conditions reversible inhibition was is absent. Intracellular levels of DNPSG remained relatively high in the case of ethacrynic acid. It is possible that ethacrynic acid also inhibits the transport of DNPSG by inhibition of the multidrug resistance-associated protein gene encoding glutathione conjugate export pump (MRP/GS-X pump) in some way.

  3. Isoenzymes of glutathione transferase in rat small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, M K; Ozer, N; Mannervik, B

    1988-01-01

    The major glutathione transferases in the rat small-intestine cytosol were isolated and characterized. The enzymes active with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as second substrate were almost quantitatively recovered after affinity chromatography on immobilized S-hexylglutathione. The different basic forms of glutathione transferase, which account for 90% of the activity, were resolved by chromatofocusing. Fractions containing enzymes with lower isoelectric points were not further resolved. The isolated fractions were characterized by their elution position in chromatofocusing, apparent subunit Mr, reactions with specific antibodies, substrate specificities and inhibition characteristics. The major basic forms identified were glutathione transferases 1-1, 4-4 and 7-7. In addition, evidence for the presence of a variant form of subunit 1, as well as trace amounts of subunits 2 and 3, was obtained. A significant amount of transferase 8-8 in the fraction of acidic enzyme forms was demonstrated by immunoblot and Ouchterlony double-diffusion analysis. In the comparison of the occurrence of the different forms of glutathione transferase in liver, lung, kidney and small intestine, it was found that the small intestine is the richest source of glutathione transferase 7-7. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3140787

  4. Rational design of a flavivirus vaccine by abolishing viral RNA 2'-O methylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Hua; Dong, Hongping; Li, Xiao-Feng; Xie, Xuping; Zhao, Hui; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Ye, Qing; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Wang, Hong-Jiang; Zhang, Bo; Leng, Qi-Bin; Zuest, Roland; Qin, E-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2013-05-01

    Viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm cannot access the host nuclear capping machinery. These viruses have evolved viral methyltransferase(s) to methylate N-7 and 2'-O cap of their RNA; alternatively, they "snatch" host mRNA cap to form the 5' end of viral RNA. The function of 2'-O methylation of viral RNA cap is to mimic cellular mRNA and to evade host innate immune restriction. A cytoplasmic virus defective in 2'-O methylation is replicative, but its viral RNA lacks 2'-O methylation and is recognized and eliminated by the host immune response. Such a mutant virus could be rationally designed as a live attenuated vaccine. Here, we use Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), an important mosquito-borne flavivirus, to prove this novel vaccine concept. We show that JEV methyltransferase is responsible for both N-7 and 2'-O cap methylations as well as evasion of host innate immune response. Recombinant virus completely defective in 2'-O methylation was stable in cell culture after being passaged for >30 days. The mutant virus was attenuated in mice, elicited robust humoral and cellular immune responses, and retained the engineered mutation in vivo. A single dose of immunization induced full protection against lethal challenge with JEV strains in mice. Mechanistically, the attenuation phenotype was attributed to the enhanced sensitivity of the mutant virus to the antiviral effects of interferon and IFIT proteins. Collectively, the results demonstrate the feasibility of using 2'-O methylation-defective virus as a vaccine approach; this vaccine approach should be applicable to other flaviviruses and nonflaviviruses that encode their own viral 2'-O methyltransferases.

  5. Rational Design of a Flavivirus Vaccine by Abolishing Viral RNA 2′-O Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Hua; Dong, Hongping; Li, Xiao-Feng; Xie, Xuping; Zhao, Hui; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Ye, Qing; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Wang, Hong-Jiang; Zhang, Bo; Leng, Qi-Bin; Zuest, Roland; Qin, E-De

    2013-01-01

    Viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm cannot access the host nuclear capping machinery. These viruses have evolved viral methyltransferase(s) to methylate N-7 and 2′-O cap of their RNA; alternatively, they “snatch” host mRNA cap to form the 5′ end of viral RNA. The function of 2′-O methylation of viral RNA cap is to mimic cellular mRNA and to evade host innate immune restriction. A cytoplasmic virus defective in 2′-O methylation is replicative, but its viral RNA lacks 2′-O methylation and is recognized and eliminated by the host immune response. Such a mutant virus could be rationally designed as a live attenuated vaccine. Here, we use Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), an important mosquito-borne flavivirus, to prove this novel vaccine concept. We show that JEV methyltransferase is responsible for both N-7 and 2′-O cap methylations as well as evasion of host innate immune response. Recombinant virus completely defective in 2′-O methylation was stable in cell culture after being passaged for >30 days. The mutant virus was attenuated in mice, elicited robust humoral and cellular immune responses, and retained the engineered mutation in vivo. A single dose of immunization induced full protection against lethal challenge with JEV strains in mice. Mechanistically, the attenuation phenotype was attributed to the enhanced sensitivity of the mutant virus to the antiviral effects of interferon and IFIT proteins. Collectively, the results demonstrate the feasibility of using 2′-O methylation-defective virus as a vaccine approach; this vaccine approach should be applicable to other flaviviruses and nonflaviviruses that encode their own viral 2′-O methyltransferases. PMID:23487465

  6. Glucuronidation of lipophilic substrates: preparation of 3-benzo[a]pyrenyl-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid in multimilligram quantities by microsomal UDP-glucuronyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D B; Swanson, M J; Barker, C W; Fanska, C B; Murrill, E E

    1979-01-01

    A convenient method for the enzymic conversion of multimilligram quantities of 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene to 3-benzo[a]pyrenyl-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid in 90% yield is described. Commercially available freeze-dried rabbit liver microsomes were incubated in the presence of UDPGA, 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, and Triton X-100 detergent (Figure 1). The course of the biosynthetic reaction was followed by fluorimetry. The glucuronide product was extracted from the acidified incubation supernate with ethyl acetate and the acid function of the glucuronide was utilized in an acid-base extraction procedure to purify the glucuronide from biological and unreacted starting material. The glucuronide precipitated from ethyl acetate and was collected by centrifugation. High pressure liquid chromatography and spectroscopic techniques were used to verify the structure and purity of 3-benzo[a]pyrenyl-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid.

  7. HCT2, a Novel Hydroxycinnamoyl-Malate Transferase, is Responsible for Phaselic Acid (2-O-Caffeoyl-L-Malate) Biosynthesis in Red Clover

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In red clover, post-harvest oxidation of o-diphenol caffeic acid derivatives to o-quinones by an endogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO) prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage (1). Agronomically important forages like alfalfa lack both PPO and o-diphenols. Consequently, breakdown of their p...

  8. Combined expression of multidrug resistance protein (MRP) and glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1) in MCF7 cells and high level resistance to the cytotoxicities of ethacrynic acid but not oxazaphosphorines or cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Morrow, C S; Smitherman, P K; Townsend, A J

    1998-10-15

    We tested the hypothesis that combined increased expression of human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1), an enzyme that catalyzes the conjugation with glutathione of several toxic electrophiles, and the glutathione-conjugate efflux pump, multidrug resistance protein (MRP), confers high level resistance to the cytotoxicities of anticancer and other drugs. To accomplish this, we developed MCF7 breast carcinoma cell derivatives that express high levels of GSTP1-1 and MRP, alone and in combination. Parental MCF7 cells, which express no GSTP1-1 and negligible MRP, served as control cells. We found that either MRP or GSTP1-1 alone conferred significant resistance to ethacrynic acid cytotoxicity. Moreover, combined expression of GSTP1-1 and MRP conferred a high level of resistance to ethacrynic acid that was greater than resistance conferred by either protein alone. Increased MRP was also associated with modest resistance to the oxazaphosphorine compounds mafosfamide, 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide. However, coordinated expression of GSTP1-1 with MRP failed to augment this modest resistance. Similarly, GSTP1-1 had no effect on the sensitivities to cisplatin of MCF7 cells regardless of MRP expression. These results establish that coordinated expression of MRP and GSTP1-1 can confer high level resistance to the cytotoxicities of some drugs, including ethacrynic acid, but that such resistance is variable and does not apply to all toxic drugs that can potentially form glutathione conjugates in either spontaneous or GSTP1-1-catalyzed reactions.

  9. Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-08

    AD-RIB5 458 NOLECULNA CLONING OF AOENOSINEDXPNOSPHORIBOSyL 1/1 TRNSFERASEMU CAILIFORNIA UNIV SRN FRANCISCO E KUN US SEP 8? WFOSR-TR-87-0982 SWFOSR-B5...ACCESSION NO.D,. 03261102F 2312 A~5 11. TITLE (include Securqt Classification) 0 Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase 12. PERSONAL...I’:- AFOSR.Tlt. 8 7 - 0 9 8,2 0IL * pi AFOSR- 85 -0377 PROGRESS REPORT Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase 5." Period of

  10. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) M1 null genotype and combined GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes are risk factors for increased serum gamma-glutamyltransferase in valproic acid-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Yumi; Seo, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Nami; Higa, Yoko; Ishitsu, Takateru; Nakagawa, Kazuko

    2008-03-01

    This study was designed to verify whether the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes affect mild hepatotoxicity in valproic acid (VPA)-treated patients. The association between the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes, and the levels of aminotransferases and total bilirubin was retrospectively investigated in 149 Japanese epileptic patients treated with VPA. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of the GSTM1- vs. GSTM1+ genotype and the GSTM1-/GSTT1-vs. GSTM1+/GSTT1+ genotypes for gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) increase over the upper limit of normal were 2.8 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-7.2] and 6.5 (95% CI: 1.5-28.0), respectively. The GSTT1 genotypes alone did not significantly affect the liver function tests. The alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and (gamma-glutamyltransferase) GGT levels in patients treated with VPA >6 months were significantly higher in the GSTM1- than GSTM1+ genotype. The GGT levels were significantly higher in the older subjects receiving polytherapy, and the effects of the polytherapy and age were greater in the GSTM1- genotype. The GSTM1- and GSTM1-/GSTT1- genotypes may be a genetic risk factor for the increase of GGT in VPA-treated patients. However, it was not possible to clarify whether the GGT increase was caused by VPA-induced hepatotoxicity or not.

  11. Novel oxadiazole analogues derived from ethacrynic acid: design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships in inhibiting the activity of glutathione S-transferase P1-1 and cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinmei; Liu, Guyue; Li, Hongcai; Zhang, Yun; Song, Dandan; Li, Chunmin; Wang, Rui; Liu, Bo; Liang, Wen; Jing, Yongkui; Zhao, Guisen

    2010-02-11

    Ethacrynic acid (EA) is a glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GST P1-1) inhibitor with weak antiproliferative ability in tumor cells. By use of the principle of bioisosterism, a series of novel EA oxadiazole analogues were designed and synthesized. The structure-activity relationships of inhibiting GST P1-1 activity and cell proliferation of those EA analogues were investigated in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Our data revealed that those EA oxadiazole analogues had improved antiproliferative activity and most of them had similar or better inhibitory effects on GST P1-1 activity than EA. Compound 6u was one of the potent antiproliferative agents without inhibition of GST P1-1 activity. Compounds 6r and 6s were two potent cell growth inhibitors in several solid tumor cell lines with the concentrations inhibiting half of cell growth of less than 5 microM. Our data suggest that these EA oxadiazole analogues are promising antitumor agents that may act through GST P1-1 inhibition-dependent and/or -independent pathways.

  12. Antioxidant evaluation of O-methylated metabolites of catechin, epicatechin and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, Montserrat; González-Manzano, Susana; González-Paramás, Ana; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2010-01-20

    Catechins and quercetin are major polyphenols in many plant foods that have been related to health promotion. In the human organism they are largely metabolized to different metabolites, which are further found in plasma and should contribute to the biological effects associated to the intake of the parent compounds. An important step in quercetin and catechins metabolism is the O-methylation of the catechol group, which can be expected to have an effect on their antioxidant and scavenging properties. In the present work, the 3'- and 4'-methylethers of catechin and epicatechin have been prepared and characterised and their antioxidant activity evaluated and compared to that of the corresponding quercetin derivatives. The antioxidant activity was assessed using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay and two methods based on the ability to scavenge the ABTS(+) radical cation at different pH values. In these assays the three flavonoids behave as better radical scavengers and reducing compounds than usually recognised antioxidants like alpha-tocopherol. The O-methylation of the hydroxyls of the catechol B-ring resulted in a decrease of the antioxidant activity with regard to the parent compounds. However, the methylated metabolites still retain significant radical scavenging activity at pH 7.4, suggesting that they could act as potential antioxidants in physiological conditions. Quercetin and its methylated metabolites showed, in general, greater activity than (epi)catechin and their O-methyl derivatives, although a relatively high antioxidant activity was found in the case of 3'-O-methyl catechin at pH 7.4, comparable to those of its parent compound and the quercetin metabolites. It was confirmed that the antioxidant activity of the flavonoids assayed was strongly dependent on the pH of the medium, showing higher activity at greater pH values. The results obtained are expected to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the biological effects

  13. Glutathione transferases and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Anna Paola; Fiorile, Maria Carmela; Primavera, Alessandra; Lo Bello, Mario

    2015-03-01

    There is substantial agreement that the unbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species may affect the onset and/or the course of a number of common diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Many studies suggest a crucial role for oxidative stress in the first phase of aging, or in the pathogenesis of various diseases including neurological ones. Particularly, the role exerted by glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes (Glutathione Transferases) in the nervous system appears more relevant, this latter tissue being much more vulnerable to toxins and oxidative stress than other tissues such as liver, kidney or muscle. The present review addresses the question by focusing on the results obtained by specimens from patients or by in vitro studies using cells or animal models related to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. In general, there is an association between glutathione depletion and Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. In addition, a significant decrease of glutathione transferase activity in selected areas of brain and in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid was found. For some glutathione transferase genes there is also a correlation between polymorphisms and onset/outcome of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, there is a general agreement about the protective effect exerted by glutathione and glutathione transferases but no clear answer about the mechanisms underlying this crucial role in the insurgence of neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Evidence of the directive effect of 17 beta-conjugate group on the enzymatic O-methylation of catechol estrogen.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, I; Nakagawa, A; Kamiya, E; Itoh, S; Ogiso, T

    1980-06-01

    Incubations of 2-hydroxyestradiol (I), 2-hydroxyestradiol 17 beta-sulfate (II), and 2-hydroxyestradiol 17 beta-glucuronide (III) with purified rat liver catechol O-methyltransferase were carried out at pH 7.2 in the presence of Mg2+ and (3H-Me)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. The radioactive methylated products, 2-methoxyestradiol (IV) and 2-hydroxyestradiol-3-methyl ether (V), from each substrate were quantificanted by reverse isotope dilution method after their complete separation and acetylation. In the experiments of conjugated substrates, II and III, the analyses of the methylated products were done after their hydrolysis of 17 beta-conjugate groups with acid or beta-glucuronidase. The product ratios (2-methoxy/3-methoxy) of substrates I, II, and III, were 1:1, 4:1, and 45:1, respectively. These results are suggesting that 17 beta-conjugate groups of 2-hydroxyestradiol has directive effect on enzymatic O-methylation of estrogen catechols. Further, it is estimated that following process may be present in the estradiol metabolism in rat and/or humans: estradiol leads to estradiol 17 beta-conjugates leads to 2-hydroxyestradiol 17 beta-conjugates leads to 2-methoxyestradiol 17 beta-conjugates.

  15. Formation, characterization and pH dependence of rifampicin: heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin complexes.

    PubMed

    Angiolini, Lorenzo; Agnes, Marco; Cohen, Boiko; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2017-10-15

    Rifampicin (Rif) is a broad spectrum antibiotic used as a first line agent in the treatment of mycobacterial infections. However, its low solubility and reduced stability in water limit its bioavailability, thus requiring the use of complex formulations. Here, we present a systematic study of Rif in complex with a methylated cyclodextrin, heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DIMEB), in phosphate buffer using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and steady-state UV-vis spectroscopic methods. An increase in the stability and solubility of Rif in complex with DIMEB was observed in buffered solutions (phosphate, PBS). At neutral pH the presence of three distinguishable binding sites was revealed, demonstrating that DIMEB forms predominantly a stable 1:1 (K∼3000M(-1)) complex at the piperazine site of Rif, while at acidic pH the binding constant decreases significantly (K∼400M(-1)) due to protonation of the piperazine, thus inducing a release of Rif. The reported results provide new and relevant information for the stability and solubility of Rif in aqueous solution when forming a complex with DIMEB. Furthermore they contribute to clarify Rif interactions with cyclodextrin carriers, thus providing the basis for the development of new methylated cyclodextrin that can efficiently encapsulate and deliver Rif and derivatives of its family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of ribozyme catalytic activity by a contiguous oligodeoxynucleotide (facilitator) and by 2'-O-methylation.

    PubMed Central

    Goodchild, J

    1992-01-01

    RNA catalysts (ribozymes) designed to cleave sequences unique to viral RNA's might be developed as therapeutics. For this purpose, they would require high catalytic efficiency and resistance to nucleases. Reported here are two approaches that can be used in combination to improve these properties. First, catalytic efficiency can be improved by oligonucleotides (facilitators) that bind to the substrate contiguously with the 3'-end of the ribozyme. Second, 2'-O-methylation of flanking sequences of the ribozyme increases catalytic activity as well as resistance to nucleases. In combination with a facilitator oligodeoxynucleotide, the cleavage rate was increased 20 fold over that of the unmodified ribozyme. Images PMID:1383929

  17. CRISPRi-mediated metabolic engineering of E. coli for O-methylated anthocyanin production.

    PubMed

    Cress, Brady F; Leitz, Quentin D; Kim, Daniel C; Amore, Teresita D; Suzuki, Jon Y; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2017-01-17

    Anthocyanins are a class of brightly colored, glycosylated flavonoid pigments that imbue their flower and fruit host tissues with hues of predominantly red, orange, purple, and blue. Although all anthocyanins exhibit pH-responsive photochemical changes, distinct structural decorations on the core anthocyanin skeleton also cause dramatic color shifts, in addition to improved stabilities and unique pharmacological properties. In this work, we report for the first time the extension of the reconstituted plant anthocyanin pathway from (+)-catechin to O-methylated anthocyanins in a microbial production system, an effort which requires simultaneous co-option of the endogenous metabolites UDP-glucose and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM or AdoMet). Anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) orthologs from various plant sources were co-expressed in Escherichia coli with Petunia hybrida anthocyanidin synthase (PhANS) and Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase (At3GT). Vitis vinifera AOMT (VvAOMT1) and fragrant cyclamen 'Kaori-no-mai' AOMT (CkmOMT2) were found to be the most effective AOMTs for production of the 3'-O-methylated product peonidin 3-O-glucoside (P3G), attaining the highest titers at 2.4 and 2.7 mg/L, respectively. Following modulation of plasmid copy number and optimization of VvAOMT1 and CkmOMT2 expression conditions, production was further improved to 23 mg/L using VvAOMT1. Finally, CRISPRi was utilized to silence the transcriptional repressor MetJ in order to deregulate the methionine biosynthetic pathway and improve SAM availability for O-methylation of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G), the biosynthetic precursor to P3G. MetJ repression led to a final titer of 51 mg/L (56 mg/L upon scale-up to shake flask), representing a twofold improvement over the non-targeting CRISPRi control strain and 21-fold improvement overall. An E. coli strain was engineered for production of the specialty anthocyanin P3G using the abundant and comparatively

  18. Investigation of 6-O-methyl-scutellarein metabolites in rats by ultra-flow liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Nian-Guang; Tang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Ze-Xi; Gu, Ting; Wu, Wen-Yu; Zhang, Peng-Xuan; Yu, Shao-Peng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Shi, Zhi-Hao

    2016-10-01

    Context Scutellarin (1) has been widely used in China to treat acute cerebral infarction and paralysis induced by cerebrovascular diseases. However, scutellarin (1) has unstable metabolic characteristics. Objective The metabolic profile of 6-O-scutellarein was studied to determine its metabolic stability in vivo. Materials and methods In this study, a method of UFLC/Q-TOF MS was used to study the 6-O-methyl-scutellarein metabolites in rat plasma, urine, bile and faeces after oral administration of 6-O-methyl-scutellarein (3). One hour after oral administration of 6-O-methyl-scutellarein (3) (34 mg/kg), approximately 1 mL blood samples were collected in EP tubes from all groups. Bile, urine and faeces samples were collected from eight SD rats during 0-24 h after oral administration. The mass defect filtering, dynamic background subtraction and information dependent acquisition techniques were also used to identify the 6-O-methyl-scutellarein metabolites. Results The parent compound 6-O-methyl-scutellarein (3) was found in rat urine, plasma, bile and faeces. The glucuronide conjugate of 6-O-methyl-scutellarein (M1, M2), diglucuronide conjugate of 6-O-methyl-scutellarein (M3), sulphate conjugate of 6-O-methyl-scutellarein (M4), glucuronide and sulphate conjugate of 6-O-methyl-scutellarein (M5), methylated conjugate of 6-O-methyl-scutellarein (M6) were detected in rat urine. M1, M2 and M3 were detected in rat bile. M1 was found in rat plasma and M7 was detected in faeces. Discussion and conclusion Because the parent compound 6-O-methyl-scutellarein (3) was found in rat urine, plasma, bile and faeces, we speculate that 6-O-methyl-scutellarein (3) had good metabolic stability in vivo. This warrants further study to develop it as a promising candidate for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

  19. Multiphasic Absorption of Glucose and 3-O-Methyl Glucose by Aged Potato Slices 1

    PubMed Central

    Linask, Juri; Laties, George G.

    1973-01-01

    The isotherm for glucose absorption by aged potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Russet Burbank) discs shows four distinct phases in the concentration ranges 1.0 to 75 μm, 75 μm to 1.5 mm, 1.5 to 15 mm, and 15 to 100 mm, respectively. Each segment of the multiphasic isotherm, when plotted reciprocally by the method of Lineweaver and Burk or of Hofstee, without regard for uptake in earlier phases, indicates absorption rate to be a hyperbolic function of concentration. The observations suggest that glucose uptake is carrier-mediated, and that the transport barrier undergoes a series of all-or-none transformations at critical external concentrations, yielding successive new and higher values for the parameters Km and Vmax 3-O-Methyl glucose, a nonmetabolizable analogue of glucose, shows the same multiphasic absorption isotherm, with Km values essentially similar to those for glucose uptake, and Vmax values somewhat lower than those for glucose absorption. Whereas the first three phases of the absorption isotherm are taken to reflect passage across the plasma membrane, the fourth phase may reflect kinetics of glucose or 3-O-methyl glucose transport to the vacuole. PMID:16658317

  20. Innate immune restriction and antagonism of viral RNA lacking 2'-O methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Jennifer L.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2015-05-15

    N-7 and 2′-O methylation of host cell mRNA occurs in the nucleus and results in the generation of cap structures (cap 0, m{sup 7}GpppN; cap 1, m{sup 7}GpppNm) that control gene expression by modulating nuclear export, splicing, turnover, and protein synthesis. Remarkably, RNA cap modification also contributes to mammalian cell host defense as viral RNA lacking 2′-O methylation is sensed and inhibited by IFIT1, an interferon (IFN) stimulated gene (ISG). Accordingly, pathogenic viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm have evolved mechanisms to circumvent IFIT1 restriction and facilitate infection of mammalian cells. These include: (a) generating cap 1 structures on their RNA through cap-snatching or virally-encoded 2′-O methyltransferases, (b) using cap-independent means of translation, or (c) using RNA secondary structural motifs to antagonize IFIT1 binding. This review will discuss new insights as to how specific modifications at the 5′-end of viral RNA modulate host pathogen recognition responses to promote infection and disease.

  1. Innate immune restriction and antagonism of viral RNA lacking 2׳-O methylation.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Jennifer L; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    N-7 and 2'-O methylation of host cell mRNA occurs in the nucleus and results in the generation of cap structures (cap 0, m(7)GpppN; cap 1, m(7)GpppNm) that control gene expression by modulating nuclear export, splicing, turnover, and protein synthesis. Remarkably, RNA cap modification also contributes to mammalian cell host defense as viral RNA lacking 2'-O methylation is sensed and inhibited by IFIT1, an interferon (IFN) stimulated gene (ISG). Accordingly, pathogenic viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm have evolved mechanisms to circumvent IFIT1 restriction and facilitate infection of mammalian cells. These include: (a) generating cap 1 structures on their RNA through cap-snatching or virally-encoded 2'-O methyltransferases, (b) using cap-independent means of translation, or (c) using RNA secondary structural motifs to antagonize IFIT1 binding. This review will discuss new insights as to how specific modifications at the 5'-end of viral RNA modulate host pathogen recognition responses to promote infection and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Innate immune restriction and antagonism of viral RNA lacking 2′-O methylation

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Jennifer L.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    N-7 and 2′-O methylation of host cell mRNA occurs in the nucleus and results in the generation of cap structures (cap 0, m7GpppN; cap 1, m7GpppNm) that control gene expression by modulating nuclear export, splicing, turnover, and protein synthesis. Remarkably, RNA cap modification also contributes to mammalian cell host defense as viral RNA lacking 2′-O methylation are sensed and inhibited by IFIT1, an interferon (IFN) stimulated gene (ISG). Accordingly, pathogenic viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm have evolved mechanisms to circumvent IFIT1 restriction and facilitate infection of mammalian cells. These include: (a) generating cap 1 structures on their RNA through cap-snatching or virally-encoded 2′-O methyltransferases, (b) using cap-independent means of translation, or (c) using RNA secondary structural motifs to antagonize IFIT1 binding. This review will discuss new insights as to how specific modifications at the 5′-end of viral RNA modulate host pathogen recognition responses to promote infection and disease. PMID:25682435

  3. 2'-O-methyl-modified phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides have reduced non-specific effects in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Byong Hoon; Bochkareva, Elena; Bochkarev, Alexey; Mou, Tung-Chung; Gray, Donald M

    2004-01-01

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) have biological activity in treating various forms of cancer. The antisense effects of two types of 20mer ODNs, phosphorothioate-modified ODNs (S-ODNs) and S-ODNs with 12 2'-O-methyl groups (Me-S-ODNs), targeted to sites 109 and 277 of bcl-2 mRNA, were compared. Both types were at least as effective as G3139 (Genta, Inc.) in reducing the level of Bcl-2 protein in T24 cells following a 4 h transfection at a dose of 0.1 micro M. Circular dichroism spectra showed that both types formed A-form duplexes with the complementary RNA, and the melting temperatures were in the order of Me-S-ODN.RNA > normal DNA.RNA > S-ODN.RNA. In comparison with the S-ODN, the Me-S-ODN had reduced toxic growth inhibitory effects, was less prone to bind the DNA-binding domain A of human replication protein A, and was as resistant to serum nucleases. Neither type of oligomer induced apoptosis, according to a PARP-cleavage assay. Hybrids formed with Me-S-ODN sequences were less sensitive to RNase H degradation than those formed with S-ODN sequences. Despite this latter disadvantage, the addition of 2'-O-methyl groups to a phosphorothioate-modified ODN is advantageous because of increased stability of binding and reduced non-specific effects.

  4. Evasion of early innate immune response by 2'-O-methylation of dengue genomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Chang, David C; Hoang, Long T; Mohamed Naim, Ahmad Nazri; Dong, Hongping; Schreiber, Mark J; Hibberd, Martin L; Tan, Min Jie Alvin; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2016-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent mosquito-borne virus pathogen in humans. There is currently no antiviral therapeutic or widely available vaccine against dengue infection. The DENV RNA genome is methylated on its 5' cap by its NS5 protein. DENV bearing a single E216A point mutation in NS5 loses 2'-O-methylation of its genome. While this mutant DENV is highly attenuated and immunogenic, the mechanism of this attenuation has not been elucidated. In this study, we find that replication of this mutant DENV is attenuated very early during infection. This early attenuation is not dependent on a functional type I interferon response and coincides with early activation of the innate immune response. Taken together, our data suggest that 2'-O-methylation of DENV genomic RNA is important for evasion of the host immune response during the very early stages of infection as the virus seeks to establish infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis, optical and electrochemical properties of substituted 2-cinnamoyl-1, 3-indandione O-methyl ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malina, Ilze; Kampars, Valdis; Turovska, Baiba

    2016-07-01

    Seven new 2-cinnamoyl-1,3-indandione (2CID) O-methyl ethers with different substituents (R = -H, -CH3, -OCH3, -N(C6H5)2, -N(CH2CH2CN)2, julolidyl, -N(CH3)2) in 4-position of the cinnamoyl moiety were synthesized. The methylation with dimethylsulfate occurred at the oxygen atom of the exocyclic enol group with high selectivity. The synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H, 13C NMR, IR, UV-Vis and luminescence spectroscopy, their electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The obtained results indicates that introducing an electron donating substituents in the 4-position of cinnamoyl moiety facilitates electrochemical oxidation, remarkably shifts absorption and emission bands to longer wavelengths, simultaneously increases extinction coefficient (ε). O-methyl ethers with strong electron donating groups (R = -N(C6H5)2, -N(CH2CH2CN)2, julolidyl, -N(CH3)2) in molecule are characterized by luminescence with maximum in range from 547 to 647 nm and absolute photoluminescence quantum yields from 0.02 to 0.32. Quantum yield (QY) of chromophore containing julolidyl fragment is solvent dependent. It was 0.32 in chloroform and decreased in other polar (ethanol, acetone) solvents.

  6. Antinociceptive effects of (O-methyl)-N-benzoyl tyramine (riparin I) from Aniba riparia (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    Araújo, F L O; Melo, C T V; Rocha, N F M; Moura, B A; Leite, C P; Amaral, J F; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Gutierrez, S J C; Vasconcelos, S M M; Viana, G S B; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço

    2009-10-01

    The present study examined the antinociceptive effects of (O-methyl) N-benzoyl-tyramine (riparin I, ripI) isolated from the unripe fruit of Aniba riparia in chemical and thermal behavioral models of pain, such as acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests in mice. Moreover, the involvement of the nitric oxide pathway as well as the opioid system in the antinociceptive action of ripI in the formalin test was investigated. RipI was administered both orally and intraperitoneally to male mice at single doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. In the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, ripI decreased the number of writhings at both doses. In addition, in the formalin test, ripI reduced the paw licking time at both phases of the test. The effect of the highest dose of ripI in mice formalin test on the early phase was not reversed by naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist) but it was reversed by l-arginine (a nitric oxide precursor) in the late phase, suggesting that ripI may not act through opioid system and possibly acts through inhibition of nitric oxide pathway. In the hot-plate test, ripI increased the reaction time in the hot-plate test at the dose of 25 mg/kg, i.p., confirming the result found in the formalin test. Based on the obtained results, it is suggested that ripI presents antinociceptive activity that may be due to peripheral mechanisms (nitric oxide pathway) and central mechanisms, discarding the involvement of opioid system.

  7. Ribose 2'-O methylation of the vesicular stomatitis virus mRNA cap precedes and facilitates subsequent guanine-N-7 methylation by the large polymerase protein.

    PubMed

    Rahmeh, Amal A; Li, Jianrong; Kranzusch, Philip J; Whelan, Sean P J

    2009-11-01

    During conventional mRNA cap formation, two separate methyltransferases sequentially modify the cap structure, first at the guanine-N-7 (G-N-7) position and subsequently at the ribose 2'-O position. For vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype of the nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, the two methylase activities share a binding site for the methyl donor S-adenosyl-l-methionine and are inhibited by individual amino acid substitutions within the C-terminal domain of the large (L) polymerase protein. This led to the suggestion that a single methylase domain functions for both 2'-O and G-N-7 methylations. Here we report a trans-methylation assay that recapitulates both ribose 2'-O and G-N-7 modifications by using purified recombinant L and in vitro-synthesized RNA. Using this assay, we demonstrate that VSV L typically modifies the 2'-O position of the cap prior to the G-N-7 position and that G-N-7 methylation is diminished by pre-2'-O methylation of the substrate RNA. Amino acid substitutions in the C terminus of L that prevent all cap methylation in recombinant VSV (rVSV) partially retain the ability to G-N-7 methylate a pre-2'-O-methylated RNA, therefore uncoupling the effect of substitutions in the C terminus of the L protein on the two methylations. In addition, we show that the 2'-O and G-N-7 methylase activities act specifically on RNA substrates that contain the conserved elements of a VSV mRNA start at the 5' terminus. This study provides new mechanistic insights into the mRNA cap methylase activities of VSV L, demonstrates that 2'-O methylation precedes and facilitates subsequent G-N-7 methylation, and reveals an RNA sequence and length requirement for the two methylase activities. We propose a model of regulation of the activity of the C terminus of L protein in 2'-O and G-N-7 methylation of the cap structure.

  8. Association study of polymorphisms in the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit and catechol-o-methyl transferase genes with sensory gating in first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Hong, Xiaohong; Chan, Raymond C K; Kong, Fanzhi; Peng, Zhizhen; Wan, Xiaona; Wang, Changqing; Cheng, Lu

    2013-10-30

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the association of auditory P50 sensory gating (P50) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of schizophrenia with polymorphisms in the CHRNA7 and COMT genes. One hundred and fourty patients with schizophrenia participated in this study. They were administered the tests P50 and PPI. Moreover, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2337980, rs1909884 and rs883473) in CHRNA7 and three SNPs (rs4680, rs737865 and rs165599) in COMT were selected to be genotyped by polyacrylamide gel microarray techniques. P50 index showed significant reduction in S2 amplitude between wild-type and mutation groups in the COMT rs4680. S1 amplitude of mutation group in the COMT rs737865 was also lower compared to wild-type group. PPI index revealed a shorter pulse latency of mutation group in the rs4680. The suppression ratio of mutation group was lower in COMT rs165599. Negative findings were shown between comparisons in all the CHRNA7 SNPs. We find that P50 and PPI may be influenced by COMT rs4680 polymorphisms in schizophrenia; more excitingly, we find that P50 might be influenced by COMT rs737865 polymorphisms and PPI may be influenced by COMT rs165599 polymorphisms in schizophrenia, and their mutations are associated with the reduction of the risk of P50 or PPI defects in schizophrenia. Futher studies with a larger number of subjects are needed to verify the present findings.

  9. Synthesis of (2-amino)ethyl derivatives of quercetin 3-O-methyl ether and their antioxidant and neuroprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hun; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Yoo, Ho; Jung, Seo Yun; Kwon, Bong Jin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Jin, Changbae; Lee, Yong Sup

    2015-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in several diseases, particularly in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Quercetin 3-O-methyl ether has been reported to show potent antioxidant and neuroprotective activity against neuronal damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Several aminoethyl-substituted derivatives of quercetin 3-O-methyl ether have been synthesized to increase water solubility while retaining antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. Among such derivatives, compound 3a shows potent and well-balanced antioxidant activity in three types of cell-free assay systems and has in vivo neuroprotective effects on transient focal ischemic injury induced by the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats.

  10. Targeting vertebrate intron-encoded box C/D 2′-O-methylation guide RNAs into the Cajal body

    PubMed Central

    Marnef, Aline; Richard, Patrica; Pinzón, Natalia; Kiss, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Post-transcriptional pseudouridylation and 2′-O-methylation of splicesomal small nuclear ribonucleic acids (snRNAs) is mediated by box H/ACA and box C/D small Cajal body (CB)-specific ribonucleoproteins (scaRNPs), respectively. The WD-repeat protein 79 (WDR79) has been proposed to interact with both classes of modification scaRNPs and target them into the CB. The box H/ACA scaRNAs carry the common CAB box motif (consensus, ugAG) that is required for both WDR79 binding and CB-specific accumulation. Thus far, no cis-acting CB-localization element has been reported for vertebrate box C/D scaRNAs. In this study, systematic mutational analysis of the human U90 and another newly identified box C/D scaRNA, mgU2-47, demonstrated that the CB-specific accumulation of vertebrate intron-encoded box C/D scaRNAs relies on GU- or UG-dominated dinucleotide repeat sequences which are predicted to form the terminal stem-loop of the RNA apical hairpin. While the loop nucleotides are unimportant, the adjacent terminal helix that is composed mostly of consecutive G.U and U.G wobble base-pairs is essential for CB-specific localization of box C/D scaRNAs. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that the newly identified CB localization element, called the G.U/U.G wobble stem, is crucial for in vivo association of box C/D scaRNPs with WDR79. PMID:24753405

  11. Targeting vertebrate intron-encoded box C/D 2'-O-methylation guide RNAs into the Cajal body.

    PubMed

    Marnef, Aline; Richard, Patrica; Pinzón, Natalia; Kiss, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Post-transcriptional pseudouridylation and 2'-O-methylation of splicesomal small nuclear ribonucleic acids (snRNAs) is mediated by box H/ACA and box C/D small Cajal body (CB)-specific ribonucleoproteins (scaRNPs), respectively. The WD-repeat protein 79 (WDR79) has been proposed to interact with both classes of modification scaRNPs and target them into the CB. The box H/ACA scaRNAs carry the common CAB box motif (consensus, ugAG) that is required for both WDR79 binding and CB-specific accumulation. Thus far, no cis-acting CB-localization element has been reported for vertebrate box C/D scaRNAs. In this study, systematic mutational analysis of the human U90 and another newly identified box C/D scaRNA, mgU2-47, demonstrated that the CB-specific accumulation of vertebrate intron-encoded box C/D scaRNAs relies on GU- or UG-dominated dinucleotide repeat sequences which are predicted to form the terminal stem-loop of the RNA apical hairpin. While the loop nucleotides are unimportant, the adjacent terminal helix that is composed mostly of consecutive G.U and U.G wobble base-pairs is essential for CB-specific localization of box C/D scaRNAs. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that the newly identified CB localization element, called the G.U/U.G wobble stem, is crucial for in vivo association of box C/D scaRNPs with WDR79.

  12. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid to n-3 LCPUFA and expression of PPAR-alpha, acyl Coenzyme A oxidase 1 and carnitine acyl transferase I are incremented after feeding rats with α-linolenic acid-rich oils.

    PubMed

    González-Mañán, Daniel; Tapia, Gladys; Gormaz, Juan Guillermo; D'Espessailles, Amanda; Espinosa, Alejandra; Masson, Lilia; Varela, Patricia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Valenzuela, Rodrigo

    2012-07-01

    High dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids in relation to n-3 fatty acids may generate health disorders, such as cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Fish consumption rich in n-3 fatty acids is low in Latin America, it being necessary to seek other alternatives to provide α-linolenic acid (ALA), precursor of n-3 LCPUFA (EPA and DHA). Two innovative oils were assayed, chia (Salvia hispanica) and rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa). This study evaluated hepatic bioconversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, expression of PPAR-α, acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and carnitine acyltransferase I (CAT-I), and accumulation of EPA and DHA in plasma and adipose tissue in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three experimental groups were fed 21 days: sunflower oil (SFO, control); chia oil (CO); rosa mosqueta oil (RMO). Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids from plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and TLC. Expression of PPAR-α (RT-PCR) and ACOX1 and CAT-I (Western blot). CO and RMO increased plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue levels of ALA, EPA and DHA and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio compared to SFO (p < 0.05, One-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test). CO increased levels of ALA and EPA compared to RMO (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for DHA levels. CO also increased the expression of PPAR-α, ACOX1 and CAT-I. Only CAT-I levels were increased by RO. CO and RMO may be a nutritional alternative to provide ALA for its bioconversion to EPA and DHA, and to increase the expression of PPAR-α, ACOX1 and CAT-I, especially CO-oil.

  13. RTL-P: a sensitive approach for detecting sites of 2′-O-methylation in RNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhi-Wei; Shao, Peng; Diao, Li-Ting; Zhou, Hui; Yu, Chun-Hong; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2012-01-01

    2′-O-methylation is present within various cellular RNAs and is essential to RNA biogenesis and functionality. Several methods have been developed for the identification and localization of 2′-O-methylated sites in RNAs; however, the detection of RNA modifications, especially in low-abundance RNAs and small non-coding RNAs with a 2′-O-methylation at the 3′-end, remains a difficult task. Here, we introduce a new method to detect 2′-O-methylated sites in diverse RNA species, referred to as RTL-P [Reverse Transcription at Low deoxy-ribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) concentrations followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] that demonstrates precise mapping and superior sensitivity compared with previous techniques. The main procedures of RTL-P include a site-specific primer extension by reverse transcriptase at a low dNTP concentration and a semi-quantitative PCR amplification step. No radiolabeled or fluorescent primers are required. By designing specific RT primers, we used RTL-P to detect both previously identified and novel 2′-O-methylated sites in human and yeast ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), as well as mouse piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These results demonstrate the powerful application of RTL-P for the systematic analysis of fully or partially methylated residues in diverse RNA species, including low-abundance RNAs or small non-coding RNAs such as piRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs). PMID:22833606

  14. Characterizing guayule rubber transferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, K.; Backhaus, R.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Rubber transferase (RuT) activity, measured as incorporation of {sup 14}C(isopentenyl pyrophosphate) (IPP) into rubber, was assayed in suspensions of rubber particles purified from bark tissue of Parthenium argentatum, Gray. Rubber particle suspensions (RSP) have high RuT activity which is not diminished by repeated washing of the particles, demonstrating the firm association of the enzyme system with the particles. RuT activity varied with line: 11591 yielded more rubber particles with a greater activity per particle, than did other lines tested. Variation in activity also varied with bark age and season. Activity rapidly declined at temperatures above 16{degree}C in line 593, but was more stable in RSP isolated form line 11591. IPP-incorporation depends upon the concentration of two substrates, IPP and the starter molecule farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP). In lines 593 and 11591, 20 uM FPP saturated the enzyme present in 6 {times} 10{sup 10} particles {times} cm{sup {minus}3}, whereas about 1 mM IPP was required for saturation. Under saturating FPP, the apparent K{sub m} of RuT was about 250 uM.

  15. Preservation of Mouse Sperm by Convective Drying and Storing in 3-O-Methyl-D-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lee, Gloria Y.; Lawitts, Joel A.; Toner, Mehmet; Biggers, John D.

    2012-01-01

    With the fast advancement in the genetics and bio-medical fields, the vast number of valuable transgenic and rare genetic mouse models need to be preserved. Preservation of mouse sperm by convective drying and subsequent storing at above freezing temperatures could dramatically reduce the cost and facilitate shipping. Mouse sperm were convectively dried under nitrogen gas in the Na-EGTA solution containing 100 mmol/L 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and stored in LiCl sorption jars (Relative Humidity, RH, 12%) at 4°C and 22°C for up to one year. The functionality of these sperm samples after storage was tested by intracytoplasmic injection into mouse oocytes. The percentages of blastocysts produced from sperm stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months were 62.6%, 53.4%, 39.6%, 33.3%, and 30.4%, respectively, while those stored at 22°C for 1, 2, and 3 months were 28.8%, 26.6%, and 12.2%, respectively. Transfer of 38 two- to four-cell embryos from sperm stored at 4°C for 1 year produced two live pups while 59 two- to four-cell embryos from sperm stored at 22°C for 3 months also produced two live pups. Although all the pups looked healthy at 3 weeks of age, normality of offspring produced using convectively dried sperm needs further investigation. The percentages of blastocyst from sperm stored in the higher relative humidity conditions of NaBr and MgCl2 jars and driest condition of P2O5 jars at 4°C and 22°C were all lower. A simple method of mouse sperm preservation is demonstrated. Three-O-methyl-D-glucose, a metabolically inactive derivative of glucose, offers significant protection for dried mouse sperm at above freezing temperatures without the need for poration of cell membrane. PMID:22272261

  16. O-Methylated flavonol isorhamnetin prevents acute inflammation through blocking of NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji Hye; Kim, Sang Chan; Shin, Bo Yeon; Jin, So Hee; Jo, Mi Jeong; Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Young Woo; Lee, Jong Rok; Ku, Sae Kwang; Cho, Il Je; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2013-09-01

    Here, we isolated isorhamnetin, a natural 3'-O-methylated flavonoid, from water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica, Umbelliferae) and investigated its ability to protect against acute inflammation in vivo and in vitro. To induce paw swelling, the hind paw of each rat was injected with a carrageenan 1h after vehicle or isorhamnetin treatment. In vitro effect and mechanism studies were performed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Administration of isorhamnetin markedly inhibited the swelling volume and the thickness of hind paws. Moreover, isorhamnetin significantly reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory gene expression in rats. Isorhamnetin pretreatment inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO release in LPS-stimulated cells. Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1) is the key step in the iNOS gene induction. Isorhamnetin specifically inhibited NF-κB luciferase activity, but not AP-1. Pretreatment with isorhamnetin suppressed NF-κB nuclear translocation in accordance with decreased phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory-κB. Consistently, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 expression, representative NF-κB target genes, were almost completely prohibited by isorhamnetin. Furthermore, isorhamnetin inhibited LPS-induced JNK and AKT/IKKα/β phosphorylation. Our results suggest that isorhamnetin inhibited JNK, and AKT/IKKα/β activation, leading to NF-κB inactivation, which might contribute to the inhibition of the acute inflammatory response.

  17. Effects of 2'-O-methyl nucleotide on ligation capability of T4 DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Tong, Zhaoxue; Zhao, Guojie; Mu, Runqing; Shang, Hong; Guan, Yifu

    2014-09-01

    To further understand the ligation mechanism, effects of 2'-O-methyl nucleotide (2'-OMeN) on the T4 DNA ligation efficiency were investigated. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay was used to monitor the nick-joining process by T4 DNA ligase. Results showed that substitutions at 5'- and 3'-ends of the nick decreased the ligation efficiency by 48.7% ± 6.7% and 70.6% ± 4.0%, respectively. Substitutions at both 5'- and 3'-ends decreased the ligation efficiency by 76.6% ± 1.3%. Corresponding kinetic parameters, Vmax, Km, and kcat, have been determined in each case by using the Michaelis-Menten equation. The kinetic data showed that the 2'-OMeN substitutions reduced the maximal initial velocity and increased the Michaelis constant of T4 DNA ligase. Mismatches at 5'- and 3'-ends of the nick have also shown different influences on the ligation. Results here showed that the sugar pucker conformation at 3'-end impairs the ligation efficiency more profoundly than that at 5'-end. Different concentrations of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), Na(+), and ATP were also demonstrated to affect the T4 DNA ligase activity. These results enriched our knowledge about the effects of 2'-OMeN substitutions on the T4 DNA ligase.

  18. The determination of tRNALeu recognition nucleotides for Escherichia coli L/F transferase

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Angela Wai Shan; Leung, Charles Chung Yun; Fahlman, Richard Peter

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA protein transferase catalyzes the tRNA-dependent post-translational addition of amino acids onto the N-terminus of a protein polypeptide substrate. Based on biochemical and structural studies, the current tRNA recognition model by L/F transferase involves the identity of the 3′ aminoacyl adenosine and the sequence-independent docking of the D-stem of an aminoacyl-tRNA to the positively charged cluster on L/F transferase. However, this model does not explain the isoacceptor preference observed 40 yr ago. Using in vitro-transcribed tRNA and quantitative MALDI-ToF MS enzyme activity assays, we have confirmed that, indeed, there is a strong preference for the most abundant leucyl-tRNA, tRNALeu (anticodon 5′-CAG-3′) isoacceptor for L/F transferase activity. We further investigate the molecular mechanism for this preference using hybrid tRNA constructs. We identified two independent sequence elements in the acceptor stem of tRNALeu (CAG)—a G3:C70 base pair and a set of 4 nt (C72, A4:U69, C68)—that are important for the optimal binding and catalysis by L/F transferase. This maps a more specific, sequence-dependent tRNA recognition model of L/F transferase than previously proposed. PMID:24935875

  19. Effects of Sphingosine 2N- and 3O-Methylation on Palmitoyl Ceramide Properties in Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Maula, Terhi; Kurita, Mayuko; Yamaguchi, Shou; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Katsumura, Shigeo; Slotte, J. Peter

    2011-01-01

    To study the role of the interfacial properties of ceramides in their interlipid interactions, we synthesized palmitoylceramide (PCer) analogs in which a methyl group was introduced to the amide-nitrogen or the C3-oxygen of the sphingosine backbone. A differential scanning calorimetry analysis of equimolar mixtures of palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM) and PCer showed that these sphingolipids formed a complex gel phase that melted between 67°C and 74°C. The PCer analogs also formed gel phases with PSM, but they melted at lower temperatures compared with the system with PCer. In complex bilayers composed of an unsaturated glycerophospholipid, PSM, and cholesterol, the 3O-methylated ceramide formed a cholesterol-poor ordered phase with PSM. However, the 2N-methylated and doubly methylated (2N and 3O) PCer analogs failed to displace sterol from interactions with PSM. Like PCer, the analogs reduced sterol affinity for the complex bilayers, but this effect was most pronounced for the 3O-methylated ceramide. Taken together, our results show that 2N-methylation weakened the ceramide-PSM interactions, whereas the 3O-methylated ceramide behaved more like PCer in interactions with PSM. Our findings are compatible with the view that interlipid interactions between the amide-nitrogen and neighboring lipids are important for the cohesive properties of sphingolipids in membranes, and this also appears to be a valid model for ceramide. PMID:22208193

  20. Gamma-glutamyl transferase and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kastrati, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an enzyme located on the external surface of cellular membranes. GGT contributes in maintaining the physiological concentrations of cytoplasmic glutathione and cellular defense against oxidative stress via cleavage of extracellular glutathione and increased availability of amino acids for its intracellular synthesis. Increased GGT activity is a marker of antioxidant inadequacy and increased oxidative stress. Ample evidence suggests that elevated GGT activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, arterial hypertension, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause and CVD-related mortality. The evidence is weaker for an association between elevated GGT activity and acute ischemic events and myocardial infarction. The risk for CVD or CVD-related mortality mediated by GGT may be explained by the close correlation of GGT with conventional CVD risk factors and various comorbidities, particularly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcohol consumption, oxidative stress, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. The finding of GGT activity in atherosclerotic plaques and correlation of intra-plaque GGT activity with histological indexes of plaque instability may suggest a participation of GGT in the pathophysiology of CVD, particularly atherosclerosis. However, whether GGT has a direct role in the pathophysiology of CVD or it is an epiphenomenon of coexisting CVD risk factors or comorbidities remains unknown and Hill’s criteria of causality relationship between GGT and CVD are not fulfilled. The exploration whether GGT provides prognostic information on top of the information provided by known cardiovascular risk factors regarding the CVD or CVD-related outcome and exploration of molecular mechanisms of GGT involvement in the pathophysiology of CVD and eventual use of interventions to reduce circulating GGT activity remain a duty of

  1. Glutathione transferase isoenzymes from human prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Di Ilio, C; Aceto, A; Bucciarelli, T; Angelucci, S; Felaco, M; Grilli, A; Federici, G

    1990-01-01

    By using affinity-chromatography and isoelectric-focusing techniques, several forms of glutathione transferase (GSTs) were resolved from human prostate cytosol. All the three major classes of GST, i.e. Alpha, Mu and Pi, are present in human prostate. However, large inter-individual variation in the qualitative and quantitative expression of different isoenzymes resulted in the samples investigated. The most abundant group of prostate isoenzymes showed acid (pI 4.3-4.7) behaviour and were classified as Pi class GSTs on the basis of their immunological and structural properties. Immunohistochemical staining of Pi class GSTs was prevalently distributed in the epithelial cells surrounding the alveolar lumen. Class Mu GSTs are also expressed, although in small amounts and in a limited number of samples, by human prostate. The major cationic isoenzyme purified from prostate, GST-9.6; (pI 9.6; apparent subunit molecular mass of 28 kDa), appears to be different from the cationic GST alpha-epsilon forms isolated from human liver and kidney as evidenced by its structural, kinetical and immunological properties. This enzyme, which accounts for about 20-30% (on protein basis) of total amount of GSTs, is expressed by only 40% of samples. GST-9.6 has the ability to cross-react in immunoblotting analysis with antisera raised against rat liver GST 2-2, rather than with antisera raised against members of human Alpha, Mu and Pi class GSTs. Although prostate GST-9.6 shows close relationship with the human skin GST pI 9.9, it does not correspond to any other known human GST. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2241927

  2. Investigations on computed 13C NMR one-dimensional non-refocused INEPT experiments for structural determinations in O-methylated glycosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouységu, Laurent; Nobert, Philippe; Deffieux, Denis; De Jéso, Bernard; Lartigue, Jean-Claude; Pétraud, Michel; Ratier, Max

    1999-10-01

    A new one-dimensional 13C NMR approach for the determination of methoxyl substituents configuration in O-methylated glycosides is presented. Assignments are based on structural investigations by non-refocused INEPT experiments associated with numerical methods.

  3. Theoretical spectroscopic characterization at low temperatures of S-methyl thioformate and O-methyl thioformate.

    PubMed

    Senent, M L; Puzzarini, C; Hochlaf, M; Domínguez-Gómez, R; Carvajal, M

    2014-09-14

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are employed to determine spectroscopic properties at low temperatures of two S-analogs of methyl formate: S-methyl thioformate CH3-S-CHO (MSCHO) and O-methyl thioformate CH3-O-CHS (MOCHS). Both species are detectable and they are expected to play an important role in Astrochemistry. Molecular properties are compared with those of the O-analog, methyl formate. Both isomers present two conformers cis and trans. cis-CH3-S-CHO represents the most stable structure lying 4372.2 cm(-1) below cis-CH3-O-CHS. The energy difference between the cis and trans forms is drastically lower for MSCHO (1134 cm(-1)) than for MOCHS (1963.6 cm(-1)). Harmonic and anharmonic fundamentals and the corresponding intensities, as well as the rotational constants for the ground vibrational and first excited torsional states and the centrifugal distortions constants, are provided. Low torsional energy levels have been obtained by solving variationally a two dimensional Hamiltonian expressed in terms of the two torsional degrees of freedom. The corresponding 2D potential energy surfaces have been computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The methyl torsional barriers V3(cis) are determined to be 139.7 cm(-1) (CH3-S-CHO) and 670.4 cm(-1) (CH3-O-CHS). The A/E splitting of ground torsional state has been estimated to be 0.438 cm(-1) for CH3-S-CHO and negligible for CH3-O-CHS.

  4. Theoretical spectroscopic characterization at low temperatures of S-methyl thioformate and O-methyl thioformate

    SciTech Connect

    Senent, M. L.; Puzzarini, C.; Hochlaf, M.; Domínguez-Gómez, R.; Carvajal, M.

    2014-09-14

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are employed to determine spectroscopic properties at low temperatures of two S-analogs of methyl formate: S-methyl thioformate CH{sub 3}-S-CHO (MSCHO) and O-methyl thioformate CH{sub 3}-O-CHS (MOCHS). Both species are detectable and they are expected to play an important role in Astrochemistry. Molecular properties are compared with those of the O-analog, methyl formate. Both isomers present two conformers cis and trans. cis-CH{sub 3}-S-CHO represents the most stable structure lying 4372.2 cm{sup −1} below cis-CH{sub 3}-O-CHS. The energy difference between the cis and trans forms is drastically lower for MSCHO (1134 cm{sup −1}) than for MOCHS (1963.6 cm{sup −1}). Harmonic and anharmonic fundamentals and the corresponding intensities, as well as the rotational constants for the ground vibrational and first excited torsional states and the centrifugal distortions constants, are provided. Low torsional energy levels have been obtained by solving variationally a two dimensional Hamiltonian expressed in terms of the two torsional degrees of freedom. The corresponding 2D potential energy surfaces have been computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The methyl torsional barriers V{sub 3}(cis) are determined to be 139.7 cm{sup −1} (CH{sub 3}-S-CHO) and 670.4 cm{sup −1} (CH{sub 3}-O-CHS). The A/E splitting of ground torsional state has been estimated to be 0.438 cm{sup −1} for CH{sub 3}-S-CHO and negligible for CH{sub 3}-O-CHS.

  5. Roles for glutathione transferases in antioxidant recycling

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P; Steel, Patrick G

    2011-01-01

    Uniquely among the plant glutathione transferases, two classes possess a catalytic cysteine capable of performing glutathione-dependent reductions. These are the dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) and the lambda-class glutathione transferases (GSTLs). Using immobilized GSTLs probed with crude plant extracts we have identified flavonols as high affinity ligands and subsequently demonstrated a novel glutathione-dependent role for these enzymes in recycling oxidized quercetin. By comparing the activities of DHARs and GSTLs we now propose a unified catalytic mechanism that suggests oxidized anthocyanidins and tocopherols may be alternative polyphenolic substrates of GSTLs. PMID:21778824

  6. Transferrin-Conjugated SNALPs Encapsulating 2′-O-Methylated miR-34a for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Scognamiglio, Immacolata; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Campani, Virginia; Virgilio, Antonella; Galeone, Aldo; Gullà, Annamaria; Gallo Cantafio, Maria Eugenia; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Caraglia, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Stable nucleic acid lipid vesicles (SNALPs) encapsulating miR-34a to treat multiple myeloma (MM) were developed. Wild type or completely 2′-O-methylated (OMet) MiR-34a was used in this study. Moreover, SNALPs were conjugated with transferrin (Tf) in order to target MM cells overexpressing transferrin receptors (TfRs). The type of miR-34a chemical backbone did not significantly affect the characteristics of SNALPs in terms of mean size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential, while the encapsulation of an OMet miR-34a resulted in a significant increase of miRNA encapsulation into the SNALPs. On the other hand, the chemical conjugation of SNALPs with Tf resulted in a significant decrease of the zeta potential, while size characteristics and miR-34a encapsulation into SNALPs were not significantly affected. In an experimental model of MM, all the animals treated with SNALPs encapsulating miR-34a showed a significant inhibition of the tumor growth. However, the use of SNALPs conjugated with Tf and encapsulating OMet miR-34a resulted in the highest increase of mice survival. These results may represent the proof of concept for the use of SNALPs encapsulating miR-34a for the treatment of MM. PMID:24683542

  7. Kinetic independence of the subunits of cytosolic glutathione transferase from the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, U H; Mannervik, B

    1985-01-01

    The steady-state kinetics of the dimeric glutathione transferases deviate from Michaelis-Menten kinetics, but have hyperbolic binding isotherms for substrates and products of the enzymic reaction. The possibility of subunit interactions during catalysis as an explanation for the rate behaviour was investigated by use of rat isoenzymes composed of subunits 1, 2, 3 and 4, which have distinct substrate specificities. The kinetic parameter kcat./Km was determined with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 4-hydroxyalk-2-enals, ethacrynic acid and trans-4-phenylbut-3-en-2-one as electrophilic substrates for six isoenzymes: rat glutathione transferases 1-1, 1-2, 2-2, 3-3, 3-4 and 4-4. It was found that the kcat./Km values for the heterodimeric transferases 1-2 and 3-4 could be predicted from the kcat./Km values of the corresponding homodimers. Likewise, the initial velocities determined with transferases 3-3, 3-4 and 4-4 at different degrees of saturation with glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene demonstrated that the kinetic properties of the subunits are additive. These results show that the subunits of glutathione transferase are kinetically independent. PMID:4062896

  8. Sugar composition of the pectic polysaccharides of charophytes, the closest algal relatives of land-plants: presence of 3-O-methyl-D-galactose residues.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Christina; Gregson, Timothy; Murray, Lorna; Sadler, Ian H; Fry, Stephen C

    2015-08-01

    During evolution, plants have acquired and/or lost diverse sugar residues as cell-wall constituents. Of particular interest are primordial cell-wall features that existed, and in some cases abruptly changed, during the momentous step whereby land-plants arose from charophytic algal ancestors. Polysaccharides were extracted from four charophyte orders [Chlorokybales (Chlorokybus atmophyticus), Klebsormidiales (Klebsormidium fluitans, K. subtile), Charales (Chara vulgaris, Nitella flexilis), Coleochaetales (Coleochaete scutata)] and an early-diverging land-plant (Anthoceros agrestis). 'Pectins' and 'hemicelluloses', operationally defined as extractable in oxalate (100 °C) and 6 m NaOH (37 °C), respectively, were acid- or Driselase-hydrolysed, and the monosaccharides analysed chromatographically. One unusual monosaccharide, 'U', was characterized by (1)H/(13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and also enzymically. 'U' was identified as 3-O-methyl-D-galactose (3-MeGal). All pectins, except in Klebsormidium, contained acid- and Driselase-releasable galacturonate, suggesting homogalacturonan. All pectins, without exception, released rhamnose and galactose on acid hydrolysis; however, only in 'higher' charophytes (Charales, Coleochaetales) and Anthoceros were these sugars also efficiently released by Driselase, suggesting rhamnogalacturonan-I. Pectins of 'higher' charophytes, especially Chara, contained little arabinose, instead possessing 3-MeGal. Anthoceros hemicelluloses were rich in glucose, xylose, galactose and arabinose (suggesting xyloglucan and arabinoxylan), none of which was consistently present in charophyte hemicelluloses. Homogalacturonan is an ancient streptophyte feature, albeit secondarily lost in Klebsormidium. When conquering the land, the first embryophytes already possessed rhamnogalacturonan-I. In contrast, charophyte and land-plant hemicelluloses differ substantially, indicating major changes during terrestrialization. The presence of 3

  9. Sugar composition of the pectic polysaccharides of charophytes, the closest algal relatives of land-plants: presence of 3-O-methyl-d-galactose residues

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Christina; Gregson, Timothy; Murray, Lorna; Sadler, Ian H.; Fry, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims During evolution, plants have acquired and/or lost diverse sugar residues as cell-wall constituents. Of particular interest are primordial cell-wall features that existed, and in some cases abruptly changed, during the momentous step whereby land-plants arose from charophytic algal ancestors. Methods Polysaccharides were extracted from four charophyte orders [Chlorokybales (Chlorokybus atmophyticus), Klebsormidiales (Klebsormidium fluitans, K. subtile), Charales (Chara vulgaris, Nitella flexilis), Coleochaetales (Coleochaete scutata)] and an early-diverging land-plant (Anthoceros agrestis). ‘Pectins’ and ‘hemicelluloses’, operationally defined as extractable in oxalate (100 °C) and 6 m NaOH (37 °C), respectively, were acid- or Driselase-hydrolysed, and the monosaccharides analysed chromatographically. One unusual monosaccharide, ‘U’, was characterized by 1H/13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and also enzymically. Key Results ‘U’ was identified as 3-O-methyl-d-galactose (3-MeGal). All pectins, except in Klebsormidium, contained acid- and Driselase-releasable galacturonate, suggesting homogalacturonan. All pectins, without exception, released rhamnose and galactose on acid hydrolysis; however, only in ‘higher’ charophytes (Charales, Coleochaetales) and Anthoceros were these sugars also efficiently released by Driselase, suggesting rhamnogalacturonan-I. Pectins of ‘higher’ charophytes, especially Chara, contained little arabinose, instead possessing 3-MeGal. Anthoceros hemicelluloses were rich in glucose, xylose, galactose and arabinose (suggesting xyloglucan and arabinoxylan), none of which was consistently present in charophyte hemicelluloses. Conclusions Homogalacturonan is an ancient streptophyte feature, albeit secondarily lost in Klebsormidium. When conquering the land, the first embryophytes already possessed rhamnogalacturonan-I. In contrast, charophyte and land-plant hemicelluloses differ

  10. Synthesis and multiple incorporations of 2'-O-methyl-5-hydroxymethyl-, 5-hydroxymethyl- and 5-formylcytidine monomers into RNA oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Shankar; Tanpure, Arun Ankush

    2017-09-13

    The synthesis of 2'-O-methyl-5-hydroxymethylcytidine (hm5Cm), 5-hydroxymethylcytidine (hm5C) and 5-formylcytidine (f5C) phosphoramidite monomers has been developed. Optimization of mild post-synthetic deprotection conditions enabled the synthesis of RNA containing all four naturally occurring cytosine-modifications (hm5Cm, hm5C, f5C plus 5-methylcytosine). Given the considerable interest in RNA modifications and epitranscriptomics, the availability of synthetic monomers and RNAs containing these modifications will be valuable to elucidate their biological function(s). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Nearest neighbor parameters for Watson–Crick complementary heteroduplexes formed between 2′-O-methyl RNA and RNA oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Kierzek, Elzbieta; Mathews, David H.; Ciesielska, Anna; Turner, Douglas H.; Kierzek, Ryszard

    2006-01-01

    Results from optical melting studies of Watson–Crick complementary heteroduplexes formed between 2′-O-methyl RNA and RNA oligonucleotides are used to determine nearest neighbor thermodynamic parameters for predicting the stabilities of such duplexes. The results are consistent with the physical model assumed by the individual nearest neighbor-hydrogen bonding model, which contains terms for helix initiation, base pair stacking and base pair composition. The sequence dependence is similar to that for Watson–Crick complementary RNA/RNA duplexes, which suggests that the sequence dependence may also be similar to that for other backbones that favor A-form RNA conformations. PMID:16870722

  12. Nucleotidyl transferase assisted DNA labeling with different click chemistries.

    PubMed

    Winz, Marie-Luise; Linder, Eva Christina; André, Timon; Becker, Juliane; Jäschke, Andres

    2015-09-30

    Here, we present a simple, modular and efficient strategy that allows the 3'-terminal labeling of DNA, regardless of whether it has been chemically or enzymatically synthesized or isolated from natural sources. We first incorporate a range of modified nucleotides at the 3'-terminus, using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. In the second step, we convert the incorporated nucleotides, using either of four highly efficient click chemistry-type reactions, namely copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, Staudinger ligation or Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand. Moreover, we create internal modifications, making use of either ligation or primer extension, after the nucleotidyl transferase step, prior to the click reaction. We further study the influence of linker variants on the reactivity of azides in different click reactions. We find that different click reactions exhibit distinct substrate preferences, a fact that is often overlooked, but should be considered when labeling oligonucleotides or other biomolecules with click chemistry. Finally, our findings allowed us to extend our previously published RNA labeling strategy to the use of a different copper-free click chemistry, namely the Staudinger ligation. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. 2′-O-methyl-modified phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides have reduced non-specific effects in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byong Hoon; Bochkareva, Elena; Bochkarev, Alexey; Mou, Tung-Chung; Gray, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) have biological activity in treating various forms of cancer. The antisense effects of two types of 20mer ODNs, phosphorothioate-modified ODNs (S-ODNs) and S-ODNs with 12 2′-O-methyl groups (Me-S-ODNs), targeted to sites 109 and 277 of bcl-2 mRNA, were compared. Both types were at least as effective as G3139 (Genta, Inc.) in reducing the level of Bcl-2 protein in T24 cells following a 4 h transfection at a dose of 0.1 µM. Circular dichroism spectra showed that both types formed A-form duplexes with the complementary RNA, and the melting temperatures were in the order of Me-S-ODN·RNA > normal DNA·RNA > S-ODN·RNA. In comparison with the S-ODN, the Me-S-ODN had reduced toxic growth inhibitory effects, was less prone to bind the DNA-binding domain A of human replication protein A, and was as resistant to serum nucleases. Neither type of oligomer induced apoptosis, according to a PARP-cleavage assay. Hybrids formed with Me-S-ODN sequences were less sensitive to RNase H degradation than those formed with S-ODN sequences. Despite this latter disadvantage, the addition of 2′-O-methyl groups to a phosphorothioate-modified ODN is advantageous because of increased stability of binding and reduced non-specific effects. PMID:15064360

  14. O-Methylated Metabolite of 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone Activates TrkB Receptor and Displays Antidepressant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Qi, Qi; Xiao, Ge; Li, Jingyu; Luo, Hongbo R.; Ye, Keqiang

    2016-01-01

    7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) acts as a TrkB receptor-specific agonist. It mimics the physiological actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and demonstrates remarkable therapeutic efficacy in animal models of various neurological diseases. Nonetheless, its in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles and metabolism remain unclear. Here we report that 7,8-DHF and its O-methylated metabolites distribute in mouse brain after oral administration. Both hydroxy groups can be mono-methylated, and the mono-methylated metabolites activate TrkB in vitro and in vivo. Blocking methylation, using COMT inhibitors, diminishes the agonistic effect of TrkB activation by 7,8-DHF or 4′-dimethylamino-7,8-DHF, supporting the contribution of the methylated metabolite to TrkB activation in mouse brain. Moreover, we have synthesized several methylated metabolite derivatives, and they also potently activate the TrkB receptor and reduce immobility in both forced swim test and tail suspension test, indicating that these methylated metabolites may possess antidepressant activity. Hence, our data demonstrate that 7,8-DHF is orally bioavailable and can penetrate the brain-blood barrier. The O-methylated metabolites are implicated in TrkB receptor activation in the brain. PMID:23445871

  15. Archaeal fibrillarin-Nop5 heterodimer 2'-O-methylates RNA independently of the C/D guide RNP particle.

    PubMed

    Tomkuvienė, Miglė; Ličytė, Janina; Olendraitė, Ingrida; Liutkevičiūtė, Zita; Clouet-d'Orval, Béatrice; Klimašauskas, Saulius

    2017-09-01

    Archaeal fibrillarin (aFib) is a well-characterized S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent RNA 2'-O-methyltransferase that is known to act in a large C/D ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex together with Nop5 and L7Ae proteins and a box C/D guide RNA. In the reaction, the guide RNA serves to direct the methylation reaction to a specific site in tRNA or rRNA by sequence complementarity. Here we show that a Pyrococcus abyssi aFib-Nop5 heterodimer can alone perform SAM-dependent 2'-O-methylation of 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs in vitro independently of L7Ae and C/D guide RNAs. Using tritium-labeling, mass spectrometry, and reverse transcription analysis, we identified three in vitro 2'-O-methylated positions in the 16S rRNA of P. abyssi, positions lying outside of previously reported pyrococcal C/D RNP methylation sites. This newly discovered stand-alone activity of aFib-Nop5 may provide an example of an ancestral activity retained in enzymes that were recruited to larger complexes during evolution. © 2017 Tomkuvienė et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  16. Purification and characterization of the Oligosaccharyl transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, T.M.

    1990-11-01

    Oligosaccharyl transferase was characterized to be a glycoprotein with at least one saccharide unit that had a D-manno or D- glucopyranose configuration with unmodified hydroxy groups at C-3, C-4 and C-6, using a Concanavalin A affinity column. This afforded a 100 fold increase in the transferase purity in the solubilized microsomal sample and also removed over 90% of the microsomal proteins (the cytosolic ones being removed before solubilization). The detergent, N,N-Dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO) was used for solubilization and it yielded a system compatible with the assay and the purification steps. An efficient method for detergent extraction without dilution of sample or protein precipitation was also developed.

  17. O-Alkylated heavy atom carbohydrate probes for protein X-ray crystallography: Studies towards the synthesis of methyl 2-O-methyl-L-selenofucopyranoside

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Roman; Hauck, Dirk; Varrot, Annabelle; Imberty, Anne; Künzler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Selenoglycosides are used as reactive glycosyl donors in the syntheses of oligosaccharides. In addition, such heavy atom analogs of natural glycosides are useful tools for structure determination of their lectin receptors using X-ray crystallography. Some lectins, e.g., members of the tectonin family, only bind to carbohydrate epitopes with O-alkylated ring hydroxy groups. In this context, we report the first synthesis of an O-methylated selenoglycoside, specifically methyl 2-O-methyl-L-selenofucopyranoside, a ligand of the lectin tectonin-2 from the mushroom Laccaria bicolor. The synthetic route required a strategic revision and further optimization due to the intrinsic lability of alkyl selenoglycosides, in particular for the labile fucose. Here, we describe a successful synthetic access to methyl 2-O-methyl-L-selenofucopyranoside in 9 linear steps and 26% overall yield starting from allyl L-fucopyranoside. PMID:28144356

  18. O-Alkylated heavy atom carbohydrate probes for protein X-ray crystallography: Studies towards the synthesis of methyl 2-O-methyl-L-selenofucopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Roman; Hauck, Dirk; Varrot, Annabelle; Imberty, Anne; Künzler, Markus; Titz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Selenoglycosides are used as reactive glycosyl donors in the syntheses of oligosaccharides. In addition, such heavy atom analogs of natural glycosides are useful tools for structure determination of their lectin receptors using X-ray crystallography. Some lectins, e.g., members of the tectonin family, only bind to carbohydrate epitopes with O-alkylated ring hydroxy groups. In this context, we report the first synthesis of an O-methylated selenoglycoside, specifically methyl 2-O-methyl-L-selenofucopyranoside, a ligand of the lectin tectonin-2 from the mushroom Laccaria bicolor. The synthetic route required a strategic revision and further optimization due to the intrinsic lability of alkyl selenoglycosides, in particular for the labile fucose. Here, we describe a successful synthetic access to methyl 2-O-methyl-L-selenofucopyranoside in 9 linear steps and 26% overall yield starting from allyl L-fucopyranoside.

  19. Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate cis-1,4-Polyisoprenyl Transferase from Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) 1

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, S.; Benedict, Chauncey R.

    1984-01-01

    Electron micrographs of the mesophyll cells of guayule Parthenium argentatum Gray leaves show deposits of cis-polyisoprene (rubber) in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of mitochondria and chloroplasts and demonstrate that the rubber-synthesizing enzymes are present in guayule leaves. The terminal step in the synthesis of cis-polyisoprene from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) catalyzed by isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1,4-polyisoprenyl transferase has been demonstrated in crude leaf extracts by the enzymic incorporation of [14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate into the polymer and the recovery of [14C]levulinic acid following ozonolysis. The rubber transferase activity in the crude extracts of guayule leaves was 5.8 nanomoles isopentenyl pyrophosphate incorporated per milligram protein per hour. This is the first description of the rubber transferase from a nonlaticiferous plant. The specific activity (in units of nanomoles IPP converted per milligram protein per hour) of the partially purified enzyme following chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose columns was 41.7 units and contained 0.29 units of IPP isomerase activity and 0.08 units of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity. The rubber transferase requires reduced glutathione and Mg2+ for maximal activity. There was no incorporation of IPP into cis-1,4-polyisoprene in the absence of rubber particles as primer, and Langmuir isotherm plots showed that the specific activity of the enzyme was proportional to the concentration of the enzyme on the surface of the rubber particles. For a given rubber particle distribution, enzyme activity was proportional to time, IPP concentration, and rubber concentration. The addition of 0.4 millimolar dimethylallyl pyrophosphate to the rubber transferase reaction resulted in a 2-fold increase in the incorporation of IPP into rubber. A comparison was made of the relative activities of rubber transferase in different species of Parthenium, Ficus, and Euphorbia. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

  20. Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate cis-1,4-Polyisoprenyl Transferase from Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray).

    PubMed

    Madhavan, S; Benedict, C R

    1984-08-01

    Electron micrographs of the mesophyll cells of guayule Parthenium argentatum Gray leaves show deposits of cis-polyisoprene (rubber) in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of mitochondria and chloroplasts and demonstrate that the rubber-synthesizing enzymes are present in guayule leaves. The terminal step in the synthesis of cis-polyisoprene from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) catalyzed by isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1,4-polyisoprenyl transferase has been demonstrated in crude leaf extracts by the enzymic incorporation of [(14)C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate into the polymer and the recovery of [(14)C]levulinic acid following ozonolysis. The rubber transferase activity in the crude extracts of guayule leaves was 5.8 nanomoles isopentenyl pyrophosphate incorporated per milligram protein per hour. This is the first description of the rubber transferase from a nonlaticiferous plant.The specific activity (in units of nanomoles IPP converted per milligram protein per hour) of the partially purified enzyme following chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose columns was 41.7 units and contained 0.29 units of IPP isomerase activity and 0.08 units of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity. The rubber transferase requires reduced glutathione and Mg(2+) for maximal activity. There was no incorporation of IPP into cis-1,4-polyisoprene in the absence of rubber particles as primer, and Langmuir isotherm plots showed that the specific activity of the enzyme was proportional to the concentration of the enzyme on the surface of the rubber particles. For a given rubber particle distribution, enzyme activity was proportional to time, IPP concentration, and rubber concentration. The addition of 0.4 millimolar dimethylallyl pyrophosphate to the rubber transferase reaction resulted in a 2-fold increase in the incorporation of IPP into rubber. A comparison was made of the relative activities of rubber transferase in different species of Parthenium, Ficus, and Euphorbia.

  1. Glutathione S-transferase class {pi} polymorphism in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Aivaliotis, M.J.; Cantu, T.; Gilligan, R.

    1995-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) comprises a family of isozymes with broad substrate specificities. One or more GST isozymes are present in most animal tissues and function in several detoxification pathways through the conjugation of reduced glutathione with various electrophiles, thereby reducing their potential toxicity. Four soluble GST isozymes encoded by genes on different chromosomes have been identified in humans. The acidic class pi GST, GSTP (previously designated GST-3), is widely distributed in adult tissues and appears to be the only GST isozyme present in leukocytes and placenta. Previously reported electrophoretic analyses of erythrocyte and leukocyte extracts revealed single bands of activity, which differed slightly in mobility between the two cell types, or under other conditions, a two-banded pattern. To our knowledge, no genetically determined polymorphisms have previously been reported in GSTP from any species. We now report a polymorphism of GSTP in baboon leukocytes, and present family data that verifies autosomal codominant inheritance. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock MRI of glucose analog 3-O-methyl-d-glucose in normal and ischemic brain.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Mehrens, Hunter; Wang, Ping; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2017-01-01

    Glucose transport is important for understanding brain glucose metabolism. We studied glucose transport with a presumably non-toxic and non-metabolizable glucose analog, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, using a chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock MRI technique at 9.4 Tesla. 3-O-methyl-d-glucose showed comparable chemical exchange properties with d-glucose and 2-deoxy-d-glucose in phantoms, and higher and lower chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock sensitivity than Glc and 2-deoxy-d-glucose in in vivo experiments, respectively. The changes of the spin-lattice relaxation rate in the rotating frame (Δ R1ρ) in normal rat brain peaked at ∼15 min after the intravenous injection of 1 g/kg 3-O-methyl-d-glucose and almost maintained a plateau for >1 h. Doses up to 4 g/kg 3-O-methyl-d-glucose were linearly correlated with Δ R1ρ. In rats with focal ischemic stroke, chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock with 3-O-methyl-d-glucose injection at 1 h after stroke onset showed reduced Δ R1ρ in the ischemic core but higher Δ R1ρ in the peri-core region compared to normal tissue, which progressed into the ischemic core at 3 h after stroke onset. This suggests that the hyper-chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock region observed at 1 h is the ischemic penumbra at-risk of infarct. In summary, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose-chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock can be a sensitive MRI technique to probe the glucose transport in normal and ischemic brains.

  3. Red clover HCT2, a hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A:malate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, plays a crucial role in biosynthesis of phaselic acid and other hydroxycinnamoyl-malate esters in vivo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves, phaselic acid (2-O-caffeoyl-L-malate) accumulates to several mmol kg-1 fresh weight and is a crucial component of a natural system that prevents protein breakdown during harvest and storage of this forage crop. Previously, we identified HCT2, a red clover g...

  4. Consumption of fructose- but not glucose-sweetened beverages for 10 weeks increases circulating concentrations of uric acid, retinol binding protein-4, and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in overweight/obese humans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prospective studies in humans examining the effects of fructose consumption on biological markers associated with the development of metabolic syndrome are lacking. Therefore we investigated the relative effects of 10 wks of fructose or glucose consumption on plasma uric acid and RBP-4 concentrations, as well as liver enzyme (AST, ALT, and GGT) activities in men and women. Methods As part of a parallel arm study, older (age 40–72), overweight and obese male and female subjects (BMI 25–35 kg/m2) consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 wks. Fasting and 24-h blood collections were performed at baseline and following 10 wks of intervention and plasma concentrations of uric acid, RBP-4 and liver enzyme activities were measured. Results Consumption of fructose, but not glucose, led to significant increases of 24-h uric acid profiles (P < 0.0001) and RBP-4 concentrations (P = 0.012), as well as plasma GGT activity (P = 0.04). Fasting plasma uric acid concentrations increased in both groups; however, the response was significantly greater in subjects consuming fructose (P = 0.002 for effect of sugar). Within the fructose group male subjects exhibited larger increases of RBP-4 levels than women (P = 0.024). Conclusions These findings suggest that consumption of fructose at 25% of energy requirements for 10 wks, compared with isocaloric consumption of glucose, may contribute to the development of components of the metabolic syndrome by increasing circulating uric acid, GGT activity, suggesting alteration of hepatic function, and the production of RBP-4. PMID:22828276

  5. Crystallographic trapping of the glutamyl-CoA thioester intermediate of family I CoA transferases

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan,E.; Li, Y.; Ajamian, E.; Iannuzzi, P.; Kernaghan, S.; Fraser, M.; Cygler, M.; Matte, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coenzyme A transferases are involved in a broad range of biochemical processes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and exhibit a diverse range of substrate specificities. The YdiF protein from Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an acyl-CoA transferase of unknown physiological function, and belongs to a large sequence family of CoA transferases, present in bacteria to humans, which utilize oxoacids as acceptors. In vitro measurements showed that YdiF displays enzymatic activity with short-chain acyl-CoAs. The crystal structures of YdiF and its complex with CoA, the first co-crystal structure for any Family I CoA transferase, have been determined and refined at 1.9 and 2.0 Angstrom resolution, respectively. YdiF is organized into tetramers, with each monomer having an open {alpha}/{beta} structure characteristic of Family I CoA transferases. Co-crystallization of YdiF with a variety of CoA thioesters in the absence of acceptor carboxylic acid resulted in trapping a covalent {gamma}-glutamyl-CoA thioester intermediate. The CoA binds within a well defined pocket at the N- and C-terminal domain interface, but makes contact only with the C-terminal domain. The structure of the YdiF complex provides a basis for understanding the different catalytic steps in the reaction of Family I CoA transferases.

  6. Tiny Molecular Beacons: LNA/2'-O-methyl RNA Chimeric Probes for Imaging Dynamic mRNA Processes in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Catrina, Irina E.; Marras, Salvatore A.E.; Bratu, Diana P.

    2012-01-01

    New approaches for imaging dynamic processes involving RNAs in living cells are continuously being developed and optimized. The use of molecular beacons synthesized from 2'-O-methylribonucleotides (which are resistant to cellular nucleases) is an established approach for visualizing native mRNAs in real time. In order to spatially and temporally resolve dynamic steps involving RNA in cells, molecular beacons need to efficiently hybridize to their RNA targets. To expand the repertoire of target sites accessible to molecular beacons, we decreased the length of their probe sequences and altered their backbone by the inclusion of LNA (locked nucleic acid) nucleotides. We named these new LNA/2'-O-methyl RNA chimera oligonucleotides, “tiny molecular beacons”. We analyzed these tiny molecular beacons and found that the incorporation of just a few LNA nucleotides enables these shorter probes to stably anneal to more structured regions of the RNA than is possible with conventional molecular beacons. The ease of synthesis of tiny molecular beacons, and the flexibility to couple them to a large variety of fluorophores and quenchers, renders them optimal for the detection of less abundant and/or highly structured RNAs. To determine their efficiency to detect endogenous mRNAs in live specimens, we designed tiny molecular beacons that were specific for oskar mRNA and microinjected them into living Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. We then imaged the live oocytes via spinning disc confocal microscopy. The results demonstrate that tiny molecular beacons hybridize to target mRNA at faster rates than classically designed molecular beacons, and are able to access previously inaccessible target regions. PMID:22738327

  7. Effective incorporation of 2'-O-methyl-oligoribonucleotides into liposomes and enhanced cell association through modification with thiocholesterol.

    PubMed

    Oberhauser, B; Wagner, E

    1992-02-11

    Cholesterol was linked to 2'-O-methyl-oligoribonucleotides (2'-OMe-RNA) via a disulfide bond by reacting the 3'-(pyridyldithio)-modified 2'-OMe-RNA with thiocholesterol in dichloromethane-methanol solution. This ligation reaction was made possible by a novel strategy in which the highly charged oligonucleotide was rendered soluble in nonaqueous solvent through conversion to a lipophilic amidinium salt. The biodegradable lipophilic modification of 2'-OMe-RNA resulted in a large increase in incorporation of such oligonucleotides into liposomes prepared by reversephase evaporation. Furthermore, association of these modified oligonucleotides with cultured TIB 73 cells was 100-fold higher than that seen with unmodified 2'-OMe-RNA in serum-free medium and about 10 to 30-fold higher in the presence of 10% calf serum. During incubation with cells, release of the internalized oligonucleotide from the thiocholesteryl moiety can be demonstrated.

  8. Effective incorporation of 2'-O-methyl-oligoribonucleotides into liposomes and enhanced cell association through modification with thiocholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Oberhauser, B; Wagner, E

    1992-01-01

    Cholesterol was linked to 2'-O-methyl-oligoribonucleotides (2'-OMe-RNA) via a disulfide bond by reacting the 3'-(pyridyldithio)-modified 2'-OMe-RNA with thiocholesterol in dichloromethane-methanol solution. This ligation reaction was made possible by a novel strategy in which the highly charged oligonucleotide was rendered soluble in nonaqueous solvent through conversion to a lipophilic amidinium salt. The biodegradable lipophilic modification of 2'-OMe-RNA resulted in a large increase in incorporation of such oligonucleotides into liposomes prepared by reversephase evaporation. Furthermore, association of these modified oligonucleotides with cultured TIB 73 cells was 100-fold higher than that seen with unmodified 2'-OMe-RNA in serum-free medium and about 10 to 30-fold higher in the presence of 10% calf serum. During incubation with cells, release of the internalized oligonucleotide from the thiocholesteryl moiety can be demonstrated. PMID:1741287

  9. Total synthesis of siphonazole and its O-methyl derivative, structurally unusual bis-oxazole natural products.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jörg; Blake, Alexander J; Moody, Christopher J

    2008-11-07

    The details of the first syntheses of the unusual bis-oxazole natural products siphonazole and its O-methyl derivative are reported. The cinnamyl substituted oxazole was constructed using diazocarbonyl chemistry, whereby the cinnamamide was reacted with the rhodium carbene derived from methyl 2-diazo-3-oxobutanoate to give a beta-ketoamide that was cyclodehydrated to the corresponding oxazole-4-ester. Reduction to the corresponding aldehyde was followed by coupling with a zinc reagent derived from methyl 2-iodomethyl-5-methyloxazole-4-carboxylate, also prepared using rhodium carbene chemistry, to give, after oxidation of the resulting secondary alcohol, the desired bis-oxazole ketone. The syntheses were completed by hydrolysis of the ester and coupling of the 2,4-pentadienylamine side chain.

  10. Syn- and anti-conformations of 5'-deoxy- and 5'-O-methyl-uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Grabarkiewicz, Tomasz; Hoffmann, Marcin

    2006-01-01

    Two uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (cUMP) derivatives, 5'-deoxy (DcUMP) and 5'-O-methyl (McUMP), were studied by means of quantum chemical methods. Aqueous solvent effects were estimated based on the isodensity-surface polarized-continuum model (IPCM). Gas phase calculations revealed only slight energy differences between the syn- and anti-conformers of both compounds: the relative energies of the syn-structure are -0.9 and 0.2 kcal mol(-1) for DcUMP and McUMP, respectively. According to the results from the IPCM calculations, however, both syn-conformers become about 14 kcal mol(-1) more stable in aqueous solution than their corresponding anti-structures. Additionally, the effects of a countercation and protonation on DcUMP were studied, revealing that the syn-structure is also favored over the anti-one for these systems.

  11. Synthesis and immunodetection of 6-O-methyl-phosphoramidyl-α-D-galactose: a Campylobacter jejuni antigenic determinant.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yuening; Ma, Zuchao; Ewing, Cheryl P; Guerry, Patricia; Monteiro, Mario A

    2015-12-11

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea. Previously, we have shown that a C. jejuni capsule polysaccharide (CPS) conjugate vaccine can fully prevent C.jejuni diarrhea in non-human primates. C.jejuni CPSs are decorated with non-stoichiometric amounts of O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) units that are key serospecific markers. In the case of C.jejuni serotype complex HS23/36, the MeOPN are at positions 2 and 6 of the CPS galactose (Gal). We describe here the synthesis of the p-methoxyphenyl glycoside of MeOPN→6-α-D-Galp, and its immunodetection by antisera raised by C.jejuni CPS conjugates with MeOPN at primary positions. The synthetic approach in this work served as the foundation for a similar MeOPN→6-Gal construct used in a conjugate vaccine, whose synthesis, immunogenicity and efficacy will be described elsewhere.

  12. IFIT1: A dual sensor and effector molecule that detects non-2'-O methylated viral RNA and inhibits its translation

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the antiviral actions of IFIT1, one of the most strongly induced interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), has advanced remarkably within the last few years. This review focuses on the recent cellular, biochemical, and structural discoveries that have provided new insight as to how IFIT1 functions as both a sensor and effector molecule of the cellular innate immune system. IFIT1 can detect viral RNA lacking 2’-O methylation on their cap structures or displaying a 5’-triphosphate moiety and inhibit their translation or sequester them from active replication. Because of these inhibitory actions, many viruses have evolved unique mechanisms to evade IFIT1 to facilitate replication, spread of infection, and disease pathogenesis. PMID:24909568

  13. Fate and O-methylating detoxification of Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in two earthworms (Metaphire guillelmi and Eisenia fetida).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xian; Gu, Jianqiang; Wang, Yongfeng; Gu, Xueyuan; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Xiaorong; Ji, Rong

    2017-08-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the world's most widely used brominated flame retardant but there is growing concern about its fate and toxicity in terrestrial organisms. In this study, two ecologically different earthworms, Metaphire guillelmi and Eisenia fetida, were exposed to soil spiked with (14)C-labeled TBBPA for 21 days. M. guillelmi accumulated more TBBPA than E. fetida, evidenced by a 2.7-fold higher (14)C-uptake rate and a 1.3-fold higher biota-soil accumulation factor. Considerable amounts of bound residues (up to 40% for M. guillelmi and 18% for E. fetida) formed rapidly in the bodies of both earthworms. (14)C accumulated mostly in the gut of M. guillemi and in the skin of E. fetida, suggesting that its uptake by M. guillelmi was mainly via gut processes whereas in E. fetida epidermal adsorption predominated. The TBBPA transformation potential was greater in M. guillelmi than in E. fetida, since only 5% vs. 34% of extractable (14)C remained as the parent compound after 21 days of exposure. Besides polar metabolites, the major metabolites in both earthworms were TBBPA mono- and dimethyl ethers (O-methylation products of TBBPA). Acute toxicity assessments using filter paper and natural soil tests showed that the methylation metabolites were much less toxic than the parent TBBPA to both earthworms. It indicated that earthworms used O-methylation to detoxify TBBPA, and M. guillelmi exhibited the higher detoxification ability than E. fetida. These results imply that if only the free parent compound TBBPA is measured, not only bioaccumulation may be underestimated but also its difference between earthworm species may be misestimated. The species-dependent fate of TBBPA may provide a better indicator of the differing sensitivities of earthworms to this environmental contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. C/D box sRNA-guided 2'-O-methylation patterns of archaeal rRNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Patrick P; Tripp, Vanessa; Lui, Lauren; Lowe, Todd; Randau, Lennart

    2015-08-22

    In archaea and eukaryotes, ribonucleoprotein complexes containing small C/D box s(no)RNAs use base pair complementarity to target specific sites within ribosomal RNA for 2'-O-ribose methylation. These modifications aid in the folding and stabilization of nascent rRNA molecules and their assembly into ribosomal particles. The genomes of hyperthermophilic archaea encode large numbers of C/D box sRNA genes, suggesting an increased necessity for rRNA stabilization at extreme growth temperatures. We have identified the complete sets of C/D box sRNAs from seven archaea using RNA-Seq methodology. In total, 489 C/D box sRNAs were identified, each containing two guide regions. A combination of computational and manual analyses predicts 719 guide interactions with 16S and 23S rRNA molecules. This first pan-archaeal description of guide sequences identifies (i) modified rRNA nucleotides that are frequently conserved between species and (ii) regions within rRNA that are hotspots for 2'-O-methylation. Gene duplication, rearrangement, mutational drift and convergent evolution of sRNA genes and guide sequences were observed. In addition, several C/D box sRNAs were identified that use their two guides to target locations distant in the rRNA sequence but close in the secondary and tertiary structure. We propose that they act as RNA chaperones and facilitate complex folding events between distant sequences. This pan-archaeal analysis of C/D box sRNA guide regions identified conserved patterns of rRNA 2'-O-methylation in archaea. The interaction between the sRNP complexes and the nascent rRNA facilitates proper folding and the methyl modifications stabilize higher order rRNA structure within the assembled ribosome.

  15. Live Cell Analysis and Mathematical Modeling Identify Determinants of Attenuation of Dengue Virus 2’-O-Methylation Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Ruggieri, Alessia; Acosta, Eliana Gisela; Bartenschlager, Marie; Reuter, Antje; Fischl, Wolfgang; Harder, Nathalie; Bergeest, Jan-Philip; Flossdorf, Michael; Rohr, Karl; Höfer, Thomas; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common mosquito-transmitted virus infecting ~390 million people worldwide. In spite of this high medical relevance, neither a vaccine nor antiviral therapy is currently available. DENV elicits a strong interferon (IFN) response in infected cells, but at the same time actively counteracts IFN production and signaling. Although the kinetics of activation of this innate antiviral defense and the timing of viral counteraction critically determine the magnitude of infection and thus disease, quantitative and kinetic analyses are lacking and it remains poorly understood how DENV spreads in IFN-competent cell systems. To dissect the dynamics of replication versus antiviral defense at the single cell level, we generated a fully viable reporter DENV and host cells with authentic reporters for IFN-stimulated antiviral genes. We find that IFN controls DENV infection in a kinetically determined manner that at the single cell level is highly heterogeneous and stochastic. Even at high-dose, IFN does not fully protect all cells in the culture and, therefore, viral spread occurs even in the face of antiviral protection of naïve cells by IFN. By contrast, a vaccine candidate DENV mutant, which lacks 2’-O-methylation of viral RNA is profoundly attenuated in IFN-competent cells. Through mathematical modeling of time-resolved data and validation experiments we show that the primary determinant for attenuation is the accelerated kinetics of IFN production. This rapid induction triggered by mutant DENV precedes establishment of IFN-resistance in infected cells, thus causing a massive reduction of virus production rate. In contrast, accelerated protection of naïve cells by paracrine IFN action has negligible impact. In conclusion, these results show that attenuation of the 2’-O-methylation DENV mutant is primarily determined by kinetics of autocrine IFN action on infected cells. PMID:26720415

  16. Flash Photolysis Experiment of o-Methyl Red as a Function of pH: A Low-Cost Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Molly C.; Perkins, Russell J.

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost, time-resolved spectroscopy experiment appropriate for third year physical chemistry students is presented. Students excite o-methyl red in basic solutions with a laser pointer and use a modular spectrometer with a CCD array detector to monitor the transient spectra as the higher-energy cis conformer of the molecule converts back to the…

  17. O-METHYL PHOSPHORAMIDATE MODIFICATIONS ON THE CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI ARE INVOLVED IN SERUM RESISTANCE, INFECTION, AND INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported cause of bacterial foodborne illness in North America. C. jejuni decorates its surface polysaccharides with a variety of variable phosphorylated structures, including O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modifications on the capsular polysaccharide. Alt...

  18. Flash Photolysis Experiment of o-Methyl Red as a Function of pH: A Low-Cost Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Molly C.; Perkins, Russell J.

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost, time-resolved spectroscopy experiment appropriate for third year physical chemistry students is presented. Students excite o-methyl red in basic solutions with a laser pointer and use a modular spectrometer with a CCD array detector to monitor the transient spectra as the higher-energy cis conformer of the molecule converts back to the…

  19. Synergistic and independent actions of multiple terminal nucleotidyl transferases in the 3' tailing of small RNAs in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Shuxin; Dou, Yongchao; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Xuemei; Yu, Bin; Ren, Guodong

    2015-04-01

    All types of small RNAs in plants, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in animals and a subset of siRNAs in Drosophila and C. elegans are subject to HEN1 mediated 3' terminal 2'-O-methylation. This modification plays a pivotal role in protecting small RNAs from 3' uridylation, trimming and degradation. In Arabidopsis, HESO1 is a major enzyme that uridylates small RNAs to trigger their degradation. However, U-tail is still present in null hen1 heso1 mutants, suggesting the existence of (an) enzymatic activities redundant with HESO1. Here, we report that UTP: RNA uridylyltransferase (URT1) is a functional paralog of HESO1. URT1 interacts with AGO1 and plays a predominant role in miRNA uridylation when HESO1 is absent. Uridylation of miRNA is globally abolished in a hen1 heso1 urt1 triple mutant, accompanied by an extensive increase of 3'-to-5' trimming. In contrast, disruption of URT1 appears not to affect the heterochromatic siRNA uridylation. This indicates the involvement of additional nucleotidyl transferases in the siRNA pathway. Analysis of miRNA tailings in the hen1 heso1 urt1 triple mutant also reveals the existence of previously unknown enzymatic activities that can add non-uridine nucleotides. Importantly, we show HESO1 may also act redundantly with URT1 in miRNA uridylation when HEN1 is fully competent. Taken together, our data not only reveal a synergistic action of HESO1 and URT1 in the 3' uridylation of miRNAs, but also independent activities of multiple terminal nucleotidyl transferases in the 3' tailing of small RNAs and an antagonistic relationship between uridylation and trimming. Our results may provide further insight into the mechanisms of small RNA 3' end modification and stability control.

  20. Cloning, expression and properties of porcine trachea UDP-galnac: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, Sreedhara; Swain, Ja Baris; McNear, Adrian; Mendicino, Joseph

    2004-11-01

    A UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase which catalyses the transfer of GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc to serine and threonine residues in mucin polypeptide chains was purified to homogeneity from swine trachea epithelium (Mendicino J, Sangadala S: Mol Cell Biochem 185: 135-145, 1998). Peptides obtained by proteolysis of the purified enzyme were isolated, sequenced and used to prepare degenerate oligonucleotide primers. Amplified segments of a gene encoding GalNAc transferase were synthesised using the primers and a swine trachea epithelial cDNA library. Selected cDNA fragments were then used to screen the cDNA library, and a clone containing an open reading frame encoding 559 amino acids was isolated. The predicted amino acid sequence contains type II transmembrane region, three potential N-glycosylation sites as well as all of the isolated peptide sequences. The nucleotide sequence and predicted primary protein structure of the transferase were very similar to those of type T-1 GalNAc transferases. The isolated clone was transiently expressed in COS 7 cells and the recombinant enzyme, which contained an N-terminal hexa-histidine tag, was purified to homogeneity and its enzymatic properties were examined. The Vmax of the recombinant enzyme, 2.08 micromol/(min mg), was nearly the same as the native enzyme, 2.12 micromol/(min mg), when assayed with partially deglycosylated mucins as glycosyl acceptors. Both enzymes showed much higher activities when assayed with peptides prepared by limited acid hydrolysis of incompletely deglycosylated Cowper's gland, swine, and human respiratory mucins and tryptic peptides isolated from deglycosylated mucin polypeptide chains. However, as noted earlier (Mendicino J, Sangadala S: Mol Cell Biochem 185: 135-145, 1998), these enzymes showed very little activity with completely deglycosylated mucin polypeptide chains. When completely deglycosylated polypeptide chains were partially glycosylated by incubation with microsome

  1. Studies of the relationship between the catalytic activity and binding of non-substrate ligands by the glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, T D; Vessey, D A; Holcomb, C; Saley, N

    1984-01-01

    The dimeric enzyme glutathione S-transferase B is composed of two dissimilar subunits, referred to as Ya and Yc. Transferase B (YaYc) and two other transferases that are homodimers of the individual Ya and Yc subunits were purified from rat liver. Inhibition of these three enzymes by Indocyanine Green, biliverdin and several bile acids was investigated at different values of pH (range 6.0-8.0). Indocyanine Green, biliverdin and chenodeoxycholate were found to be effective inhibitors of transferases YaYc and YcYc at low (pH 6.0) but not high (pH 8.0) values of pH. Between these extremes of pH intermediate degrees of inhibition were observed. Cholate and taurochenodeoxycholate, however, were ineffective inhibitors of transferase YcYc at all values of pH. The observed differences in bile acids appeared to be due, in part, to differences in their state of ionization. In contrast with the above results, transferase YaYa was inhibited by at least 80% by the non-substrate ligands at all values of pH. These effects of pH on the three transferases could not be accounted for by pH-induced changes in the enzyme's affinity for the inhibitor. Thus those glutathione S-transferases that contain the Yc subunit are able to act simultaneously as both enzymes and binding proteins. In addition to enzyme structure, the state of ionization of the non-substrate ligands may also influence whether the transferases can perform both functions simultaneously. PMID:6696720

  2. Characterization of spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferases from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative Solanum richardii Dunal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eggplant produces a variety of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) that play an important role in plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. However, the HCAA pathway remains largely uncharacterized in Solanaceae. In this study, a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (SHT) from eg...

  3. Identification of a diazinon-metabolizing glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Yamada, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferase superfamily play key roles in the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics. We report herein the identification and characterization of a novel glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The enzyme (bmGSTu2) conjugates glutathione to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, as well as metabolizing diazinon, one of the organophosphate insecticides. Quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis of transcripts demonstrated that bmGSTu2 expression was induced 1.7-fold in a resistant strain of B. mori. Mutagenesis of putative amino acid residues in the glutathione-binding site revealed that Ile54, Glu66, Ser67, and Asn68 are crucial for enzymatic function. These results provide insights into the catalysis of glutathione conjugation in silkworm by bmGSTu2 and into the detoxification of organophosphate insecticides. PMID:27440377

  4. Enzymatic Cleavage of Type II Restriction Endonucleases on the 2′-O-Methyl Nucleotide and Phosphorothioate Substituted DNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guojie; Li, Jun; Tong, Zhaoxue; Zhao, Bin; Mu, Runqing; Guan, Yifu

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nucleotide analogue substitution on the cleavage efficiencies of type II restriction endonucleases have been investigated. Six restriction endonucleases (EcoRV, SpeI, XbaI, XhoI, PstI and SphI) were investigated respectively regarding their cleavage when substrates were substituted by 2′-O-methyl nucleotide (2′-OMeN) and phosphorothioate (PS). Substitutions were made in the recognition sequence and the two nucleotides flanking the recognition sequence for each endonuclease. The endonuclease cleavage efficiencies were determined using FRET-based assay. Results demonstrated a position-dependent inhibitory effect of substitution on the cleavage efficiency for all the six endonucleases. In general, the 2′-OMeN substitutions had greater impact than the PS substitutions on the enzymatic activities. Nucleotides of optimal substitutions for protection against RE cleavage were identified. Experimental results and conclusions in this study facilitate our insight into the DNA-protein interactions and the enzymatic cleavage mechanism, particularly for those whose detailed structure information is not available. In addition, the information could benefit the development of bioengineering and synthetic biology. PMID:24260216

  5. Enzymatic cleavage of type II restriction endonucleases on the 2'-O-methyl nucleotide and phosphorothioate substituted DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guojie; Li, Jun; Tong, Zhaoxue; Zhao, Bin; Mu, Runqing; Guan, Yifu

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nucleotide analogue substitution on the cleavage efficiencies of type II restriction endonucleases have been investigated. Six restriction endonucleases (EcoRV, SpeI, XbaI, XhoI, PstI and SphI) were investigated respectively regarding their cleavage when substrates were substituted by 2'-O-methyl nucleotide (2'-OMeN) and phosphorothioate (PS). Substitutions were made in the recognition sequence and the two nucleotides flanking the recognition sequence for each endonuclease. The endonuclease cleavage efficiencies were determined using FRET-based assay. Results demonstrated a position-dependent inhibitory effect of substitution on the cleavage efficiency for all the six endonucleases. In general, the 2'-OMeN substitutions had greater impact than the PS substitutions on the enzymatic activities. Nucleotides of optimal substitutions for protection against RE cleavage were identified. Experimental results and conclusions in this study facilitate our insight into the DNA-protein interactions and the enzymatic cleavage mechanism, particularly for those whose detailed structure information is not available. In addition, the information could benefit the development of bioengineering and synthetic biology.

  6. Evaluation of a di-O-methylated glycan as a potential antigenic target for the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Elefant, G R; Roldán, W H; Seeböck, A; Kosma, P

    2016-04-01

    Serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis is based on the detection of specific IgG antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Toxocara larvae excretory-secretory (TES) antigens, but its production is a laborious and time-consuming process being also limited by the availability of adult females of T. canis as source for ova to obtain larvae. Chemical synthesis of the di-O-methylated (DiM) glycan structure found in the TES antigens has provided material for studying the antibody reactivity in a range of mammalian hosts, showing reactivity with human IgM and IgG. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of the DiM glycan against a panel of sera including patients with toxocariasis (n = 60), patients with other helminth infections (n = 75) and healthy individuals (n = 94), showing that DiM is able to detect IgG antibodies with a sensitivity and specificity of 91·7% and 94·7%, respectively, with a very good agreement with the TES antigens (kappa = 0·825). However, cross-reactivity was observed in some sera from patients with ascariasis, hymenolepiasis and fascioliasis. These results show that the DiM glycan could be a promising antigenic tool for the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  7. Intramolecular Oxidative O-Demethylation of an Oxoferryl Porphyrin Complexed with a Per-O-methylated β-Cyclodextrin Dimer.

    PubMed

    Kitagishi, Hiroaki; Kurosawa, Shun; Kano, Koji

    2016-11-22

    The intramolecular oxidation of ROCH3 to ROCH2 OH, where the latter compound spontaneously decomposed to ROH and HCHO, was observed during the reaction of the supramolecular complex (met-hemoCD3) with cumene hydroperoxide in aqueous solution. Met-hemoCD3 is composed of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphinatoiron(III) (Fe(III) TPPS) and a per-O-methylated β-cyclodextrin dimer having an -OCH2 PyCH2 O- linker (Py=pyridine-3,5-diyl). The O=Fe(IV) TPPS complex was formed by the reaction of met-hemoCD3 with cumene hydroperoxide, and isolated by gel-filtration chromatography. Although the isolated O=Fe(IV) TPPS complex in the cyclodextrin cage was stable in aqueous solution at 25 °C, it was gradually converted to Fe(II) TPPS (t1/2 =7.6 h). This conversion was accompanied by oxidative O-demethylation of an OCH3 group in the cyclodextrin dimer. The results indicated that hydrogen abstraction by O=Fe(IV) TPPS from ROCH3 yields HO-Fe(III) TPPS and ROCH2(.) . This was followed by radical coupling to afford Fe(II) TPPS and ROCH2 OH. The hemiacetal (ROCH2 OH) immediately decomposed to ROH and HCHO. This study revealed the ability of oxoferryl porphyrin to induce two-electron oxidation. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cloning and expression of clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetoacetyl-coenzyme A:acetate/butyrate:coenzyme A-transferase in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.W.; Petersen, D.J.; Bennett, G.N. ); Papoutsakis, E.T. )

    1990-06-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase (acetoacetyl-CoA:acetate/butyrate:CoA-transferase (butyrate-acetoacetate CoA-transferase) (EC 2.8.3.9)) of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is an important enzyme in the metabolic shift between the acid-producing and solvent-forming states of this organism. The genes encoding the two subunits of this enzyme have been cloned and subsequent subcloning experiments established the position of the structural genes for CoA-transferase. Complementation of Escherichia coli ato mutants with the recombinant plasmid pCoAT4 (pUC19 carrying a 1.8-kilobase insert of C. acetobutylicum DNA encoding CoA-transferase activity) enabled the transformants to grow on butyrate as a sole carbon source. Despite the ability of CoA-transferase to complement the ato defect in E. coli mutants, Southern blot and Western blot (immunoblot) analyses showed showed that neither the C. acetobutylicum genes encoding CoA-transferase nor the enzyme itself shared any apparent homology with its E. coli counterpart. Polypeptides of M{sub r} of the purified CoA-transferase subunits were observed by Western blot and maxicell analysis of whole-cell extracts of E.coli harboring pCoAT4. The proximity and orientation of the genes suggest that the genes encoding the two subunits of CoA-transferase may form an operon similar to that found in E. coli. In the plasmid, however, transcription appears to be primarily from the lac promoter of the vector.

  9. Isolation, purification and identification of ellagic acid derivatives, catechins, and procyanidins from the root bark of Anisophyllea dichostyla R. Br.

    PubMed

    Khallouki, F; Haubner, R; Hull, W E; Erben, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2007-03-01

    The root bark of Anisophyllea dichostyla R. Br. is traditionally used in the Democratic Republic Congo for the treatment of several conditions such as anorexia, fatigue and intestinal infections. We have identified and quantitated several polyphenol antioxidants in the methanol extract of the root bark (120g). The polyphenol content (3.32g/kg) was predominantly ellagitannins (25%) and polyhydroxyflavan-3-ols (catechins and procyanidins, 75%) with 3'-O-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxo ellagic acid 4'-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside and (-)-epicatechin as the major species in each class. These two compounds and the following species were identified unequivocally by NMR spectroscopy: (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate, 3-O-methyl ellagic acid, 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid, 3'-O-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxo ellagic acid, 3'-O-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxo ellagic acid 4'-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, and 3'-O-methyl ellagic acid 4-O-beta-d-xylopyranoside. The following additional compounds were purified by semi-preparative HPLC and tentatively identified on the basis of UV spectra, HPLC-ESI-MS and nano-ESI-MS-MS: (+)-catechin-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin (procyanidin B(1)), epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B(2)), an (epi)catechin trimer, 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, (-)-epicatechin 3-O-vanillate, 3,4-methylenedioxo ellagic acid 4'-O- beta-d-glucopyranoside, and 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid 4-O-beta-d-xylopyranoside. Fractionation of the raw extract by column chromatography on silicic acid yielded 10 fractions. In the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase antioxidant assay system, CC-9 which contained a range of polyphenols dominated by (-)-epicatechin-O-gallate proved to be the most potent antioxidant fraction (IC(50)=52 micro g/mL) in terms of ROS scavenging. In terms of XO inhibition CC-8, dominated by (epi)catechin trimer and which also contained appreciable amounts of 3'-O-methyl ellagic acid 4'-O

  10. Systematic analysis of O-methyltransferase gene family and identification of potential members involved in the formation of O-methylated flavonoids in Citrus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaogang; Luo, Yan; Wu, Hongkun; Xi, Wanpeng; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-01-10

    The O-methylation of various secondary metabolites is mainly catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase (OMT) proteins that are encoded by the O-methyltransferase gene family. Citrus fruits are a rich source of O-methylated flavonoids that have a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiatherogenic properties. However, little is known about this gene family and its members that are involved in the O-methylation of flavonoids and their regulation in Citrus. In this study, 58 OMT genes were identified from the entire Citrus sinensis genome and compared with those from 3 other representative dicot plants. A comprehensive analysis was performed, including functional/substrate predictions, identification of chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and conserved motifs. Distribution mapping revealed that the 58 OMT genes were unevenly distributed on the 9 citrus chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of 164 OMT proteins from C.sinensis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, and Vitis vinifera showed that these proteins were categorized into group I (COMT subfamily) and group II (CCoAOMT subfamily), which were further divided into 10 and 2 subgroups, respectively. Finally, digital gene expression and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that citrus OMT genes had distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different tissues and developmental stages. Interestingly, 18 and 11 of the 27 genes predicted to be involved in O-methylation of flavonoids had higher expression in the peel and pulp during fruit development, respectively. The citrus OMT gene family identified in this study might help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and facilitate functional studies in Citrus.

  11. Inactivation of Anopheles gambiae Glutathione Transferase ε2 by Epiphyllocoumarin

    PubMed Central

    Marimo, Patience; Hayeshi, Rose; Mukanganyama, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are part of a major family of detoxifying enzymes that can catalyze the reductive dehydrochlorination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The delta and epsilon classes of insect GSTs have been implicated in conferring resistance to this insecticide. In this study, the inactivation of Anopheles gambiae GSTε2 by epiphyllocoumarin (Tral 1) was investigated. Recombinant AgGSTε2 was expressed in Escherichia coli cells containing a pET3a-AGSTε2 plasmid and purified by affinity chromatography. Tral 1 was shown to inactivate GSTε2 both in a time-dependent manner and in a concentration-dependent manner. The half-life of GSTε2 in the presence of 25 μM ethacrynic acid (ETA) was 22 minutes and with Tral 1 was 30 minutes, indicating that Tral 1 was not as efficient as ETA as an inactivator. The inactivation parameters kinact and KI were found to be 0.020 ± 0.001 min−1 and 7.5 ± 2.1 μM, respectively, after 90 minutes of incubation. Inactivation of GSTε2 by Tral 1 implies that Tral 1 covalently binds to this enzyme in vitro and would be expected to exhibit time-dependent effects on the enzyme in vivo. Tral 1, therefore, would produce irreversible effects when used together with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria control programmes where resistance is mediated by GSTs. PMID:26925266

  12. Crystal structure of E. coli lipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase.

    PubMed

    Mao, Guotao; Zhao, Yan; Kang, Xusheng; Li, Zhijie; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xianping; Sun, Fei; Sankaran, Krishnan; Zhang, Xuejun C

    2016-01-05

    Lipoprotein biogenesis is essential for bacterial survival. Phosphatidylglycerol:prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt) is an integral membrane enzyme that catalyses the first reaction of the three-step post-translational lipid modification. Deletion of the lgt gene is lethal to most Gram-negative bacteria. Here we present the crystal structures of Escherichia coli Lgt in complex with phosphatidylglycerol and the inhibitor palmitic acid at 1.9 and 1.6 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal the presence of two binding sites and support the previously reported structure-function relationships of Lgt. Complementation results of lgt-knockout cells with different mutant Lgt variants revealed critical residues, including Arg143 and Arg239, that are essential for diacylglyceryl transfer. Using a GFP-based in vitro assay, we correlated the activities of Lgt with structural observations. Together, the structural and biochemical data support a mechanism whereby substrate and product, lipid-modified lipobox-containing peptide, enter and leave the enzyme laterally relative to the lipid bilayer.

  13. Microbially mediated O-methylation of bisphenol A results in metabolites with increased toxicity to the developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Jessica M; Van Es, Theo; Cooper, Keith R; White, Lori A; Häggblom, Max M

    2011-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the manufacture of plastics, and has been identified in various environmental matrices, including human serum and breast milk. The prevalence of BPA in the environment and the potential exposure to humans underscores the need to more fully understand the fate of BPA in the environment and the resulting effects and toxicity to humans and other organisms. Here we demonstrate that Mycobacterium species, including Mycobacterium vanbaalenii strain PYR-1, are able to O-methylate BPA to its mono- and dimethyl ether derivatives (BPA MME and BPA DME, respectively). The O-methylation of BPA results in metabolites with increased toxicity as shown from differences in survival and occurrence of developmental lesions in developing zebrafish embryos exposed to BPA, BPA MME, and BPA DME. The mono- and dimethyl ether derivatives were more toxic than BPA, resulting in increased mortality at 5 (LC(50) = 0.66 and 1.2 mg L(-1)) and 28 (LC(50) = 0.38, <0.5 mg L(-1)) days post fertilization. Furthermore, exposure to either of the O-methylated metabolites resulted in an increase in the incidence of developmental lesions as compared to BPA exposure. These data illustrate a new mechanism for microbial transformation of BPA, producing metabolites warranting further study to understand their prevalence and effects in the environment.

  14. Delayed O-methylation of l-DOPA in MB-COMT-deficient mice after oral administration of l-DOPA and carbidopa.

    PubMed

    Tammimäki, Anne; Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Männistö, Pekka T

    2017-04-21

    1. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is involved in the O-methylation of l-DOPA, dopamine, and other catechols. The enzyme is expressed in two isoforms: soluble (S-COMT), which resides in the cytoplasm, and membrane-bound (MB-COMT), which is anchored to intracellular membranes. 2. To obtain specific information on the functions of COMT isoforms, we studied how a complete MB-COMT deficiency affects the total COMT activity in the body, peripheral l-DOPA levels, and metabolism after l-DOPA (10 mg kg(-1)) plus carbidopa (30 mg kg(-1)) administration by gastric tube in wild-type (WT) and MB-COMT-deficient mice. l-DOPA and 3-O-methyl-l-DOPA (3-OMD) levels were assayed in plasma, duodenum, and liver. 3. We showed that the selective lack of MB-COMT did not alter the total COMT activity, COMT enzyme kinetics, l-DOPA levels, or the total O-methylation of l-DOPA but delayed production of 3-OMD in plasma and peripheral tissues.

  15. The Genetic Architecture of Murine Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Houseal, M. Trevor; Mulligan, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes play a protective role against oxidative stress and may influence disease risk and drug pharmacokinetics. In this study, massive multiscalar trait profiling across a large population of mice derived from a cross between C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA2/J (D2)—the BXD family—was combined with linkage and bioinformatic analyses to characterize mechanisms controlling GST expression and to identify downstream consequences of this variation. Similar to humans, mice show a wide range in expression of GST family members. Variation in the expression of Gsta4, Gstt2, Gstz1, Gsto1, and Mgst3 is modulated by local expression QTLs (eQTLs) in several tissues. Higher expression of Gsto1 in brain and liver of BXD strains is strongly associated (P < 0.01) with inheritance of the B6 parental allele whereas higher expression of Gsta4 and Mgst3 in brain and liver, and Gstt2 and Gstz1 in brain is strongly associated with inheritance of the D2 parental allele. Allele-specific assays confirmed that expression of Gsto1, Gsta4, and Mgst3 are modulated by sequence variants within or near each gene locus. We exploited this endogenous variation to identify coexpression networks and downstream targets in mouse and human. Through a combined systems genetics approach, we provide new insight into the biological role of naturally occurring variants in GST genes. PMID:26829228

  16. Detoxication of structurally diverse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) o-quinones by human recombinant catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) via O-methylation of PAH catechols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jin, Yi; Chen, Mo; Huang, Meng; Harvey, Ronald G; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2011-07-22

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are environmental and tobacco carcinogens. Metabolic activation of intermediate PAH trans-dihydrodiols by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) leads to the formation of electrophilic and redox-active o-quinones. We investigated whether O-methylation by human recombinant soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase (S-COMT) is a feasible detoxication step for a panel of structurally diverse PAH-catechols produced during the redox-cycling process. Classes of PAH non-K-region o-quinones (bay region, methylated bay region, and fjord region o-quinones) produced by AKRs were employed in the studies. PAH o-quinones were reduced to the corresponding catechols by dithiothreitol under anaerobic conditions and then further O-methylated by human S-COMT in the presence of S-[³H]adenosyl-l-methionine as a methyl group donor. The formation of the O-methylated catechols was detected by HPLC-UV coupled with in-line radiometric detection, and unlabeled products were also characterized by LC-MS/MS. Human S-COMT was able to catalyze O-methylation of all of the PAH-catechols and generated two isomeric metabolites in different proportions. LC-MS/MS showed that each isomer was a mono-O-methylated metabolite. ¹H NMR was used to assign the predominant positional isomer of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol as the O-8-monomethylated catechol. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) varied among different classes of PAH-catechols by 500-fold. The ability of S-COMT to produce two isomeric products from PAH-catechols was rationalized using the crystal structure of the enzyme. We provide evidence that O-8-monomethylated benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol is formed in three different human lung cell lines. It is concluded that human S-COMT may play a critical role in the detoxication of PAH o-quinones generated by AKRs.

  17. Euphorbia characias latex: micromorphology of rubber particles and rubber transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Delia; Pintus, Francesca; Esposito, Francesca; Loche, Danilo; Floris, Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-02-01

    We have recently characterized a natural rubber in the latex of Euphorbia characias. Following that study, we here investigated the rubber particles and rubber transferase in that Mediterranean shrub. Rubber particles, observed by scanning electron microscopy, are spherical in shape with diameter ranging from 0.02 to 1.2 μm. Washed rubber particles exhibit rubber transferase activity with a rate of radiolabeled [(14)C]IPP incorporation of 4.5 pmol min(-1)mg(-1). Denaturing electrophoresis profile of washed rubber particles reveals a single protein band of 37 kDa that is recognized in western blot analysis by antibodies raised against the synthetic peptide whose sequence, DVVIRTSGETRLSNF, is included in one of the five regions conserved among cis-prenyl chain elongation enzymes. The cDNA nucleotide sequence of E. characias rubber transferase (GenBank JX564541) and the deduced amino acid sequence appear to be highly homologous to the sequence of several plant cis-prenyltransferases.

  18. Characterization of Affinity-Purified Isoforms of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1 Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Chin-Soon; Tan, Irene Kit-Ping; Alias, Zazali

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GST) were purified from locally isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1, by glutathione-affinity chromatography and anion exchange, and their substrate specificities were investigated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified GST resolved into a single band with a molecular weight (MW) of 23 kDa. 2-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis showed the presence of two isoforms, GST1 (pI 4.5) and GST2 (pI 6.2) with identical MW. GST1 was reactive towards ethacrynic acid, hydrogen peroxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and trans,trans-hepta-2,4-dienal while GST2 was active towards all substrates except hydrogen peroxide. This demonstrated that GST1 possessed peroxidase activity which was absent in GST2. This study also showed that only GST2 was able to conjugate GSH to isoproturon, a herbicide. GST1 and GST2 were suggested to be similar to F0KLY9 (putative glutathione S-transferase) and F0KKB0 (glutathione S-transferase III) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain PHEA-2, respectively. PMID:24892084

  19. Inhibition of human catechol-O-methyltransferase-mediated dopamine O-methylation by daphnetin and its Phase II metabolites.

    PubMed

    Liang, Si-Cheng; Ge, Guang-Bo; Xia, Yang-Liu; Pei-Pei, Dong; Ping, Wang; Qi, Xiao-Yi; Cai-Xia, Tu; Ling, Yang

    2016-07-20

    1. Finding and developing inhibitors of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) from natural products is highly recommended. Daphnetin, a naturally occurring catechol from the family thymelaeaceae, has a chemical structure similar to several potent COMT inhibitors reported previously. Here the potential of daphnetin and its Phase II metabolites as inhibitors of COMT was investigated with human liver cytosol (HLC). 2. Daphnetin and its methylated metabolite (8-O-methyldaphnetin) were found to inhibit COMT-mediated dopamine O-methylation in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values for daphnetin (0.51∼0.53 μM) and 8-O-methyldaphnetin (22.5∼24.3 μM) were little affected by changes in HLC concentrations. Further kinetic analysis showed the differences in inhibition type and parameters (Ki) between daphnetin (competitive, 0.37 μM) and 8-O-methyldaphnetin (noncompetitive, 25.7 μM). Other metabolites, including glucuronidated and sulfated species, showed negligible inhibition against COMT. By using in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IV-IVE), a 24.3-fold increase in the exposure of the COMT substrates was predicted when they are co-administrated with daphnetin. 3. With high COMT-inhibiting activity, daphnetin could serve as a lead compound for the design and development of new COMT inhibitors. Also, much attention should be paid to the clinical impact of combination of daphnetin and herbal preparations containing daphnetin with the drugs primarily cleared by COMT.

  20. In vivo comparison of 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate and morpholino antisense oligonucleotides for Duchenne muscular dystrophy exon skipping.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Hans A; de Winter, Christa L; de Kimpe, Sjef J; van Kuik-Romeijn, Petra; Heuvelmans, Niki; Platenburg, Gerard J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; van Deutekom, Judith C T; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke

    2009-03-01

    Antisense-mediated exon skipping is a putative treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs), the disrupted DMD reading frame is restored, allowing generation of partially functional dystrophin and conversion of a severe Duchenne into a milder Becker muscular dystrophy phenotype. In vivo studies are mainly performed using 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate (2OMePS) or morpholino (PMO) AONs. These compounds were never directly compared. mdx and humanized (h)DMD mice were injected intramuscularly and intravenously with short versus long 2OMePS and PMO for mouse exon 23 and human exons 44, 45, 46 and 51. Intramuscular injection showed that increasing the length of 2OMePS AONs enhanced skipping efficiencies of human exon 45, but decreased efficiency for mouse exon 23. Although PMO induced more mouse exon 23 skipping, PMO and 2OMePS were more comparable for human exons. After intravenous administration, exon skipping and novel protein was shown in the heart with both chemistries. Furthermore, PMO showed lower intramuscular concentrations with higher exon 23 skipping levels compared to 2OMePS, which may be due to sequestration in the extracellular matrix. Finally, two mismatches rendered 2OMePS but not PMO AONs nearly ineffective. The results obtained in the present study indicate that increasing AON length improves skipping efficiency in some but not all cases. It is feasible to induce exon skipping and dystrophin restoration in the heart after injection of 2OMePS and unconjugated PMO. Furthermore, differences in efficiency between PMO and 2OMePS appear to be sequence and not chemistry dependent. Finally, the results indicate that PMOs may be less sequence specific than 2OMePS.

  1. Molecular characterization of a glutathione transferase from Pinus tabulaeformis (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing-Yin; Lu, Hai; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2005-05-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) play important roles in stress tolerance and detoxification metabolism in plants. To date, studies on GSTs in higher plants have focused largely on agricultural plants. In contrast, there is virtually no information on the molecular characteristics of GSTs in gymnosperms. The present study reports for the first time the cloning, expression and characteristics of a GST gene (PtGSTU1) from a pine, Pinus tabulaeformis, which is widely distributed from northern to central China covering cold temperate and drought regions. The PtGSTU1 gene encodes a protein of 228 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 26.37 kDa. Reverse transcription PCR revealed that PtGSTU1 was expressed in different tissues, both above and below ground, of P. tabulaeformis. The over-expressed recombinant PtGSTU1 showed high activity towards the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl). Kinetic analysis with respect to CDNB as substrate revealed a Km of 0.47 mM and Vmax of 169.1 micromol/min per mg of protein. The recombinant PtGSTU1 retained more than 60% of its maximum enzymatic activity from 15 degrees C to 45 degrees C with a broad optimum Tm range of 25 degrees C - 35 degrees C. The enzyme had a maximum activity at approximately pH 8.5 - 9.0. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Ser13 in the N-terminal domain is a critical catalytic residue, responsible for stabilisation of the thiolate anion of enzyme-bound glutathione. Based on comparative analyses of its amino acid sequence, phylogeny and predicted three-dimensional structure, the PtGSTU1 should be classified as a tau class GST.

  2. Catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism and adolescent cortical development in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia, their non-psychotic siblings, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Raznahan, Armin; Greenstein, Deanna; Lee, Yohan; Long, Robert; Clasen, Liv; Gochman, Pete; Addington, Anjene; Giedd, Jay N; Rapoport, Judith L; Gogtay, Nitin

    2011-08-15

    Non-psychotic individuals at increased risk for schizophrenia show alterations in fronto-striatal dopamine signaling and cortical gray matter maturation reminiscent of those seen in schizophrenia. It remains unclear however if variations in dopamine signaling influence rates of structural cortical maturation in typically developing individuals, and whether such influences are disrupted in patients with schizophrenia and their non-psychotic siblings. We sought to address these issues by relating a functional Val→Met polymorphism within the gene encoding catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT)-a key enzymatic regulator of cortical dopamine levels-to longitudinal structural neuroimaging measures of cortical gray matter thickness. We included a total of 792 magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, acquired between ages 9 and 22 years from patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), their non-psychotic full siblings, and matched healthy controls. Whereas greater Val allele dose (which confers enhanced dopamine catabolism and is proposed to aggravate cortical deficits in schizophrenia) accelerated adolescent cortical thinning in both schizophrenia probands and their siblings, it attenuated cortical thinning in healthy controls. This similarity between COS patients and their siblings was accompanied by differences between the two groups in the timing and spatial distribution of disrupted COMT influences on cortical maturation. Consequently, whereas greater Val "dose" conferred persistent dorsolateral prefrontal cortical deficits amongst affected probands by adulthood, cortical thickness differences associated with varying Val dose in non-psychotic siblings resolved over the age-range studied. These findings suggest that cortical abnormalities in pedigrees affected by schizophrenia may be contributed to by a disruption of dopaminergic infleunces on cortical maturation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Genetic Variation in the Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase Val108/158Met Is Linked to the Caudate and Posterior Cingulate Cortex Volume in Healthy Subjects: Voxel-Based Morphometry Analysis of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Keita; Kakeda, Shingo; Yoshimura, Reiji; Ide, Satoru; Hayashi, Kenji; Katsuki, Asuka; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Watanabe, Rieko; Abe, Osamu; Korogi, Yukunori

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism on brain morphology has been investigated but remains controversial. We hypothesized that a comparison between Val/Val and Val/Met individuals, which may represent the most different combinations concerning the effects of the COMT genotype, may reveal new findings. We investigated the brain morphology using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in 27 Val/Val and 22 Val/Met individuals. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that the volumes of the bilateral caudate and posterior cingulate cortex were significantly smaller in Val/Val individuals than in Val/Met individuals [right caudate: false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected p = 0.048; left caudate: FDR-corrected p = 0.048; and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex: FDR-corrected p = 0.048]. This study demonstrates that interacting functional variants of COMT affect gray matter regional volumes in healthy subjects. PMID:26566126

  4. Relationship between the catechol-O-methyl transferase Val108/158Met genotype and brain volume in treatment-naive major depressive disorder: Voxel-based morphometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Keita; Kakeda, Shingo; Yoshimura, Reiji; Abe, Osamu; Ide, Satoru; Hayashi, Kenji; Katsuki, Asuka; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Watanabe, Rieko; Nakamura, Jun; Korogi, Yukunori

    2015-09-30

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a methylation enzyme engaged in the degradation of dopamine and noradrenaline by catalyzing the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine. An association was found between the Valine (Val) 108/158Methionine (Met) COMT polymorphism (rs4680) and major depressive disorder (MDD). The authors prospectively investigated the relationship between the Val108/158Met COMT genotype and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) findings for patients with first-episode and treatment-naïve MDD and healthy subjects (HS). Participants comprised 30 MDD patients and 48 age- and sex-matched HS who were divided according to the COMT genotype. Effects of diagnosis, COMT genotype, and the genotype-diagnosis interaction in relation to brain morphology in the Val/Met and Val/Val individuals were evaluated using a VBM analysis of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging findings. Among the Val/Met individuals, the volume of the bilateral caudate was significantly smaller for MDD patients than for HS. In the Val/Val individuals, the caudate volume was comparable between MDD patients and HS. Significant genotype-diagnosis interaction effects on brain morphology were noted in the right caudate.

  5. An alternative mechanism for the catalysis of peptide bond formation by L/F transferase: substrate binding and orientation.

    PubMed

    Fung, Angela W; Ebhardt, H Alexander; Abeysundara, Heshani; Moore, Jack; Xu, Zhizhong; Fahlman, Richard P

    2011-06-17

    Eubacterial leucyl/phenylalanyl tRNA protein transferase (L/F transferase) catalyzes the transfer of a leucine or a phenylalanine from an aminoacyl-tRNA to the N-terminus of a protein substrate. This N-terminal addition of an amino acid is analogous to that of peptide synthesis by ribosomes. A previously proposed catalytic mechanism for Escherichia coli L/F transferase identified the conserved aspartate 186 (D186) and glutamine 188 (Q188) as key catalytic residues. We have reassessed the role of D186 and Q188 by investigating the enzymatic reactions and kinetics of enzymes possessing mutations to these active-site residues. Additionally three other amino acids proposed to be involved in aminoacyl-tRNA substrate binding are investigated for comparison. By quantitatively measuring product formation using a quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based assay, our results clearly demonstrate that, despite significant reduction in enzymatic activity as a result of different point mutations introduced into the active site of L/F transferase, the formation of product is still observed upon extended incubations. Our kinetic data and existing X-ray crystal structures result in a proposal that the critical roles of D186 and Q188, like the other amino acids in the active site, are for substrate binding and orientation and do not directly participate in the chemistry of peptide bond formation. Overall, we propose that L/F transferase does not directly participate in the chemistry of peptide bond formation but catalyzes the reaction by binding and orientating the substrates for reaction in an analogous mechanism that has been described for ribosomes.

  6. Human glutathione S-transferases. Characterization of the anionic forms from lung and placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Dao, D D; Partridge, C A; Kurosky, A; Awasthi, Y C

    1984-01-01

    Anionic glutathione S-transferases were purified from human lung and placenta. Chemical and immunochemical characterization, including polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, gave strong evidence that the anionic lung and placental enzymes are chemically similar, if not identical, proteins. The electrophoretic mobilities of both proteins were identical in conventional alkaline gels as well as in gels containing sodium dodecyl sulphate. Gel filtration of the intact active enzyme established an Mr value of 45000; however, with sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under dissociating conditions a subunit Mr of 22500 was obtained. Amino acid sequence analysis of the N-terminal region of the placental enzyme revealed a single polypeptide sequence identical with that of lung. Results obtained from immunoelectrophoresis, immunotitration, double immunodiffusion and rocket immunoelectrophoresis also indicated the anionic lung and placental enzymes to be closely similar. The chemical similarity of these two proteins was further supported by protein compositional analysis and fragment analysis after chemical hydrolysis. Immunochemical comparison of the anionic lung and placental enzymes with human liver glutathione S-transferases revealed cross-reactivity with the anionic omega enzyme, but no cross-reactivity was detectable with the cationic enzymes. Comparison of the N-terminal region of the human anionic enzyme with reported sequences of rat liver glutathione S-transferases gave strong evidence of chemical similarity, indicating that these enzymes are evolutionarily related. However, computer analysis of the 30-residue N-terminal sequence did not show any significant chemical similarity to any other reported protein sequence, pointing to the fact that the glutathione S-transferases represent a unique class of proteins. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6466318

  7. Methyl farnesoate synthesis in the lobster mandibular organ: The roles of HMG-CoA reductase and farnesoic acid-O-methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng; Friesen, Jon A.; Holford, Kenneth C.; Borst, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Eyestalk ablation (ESA) increases crustacean production of methyl farnesoate (MF), a juvenile hormone-like compound, but the biochemical steps involved are not completely understood. We measured the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and farnesoic acid-O-methyl transferase (FAOMeT), an early step and the last step in MF synthesis. ESA elevated hemolymph levels of MF in male lobsters. Enzyme activity suggested that increased MF production on day one was due largely to elevated HMGR activity while changes in FAOMeT activity closely paralleled changes in MF levels on day 14. Transcript levels for HMGR and FAOMeT changed little on day one, but both increased substantially on day 14. We treated ESA males with a partially purified mandibular organ inhibiting hormone (MOIH) and observed a significant decline in MF levels, FAOMeT activity, and FAOMeT-mRNA levels after 5 hours. However, no effect was observed on HMGR activity or its mRNA indicating that they must be regulated by a separate sinus gland peptide. We confirmed that lobster HMGR was not a phosphoprotein and was not regulated by reversible phosphorylation, an important mechanism for regulating other HMGRs. Nevertheless, molecular modeling indicated that the catalytic mechanisms of lobster and mammalian HMGR were similar. PMID:19778626

  8. Assignment of biochemical functions to glycosyl transferase genes which are essential for biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides in Sphingomonas strain S88 and Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed

    Pollock, T J; van Workum, W A; Thorne, L; Mikolajczak, M J; Yamazaki, M; Kijne, J W; Armentrout, R W

    1998-02-01

    Glycosyl transferases which recognize identical substrates (nucleotide-sugars and lipid-linked carbohydrates) can substitute for one another in bacterial polysaccharide biosynthesis, even if the enzymes originate in different genera of bacteria. This substitution can be used to identify the substrate specificities of uncharacterized transferase genes. The spsK gene of Sphingomonas strain S88 and the pssDE genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum were identified as encoding glucuronosyl-(B1-->4)-glucosyl transferases based on reciprocal genetic complementation of mutations in the spsK gene and the pssDE genes by segments of cloned DNA and by the SpsK-dependent incorporation of radioactive glucose (Glc) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) into lipid-linked disaccharides in EDTA-permeabilized cells. By contrast, glycosyl transferases which form alternative sugar linkages to the same substrate caused inhibition of polysaccharide synthesis or were deleterious or lethal in a foreign host. The negative effects also suggested specific substrate requirements: we propose that spsL codes for a glucosyl-(beta1-->4)-glucuronosyl transferase in Sphingomonas and that pssC codes for a glucuronosyl-(beta1-->4)-glucuronosyl transferase in R. leguminosarum. Finally, the complementation results indicate the order of attachment of sphingan main-chain sugars to the C55-isoprenylphosphate carrier as -Glc-GlcA-Glc-isoprenylpyrophosphate.

  9. Assignment of Biochemical Functions to Glycosyl Transferase Genes Which Are Essential for Biosynthesis of Exopolysaccharides in Sphingomonas Strain S88 and Rhizobium leguminosarum

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Thomas J.; van Workum, Wilbert A. T.; Thorne, Linda; Mikolajczak, Marcia J.; Yamazaki, Motohide; Kijne, Jan W.; Armentrout, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    Glycosyl transferases which recognize identical substrates (nucleotide-sugars and lipid-linked carbohydrates) can substitute for one another in bacterial polysaccharide biosynthesis, even if the enzymes originate in different genera of bacteria. This substitution can be used to identify the substrate specificities of uncharacterized transferase genes. The spsK gene of Sphingomonas strain S88 and the pssDE genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum were identified as encoding glucuronosyl-(β1→4)-glucosyl transferases based on reciprocal genetic complementation of mutations in the spsK gene and the pssDE genes by segments of cloned DNA and by the SpsK-dependent incorporation of radioactive glucose (Glc) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) into lipid-linked disaccharides in EDTA-permeabilized cells. By contrast, glycosyl transferases which form alternative sugar linkages to the same substrate caused inhibition of polysaccharide synthesis or were deleterious or lethal in a foreign host. The negative effects also suggested specific substrate requirements: we propose that spsL codes for a glucosyl-(β1→4)-glucuronosyl transferase in Sphingomonas and that pssC codes for a glucuronosyl-(β1→4)-glucuronosyl transferase in R. leguminosarum. Finally, the complementation results indicate the order of attachment of sphingan main-chain sugars to the C55-isoprenylphosphate carrier as -Glc-GlcA-Glc-isoprenylpyrophosphate. PMID:9457861

  10. Glutathione-S-transferase selective release of metformin from its sulfonamide prodrug.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Jarkko; Vernerová, Monika; Aufderhaar, Imke; Huttunen, Kristiina M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, three sulfonamide prodrugs of metformin were designed and synthesized. The bioconversion of the sulfonamide prodrugs by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was evaluated in rat and human liver S9 fractions as well as with recombinant human GST forms. One of the prodrugs (3) was bioactivated by GST and released metformin in a quantitative manner, whereas the two others were enzymatically stable. Prodrug 3 had a much higher logD value relative to metformin and it was reasonably stable in both acidic buffer and rat small intestine homogenate, which indicates that this prodrug has the potential to increase the oral absorption of metformin.

  11. Purification and characterization of hepatic glutathione S-transferases of rhesus monkeys. A family of enzymes similar to the human hepatic glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Hoesch, R M; Boyer, T D

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen forms of glutathione S-transferase were purified from the livers of female rhesus monkeys (Macaque mulatta). Most (74.7%) of the activity in the hepatic cytosol adhered well to the GSH affinity column and could be eluted only with the addition of GSH to the eluting buffer. The predominant isoenzymes (n = 5) in this 'high-affinity' fraction had alkaline pI values (greater than 9.0) and contained a subunit with an Mr value of 24,000. All of these isoenzymes had high organic peroxidase activity and, on the basis of amino acid analysis, substrate specificities and affinity for non-substrate ligands, appear to belong to the family of glutathione S-transferases that have been termed alpha [Mannervik, Alin, Guthenberg, Jensson, Tahir, Warholm & Jörnvall (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 7202-7206]. Also within the high-affinity fraction was an isoenzyme with an acidic (5.8) pI value. This acidic isoenzyme was composed of a unique subunit (Mr 23,000). The N-terminal sequence (ten residues) of this acidic enzyme was identical with that of a human form that is referred to as pi. The predominant form of enzyme in the 'low-affinity' (eluted from the GSH affinity column with an increase in buffer pH) fraction was a homodimer of a 26,000-Mr subunit. It had an alkaline pI (greater than 9.0) but it lacked organic peroxidase activity. The N-terminal sequence (ten residues) of this enzyme was identical with that of a human enzyme referred to as mu. The substrate specificities and affinity for non-substrate ligands of this monkey enzyme also were similar to those of the human enzyme. In conclusion, the liver cytosol of rhesus monkeys contains a number of glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes that are very similar to the human hepatic enzymes. Images Fig. 3. PMID:3390162

  12. Effects of O-methylated metabolites of quercetin on oxidative stress, thermotolerance, lifespan and bioavailability on Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Surco-Laos, Felipe; Cabello, Juan; Gómez-Orte, Eva; González-Manzano, Susana; González-Paramás, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Dueñas, Montserrat

    2011-08-01

    Quercetin is a major flavonoid in the human diet and the most commonly used in studies of biological activity. Most of the knowledge about its biological effects has originated from in vitro studies while in vivo data are scarce. Quercetin mostly occurs in foodstuffs as glycosides that are deglycosylated during absorption and further submitted to different conjugation reactions. Methylation to isorhamnetin (quercetin 3'-O-methylether) or tamarixetin (quercetin 4'-O-methylether) seems to be an important conjugation process in quercetin metabolism. In this work, the effects of quercetin and its 3'- and 4'-O-methylated metabolites on the phenotypic characteristics, stress oxidative resistance, thermotolerance and lifespan of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans have been assessed. The three assayed flavonols significantly prolonged the lifespan of this nematode with an increase from 11% to 16% in the mean lifespan with respect to controls. However, only quercetin significantly increased the reproductive capacity of the worm and enlarged the body size. Exposure to the assayed flavonols also increased significantly the resistance against thermal and juglone-induced oxidative stress, although differences were found depending on the stage of development of the worm. Thus, quercetin offered greater protection when thermal stress was applied in the 1st day of adulthood, whereas tamarixetin was more efficient in worms submitted to stress in the 6th day of adulthood. Similarly, significantly greater protection was provided by quercetin than by its methylated derivatives at the 1st day of adulthood, whilst quercetin and isorhamnetin were equally efficient when the oxidative stress was induced in the 6th of day of adulthood. Further evidence of antioxidant protection was obtained checking the oxidation status of proteins by the OxyBlot™ detection kit. Analyses by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS confirmed that the three flavonols were taken up by C. elegans leading to the formation of

  13. Phosphonocarboxylates Inhibit the Second Geranylgeranyl Addition by Rab Geranylgeranyl Transferase*

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Rudi A.; Tavaré, Richard; Figueiredo, Ana C.; Błażewska, Katarzyna M.; Kashemirov, Boris A.; McKenna, Charles E.; Ebetino, Frank H.; Taylor, Adam; Rogers, Michael J.; Coxon, Fraser P.; Seabra, Miguel C.

    2009-01-01

    Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGGT) catalyzes the post-translational geranylgeranyl (GG) modification of (usually) two C-terminal cysteines in Rab GTPases. Here we studied the mechanism of the Rab geranylgeranylation reaction by bisphosphonate analogs in which one phosphonate group is replaced by a carboxylate (phosphonocarboxylate, PC). The phosphonocarboxylates used were 3-PEHPC, which was previously reported, and 2-hydroxy-3-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl-2-phosphonopropionic acid ((+)-3-IPEHPC), a >25-fold more potent related compound as measured by both IC50 and Ki.(+)-3-IPEHPC behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor with respect to GG pyrophosphate (GGPP) and an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to Rab substrates. We propose that phosphonocarboxylates prevent only the second GG transfer onto Rabs based on the following evidence. First, geranylgeranylation of Rab proteins ending with a single cysteine motif such as CAAX, is not affected by the inhibitors, either in vitro or in vivo. Second, the addition of an -AAX sequence onto Rab-CC proteins protects the substrate from inhibition by the inhibitors. Third, we demonstrate directly that in the presence of (+)-3-IPEHPC, Rab-CC and Rab-CXC proteins are modified by only a single GG addition. The presence of (+)-3-IPEHPC resulted in a preference for the Rab N-terminal cysteine to be modified first, suggesting an order of cysteine geranylgeranylation in RGGT catalysis. Our results further suggest that the inhibitor binds to a site distinct from the GGPP-binding site on RGGT. We suggest that phosphonocarboxylate inhibitors bind to a GG-cysteine binding site adjacent to the active site, which is necessary to align the mono-GG-Rab for the second GG addition. These inhibitors may represent a novel therapeutic approach in Rab-mediated diseases. PMID:19074143

  14. Uncovering the enzymatic pKa of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase reaction utilizing a fluorinated puromycin derivative.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Kensuke; Seila, Amy C; Strobel, Scott A

    2005-05-03

    The ribosome-catalyzed peptidyl transferase reaction displays a complex pH profile resulting from two functional groups whose deprotonation is important for the reaction, one within the A-site substrate and a second unidentified group thought to reside in the rRNA peptidyl transferase center. Here we report the synthesis and activity of the beta,beta-difluorophenylalanyl derivative of puromycin, an A-site substrate. The fluorine atoms reduce the pK(a) of the nucleophilic alpha-amino group (<5.0) such that it is deprotonated at all pHs amenable to ribosomal analysis (pH 5.2-9.5). In the 50S modified fragment assay, this substrate reacts substantially faster than puromycin at neutral or acidic pH. The reaction follows a simplified pH profile that is dependent only upon deprotonation of a titratable group within the ribosomal active site. This feature will simplify characterization of the peptidyl transferase reaction mechanism. On the basis of the reaction efficiency of the doubly fluorinated substrate compared to the unfluorinated derivative, the Bronsted coefficient for the nucleophile is estimated to be substantially smaller than that reported for uncatalyzed aminolysis reactions, which has important mechanistic implications for the peptidyl transferase reaction.

  15. Bifunctional effects of O-methylated flavones from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi on melanocytes: Inhibition of melanin production and intracellular melanosome transport.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Michiko; Kobayashi-Nakamura, Kumiko; Tsuji-Naito, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in skin lightening has recently renewed attention on the esthetic applications of Chinese herbal medicine. Although Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is used for antipyretic and antiinflammatory purposes, its whitening effect remains unclear. This study reports three major findings: (1) S. baicalensis has a potent inhibitory effect on melanogenesis; (2) wogonin and its glycoside are the active components of S. baicalensis; and (3) O-methylated flavones from S. baicalensis, such as wogonin, inhibit intracellular melanosome transport. Using a melanin quantification assay, we showed that S. baicalensis potently inhibits melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. Componential analyses revealed that the main components of S. baicalensis are baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A. Among these five flavones, wogonin and wogonoside consistently inhibited melanogenesis in both B16F10 melanoma cells and primary melanocytes. Wogonin exhibited the strongest inhibition of melanin production and markedly lightened the color of skin equivalents. We identified microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase-related proteins as potential targets of wogonin- and wogonoside-induced melanogenesis suppression. In culture, we found that the melanosomes in wogonin-treated B16F10 cells were localized to the perinuclear region. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that wogonin significantly reduced in melanophilin protein, which is required for actin-based melanosome transport. Other actin-based melanosome transport-related molecules, i.e., Rab27A and myosin Va, were not affected by wogonin. Cotreatment with MG132 blocked the wogonin-induced decrease in melanophilin, suggesting that wogonin promotes the proteolytic degradation of melanophilin via the calpain/proteasomal pathway. We determined that the structural specificities of the mono-O-methyl group in the flavone A-ring and the aglycone form were responsible for reducing melanosome transport

  16. Crystal structure of 1,2,3,4-di-O-methyl­ene-α-d-galacto­pyran­ose

    PubMed Central

    Tiritiris, Ioannis; Tussetschläger, Stefan; Kantlehner, Willi

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C8H12O6, was synthesized by de­acetyl­ation of 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-di-O-methyl­ene-α-d-galactose with sodium methoxide. The central part of the mol­ecule consists of a six-membered C5O pyran­ose ring with a twist-boat conformation. Both fused dioxolane rings adopt an envelope conformation with C and O atoms as the flap. In the crystal, O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present between adjacent mol­ecules, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:26870551

  17. Adsorption of organic vapors on the Carbopack Y carbon adsorbent modified with heptakis-(2,3,6-tri- O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, S. Yu.; Kopytin, K. A.; Pavlov, M. Yu.; Onuchak, L. A.; Kuraeva, Yu. G.

    2010-03-01

    The adsorption of organic vapors on the Carbopack Y carbon adsorbent modified with a mono-molecular layer of heptakis-(2,3,6-tri- O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin was studied by gas chromatography. The deposition of the macrocyclic modifier on the carbon substrate substantially strengthened the adsorbate—adsorbent intermolecular interactions and led to localization of adsorption due to the inclusion of adsorbate molecules, irrespectively of their polarity, in the macrocyclic voids of the modifier molecules. As a consequence, the thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption were greatly affected by the sizes and spatial structure of adsorbate molecules.

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4833_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1511, LB4833_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1212, LB4828_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1212, LB4828_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1111, LB4823_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexanone C6H10O + C7H8O Methyl phenyl ether (VMSD1111, LB4823_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  1. Urinary recovery of orally administered chromium 51-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in healthy adult male Beagles.

    PubMed

    Frias, Rafael; Steiner, Jörg M; Williams, David A; Sankari, Satu; Westermarck, Elias

    2012-05-01

    Objective-To provide values for gastrointestinal permeability and absorptive function tests (GIPFTs) with chromium 51 ((51)Cr)-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in Beagles and to evaluate potential correlations between markers. Animals-19 healthy adult male Beagles. Procedures-A test solution containing 3.7 MBq of (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 2 g of lactulose, 2 g of rhamnose, 2 g of d-xylose, 1 g of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and 8 g of sucrose was administered intragastrically to each dog. Urinary recovery of each probe was determined 6 hours after administration. Results-Mean ± SD (range) percentage urinary recovery was 6.3 ± 1.6% (4.3% to 9.7%) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 3.3 ± 1.1% (1.7% to 5.3%) for lactulose, 25.5 ± 5.0% (16.7% to 36.9%) for rhamnose, and 58.8% ± 11.0% (40.1% to 87.8%) for 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Mean (range) recovery ratio was 0.25 ± 0.06 (0.17 to 0.37) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA to rhamnose, 0.13 ± 0.04 (0.08 to 0.23) for lactulose to rhamnose, and 0.73 ± 0.09 (0.60 to 0.90) for d-xylose to 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Median (range) percentage urinary recovery was 40.3% (31.6% to 62.7%) for d-xylose and 0% (0% to 0.8%) for sucrose. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Reference values in healthy adult male Beagles for 6 of the most commonly used GIPFT markers were determined. The correlation between results for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA and lactulose was not as prominent as that reported for humans and cats; thus, investigators should be cautious in the use and interpretation of GIPFTs performed with sugar probes in dogs with suspected intestinal dysbiosis.

  2. Two unusual rotenoid derivatives, 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol and spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone, from the seeds of Derris trifoliata.

    PubMed

    Yenesew, Abiy; Kiplagat, John T; Derese, Solomon; Midiwo, Jacob O; Kabaru, Jacques M; Heydenreich, Matthias; Peter, Martin G

    2006-05-01

    The crude methanol extract of the seeds of Derris trifoliata showed potent and dose dependent larvicidal activity against the 2nd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. From this extract two unusual rotenoid derivatives, a rotenoloid (named 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol) and a spirohomooxarotenoid (named spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone), were isolated and characterised. In addition a rare natural chromanone (6,7-dimethoxy-4-chromanone) and the known rotenoids rotenone, tephrosin and dehydrodeguelin were identified. The structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The larvicidal activity of the crude extract is mainly due to rotenone.

  3. Studies on interactions between plant secondary metabolites and glutathione transferase using fluorescence quenching method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Cheng, Xinsheng; Wang, Chuanqin; Xue, Zechun; Yang, Liwen; Xi, Zheng

    2007-04-01

    The interactions between plant secondary metabolites (tannic acid, rutin, cinnamic acid and catechin) and glutathione transferase (GST) were investigated by fluorescence and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Intrinsic fluorescence of GST was measured by selectively exciting their tryptophan (Trp) residues and quenching constants were determined using the Stern-Volmer equation. The binding affinity was found to be strongest for tannic acid and ranked in the order tannic acid>rutin>cinnamic acid>catechin. The pH values in the range of 6.7-7.9, except for tannic acid, did not affect significantly the affinity of rutin, cinnamic acid and catechin with GST. Results showed that the fluorescence quenching of GST was a static_quenching. Fluorescence quenching and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy suggested that only the tannic acid changed the microenvironment of the Trp residues. Furthermore, the number of binding sites and binding constants at different pH values showed that tannic acid had strongest affinity towards GST and hydrogen bonding played an important role in the affinity between GST and the metabolites.

  4. Kinetic mechanism of octopus hepatopancreatic glutathione transferase in reverse micelles.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, S S; Chang, G G

    1996-01-01

    Octopus glutathione transferase (GST) was enzymically active in aerosol-OT [sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl)sulphosuccinate]/iso-octane reverse micelles albeit with lowered catalytic constant (kcat). The enzyme reaction rate was found to be dependent on the [H2O]/[surfactant] ratio (omega(o)) of the system with maximum rate observed at omega(o) 13.88, which corresponded to vesicles with a core volume of 64 nm3. According to the physical examinations, a vesicle of this size is barely large enough to accommodate a monomeric enzyme subunit. Dissociation of the enzyme in reverse micelles was confirmed by cross-linking of the associated subunits with glutaraldehyde and separation of the monomers and dimers with electrophoresis in the presence of SDS. The kinetic properties of the enzyme were investigated by steady-state kinetic analysis. Both GSH and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) showed substrate inhibition and the Michaelis constant for CDNB was increased by 36-fold to 11.05 mM in reverse micelles. Results on the initial-velocity and product-inhibition studies indicate that the octopus GST conforms to a steady-state sequential random Bi Bi mechanism. The results from a log kcat versus pH plot suggest that amino acid residues with pKa values of 6.56 0.07 and 8.81 0.17 should be deprotonated to give optimum catalytic function. In contrast, the amino acid residue with a pKa value of 9.69 0.16 in aqueous solution had to be protonated for the reaction to proceed. We propose that the pKa1 (6.56) is that for the enzyme-bound GSH, which has a pKa value lowered by 1.40-1.54 pH units compared with that of free GSH in reverse micelles. The most probable candidate for the observed pKa2 (8.81) is Tyr7 of GST. The pKa of Tyr7 is 0.88 pH unit lower than that in aqueous solution and is about 2 pH units below the normal tyrosine. This tyrosyl residue may act as a base catalyst facilitating the dissociation of enzyme-bound GSH. The possible interaction of GST with plasma membrane in vivo

  5. Kinetic mechanism of octopus hepatopancreatic glutathione transferase in reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Tang, S S; Chang, G G

    1996-04-15

    Octopus glutathione transferase (GST) was enzymically active in aerosol-OT [sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl)sulphosuccinate]/iso-octane reverse micelles albeit with lowered catalytic constant (kcat). The enzyme reaction rate was found to be dependent on the [H2O]/[surfactant] ratio (omega(o)) of the system with maximum rate observed at omega(o) 13.88, which corresponded to vesicles with a core volume of 64 nm3. According to the physical examinations, a vesicle of this size is barely large enough to accommodate a monomeric enzyme subunit. Dissociation of the enzyme in reverse micelles was confirmed by cross-linking of the associated subunits with glutaraldehyde and separation of the monomers and dimers with electrophoresis in the presence of SDS. The kinetic properties of the enzyme were investigated by steady-state kinetic analysis. Both GSH and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) showed substrate inhibition and the Michaelis constant for CDNB was increased by 36-fold to 11.05 mM in reverse micelles. Results on the initial-velocity and product-inhibition studies indicate that the octopus GST conforms to a steady-state sequential random Bi Bi mechanism. The results from a log kcat versus pH plot suggest that amino acid residues with pKa values of 6.56 0.07 and 8.81 0.17 should be deprotonated to give optimum catalytic function. In contrast, the amino acid residue with a pKa value of 9.69 0.16 in aqueous solution had to be protonated for the reaction to proceed. We propose that the pKa1 (6.56) is that for the enzyme-bound GSH, which has a pKa value lowered by 1.40-1.54 pH units compared with that of free GSH in reverse micelles. The most probable candidate for the observed pKa2 (8.81) is Tyr7 of GST. The pKa of Tyr7 is 0.88 pH unit lower than that in aqueous solution and is about 2 pH units below the normal tyrosine. This tyrosyl residue may act as a base catalyst facilitating the dissociation of enzyme-bound GSH. The possible interaction of GST with plasma membrane in vivo

  6. Purification and characterization of a labile rat glutathione transferase of the Mu class.

    PubMed Central

    Kispert, A; Meyer, D J; Lalor, E; Coles, B; Ketterer, B

    1989-01-01

    A labile GSH transferase homodimer termed 11-11 was purified from rat testis by GSH-agarose affinity chromatography followed by anion-exchange f.p.l.c. The enzyme is unstable in the absence of thiol(s) and has relatively low affinity for both 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (Km 4.4 mM) and GSH (Km(app.) 4.4mM). Its mobility on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis is slightly less than that of subunits 3 and 4 and its pI is 5.2. Subunit 11 has a blocked N-terminal amino acid residue, but after CNBr cleavage fragments accounting for 113 amino acid residues were sequenced and showed 65% homology with corresponding sequences in subunit 4, indicating that it is a member of the Mu family. GSH transferase 11 is a major isoenzyme in testis, epididymis, prostate and brain and present at lower concentrations in other tissues. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2764905

  7. Polyketide family of novel antibacterial 7-O-methyl-5'-hydroxy-3'-heptenoate-macrolactin from seaweed-associated Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10403.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Thilakan, Bini; Raola, Vamshi Krishna

    2014-12-17

    Seaweed-associated heterotrophic bacterial communities were screened to isolate potentially useful antimicrobial strains, which were characterized by phylogenetic analysis. The bacteria were screened for the presence of metabolite genes involved in natural product biosynthetic pathway, and the structural properties of secondary metabolites were correlated with the genes. Bioactivity-guided isolation of polyene antibiotic 7-O-methyl-5'-hydroxy-3'-heptenoate-macrolactin from Bacillus subtilis MTCC10403 associated with seaweed Anthophycus longifolius using mass spectrometry and extensive 2D-NMR studies was carried out. The newly isolated macrolactin compound is a bactericidal antibiotic with broad spectrum activity against human opportunistic clinical pathogens. The biosynthetic pathway of 7-O-methyl-5'-hydroxy-3'-heptenoate-macrolactin by means of a stepwise, decarboxylative condensation pathway established the PKS-assisted biosynthesis of the parent macrolactin and the side-chain 5-hydroxyhept-3-enoate moiety attached to the macrolactin ring system at C-7. Antimicrobial activity analysis combined with the results of amplifying genes encoding for polyketide synthetase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase showed that seaweed-associated bacteria had broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The present work may have an impact on the exploitation of macrolactins for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications.

  8. Enzymatic 2'-O-methylation of the wobble nucleoside of eukaryotic tRNAPhe: specificity depends on structural elements outside the anticodon loop.

    PubMed Central

    Droogmans, L; Haumont, E; de Henau, S; Grosjean, H

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated the specificity of the enzyme tRNA (wobble guanosine 2'-O-)methyltransferase which catalyses the maturation of guanosine-34 of eukaryotic tRNAPhe to the 2'-O-methyl derivative Gm-34. This study was done by micro-injection into Xenopus laevis oocytes of restructured yeast tRNAPhe in which the anticodon GmAA and the 3' adjacent nucleotide 'Y' were substituted by various tetranucleotides. The results indicate that the enzyme is cytoplasmic; the chemical nature of the bases of the anticodon and its 3' adjacent nucleotide is not critical for the methylation of G-34; the size of the anticodon loop is however important; structural features beyond the anticodon loop are involved in the specific recognition of the tRNA by the enzyme since Escherichia coli tRNAPhe and four chimeric yeast tRNAs carrying the GAA anticodon are not substrates; unexpectedly, the 2'-O-methylation is not restricted to G-34 since C-34, U-34 and A-34 in restructured yeast tRNAPhe also became methylated. It seems probable that the tRNA (wobble guanosine 2'-O-)methyltransferase is not specific for the type of nucleotide-34 in eukaryotic tRNAPhe; however the existence in the oocyte of several methylation enzymes specific for each nucleotide-34 has not yet been ruled out. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3522221

  9. Enzymatic 2'-O-methylation of the wobble nucleoside of eukaryotic tRNAPhe: specificity depends on structural elements outside the anticodon loop.

    PubMed

    Droogmans, L; Haumont, E; de Henau, S; Grosjean, H

    1986-05-01

    We have investigated the specificity of the enzyme tRNA (wobble guanosine 2'-O-)methyltransferase which catalyses the maturation of guanosine-34 of eukaryotic tRNAPhe to the 2'-O-methyl derivative Gm-34. This study was done by micro-injection into Xenopus laevis oocytes of restructured yeast tRNAPhe in which the anticodon GmAA and the 3' adjacent nucleotide 'Y' were substituted by various tetranucleotides. The results indicate that the enzyme is cytoplasmic; the chemical nature of the bases of the anticodon and its 3' adjacent nucleotide is not critical for the methylation of G-34; the size of the anticodon loop is however important; structural features beyond the anticodon loop are involved in the specific recognition of the tRNA by the enzyme since Escherichia coli tRNAPhe and four chimeric yeast tRNAs carrying the GAA anticodon are not substrates; unexpectedly, the 2'-O-methylation is not restricted to G-34 since C-34, U-34 and A-34 in restructured yeast tRNAPhe also became methylated. It seems probable that the tRNA (wobble guanosine 2'-O-)methyltransferase is not specific for the type of nucleotide-34 in eukaryotic tRNAPhe; however the existence in the oocyte of several methylation enzymes specific for each nucleotide-34 has not yet been ruled out.

  10. Next-Generation Sequencing-Based RiboMethSeq Protocol for Analysis of tRNA 2′-O-Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Virginie; Pichot, Florian; Thüring, Kathrin; Ayadi, Lilia; Freund, Isabel; Dalpke, Alexander; Helm, Mark; Motorin, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of RNA modifications by traditional physico-chemical approaches is labor intensive, requires substantial amounts of input material and only allows site-by-site measurements. The recent development of qualitative and quantitative approaches based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) opens new perspectives for the analysis of various cellular RNA species. The Illumina sequencing-based RiboMethSeq protocol was initially developed and successfully applied for mapping of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) 2′-O-methylations. This method also gives excellent results in the quantitative analysis of rRNA modifications in different species and under varying growth conditions. However, until now, RiboMethSeq was only employed for rRNA, and the whole sequencing and analysis pipeline was only adapted to this long and rather conserved RNA species. A deep understanding of RNA modification functions requires large and global analysis datasets for other important RNA species, namely for transfer RNAs (tRNAs), which are well known to contain a great variety of functionally-important modified residues. Here, we evaluated the application of the RiboMethSeq protocol for the analysis of tRNA 2′-O-methylation in Escherichia coli and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After a careful optimization of the bioinformatic pipeline, RiboMethSeq proved to be suitable for relative quantification of methylation rates for known modified positions in different tRNA species. PMID:28208788

  11. Inhibitory impact of 3'-terminal 2'-O-methylated small silencing RNA on target-primed polymerization and unbiased amplified quantification of the RNA in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Fan, Chunhai; Zhao, Yongxi

    2015-09-01

    3'-terminal 2'-O-methylation has been found in several kinds of small silencing RNA, regarded as a protective mechanism against enzymatic 3' → 5' degradation and 3'-end uridylation. The influence of this modification on enzymatic polymerization, however, remains unknown. Herein, a systematic investigation is performed to explore this issue. We found these methylated small RNAs exhibited a suppression behavior in target-primed polymerization, revealing biased result for the manipulation of these small RNAs by conventional polymerization-based methodology. The related potential mechanism is investigated and discussed, which is probably ascribed to the big size of modified group and its close location to 3'-OH. Furthermore, two novel solutions each utilizing base-stacking hybridization and three-way junction structure have been proposed to realize unbiased recognition of small RNAs. On the basis of phosphorothioate against nicking, a creative amplified strategy, phosphorothioate-protected polymerization/binicking amplification, has also been developed for the unbiased quantification of methylated small RNA in Arabidopsis thaliana, demonstrating its promising potential for real sample analysis. Collectively, our studies uncover the polymerization inhibition by 3'-terminal 2'-O-methylated small RNAs with mechanistic discussion, and propose novel unbiased solutions for amplified quantification of small RNAs in real sample.

  12. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Spinosyns with C9-O-Benzyl Bioisosteres in Place of the 2',3',4'-Tri-O-methyl Rhamnose.

    PubMed

    Oliver, M Paige; Crouse, Gary D; Demeter, David A; Sparks, Thomas C

    2015-06-17

    The spinosyns are fermentation-derived natural products active against a wide range of insect pests. They are structurally complex, consisting of two sugars (forosamine and rhamnose) coupled to a macrocyclic tetracycle. Removal of the rhamnose sugar results in a >100-fold reduction in insecticidal activity. C9-O-benzyl analogues of spinosyn D were synthesized to determine if the 2',3',4'-tri-O-methyl rhamnose moiety could be replaced with a simpler, synthetic bioisostere. Insecticidal activity was evaluated against larvae of Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) and Helicoverpa zea (corn earworm). Whereas most analogues were far less active than spinosyn D, a few of the C9-O-benzyl analogues, such as 4-CN, 4-Cl, 2-isopropyl, and 3,5-diOMe, were within 3-15 times the activity of spinosyn D for larvae of S. exigua and H. zea. Thus, although not yet quite as effective, synthetic bioisosteres can substitute for the naturally occurring 2',3',4'-tri-O-methyl rhamnose moiety.

  13. Homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST) cDNA’s in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has served as a model albino-seedling mutant since its discovery in 1923. We show that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruptions in homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), an enzyme that catalyzes the committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ9) biosynthesis. This reaction ...

  14. GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GLUTATHIONE s-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE. M K Ross1 and R A Pegram2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL/ORD, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  15. Histamine N-methyl transferase: inhibition by drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Pacifici, G M; Donatelli, P; Giuliani, L

    1992-01-01

    1. Histamine N-methyl transferase activity was measured in samples of human liver, brain, kidney, lung and intestinal mucosa. The mean (+/- s.d.) rate (nmol min-1 mg-1 protein) of histamine N-methylation was 1.78 +/- 0.59 (liver, n = 60), 1.15 +/- 0.38 (renal cortex, n = 8), 0.79 +/- 0.14 (renal medulla, n = 8), 0.35 +/- 0.08 (lung, n = 20), 0.47 +/- 0.18 (human intestine, n = 30) and 0.29 +/- 0.14 (brain, n = 13). 2. Inhibition of histamine N-methyl transferase by 15 drugs was investigated in human liver. The IC50 for the various drugs ranged over three orders of magnitude; chloroquine was the most potent inhibitor. 3. The average IC50 values for chloroquine were 12.6, 22.0, 19.0, 21.6 microM in liver, renal cortex, brain and colon, respectively. These values are lower than the Michaelis-Menten constant for histamine N-methyltransferase in liver (43.8 microM) and kidney (45.5 microM). Chloroquine carried a mixed non-competitive inhibition of hepatic histamine N-methyl transferase. Some side-effects of chloroquine may be explained by inhibition of histamine N-methyl transferase. PMID:1457266

  16. Late onset ornithine carbamoyl transferase deficiency in males.

    PubMed Central

    Drogari, E; Leonard, J V

    1988-01-01

    Six boys with ornithine carbamoyl transferase deficiency presenting in infancy or later childhood are described. There was wide variation in both the time of presentation and the symptoms, which may initially suggest a neurological, behavioural, or gastroenterological problem. Two patients died, as did two male siblings who were probably affected, but with early recognition of the hyperammonaemia the outlook is good. PMID:3202644

  17. GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GLUTATHIONE s-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE. M K Ross1 and R A Pegram2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL/ORD, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1535 - Ornithine carbamyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ornithine carbamyl transferase test system. 862.1535 Section 862.1535 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... and treatment of liver diseases, such as infectious hepatitis, acute cholecystitis (inflammation of...

  19. Rational design of an organometallic glutathione transferase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, W.H.; Parker, L.J.; De Luca, A.; Juillerat-Jeanneret, L.; Morton, C.J.; LoBello, M.; Parker, M.W.; Dyson, P.J.

    2010-08-17

    A hybrid organic-inorganic (organometallic) inhibitor was designed to target glutathione transferases. The metal center is used to direct protein binding, while the organic moiety acts as the active-site inhibitor. The mechanism of inhibition was studied using a range of biophysical and biochemical methods.

  20. Human liver glutathione S-transferase psi. Chemical characterization and secondary-structure comparison with other mammalian glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S V; Kurosky, A; Awasthi, Y C

    1987-01-01

    The isolation and chemical characterization of the anionic human liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) psi (pI 5.5) are described and compared with other GST isoenzymes reported for rat and human. Amino acid compositional analysis, substrate specificity and isoelectric focusing indicated that GST psi is a unique isoenzyme form of GST. Strikingly, however, amino acid sequence analysis of the N-terminal region indicated that GST psi was identical with GST mu in the first 23 amino acid residues reported. It is likely that these two enzyme forms are at least partially structurally related. In order to investigate further the genetic relationship of GST psi to other reported GST isoenzymes, secondary-structure analysis was performed. Despite substantial differences in the N-terminal-region amino acid sequences of some of the GST isoenzymes, the secondary structure of all the isoenzymes is highly conserved at their N-termini. The general uniformity of the secondary structure of this enzyme class at their N-termini strongly indicated that the observed diversity of these isoenzymes probably occurred as a result of a mechanism of gene duplication followed by divergence rather than a mechanism of convergent evolution. PMID:3606582

  1. Properties of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:macrocin O-methyltransferase in extracts of Streptomyces fradiae strains which produce normal or elevated levels of tylosin and in mutants blocked in specific O-methylations.

    PubMed Central

    Seno, E T; Baltz, R H

    1981-01-01

    An efficient assay for S-adenosyl-L-methionine:macrocin O-methyltransferase, the enzyme which carries out the terminal step in tylosin biosynthesis, is described. Macrocin O-methyltransferase requires Mg2+ and S-adenosyl-L-methionine for activity, has a temperature optimum of about 31 degrees C, and has a pH optimum of 7.5 to 8.2. Macrocin O-methyltransferase specifically converts macrocin to tylosin by O-methylation of the 3" ' position of macrocin. In vitro methylation studies with extracts from a tylosin-producing Streptomyces fradiae strain and from mutant strains blocked in 2" '- or 3" '-O-methylations indicated that: (i) the 2" '- and 3" '-O-methylations occur after 6-deoxy-D-allose is attached to the macrolide ring; (ii) the 2" '- and 3" '-O-methylations are carried out by separate enzymes; and (iii) the 2" '-O-methylation precedes the 3" '-O-methylation. Macrocin O-methyltransferase was inhibited by high levels of its substrate, macrocin, by its product, tylosin, and by other tylosin analogs which contained mycinose or demethyl analogs of mycinose. Macrocin O-methyltransferase was produced early in the tylosin fermentation cycle by S. fradiae and preceded the onset of rapid tylosin biosynthesis by about 24 h. The enzyme specific activity reached maximum at about 72 h and then slowly declined. A mutant strain of S. fradiae selected for increased tylosin production synthesized macrocin O-methyltransferase more rapidly and accumulated a higher enzyme specific activity than a wild-type strain. PMID:7305323

  2. Phosphorylation and inhibition of. gamma. -glutamyl transferase activity by cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko, L.S.; Chernov, N.N.

    1986-10-20

    It was shown that preparations of bovine kidney ..gamma..-glutamyl transferase of differing degrees of purity are phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This is accompanied by a decrease in both the transferase and hydrolase activities of the enzyme. Consequently, ..gamma..-glutamyl transferase may serve as the substrate and target of the regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  3. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a) Identification. A galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system is a device intended to measure the activity...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a) Identification. A galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system is a device intended to measure the activity...

  5. Bifunctional effects of O-methylated flavones from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi on melanocytes: Inhibition of melanin production and intracellular melanosome transport

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji-Naito, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in skin lightening has recently renewed attention on the esthetic applications of Chinese herbal medicine. Although Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is used for antipyretic and antiinflammatory purposes, its whitening effect remains unclear. This study reports three major findings: (1) S. baicalensis has a potent inhibitory effect on melanogenesis; (2) wogonin and its glycoside are the active components of S. baicalensis; and (3) O-methylated flavones from S. baicalensis, such as wogonin, inhibit intracellular melanosome transport. Using a melanin quantification assay, we showed that S. baicalensis potently inhibits melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. Componential analyses revealed that the main components of S. baicalensis are baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A. Among these five flavones, wogonin and wogonoside consistently inhibited melanogenesis in both B16F10 melanoma cells and primary melanocytes. Wogonin exhibited the strongest inhibition of melanin production and markedly lightened the color of skin equivalents. We identified microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase-related proteins as potential targets of wogonin- and wogonoside-induced melanogenesis suppression. In culture, we found that the melanosomes in wogonin-treated B16F10 cells were localized to the perinuclear region. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that wogonin significantly reduced in melanophilin protein, which is required for actin-based melanosome transport. Other actin-based melanosome transport-related molecules, i.e., Rab27A and myosin Va, were not affected by wogonin. Cotreatment with MG132 blocked the wogonin-induced decrease in melanophilin, suggesting that wogonin promotes the proteolytic degradation of melanophilin via the calpain/proteasomal pathway. We determined that the structural specificities of the mono-O-methyl group in the flavone A-ring and the aglycone form were responsible for reducing melanosome transport

  6. STT3, a highly conserved protein required for yeast oligosaccharyl transferase activity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, R; Knauer, R; Burda, P; Stagljar, I; te Heesen, S; Lehle, L; Aebi, M

    1995-01-01

    N-linked glycosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification, and is essential for viability in eukaryotic cells. A lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide is assembled at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to selected asparagine residues of nascent polypeptide chains by the oligosaccharyl transferase (OTase) complex. Based on the synthetic lethal phenotype of double mutations affecting the assembly of the lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide and the OTase activity, we have performed a novel screen for mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with altered N-linked glycosylation. Besides novel mutants deficient in the assembly of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (alg mutants), we identified the STT3 locus as being required for OTase activity in vivo. The essential STT3 protein is approximately 60% identical in amino acid sequence to its human homologue. A mutation in the STT3 locus affects substrate specificity of the OTase complex in vivo and in vitro. In stt3-3 cells very little glycosyl transfer occurs from incomplete lipid-linked oligosaccharide, whereas the transfer of full-length Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 is hardly affected as compared with wild-type cells. Depletion of the STT3 protein results in loss of transferase activity in vivo and a deficiency in the assembly of OTase complex. Images PMID:7588624

  7. Endothelial cell palmitoylproteomics identifies novel lipid modified targets and potential substrates for protein acyl transferases

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Ethan P.; Derakhshan, Behrad; Lam, TuKiet T.; Davalos, Alberto; Sessa, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Protein S-palmitoylation is the post-translational attachment of a saturated 16-carbon palmitic acid to a cysteine side chain via a thioester bond. Palmitoylation can affect protein localization, trafficking, stability, and function. The extent and roles of palmitoylation in endothelial cell (EC) biology is not well understood, in part due to technological limits on palmitoylprotein detection. Objective To develop a method using acyl-biotinyl exchange (ABE) technology coupled with mass spectrometry to globally isolate and identify palmitoylproteins in EC. Methods and Results More than 150 putative palmitoyl proteins were identified in EC using ABE and mass spectrometry. Among the novel palmitoylproteins identified is superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), an intensively studied enzyme that protects all cells from oxidative damage. Mutation of cysteine 6 prevents palmitoylation, leads to reduction in SOD1 activity in vivo and in vitro, and inhibits nuclear localization, thereby supporting a functional role for SOD1 palmitoylation. Moreover, we used ABE to search for substrates of particular protein acyl transferases in EC. We found that palmitoylation of the cell adhesion protein PECAM1 is dependent on the protein acyl transferase ZDHHC21. We show that knockdown of ZDHHC21 leads to reduced levels of PECAM1 at the cell surface. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the utility of EC palmitoylproteomics to reveal new insights into the role of this important post-translational lipid modification in EC biology. PMID:22496122

  8. Treatment of idiopathic parkinsonism with L-dopa in the absence and presence of decarboxylase inhibitors: effects on plasma levels of L-dopa, dopa decarboxylase, catecholamines and 3-O-methyl-dopa.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, F; Meerwaldt, J D; Man in't Veld, A J; Hovestadt, A; Schalekamp, M A

    1989-05-01

    The effect of levodopa (L-dopa), alone or in combination with a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor (PDI), on plasma levels of aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (ALAAD, = dopa decarboxylase), L-dopa, 3-O-methyl-dopa (3-OMD), dopamine (DA), noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine beta-hydroxylase has been studied. In healthy subjects and in patients with parkinsonism plasma ALAAD level fell after administration of L-dopa + benserazide, but returned to previous levels within 90 min. In a cross-sectional study blood was obtained, 2 h after dosing, from 104 patients with idiopathic parkinsonism, divided into four groups: no L-dopa treatment (group 1), L-dopa alone (group 2), L-dopa + benserazide (Madopar) (group 3) and L-dopa + carbidopa (Sinemet) (group 4). Plasma ALAAD, which was normal in groups 1 and 2, was increased 3-fold in groups 3 and 4, indicating that there was induction of ALAAD by the co-administration of PDI. Despite this induction of ALAAD, in groups 3 and 4, with half the daily L-dopa dose compared with group 2, plasma L-dopa and 3-OMD levels were 5 times higher, while plasma DA levels were not different. The DA/L-dopa ratio was decreased 5-fold in group 2 and 16-fold in groups 3 and 4 as compared with group 1. Neither 3-OMD levels nor 3-OMD/L-dopa ratios correlated with the occurrence of on-off fluctuations. In a longitudinal study of three patients started on Madopar treatment the induction of plasma ALAAD was found to occur gradually over 3-4 weeks. Further detailed pharmacokinetic studies in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are required in order to elucidate whether the ALAAD induction by PDI may be related to the loss of clinical efficacy of combination therapy in some patients and how it is related to end-of-dose deterioration and on-off phenomena.

  9. Mice Deficient in Glutathione Transferase Zeta/Maleylacetoacetate Isomerase Exhibit a Range of Pathological Changes and Elevated Expression of Alpha, Mu, and Pi Class Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Cindy E.L.; Matthaei, Klaus I.; Blackburn, Anneke C.; Davis, Richard P.; Dahlstrom, Jane E.; Koina, Mark E.; Anders, M.W.; Board, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    Glutathione transferase zeta (GSTZ1-1) is the major enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of α-halo acids such as dichloroacetic acid, a carcinogenic contaminant of chlorinated water. GSTZ1-1 is identical with maleylacetoacetate isomerase, which catalyzes the penultimate step in the catabolic pathways for phenylalanine and tyrosine. In this study we have deleted the Gstz1 gene in BALB/c mice and characterized their phenotype. Gstz1−/− mice do not have demonstrable activity with maleylacetone and α-halo acid substrates, and other GSTs do not compensate for the loss of this enzyme. When fed a standard diet, the GSTZ1-1-deficient mice showed enlarged liver and kidneys as well as splenic atrophy. Light and electron microscopic examination revealed multifocal hepatitis and ultrastructural changes in the kidney. The addition of 3% (w/v) phenylalanine to the drinking water was lethal for young mice (<28 days old) and caused liver necrosis, macrovesicular steatosis, splenic atrophy, and a significant loss of circulating leukocytes in older surviving mice. GSTZ1-1-deficient mice showed constitutive induction of alpha, mu, and pi class GSTs as well as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1. The overall response is consistent with the chronic accumulation of a toxic metabolite(s). We detected the accumulation of succinylacetone in the serum of deficient mice but cannot exclude the possibility that maleylacetoacetate and maleylacetone may also accumulate. PMID:15277241

  10. Characterization and isolation of oligosaccharyl transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, H.A.; Lennarz, W.J.

    1986-05-01

    Oligosaccharyltransferases (OT), the enzyme catalyzing the transfer of oligosaccharride from dolichol-PP-GlcNAc/sub 2/Man/sub 9/Glc/sub 3/ to asparagine residues of -Asn-X-Thr/Ser-sequences within nascent polypeptides, was labeled with a new active site-directed photoaffinity probe, N/sup ..cap alpha../-(/sup 125/I)-3-(4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl)-Asn-Lys(N/sup epsilon/-p-azidobenzoyl)-Thr-NH/sub 2/. Using this sensitive selective labelling probe, the authors have characterized and isolated the enzyme from hen oviduct. Analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis revealed that the major photoaffinity-labeled OT has a pI = 5.2; minor forms exist at pI = 6.0-6.2. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that the probe interacts with a 57 kDa Coomassie Blue stainable protein at short incubation times, with the radioactive signal appearing at 60 kDa after longer incubations. The 60 kDa /sup 125/I-photoaffinity labeled OT decreased in molecular mass to 57 kDa following endoglucosaminidase H digestion with no shift in pI. The 57 dKa Coomassie Blue stainable protein is not endoglucosaminidase H sensitive. When microsomal dolichol-P-P-oligosaccharide was depleted by preincubating with excess competing peptide, only the 57 kDa /sup 125/I-labeled OT formed. These data suggest that (1) OT is a 57 kDa protein that does not contain polymannose chains, and (2) the formation of the 60 kDa /sup 125/I-labeled OT is likely the result of the glycosylation of the covalently linked tripeptide probe. The enzyme has been isolated to homogeneity by preparative 2-D gel electrophoresis and amino acid sequence analysis and polyclonal antibody production is being performed.

  11. The trans-stilbene oxide-active glutathione transferase in human mononuclear leucocytes is identical with the hepatic glutathione transferase mu.

    PubMed Central

    Seidegård, J; Guthenberg, C; Pero, R W; Mannervik, B

    1987-01-01

    A glutathione transferase from human mononuclear leucocytes with high activity towards trans-stilbene oxide (GT-tSBO) was purified. GT-tSBO is expressed in only about 50% of the individuals studied. As judged from activity measurements, immunological studies and the fact that only those individuals who express glutathione transferase mu have high activity towards trans-stilbene oxide, it is concluded that the hepatic transferase mu is identical with the glutathione transferase (GT-tSBO) in mononuclear leucocytes. PMID:3689332

  12. Structure of human IFIT1 with capped RNA reveals adaptable mRNA binding and mechanisms for sensing N1 and N2 ribose 2'-O methylations.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Yazan M; Laudenbach, Beatrice Theres; Martínez-Montero, Saúl; Cencic, Regina; Habjan, Matthias; Pichlmair, Andreas; Damha, Masad J; Pelletier, Jerry; Nagar, Bhushan

    2017-03-14

    IFIT1 (IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats-1) is an effector of the host innate immune antiviral response that prevents propagation of virus infection by selectively inhibiting translation of viral mRNA. It relies on its ability to compete with the translation initiation factor eIF4F to specifically recognize foreign capped mRNAs, while remaining inactive against host mRNAs marked by ribose 2'-O methylation at the first cap-proximal nucleotide (N1). We report here several crystal structures of RNA-bound human IFIT1, including a 1.6-Å complex with capped RNA. IFIT1 forms a water-filled, positively charged RNA-binding tunnel with a separate hydrophobic extension that unexpectedly engages the cap in multiple conformations (syn and anti) giving rise to a relatively plastic and nonspecific mode of binding, in stark contrast to eIF4E. Cap-proximal nucleotides encircled by the tunnel provide affinity to compete with eIF4F while allowing IFIT1 to select against N1 methylated mRNA. Gel-shift binding assays confirm that N1 methylation interferes with IFIT1 binding, but in an RNA-dependent manner, whereas translation assays reveal that N1 methylation alone is not sufficient to prevent mRNA recognition at high IFIT1 concentrations. Structural and functional analysis show that 2'-O methylation at N2, another abundant mRNA modification, is also detrimental for RNA binding, thus revealing a potentially synergistic role for it in self- versus nonself-mRNA discernment. Finally, structure-guided mutational analysis confirms the importance of RNA binding for IFIT1 restriction of a human coronavirus mutant lacking viral N1 methylation. Our structural and biochemical analysis sheds new light on the molecular basis for IFIT1 translational inhibition of capped viral RNA.

  13. Glutathione-S-transferase activity in malarial parasites.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Puri, S K; Kamboj, K K; Pandey, V C

    1999-04-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity has been detected in rodent (Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii), simian (P. knowlesi) and human (P. falciparum) malarial parasites, and in different intraerythrocytic stages of P. knowlesi (schizont > ring > trophozoite). In chloroquine-resistant strains of rodent and human malarial parasites GST activity significantly increases compared to sensitive strains. Further, the increase in enzyme activity is directly related to drug pressure of resistant P. berghei. Complete inhibition of chloroquine-sensitive and resistant P. berghei glutathione-S-transferase activities was observed at 2.5 and 5. micrometer concentration of hemin, respectively. An inverse relationship was found between the heme level and enzyme activity of chloroquine-resistant and sensitive P. berghei. Chloroquine, artemisinin, and primaquine noticeably inhibited GST activity in P. knowlesi.

  14. Bacterial transferase MraY inhibitors: synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lecerclé, Delphine; Clouet, Anthony; Al-Dabbagh, Bayan; Crouvoisier, Muriel; Bouhss, Ahmed; Gravier-Pelletier, Christine; Le Merrer, Yves

    2010-06-15

    New inhibitors of the bacterial transferase MraY are described. Their structure is based on an aminoribosyl-O-uridine like scaffold, readily obtained in two key steps. The amino group can be coupled with proline or guanylated. Alternatively, these amino, prolinyl or guanidinyl groups can be introduced through a triazole linker. Biological evaluation of these compounds on MraY from Bacillus subtilis revealed interesting inhibitory activity for both amino compounds. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. [Glutathione S-transferase of alpha class from pike liver].

    PubMed

    Borvinskaia, E V; Smirnov, L P; Nemova, N N

    2013-01-01

    In this study, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was isolated from the liver of pike Esox lucius, which was homogenous according to SDS-PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. It is a homodimer with subunits mass 25235.36 Da (according to HPLC-MS/MS) and pI about 6.4. Substrate specificity, thermostability, some kinetic characteristics and optimum pH were determined. The enzyme was identified as Alpha class GST.

  16. Purification and kinetic mechanism of the major glutathione S-transferase from bovine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Young, P R; Briedis, A V

    1989-01-01

    The major glutathione S-transferase isoenzyme from bovine brain was isolated and purified approx. 500-fold. The enzyme has a pI of 7.39 +/- 0.02 and consists of two non-identical subunits having apparent Mr values of 22,000 and 24,000. The enzyme is uniformly distributed in brain, and kinetic data at pH 6.5 with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as substrate suggest a random rapid-equilibrium mechanism. The kinetics of inhibition by product, by GSH analogues and by NADH are consistent with the suggested mechanism and require inhibitor binding to several different enzyme forms. Long-chain fatty acids are excellent inhibitors of the enzyme, and values of 1nKi for hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid and lauric acid form a linear series when plotted as a function of alkyl chain length. A free-energy change of -1900 J/mol (-455 cal/mol) per CH2 unit is calculated for the contribution of hydrophobic binding energy to the inhibition constants. The turnover number of the purified enzyme dimer is approx. 3400/min. When compared with the second-order rate constant for the reaction between CDNB and GSH, the enzyme is providing a rate acceleration of about 1000-fold. The role of entropic contributions to this small rate acceleration is discussed. PMID:2930465

  17. Inhibition of the recombinant cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus glutathione S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Guneidy, Rasha A; Shahein, Yasser E; Abouelella, Amira M K; Zaki, Eman R; Hamed, Ragaa R

    2014-09-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is a bloodsucking ectoparasite that causes severe production losses in the cattle industry. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro effects of tannic acid, hematin (GST inhibitors) and different plant extracts (rich in tannic acid) on the activity of the recombinant glutathione S-transferase enzyme of the Egyptian cattle tick R. annulatus (rRaGST), in order to confirm their ability to inhibit the parasitic essential detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase. Extraction with 70% ethanol of Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf flowers), Punica granatum (red and white pomegranate peel), Musa acuminata (banana peel) (Musaceae), Medicago sativa (alfalfa seeds), Tamarindus indicus (seed) and Cuminum cyminum (cumin seed) were used to assess: (i) inhibitory capacities of rRaGST and (ii) their phenolic and flavonoid contents. Ethanol extraction of red pomegranate peel contained the highest content of phenolic compounds (29.95mg gallic acid/g dry tissue) compared to the other studied plant extracts. The highest inhibition activities of rRaGST were obtained with kenaf and red pomegranate peel (P. granatum) extracts with IC50 values of 0.123 and 0.136mg dry tissue/ml, respectively. Tannic acid was the more effective inhibitor of rRaGST with an IC50 value equal to 4.57μM compared to delphinidine-HCl (IC50=14.9±3.1μM). Gossypol had a weak inhibitory effect (IC50=43.7μM), and caffeic acid had almost no effect on tick GST activity. The IC50 values qualify ethacrynic acid as a potent inhibitor of rRaGST activity (IC50=0.034μM). Cibacron blue and hematin showed a considerable inhibition effect on rRaGST activity, and their IC50 values were 0.13μM and 7.5μM, respectively. The activity of rRaGST was highest for CDNB (30.2μmol/min/mg protein). The enzyme had also a peroxidatic activity (the specific activity equals 26.5μmol/min/mg protein). Both tannic acid and hematin inhibited rRaGST activity non-competitively with respect to GSH and

  18. Production of Coumaroylserotonin and Feruloylserotonin in Transgenic Rice Expressing Pepper Hydroxycinnamoyl-Coenzyme A:Serotonin N-(Hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase1

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sun-Mi; Ishihara, Atsushi; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2004-01-01

    Transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants were engineered to express a N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase from pepper (Capsicum annuum), which has been shown to have hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase activity, a key enzyme in the synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid amides, under the control of constitutive maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter. The transgenic rice plants require foliar application of amines to support synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid amides, suggestive of limiting amine substrates in rice shoots. In addition, when T2 homozygous transgenic rice plants were grown in the presence of amines or phenolic acids, two novel compounds were exclusively identified in the leaves of the transgenic plants. These compounds eluted earlier than p-coumaroyltyramine and feruloyltyramine during HPLC chromatography and were identified as p-coumaroylserotonin and feruloylserotonin by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and other methods. To test whether the unpredicted production of serotonin derivatives is associated with the pepper N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase, the substrate specificity of the pepper enzyme was analyzed again. Purified recombinant pepper N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase exhibited a serotonin N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (SHT) activity, synthesized p-coumaroylserotonin and feruloylserotonin in vitro, and demonstrated a low Km for serotonin. SHT activity was inhibited by 10 to 50 mm tyramine. In addition, SHT activity was predominantly found in the root tissues of wild-type rice in parallel with the synthesis of serotonin derivatives, suggesting that serotonin derivatives are synthesized in the root of rice. This is the first report of SHT activity and the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that serotonin derivatives can be overproduced in vivo in transgenic rice plants that express serotonin N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase. PMID:15122017

  19. Biochemical properties of an omega-class glutathione S-transferase of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Nagaoka, Sumiharu; Banno, Yutaka; Aso, Yoichi

    2009-05-01

    A cDNA encoding an omega-class glutathione S-transferase of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori (bmGSTO), was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The resulting clone was sequenced and deduced for amino acid sequence, which revealed 40, 40, and 39% identities to omega-class GSTs from human, pig, and mouse, respectively. A recombinant protein (rbmGSTO) was functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells in a soluble form and purified to homogeneity. rbmGSTO was able to catalyze the biotranslation of glutathione with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a model substrate for GST, as well as with 4-hydroxynonenal, a product of lipid peroxidation. This enzyme was shown to have high affinity for organophosphorus insecticide and was present abundantly in silkmoth strain exhibiting fenitrothion resistance. These results indicate that bmGSTO could be involved in the increase in level of insecticide resistance for lepidopteran insects.

  20. Purification and properties of 4-hydroxybutyrate coenzyme A transferase from Clostridium aminobutyricum.

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, U; Buckel, W

    1991-01-01

    A new coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase from the anaerobe Clostridium aminobutyricum catalyzing the formation of 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA from 4-hydroxybutyrate and acetyl-CoA is described. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by standard techniques, including fast protein liquid chromatography under aerobic conditions. Its molecular mass was determined to be 110 kDa, and that of the only subunit was determined to be 54 kDa, indicating a homodimeric structure. Besides acetate and acetyl-CoA, the following substrates were detected (in order of decreasing kcat/Km): 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, butyryl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, vinyl-acetyl-CoA (3-butenoyl-CoA), and 5-hydroxyvaleryl-CoA. In an indirect assay the corresponding acids were also found to be substrates; however, DL-lactate, DL-2-hydroxybutyrate, DL-3-hydroxybutyrate, crotonate, and various dicarboxylates were not. PMID:1768145

  1. Characterization of two novel lipopolysaccharide phosphoethanolamine transferases in Pasteurella multocida and their role in resistance to cathelicidin-2.

    PubMed

    Harper, Marina; Wright, Amy; St Michael, Frank; Li, Jianjun; Deveson Lucas, Deanna; Ford, Mark; Adler, Ben; Cox, Andrew D; Boyce, John D

    2017-09-05

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Pasteurella multocida has phosphoethanolamine (PEtn) residues attached to lipid A, 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo), heptose and galactose. In this study, we show that PEtn is transferred to lipid A by the P. multocida EptA homologue, PetL, and is transferred to galactose by a novel PEtn transferase that is unique to P. multocida called PetG. Transcriptomic analyses indicated that petL expression was positively regulated by the global regulator Fis and negatively regulated by an Hfq-dependent small RNA. Importantly, we have identified a novel PEtn transferase called PetK that is responsible for PEtn addition to the single Kdo molecule (Kdo1), directly linked to lipid A in the P. multocida glycoform A LPS. In vitro assays showed that a functional petL and petK, and therefore the presence of PEtn on lipid A and Kdo1, were essential for resistance to the cationic, antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin-2. The importance of PEtn on Kdo1 and the identification of the transferase responsible for this addition has not previously been shown. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PetK is the first representative of a new family of predicted PEtn transferases. The PetK family consists of uncharacterized proteins from a range of Gram-negative bacteria that produce LPS glycoforms with only one Kdo molecule, including pathogenic species within the genera Vibrio, Bordetella and Haemophilus We predict that many of these bacteria will require the addition of PEtn to Kdo for maximum protection against host antimicrobial peptides. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. A 49 kDa microtubule cross-linking protein from Artemia franciscana is a coenzyme A-transferase.

    PubMed

    Oulton, Mindy M; Amons, Reinout; Liang, Ping; MacRae, Thomas H

    2003-12-01

    Embryos and larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, were shown previously to possess a protein, now termed p49, which cross-links microtubules in vitro. Molecular characteristics of p49 were described, but the protein's identity and its role in the cell were not determined. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed on the basis of peptide sequence obtained by Edman degradation during this study were used to generate p49 cDNAs by RT-PCR and these were cloned and sequenced. Comparison with archived sequences revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of p49 resembled the Drosophila gene product CG7920, as well as related proteins encoded in the genomes of Anopheles and Caenorhabditis. Similar proteins exist in several bacteria but no evident homologues were found in vertebrates and plants, and only very distant homologues resided in yeast. When evolutionary relationships were compared, p49 and the homologues from Drosophila, Anopheles and Caenorhabditis formed a distinct subcluster within phylogenetic trees. Additionally, the predicted secondary structures of p49, 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase from Clostridium aminobutyricum and glutaconate CoA-transferase from Acidaminococcus fermentans were similar and the enzymes may possess related catalytic mechanisms. The purified Artemia protein exhibited 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase activity, thereby establishing p49 as the first crustacean CoA-transferase to be characterized. Probing of Western blots with an antibody against p49 revealed a cross-reactive protein in Drosophila that associated with microtubules, but to a lesser extent than did p49 from Artemia.

  3. Determination of Activity of the Enzymes Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyl Transferase (HPRT) and Adenine Phosphoribosyl Transferase (APRT) in Blood Spots on Filter Paper.

    PubMed

    Auler, Kasie; Broock, Robyn; Nyhan, William L

    2015-07-01

    Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) deficiency is the cause of Lesch-Nyhan disease. Adenine phosphoribosyl-transferase (APRT) deficiency causes renal calculi. The activity of each enzyme is readily determined on spots of whole blood on filter paper. This unit describes a method for detecting deficiencies of HPRT and APRT. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Single-step purification and h.p.l.c. analysis of glutathione transferase 8-8 in rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, D J; Lalor, E; Coles, B; Kispert, A; Alin, P; Mannervik, B; Ketterer, B

    1989-01-01

    GSSG selectively elutes two GSH transferases from a mixture of rat GSH transferases bound to a GSH-agarose affinity matrix. One is a form of GSH transferase 1-1 and the other is shown to be GSH transferase 8-8. By using tissues that lack this form of GSH transferase 1-1 (e.g. lung), GSH transferase 8-8 may thus be purified from cytosol in a single step. Quantitative analysis of the tissue distribution of GSH transferase 8-8 was obtained by h.p.l.c. PMID:2764904

  5. Next-Generation Sequencing-Based RiboMethSeq  Protocol for Analysis of tRNA 2'-O-Methylation.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Virginie; Pichot, Florian; Thüring, Kathrin; Ayadi, Lilia; Freund, Isabel; Dalpke, Alexander; Helm, Mark; Motorin, Yuri

    2017-02-09

    Analysis of RNA modifications by traditional physico-chemical approaches is labor  intensive,  requires  substantial  amounts  of  input  material  and  only  allows  site-by-site  measurements.  The  recent  development  of  qualitative  and  quantitative  approaches  based  on   next-generation sequencing (NGS) opens new perspectives for the analysis of various cellular RNA  species.  The  Illumina  sequencing-based  RiboMethSeq  protocol  was  initially  developed  and  successfully applied for mapping of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) 2'-O-methylations. This method also  gives excellent results in the quantitative analysis of rRNA modifications in different species and  under varying growth conditions. However, until now, RiboMethSeq was only employed for rRNA,  and the whole sequencing and analysis pipeline was only adapted to this long and rather conserved  RNA species. A deep understanding of RNA modification functions requires large and global  analysis datasets for other important RNA species, namely for transfer RNAs (tRNAs), which are  well known to contain a great variety of functionally-important modified residues. Here, we  evaluated the application of the RiboMethSeq protocol for the analysis of tRNA 2'-O-methylation in  Escherichia coli and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After a careful optimization of the bioinformatic  pipeline, RiboMethSeq proved to be suitable for relative quantification of methylation rates for  known modified positions in different tRNA species.

  6. An indoleacetate-CoA ligase and a phenylsuccinyl-CoA transferase involved in anaerobic metabolism of auxin.

    PubMed

    Schühle, Karola; Nies, Jonas; Heider, Johann

    2016-09-01

    The plant hormone auxin (indoleacetate) is anaerobically degraded by the Betaproteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum. We report here on a CoA ligase (IaaB) and a CoA-transferase (IaaL) which are encoded in the apparent substrate-induced iaa operon containing genes for indoleacetate degradation. IaaB is a highly specific indoleacetate-CoA ligase which activates indoleacetate to the CoA-thioester immediately after uptake into the cytoplasm. This enzyme only activates indoleacetate and some closely related compounds such as naphthylacetate, phenylacetate and indolepropionate, and is inhibited by high concentrations of substrates, and by the synthetic auxin compound 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate, which does not serve as substrate. IaaL is a CoA-transferase recognizing several C4-dicarboxylic acids, such as succinate, phenylsuccinate or benzylsuccinate and their CoA-thioesters, but only few monocarboxylic acids and no C3-dicarboxylic acids such as benzylmalonate. The enzyme shows no stereospecific discrimation of the benzylsuccinate enantiomers. Moreover, benzylsuccinate is regiospecifically activated to 2-benzylsuccinyl-CoA, whereas phenylsuccinate is converted to an equal mixture of both regioisomers (2- and 3-phenylsuccinyl-CoA). The identification of these two enzymes allows us to set up a modified version of the metabolic pathway of anaerobic indoleacetate degradation and to investigate the sequences databases for the occurrence and distribution of this pathway in other microorgansisms. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Quantification of butyryl CoA:acetate CoA-transferase genes reveals different butyrate production capacity in individuals according to diet and age.

    PubMed

    Hippe, Berit; Zwielehner, Jutta; Liszt, Kathrin; Lassl, Cornelia; Unger, Frank; Haslberger, Alexander G

    2011-03-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota produces short-chain fatty acids, especially butyrate, which affect colonic health, immune function and epigenetic regulation. To assess the effects of nutrition and aging on the production of butyrate, the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene and population shifts of Clostridium clusters lV and XlVa, the main butyrate producers, were analysed. Faecal samples of young healthy omnivores (24 ± 2.5 years), vegetarians (26 ± 5 years) and elderly (86 ± 8 years) omnivores were evaluated. Diet and lifestyle were assessed in questionnaire-based interviews. The elderly had significantly fewer copies of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene than young omnivores (P=0.014), while vegetarians showed the highest number of copies (P=0.048). The thermal denaturation of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene variant melting curve related to Roseburia/Eubacterium rectale spp. was significantly more variable in the vegetarians than in the elderly. The Clostridium cluster XIVa was more abundant in vegetarians (P=0.049) and in omnivores (P<0.01) than in the elderly group. Gastrointestinal microbiota of the elderly is characterized by decreased butyrate production capacity, reflecting increased risk of degenerative diseases. These results suggest that the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene is a valuable marker for gastrointestinal microbiota function.

  8. Glutathione S-transferase pi in an arsenic-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, J F; Wang, H F; Tam, M F; Lee, T C

    1992-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase (GST) was purified from an arsenic-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line, SA7. The SA7 GST was shown to catalyse the conjugation of glutathione and ethacrynic acid, a specific substrate for Pi class GST. Its N-terminal amino-acid sequence has 80% identical residues to that of rat GST P and human GST pi. Thus, the GST purified from SA7 cells belongs to the Pi family. Treatment with Cibacron Blue or ethacrynic acid, which are GST inhibitors, significantly decreased the resistance of SA7 cells to sodium arsenite. On the other hand, pretreatment of SA7N cells, a partial revertant of SA7 cells, with sublethal doses of sodium arsenite, cadmium acetate or zinc sulphate resulted in re-elevation of GST activities and the cells regained the arsenic resistance. The regained arsenic resistance was well correlated with the levels of GST pi which were induced dose-dependently by zinc sulphate. Heat-shock treatment (45 degrees C for 10 min) did not increase GST pi expression or arsenic resistance of SA7N cells. The results indicate that GST pi is possibly involved in the mechanism of arsenic detoxification. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 6. PMID:1472011

  9. Defective Pollen Wall 2 ( DPW2 ) Encodes an Acyl Transferase Required for Rice Pollen Development

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Dawei; Shi, Jianxin; Rautengarten, Carsten; ...

    2016-05-31

    Aliphatic and aromatic lipids are both essential structural components of the plant cuticle, an important interface between the plant and environment. Although cross links between aromatic and aliphatic or other moieties are known to be associated with the formation of leaf cutin and root and seed suberin, the contribution of aromatic lipids to the biosynthesis of anther cuticles and pollen walls remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) male sterile mutant, defective pollen wall 2 (dpw2), which showed an abnormal anther cuticle, a defective pollen wall, and complete male sterility. Compared with the wild type, dpw2more » anthers have increased amounts of cutin and waxes and decreased levels of lipidic and phenolic compounds. DPW2 encodes a cytoplasmically localized BAHD acyltransferase. In vitro assays demonstrated that recombinant DPW2 specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acid moieties, using v-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs as acyl donors. Thus, The cytoplasmic hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:v-hydroxy fatty acid transferase DPW2 plays a fundamental role in male reproduction via the biosynthesis of key components of the anther cuticle and pollen wall.« less

  10. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a) Identification...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a) Identification...

  12. Mechanistic studies of inactivation of glutathione S-transferase Pi isozyme by a haloenol lactone derivative.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiang; Liu, Guangxian; Tozkoparan, Birsen; Wen, Dingyi

    2005-03-01

    Cancer chemotherapy often fails due to acquired drug resistance. One of the most critical biochemical changes observed in drug-resistant tumor cells is over-expression of glutathione S-transferase Pi isozyme (GSTP1). Glutathione S-transferase inhibitors have been used as potentiating agents of chemotherapeutic drugs. Earlier we reported haloenol lactone 1 as a site-directed GSTP1 inactivator. We proposed that enzymatic hydrolysis of the haloenol lactone may be the initial step of GSTP1 chemical modification, resulting in the inactivation of the enzyme. Enzyme inactivation is initiated through addition of Cys-47 to the lactone ring, which is opened in the process to form an alpha-bromoketone adduct. The acidity of Cys-47 confers good leaving group properties, and rapid hydrolysis occurs to generate an alpha-bromoketoacid intermediate. The reaction may proceed via alkylation of the transient thioester to form a six-membered ring episulfonium ion intermediate which would be yet more reactive toward hydrolysis, with either process leading to the observed mass increase of 230 Da. To probe the importance of the bromine of the lactone in GST inactivation, we designed and synthesized compound 2. Unlike lactone 1, lactone 2 did not show time-dependent inhibitory effect on GSTP1. Incubation of compounds 1 and 2 with excess of N-acetyl cysteine produced the corresponding di-N-acetyl cysteine conjugate and mono-N-acetyl cysteine conjugate, respectively. To probe the role of Cys-47 in the inactivation of GSTP1 by compound 1, we prepared mutant C47A GSTP1. The mutant GSTP1 still showed good activity toward CDNB, but it lost susceptibility to the inactivation by compound 1. In addition, LC-MS/MS technique allowed us to identify the modified Cys-47 after the enzyme was exposed to compound 1.

  13. Acrolein-detoxifying isozymes of glutathione transferase in plants.

    PubMed

    Mano, Jun'ichi; Ishibashi, Asami; Muneuchi, Hitoshi; Morita, Chihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Biswas, Md Sanaullah; Koeduka, Takao; Kitajima, Sakihito

    2017-02-01

    Acrolein is a lipid-derived highly reactive aldehyde, mediating oxidative signal and damage in plants. We found acrolein-scavenging glutathione transferase activity in plants and purified a low K M isozyme from spinach. Various environmental stressors on plants cause the generation of acrolein, a highly toxic aldehyde produced from lipid peroxides, via the promotion of the formation of reactive oxygen species, which oxidize membrane lipids. In mammals, acrolein is scavenged by glutathione transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) isozymes of Alpha, Pi, and Mu classes, but plants lack these GST classes. We detected the acrolein-scavenging GST activity in four species of plants, and purified an isozyme showing this activity from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. The isozyme (GST-Acr), obtained after an affinity chromatography and two ion exchange chromatography steps, showed the K M value for acrolein 93 μM, the smallest value known for acrolein-detoxifying enzymes in plants. Peptide sequence homology search revealed that GST-Acr belongs to the GST Tau, a plant-specific class. The Arabidopsis thaliana GST Tau19, which has the closest sequence similar to spinach GST-Acr, also showed a high catalytic efficiency for acrolein. These results suggest that GST plays as a scavenger for acrolein in plants.

  14. Characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Nutricati, Eliana; Miceli, Antonio; Blando, Federica; De Bellis, Luigi

    2006-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are multifunctional proteins encoded by a large gene family, divided on the basis of sequence identity into phi, tau, theta, zeta and lambda classes. The phi and tau classes are present only in plants. GSTs appear to be ubiquitous in plants and are involved in herbicide detoxification and stress response, but little is known about the precise role of GSTs in normal plant physiology and during biotic and abiotic stress response. Two cDNAs representing the two plant classes tau and phi, AtGSTF9 and AtGSTU26, were expressed in vitro and the corresponding proteins were analysed. Both GSTs were able to catalyse a glutathione conjugation to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), but they were inactive as transferases towards p-nitrobenzylchloride (pNBC). AtGSTF9 showed activity towards benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and an activity as glutathione peroxidase with cumene hydroperoxide (CumHPO). AtGSTU26 was not active as glutathione peroxidase and towards BITC. RT-PCR analysis was used to evaluate the expression of the two genes in response to treatment with herbicides and safeners, chemicals, low and high temperature. Our results reveal that AtGSTU26 is induced by the chloroacetanilide herbicides alachlor and metolachlor and the safener benoxacor, and after exposure to low temperatures. In contrast, AtGSTF9 seems not to be influenced by the treatments employed.

  15. Characterization of glutathione S-transferase of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Vibanco-Pérez, N; Jiménez, L; Merchant, M T; Landa, A

    1999-06-01

    A Taenia solium glutathione-S-transferase fraction (SGSTF) was isolated from a metacestode crude extract by affinity chromatography on reduced glutathione (GSH)-sepharose. The purified fraction displayed a specific glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of 2.8 micromol/min/mg and glutathione peroxidase selenium-independent activity of 0.22 micromol/min/mg. Enzymatic characterization of the fraction suggested that the activity was closer to the mammalian mu-class GSTs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and enzyme activity analysis showed that the fraction was composed of a major band of Mr = 26 kd and that the active enzyme was dimeric. Immunohistochemical studies using specific antibodies against the major 26-kd band of the SGSTF indicated that GST protein was present in the tegument, parenchyma, protonephridial, and tegumentary cytons of the T. solium metacestode. Antibodies generated against the SGSTF tested in western blot showed cross-reactivity against GSTs purified from Taenia saginata, T. taeniaeformis, and T. crassiceps, but did not react with GSTs from Schistosoma mansoni, or mice, rabbit, and pig liver tissue. Furthermore, immunization of mice with SGSTF reduced the metacestode burden up to 74.2%. Our findings argue in favor of GST having an important role in the survival of T. solium in its hosts.

  16. Interaction of pleuromutilin derivatives with the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center.

    PubMed

    Long, Katherine S; Hansen, Lykke H; Jakobsen, Lene; Vester, Birte

    2006-04-01

    Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that is used in veterinary medicine. The recently published crystal structure of a tiamulin-50S ribosomal subunit complex provides detailed information about how this drug targets the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. To promote rational design of pleuromutilin-based drugs, the binding of the antibiotic pleuromutilin and three semisynthetic derivatives with different side chain extensions has been investigated using chemical footprinting. The nucleotides A2058, A2059, G2505, and U2506 are affected in all of the footprints, suggesting that the drugs are similarly anchored in the binding pocket by the common tricyclic mutilin core. However, varying effects are observed at U2584 and U2585, indicating that the side chain extensions adopt distinct conformations within the cavity and thereby affect the rRNA conformation differently. An Escherichia coli L3 mutant strain is resistant to tiamulin and pleuromutilin, but not valnemulin, implying that valnemulin is better able to withstand an altered rRNA binding surface around the mutilin core. This is likely due to additional interactions made between the valnemulin side chain extension and the rRNA binding site. The data suggest that pleuromutilin drugs with enhanced antimicrobial activity may be obtained by maximizing the number of interactions between the side chain moiety and the peptidyl transferase cavity.

  17. Interaction of Pleuromutilin Derivatives with the Ribosomal Peptidyl Transferase Center

    PubMed Central

    Long, Katherine S.; Hansen, Lykke H.; Jakobsen, Lene; Vester, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that is used in veterinary medicine. The recently published crystal structure of a tiamulin-50S ribosomal subunit complex provides detailed information about how this drug targets the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. To promote rational design of pleuromutilin-based drugs, the binding of the antibiotic pleuromutilin and three semisynthetic derivatives with different side chain extensions has been investigated using chemical footprinting. The nucleotides A2058, A2059, G2505, and U2506 are affected in all of the footprints, suggesting that the drugs are similarly anchored in the binding pocket by the common tricyclic mutilin core. However, varying effects are observed at U2584 and U2585, indicating that the side chain extensions adopt distinct conformations within the cavity and thereby affect the rRNA conformation differently. An Escherichia coli L3 mutant strain is resistant to tiamulin and pleuromutilin, but not valnemulin, implying that valnemulin is better able to withstand an altered rRNA binding surface around the mutilin core. This is likely due to additional interactions made between the valnemulin side chain extension and the rRNA binding site. The data suggest that pleuromutilin drugs with enhanced antimicrobial activity may be obtained by maximizing the number of interactions between the side chain moiety and the peptidyl transferase cavity. PMID:16569865

  18. Nucleotidyl transferase assisted DNA labeling with different click chemistries

    PubMed Central

    Winz, Marie-Luise; Linder, Eva Christina; André, Timon; Becker, Juliane; Jäschke, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a simple, modular and efficient strategy that allows the 3′-terminal labeling of DNA, regardless of whether it has been chemically or enzymatically synthesized or isolated from natural sources. We first incorporate a range of modified nucleotides at the 3′-terminus, using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. In the second step, we convert the incorporated nucleotides, using either of four highly efficient click chemistry-type reactions, namely copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, Staudinger ligation or Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand. Moreover, we create internal modifications, making use of either ligation or primer extension, after the nucleotidyl transferase step, prior to the click reaction. We further study the influence of linker variants on the reactivity of azides in different click reactions. We find that different click reactions exhibit distinct substrate preferences, a fact that is often overlooked, but should be considered when labeling oligonucleotides or other biomolecules with click chemistry. Finally, our findings allowed us to extend our previously published RNA labeling strategy to the use of a different copper-free click chemistry, namely the Staudinger ligation. PMID:26013812

  19. Structural and biochemical insights into 2′-O-methylation at the 3′-terminal nucleotide of RNA by Hen1

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chio Mui; Zhou, Chun; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Huang, Raven H.

    2010-01-28

    Small RNAs of {approx}20-30 nt have diverse and important biological roles in eukaryotic organisms. After being generated by Dicer or Piwi proteins, all small RNAs in plants and a subset of small RNAs in animals are further modified at their 3'-terminal nucleotides via 2'-O-methylation, carried out by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase (MTase) Hen1. Methylation at the 3' terminus is vital for biological functions of these small RNAs. Here, we report four crystal structures of the MTase domain of a bacterial homolog of Hen1 from Clostridium thermocellum and Anabaena variabilis, which are enzymatically indistinguishable from the eukaryotic Hen1 in their ability to methylate small single-stranded RNAs. The structures reveal that, in addition to the core fold of the MTase domain shared by other RNA and DNA MTases, the MTase domain of Hen1 possesses a motif and a domain that are highly conserved and are unique to Hen1. The unique motif and domain are likely to be involved in RNA substrate recognition and catalysis. The structures allowed us to construct a docking model of an RNA substrate bound to the MTase domain of bacterial Hen1, which is likely similar to that of the eukaryotic counterpart. The model, supported by mutational studies, provides insight into RNA substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of Hen1.

  20. Suppression of c-Myc induces apoptosis via an AMPK/mTOR-dependent pathway by 4-O-methyl-ascochlorin in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Moon; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Magae, Junji; Bae, Young-Seuk; Chang, Young-Chae

    2016-05-01

    4-O-Methyl-ascochlorin (MAC) is a methylated derivative of the prenyl-phenol antibiotic ascochlorin, which was isolated from an incomplete fungus, Ascochyta viciae. Although the effects of MAC on apoptosis have been reported, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that MAC promoted apoptotic cell death and downregulated c-Myc expression in K562 human leukemia cells. The effect of MAC on apoptosis was similar to that of 10058-F4 (a c-Myc inhibitor) or c-Myc siRNA, suggesting that the downregulation of c-Myc expression plays a role in the apoptotic effect of MAC. Further investigation showed that MAC downregulated c-Myc by inhibiting protein synthesis. MAC promoted the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its target proteins, including p70S6 K and 4E-BP-1. Treatment of cells with AICAR (an AMPK activator), rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor), or mTOR siRNA downregulated c-Myc expression and induced apoptosis to a similar extent to that of MAC. These results suggest that the effect of MAC on apoptosis induction in human leukemia cells is mediated by the suppression of c-Myc protein synthesis via an AMPK/mTOR-dependent mechanism.

  1. Structural basis for piRNA 2'-O-methylated 3'-end recognition by Piwi PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domains.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Simanshu, Dhirendra K; Ma, Jin-Biao; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2011-01-18

    Argonaute and Piwi proteins are key players in the RNA silencing pathway, with the former interacting with micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and siRNAs, whereas the latter targets piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that are 2'-O-methylated (2(')-OCH(3)) at their 3' ends. Germline-specific piRNAs and Piwi proteins play a critical role in genome defense against transposable elements, thereby protecting the genome against transposon-induced defects in gametogenesis and fertility. Humans contain four Piwi family proteins designated Hiwi1, Hiwi2, Hiwi3, and Hili. We report on the structures of Hili-PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domain in the free state and Hiwi1 PAZ domain bound to self-complementary 14-mer RNAs (12-bp + 2-nt overhang) containing 2(')-OCH(3) and 2'-OH at their 3' ends. These structures explain the molecular basis underlying accommodation of the 2(')-OCH(3) group within a preformed Hiwi1 PAZ domain binding pocket, whose hydrophobic characteristics account for the preferential binding of 2(')-OCH(3) over 2'-OH 3' ends. These results contrast with the more restricted binding pocket for the human Ago1 PAZ domain, which exhibits a reverse order, with preferential binding of 2'-OH over 2(')-OCH(3) 3' ends.

  2. Pluronic-PEI copolymers enhance exon-skipping of 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate oligonucleotide in cell culture and dystrophic mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Wu, B; Lu, P; Tucker, J D; Milazi, S; Shah, S N; Lu, Q L

    2014-01-01

    A series of small-size polyethylenimine (PEI)-conjugated pluronic polycarbamates (PCMs) have been investigated for the ability to modulate the delivery of 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate RNA (2'-OMePS) in vitro and in dystrophic mdx mice. The PCMs retain strong binding capacity to negatively charged oligomer as demonstrated by agarose gel retardation assay, with the formation of condensed polymer/oligomer complexes at a wide-range weight ratio from 1:1 to 20:1. The condensed polymer/oligomer complexes form 100-300 nm nanoparticles. Exon-skipping effect of 2'-OMePS was dramatically enhanced with the use of the most effective PCMs in comparison with 2'-OMePS alone in both cell culture and in vivo, respectively. More importantly, the effective PCMs, especially those composed of moderate size (2k-5kDa) and intermediate hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (7-23) of pluronics, enhanced exon-skipping of 2'-OMePS with low toxicity as compared with Lipofectamine-2000 in vitro or PEI 25k in vivo. The variability of individual PCM for delivery of antisense oligomer and plasmid DNA indicate the complexity of interaction between polymer and their cargos. Our data demonstrate the potential of PCMs to mediate delivery of modified antisense oligonucleotides to the muscle for treating muscular dystrophy or other appropriate myodegenerative diseases.

  3. Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation of the Complexes of Posaconazole with β- and 2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Tang, Peixiao; Wang, Lei; Ma, Xiaoli; Xu, Kailin; Xiong, Xinnuo; Liao, Xiaoxiang; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Posaconazole is a triazole antifungal drug that with extremely poor aqueous solubility. Up to now, this drug can be administered via intravenous injection and oral suspension. However, its oral bioavailability is greatly limited by the dissolution rate of the drug. This study aimed to improve water solubility and dissolution of posaconazole through characterizing the inclusion complexes of posaconazole with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and 2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD). Phase solubility studies were performed to calculate the stability constants in solution. The results of FT-IR, PXRD, (1)H and ROESY 2D NMR, and DSC all verified the formation of the complexes in solid state. The complexes showed remarkably improved water solubility and dissolution rate than pure posaconazole. Especially, the aqueous solubility of the DM-β-CD complex is nine times higher than that of the β-CD complex. Preliminary in vitro antifungal susceptibility tests showed that the two inclusion complexes maintained high antifungal activities. These results indicated that the DM-β-CD complexes have great potential for application in the delivery of poorly water-soluble antifungal agents, such as posaconazole.

  4. Distribution and kinetics of 3-O-methyl-6-(18F)fluoro-L-dopa in the rhesus monkey brain

    SciTech Connect

    Doudet, D.J.; McLellan, C.A.; Carson, R.; Adams, H.R.; Miyake, H.; Aigner, T.G.; Finn, R.T.; Cohen, R.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Most attempts to model accurately (18F)-DOPA imaging of the dopamine system are based on the assumptions that its main peripheral metabolite, 3-O-methyl-6-(18F)fluoro-L-DOPA ((18F)3-OM-DOPA), crosses the blood-brain barrier but is present as a homogenous distribution throughout the brain, in part because it is not converted into (18F)DOPA in significant quantities. These assumptions were based mainly on data in rodents. Little information is available in the primate. To verify the accuracy of the above assumptions, the authors administered 18F-labeled 3-OM-DOPA to normal rhesus monkeys and animals with lesions of the DA nigrostriatal system. No selective 18F regional accumulation in brain was apparent in normal or lesioned animals. The plasma metabolite analysis revealed that only the negatively charged metabolites (e.g., sulfated conjugates) that do not cross the blood-brain barrier were found in significant quantities in the plasma. A one-compartment, three-parameter model was adequate to describe the kinetics of (18F)3-OM-DOPA. In conclusion, assumptions concerning (18F)3-OM-DOPA's behavior in brain appear acceptable for (18F)DOPA modeling purposes.

  5. Intracellular metabolism of a 2'-O-methyl-stabilized ribozyme after uptake by DOTAP transfection or asfree ribozyme. A study by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Prasmickaite, L; Hogset, A; Maelandsmo, G; Berg, K; Goodchild, J; Perkins, T; Fodstad, O; Hovig, E

    1998-01-01

    The uptake and cellular metabolism of a fluorescein-labelled synthetic ribozyme stabilized by 2'- O -methyl modification and a 3' inverted thymidine have been studied, employing capillary gel electrophoresis as a novel and efficient analytical method. After internalization by DOTAP transfection, electrophoretic peaks of intact ribozyme and different degradation products were easily resolved and the amount of intracellular intact ribozyme was quantified to >10(7) molecules/cell at the peak value after 4 h transfection. On further incubation the amount of intracellular intact ribozyme decreased due to both degradation and efflux from the cell. However, even after 48 h incubation there were still >10(6) intact ribozyme molecules/cell. Clear differences both in uptake and in metabolism were seen when comparing DOTAP transfection with the uptake of free ribozyme. Fluorescence microscopy studies indicated that the ribozyme was mainly localized in intracellular granules, probably not accessible to target mRNA. This implies that agents able to release the intact ribozyme from intracellular vesicles into the cytosol should have a considerable potential for increasing the biological effects of synthetic ribozymes. PMID:9722645

  6. Discovery of potent and selective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors: acacetin 7-O-methyl ether Mannich base derivatives synthesised from easy access natural product naringin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Ran; Men, Xue; Gao, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Lin-Bo; Fan, Hao-Qun; Xia, Xin-Hua; Wang, Qiu-An

    2017-06-15

    Naringin, as a component universal existing in the peel of some fruits or medicinal plants, was usually selected as the material to synthesise bioactive derivates since it was easy to gain with low cost. In present investigation, eight new acacetin-7-O-methyl ether Mannich base derivatives (1-8) were synthesised from naringin. The bioactivity evaluation revealed that most of them exhibited moderate or potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. Among them, compound 7 (IC50 for AChE = 0.82 ± 0.08 μmol•L(-1), IC50 for BuChE = 46.30 ± 3.26 μmol•L(-1)) showed a potent activity and high selectivity compared with the positive control Rivastigmine (IC50 for AChE = 10.54 ± 0.86 μmol•L(-1), IC50 for BuChE = 0.26 ± 0.08 μmol•L(-1)). The kinetic study suggested that compound 7 bind to AChE with mix-type inhibitory profile. Molecular docking study revealed that compound 7 could combine both catalytic active site (CAS) and peripheral active site (PAS) of AChE with four points (Trp84, Trp279, Tyr70 and Phe330), while it could bind with BuChE via only His 20.

  7. Anxiolytic-like effects of (O-methyl)-N-2,6-dihydroxybenzoyl-tyramine (riparin III) from Aniba riparia (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Carla Thiciane Vasconcelos; Monteiro, Andreisa Paiva; Leite, Caroline Porto; de Araújo, Fernando Luiz Oliveira; Lima, Vera Targino Moreira; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de França Fonteles, Marta Maria; de Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; de Barros Viana, Glauce Socorro; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço

    2006-03-01

    This work presents behavioral effects of (O-methyl)-N-2,6-dihydroxybenzoyl-tyramine (riparin III) isolated from the unripe fruit of Aniba riparia (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) in animal models of open field, rota rod, elevated plus maze and hole board tests in mice. Riparin III (ripIII) was administered orally, in male mice, at single doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. The results showed that ripIII, at both doses, had no effects on the spontaneous motor activity in the rota rod test nor in the number of squares crossed in the open field test. However, riparin III decreased the number of grooming and rearing. In the plus maze test, ripIII, at both doses increased the following parameters: percentage of entries in the open arms (PEOA), time of permanence in the open arms (TPOA) and percentage of time of permanence in the open arms (PTOA) and at the dose of 50 mg/kg, increased the number of entries in the open arms (NEOA). Similarly, ripIII, at both doses, showed an increase in the number of head dips into the holes of the hole board test. These results show that riparin III presents anxiolytic effects in the plus maze and hole board tests which are not influenced by the locomotor activity in the open field test.

  8. Structural basis for piRNA 2'-O-methylated 3'-end recognition by Piwi PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domains

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Ma, Jin-Biao; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2011-01-01

    Argonaute and Piwi proteins are key players in the RNA silencing pathway, with the former interacting with micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and siRNAs, whereas the latter targets piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that are 2′-O-methylated (2′-OCH3) at their 3′ ends. Germline-specific piRNAs and Piwi proteins play a critical role in genome defense against transposable elements, thereby protecting the genome against transposon-induced defects in gametogenesis and fertility. Humans contain four Piwi family proteins designated Hiwi1, Hiwi2, Hiwi3, and Hili. We report on the structures of Hili-PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domain in the free state and Hiwi1 PAZ domain bound to self-complementary 14-mer RNAs (12-bp + 2-nt overhang) containing 2′-OCH3 and 2′-OH at their 3′ ends. These structures explain the molecular basis underlying accommodation of the 2′-OCH3 group within a preformed Hiwi1 PAZ domain binding pocket, whose hydrophobic characteristics account for the preferential binding of 2′-OCH3 over 2′-OH 3′ ends. These results contrast with the more restricted binding pocket for the human Ago1 PAZ domain, which exhibits a reverse order, with preferential binding of 2′-OH over 2′-OCH3 3′ ends. PMID:21193640

  9. Single-molecule detection and tracking of RNA transcripts in living cells using phosphorothioate-optimized 2'-O-methyl RNA molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Yang, Yantao; Qu, Na; Chen, Mingming; Ma, Zhao; Krueger, Christopher J; Behlke, Mark A; Chen, Antony K

    2016-09-01

    Molecular Beacons (MBs) composed of 2'-O-methyl RNA (2Me) and phosphorothioate (PS) linkages throughout the backbone (2Me/PSFULL MBs) have enabled long-term imaging of RNA in living cells, but excess PS modification can induce nonspecific binding, causing false-positive signals. In this study, we evaluate the intracellular stability of MBs composed of 2Me with various PS modifications, and found that false-positive signals could be reduced to marginal levels when the MBs possess a fully PS-modified loop domain and a phosphodiester stem (2Me/PSLOOP MB). Additionally, 2Me/PSLOOP MBs exhibited uncompromised hybridization kinetics, prolonged functionality and >88% detection accuracy for single RNA transcripts, and could do so without interfering with gene expression or cell growth. Finally, 2Me/PSLOOP MBs could image the dynamics of single mRNA transcripts in the nucleus and the cytoplasm simultaneously, regardless of whether the MBs targeted the 5'- or the 3'-UTR. Together, these findings demonstrate the effectiveness of loop-domain PS modification in reducing nonspecific signals and the potential for sensitive and accurate imaging of individual RNAs at the single-molecule level. With the growing interest in the role of RNA localization and dynamics in health and disease, 2Me/PSLOOP MBs could enable new discoveries in RNA research.

  10. Study on formation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole by microbial O-methylation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in lake water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kejia; Luo, Zhang; Zhang, Tuqiao; Mao, Minmin; Fu, Jie

    2016-12-01

    To explore the mechanisms and influence factors on the production of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in surface waters, the 2,4,6-TCA formation potential (FP) test was conducted by incubating the real lake water with the addition of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) precursor. Besides bacteria and fungi, two common cyanobacteria and algae species, i.e., Chlorella vulgaris and Anabaena flos-aquae, have been proved to have strong capabilities to produce 2,4,6-TCA, which may contribute the high 2,4,6-TCA FP (152.2 ng/L) of lake water. The microbial O-methylation of 2,4,6-TCP precursor is catalyzed by chlorophenol O-methyltransferases (CPOMTs), and their characteristics were identified by adding inductive methyl donors or excluding microorganisms via ultrafiltration. The results indicated both S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) dependent and non-SAM dependent CPOMTs played important roles; extracellular CPOMTs also participated in the biosynthesis of 2,4,6-TCA. Moreover, investigating the effects of various environmental factors revealed initial 2,4,6-TCP processor concentration, temperature, pH and some divalent metal cations (i.e., Mn(2+), Mg(2+) and Zn(2+)) had obvious effects on the production of 2,4,6-TCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enzymatic synthesis of 2'-modified nucleic acids: identification of important phosphate and ribose moieties in RNase P substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, F; Hanne, A; Gaur, R K; Krupp, G

    1995-01-01

    For the first time mosaic nucleic acids composed of 50% RNA and 50% DNA can be obtained as transcripts with T7 RNA polymerase. Two NTPs could be replaced simultaneously in a transcription reaction. This means more than 40 deoxynucleotides were inserted in one transcript. Previously, a maximum of two deoxynucleotides could be incorporated and 2'-O-methyl-NTPs were not substrates at all. We obtained reasonable transcript yields with a maximal level of 99% 2'-O-methyl-NTPs, and the products contained up to 58% 2'-O-methylnucleotides at more than 20 positions. Sequence-specific nucleotide incorporation was monitored by sequence ladders (partial alkali or iodine cleavage). No base misincorporations were detected with 100% dGTP, dCTP and dTTP, and with partial incorporation of dATP alpha S, 2'-O-methyl-GTP alpha S and 2'-O-methyl-CTP alpha S, whereas they were found with dATP, 2'-O-methyl-ATP alpha S and 2'-O-methyl-UTP alpha S. Quantitative data allow predetermined modification levels of partially modified transcripts. Highly modified transcripts can be used for structural and functional studies, in modification interference approaches and for in vitro evolution procedures. Modification interference studies revealed a small number of important phosphate and ribose moieties in RNase P substrates. The conversion of T7 RNA polymerase to a DNA polymerase extends the observation that there is no absolute distinction between RNA and DNA polymerases. Accordingly, an adapted concept of a primordial RNA world is presented. Images PMID:7541130

  12. Structure-activity relationships of 4-hydroxyalkenals in the conjugation catalysed by mammalian glutathione transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, U H; Esterbauer, H; Mannervik, B

    1987-01-01

    The substrate specificities of 15 cytosolic glutathione transferases from rat, mouse and man have been explored by use of a homologous series of 4-hydroxyalkenals, extending from 4-hydroxypentenal to 4-hydroxypentadecenal. Rat glutathione transferase 8-8 is exceptionally active with the whole range of 4-hydroxyalkenals, from C5 to C15. Rat transferase 1-1, although more than 10-fold less efficient than transferase 8-8, is the second most active transferase with the longest chain length substrates. Other enzyme forms showing high activities with these substrates are rat transferase 4-4 and human transferase mu. The specificity constants, kcat./Km, for the various enzymes have been determined with the 4-hydroxyalkenals. From these constants the incremental Gibbs free energy of binding to the enzyme has been calculated for the homologous substrates. The enzymes responded differently to changes in the length of the hydrocarbon side chain and could be divided into three groups. All glutathione transferases displayed increased binding energy in response to increased hydrophobicity of the substrate. For some of the enzymes, steric limitations of the active site appear to counteract the increase in binding strength afforded by increased chain length of the substrate. Comparison of the activities with 4-hydroxyalkenals and other activated alkenes provides information about the active-site properties of certain glutathione transferases. The results show that the ensemble of glutathione transferases in a given species may serve an important physiological role in the conjugation of the whole range of 4-hydroxyalkenals. In view of its high catalytic efficiency with all the homologues, rat glutathione transferase 8-8 appears to have evolved specifically to serve in the detoxication of these reactive compounds of oxidative metabolism. PMID:3426557

  13. Contribution of liver mitochondrial membrane-bound glutathione transferase to mitochondrial permeability transition pores

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Quazi Sohel; Ulziikhishig, Enkhbaatar; Lee, Kang Kwang; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Aniya, Yoko

    2009-02-15

    We recently reported that the glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membranes (mtMGST1) is activated by S-glutathionylation and the activated mtMGST1 contributes to the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore and cytochrome c release from mitochondria [Lee, K.K., Shimoji, M., Quazi, S.H., Sunakawa, H., Aniya, Y., 2008. Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Toxcol. Appl. Pharmacol. 232, 109-118]. In the present study we investigated the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generator gallic acid (GA) and GST inhibitors on mtMGST1 and the MPT. When rat liver mitochondria were incubated with GA, mtMGST1 activity was increased to about 3 fold and the increase was inhibited with antioxidant enzymes and singlet oxygen quenchers including 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane (DABCO). GA-mediated mtMGST1 activation was prevented by GST inhibitors such as tannic acid, hematin, and cibacron blue and also by cyclosporin A (CsA). In addition, GA induced the mitochondrial swelling which was also inhibited by GST inhibitors, but not by MPT inhibitors CsA, ADP, and bongkrekic acid. GA also released cytochrome c from the mitochondria which was inhibited completely by DABCO, moderately by GST inhibitors, and somewhat by CsA. Ca{sup 2+}-mediated mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were inhibited by MPT inhibitors but not by GST inhibitors. When the outer mitochondrial membrane was isolated after treatment of mitochondria with GA, mtMGST1 activity was markedly increased and oligomer/aggregate of mtMGST1 was observed. These results indicate that mtMGST1 in the outer mitochondrial membrane is activated by GA through thiol oxidation leading to protein oligomerization/aggregation, which may contribute to the formation of ROS-mediated, CsA-insensitive MPT pore, suggesting a novel mechanism for regulation of the MPT by mtMGST1.

  14. Properties of Succinyl-Coenzyme A:l-Malate Coenzyme A Transferase and Its Role in the Autotrophic 3-Hydroxypropionate Cycle of Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Silke; Steindorf, Astrid; Alber, Birgit E.; Fuchs, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The 3-hydroxypropionate cycle has been proposed to operate as the autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway in the phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. In this pathway, acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and two bicarbonate molecules are converted to malate. Acetyl-CoA is regenerated from malyl-CoA by l-malyl-CoA lyase. The enzyme forming malyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA:l-malate coenzyme A transferase, was purified. Based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of its two subunits, the corresponding genes were identified on a gene cluster which also contains the gene for l-malyl-CoA lyase, the subsequent enzyme in the pathway. Both enzymes were severalfold up-regulated under autotrophic conditions, which is in line with their proposed function in CO2 fixation. The two CoA transferase genes were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and studied. Succinyl-CoA:l-malate CoA transferase forms a large (αβ)n complex consisting of 46- and 44-kDa subunits and catalyzes the reversible reaction succinyl-CoA + l-malate → succinate + l-malyl-CoA. It is specific for succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor but accepts l-citramalate instead of l-malate as the CoA acceptor; the corresponding d-stereoisomers are not accepted. The enzyme is a member of the class III of the CoA transferase family. The demonstration of the missing CoA transferase closes the last gap in the proposed 3-hydroxypropionate cycle. PMID:16547052

  15. Purification and characterization of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase from swine trachea epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mendicino, J; Sangadala, S

    1998-08-01

    UDP-GalNac: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from swine trachea epithelium was purified to homogeneity by procedures which included affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B columns containing bound deglycosylated Cowper's gland mucin. The enzyme, purified 12,000-fold from microsomes with a yield of 40%, showed only a single band on dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The homogenous enzyme has an apparent molecular mass of 70,000 Da, as determined by gel electrophoresis or gel filtration. The transferase has a broad pH optimum between 6.7-7.8 with maximal activity at pH 7.2, and required Mn2+ for activity with maximal activity at 5-7.5 mM. Higher concentrations of Mn2+, inhibited the enzyme. The purified transferase was specific for UDPGalNAc and glycosylated both threonine and serine residues in tryptic peptides prepared from deglycosylated Cowper's gland and swine and human trachea mucins. The apparent Km of the transferase for UDPGalNAc was 6.3 microM, and the Km values for deglycosylated Cowper's gland and human and swine trachea mucins were 0.83, 1.12 and 0.94 mg/ml, respectively. The Vmax of the purified enzyme was 2.1 micromol/min/mg with deglycosylated Cowper's gland mucin, as the glycosyl acceptor. However, the activities with peptides prepared from deglycosylated mucins by limited acid hydrolysis were 20-fold greater than the intact glycoprotein under identical conditions. The deglycosylated mucins and larger peptides aggregated with time of storage and precipitated from solution. Aggregation was accompanied by a corresponding loss of enzymatic activity even after dispersion of the aggregate by sonication. The deglycosylated mucins which were prepared by chemical treatment and periodate oxidation still contained about 20% of the N-acetylgalactosamine present in the intact mucin. When this residual amino sugar was removed by periodate oxidation the completely deglycosylated mucins became very poor substrates for the purified

  16. Endophilin and CtBP/BARS are not acyl transferases in endocytosis or Golgi fission.

    PubMed

    Gallop, Jennifer L; Butler, P Jonathan G; McMahon, Harvey T

    2005-12-01

    Endophilins have been proposed to have an enzymatic activity (a lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase or LPAAT activity) that can make phosphatidic acid in membranes. This activity is thought to change the bilayer asymmetry in such a way that negative membrane curvature at the neck of a budding vesicle will be stabilized. An LPAAT activity has also been proposed for CtBP/BARS (carboxy-terminal binding protein/brefeldin A-ribosylated substrate), a transcription co-repressor that is implicated in dynamin-independent endocytosis and fission of the Golgi in mitosis. Here we show that the LPAAT activity associated with endophilin is a contaminant of the purification procedure and can be also found associated with the pleckstrin homology domain of dynamin. Likewise, the LPAAT activity associated with CtBP/BARS is also a co-purification artefact. The proposed locus of activity in endophilins includes the BAR domain, which has no catalytic site but instead senses positive membrane curvature. These data will prompt a re-evaluation of the molecular details of membrane budding.

  17. The phytohormone precursor OPDA is isomerized in the insect gut by a single, specific glutathione transferase

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowska, Paulina; Freitak, Dalial; Vogel, Heiko; Heckel, David G.; Boland, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Oxylipins play important roles in stress signaling in plants. The compound 12-oxophytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA) is an early biosynthetic precursor of jasmonic acid (JA), the key phytohormone orchestrating the plant anti-herbivore defense. When consumed by feeding Lepidopteran larvae, plant-derived cis-OPDA suffers rapid isomerization to iso-OPDA in the midgut and is excreted in the frass. Unlike OPDA epimerization (yielding trans-OPDA), the formation of iso-OPDA is enzyme-dependent, and is catalyzed by an inducible glutathione transferase (GSTs) from the larval gut. Purified GST fractions from the gut of Egyptian cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) both exhibited strong OPDA isomerization activity, most likely via transient formation of a glutathione-OPDA conjugate. Out of 16 cytosolic GST proteins cloned from the gut of cotton bollworm larvae and expressed in E. coli, only one catalyzed the OPDA isomerization. The biological function of the double bond shift might be seen in an inactivation of cis-OPDA, similar to the inactivation of prostaglandin A1 to prostaglandin B1 in mammalian tissue. The enzymatic isomerization is particularly widespread among generalist herbivores that have to cope with various amounts of cis-OPDA in their spectrum of host plants. PMID:19805297

  18. Mice deficient in dihydrolipoyl succinyl transferase show increased vulnerability to mitochondrial toxins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichuan; Shi, Qingli; Ho, Daniel J; Starkov, Anatoly A; Wille, Elizabeth J; Xu, Hui; Chen, H L; Zhang, Steven; Stack, Cliona M; Calingasan, Noel Y; Gibson, Gary E; Beal, M Flint

    2009-11-01

    The activity of a key mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), declines in many neurodegenerative diseases. KGDHC consists of three subunits. The dihydrolipoyl succinyl transferase (DLST) component is unique to KGDHC. DLST(+/-) mice showed reduced mRNA and protein levels and decreased brain mitochondrial KGDHC activity. Neurotoxic effects of mitochondrial toxins were exacerbated in DLST(+/-) mice. MPTP produced a significantly greater reduction of striatal dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of DLST(+/-) mice. DLST deficiency enhanced the severity of lipid peroxidation in the substantia nigra after MPTP treatment. Striatal lesions induced by either malonate or 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) were significantly larger in DLST(+/-) mice than in wildtype controls. DLST deficiency enhanced the 3-NP inhibition of mitochondria enzymes, and 3-NP induced protein and DNA oxidations. These observations support the hypothesis that reductions in KGDHC may impair the adaptability of the brain and contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure: rare presentation of carnitine palmityl-transferase II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gentili, A; Iannella, E; Masciopinto, F; Latrofa, M E; Giuntoli, L; Baroncini, S

    2008-05-01

    Carnitine palmityl-transferase (CPT) II deficiency is a rare disorder of the fatty acid beta-oxidation cycle. CPT II deficiency can be associated with rhabdomyolysis in particular conditions that increase the requirement for fatty acid oxidation, such as low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet, fasting, exposure to excessive cold, lack of sleep and prolonged exercise. The best known CPT II deficiency is the muscular form with episodic muscle necrosis and paroxysmal myoglobinuria after prolonged exercise. We report a case of a four-year-old male child, who, after one day of hyperthermia and fasting, developed a massive rhabdomyolysis beginning with acute respiratory failure and later complicated by acute renal failure. Appropriate management in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) (mechanical ventilatory support, fluid supply combined with mannitol and bicarbonate infusions, administration of acetaminophen and antibiotics, and continuous venovenous haemofiltration) brought about complete resolution with an excellent outcome. Biochemical investigation of muscle biopsy and genetic analysis showed a deficiency of CPT II. The onset of CPT II deficiency with respiratory failure is extremely rare, but a correct and early diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis is the key to successful treatment. A metabolic myopathy such as CPT II deficiency should be suspected in children affected by rhabdomyolysis if trauma, crash, infections, drugs or extreme exertion can be excluded.

  20. Identification, characterization and structure of a new Delta class glutathione transferase isoenzyme

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The insect GST (glutathione transferase) supergene family encodes a varied group of proteins belonging to at least six individual classes. Interest in insect GSTs has focused on their role in conferring insecticide resistance. Previously from the mosquito malaria vector Anopheles dirus, two genes encoding five Delta class GSTs have been characterized for structural as well as enzyme activities. We have obtained a new Delta class GST gene and isoenzyme from A. dirus, which we name adGSTD5-5. The adGSTD5-5 isoenzyme was identified and was only detectably expressed in A. dirus adult females. A putative promoter analysis suggests that this GST has an involvement in oogenesis. The enzyme displayed little activity for classical GST substrates, although it possessed the greatest activity for DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] observed for Delta GSTs. However, GST activity was inhibited or enhanced in the presence of various fatty acids, suggesting that the enzyme may be modulated by fatty acids. We obtained a crystal structure for adGSTD5-5 and compared it with other Delta GSTs, which showed that adGSTD5-5 possesses an elongated and more polar active-site topology. PMID:15717864

  1. A Xanthomonas uridine 5'-monophosphate transferase inhibits plant immune kinases.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feng; Yang, Fan; Rong, Wei; Wu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Jie; Chen, She; He, Chaozu; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2012-04-15

    Plant innate immunity is activated on the detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) at the cell surface, or of pathogen effector proteins inside the plant cell. Together, PAMP-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity constitute powerful defences against various phytopathogens. Pathogenic bacteria inject a variety of effector proteins into the host cell to assist infection or propagation. A number of effector proteins have been shown to inhibit plant immunity, but the biochemical basis remains unknown for the vast majority of these effectors. Here we show that the Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris type III effector AvrAC enhances virulence and inhibits plant immunity by specifically targeting Arabidopsis BIK1 and RIPK, two receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases known to mediate immune signalling. AvrAC is a uridylyl transferase that adds uridine 5'-monophosphate to and conceals conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of BIK1 and RIPK, reducing their kinase activity and consequently inhibiting downstream signalling.

  2. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions: Part 2. Transferases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Robert N.; Tewari, Yadu B.

    1994-07-01

    Equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes for reactions catalyzed by the transferase class of enzymes have been compiled. For each reaction the following information is given: the reference for the data; the reaction studied; the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number; the method of measurement; the conditions of measurement [temperature, pH, ionic strength, and the buffer(s) and cofactor(s) used]; the data and an evaluation of it; and, sometimes, commentary on the data and on any corrections which have been applied to it or any calculations for which the data have been used. The data from 285 references have been examined and evaluated. Chemical Abstract Service registry numbers are given for the substances involved in these various reactions. There is a cross reference between the substances and the Enzyme Commission numbers of the enzymes used to catalyze the reactions in which the substances participate.

  3. Effect of green tea powder (Camellia sinensis L. cv. Benifuuki) particle size on O-methylated EGCG absorption in rats; The Kakegawa Study.

    PubMed

    Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Ema, Kaori; Tokuda, Yoshiko; Monobe, Manami; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Sameshima, Yoichi; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2011-03-01

    Tea polyphenols, e.g., (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl gallate (EGCG3"Me), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC), are believed to be responsible for the beneficial effects of tea. 'Benifuuki', a tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivar grown in Japan, is rich in the anti-allergic molecule epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3"Me). Pulverized Benifuuki green tea powder (BGP) is more widely distributed than leaf tea in Japan. Japanese people mix their pulverized tea with water directly, whereas it is common to drink leaf tea after extraction. However, few studies of the effects of BGP particle size on polyphenol bioavailability have been performed. This study was conducted to investigate the absorption of catechins in rats after the intragastric administration of Benifuuki green tea. Therefore, we assessed the plasma concentrations of catechins following the ingestion of BGP with different mean particle sizes (2.86, 18.6, and 76.1 μm) or Benifuuki green tea infusion (BGI) as a control in rats. The bioavailabilities of EGCG3"Me, EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC were analyzed after the oral administration of a single dose of Benifuuki green tea (125 mg/rat) to rats. The plasma concentrations of tea catechins were determined by HPLC analysis combined with of electrochemical detection (ECD) using a coulometric array. The AUC (area under the drug concentration versus time curve; min μg/mL) of ester-type catechins (EGCG3"Me, EGCG, and ECG) for the BGP 2.86 μm were significantly higher than those in the infusion and 18.6 and 76.1 μm BGP groups, but the AUC of free-type catechins (EGC and EC) showed no differences between these groups. Regarding the peak plasma level of EGCG3"Me adjusted for intake, BGP 2.86 μm and BGI showed higher values than the BGP 18.6 and 76.1 μm groups, and the peak plasma levels of the other catechins displayed the same tendency. The present study

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of p-coumaryl alcohol-γ-O-methyl ether is mediated through modulation of interferon-γ production in Th cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, E-S; Min, H-J; Lee, K; Lee, M-S; Nam, J-W; Seo, E-K; Hong, J-H; Hwang, E-S

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: p-Coumaryl alcohol-γ-O-methyl ether (CAME) was isolated from Alpinia galanga and shown to contain a phenylpropanoid structure similar to p-coumaryl diacetate (CDA). CDA is known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but the biochemical activities of CAME are unknown. Inflammation is mediated by inflammatory cytokine production, in particular, by CD4+ T helper cells (Th cells), but it is unclear whether phenylpropanoids affect cytokine production in Th cells. In this study, we decided to investigate the functions of CAME and CDA in CD4+ Th cells. Experimental approach: Mouse CD4+ Th cells were isolated from C57BL6 mice and stimulated with an antibody against T cell receptors in the presence of phenylpropanoids. Cytokine production was measured by elisa and intracellular cytokine staining. Gene knockout mice and tetracycline-inducible transgenic mice were used to examine the molecular mechanisms of phenylpropanoids on modulation of cytokine production. Key results: CAME potently reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species in Th cells, as does CDA. However, although CDA was cytotoxic, CAME selectively and potently suppresses interferon-γ (IFNγ) production in CD4+ Th cells, without toxicity. This effect was caused by attenuated expression of the transcription factor, T-box protein expressed in T cells (T-bet), and T-bet was essential for CAME to inhibit IFNγ production in CD4+ Th cells. Conclusions and implications: CAME selectively and substantially suppresses IFNγ production in CD4+ Th cells by decreasing T-bet expression. As increased IFNγ production by CD4+ Th cells can mediate inflammatory immune responses, a selective IFNγ suppressor, such as CAME may be an effective, naturally occurring, compound for modulating inflammatory immune disorders. PMID:19226286

  5. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3″Me) from Chinese oolong tea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Zufang; Weng, Peifang

    2014-10-15

    (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3″Me) has exhibited various biological activities in oolong tea. However, little information about its hepatoprotective activity is available. The objectives of the present study, therefore, were to determine the hepatoprotective activity of EGCG3″Me. First, high-purity EGCG3″Me was prepared from Chinese oolong tea by column chromatography. In antioxidant assay in vitro, EGCG3″Me exhibited potential antioxidant activity. For hepatoprotective activity in vitro, it was observed that EGCG3″Me effectively alleviated the changes induced by alcohol in a concentration-dependent manner. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, the administration of EGCG3″Me at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW per day significantly decreased the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) from 64.6 ± 3.17 and 97.6 ± 3.78 to 39.6 ± 2.72 and 59.6 ± 3.02 U/L, decreased the liver level of malondialdehyde (MDA) from 1.14 ± 0.08 to 0.77 ± 0.03 nmol/mg protein, and remarkably restored the liver activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) from 247 ± 20.1 U/mg and 6.12 ± 0.17 nmol/mg protein to 261 ± 9.98 U/mg and 8.10 ± 0.03 nmol/mg protein, respectively, in alcohol-induced liver injury mice. This suggested that the protective effect of EGCG3″Me against alcohol-induced liver injury is possibly via its antioxidant activity to protect biological systems against oxidative stress.

  6. Reduced 3-O-methyl-dopa levels in OCD patients and their unaffected parents is associated with the low activity M158 COMT allele

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Richard; Betancur, Catalina; Chaste, Pauline; Kernéis, Solen; Stopin, Astrid; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Collet, Corinne; Bourgeron, Thomas; Leboyer, Marion; Launay, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is considered as a candidate gene in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Specifically, the COMT low-activity M158 allele has been suggested to be associated with OCD. However, there is no study reporting that COMT activity is decreased in OCD patients and that the decrease is mediated by the V158M polymorphism. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to assess COMT activity in OCD by measuring plasma levels of 3-O-methyl-dopa (3-OMD), which result from the methylation of levodopa by COMT, and to investigate the relationship between 3-OMD levels and the V158M polymorphism. We also examined whether 3-OMD levels represented an endophenotype, associated with the genetic liability to OCD, by assessing unaffected relatives of OCD patients. Method We assessed plasma 3-OMD levels in a sample of drug-free OCD probands (n = 34) and their unaffected parents (n = 63), and compared them with controls (n = 85). The COMT V158M polymorphism was genotyped in all participants. Results Lower plasma 3-OMD levels were found in OCD probands and their unaffected parents compared to controls. The COMT M158 allele was associated with reduced plasma 3-OMD levels in a co-dominant manner, both in OCD probands and their relatives, but not in controls. Conclusion Our results suggest that COMT activity could act as a limiting factor for the production of 3-OMD in OCD patients and in their relatives. These findings further support a role of COMT in the susceptibility to OCD and provide evidence that 3-OMD levels could represent an endophenotype in OCD. PMID:19676096

  7. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate Enhance the Bonding Stability of an Etch-and-Rinse Adhesive to Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hao-Han; Zhang, Ling; Yu, Fan; Li, Fang; Liu, Zheng-Ya; Chen, Ji-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate (EGCG-3Me) modified etch-and-rinse adhesives (Single Bond 2, SB 2) for their antibacterial effect and bonding stability to dentin. EGCG-3Me was isolated and purified with column chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography. EGCG and EGCG-3Me were incorporated separately into the adhesive SB 2 at concentrations of 200, 400, and 600 µg/mL. The effect of cured adhesives on the growth of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) was determined with scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy; the biofilm of bacteria was further quantified via optical density 600 values. The inhibition of EGCG and EGCG-3Me on dentin-originated collagen proteases activities was evaluated with a proteases fluorometric assay kit. The degree of conversion (DC) of the adhesives was tested with micro-Raman spectrum. The immediate and post-thermocycling (5000 cycles) bond strength was assessed through Microtensile Bond Strength (MTBS) test. Cured EGCG/EGCG-3Me modified adhesives inhibit the growth of S. mutans in a concentration-dependent manner. The immediate MTBS of SB 2 was not compromised by EGCG/EGCG-3Me modification. EGCG/EGCG-3Me modified adhesive had higher MTBS than SB 2 after thermocycling, showing no correlation with concentration. The DC of the adhesive system was affected depending on the concentration of EGCG/EGCG-3Me and the depth of the hybrid layer. EGCG/EGCG-3Me modified adhesives could inhibit S. mutans adhesion to dentin–resin interface, and maintain the bonding stability. The adhesive modified with 400 µg/mL EGCG-3Me showed antibacterial effect and enhanced bonding stability without affect the DC of adhesive. PMID:28772546

  8. Thermotropic phase properties of 1,2-di-O-tetradecyl-3-O-(3-O-methyl- beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol.

    PubMed Central

    Trouard, T P; Mannock, D A; Lindblom, G; Rilfors, L; Akiyama, M; McElhaney, R N

    1994-01-01

    The hydration properties and the phase structure of 1,2-di-O-tetradecyl-3-O(3-O-methyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol (3-O-Me-beta-D-GlcDAIG) in water have been studied via differential scanning calorimetry, 1H-NMR and 2H-NMR spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Results indicate that this lipid forms a crystalline (Lc) phase up to temperatures of 60-70 degrees C, where a transition through a metastable reversed hexagonal (Hll) phase to a reversed micellar solution (L2) phase occurs. Experiments were carried out at water concentrations in a range from 0 to 35 wt%, which indicate that all phases are poorly hydrated, taking up < 5 mol water/mol lipid. The absence of a lamellar liquid crystalline (L alpha) phase and the low levels of hydration measured in the discernible phases suggest that the methylation of the saccharide moiety alters the hydrogen bonding properties of the headgroup in such a way that the 3-O-Me-beta-D-GlcDAIG headgroup cannot achieve the same level of hydration as the unmethylated form. Thus, in spite of the small increase in steric bulk resulting from methylation, there is an increase in the tendency of 3-O-Me-beta-D-GlcDAIG to form nonlamellar structures. A similar phase behavior has previously been observed for the Acholeplasma laidlawii A membrane lipid 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(6-O-acyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol in water (Lindblom et al. 1993. J. Biol. Chem. 268:16198-16207). The phase behavior of the two lipids suggests that hydrophobic substitution of a hydroxyl group in the sugar ring of the glucopyranosylglycerols has a very strong effect on their physicochemical properties, i.e., headgroup hydration and the formation of different lipid aggregate structures. PMID:7811919

  9. Millimeter Wave Spectrum of the Two Monosulfur Derivatives of Methyl Formate: s- and O-Methyl Thioformate, in the Ground and the First Excited Torsional States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, Atef; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Alekseev, E. A.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Tercero, Belén; Cernicharo, Jose

    2017-06-01

    Methyl formate CH_{3}OC(O)H is a relatively abundant component of the interstellar medium (ISM). Thus, we decided to study its sulfur derivatives as they can be reasonably proposed for detection in the ISM. In fact there is two relatively stable isomers for methyl thioformate, S-Methyl thioformate CH_{3}SC(O)H and O-Methyl thiofomate CH_{3}OC(S)H. Theoretical investigations on these molecules have been done recently by Senent et al.. Previous experimental investigations were performed only for the S-Methyl thioformate in the 10-41 GHz spectral range by Jones et al. and Caminati et al.. For the present study both isomers were synthesized and the millimeter wave spectrum was then recorded for the first time from 150 to 660 GHz with the Lille's spectrometer based on solid-state sources. The internal rotation effect on the millimeter wave spectra is not the same for these two molecules because the barrier height to internal rotation is relatively low for the S- isomer (V_{3} ≈ 140 \\wn) and rather high for the O- isomer (V_{3} ≈ 700 \\wn). Analysis of the ground and excited torsional states performed with the BELGI-C_{s} code will be presented and discussed. We will provide the search for methyl thioformate in different sources. E. Chruchwell, G. Winnewisser, A&A, 45, 229 (1975) M. L. Senent, C. Puzzarini, M. Hochlaf, R. Dominguez-Gomez, and M. Carvajal, J. Chem. Phys., 141, 104303 (2014) G. I. L. Jones, D. G. Lister, N. L. Owen, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 60, 348 (1976) W. Caminati, B. P. V. Eijck, D. G. Lister, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 90, 15 (1981) J. T. Hougen, I. Kleiner, and M. Godefroid, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 163, 559 (1994)

  10. The automated radiosynthesis and purification of the opioid receptor antagonist, [6-O-methyl-11C]diprenorphine on the GE TRACERlab FXFE radiochemistry module.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, Michael; Prenant, Christian; Brown, Gavin; McMahon, Adam; Lowe, Jonathan; Jones, Anthony

    2014-05-15

    [6-O-Methyl-(11)C]diprenorphine ([(11)C]diprenorphine) is a positron emission tomography ligand used to probe the endogenous opioid system in vivo. Diprenorphine acts as an antagonist at all of the opioid receptor subtypes, that is, μ (mu), κ (kappa) and δ (delta). The radiosynthesis of [(11)C]diprenorphine using [(11)C]methyl iodide produced via the 'wet' method on a home-built automated radiosynthesis set-up has been described previously. Here, we describe a modified synthetic method to [(11)C]diprenorphine performed using [(11)C]methyl iodide produced via the gas phase method on a GE TRACERlab FXFE radiochemistry module. Also described is the use of [(11)C]methyl triflate as the carbon-11 methylating agent for the [(11)C]diprenorphine syntheses. [(11)C]Diprenorphine was produced to good manufacturing practice standards for use in a clinical setting. In comparison to previously reported [(11)C]diprenorphine radiosyntheisis, the method described herein gives a higher specific activity product which is advantageous for receptor occupancy studies. The radiochemical purity of [(11)C]diprenorphine is similar to what has been reported previously, although the radiochemical yield produced in the method described herein is reduced, an issue that is inherent in the gas phase radiosynthesis of [(11)C]methyl iodide. The yields of [(11)C]diprenorphine are nonetheless sufficient for clinical research applications. Other advantages of the method described herein are an improvement to both reproducibility and reliability of the production as well as simplification of the purification and formulation steps. We suggest that our automated radiochemistry route to [(11)C]diprenorphine should be the method of choice for routine [(11)C]diprenorphine productions for positron emission tomography studies, and the production process could easily be transferred to other radiochemistry modules such as the TRACERlab FX C pro.

  11. Pichia pastoris Mut(S) strains are prone to misincorporation of O-methyl-L-homoserine at methionine residues when methanol is used as the sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Schotte, Peter; Dewerte, Isabelle; De Groeve, Manu; De Keyser, Saskia; De Brabandere, Veronique; Stanssens, Patrick

    2016-06-07

    Over the last few decades the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has become a popular host for a wide range of products such as vaccines and therapeutic proteins. Several P. pastoris engineered strains and mutants have been developed to improve the performance of the expression system. Yield and quality of a recombinant product are important parameters to monitor during the host selection and development process but little information is published regarding quality differences of a product produced by different P. pastoris strains. We compared titer and quality of several Nanobodies(®) produced in wild type and Mut(S) strains. Titer in fed-batch fermentation was comparable between all strains for each Nanobody but a significant difference in quality was observed. Nanobodies expressed in Mut(S) strains contained a product variant with a Δ-16 Da mass difference that was not observed in wild type strains. This variant showed substitution of methionine residues due to misincorporation of O-methyl-L-homoserine, also called methoxine. Methoxine is likely synthesized by the enzymatic action of O-acetyl homoserine sulfhydrylase and we confirmed that Nanobodies produced in the corresponding knock-out strain contained no methoxine variants. We could show the incorporation of methoxine during biosynthesis by its addition to the culture medium. We showed that misincorporation of methoxine occurs particularly in P. pastoris Mut(S) strains. This reduction in product quality could outweigh the advantages of using Mut strains, such as lower oxygen and methanol demand, heat formation and in some cases improved expression. Methoxine incorporation in recombinant proteins is likely to occur when an excess of methanol is present during fermentation but can be avoided when the methanol feed rate protocol is carefully designed.

  12. Functional testing of a PF02458 homologue of putative rice arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase genes in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Buanafina, Marcia M de O; Fescemyer, Howard W; Sharma, Mandeep; Shearer, Erica A

    2016-03-01

    We show that changing the expression of a putative feruloyl transferase gene belonging to the BAHD acyl-transferase family alters the levels of cell wall esterified ferulates and diferulates in Brachypodium distachyon cell walls. While the potential of grass cell walls for biofuel production has been realized, the technology for lignocellulosic biomass conversion for the production of ethanol is still inefficient because of structural mechanisms that plants have evolved to make the cell wall recalcitrant to enzymatic attack. One of these mechanisms in grasses involves the esterification of arabinoxylans in the cell wall with ferulic acid via an ester linkage to arabinose side chains on xylans. These ferulates undergo oxidative coupling reactions to form ferulate dimers, thus crosslinking polysaccharides. Arabinoxylan feruloylation is an important factor that determines cell wall recalcitrance because it directly cross-links xylans and because ferulates act as nucleating sites for the formation of lignin and for the linkage of lignin to the xylan/cellulose network. Here we report on the effects of changing the expression of Bradi2g43520 (BdAT1), a homologue of the rice feruloyl transferase gene Os01g42880 belonging to the Pfam PF02458 family, in Brachypodium distachyon. Down regulation in several independent RNAi::BdAT1 lines, resulted in up to a 35 % reduction of ferulate levels in both leaves and stems compared to control plants, over 2-3 generations of selfing. In contrast, overexpression of putative BdAT1 resulted in an increase of up to 58 and 47 % of ferulate levels in leaves and stems, respectively, compared to control plants and analyzed over 2-3 generations of selfing. These findings suggest that Bradi2g43520 may be a good candidate for feruloylation of AX in Brachypodium.

  13. A novel esterase subfamily with α/β-hydrolase fold suggested by structures of two bacterial enzymes homologous to L-homoserine O-acetyl transferases.

    PubMed

    Tölzer, Christine; Pal, Sonia; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Altenbuchner, Josef; Niefind, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    MekB from Pseudomonas veronii and CgHle from Corynebacteriumglutamicum belong to the superfamily of α/β-hydrolase fold proteins. Based on sequence comparisons, they are annotated as homoserine transacetylases in popular databases like UNIPROT, PFAM or ESTHER. However, experimentally, MekB and CgHle were shown to be esterases that hydrolyse preferentially acetic acid esters. We describe the x-ray structures of these enzymes solved to high resolution. The overall structures confirm the close relatedness to experimentally validated homoserine acetyl transferases, but simultaneously the structures exclude the ability of MekB and CgHle to bind homoserine and acetyl-CoA. Insofar the MekB and CgHle structures suggest dividing the homoserine transacetylase family into subfamilies, namely genuine acetyl transferases and acetyl esterases with MekB and CgHle as constituting members of the latter. © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an auxiliary tool in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis of native and derivatized beta-cyclodextrins, maltoses, and fructans contaminated with Ca and/or Mg.

    PubMed

    Giudicessi, Silvana L; Fatema, M Kaniz; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2010-09-01

    The effect of Ca(2+) (and Mg(2+)) and the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a well known Ca(2+) (and Mg(2+)) chelating agent, on the volatilization/ionization of carbohydrates by using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been studied. Model compounds such as maltoses (maltose to maltoheptaose), beta-cyclodextrins (beta-cyclodextrin, methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin, heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin, and 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin) and fructans (sucrose, 1-ketose, nystose, and 1F-fructofuranosylnystose) were used.

  15. Pharmacological stimulation of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 decreases food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Aja, Susan; Landree, Leslie E; Kleman, Amy M; Medghalchi, Susan M; Vadlamudi, Aravinda; McFadden, Jill M; Aplasca, Andrea; Hyun, Jayson; Plummer, Erica; Daniels, Khadija; Kemm, Matthew; Townsend, Craig A; Thupari, Jagan N; Kuhajda, Francis P; Moran, Timothy H; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2008-02-01

    Inhibition of brain carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) is reported to decrease food intake and body weight in rats. Yet, the fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor and CPT-1 stimulator C75 produces hypophagia and weight loss when given to rodents intracerebroventricularly (icv). Thus roles and relative contributions of altered brain CPT-1 activity and fatty acid oxidation in these phenomena remain unclarified. We administered compounds that target FAS or CPT-1 to mice by single icv bolus and examined acute and prolonged effects on feeding and body weight. C75 decreased food intake rapidly and potently at all doses (1-56 nmol) and dose dependently inhibited intake on day 1. Dose-dependent weight loss on day 1 persisted through 4 days of postinjection monitoring. The FAS inhibitor cerulenin produced dose-dependent (560 nmol) hypophagia for 1 day, weight loss for 2 days, and weight regain to vehicle control by day 3. The CPT-1 inhibitor etomoxir (32, 320 nmol) did not alter overall day 1 feeding. However, etomoxir attenuated the hypophagia produced by C75, indicating that CPT-1 stimulation is important for C75's effect. A novel compound, C89b, was characterized in vitro as a selective stimulator of CPT-1 that does not affect fatty acid synthesis. C89b (100, 320 nmol) decreased feeding in mice for 3 days and produced persistent weight loss for 6 days without producing conditioned taste aversion. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration decreased feeding and body weight without producing conditioned taste aversion. These results suggest a role for brain CPT-1 in the regulation of energy balance and implicate CPT-1 stimulation as a pharmacological approach to weight loss.

  16. Purification and characterization of a glutathione S-transferase from benoxacor-treated maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed Central

    Irzyk, G P; Fuerst, E P

    1993-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozyme from maize (Zea mays Pioneer hybrid 3906) treated with the dichloroacetamide herbicide safener benoxacor (CGA-154281) was purified to homogeneity and partially characterized. The enzyme, assayed with metolachlor as a substrate, was purified approximately 200-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography on Mono Q resins, and affinity chromatography on S-hexylglutathione agarose from total GST activity present in etiolated shoots. The purified protein migrated during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) as a single band with a molecular mass of 27 kD. Using nondenaturing PAGE, we determined that the native protein has a molecular mass of about 57 kD and that the protein exists as a dimer. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed only a single protein with an isoelectric point of 5.75 and molecular mass of 27 kD. These results further suggest that the protein exists as a homodimer of two identical 27-kD subunits. The enzyme was most active with substrates possessing a chloroacetamide structure. trans-Cinnamic acid and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene were not effective substrates. Apparent Km values for the enzyme were 10.8 microM for the chloroacetamide metolachlor and 292 microM for glutathione. The enzyme was active from pH 6 to 9, with a pH optimum between 7.5 and 8. An apparently blocked amino terminus of the intact protein prevented direct amino acid sequencing. The enzyme was digested with trypsin, and the amino acid sequences of several peptide fragments were obtained. The sequence information for the isolated GST we have designated "GST IV" indicates that the enzyme is a unique maize GST but shares some homology with maize GSTs I and III. PMID:8278534

  17. An ethylene-responsive flower senescence-related gene from carnation encodes a protein homologous to glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R C; Goldsbrough, P B; Woodson, W R

    1991-08-01

    Carnation flower petal senescence is associated with the expression of specific senescence-related mRNAs, several of which were previously cloned. The cDNA clone pSR8 represents a transcript which accumulates specifically in senescing flower petals in response to ethylene. Here we report the structural characterization of this cDNA. A second cDNA clone was isolated based on shared sequence homology with pSR8. This clone, pSR8.4, exhibited an overlapping restriction endonuclease map with pSR8 and contained an additional 300 nucleotides. Primer extension analysis revealed the combined cDNAs to be near full-length and the transcript to accumulate in senescing petals. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of SR8 cDNAs revealed an open reading frame of 220 amino acids sufficient to encode a 25 kDa polypeptide. Comparison of the deduced polypeptide sequence of pSR8 with other peptide sequences revealed significant similarity with glutathione s-transferases from a variety of organisms. The predicted polypeptide sequence shared 44%, 53% and 52% homology with GSTs from maize, Drosophila and man, respectively. We discuss our results in relation to the biochemistry of flower petal senescence and the possible role of glutathione s-transferase in this developmental process.

  18. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1A (CPT1A): a new tumor specific target in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zonetti, Maria Josè; Fisco, Tommaso; Polidoro, Chiara; Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Palleschi, Antonio; Novelli, Giuseppe; Spagnoli, Luigi G.

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional mechanisms epigenetically-regulated in tumoral tissues point out new targets for anti-cancer therapies. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPT1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the transport of long-chain fatty acids for β-oxidation. Here we identified the tumor specific nuclear CPT1A as a product of the transcript variant 2, that doesn't retain the classical transferase activity and is strongly involved in the epigenetic regulation of cancer pro-survival, cell death escaping and tumor invasion pathways. The knockdown of CPT1A variant 2 by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), was sufficient to induce apoptosis in MCF-7, SK-BR3 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The cell death triggered by CPT1A silencing correlated with reduction of HDAC activity and histone hyperacetylation. Docking experiments and molecular dynamics simulations confirmed an high binding affinity of the variant 2 for HDAC1. The CPT1A silenced cells showed an up-regulated transcription of pro-apoptotic genes (BAD, CASP9, COL18A1) and down-modulation of invasion and metastasis related-genes (TIMP-1, PDGF-A, SERPINB2). These findings provide evidence of the CPT1 variant 2 involvement in breast cancer survival, cell death escape and invasion. Thus, we propose nuclear CPT1A as a striking tumor specific target for anticancer therapeutics, more selective and effective as compared with the well-known HDAC inhibitors. PMID:26799588

  19. Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Estrogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis by Modulating Enzymes of Estrogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Aiyer, Harini S.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine whether dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent 17β estradiol (E2) -induced mammary tumors by altering estrogen metabolism, we randomized ACI rats (n=6/group) into 5 groups − sham implant + control diet (SH-CD), E2 − implant + control diet (E2-CD), E2+2.5% black raspberry (E2-BRB); E2+2.5% blueberry (E2-BB) and E2+ 400ppm ellagic acid (E2-EA). Animals were euthanized at early (6wk), intermediate (18wk) and late (24wk) phases of E2-carcinogenesis and the mammary tissue analyzed for gene-expression changes using quantitative real-time PCR. At 6 weeks, E2-treatment caused 48-fold increase in cytochrome P4501A1(CYP1A1) (p<0.0001), which was attenuated by both BRB and BB diets to 12- and 21-fold, respectively (p<0.001). E2 did not alter CYP1B1 levels, but both berry and EA diets significantly suppressed it by 11- and 3.5-fold, respectively from baseline (p<0.05). There was a 5-fold increase in 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehyrdogenase(17βHSD7) and this was moderately abrogated to about 2-fold by all supplementation (p<0.05). At 18 weeks, CYP1A1 was elevated by 15-fold in E2-CD and only E2-BB reduced this increase to 7-fold (p<0.05). Catechol-O-methyl transferase(COMT) expression was elevated 2-fold by E2-treatment (p<0.05) and all supplementation reversed this. At 24 weeks, CYP1A1 expression was less pronounced, but still high (8-fold) in E2-treated rats. This increase was reduced to 3.2 and 4.6-fold, by E2-BRB and E2-EA, respectively (p<0.05), but not by E2-BB. Supplementation did not alter the effect of E2 on steroid receptors. The diets also significantly suppressed mammary tumor incidence (10–30%), volume (41–67%) and multiplicity (38 to 51%) (p<0.05). Berries may prevent mammary tumors by suppressing the levels of E2-metabolizing enzymes during the early phase of E2-carcinogenesis. PMID:20501861

  20. Identification, genomic organization and expression pattern of glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yu, Quanyou; Lu, Cheng; Li, Bin; Fang, Shoumin; Zuo, Weidong; Dai, Fangyin; Zhang, Ze; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2008-12-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multifunctional supergene family and some play an important role in insecticide resistance. We have identified 23 putative cytosolic GSTs by searching the new assembly of the Bombyx mori genome sequence. Phylogenetic analyses on the amino acid sequences reveal that 21 of the B. mori GSTs fall into six classes represented in other insects, the other two being unclassified. The majority of the silkworm GSTs belong to the Delta, Epsilon, and Omega classes. Most members of each class are tandemly arranged in the genome, except for the Epsilon GSTs. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) corresponding to 19 of the 23 GSTs were found in available databases. Furthermore RT-PCR experiments detected expression of all the GSTs in multiple tissues on day 3 of fifth instar larvae. Surprisingly, we found little or no expression of most Delta and Epsilon GSTs in the fat body, which is thought to be the main detoxification organ. This may explain the sensitivity of the silkworm to certain insecticides. Our data provide some insights into the evolution of the B. mori GST family and the functions of individual GST enzymes.

  1. Characterization of Discrete Phosphopantetheinyl Transferases in Streptomyces tsukubaensis L19 Unveils a Complicate Phosphopantetheinylation Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Yue; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Luo, Hong-Dou; Ren, Ni-Ni; Jiang, Xin-Hang; Jiang, Hui; Li, Yong-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) play essential roles in both primary metabolisms and secondary metabolisms via post-translational modification of acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCPs). In this study, an industrial FK506 producing strain Streptomyces tsukubaensis L19, together with Streptomyces avermitilis, was identified to contain the highest number (five) of discrete PPTases known among any species thus far examined. Characterization of the five PPTases in S. tsukubaensis L19 unveiled that stw ACP, an ACP in a type II PKS, was phosphopantetheinylated by three PPTases FKPPT1, FKPPT3, and FKACPS; sts FAS ACP, the ACP in fatty acid synthase (FAS), was phosphopantetheinylated by three PPTases FKPPT2, FKPPT3, and FKACPS; TcsA-ACP, an ACP involved in FK506 biosynthesis, was phosphopantetheinylated by two PPTases FKPPT3 and FKACPS; FkbP-PCP, an PCP involved in FK506 biosynthesis, was phosphopantetheinylated by all of these five PPTases FKPPT1-4 and FKACPS. Our results here indicate that the functions of these PPTases complement each other for ACPs/PCPs substrates, suggesting a complicate phosphopantetheinylation network in S. tsukubaensis L19. Engineering of these PPTases in S. tsukubaensis L19 resulted in a mutant strain that can improve FK506 production. PMID:27052100

  2. Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase in Zebrafish Is an Evolutionarily Conserved Peptide Upregulated During Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hatef, Azadeh; Yufa, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ghrelin is a multifunctional orexigenic hormone with a unique acyl modification enabled by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT). Ghrelin is well-characterized in nonmammals, and GOAT sequences of several fishes are available in the GenBank. However, endogenous GOAT in non-mammals remains poorly understood. In this research, GOAT sequence comparison, tissue-specific GOAT expression, and its regulation by nutrient status and exogenous ghrelin were studied. It was found that the bioactive core of zebrafish GOAT amino acid sequence share high identity with that of mammals. GOAT mRNA was most abundant in the gut. GOAT-like immunoreactivity (i.r.) was found colocalized with ghrelin in the gastric mucosa. Food deprivation increased, and feeding decreased GOAT and preproghrelin mRNA expression in the brain and gut. GOAT and ghrelin peptides in the gut and brain showed corresponding decrease in food-deprived state. Intraperitoneal injection of acylated fish ghrelin caused a significant decrease in GOAT mRNA expression, suggesting a feedback mechanism regulating its abundance. Together, these results provide the first in-depth characterization of GOAT in a non-mammal. Our results demonstrate that endogenous GOAT expression is responsive to metabolic status and availability of acylated ghrelin, providing further evidences for GOAT in the regulation of feeding in teleosts. PMID:26226634

  3. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a general probe for chemical contaminations in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Bocedi, A; Fabrini, R; Lai, O; Alfieri, L; Roncoroni, C; Noce, A; Pedersen, JZ; Ricci, G

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes devoted to the protection of cells against many different toxins. In erythrocytes, the isoenzyme (e-GST) mainly present is GSTP1-1, which is overexpressed in humans in case of increased blood toxicity, as it occurs in nephrophatic patients or in healthy subjects living in polluted areas. The present study explores the possibility that e-GST may be used as an innovative and highly sensitive biomarker of blood toxicity also for other mammals. All distinct e-GSTs from humans, Bos taurus (cow), Sus scrofa (pig), Capra hircus (goat), Equus caballus (horse), Equus asinus (donkey) and Ovis aries (sheep), show very similar amino acid sequences, identical kinetics and stability properties. Reference values for e-GST in all these mammals reared in controlled farms span from 3.5±0.2 U/gHb in the pig to 17.0±0.9 U/gHb in goat; such activity levels can easily be determined with high precision using only a few microliters of whole blood and a simple spectrophotometric assay. Possibly disturbing factors have been examined to avoid artifact determinations. This study provides the basis for future screening studies to verify if animals have been exposed to toxicologic insults. Preliminary data on cows reared in polluted areas show increased expression of e-GST, which parallels the results found for humans. PMID:27551520

  4. Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase in Zebrafish Is an Evolutionarily Conserved Peptide Upregulated During Calorie Restriction.

    PubMed

    Hatef, Azadeh; Yufa, Roman; Unniappan, Suraj

    2015-10-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional orexigenic hormone with a unique acyl modification enabled by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT). Ghrelin is well-characterized in nonmammals, and GOAT sequences of several fishes are available in the GenBank. However, endogenous GOAT in non-mammals remains poorly understood. In this research, GOAT sequence comparison, tissue-specific GOAT expression, and its regulation by nutrient status and exogenous ghrelin were studied. It was found that the bioactive core of zebrafish GOAT amino acid sequence share high identity with that of mammals. GOAT mRNA was most abundant in the gut. GOAT-like immunoreactivity (i.r.) was found colocalized with ghrelin in the gastric mucosa. Food deprivation increased, and feeding decreased GOAT and preproghrelin mRNA expression in the brain and gut. GOAT and ghrelin peptides in the gut and brain showed corresponding decrease in food-deprived state. Intraperitoneal injection of acylated fish ghrelin caused a significant decrease in GOAT mRNA expression, suggesting a feedback mechanism regulating its abundance. Together, these results provide the first in-depth characterization of GOAT in a non-mammal. Our results demonstrate that endogenous GOAT expression is responsive to metabolic status and availability of acylated ghrelin, providing further evidences for GOAT in the regulation of feeding in teleosts.

  5. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for n-butanol production: effects of CoA transferase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Le; Zhao, Jingbo; Xu, Mengmeng; Dong, Jie; Varghese, Saju; Yu, Mingrui; Tang, I-Ching; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-06-01

    The overexpression of CoA transferase (ctfAB), which catalyzes the reaction: acetate/butyrate + acetoacetyl-CoA → acetyl/butyryl-CoA + acetoacetate, was studied for its effects on acid reassimilation and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium tyrobutyricum (Δack, adhE2). The plasmid pMTL007 was used to co-express adhE2 and ctfAB from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. In addition, the sol operon containing ctfAB, adc (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and ald (aldehyde dehydrogenase) was also cloned from Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 and expressed in C. tyrobutyricum (Δack, adhE2). Mutants expressing these genes were evaluated for their ability to produce butanol from glucose in batch fermentations at pH 5.0 and 6.0. Compared to C. tyrobutyricum (Δack, adhE2) without expressing ctfAB, all mutants with ctfAB overexpression produced more butanol, with butanol yield increased to 0.22 - 0.26 g/g (vs. 0.10 - 0.13 g/g) and productivity to 0.35 g/l h (vs. 0.13 g/l h) because of the reduced acetate and butyrate production. The expression of ctfAB also resulted in acetone production from acetoacetate through a non-enzymatic decarboxylation.

  6. Characterization of the safener-induced glutathione S-transferase isoform II from maize.

    PubMed

    Holt, D C; Lay, V J; Clarke, E D; Dinsmore, A; Jepson, I; Bright, S W; Greenland, A J

    1995-01-01

    The safener-induced maize (Zea mays L.) glutathione S-transferase, GST II (EC 2.5.1.18) and another predominant isoform, GST I, were purified from extracts of maize roots treated with the safeners R-25788 (N,N-diallyl-2-dichloroacetamide) or R-29148 (3-dichloroacetyl-2,2,5-trimethyl-1,3-oxazolidone). The isoforms GST I and GST II are respectively a homodimer of 29-kDa (GST-29) subunits and a heterodimer of 29- and 27-kDa (GST-27) subunits, while GST I is twice as active with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as GST II, GST II is about seven times more active against the herbicide, alachlor. Western blotting using antisera raised against GST-29 and GST-27 showed that GST-29 is present throughout the maize plant prior to safener treatment. In contrast, GST-27 is only present in roots of untreated plants but is induced in all the major aerial organs of maize after root-drenching with safener. The amino-acid sequences of proteolytic fragments of GST-27 show that it is related to GST-29 and identical to the 27-kDa subunit of GST IV.

  7. In-vitro effect of flavonoids from Solidago canadensis extract on glutathione S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Apáti, Pál; Houghton, Peter J; Kite, Geoffrey; Steventon, Glyn B; Kéry, Agnes

    2006-02-01

    Solidago canadensis is typical of a flavonoid-rich herb and the effect of an aqueous ethanol extract on glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity using HepG2 cells was compared with those of the flavonol quercetin and its glycosides quercitrin and rutin, found as major constituents. The composition of the extract was determined by HPLC and rutin was found to be the major flavonoidal component of the extract. Total GST activity was assessed using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as a substrate. The glycosides rutin and quercitrin gave dose-dependent increases in GST activity, with a 50% and 24.5% increase at 250 mM, respectively, while the aglycone quercetin inhibited the enzyme by 30% at 250 mM. The total extract of the herb gave an overall dose-dependent increase, the fractions corresponding to the flavonoids showed activating effects while those containing caffeic acid derivatives were inhibitory. The activity observed corresponds to that reported for similar compounds in-vivo using rats, thus the HepG2 cell line could serve as a more satisfactory method of assessing the effects of extracts and compounds on GST.

  8. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a general probe for chemical contaminations in mammals.

    PubMed

    Bocedi, A; Fabrini, R; Lai, O; Alfieri, L; Roncoroni, C; Noce, A; Pedersen, J Z; Ricci, G

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes devoted to the protection of cells against many different toxins. In erythrocytes, the isoenzyme (e-GST) mainly present is GSTP1-1, which is overexpressed in humans in case of increased blood toxicity, as it occurs in nephrophatic patients or in healthy subjects living in polluted areas. The present study explores the possibility that e-GST may be used as an innovative and highly sensitive biomarker of blood toxicity also for other mammals. All distinct e-GSTs from humans, Bos taurus (cow), Sus scrofa (pig), Capra hircus (goat), Equus caballus (horse), Equus asinus (donkey) and Ovis aries (sheep), show very similar amino acid sequences, identical kinetics and stability properties. Reference values for e-GST in all these mammals reared in controlled farms span from 3.5±0.2 U/gHb in the pig to 17.0±0.9 U/gHb in goat; such activity levels can easily be determined with high precision using only a few microliters of whole blood and a simple spectrophotometric assay. Possibly disturbing factors have been examined to avoid artifact determinations. This study provides the basis for future screening studies to verify if animals have been exposed to toxicologic insults. Preliminary data on cows reared in polluted areas show increased expression of e-GST, which parallels the results found for humans.

  9. Development of pyrethroid-like fluorescent substrates for glutathione S-transferase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huazhang; Yao, Hongwei; Liu, Jun-Yan; Samra, Aman I.; Kamita, Shizuo G.; Cornel, Anthony J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of highly sensitive substrates is critical for the development of precise and rapid assays for detecting changes in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity that are associated with GST-mediated metabolism of insecticides. In this study, six pyrethroid-like compounds were synthesized and characterized as substrates for insect and mammalian GSTs. All of the substrates were esters composed of the same alcohol moiety, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, and acid moieties that structurally mimic some commonly used pyrethroid insecticides including cypermethrin and cyhalothrin. CpGSTD1, a recombinant Delta class GST from the mosquito Culex pipiens, metabolized our pyrethroid-like substrates with both chemical and geometric (i.e., the cis-isomers were metabolized at 2- to 5-fold higher rates than the corresponding trans-isomers) preference. A GST preparation from mouse liver also metabolized most of our pyrethroid-like substrates with both chemical and geometric preference but at 10- to 170-fold lower rates. CpGSTD1 and mouse GSTs metabolized CDNB, a general GST substrate, at more than 200-fold higher rates than our novel pyrethroid-like substrates. There was a 10-fold difference in the specificity constant (kcat/KM ratio) of CpGSTD1 for CDNB and those of CpGSTD1 for cis-DCVC and cis-TFMCVC suggesting that cis-DCVC and cis-TFMCVC may be useful for the detection of GST-based metabolism of pyrethroids in mosquitoes. PMID:23000005

  10. Human Polymorphisms in the Glutathione Transferase Zeta 1/Maleylacetoacetate Isomerase Gene Influence the Toxicokinetics of Dichloroacetate

    PubMed Central

    Shroads, Albert L.; Langaee, Taimour; Coats, Bonnie S.; Kurtz, Tracie L.; Bullock, John R.; Weithorn, David; Gong, Yan; Wagner, David A.; Ostrov, David A.; Johnson, Julie A.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA), a chemical relevant to environmental science and allopathic medicine, is dehalogenated by the bifunctional enzyme glutathione transferase zeta (GSTz1) maleylacetoacetate isomerase (MAAI), the penultimate enzyme in the phenylalanine/tyrosine catabolic pathway. The authors postulated that polymorphisms in GSTz1/MAAI modify the toxicokinetics of DCA. GSTz1/MAAI haplotype significantly affected the kinetics and biotransformation of 1,2-13C-DCA when it was administered at either environmentally (μg/kg/d) or clinically (mg/kg/d) relevant doses. GSTz1/MAAI haplotype also influenced the urinary accumulation of potentially toxic tyrosine metabolites. Atomic modeling revealed that GSTz1/MAAI variants associated with the slowest rates of DCA metabolism induced structural changes in the enzyme homodimer, predicting protein instability or abnormal protein-protein interactions. Knowledge of the GSTz1/MAAI haplotype can be used prospectively to identify individuals at potential risk of DCA’s adverse side effects from environmental or clinical exposure or who may exhibit aberrant amino acid metabolism in response to dietary protein. PMID:21642471

  11. Rat liver nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase is an efficient adenylyl transferase.

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, J M; López-Gómez, J; Vergeles, J M; Costas, M J; García-Díaz, M; Fernández, A; Flores, A; Cameselle, J C

    2000-01-01

    Rat liver nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase I (NPP/PDE) catalysed efficiently the transfer of adenylate from ATP to alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, 2, 2-dichloroethanol and glycerol 2-phosphate), which acted as adenylate acceptors competing with water with different efficiencies. NPP/PDE kinetics in alcohol/water mixtures were accounted for by rate equations for competitive substrates, modified to include alcohol negative co-operativity and, depending on the nature of the alcohol, enzyme denaturation by high alcohol concentrations or activation by low alcohol concentrations. The correlation of alcohol efficiencies with alcohol acidities, the comparison of rat liver with snake venom NPP/PDE, and the different effects of ionic additives on the efficiencies of glycerol 2-phosphate and glycerol provided evidence for interaction of the alcohols with a base catalyst, a non-polar and a cationic subsite in the active centre of rat liver NPP/PDE. The enzyme thus appears to be well suited to act as transferase, and we propose that NPP/PDE could be an adenylylating agent in the membrane. PMID:10657235

  12. Legionella shows a diverse secondary metabolism dependent on a broad spectrum Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Nicholas J.; Ahrendt, Tilman; Schell, Ursula; Miltenberger, Melissa; Hilbi, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Several members of the genus Legionella cause Legionnaires’ disease, a potentially debilitating form of pneumonia. Studies frequently focus on the abundant number of virulence factors present in this genus. However, what is often overlooked is the role of secondary metabolites from Legionella. Following whole genome sequencing, we assembled and annotated the Legionella parisiensis DSM 19216 genome. Together with 14 other members of the Legionella, we performed comparative genomics and analysed the secondary metabolite potential of each strain. We found that Legionella contains a huge variety of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that are potentially making a significant number of novel natural products with undefined function. Surprisingly, only a single Sfp-like phosphopantetheinyl transferase is found in all Legionella strains analyzed that might be responsible for the activation of all carrier proteins in primary (fatty acid biosynthesis) and secondary metabolism (polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthesis). Using conserved active site motifs, we predict some novel compounds that are probably involved in cell-cell communication, differing to known communication systems. We identify several gene clusters, which may represent novel signaling mechanisms and demonstrate the natural product potential of Legionella. PMID:27904811

  13. Biochemical characterization and distribution of glutathione S-transferases in leaping mullet (Liza saliens).

    PubMed

    Sen, A; Kirikbakan, A

    2004-09-01

    In this study, feral leaping mullet (Liza saliens) liver cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were investigated and characterized using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and ethacrynic acid (EA) as substrates. The average GST activities towards CDNB and EA were found to be 1365 +/- 41 and 140 +/- 20 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively. The effects of cytosolic protein amount and temperature ranging from 4 to 70 degrees C on enzyme activities were examined. While both activities towards CDNB and EA showed similar dependence on protein amount, temperature optima were found as 37 and 42 degrees C, respectively. In addition, the effects of pH on GST-CDNB and -EA activities were studied and different pH activity profiles were observed. For both substrates, GST activities were found to obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics with apparent V(max) and K(m) values of 1661 nmol/min per mg protein and 0.24 mM and 157 nmol/min per mg protein and 0.056 mM for CDNB and EA, respectively. Distribution of GST in Liza saliens tissues was investigated and compared with other fish species. Very high GST activities were measured in tissues from Liza saliens such as liver, kidney, testis, proximal intestine, and gills. Moreover, our results suggested that GST activities from Liza saliens would be a valuable biomarker for aquatic pollution.

  14. Purification and characterization of three forms of glutathione transferase from Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Di Ilio, C; Aceto, A; Piccolomini, R; Allocati, N; Faraone, A; Cellini, L; Ravagnan, G; Federici, G

    1988-01-01

    Three forms of glutathione transferase (GST) with pI values of 6.0, 6.4 and 7.3 were isolated from Proteus mirabilis AF 2924 by glutathione-affinity chromatography followed by isoelectric focusing, and their structural, kinetic and immunological properties were investigated. Upon SDS/polyacrylamide-slab-gel electrophoresis, all forms proved to be composed of two subunits of identical (22,500) Mr. GST-6.0 and GST-6.4 together account for about 95% of the total activity, whereas GST-7.3 is present only in trace amounts. Extensive similarities have been found between GST-6.0 and GST-6.4. These include subunit molecular mass, amino acid composition, substrate specificities and immunological characteristics. GST-7.3 also cross-reacted (non-identity) with antisera raised against bacterial GST-6.0. None of the antisera raised against a number of human, rat and mouse GSTs cross-reacted with the bacterial enzymes, indicating major structural differences between them and the mammalian GSTs. This conclusion is further supported by c.d. spectra. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3145740

  15. Family of glycosyl transferases needed for the synthesis of succinoglycan by Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed Central

    Glucksmann, M A; Reuber, T L; Walker, G C

    1993-01-01

    Rhizobium meliloti produces an acidic exopolysaccharide, termed succinoglycan or EPS I, that is important for invasion of the nodules that it elicits on its host, Medicago sativa. Succinoglycan is a high-molecular-weight polymer composed of repeating octasaccharide subunits. These subunits are synthesized on membrane-bound isoprenoid lipid carriers, beginning with a galactose residue followed by seven glucose residues, and modified by the addition of acetate, succinate, and pyruvate. Biochemical characterizations of lipid-linked succinoglycan biosynthetic intermediates from previously identified exo mutant strains have been carried out in our laboratory (T. L. Reuber and G. C. Walker, Cell 74:269-280, 1993) to determine where each mutation blocks the biosynthetic pathway. We have carried out a fine structure genetic analysis of a portion of the cluster of exo genes present on the second symbiotic megaplasmid of R. meliloti and have identified several new genes. In addition, the DNA sequence of 16 kb of the exo cluster was determined and the genetic map was correlated with the DNA sequence. In this paper we present the sequence of a family of glycosyl transferases required for the synthesis of succinoglycan and discuss their functions. PMID:8226645

  16. Comprehensive X-Ray Structural Studies of the Quinolinate Phosphoribosyl Transferase (BNA6) From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    di Luccio, E.; Wilson, D.K.

    2009-05-14

    Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase (QAPRTase, EC 2.4.2.19) is a 32 kDa enzyme encoded by the BNA6 gene in yeast and catalyzes the formation of nicotinate mononucleotide from quinolinate and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). QAPRTase plays a key role in the tryptophan degradation pathway via kynurenine, leading to the de novo biosynthesis of NAD{sup +} and clearing the neurotoxin quinolinate. To improve our understanding of the specificity of the eukaryotic enzyme and the course of events associated with catalysis, we have determined the crystal structures of the apo and singly bound forms with the substrates quinolinate and PRPP. This reveals that the enzyme folds in a manner similar to that of various prokaryotic forms which are {approx}30% identical in sequence. In addition, the structure of the Michaelis complex is approximated by PRPP and the quinolinate analogue phthalate bound to the active site. These results allow insight into the kinetic mechanism of QAPRTase and provide an understanding of structural diversity in the active site of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme when compared to prokaryotic homologues.

  17. The arginine attenuator peptide interferes with the ribosome peptidyl transferase center.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiajie; Wu, Cheng; Sachs, Matthew S

    2012-07-01

    The fungal arginine attenuator peptide (AAP) is encoded by a regulatory upstream open reading frame (uORF). The AAP acts as a nascent peptide within the ribosome tunnel to stall translation in response to arginine (Arg). The effect of AAP and Arg on ribosome peptidyl transferase center (PTC) function was analyzed in Neurospora crassa and wheat germ translation extracts using the transfer of nascent AAP to puromycin as an assay. In the presence of a high concentration of Arg, the wild-type AAP inhibited PTC function, but a mutated AAP that lacked stalling activity did not. While AAP of wild-type length was most efficient at stalling ribosomes, based on primer extension inhibition (toeprint) assays and reporter synthesis assays, a window of inhibitory function spanning four residues was observed at the AAP's C terminus. The data indicate that inhibition of PTC function by the AAP in response to Arg is the basis for the AAP's function of stalling ribosomes at the uORF termination codon. Arg could interfere with PTC function by inhibiting peptidyltransferase activity and/or by restricting PTC A-site accessibility. The mode of PTC inhibition appears unusual because neither specific amino acids nor a specific nascent peptide chain length was required for AAP to inhibit PTC function.

  18. The Arginine Attenuator Peptide Interferes with the Ribosome Peptidyl Transferase Center

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jiajie; Wu, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The fungal arginine attenuator peptide (AAP) is encoded by a regulatory upstream open reading frame (uORF). The AAP acts as a nascent peptide within the ribosome tunnel to stall translation in response to arginine (Arg). The effect of AAP and Arg on ribosome peptidyl transferase center (PTC) function was analyzed in Neurospora crassa and wheat germ translation extracts using the transfer of nascent AAP to puromycin as an assay. In the presence of a high concentration of Arg, the wild-type AAP inhibited PTC function, but a mutated AAP that lacked stalling activity did not. While AAP of wild-type length was most efficient at stalling ribosomes, based on primer extension inhibition (toeprint) assays and reporter synthesis assays, a window of inhibitory function spanning four residues was observed at the AAP's C terminus. The data indicate that inhibition of PTC function by the AAP in response to Arg is the basis for the AAP's function of stalling ribosomes at the uORF termination codon. Arg could interfere with PTC function by inhibiting peptidyltransferase activity and/or by restricting PTC A-site accessibility. The mode of PTC inhibition appears unusual because neither specific amino acids nor a specific nascent peptide chain length was required for AAP to inhibit PTC function. PMID:22508989

  19. A glutathione S-transferase gene associated with antioxidant properties isolated from Apis cerana cerana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuchang; Liu, Feng; Jia, Haihong; Yan, Yan; Wang, Hongfang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2016-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are an important family of multifunctional enzymes in aerobic organisms. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of exogenous compounds, especially insecticides, and protection against oxidative stress. Most previous studies of GSTs in insects have largely focused on their role in insecticide resistance. Here, we isolated a theta class GST gene designated AccGSTT1 from Apis cerana cerana and aimed to explore its antioxidant and antibacterial attributes. Analyses of homology and phylogenetic relationships suggested that the predicted amino acid sequence of AccGSTT1 shares a high level of identity with the other hymenopteran GSTs and that it was conserved during evolution. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AccGSTT1 is most highly expressed in adult stages and that the expression profile of this gene is significantly altered in response to various abiotic stresses. These results were confirmed using western blot analysis. Additionally, a disc diffusion assay showed that a recombinant AccGSTT1 protein may be roughly capable of inhibiting bacterial growth and that it reduces the resistance of Escherichia coli cells to multiple adverse stresses. Taken together, these data indicate that AccGSTT1 may play an important role in antioxidant processes under adverse stress conditions.

  20. Molecular screening of insecticides with sigma glutathione S-transferases (GST) in cotton aphid Aphis gossypii using docking.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Nilesh Dinkar; Subashini, Swaminathan; Murugan, Marimuthu; Subbarayalu, Mohankumar

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are one of the major families of detoxifying enzymes that detoxifies different chemical compounds including insecticides in different insect species. Among the GST subclasses, sigma GSTs are found to be the most abundant and conserved among different insect orders. These GSTs are found to play an important role in lipid peroxidation as well as detoxification. Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii is the most damaging sucking pest with a wide range of hosts and vector of more than 50 plant viruses. Resistance to insecticides in A. gossypii is reported in India and in other countries. Glutathione S transferases (GSTs), an oxidative enzyme is understood to have a role in insecticide resistance and plant resistance breakdown. In relation to this, we have focused on the sigma 1 (GenBank Accession No: JN989964.1) and sigma 2 (GenBank Accession No: JN989965.1) GSTs of A. gossypii and their interaction with plant natural compounds and insecticides. Molecular screening of different insecticides (Chlorphinamidine, Mevinphos, Nitenpyrum, Piperonyl butoxide, Tetrachlorovinphos, Pyrethrins, Resmetrin, Pirimicarb and Dinotefuran) and known plant derived natural compounds (Catechin, Gossypol, Myrcene, Kaempferol, P-coumaric acid, Quercetin, Tannins, α-mangostin, Capsaicin, Cinnamic acid, Citronellal, Curcumin, Dicumarol, Ellagic acid, Eugenol, Geriniol, Isoeugenol, Juglone, Menadione, Methyl jasmonate, Morin, Myricetin, Myristicin, Piperine, Plumbagin, Tangitinin C, Thymol, Vanillin, Alpha pipene, α-terpineol Apigenin and β-Caryophyllene) with sigma 1 and sigma 2 GST protein models was completed using Maestro 9.3 (Schrodinger, USA). This exercise showed the binding of piperonyl butoxide with sigma 1 GST and tannin with sigma 2 GST for further consideration.

  1. Are [O-methyl-11C]derivatives of ICI 89,406 beta1-adrenoceptor selective radioligands suitable for PET?

    PubMed

    Law, Marilyn P; Wagner, Stefan; Kopka, Klaus; Pike, Victor W; Schober, Otmar; Schäfers, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Radioligand binding studies show that beta(1)-adrenoceptor (beta(1)-AR) density may be reduced in heart disease without down regulation of beta(2)-ARs. Radioligands are available for measuring total beta-AR density non-invasively with clinical positron emission tomography (PET) but none are selective for beta(1)- or beta(2)-ARs. The aim was to evaluate ICI 89,406, a beta(1)-AR-selective antagonist amenable to labelling with positron emitters, for PET. The S-enantiomer of an [O-methyl-(11)C] derivative of ICI 89,406 ((S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe) was synthesised. Tissue radioactivity after i.v. injection of (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe (< 2 nmol x kg(-1)) into adult Wistar rats was assessed by small animal PET and post mortem dissection. Metabolism was assessed by HPLC of extracts prepared from plasma and tissues and by measuring [(11)C]CO(2) in exhaled air. The heart was visualised by PET after injection of (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe but neither unlabelled (S)-ICI-OMe nor propranolol (non-selective beta-AR antagonist) injected 15 min after (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe affected myocardial radioactivity. Ex vivo dissection showed that injecting unlabelled (S)-ICI-OMe, propranolol or CGP 20712A (beta(1)-selective AR antagonist) at high dose (> 2 mumol x kg(-1)) before (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe had a small effect on myocardial radioactivity. HPLC demonstrated that radioactivity in myocardium was due to unmetabolised (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe although (11)C-labelled metabolites rapidly appeared in plasma and liver and [(11)C]CO(2) was detected in exhaled air. Myocardial uptake of (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe after i.v. injection was low, possibly due to rapid metabolism in other tissues. Injection of unlabelled ligand or beta-AR antagonists had little effect indicating that binding was mainly to non-specific myocardial sites, thus precluding the use of (S)-[(11)C]ICI-OMe to assess beta(1)-ARs with PET.

  2. Quercetin 3-O-methyl ether protects FL83B cells from copper induced oxidative stress through the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hsiao-Ling; Li, Chia-Jung; Huang, Lin-Huang; Chen, Chun-Yao; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Lin, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Hsue-Yin

    2012-10-01

    Quercetin is a bioflavonoid that exhibits several biological functions in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin 3-O-methyl ether (Q3) is a natural product reported to have pharmaceutical activities, including antioxidative and anticancer activities. However, little is known about the mechanism by which it protects cells from oxidative stress. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms by which Q3 protects against Cu{sup 2+}-induced cytotoxicity. Exposure to Cu{sup 2+} resulted in the death of mouse liver FL83B cells, characterized by apparent apoptotic features, including DNA fragmentation and increased nuclear condensation. Q3 markedly suppressed Cu{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction, characterized by reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation, and PARP cleavage, in Cu{sup 2+}-exposed cells. The involvement of PI3K, Akt, Erk, FOXO3A, and Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was shown to be critical to the survival of Q3-treated FL83B cells. The liver of both larval and adult zebrafish showed severe damage after exposure to Cu{sup 2+} at a concentration of 5 μM. Hepatic damage induced by Cu{sup 2+} was reduced by cotreatment with Q3. Survival of Cu{sup 2+}-exposed larval zebrafish was significantly increased by cotreatment with 15 μM Q3. Our results indicated that Cu{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis in FL83B cells occurred via the generation of ROS, upregulation and phosphorylation of Erk, overexpression of 14-3-3, inactivation of Akt, and the downregulation of FOXO3A and MnSOD. Hence, these results also demonstrated that Q3 plays a protective role against oxidative damage in zebrafish liver and remarked the potential of Q3 to be used as an antioxidant for hepatocytes. Highlights: ► Protective effects of Q3 on Cu{sup 2+}-induced oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. ► Cu{sup 2+} induced apoptosis in FL83B cells via ROS and the activation of Erk. ► Q3 abolishes Cu{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt and MAPK

  3. MOF Acetyl Transferase Regulates Transcription and Respiration in Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aindrila; Seyfferth, Janine; Lucci, Jacopo; Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Böttinger, Lena; Mårtensson, Christoph U; Panhale, Amol; Stehle, Thomas; Kretz, Oliver; Sahyoun, Abdullah H; Avilov, Sergiy; Eimer, Stefan; Hein, Lutz; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Becker, Thomas; Akhtar, Asifa

    2016-10-20

    A functional crosstalk between epigenetic regulators and metabolic control could provide a mechanism to adapt cellular responses to environmental cues. We report that the well-known nuclear MYST family acetyl transferase MOF and a subset of its non-specific lethal complex partners reside in mitochondria. MOF regulates oxidative phosphorylation by controlling expression of respiratory genes from both nuclear and mtDNA in aerobically respiring cells. MOF binds mtDNA, and this binding is dependent on KANSL3. The mitochondrial pool of MOF, but not a catalytically deficient mutant, rescues respiratory and mtDNA transcriptional defects triggered by the absence of MOF. Mof conditional knockout has catastrophic consequences for tissues with high-energy consumption, triggering hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure in murine hearts; cardiomyocytes show severe mitochondrial degeneration and deregulation of mitochondrial nutrient metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Thus, MOF is a dual-transcriptional regulator of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes connecting epigenetics and metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of glutathione transferases in cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Adamis, Paula D B; Gomes, Débora S; Pinto, Maria Lucia C C; Panek, Anita D; Eleutherio, Elis C A

    2004-12-01

    Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as experimental model, we observed that cells mutated in the GTT1 or GTT2 genes showed twice as much cadmium absorption than the control strain. We proposed that the formation of the cadmium-glutathione complex is dependent on that transferase, since it was previously demonstrated that the cytoplasmic levels of this complex affect cadmium uptake. The addition of glutathione monoethyl ester (GME), a drug that mimics glutathione (GSH), to gtt1Delta cells restored the levels of metal absorption to those of the control strain. However, with respect to gtt2Delta cells, addition of GME did not alter the capacity of removing cadmium from the medium. Taken together, these results suggest that Gtt1 and Gtt2 play different roles in the mechanism of cadmium detoxification. By analyzing the toxic effect of this metal, we verified that gtt2Delta and gsh1Delta cells showed, respectively, higher and lower tolerance to cadmium stress than control cells, suggesting that although GSH plays a relevant role in cell protection, formation of the GSH-Cd conjugate is deleterious to the mechanism of defense.

  5. Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in thyroid cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alba; Céspedes, Walkiria; Xamena, Noel; Surrallés, Jordi; Creus, Amadeu; Galofré, Pere; Marcos, Ricardo

    2003-02-10

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are enzymes involved in the metabolism of many carcinogens and mutagens, also acting as important free-radical scavengers. The existence of different genetic polymorphisms in human populations has proven to be a susceptibility factor for different tumours. Nevertheless, as far as we know, for thyroid cancer no study has been conducted until now linking its incidence to genetic susceptibility biomarkers. The present investigation has been conducted to detect the possible association between polymorphism at the GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes and thyroid cancer incidence. Thus, 134 thyroid cancer patients and 116 controls, all from the urban district of Barcelona (Spain), have been included in this study. The results indicate that, according to the calculated odds ratio, the frequencies of the different genotypes found in the group of cancer patients do not significantly differ from those values obtained in the controls. This is true for the overall data as well as for the tumour characterization as follicular and papillar types. In addition, none of the possible combinations of mutant genotypes were shown to be risk factors. Finally, when the sex of the patients, the age of tumour onset, and life-style habits were also taken into account, no influence was observed related to the different genotypes. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study clearly suggest that those susceptibility factors related to the different GST polymorphic enzymes are not a predisposing factor in thyroid cancer disease.

  6. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency with an atypical presentation and ultrastructural mitochondrial abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, M P; Poulton, K; Hawkins, C; Murphy, R P

    1987-01-01

    A case of carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency presenting in a 72 year old woman with the clinical picture of ophthalmoplegia plus other muscle weakness is reported. Histological and ultrastructural examination showed the features of a mitochondrial myopathy. Images PMID:3655814

  7. Cloning, expression and identification of two glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes from Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenzhen; Chen, Rong; Zuo, Zhenghong; Mo, Zhengping; Yu, Ang

    2013-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) are phase II enzymes involved in major detoxification reactions of xenobiotic in many organisms. In the present study, two classes of GSTs (PvGST1 and PvGST2) were cloned from P. viridis by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis together supported that PvGST1 and PvGST2 belonged to the pi and omega classes, respectively. The PvGST1 cDNA was 1214 nucleotides (nt) in length and contained a 618 nt open reading frame (ORF) encoding 206 amino acid residues, and had 46 nt of 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 3' UTR of 550 nt including a tailing signal (AATAAA) and a poly (A) tail. The molecular mass of the predicted PvGST1 was 23.815kDa, with the calculated isoelectric point being 5.39. PvGST2 was 1093bp, consisting of a 5' UTR of 13bp, a 3' UTR of 246bp and an ORF of 834bp. The deduced protein was composed of 278 amino acids, with an estimated molecular mass of 32.476kDa and isoelectric point of 8.88. Tissue distribution analysis of the PvGST1 and PvGST2 mRNA revealed that the GST expression level was higher in digestive gland and gonad, while lower in gill and mantle in both genders. Molecular modeling analysis of two GSTs implicated their various functions account for their different enzymatic features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization and functional analysis of four glutathione S-transferases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guohua; Jia, Miao; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Xueyao; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In this study, four GSTs (LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, LmGSTt1, and LmGSTu1) representing different classes were identified from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. These four proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins, purified by Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose column and biochemically characterized. LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, and LmGSTu1 showed high activities with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), detectable activity with p-nitro-benzyl chloride (p-NBC) and 1, 2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), whereas LmGSTt1 showed high activity with p-NBC and detectable activity with CDNB. The optimal pH of the locust GSTs ranged between 7.0 to 9.0. Ethacrynic acid and reactive blue effectively inhibited all four GSTs. LmGSTs5 was most sensitive to heavy metals (Cu(2+) and Cd(2+)). The maximum expression of the four GSTs was observed in Malpighian tubules and fat bodies as evaluated by western blot. The nymph mortalities after carbaryl treatment increased by 28 and 12% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. The nymph mortalities after malathion and chlorpyrifos treatments increased by 26 and 18% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. These results suggest that sigma GSTs in L. migratoria play a significant role in carbaryl detoxification, whereas some of other GSTs may also involve in the detoxification of carbaryl and chlorpyrifos.

  9. Cloning and expressing a highly functional and substrate specific farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase from the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama)

    PubMed Central

    Van Ekert, Evelien; Shatters, Robert G.; Rougé, Pierre; Powell, Charles A.; Smagghe, Guy; Borovsky, Dov

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, transmits a phloem-limited bacterium, Candidatus ‘Liberibacter’ asiaticus that causes citrus greening disease. Because juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in adult and nymphal development, we studied the final steps in JH biosynthesis in D. citri. A putative JH acid methyltransferase ortholog gene (jmtD) and its cognate cDNA were identified by searching D. citri genome database. Expression analysis shows expression in all life stages. In adults, it is expressed in the head-thorax, (containing the corpora allata), and the abdomen (containing ovaries and male accessory glands). A 3D protein model identified the catalytic groove with catalytically active amino acids and the S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-binding loop. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and the purified enzyme showed high preference for farnesoic acid (FA) and homoFA (kcat of 0.752 × 10−3 and 0.217 × 10−3 s−1, respectively) as compared to JH acid I (JHA I) (cis/trans/cis; 2Z, 6E, 10cis), JHA III (2E, 6E, 10cis), and JHA I (trans/cis/cis; 2E, 2Z, 10cis) (kcat of 0.081 × 10−3, 0.013 × 10−3, and 0.003 × 10−3 s−1, respectively). This suggests that this ortholog is a DcFA-o-methyl transferase gene (fmtD), not a jmtD, and that JH biosynthesis in D. citri proceeds from FA to JH III through methyl farnesoate (MF). DcFA-o-MT does not require Ca2+, Mg2+ or Zn2+, however, Zn2+ (1 mM) completely inhibits the enzyme probably by binding H115 at the active groove. This represents the first purified FA-o-MT from Hemiptera with preferred biological activity for FA and not JHA. PMID:25893162

  10. Protein-based peptide-bond formation by aminoacyl-tRNA protein transferase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazunori; Toh, Yukimatsu; Suto, Kyoko; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Oka, Natsuhisa; Wada, Takeshi; Tomita, Kozo

    2007-10-18

    Eubacterial leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA protein transferase (LF-transferase) catalyses peptide-bond formation by using Leu-tRNA(Leu) (or Phe-tRNA(Phe)) and an amino-terminal Arg (or Lys) of a protein, as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively. However, the catalytic mechanism of peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase remained obscure. Here we determine the structures of complexes of LF-transferase and phenylalanyl adenosine, with and without a short peptide bearing an N-terminal Arg. Combining the two separate structures into one structure as well as mutation studies reveal the mechanism for peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase. The electron relay from Asp 186 to Gln 188 helps Gln 188 to attract a proton from the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal Arg of the acceptor peptide. This generates the attacking nucleophile for the carbonyl carbon of the aminoacyl bond of the aminoacyl-tRNA, thus facilitating peptide-bond formation. The protein-based mechanism for peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase is similar to the reverse reaction of the acylation step observed in the peptide hydrolysis reaction by serine proteases.

  11. Identification of the nuclear localisation signal of O-GlcNAc transferase and its nuclear import regulation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyeon Gyu; Kim, Han Byeol; Kang, Min Jueng; Ryum, Joo Hwan; Yi, Eugene C.; Cho, Jin Won

    2016-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) attaches a single GlcNAc to hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine residues. Although the cellular localisation of OGT is important to regulate a variety of cellular processes, the molecular mechanisms regulating the nuclear localisation of OGT is unclear. Here, we characterised three amino acids (DFP; residues 451–453) as the nuclear localisation signal of OGT and demonstrated that this motif mediated the nuclear import of non-diffusible β-galactosidase. OGT bound the importin α5 protein, and this association was abolished when the DFP motif of OGT was mutated or deleted. We also revealed that O-GlcNAcylation of Ser389, which resides in the tetratricopeptide repeats, plays an important role in the nuclear localisation of OGT. Our findings may explain how OGT, which possesses a NLS, exists in the nucleus and cytosol simultaneously. PMID:27713473

  12. Glutathione S-transferase from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana: identification, characterization, localization, cDNA cloning, and expression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Q L; Davey, K G; Pang, A S; Primavera, M; Ladd, T R; Zheng, S C; Sohi, S S; Retnakaran, A; Palli, S R

    1999-09-01

    A 23-kDa protein that was present at higher levels in diapausing 2nd instar larvae than in feeding 2nd instar larvae of Choristoneura fumiferana was purified, and polyclonal antibodies were raised against this protein. The antibodies were subsequently used to screen a cDNA library that was constructed using RNA from 2nd instar larvae. Eight identical cDNA clones were isolated. The cDNA clone had a 665-bp insert and the longest open reading frame coded for a 203-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 23.37 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to glutathione S-transferases and therefore, the cDNA clone was named C. fumiferana glutathione S-transferase (CfGST). Identity of CfGST was confirmed by using affinity-purification as well as enzyme activity assay. CfGST was closer in similarity to insect GST2 members than GST1 members. The apparent Vmax of the purified CfGST towards the substrates glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenezene (CDNB) were similar. However, the enzyme had a three-fold higher affinity towards CDNB than glutathione. Analyses using Northern blot, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that the fat body was the major tissue where the enzyme was synthesized and stored. Higher levels of CfGST protein were present in diapausing 2nd instar larvae compared to feeding 2nd and 6th instar larvae, suggesting that besides detoxification CfGST may have other roles during insect development that are not readily apparent at present. The CfGST cDNA was expressed in a recombinant baculovirus expression system and an active enzyme was produced.

  13. Evaluation of the non-catalytic binding function of Ts26GST a glutathione transferase isoform of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Plancarte, A; Romero, J R; Nava, G; Reyes, H; Hernández, M

    2014-03-01

    Taenia solium glutathione transferase isoform of 26.5 kDa (Ts26GST) was observed to bind non-catalytically to porphyrins, trans-trans-dienals, bile acids and fatty acids, as assessed by inhibition kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy and competitive fluorescence assays with 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The quenching of Ts26GST intrinsic fluorescence allowed for the determination of the dissociation constants (KD) for all ligands. Obtained data indicate that Ts26GST binds to all ligands but with different affinity. Porphyrins and lipid peroxide products inhibited Ts26GST catalytic activity up to 100% in contrast with only 20-30% inhibition observed for bile acids and two saturated fatty acids. Non-competitive type inhibition was observed for all enzyme inhibitor ligands except for trans-trans-2,4-decadienal, which exhibited uncompetitive type inhibition. The dissociation constant value KD = 0.7 μM for the hematin ligand, determined by competitive fluorescence assays with ANS, was in good agreement with its inhibition kinetic value Ki = 0.3 μM and its intrinsic fluorescence quenching KD = 0.7 μM. The remaining ligands did not displace ANS from the enzyme suggesting the existence of different binding sites. In addition to the catalytic activity of Ts26GST the results obtained suggest that the enzyme exhibits a ligandin function with broad specificity towards nonsubstrate ligands.

  14. Imaging the norepinephrine transporter in humans with (S,S)-[11C]O-methyl reboxetine and PET: problems and progress.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jean; Wang, Gene-jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Alexoff, David; Zabroski, John; Jayne, Millard; Hubbard, Barbara; King, Payton; Carter, Pauline; Shea, Colleen; Xu, Youwen; Muench, Lisa; Schlyer, David; Learned-Coughlin, Susan; Cosson, Valerie; Volkow, Nora D; Ding, Yu-Shin

    2007-08-01

    Results from human studies with the PET radiotracer (S,S)-[(11)C]O-methyl reboxetine ([(11)C](S,S)-MRB), a ligand targeting the norepinephrine transporter (NET), are reported. Quantification methods were determined from test/retest studies, and sensitivity to pharmacological blockade was tested with different doses of atomoxetine (ATX), a drug that binds to the NET with high affinity (K(i)=2-5 nM). Twenty-four male subjects were divided into different groups for serial 90-min PET studies with [(11)C](S,S)-MRB to assess reproducibility and the effect of blocking with different doses of ATX (25, 50 and 100 mg, po). Region-of-interest uptake data and arterial plasma input were analyzed for the distribution volume (DV). Images were normalized to a template, and average parametric images for each group were formed. [(11)C](S,S)-MRB uptake was highest in the thalamus (THL) and the midbrain (MBR) [containing the locus coeruleus (LC)] and lowest for the caudate nucleus (CDT). The CDT, a region with low NET, showed the smallest change on ATX treatment and was used as a reference region for the DV ratio (DVR). The baseline average DVR was 1.48 for both the THL and MBR with lower values for other regions [cerebellum (CB), 1.09; cingulate gyrus (CNG) 1.07]. However, more accurate information about relative densities came from the blocking studies. MBR exhibited greater blocking than THL, indicating a transporter density approximately 40% greater than THL. No relationship was found between DVR change and plasma ATX level. Although the higher dose tended to induce a greater decrease than the lower dose for MBR (average decrease for 25 mg=24+/-7%; 100 mg=31+/-11%), these differences were not significant. The different blocking between MBR (average decrease=28+/-10%) and THL (average decrease=17+/-10%) given the same baseline DVR indicates that the CDT is not a good measure for non-NET binding in both regions. Threshold analysis of the difference between the average baseline DV

  15. Squid glutathione S-transferase. Relationships with other glutathione S-transferases and S-crystallins of cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Tomarev, S I; Zinovieva, R D; Guo, K; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-02-25

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) was purified from the digestive gland of the squid Ommastrephes sloani pacificus. It had high enzymatic activity for the 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrate and was composed of a major and a minor polypeptide band, both with molecular masses near 25 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. GST cDNA clones were derived from the digestive gland mRNA. The deduced GSTs of the longest cDNAs (pGST5 and pGST11) containing the entire coding sequence have a molecular mass near 23 kDa. Sequence comparisons showed that the squid GST is 42-44% identical to both squid and octopus S-crystallins (the major proteins of the lens), 32-34% identical to class pi and 29-32% identical to class alpha GSTs of vertebrates, and 19-23% identical to other GSTs of vertebrates and insects. Northern blot hybridization revealed that GST mRNAs were much more abundant in the digestive gland than in the testis, mantle, or lens. Analysis of a squid GST gene indicated that it has an exon-intron structure similar to that of the vertebrate class pi GST gene. An apparently novel repetitive element was identified in the 5'-flanking sequence of the squid GST gene. Our results suggest that multiple duplications of an ancestral GST gene gave rise to a family of enzymatically inactive crystallins specialized for lens refraction and one (or two) active GST enzyme expressed preferentially, but not exclusively, in the digestive gland in squids. This differs from the innovation of refractive function from a metabolic enzyme by increased expression in the lens with minimal or no gene duplication, as occurred among the enzyme-crystallins of vertebrates.

  16. Synthetic mucin fragments: synthesis of O-sulfo and O-methyl derivatives of allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D- galactopyranoside as potential compounds for sulfotransferases.

    PubMed

    Jain, R K; Piskorz, C F; Matta, K L

    1995-10-02

    Allyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galact opy ranoside (1) was condensed with either 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (2) or 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-6-O-bromoacetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (14) in the presence of mercuric cyanide. Selective substitution with methyl, sulfo or both at desired positions, followed by the removal of protecting groups, afforded allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-methyl-alpha -D- galactopyranoside (5), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6- O-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (10), allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-sulfo-alpha- D- galactopyranoside sodium salt (13), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (17) and allyl O-(3-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (22). The structures of compounds 5, 10, 13, 17 and 22 were established by 13C NMR and FAB mass spectroscopy.

  17. Pro-Lipogenic Action of Lysophosphatidic Acid in Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    One of the key mediators of fatty acid b-oxidation is carnitine pamitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A), which is overexpressed in malignant ovarian...phospholipases is consistent with our previous observation that exogenously supplemented LPA did not fully reverse the effect of the iPLA2b inhibitor BEL on...MAGL, inhibits growth of ovarian cancer cell lines. Most interestingly, inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1), the rate-limiting

  18. Developmental aspects of a unique glutathione S-transferase subunit Yx in the liver cytosol from rats with hereditary hyperbilirubinuria. Comparison with rat fetal liver transferase subunit Yfetus.

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, T; Tsuchiya, T; Shikata, Y; Sagami, F; Tagaya, O; Horie, T; Satoh, T

    1992-01-01

    The unique glutathione S-transferase (GST) subunit Yx, which is undetectable in normal adult rat liver cytosol, was shown to occur in the liver cytosol of rats with hereditary hyperbilirubinuria (EHB). The Yx subunit is a member of the Alpha-class GST subunits, and is immunologically closely related to the Yc subunit. The Yx subunit has an apparent M(r) of 26,400, different from those of Ya (M(r) 25,800), Yb1 and Yb2 (both M(r) 27,200) and Yc (M(r) 28,400). During postnatal development in livers of EHB rats, the Yx subunit concentration in either sex was highest during the first week post partum and declined rapidly with age. Although the concentration of subunit Yx at 8 weeks of age accounted for about 60% in females and 40% in males of that observed in 1-week-old 'neonatal' male EHB rats, concentrations in females thereafter increased gradually to almost the neonatal level and remained at this high level at least up to 37 weeks of age, whereas the concentration in males did not increase again. Thus the post-pubertal Yx subunit concentration was 2-fold higher in females than in males. In contrast, in normal Sprague-Dawley rat liver, the Yfetus subunit, with the same M(r) as the Yx subunit, had the highest concentration in 10-day-old animals, declined rapidly thereafter, and was not detectable in the post-pubertal period. The Yfetus subunit was also immunoreactive with an antibody against GST YcYc. The analysis of GST subunits by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. revealed that the Yx subunit was eluted at a retention time different from other known subunits, but coincided with that of Yfetus. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Yx subunit displayed a high degree of sequence similarity to that of the Yfetus subunit. These data suggest that the Yx subunit in EHB rats may be very similar to, if not identical with, the Yfetus subunit. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1567376

  19. Expression of glutathione S-transferase during rat liver development.

    PubMed Central

    Tee, L B; Gilmore, K S; Meyer, D J; Ketterer, B; Vandenberghe, Y; Yeoh, G C

    1992-01-01

    The ontogeny of rat liver glutathione S-transferase (EC 2.5.1.18) (GSTs) during foetal and postnatal development was investigated. The GSTs are dimers, the subunits of which belong to three multigene families, Alpha (subunits 1, 2, 8 and 10), Mu (subunits 3, 4, 6, 9 and 11) and Pi (subunit 7) [Mannervik, Alin, Guthenberg, Jennsson, Tahir, Warholm & Jörnvall (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 7202-7206; Kispert, Meyer, Lalor, Coles & Ketterer (1989) Biochem. J. 260, 789-793]. There is considerable structural homology within each gene family, with the result that whereas reverse-phase h.p.l.c. successfully differentiates individual subunits, immunocytochemical and Northern-blotting analyses may only differentiate families. Enzymic activity, h.p.l.c. and Northern blotting indicated that expression of GST increased from very low levels at 12 days of foetal growth to substantial amounts at day 21. At birth, GST concentrations underwent a dramatic decline and remained low until 5-10 days post partum, after which they increased to adult levels. During the period under study, GST subunits underwent differential expression. The Mu family had a lower level of expression than the Alpha family, and, within the Alpha family, subunit 1 was more dominant in the adult than the foetus. Subunit 2 is the major form in the foetus. Most noteworthy were subunits 7 and 10, which were prominent in the foetus, but present at low levels post partum. Immunocytochemical analysis of the 17-day foetal and newborn rat livers showed marked differences in the distribution of GSTs in hepatocytes. In the 17-day foetal liver Pi greater than Alpha greater than Mu whereas in the newborns Alpha greater than Mu much greater than Pi. Erythropoietic cells were not stained for any of the three GST families. Steady-state mRNA concentrations in the foetus correlated with the relative transcription of the Alpha, Mu and Pi class genes. However, in those genes expressed post partum, namely the Alpha and

  20. Induction of Glutathione S-Transferase Isozymes in Sorghum by Herbicide Antidotes 1

    PubMed Central

    Dean, John V.; Gronwald, John W.; Eberlein, Charlotte V.

    1990-01-01

    Certain chemicals referred to as herbicide antidotes protect sorghum from injury by chloroacetanilide herbicides such as metolachlor. The effect of herbicide antidotes on the glutathione S-transferase isozyme complement of etiolated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) shoots was examined. Elution profiles of glutathione S-transferase isozymes from untreated and antidote-treated seedlings were generated by fast protein liquid chromatography utilizing an anion exchange (Mono Q) column. In untreated seedlings, there were two glutathione S-transferase isozymes, a major isozyme which exhibited activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and a minor isozyme which exhibited activity toward metolachlor. Treating sorghum seedlings with various antidotes (flurazole, oxabetrinil, CGA-133205, naphthalic anhydride, dichlormid) resulted in the appearance of four to five additional glutathione S-transferase isozymes (de-pending on the particular antidote) which exhibited activity toward metolachlor as a substrate and little or no activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Treating etiolated sorghum shoots with metolachlor was also found to induce at least four isozymes which exhibited activity toward the herbicide. An increase in glutathione S-transferase activity, measured with metolachlor as substrate, was detected within 4 h after treatment with 30 micromolar oxabetrinil, but 36 hours were required for maximum expression of activity. Addition of either the transcription inhibitor cordycepin or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide inhibited the appearance of glutathione S-transferase activity measured with metolachlor as substrate. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that antidotes confer protection against metolachlor injury in sorghum by inducing the de novo synthesis of glutathione S-transferase isozymes which catalyze the detoxification of the herbicide. PMID:16667299

  1. Isolation of a cDNA clone and localization of human glutathione S-transferase 2 genes to chromosome band 6p12

    SciTech Connect

    Board, P.G.; Webb, G.C.

    1987-04-01

    The glutathione S-transferases (GST) (glutathione transferase; EC 2.5.1.18) are a family of enzymes responsible for the metabolism of a broad range of xenobiotics and carcinogens. A cDNA clone containing the entire amino acid coding sequence of a human GST-2 subunit has been isolated using a lambdagt11 expression library. The complete nucleotide sequence and a partial restriction map are presented. The subunit is composed of 221 amino acids with a molecular weight of 25,425 before post translational modification. The deduced amino acid sequence is rich in lysine, which is consistent with the relatively high pI of GST-2. The human sequence shows considerable homology with the rat Ya and Yc GST sequences but little homology with the rat GSTp and Yb subunit sequences. Southern blots of restriction digests of human DNA indicate that there may be multiple GST-2 genes. In situ hybridization of the cloned cDNA to human chromosomes produces intense labeling only over band p12 on the short arm of chromosome 6 near the centromere. This indicates that the GST-2 gene(s) are located only at this site.

  2. Isolation of a cDNA clone and localization of human glutathione S-transferase 2 genes to chromosome band 6p12.

    PubMed Central

    Board, P G; Webb, G C

    1987-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferases (GST) (glutathione transferase; EC 2.5.1.18) are a family of enzymes responsible for the metabolism of a broad range of xenobiotics and carcinogens. A cDNA clone containing the entire amino acid coding sequence of a human GST-2 subunit has been isolated using a lambda gt11 expression library. The complete nucleotide sequence and a partial restriction map are presented. The subunit is composed of 221 amino acids with a molecular weight of 25,425 before posttranslational modification. The deduced amino acid sequence is rich in lysine, which is consistent with the relatively high pI of GST-2. The human sequence shows considerable homology with the rat Ya and Yc GST sequences but little homology with the rat GSTp and Yb subunit sequences. Southern blots of restriction digests of human DNA indicate that there may be multiple GST-2 genes. In situ hybridization of the cloned cDNA to human chromosomes produces intense labeling only over band p12 on the short arm of chromosome 6 near the centromere. This indicates that the GST-2 gene(s) are located only at this site. Images PMID:3031680

  3. The Sigma class glutathione transferase from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    LaCourse, E James; Perally, Samirah; Morphew, Russell M; Moxon, Joseph V; Prescott, Mark; Dowling, David J; O'Neill, Sandra M; Kipar, Anja; Hetzel, Udo; Hoey, Elizabeth; Zafra, Rafael; Buffoni, Leandro; Pérez Arévalo, José; Brophy, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Liver fluke infection of livestock causes economic losses of over US$ 3 billion worldwide per annum. The disease is increasing in livestock worldwide and is a re-emerging human disease. There are currently no commercial vaccines, and only one drug with significant efficacy against adult worms and juveniles. A liver fluke vaccine is deemed essential as short-lived chemotherapy, which is prone to resistance, is an unsustainable option in both developed and developing countries. Protein superfamilies have provided a number of leading liver fluke vaccine candidates. A new form of glutathione transferase (GST) family, Sigma class GST, closely related to a leading Schistosome vaccine candidate (Sm28), has previously been revealed by proteomics in the liver fluke but not functionally characterised. In this manuscript we show that a purified recombinant form of the F. hepatica Sigma class GST possesses prostaglandin synthase activity and influences activity of host immune cells. Immunocytochemistry and western blotting have shown the protein is present near the surface of the fluke and expressed in eggs and newly excysted juveniles, and present in the excretory/secretory fraction of adults. We have assessed the potential to use F. hepatica Sigma class GST as a vaccine in a goat-based vaccine trial. No significant reduction of worm burden was found but we show significant reduction in the pathology normally associated with liver fluke infection. We have shown that F. hepatica Sigma class GST has likely multi-functional roles in the host-parasite interaction from general detoxification and bile acid sequestration to PGD synthase activity.

  4. The poplar Phi class glutathione transferase: expression, activity and structure of GSTF1

    PubMed Central

    Pégeot, Henri; Koh, Cha San; Petre, Benjamin; Mathiot, Sandrine; Duplessis, Sébastien; Hecker, Arnaud; Didierjean, Claude; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes with essential roles in cellular detoxification and secondary metabolism in plants as in other organisms. Several plant GSTs, including those of the Phi class (GSTFs), require a conserved catalytic serine residue to perform glutathione (GSH)-conjugation reactions. Genomic analyses revealed that terrestrial plants have around ten GSTFs, eight in the Populus trichocarpa genome, but their physiological functions and substrates are mostly unknown. Transcript expression analyses showed a predominant expression of all genes both in reproductive (female flowers, fruits, floral buds) and vegetative organs (leaves, petioles). Here, we show that the recombinant poplar GSTF1 (PttGSTF1) possesses peroxidase activity toward cumene hydroperoxide and GSH-conjugation activity toward model substrates such as 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, benzyl and phenetyl isothiocyanate, 4-nitrophenyl butyrate and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal but interestingly not on previously identified GSTF-class substrates. In accordance with analytical gel filtration data, crystal structure of PttGSTF1 showed a canonical dimeric organization with bound GSH or 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid molecules. The structure of these protein-substrate complexes allowed delineating the residues contributing to both the G and H sites that form the active site cavity. In sum, the presence of GSTF1 transcripts and proteins in most poplar organs especially those rich in secondary metabolites such as flowers and fruits, together with its GSH-conjugation activity and its documented stress-responsive expression suggest that its function is associated with the catalytic transformation of metabolites and/or peroxide removal rather than with ligandin properties as previously reported for other GSTFs. PMID:25566286

  5. The Sigma Class Glutathione Transferase from the Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica

    PubMed Central

    LaCourse, E. James; Perally, Samirah; Morphew, Russell M.; Moxon, Joseph V.; Prescott, Mark; Dowling, David J.; O'Neill, Sandra M.; Kipar, Anja; Hetzel, Udo; Hoey, Elizabeth; Zafra, Rafael; Buffoni, Leandro; Pérez Arévalo, José; Brophy, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Liver fluke infection of livestock causes economic losses of over US$ 3 billion worldwide per annum. The disease is increasing in livestock worldwide and is a re-emerging human disease. There are currently no commercial vaccines, and only one drug with significant efficacy against adult worms and juveniles. A liver fluke vaccine is deemed essential as short-lived chemotherapy, which is prone to resistance, is an unsustainable option in both developed and developing countries. Protein superfamilies have provided a number of leading liver fluke vaccine candidates. A new form of glutathione transferase (GST) family, Sigma class GST, closely related to a leading Schistosome vaccine candidate (Sm28), has previously been revealed by proteomics in the liver fluke but not functionally characterised. Methodology/Principal Findings In this manuscript we show that a purified recombinant form of the F. hepatica Sigma class GST possesses prostaglandin synthase activity and influences activity of host immune cells. Immunocytochemistry and western blotting have shown the protein is present near the surface of the fluke and expressed in eggs and newly excysted juveniles, and present in the excretory/secretory fraction of adults. We have assessed the potential to use F. hepatica Sigma class GST as a vaccine in a goat-based vaccine trial. No significant reduction of worm burden was found but we show significant reduction in the pathology normally associated with liver fluke infection. Conclusions/Significance We have shown that F. hepatica Sigma class GST has likely multi-functional roles in the host-parasite interaction from general detoxification and bile acid sequestration to PGD synthase activity. PMID:22666515

  6. Glutathione S-transferase of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum: characterization of a potential drug target.

    PubMed

    Harwaldt, Petra; Rahlfs, Stefan; Becker, Katja

    2002-05-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which occur abundantly in most organisms, are essentially involved in the intracellular detoxification of numerous substances including chemotherapeutic agents, and thus play a major role in the development of drug resistance. A gene encoding a protein with sequence identity of up to 37% with known GSTs was identified on chromosome 14 of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. It was amplified using gametocyte cDNA and expressed in Escherichia coli as a hexahistidyl-tagged protein of 26 kDa subunit size. The homodimeric enzyme (PfGST) was found to catalyse the glutathione (GSH)-dependent modification of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and other typical GST substrates such as o-nitrophenyl acetate, ethacrynic acid, and cumene hydroperoxide. The Km value for GSH was 164+/-20 microM. PfGST was inhibited by cibacron blue (Ki=0.5 microM), S-hexylglutathione (Ki=35 microM), and protoporphyrin IX (Ki=10 microM). Hemin, a most toxic compound for parasitised erythrocytes, was found to be an uncompetitive ligand of PfGST with a Ki of 6.5 microM. Based on the activity of PfGST in extracts of P. falciparum, the enzyme represents 1 to 10% of cellular protein and might therefore serve as an efficient in vivo buffer for parasitotoxic hemin. Destabilising ligands of GST are thus expected to be synergistic with the antimalarial drug chloroquine, which itself was found to be a very weak inhibitor of PfGST (IC50>200 microM). X-ray quality crystals of PfGST (250x200x50 microm) will serve as starting point for structure-based drug design.

  7. Glutathione transferase mu 2 protects glioblastoma cells against aminochrome toxicity by preventing autophagy and lysosome dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Huenchuguala, Sandro; Muñoz, Patricia; Zavala, Patricio; Villa, Mónica; Cuevas, Carlos; Ahumada, Ulises; Graumann, Rebecca; Nore, Beston F; Couve, Eduardo; Mannervik, Bengt; Paris, Irmgard; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2014-01-01

    U373MG cells constitutively express glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2) and exhibit 3H-dopamine uptake, which is inhibited by 2 µM of nomifensine and 15 µM of estradiol. We generated a stable cell line (U373MGsiGST6) expressing an siRNA against GSTM2 that resulted in low GSTM2 expression (26% of wild-type U373MG cells). A significant increase in cell death was observed when U373MGsiGST6 cells were incubated with 50 µM purified aminochrome (18-fold increase) compared with wild-type cells. The incubation of U373MGsiGST6 cells with 75 µM aminochrome resulted in the formation of autophagic vacuoles containing undigested cellular components, as determined using transmission electron microscopy. A significant increase in autophagosomes was determined by measuring endogenous LC3-II, a significant decrease in cell death was observed in the presence of bafilomycin A1, and a significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of trehalose. A significant increase in LAMP2 immunostaining was observed, a significant decrease in bright red fluorescence of lysosomes with acridine orange was observed, and bafilomycin A1 pretreatment reduced the loss of lysosome acidity. A significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of lysosomal protease inhibitors. Aggregation of TUBA/α-tubulin (tubulin, α) and SQSTM1 protein accumulation were also observed. Moreover, a significant increase in the number of lipids droplets was observed compared with U373MG cells with normal expression of GSTM2. These results support the notion that GSTM2 is a protective enzyme against aminochrome toxicity in astrocytes and that aminochrome cell death in U373MGsiGST6 cells involves autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction. PMID:24434817

  8. The Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase (CPT) System and Possible Relevance for Neuropsychiatric and Neurological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Ashraf; Pinto, Luigi; Bauermann, Otto; Zerelli, Saf; Diedenhofen, Andreas; Binienda, Zbigniew K; Ali, Syed F; van der Leij, Feike R

    2015-10-01

    The carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system is a multiprotein complex with catalytic activity localized within a core represented by CPT1 and CPT2 in the outer and inner membrane of the mitochondria, respectively. Two proteins, the acyl-CoA synthase and a translocase also form part of this system. This system is crucial for the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. CPT1 has two well-known isoforms, CPT1a and CPT1b. CPT1a is the hepatic isoform and CPT1b is typically muscular; both are normally utilized by the organism for metabolic processes throughout the body. There is a strong evidence for their involvement in various disease states, e.g., metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and in diabetes mellitus type 2. Recently, a new, third isoform of CPT was described, CPT1c. This is a neuronal isoform and is prevalently localized in brain regions such as hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. These brain regions play an important role in control of food intake and neuropsychiatric and neurological diseases. CPT activity has been implicated in several neurological and social diseases mainly related to the alteration of insulin equilibrium in the brain. These pathologies include Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia. Evolution of both Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease is in some way linked to brain insulin and related metabolic dysfunctions with putative links also with the diabetes type 2. Studies show that in the CNS, CPT1c affects ceramide levels, endocannabionoids, and oxidative processes and may play an important role in various brain functions such as learning.

  9. Glutathione transferase mu 2 protects glioblastoma cells against aminochrome toxicity by preventing autophagy and lysosome dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Huenchuguala, Sandro; Muñoz, Patricia; Zavala, Patricio; Villa, Mónica; Cuevas, Carlos; Ahumada, Ulises; Graumann, Rebecca; Nore, Beston F; Couve, Eduardo; Mannervik, Bengt; Paris, Irmgard; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2014-04-01

    U373MG cells constitutively express glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2) and exhibit (3)H-dopamine uptake, which is inhibited by 2 µM of nomifensine and 15 µM of estradiol. We generated a stable cell line (U373MGsiGST6) expressing an siRNA against GSTM2 that resulted in low GSTM2 expression (26% of wild-type U373MG cells). A significant increase in cell death was observed when U373MGsiGST6 cells were incubated with 50 µM purified aminochrome (18-fold increase) compared with wild-type cells. The incubation of U373MGsiGST6 cells with 75 µM aminochrome resulted in the formation of autophagic vacuoles containing undigested cellular components, as determined using transmission electron microscopy. A significant increase in autophagosomes was determined by measuring endogenous LC3-II, a significant decrease in cell death was observed in the presence of bafilomycin A 1, and a significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of trehalose. A significant increase in LAMP2 immunostaining was observed, a significant decrease in bright red fluorescence of lysosomes with acridine orange was observed, and bafilomycin A 1 pretreatment reduced the loss of lysosome acidity. A significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of lysosomal protease inhibitors. Aggregation of TUBA/α-tubulin (tubulin, α) and SQSTM1 protein accumulation were also observed. Moreover, a significant increase in the number of lipids droplets was observed compared with U373MG cells with normal expression of GSTM2. These results support the notion that GSTM2 is a protective enzyme against aminochrome toxicity in astrocytes and that aminochrome cell death in U373MGsiGST6 cells involves autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction.

  10. Steady-state kinetics and chemical mechanism of octopus hepatopancreatic glutathione transferase.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, S S; Chang, G G

    1995-01-01

    The kinetic mechanism of glutathione S-transferase (GST) from Octopus vulgaris hepatopancreas was investigated by steady-state analysis. Initial-velocity studies showed an intersecting pattern, which suggests a sequential kinetic mechanism for the enzyme. Product-inhibition patterns by chloride and the conjugate product were all non-competitive with respect to glutathione or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), which indicates that the octopus digestive gland GST conforms to a steady-state sequential random Bi Bi kinetic mechanism. Dead-end inhibition patterns indicate that ethacrynic acid ([2,3-dichloro-4-(2-methyl-enebutyryl) phenoxy]acetic acid) binds at the hydrophobic H-site, norophthalmic acid (gamma-glutamylalanylglycine) binds at the glutathione G-site, and glutathione-ethacrynate conjugate occupied both H- and G-sites of the enzyme. The chemical mechanism of the enzyme was examined by pH and kinetic solvent-isotope effects. At pH (and p2H) = 8.011, in which kcat. was independent of pH or p2H, the solvent isotope effects on V and V/KmGSH were near unity, in the range 1.069-1.175. An inverse isotope effect was observed for V/KmCDNB (0.597), presumably resulting from the hydrogen-bonding of enzyme-bound glutathione, which has pKa of 6.83 +/- 0.04, a value lower by 2.34 pH units than the pKa of glutathione in aqueous solution. This lowering of the pKa value for the sulphydryl group of the bound glutathione was presumably due to interaction with the active site Tyr7, which had a pKa value of 8.46 +/- 0.09 that was raised to 9.63 +/- 0.08 in the presence of glutathione thiolate. Subsequent chemical reaction involves attacking of thiolate anion at the electrophilic substrate with the formation of a negatively charged Meisenheimer complex, which is the rate-limiting step of the reaction. Images Scheme 2 PMID:7619078

  11. Steady-state kinetics and chemical mechanism of octopus hepatopancreatic glutathione transferase.

    PubMed

    Tang, S S; Chang, G G

    1995-07-01

    The kinetic mechanism of glutathione S-transferase (GST) from Octopus vulgaris hepatopancreas was investigated by steady-state analysis. Initial-velocity studies showed an intersecting pattern, which suggests a sequential kinetic mechanism for the enzyme. Product-inhibition patterns by chloride and the conjugate product were all non-competitive with respect to glutathione or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), which indicates that the octopus digestive gland GST conforms to a steady-state sequential random Bi Bi kinetic mechanism. Dead-end inhibition patterns indicate that ethacrynic acid ([2,3-dichloro-4-(2-methyl-enebutyryl) phenoxy]acetic acid) binds at the hydrophobic H-site, norophthalmic acid (gamma-glutamylalanylglycine) binds at the glutathione G-site, and glutathione-ethacrynate conjugate occupied both H- and G-sites of the enzyme. The chemical mechanism of the enzyme was examined by pH and kinetic solvent-isotope effects. At pH (and p2H) = 8.011, in which kcat. was independent of pH or p2H, the solvent isotope effects on V and V/KmGSH were near unity, in the range 1.069-1.175. An inverse isotope effect was observed for V/KmCDNB (0.597), presumably resulting from the hydrogen-bonding of enzyme-bound glutathione, which has pKa of 6.83 +/- 0.04, a value lower by 2.34 pH units than the pKa of glutathione in aqueous solution. This lowering of the pKa value for the sulphydryl group of the bound glutathione was presumably due to interaction with the active site Tyr7, which had a pKa value of 8.46 +/- 0.09 that was raised to 9.63 +/- 0.08 in the presence of glutathione thiolate. Subsequent chemical reaction involves attacking of thiolate anion at the electrophilic substrate with the formation of a negatively charged Meisenheimer complex, which is the rate-limiting step of the reaction.

  12. Defective Pollen Wall 2 (DPW2) Encodes an Acyl Transferase Required for Rice Pollen Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianxin; Rautengarten, Carsten; Yang, Li; Uzair, Muhammad; Zhu, Lu; Luo, Qian; An, Gynheung; Waßmann, Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic lipids are both essential structural components of the plant cuticle, an important interface between the plant and environment. Although cross links between aromatic and aliphatic or other moieties are known to be associated with the formation of leaf cutin and root and seed suberin, the contribution of aromatic lipids to the biosynthesis of anther cuticles and pollen walls remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) male sterile mutant, defective pollen wall 2 (dpw2), which showed an abnormal anther cuticle, a defective pollen wall, and complete male sterility. Compared with the wild type, dpw2 anthers have increased amounts of cutin and waxes and decreased levels of lipidic and phenolic compounds. DPW2 encodes a cytoplasmically localized BAHD acyltransferase. In vitro assays demonstrated that recombinant DPW2 specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acid moieties, using ω-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs as acyl donors. Thus, The cytoplasmic hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:ω-hydroxy fatty acid transferase DPW2 plays a fundamental role in male reproduction via the biosynthesis of key components of the anther cuticle and pollen wall. PMID:27246096

  13. In silico characterization of the family of PARP-like poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (pARTs)

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Helge; Reche, Pedro A; Bazan, Fernando; Dittmar, Katharina; Haag, Friedrich; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich

    2005-01-01

    Background ADP-ribosylation is an enzyme-catalyzed posttranslational protein modification in which mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (mARTs) and poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (pARTs) transfer the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD onto specific amino acid side chains and/or ADP-ribose units on target proteins. Results Using a combination of database search tools we identified the genes encoding recognizable pART domains in the public genome databases. In humans, the pART family encompasses 17 members. For 16 of these genes, an orthologue exists also in the mouse, rat, and pufferfish. Based on the degree of amino acid sequence similarity in the catalytic domain, conserved intron positions, and fused protein domains, pARTs can be divided into five major subgroups. All six members of groups 1 and 2 contain the H-Y-E trias of amino acid residues found also in the active sites of Diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin A, while the eleven members of groups 3 – 5 carry variations of this motif. The pART catalytic domain is found associated in Lego-like fashion with a variety of domains, including nucleic acid-binding, protein-protein interaction, and ubiquitylation domains. Some of these domain associations appear to be very ancient since they are observed also in insects, fungi, amoebae, and plants. The recently completed genome of the pufferfish T. nigroviridis contains recognizable orthologues for all pARTs except for pART7. The nearly completed albeit still fragmentary chicken genome contains recognizable orthologues for twelve pARTs. Simpler eucaryotes generally contain fewer pARTs: two in the fly D. melanogaster, three each in the mosquito A. gambiae, the nematode C. elegans, and the ascomycete microfungus G. zeae, six in the amoeba E. histolytica, nine in the slime mold D. discoideum, and ten in the cress plant A. thaliana. GenBank contains two pART homologues from the large double stranded DNA viruses Chilo iridescent virus and Bacteriophage Aeh1 and only a single entry

  14. Phylogenetic characterization of Clonorchis sinensis proteins homologous to the sigma-class glutathione transferase and their differential expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-An; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Kong, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferase (GST) is one of the major antioxidant proteins with diverse supplemental activities including peroxidase, isomerase, and thiol transferase. GSTs are classified into multiple classes on the basis of their primary structures and substrate/inhibitor specificity. However, the evolutionary routes and physiological environments specific to each of the closely related bioactive enzymes remain elusive. The sigma-like GSTs exhibit amino acid conservation patterns similar to the prostaglandin D synthases (PGDSs). In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic position of the GSTs of the biocarcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. We also observed induction profile of the GSTs in association with the parasite's maturation and in response to exogenous oxidative stresses, with special attention to sigma-class GSTs and PGDSs. The C. sinensis genome encoded 12 GST protein species, which were separately assigned to cytosolic (two omega-, one zeta-, two mu-, and five sigma-class), mitochondrial (one kappa-class), and microsomal (one membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism-like protein) GST families. Multiple sigma GST (or PGDS) orthologs were also detected in Opisthorchis viverrini. Other trematode species possessed only a single sigma-like GST gene. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that one of the sigma GST lineages duplicated in the common ancestor of trematodes were specifically expanded in the opisthorchiids, but deleted in other trematodes. The induction profiles of these sigma GST genes along with the development and aging of C. sinensis, and against various exogenous chemical stimuli strongly suggest that the paralogous sigma GST genes might be undergone specialized evolution to cope with the diverse hostile biochemical environments within the mammalian hepatobiliary ductal system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The secretory omega-class glutathione transferase OvGST3 from the human pathogenic parasite Onchocerca volvulus.

    PubMed

    Liebau, Eva; Höppner, Jana; Mühlmeister, Mareike; Burmeister, Cora; Lüersen, Kai; Perbandt, Markus; Schmetz, Christel; Büttner, Dietrich; Brattig, Norbert

    2008-07-01

    Onchocerciasis or river blindness, caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is the second leading cause of blindness due to infectious diseases. The protective role of the omega-class glutathione transferase 3 from O. volvulus (OvGST3) against intracellular and environmental reactive oxygen species has been described previously. In the present study, we continue our investigation of the highly stress-responsive OvGST3. Alternative splicing of two exons and one intron retention generates five different transcript isoforms that possess a spliced leader at their 5'-end, indicating that the mechanism of mature mRNA production involves alternative-, cis- and trans-splicing processes. Interestingly, the first two exons of the ovgst3 gene encode a signal peptide before sequence identity to other omega-class glutathione transferases begins. Only the recombinant expression of the isoform that encodes the longest deduced amino acid sequence (OvGST3/5) was successful, with the purified enzyme displaying modest thiol oxidoreductase activity. Significant IgG1 and IgG4 responses against recombinantly expressed OvGST3/5 were detected in sera from patients with the generalized as well as the chronic hyperreactive form of onchocerciasis, indicating exposure of the secreted protein to the human host's immune system and its immunogenicity. Immunohistological localization studies performed at light and electron microscopy levels support the extracellular localization of the protein. Intensive labeling of the OvGST3 was observed in the egg shell at the morula stage of the embryo, indicating extremely defined, stage-specific expression for a short transient period only.

  16. Functional Characterization of UDP-Glucose:Undecaprenyl-Phosphate Glucose-1-Phosphate Transferases of Escherichia coli and Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kinnari B.; Toh, Evelyn; Fernandez, Ximena B.; Hanuszkiewicz, Anna; Hardy, Gail G.; Brun, Yves V.; Bernards, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 WcaJ and the Caulobacter crescentus HfsE, PssY, and PssZ enzymes are predicted to initiate the synthesis of colanic acid (CA) capsule and holdfast polysaccharide, respectively. These proteins belong to a prokaryotic family of membrane enzymes that catalyze the formation of a phosphoanhydride bond joining a hexose-1-phosphate with undecaprenyl phosphate (Und-P). In this study, in vivo complementation assays of an E. coli K-12 wcaJ mutant demonstrated that WcaJ and PssY can complement CA synthesis. Furthermore, WcaJ can restore holdfast production in C. crescentus. In vitro transferase assays demonstrated that both WcaJ and PssY utilize UDP-glucose but not UDP-galactose. However, in a strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium deficient in the WbaP O antigen initiating galactosyltransferase, complementation with WcaJ or PssY resulted in O-antigen production. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) revealed the attachment of both CA and O-antigen molecules to lipid A-core oligosaccharide (OS). Therefore, while UDP-glucose is the preferred substrate of WcaJ and PssY, these enzymes can also utilize UDP-galactose. This unexpected feature of WcaJ and PssY may help to map specific residues responsible for the nucleotide diphosphate specificity of these or similar enzymes. Also, the reconstitution of O-antigen synthesis in Salmonella, CA capsule synthesis in E. coli, and holdfast synthesis provide biological assays of high sensitivity to examine the sugar-1-phosphate transferase specificity of heterologous proteins. PMID:22408159

  17. Coenzyme A-transferase-independent butyrate re-assimilation in Clostridium acetobutylicum-evidence from a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Millat, Thomas; Voigt, Christine; Janssen, Holger; Cooksley, Clare M; Winzer, Klaus; Minton, Nigel P; Bahl, Hubert; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    The hetero-dimeric CoA-transferase CtfA/B is believed to be crucial for the metabolic transition from acidogenesis to solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum as part of the industrial-relevant acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Here, the enzyme is assumed to mediate re-assimilation of acetate and butyrate during a pH-induced metabolic shift and to faciliate the first step of acetone formation from acetoacetyl-CoA. However, recent investigations using phosphate-limited continuous cultures have questioned this common dogma. To address the emerging experimental discrepancies, we investigated the mutant strain Cac-ctfA398s::CT using chemostat cultures. As a consequence of this mutation, the cells are unable to express functional ctfA and are thus lacking CoA-transferase activity. A mathematical model of the pH-induced metabolic shift, which was recently developed for the wild type, is used to analyse the observed behaviour of the mutant strain with a focus on re-assimilation activities for the two produced acids. Our theoretical analysis reveals that the ctfA mutant still re-assimilates butyrate, but not acetate. Based upon this finding, we conclude that C. acetobutylicum possesses a CoA-tranferase-independent butyrate uptake mechanism that is activated by decreasing pH levels. Furthermore, we observe that butanol formation is not inhibited under our experimental conditions, as suggested by previous batch culture experiments. In concordance with recent batch experiments, acetone formation is abolished in chemostat cultures using the ctfa mutant.

  18. Separation of glutathione transferase subunits from Proteus vulgaris by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Giaming; Chien, Yi-Chih; Chien, Cheng-I

    2003-10-01

    Cytosolic glutathione transferases of Proteus vulgaris were purified by affinity chromatography and characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Four different subunits were identified, and each subunit contained a different molecular mass, ranging from 26.2 kDa to 28.5 kDa; a different pI value, ranging from 8.2 to 9.4; and a different amount of protein fraction, ranging from 10% to 56%. All four subunits existed as basic proteins (pI > 7.0). From these results, we concluded that multiple forms of glutathione transferase enzymes existed in Proteus vulgaris, and four different glutathione transferase subunits were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis.

  19. The Making of a Sweet Modification: Structure and Function of O-GlcNAc Transferase*

    PubMed Central

    Janetzko, John; Walker, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    O-GlcNAc transferase is an essential mammalian enzyme responsible for transferring a single GlcNAc moiety from UDP-GlcNAc to specific serine/threonine residues of hundreds of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. This modification is dynamic and has been implicated in numerous signaling pathways. An unexpected second function for O-GlcNAc transferase as a protease involved in cleaving the epigenetic regulator HCF-1 has also been reported. Recent structural and biochemical studies that provide insight into the mechanism of glycosylation and HCF-1 cleavage will be described, with outstanding questions highlighted. PMID:25336649

  20. The separation of glutathione transferase subunits by using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Ostlund Farrants, A K; Meyer, D J; Coles, B; Southan, C; Aitken, A; Johnson, P J; Ketterer, B

    1987-01-01

    A simple method is described for the separation and quantification of the subunits of GSH transferases present in rat tissue extracts. This method, involving GSH-agarose affinity chromatography followed by reverse-phase h.p.l.c., is rapid and sufficiently sensitive to measure 5 micrograms of each subunit in a mixture. Examples are given of its application to extracts of rat kidney, adrenal, testicular interstitial cells and seminiferous tubules. The analysis of seminiferous tubules indicates that the technique may be of value for the identification of novel subunits. Preliminary separations of subunits from human GSH transferases are also described. PMID:3663168

  1. New lanostane-type triterpene acids from wolfiporia extensa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgroud Dried sclerotia of Wolfiporia extensa (Polyporaceae) is used to invigorate the spleen and to tranquilize the mind in Chinese herbal medicine. Lanostane-type triterpene acids were regard as major secondary metabolites from dried sclerotia of W. extensa. Results Three new lanostane-type triterpene acids, 3-epi-benzoyloxyl-dehydrotumulosic acid (1), 3-epi-(3′-O-methyl malonyloxy)-dehydrotumulosic acid (2) and 3-epi-(3′-hydroxy-3′-methylglutaryloxyl)-dehydrotumulosic acid (3), were isolated from the sclerotia of W. extensa, together with 3 known lanostane derivatives (4–6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D-NMR techniques. Conclusion Six lanostane derivatives including three new triterpene acids and three known compounds were reported from the sclerotia of W. extensa in this paper. PMID:22559059

  2. New lanostane-type triterpene acids from wolfiporia extensa.

    PubMed

    She, Gaimei; Zhu, Nailiang; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yang; Ba, Yinying; Sun, Changqing; Shi, Renbing

    2012-05-06

    Dried sclerotia of Wolfiporia extensa (Polyporaceae) is used to invigorate the spleen and to tranquilize the mind in Chinese herbal medicine. Lanostane-type triterpene acids were regard as major secondary metabolites from dried sclerotia of W. extensa. Three new lanostane-type triterpene acids, 3-epi-benzoyloxyl-dehydrotumulosic acid (1), 3-epi-(3'-O-methyl malonyloxy)-dehydrotumulosic acid (2) and 3-epi-(3'-hydroxy-3'-methylglutaryloxyl)-dehydrotumulosic acid (3), were isolated from the sclerotia of W. extensa, together with 3 known lanostane derivatives (4-6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D-NMR techniques. Six lanostane derivatives including three new triterpene acids and three known compounds were reported from the sclerotia of W. extensa in this paper.

  3. Cloning and functional analysis of a phosphopantetheinyl transferase superfamily gene associated with jadomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; McVey, J; Vining, L C

    2001-06-01

    Sequence analysis of a XhoI/SacI fragment of chromosomal DNA downstream of jadL in the Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 gene cluster for jadomycin biosynthesis detected a partial ORF similar in its deduced amino acid sequence to the hetI product involved in synthesizing a regulator of heterocyst spacing in ANABAENA: By probing a phage library of S. venezuelae DNA with the XhoI/SacI fragment, the authors identified and isolated a hybridizing clone. The nucleotide sequence of its DNA contained three complete ORFs (jadM, N and X) and one incomplete ORF (jadO). The jadM ORF lay immediately downstream of, and partially overlapped, jadL. It contained 786 nucleotides encoding an amino acid sequence like those of enzymes in the phosphopantetheinyl transferase family. The jadN ORF contained 1794 nucleotides and encoded an amino acid sequence resembling acyl-CoA decarboxylases, thus suggesting a role in polyketide condensation reactions. The jadX ORF was not identified, but the partial jadO showed marked similarities in its deduced amino acid sequence to NDP-hexose-2,3-dehydratases, indicating a role in forming the sugar component of jadomycin B. Expression of jadM in Escherichia coli and examination of the product by SDS-PAGE established that the ORF encoded a 29.1 kDa protein, corresponding in size to the 262 amino acid polypeptide deduced from the jadM sequence. Evidence from a Northern hybridization indicated that jadM expression is correlated with jadomycin B synthesis. Cultures of S. venezuelae ISP5230 disrupted in jadM produced only 2-5% of the wild-type titre of jadomycin B, but grew well and produced chloramphenicol normally. The authors conclude that jadM encodes a holo-ACP synthase needed primarily for jadomycin B biosynthesis.

  4. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of novel 11-[3-[(arylcarbamoyl)oxy]propylamino]-11-deoxy-6-O-methyl-3-oxoerythromycin A 11-N,12-O-cyclic carbamate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhonghui; Du, Deping; Cao, Lili; Liu, Jun; Chen, Xiaofang

    2016-11-01

    A series of novel 11-[3-[(arylcarbamoyl)oxy]propylamino]-11-deoxy-6-O-methyl-3-oxoerythromycin A 11-N,12-O-cyclic carbamate derivatives (6a-h) were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activities in vitro. Most of these compounds had significant antibacterial activity against two groups of pathogens of Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MIC50=0.031-2 μg ml(-1)) except 6g and Methicillin-sensitive S. epidermidis (MIC50=0.031-0.5 μg ml(-1)). MIC90 of 6d against Methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis was at least 16-fold better than that of erythromycin (EMA), azithromycin (AZM) and ABT-773. 6d and 6e had more potent antibacterial activity against S. pneumoniae than EMA, AZM and ABT-773. In particular, compounds 6d and 6e also showed relatively potent activity against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus hemolyticus.

  5. Galactose utilization in Lactobacillus helveticus: isolation and characterization of the galactokinase (galK) and galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (galT) genes.

    PubMed Central

    Mollet, B; Pilloud, N

    1991-01-01

    By complementing appropriate gal lesions in Escherichia coli K802, we were able to isolate the galactokinase (galK) and galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (galT) genes of Lactobacillus helveticus. Tn10 transposon mutagenesis, together with in vivo complementation analysis and in vitro enzyme activity measurements, allowed us to map these two genes. The DNA sequences of the genes and the flanking regions were determined. These revealed that the two genes are organized in the order galK-galT in an operonlike structure. In an in vitro transcription-translation assay, the galK and galT gene products were identified as 44- and 53-kDa proteins, respectively, data which corresponded well with the DNA sequencing data. The deduced amino acid sequence of the galK gene product showed significant homologies to other prokaryotic and eukaryotic galactokinase sequences, whereas galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase did not show any sequence similarities to other known proteins. This observation, together with a comparison of known gal operon structures, suggested that the L. helveticus operon developed independently to a translational expression unit having a different gene order than that in E. coli, Streptococcus lividans, or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA sequencing of the flanking regions revealed an open reading frame downstream of the galKT operon. It was tentatively identified as galM (mutarotase) on the basis of the significant amino acid sequence homology with the corresponding Streptococcus thermophilus gene. Images PMID:2066342

  6. Degradation of aromatics and chloroaromatics by Pseudomonas sp. strain B13: purification and characterization of 3-oxoadipate:succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) transferase and 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase.

    PubMed

    Kaschabek, Stefan R; Kuhn, Bernd; Müller, Dagmar; Schmidt, Eberhard; Reineke, Walter

    2002-01-01

    The degradation of 3-oxoadipate in Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 was investigated and was shown to proceed through 3-oxoadipyl-coenzyme A (CoA) to give acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA. 3-Oxoadipate:succinyl-CoA transferase of strain B13 was purified by heat treatment and chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose, Mono-Q, and Superose 6 gels. Estimation of the native molecular mass gave a value of 115,000 +/- 5,000 Da with a Superose 12 column. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions resulted in two distinct bands of equal intensities. The subunit A and B values were 32,900 and 27,000 Da. Therefore it can be assumed that the enzyme is a heterotetramer of the type A2B2 with a molecular mass of 120,000 Da. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of both subunits are as follows: subunit A, AELLTLREAVERFVNDGTVALEGFTHLIPT; subunit B, SAYSTNEMMTVAAARRLKNGAVVFV. The pH optimum was 8.4. Km values were 0.4 and 0.2 mM for 3-oxoadipate and succinyl-CoA, respectively. Reversibility of the reaction with succinate was shown. The transferase of strain B13 failed to convert 2-chloro- and 2-methyl-3-oxoadipate. Some activity was observed with 4-methyl-3-oxoadipate. Even 2-oxoadipate and 3-oxoglutarate were shown to function as poor substrates of the transferase. 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase was purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, blue 3GA, and reactive brown-agarose. Estimation of the native molecular mass gave 162,000 +/- 5,000 Da with a Superose 6 column. The molecular mass of the subunit of the denatured protein, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was 42 kDa. On the basis of these results, 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase should be a tetramer of the type A4. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase was determined to be SREVYI-DAVRTPIGRFG. The pH optimum was 7.8. Km values were 0.15 and 0.01 mM for 3-oxoadipyl-CoA and CoA, respectively. Sequence analysis of the thiolase terminus revealed high percentages of identity

  7. Structure of human IFIT1 with capped RNA reveals adaptable mRNA binding and mechanisms for sensing N1 and N2 ribose 2′-O methylations

    PubMed Central

    Laudenbach, Beatrice Theres; Martínez-Montero, Saúl; Cencic, Regina; Habjan, Matthias; Pichlmair, Andreas; Damha, Masad J.; Pelletier, Jerry; Nagar, Bhushan

    2017-01-01

    IFIT1 (IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats-1) is an effector of the host innate immune antiviral response that prevents propagation of virus infection by selectively inhibiting translation of viral mRNA. It relies on its ability to compete with the translation initiation factor eIF4F to specifically recognize foreign capped mRNAs, while remaining inactive against host mRNAs marked by ribose 2′-O methylation at the first cap-proximal nucleotide (N1). We report here several crystal structures of RNA-bound human IFIT1, including a 1.6-Å complex with capped RNA. IFIT1 forms a water-filled, positively charged RNA-binding tunnel with a separate hydrophobic extension that unexpectedly engages the cap in multiple conformations (syn and anti) giving rise to a relatively plastic and nonspecific mode of binding, in stark contrast to eIF4E. Cap-proximal nucleotides encircled by the tunnel provide affinity to compete with eIF4F while allowing IFIT1 to select against N1 methylated mRNA. Gel-shift binding assays confirm that N1 methylation interferes with IFIT1 binding, but in an RNA-dependent manner, whereas translation assays reveal that N1 methylation alone is not sufficient to prevent mRNA recognition at high IFIT1 concentrations. Structural and functional analysis show that 2′-O methylation at N2, another abundant mRNA modification, is also detrimental for RNA binding, thus revealing a potentially synergistic role for it in self- versus nonself-mRNA discernment. Finally, structure-guided mutational analysis confirms the importance of RNA binding for IFIT1 restriction of a human coronavirus mutant lacking viral N1 methylation. Our structural and biochemical analysis sheds new light on the molecular basis for IFIT1 translational inhibition of capped viral RNA. PMID:28251928

  8. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase from Down Syndrome and Normal Children Erythrocytes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Ragaa R.; Maharem, Tahany M.; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M.; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A.

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was…

  9. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase from Down Syndrome and Normal Children Erythrocytes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Ragaa R.; Maharem, Tahany M.; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M.; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A.

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was…

  10. Role of the 4-phosphopantetheinyl transferase of Trichoderma virens in secondary metabolism and induction of plant defense responses.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Robledo, R; Contreras-Cornejo, H A; Macias-Rodriguez, L; Hernandez-Morales, A; Aguirre, J; Casas-Flores, S; Lopez-Bucio, J; Herrera-Estrella, A

    2011-12-01

    Trichoderma virens is a ubiquitous soil fungus successfully used in biological control due to its efficient colonization of plant roots. In fungi, 4-phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) activate enzymes involved in primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore, we cloned the PPTase gene ppt1 from T. virens and generated PPTase-deficient (?ppt1) and overexpressing strains to investigate the role of this enzyme in biocontrol and induction of plant defense responses. The ?ppt1 mutants were auxotrophic for lysine, produced nonpigmented conidia, and were unable to synthesize nonribosomal peptides. Although spore germination was severely compromised under both low and high iron availability, mycelial growth occurred faster than the wild type, and the mutants were able to efficiently colonize plant roots. The ?ppt1 mutants were unable of inhibiting growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings co-cultivated with wild-type T. virens showed increased expression of pPr1a:uidA and pLox2:uidA markers, which correlated with enhanced accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid, camalexin, and resistance to Botrytis cinerea. Co-cultivation of A. thaliana seedlings with ?ppt1 mutants compromised the SA and camalexin responses, resulting in decreased protection against the pathogen. Our data reveal an important role of T. virens PPT1 in antibiosis and induction of SA and camalexin-dependent plant defense responses.

  11. Characterization of the highly conserved VFMGD motif in a bacterial polyisoprenyl-phosphate N-acetylaminosugar-1-phosphate transferase.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Sarah E; Valvano, Miguel A

    2012-09-01

    Polyisoprenyl-phosphate N-acetylaminosugar-1-phosphate transferases (PNPTs) constitute a family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane proteins that catalyze the transfer of a sugar-1-phosphate to a phosphoisoprenyl lipid carrier. All PNPT members share a highly conserved 213-Valine-Phenylalanine-Methionine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-217 (VFMGD) motif. Previous studies using the MraY protein suggested that the aspartic acid residue in this motif, D267, is a nucleophile for a proposed double-displacement mechanism involving the cleavage of the phosphoanhydride bond of the nucleoside. Here, we demonstrate that the corresponding residue in the E. coli WecA, D217, is not directly involved in catalysis, as its replacement by asparagine results in a more active enzyme. Kinetic data indicate that the D217N replacement leads to more than twofold increase in V(max) without significant change in the K(m) for the nucleoside sugar substrate. Furthermore, no differences in the binding of the reaction intermediate analog tunicamycin were found in D217N as well as in other replacement mutants at the same position. We also found that alanine substitutions in various residues of the VFMGD motif affect to various degrees the enzymatic activity of WecA in vivo and in vitro. Together, our data suggest that the highly conserved VFMGD motif defines a common region in PNPT proteins that contributes to the active site and is likely involved in the release of the reaction product. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  12. Characterization of the highly conserved VFMGD motif in a bacterial polyisoprenyl-phosphate N-acetylaminosugar-1-phosphate transferase

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, Sarah E; Valvano, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Polyisoprenyl-phosphate N-acetylaminosugar-1-phosphate transferases (PNPTs) constitute a family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane proteins that catalyze the transfer of a sugar-1-phosphate to a phosphoisoprenyl lipid carrier. All PNPT members share a highly conserved 213-Valine-Phenylalanine-Methionine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-217 (VFMGD) motif. Previous studies using the MraY protein suggested that the aspartic acid residue in this motif, D267, is a nucleophile for a proposed double-displacement mechanism involving the cleavage of the phosphoanhydride bond of the nucleoside. Here, we demonstrate that the corresponding residue in the E. coli WecA, D217, is not directly involved in catalysis, as its replacement by asparagine results in a more active enzyme. Kinetic data indicate that the D217N replacement leads to more than twofold increase in Vmax without significant change in the Km for the nucleoside sugar substrate. Furthermore, no differences in the binding of the reaction intermediate analog tunicamycin were found in D217N as well as in other replacement mutants at the same position. We also found that alanine substitutions in various residues of the VFMGD motif affect to various degrees the enzymatic activity of WecA in vivo and in vitro. Together, our data suggest that the highly conserved VFMGD motif defines a common region in PNPT proteins that contributes to the active site and is likely involved in the release of the reaction product. PMID:22811320

  13. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs.

  14. Enzymic feruloylation of arabinoxylan-trisaccharide by feruloyl-CoA:arabinoxylan-trisaccharide O-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase from Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Shimokawa, T; Yoshida, S; Kakegawa, K; Ishii, T

    2001-02-01

    Feruloyl-CoA:arabinoxylan-trisaccharide O-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, which catalyzes the transfer of ferulic acid from Fer-CoA to arabinoxylan-trisaccharide in the formation of feruloyl arabinoxylan-trisaccharide (Fer-AXX), has been found in an ionically bound fraction and a cytosol fraction of suspension-cultured rice (Oriza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) cells. Analysis of reaction products by high-performance liquid chromatography showed the formation of product A, which is one of the transfer products having the same retention time as authentic Fer-AXX. Product A was purified by reverse-phase chromatographies to characterize its structure. The isolated product A showed the same ultraviolet spectrum and molecular weight on fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric analysis as those of authentic Fer-AXX. Alakaline saponification of product A released ferulic acid and oligosaccharide. The released oligosaccharide consisted of arabinose and xylose in a molar ratio of 1:2. These results support the identity of product A as feruloylated arabinoxylan-trisaccharide and show the existence of a feruloyltransferase catalyzing the feruloylation of a hemicellulosic fragment.

  15. Cloning, characterisation and bacterial expression of full length cDNA for the mouse liver microsomal glutathione S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Raza, H; Mullick, J; John, A; Bhagwat, S V; Avadhani, N G

    2000-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA encoding full length microsomal glutathione S-transferase (MGST) from mouse liver. The cDNA was isolated by RT-PCR using primers designed from published cDNA sequence of rat MGST with the addition of 5' Nde-1 and 3' HindIII sites, and cloned into bacterial expression vector pSP19T7LT. Deduced amino acid sequence (155 amino acids, calculated mol.mass 17512 Dalton) confirmed the identity of microsomal GST from mouse liver which has sequence homology with that of rat and human liver MGST1. Recombinant GST cDNA (Genbank accession # 159050) was expressed in BL21(DE3) in the presence of 1 mM IPTG at 30 degrees C. The expressed GST protein was found to be localised in the bacterial membrane as determined by measuring catalytic activity using CDNB and cumene hydroperoxide substrates, SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. We have demonstrated the cloning and expression of full length cDNA for MGST from mouse liver and have characterised the functionally active product as MGST protein. These results should facilitate studies on the role of MGST in the regulation of chemical carcinogenesis and in the prevention of oxidative stress caused by endogenous and exogenous chemicals.

  16. Plant cysteine oxidases are dioxygenases that directly enable arginyl transferase-catalysed arginylation of N-end rule targets.

    PubMed

    White, Mark D; Klecker, Maria; Hopkinson, Richard J; Weits, Daan A; Mueller, Carolin; Naumann, Christin; O'Neill, Rebecca; Wickens, James; Yang, Jiayu; Brooks-Bartlett, Jonathan C; Garman, Elspeth F; Grossmann, Tom N; Dissmeyer, Nico; Flashman, Emily

    2017-03-23

    Crop yield loss due to flooding is a threat to food security. Submergence-induced hypoxia in plants results in stabilization of group VII ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs (ERF-VIIs), which aid survival under these adverse conditions. ERF-VII stability is controlled by the N-end rule pathway, which proposes that ERF-VII N-terminal cysteine oxidation in normoxia enables arginylation followed by proteasomal degradation. The PLANT CYSTEINE OXIDASEs (PCOs) have been identified as catalysts of this oxidation. ERF-VII stabilization in hypoxia presumably arises from reduced PCO activity. We directly demonstrate that PCO dioxygenase activity produces Cys-sulfinic acid at the N terminus of an ERF-VII peptide, which then undergoes efficient arginylation by an arginyl transferase (ATE1). This provides molecular evidence of N-terminal Cys-sulfinic acid formation and arginylation by N-end rule pathway components, and a substrate of ATE1 in plants. The PCOs and ATE1 may be viable intervention targets to stabilize N-end rule substrates, including ERF-VIIs, to enhance submergence tolerance in agriculture.

  17. Interaction of the electrophilic ketoprofenyl-glucuronide and ketoprofenyl-coenzyme A conjugates with cytosolic glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Osbild, Sandra; Bour, Jérome; Maunit, Benoît; Guillaume, Cécile; Asensio, Carine; Muller, Jean-François; Netter, Patrick; Kirsch, Glbert; Bagrel, Denyse; Lapicque, Françoise; Battaglia, Eric

    2008-02-01

    Carboxylic acid-containing drugs are metabolized mainly through the formation of glucuronide and coenzyme A esters. These conjugates have been suspected to be responsible for the toxicity of several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs because of the reactivity of the electrophilic ester bond. In the present study we investigated the reactivity of ketoprofenyl-acylglucuronide (KPF-OG) and ketoprofenyl-acyl-coenzyme A (KPF-SCoA) toward cytosolic rat liver glutathione S-transferases (GST). We observed that KPF-SCoA, but not KPF-OG inhibited the conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide catalyzed by both purified cytosolic rat liver GST and GST from FAO and H5-6 rat hepatoma cell lines. Photoaffinity labeling with KPF-SCoA suggested that the binding of this metabolite may overlap the binding site of 4-methylumbelliferone sulfate. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis showed that both hydrolysis and transacylation reactions were observed in the presence of GST and glutathione. The formation of ketoprofenyl-S-acyl-glutathione could be kinetically characterized (apparent K(m) = 196.0 +/- 70.6 microM). It is concluded that KPF-SCoA is both a GST inhibitor and a substrate of a GST-dependent transacylation reaction. The reactivity and inhibitory potency of thioester CoA derivatives toward GST may have potential implications on the reported in vivo toxicity of some carboxylic acid-containing drugs.

  18. The pleiotropic effects of ethacrynic acid.

    PubMed

    Somberg, John C; Molnar, Janos

    2009-01-01

    Ethacrynic acid (EC), an effective loop diuretic especially in patients allergic to sulfa-containing drugs, possesses a number of potentially useful actions in addition to the inhibition of the Na⁺-K⁺-2Cl⁻ kidney symport. Inhibition of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase plays an important role in reducing chemotherapy drug resistance. Chemical modifications of EC increase inhibition of glutathione S-transferase and reduce toxicity due to diuretic action (hypotension and hypovolemia). This work may lead to effective therapies in reducing chemotherapy resistance in cancer chemotherapeutics. In addition, EC or conjurers may be a radiation enhancer, an anti-inflammatory agent, or a treatment for glaucoma.

  19. Global deletion of glutathione S-Transferase A4 exacerbates developmental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We established a mouse model of developmental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by feeding a high polyunsaturated fat liquid diet to female glutathione-S-transferase 4-4 (Gsta4-/-)/peroxisome proliferator activated receptor a (Ppara-/-) double knockout 129/SvJ mice for 12 weeks from weaning. We us...

  20. Maize white seedling 3 results from disruption of homogentisate solanesyl transferase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has served as a model albino-seedling mutant since its discovery in 1923. We show here that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruptions in homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), an enzyme that catalyzes the committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ9) biosynthesis. This re...

  1. GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1-DEPENDENT METABOLISM OF THE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a prevalent drinking water disinfection by-product, was previously shown to be mutagenic in Salmonella expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) theta 1-1 (GST T1-1). In the present study, in vitro experiments were performed to study the...

  2. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  3. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  4. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  5. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  6. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. 862.1315 Section 862.1315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  10. Polymorphism in the intron 20 of porcine O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) catalyzes the addition of O-GlcNAc and GlcNAcylation has extensive crosstalk with phosphorylation to regulate signaling and transcription. Pig OGT is located near the region of chromosome X that affects follicle stimulating hormone...

  11. Insight into the carboxyl transferase domain mechanism of pyruvate carboxylase from Rhizobium etli†

    PubMed Central

    Zeczycki, Tonya N.; Maurice, Martin St.; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Wallace, John C.; Attwood, Paul V.; Cleland, W. Wallace

    2009-01-01

    The effects of mutations in the active site of the carboxyl transferase domain of R. etli pyruvate carboxylase have been determined for the forward reaction to form oxaloacetate, the reverse reaction to form MgATP, the oxamate-induced decarboxylation of oxaloacetate, the phosphorylation of MgADP by carbamoyl phosphate and the bicarbonate-dependent ATPase reaction. Additional studies with these mutants examined the effect of pyruvate and oxamate on the reactions of the biotin carboxylase domain. From these mutagenic studies, putative roles for catalytically relevant active site residues were assigned and a more accurate description of the mechanism of the carboxyl transferase domain is presented. The T882A mutant showed no catalytic activity for reactions involving the carboxyl transferase domain, but surprisingly showed a 7- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, as compared to the wild-type enzyme, for the ADP phosphorylation and bicarbonate-dependent ATPase reactions, respectively. Furthermore, the partial inhibition of the T882A catalyzed BC domain reactions by oxamate and pyruvate further supports the critical role of Thr882 in the proton transfer between biotin and pyruvate in the carboxyl transferase domain. The catalytic mechanism appears to involve the decarboxylation of carboxybiotin and proton removal from Thr882 by the resulting biotin enolate with either a concerted or subsequent transfer of a proton from pyruvate to Thr882. The resulting enolpyruvate then reacts with CO2 to form oxaloacetate and complete the reaction. PMID:19341298

  12. Plasmodium spp. membrane glutathione S-transferases: detoxification units and drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Lisewski, Andreas M.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane glutathione S-transferases from the class of membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG) form a superfamily of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH) to a broad spectrum of xenobiotics and hydrophobic electrophiles. Evolutionarily unrelated to the cytosolic glutathione S-transferases, they are found across bacterial and eukaryotic domains, for example in mammals, plants, fungi and bacteria in which significant levels of glutathione are maintained. Species of genus Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoa that are commonly known as malaria parasites, do actively support glutathione homeostasis and maintain its metabolism throughout their complex parasitic life cycle. In humans and in other mammals, the asexual intraerythrocytic stage of malaria, when the parasite feeds on hemoglobin, grows and eventually asexually replicates inside infected red blood cells (RBCs), is directly associated with host disease symptoms and during this critical stage GSH protects the host RBC and the parasite against oxidative stress from parasite-induced hemoglobin catabolism. In line with these observations, several GSH-dependent Plasmodium enzymes have been characterized including glutathione reductases, thioredoxins, glyoxalases, glutaredoxins and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs); furthermore, GSH itself have been found to associate spontaneously and to degrade free heme and its hydroxide, hematin, which are the main cytotoxic byproducts of hemoglobin catabolism. However, despite the apparent importance of glutathione metabolism for the parasite, no membrane associated glutathione S-transferases of genus Plasmodium have been previously described. We recently reported the first examples of MAPEG members among Plasmodium spp. PMID:28357217

  13. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  1. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1a-1a)

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, Christopher D.; Zhong, Guo; Smeltz, Marci; James, Margaret O. McKenna, Robert

    2014-01-21

    Crystals of glutathione transferase zeta 1 were grown and shown to diffract X-rays to 3.1 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.0, b = 49.6, c = 54.6 Å, α = 82.9, β = 69.9, γ = 73.4°.

  2. GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1-DEPENDENT METABOLISM OF THE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a prevalent drinking water disinfection by-product, was previously shown to be mutagenic in Salmonella expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) theta 1-1 (GST T1-1). In the present study, in vitro experiments were performed to study the...

  3. The TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 S-acyl transferase regulates plant cell growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A; Kemp, Alison C; Grierson, Claire S

    2005-09-01

    TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 (TIP1) of Arabidopsis thaliana affects cell growth throughout the plant and has a particularly strong effect on root hair growth. We have identified TIP1 by map-based cloning and complementation of the mutant phenotype. TIP1 encodes an ankyrin repeat protein with a DHHC Cys-rich domain that is expressed in roots, leaves, inflorescence stems, and floral tissue. Two homologues of TIP1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human (Homo sapiens) have been shown to have S-acyl transferase (also known as palmitoyl transferase) activity. S-acylation is a reversible hydrophobic protein modification that offers swift, flexible control of protein hydrophobicity and affects protein association with membranes, signal transduction, and vesicle trafficking within cells. We show that TIP1 binds the acyl group palmitate, that it can rescue the morphological, temperature sensitivity, and yeast casein kinase2 localization defects of the yeast S-acyl transferase mutant akr1Delta, and that inhibition of acylation in wild-type Arabidopsis roots reproduces the Tip1- mutant phenotype. Our results demonstrate that S-acylation is essential for normal plant cell growth and identify a plant S-acyl transferase, an essential research tool if we are to understand how this important, reversible lipid modification operates in plant cells.

  4. DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1

    EPA Science Inventory


    DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1. R A Pegram1 and M K Ross2. 2Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 1Pharmacokinetics Branch, NHEERL, ORD, United States Environmental Protection Ag...

  5. DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1

    EPA Science Inventory


    DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1. R A Pegram1 and M K Ross2. 2Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 1Pharmacokinetics Branch, NHEERL, ORD, United States Environmental Protection Ag...

  6. Peptidyl transferase centre of bacterial ribosomes: substrate specificity and binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Krayevsky, A A; Kukhanova, M K; Gottikh, B P

    1975-01-01

    A detailed scheme of the Peptidyl Transferase Centre of bacterial ribosomes is proposed by summarizing the literature data on the substrate specificity of the acceptor and donor sites. According to the proposed scheme only the elements of the donor and acceptor having a stable structure bind with the ribosome. The present paper proposes such main elements for the donor and acceptor. PMID:802510

  7. Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against Glutathione-S-Transferase of Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Rosana O; Moorkoth, Dinsha; Azeez, Shamina; Eapen, Santhosh J

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are critical antioxidant and detoxification system responsible for long-term existence of nematodes in host species. Hence, 16 phytochemicals predicted and reported to have potential nematicidal activity have been docked to GST enzyme of Meloidogyne incognita to assess their binding affinity and inhibitory activity. In vitro effects of these phytochemicals from in silico results have been done for validation of docking studies and efficacy in GST inhibition of following compounds such as alpha- pinene, alpha- terpineol, beta- caryophyllene, capsaicin, cinnamic acid, citronellol, curcumin, eugenol, geraniol, isoeugenol, linalool, myristicin, neral, NVA (N-vanillylnonanamide), piperine, vanillin have been revealed. Nematode inhibition in vitro bioassay for selected compounds could conclude that maximum mortality was observed with highest concentrations of beta- caryophyllene (78%) followed by eugenol (61.6%), cinnamic acid (55%) and N-vanillylnonanamide (49%). These findings thus suggest that the above phytochemicals could be potentially developed as nematicidal molecules against M. incognita infections. PMID:22553389

  8. Glutathione S-transferases and UDP-glycosyltransferases Are Involved in Response to Aluminum Stress in Flax

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Krasnov, George S.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Kishlyan, Natalya V.; Zyablitsin, Alexander V.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.; Fedorova, Maria S.; Yurkevich, Olga Y.; Muravenko, Olga V.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.; Melnikova, Nataliya V.

    2016-01-01

    About 30% of the world's ice-free land area is occupied by acid soils. In soils with pH below 5, aluminum (Al) releases to the soil solution, and becomes highly toxic for plants. Therefore, breeding of varieties that are resistant to Al is needed. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is grown worldwide for fiber and seed production. Al toxicity in acid soils is a serious problem for flax cultivation. However, very little is known about mechanisms of flax resistance to Al and the genetics of this resistance. In the present work, we sequenced 16 transcriptomes of flax cultivars resistant (Hermes and TMP1919) and sensitive (Lira and Orshanskiy) to Al, which were exposed to control conditions and aluminum treatment for 4, 12, and 24 h. In total, 44.9–63.3 million paired-end 100-nucleotide reads were generated for each sequencing library. Based on the obtained high-throughput sequencing data, genes with differential expression under aluminum exposure were revealed in flax. The majority of the top 50 up-regulated genes were involved in transmembrane transport and transporter activity in both the Al-resistant and Al-sensitive cultivars. However, genes encoding proteins with glutathione transferase and UDP-glycosyltransferase activity were in the top 50 up-regulated genes only in the flax cultivars resistant to aluminum. For qPCR analysis in extended sampling, two UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), and three glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were selected. The general trend of alterations in the expression of the examined genes was the up-regulation under Al stress, especially after 4 h of Al exposure. Moreover, in the flax cultivars resistant to aluminum, the increase in expression was more pronounced than that in the sensitive cultivars. We speculate that the defense against the Al toxicity via GST antioxidant activity is the probable mechanism of the response of flax plants to aluminum stress. We also suggest that UGTs could be involved in cell wall modification and protection

  9. Cloning and heterologous expression of cDNA encoding class alpha rat glutathione transferase 8-8, an enzyme with high catalytic activity towards genotoxic alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, G; Ridderström, M; Engström, A; Pemble, S E; Mannervik, B

    1992-01-01

    A cDNA clone, lambda GTRA8, encoding rat glutathione transferase subunit 8 has been isolated from a lambda gt10 rat hepatoma cDNA library. The previously known amino acid sequence of the enzyme was used to design primers for a polymerase chain reaction that yielded a 0.3 kb DNA fragment from the hepatoma library. The 0.3 kb fragment was used as a probe for screening and a 0.9 kb cDNA clone containing a complete open reading frame was obtained. After DNA sequencing and subcloning into an expression vector, the enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Specific activities and kcat./Km values were determined for a number of substrates, including alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The highest activity was obtained with 4-hydroxyalkenals and with acrolein, genotoxic products of lipid peroxidation. In addition, the rat class Alpha glutathione transferase 8-8 displays high catalytic activity in the reaction between glutathione and the diuretic drug ethacrynic acid, a compound normally considered as a substrate characteristic for class Pi glutathione transferases. PMID:1599415

  10. In vitro kinetics of hepatic glutathione s-transferase conjugation in largemouth bass and brown bullheads

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, E.P.; Sheehy, K.M.; Lame, M.W.; Segall, H.J.

    2000-02-01

    The kinetics of glutathione 5-transferase (GST) catalysis were investigated in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and brown bullheads (Amerius nebulosus), two freshwater fish species found in a variety of polluted waterways in the eastern US. The initial rates of hepatic GST activity toward four GST substrates, including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, ethacrynic acid, {Delta}5-androstene-17-dione, and nitrobutyl chloride, were significantly higher in brown bullheads than in largemouth bass. Hepatic GST activity toward 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, a {mu}-class GST substrate in rodents, was not detectable in either species. Liver cytosolic GSTs were more efficient in bullheads than in bass at catalyzing 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-reduced glutathione (CDNB-GSH) conjugation over a broad range of electrophile (CDNB) concentrations, including those representative of environmental exposure. In contrast, largemouth bass maintained higher ambient concentrations of GSH, the nucleophilic cofactor for GST-mediated conjugation, than brown bullheads. Biphasic kinetics for GST-CDNB conjugation under conditions of variable GSH concentration were apparent in Eadie-Hofstee plots of the kinetic data, suggesting the presence of at least two hepatic GST isozymes with markedly different K{sub m} values for GSH in both species. The GST-CDNB reaction rate data obtained under conditions of variable GSH were well fitted (R{sup 2} = 0.999) by the two-enzyme Michaelis-Menten equation. In addition, Western blotting experiments confirmed the presence of two different hepatic GST-like proteins in both largemouth bass and brown bullhead liver. Collectively, these findings indicate that largemouth bass and brown bullhead GSTs catalyze the conjugation of structurally diverse, class-specific GST substrates, and that brown bullheads exhibit higher initial rates of GST activity than largemouth bass. The relatively higher rates of in vitro liver GST activity at the low substrate concentrations

  11. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  12. 4-Hydroxynonenal induces apoptosis in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes: the protective role of glutathione-S-transferase

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, France; Fahmi, Hassan; Shi, Qin; Lavigne, Patrick; Ranger, Pierre; Fernandes, Julio C; Benderdour, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Introduction 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is one of the most abundant and reactive aldehydes of lipid peroxidation products and exerts various effects on intracellular and extracellular signalling cascades. We have previously shown that HNE at low concentrations could be considered as an important mediator of catabolic and inflammatory processes in osteoarthritis (OA). In the present study, we focused on characterizing the signalling cascade induced by high HNE concentration involved in cell death in human OA chondrocytes. Methods Markers of apoptosis were quantified with commercial kits. Protein levels were evaluated by Western blotting. Glutathione (GSH) and ATP levels were measured with commercial kits. Glucose uptake was assessed by 2-deoxy-D-[3H]-glucose. The role of GSH-S-transferase A4-4 (GSTA4-4) in controlling HNE-induced chondrocyte apoptosis was investigated by chondrocyte transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or with the expression vector of GSTA4-4. Results Our data showed that HNE at concentrations of up to 10 μM did not alter cell viability but was cytotoxic at concentrations of greater than or equal to 20 μM. HNE-induced chondrocyte death exhibited several classical hallmarks of apoptosis, including caspase activation, cytochrome c and apoptosis-induced factor release from mitochondria, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, Bcl-2 downregulation, Bax upregulation, and DNA fragmentation. Our study of signalling pathways revealed that HNE suppressed pro-survival Akt kinase activity but, in contrast, induced Fas/CD95 and p53 expression in chondrocytes. All of these effects were inhibited by an antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine. Analysis of cellular energy and redox status showed that HNE induced ATP, NADPH, and GSH depletion and inhibited glucose uptake and citric acid cycle activity. GSTA4-4 ablation by the siRNA method augmented HNE cytotoxicity, but, conversely, its overexpression efficiently protected chondrocytes from HNE-induced cell death

  13. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G.; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments. PMID:24223794

  14. S-Glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductases: a novel class of glutathione transferases

    PubMed Central

    XUN, Luying; BELCHIK, Sara M.; XUN, Randy; HUANG, Yan; ZHOU, Huina; SANCHEZ, Emiliano; KANG, ChulHee; BOARD, Philip G.

    2010-01-01

    Sphingobium chlorophenolicum completely mineralizes PCP (pentachlorophenol). Two GSTs (glutathione transferases), PcpC and PcpF, are involved in the degradation. PcpC uses GSH to reduce TeCH (tetrachloro-p-hydroquinone) to TriCH (trichloro-p-hydroquinone) and then to DiCH (dichloro-p-hydroquinone) during PCP degradation. However, oxidatively damaged PcpC produces GS-TriCH (S-glutathionyl-TriCH) and GS-DiCH (S-glutathionyl-TriCH) conjugates. PcpF converts the conjugates into TriCH and DiCH, re-entering the degradation pathway. PcpF was further characterized in the present study. It catalysed GSH-dependent reduction of GS-TriCH via a Ping Pong mechanism. First, PcpF reacted with GS-TriCH to release TriCH and formed disulfide bond between its Cys53 residue and the GS moiety. Then, a GSH came in to regenerate PcpF and release GS–SG. A TBLASTN search revealed that PcpF homologues were widely distributed in bacteria, halobacteria (archaea), fungi and plants, and they belonged to ECM4 (extracellular mutant 4) group COG0435 in the conserved domain database. Phylogenetic analysis grouped PcpF and homologues into a distinct group, separated from Omega class GSTs. The two groups shared conserved amino acid residues, for GSH binding, but had different residues for the binding of the second substrate. Several recombinant PcpF homologues and two human Omega class GSTs were produced in Escherichia coli and purified. They had zero or low activities for transferring GSH to standard substrates, but all had reasonable activities for GSH-dependent reduction of disulfide bond (thiol transfer), dehydroascorbate and dimethylarsinate. All the tested PcpF homologues reduced GS-TriCH, but the two Omega class GSTs did not. Thus PcpF homologues were tentatively named S-glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductases for catalysing the GSH-dependent reduction of GS-TriCH. PMID:20388120

  15. Comprehensive characterization of three glutathione S-transferase family proteins from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, J D H E; Bathige, S D N K; Nam, Bo-Hye; Noh, Jae Koo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are categorized as phase II enzymes, which form an important multifunctional family associated with a wide variety of catalytic activities. GSTω, GSTρ, and GSTθ are cytosolic GSTs which have been extensively studied in a variety of organisms; however, few studies have focused on teleosts. Those paralogs from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii; RfGSTω, RfGSTρ, and RfGSTθ, respectively) were molecularly, biochemically, and functionally characterized to determine their antioxidant extent and protective aptitudes upon pathogenic stress. RfGSTω, RfGSTρ, and RfGSTθ, contained open reading frames of 717bp, 678bp, and 720bp respectively, which encoded respective proteins of 239, 226, and 240 amino acids in length. In silico analysis revealed that all RfGSTs possessed characteristic N-terminal domains bearing glutathione (GSH)-binding sites, and C-terminal domains containing substrate-binding sites. Recombinant RfGSTω (rRfGSTω) catalyzed the conjugation of GSH to dehydroascorbate (DHA), while rRfGSTθ and rRfGSTρ catalyzed to the model GST substrate 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). Kinetic analysis revealed variation in Km and Vmax values for each rRfGST, indicating their different conjugation rates. The optimum conditions (pH and temperature) and inhibition assays of each protein demonstrated different optimal ranges showing their wide range of activity as an assembly. RfGSTω and RfGSTθ paralogs demonstrated their antioxidant potential towards H2O2 and heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Cu) in vitro, while RfGSTρ had an antioxidant potential only towards heavy metals (Zn and Cu). Though all the paralogs were ubiquitously expressed in different magnitudes, RfGSTω was highly expressed in blood, whereas RfGSTρ and RfGSTθ were highly expressed in liver. The mRNA expression of RfGSTω and RfGSTθ, upon Streptococcus iniae and poly I:C stimulation, revealed a significantly up-regulated expression, whereas RfGSTρ m

  16. Cloning and characterization of a biotic-stress-inducible glutathione transferase from Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Chronopoulou, Evangelia; Madesis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous proteins in plants that play important roles in stress tolerance and in the detoxification of toxic chemicals and metabolites. In this study, we systematically examined the catalytic diversification of a GST isoenzyme from Phaseolus vulgaris (PvGST) which is induced under biotic stress treatment (Uromyces appendiculatus infection). The full-length cDNA of this GST isoenzyme (termed PvGSTU3-3) with complete open reading frame, was isolated using RACE-RT and showed that the deduced amino acid sequence shares high homology with the tau class plant GSTs. PvGSTU3-3 catalyzes several different reactions and exhibits wide substrate specificity. Of particular importance is the finding that the enzyme shows high antioxidant catalytic function and acts as hydroperoxidase, thioltransferase, and dehydroascorbate reductase. In addition, its K m for GSH is about five to ten times lower compared to other plant GSTs, suggesting that PvGSTU3-3 is able to perform efficient catalysis under conditions where the concentration of reduced glutathione is low (e.g., oxidative stress). Its ability to conjugate GSH with isothiocyanates may provide an additional role for this enzyme to act as a regulator of the released isothiocyanates from glucosinolates as a response of biotic stress. Molecular modeling showed that PvGSTU3-3 shares the same overall fold and structural organization with other plant cytosolic GSTs, with major differences at their hydrophobic binding sites (H-sites) and some differences at the level of C-terminal domain and the linker between the C- and N-terminal domains. PvGSTU3-3, in general, exhibits restricted ability to bind xenobiotics in a nonsubstrate manner, suggesting that the biological role of PvGSTU3-3, is restricted mainly to the catalytic function. Our findings highlight the functional and catalytic diversity of plant GSTs and demonstrate their pivotal role for addressing biotic stresses in Phaseolus

  17. Substrate recognition by the cell surface palmitoyl transferase DHHC5.

    PubMed

    Howie, Jacqueline; Reilly, Louise; Fraser, Niall J; Vlachaki Walker, Julia M; Wypijewski, Krzysztof J; Ashford, Michael L J; Calaghan, Sarah C; McClafferty, Heather; Tian, Lijun; Shipston, Michael J; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Shattock, Michael J; Fuller, William

    2014-12-09

    The cardiac phosphoprotein phospholemman (PLM) regulates the cardiac sodium pump, activating the pump when phosphorylated and inhibiting it when palmitoylated. Protein palmitoylation, the reversible attachment of a 16 carbon fatty acid to a cysteine thiol, is catalyzed by the Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) motif-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases. The cell surface palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC5 regulates a growing number of cellular processes, but relatively few DHHC5 substrates have been identified to date. We examined the expression of DHHC isoforms in ventricular muscle and report that DHHC5 is among the most abundantly expressed DHHCs in the heart and localizes to caveolin-enriched cell surface microdomains. DHHC5 coimmunoprecipitates with PLM in ventricular myocytes and transiently transfected cells. Overexpression and silencing experiments indicate that DHHC5 palmitoylates PLM at two juxtamembrane cysteines, C40 and C42, although C40 is the principal palmitoylation site. PLM interaction with and palmitoylation by DHHC5 is independent of the DHHC5 PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) binding motif, but requires a ∼ 120 amino acid region of the DHHC5 intracellular C-tail immediately after the fourth transmembrane domain. PLM C42A but not PLM C40A inhibits the Na pump, indicating PLM palmitoylation at C40 but not C42 is required for PLM-mediated inhibition of pump activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate an enzyme-substrate relationship for DHHC5 and PLM and describe a means of substrate recruitment not hitherto described for this acyltransferase. We propose that PLM palmitoylation by DHHC5 promotes phospholipid interactions that inhibit the Na pump.

  18. Substrate recognition by the cell surface palmitoyl transferase DHHC5

    PubMed Central

    Howie, Jacqueline; Reilly, Louise; Fraser, Niall J.; Vlachaki Walker, Julia M.; Wypijewski, Krzysztof J.; Ashford, Michael L. J.; Calaghan, Sarah C.; McClafferty, Heather; Tian, Lijun; Shipston, Michael J.; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Shattock, Michael J.; Fuller, William

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac phosphoprotein phospholemman (PLM) regulates the cardiac sodium pump, activating the pump when phosphorylated and inhibiting it when palmitoylated. Protein palmitoylation, the reversible attachment of a 16 carbon fatty acid to a cysteine thiol, is catalyzed by the Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) motif-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases. The cell surface palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC5 regulates a growing number of cellular processes, but relatively few DHHC5 substrates have been identified to date. We examined the expression of DHHC isoforms in ventricular muscle and report that DHHC5 is among the most abundantly expressed DHHCs in the heart and localizes to caveolin-enriched cell surface microdomains. DHHC5 coimmunoprecipitates with PLM in ventricular myocytes and transiently transfected cells. Overexpression and silencing experiments indicate that DHHC5 palmitoylates PLM at two juxtamembrane cysteines, C40 and C42, although C40 is the principal palmitoylation site. PLM interaction with and palmitoylation by DHHC5 is independent of the DHHC5 PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) binding motif, but requires a ∼120 amino acid region of the DHHC5 intracellular C-tail immediately after the fourth transmembrane domain. PLM C42A but not PLM C40A inhibits the Na pump, indicating PLM palmitoylation at C40 but not C42 is required for PLM-mediated inhibition of pump activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate an enzyme–substrate relationship for DHHC5 and PLM and describe a means of substrate recruitment not hitherto described for this acyltransferase. We propose that PLM palmitoylation by DHHC5 promotes phospholipid interactions that inhibit the Na pump. PMID:25422474

  19. Functional dissection of the bipartite active site of the class I coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase

    DOE PAGES

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Mullins, Elwood A.; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2016-05-23

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. Here in this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes andmore » orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. Finally, the ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA.« less

  20. Functional dissection of the bipartite active site of the class I coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Mullins, Elwood A.; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2016-05-23

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. Here in this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. Finally, the ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA.

  1. Functional Dissection of the Bipartite Active Site of the Class I Coenzyme A (CoA)-Transferase Succinyl-CoA:Acetate CoA-Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Mullins, Elwood A.; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. In this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution s