Science.gov

Sample records for acid p-boronophenylalanine bpa

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme using the p- boronophenylalanine-fructose complex and epithermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.; Liu, H.B.; Slatkin, D.N.; Wielopolski, L.; Bergland, R.; Elowitz, E.; Chadha, M.

    1994-12-31

    The amino acid analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is under investigation as a neutron capture agent for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme. A series of patients undergoing surgical removal of tumor received BPA orally as the free amino acid. Favorable tumor/blood boron concentration ratios were obtained but the absolute amount of boron in the tumor would have been insufficient for BNCT. BPA can be solubilized at neutral pH by complexation with fructose (BPA-F). Studies with rats suggest that intraperitoneal injection of BPA-F complex produces a much higher tumor boron concentration to rat intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma that were possible with oral BPA. Higher boron concentrations have allowed higher tumor radiation doses to be delivered while maintaining the dose to the normal brain vascular endothelium below the threshold of tolerance. The experience to date of the administration of BPA-F to one patient is provided in this report.

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy of ocular melanoma and intracranial glioma using p-boronophenylalanine

    SciTech Connect

    Coderre, J.A.; Greenberg, D.; Micca, P.L.; Joel, D.D.; Saraf, S. ); Packer, S. . Div. of Ophthalmology)

    1990-01-01

    During conventional radiotherapy, the dose that can be delivered to the tumor is limited by the tolerance of the surrounding normal tissue within the treatment volume. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) represents a promising modality for selective tumor irradiation. The key to effective BNCT is selective localization of {sup 10}B in the tumor. We have shown that the synthetic amino acid p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) will selectively deliver boron to melanomas and other tumors such as gliosarcomas and mammary carcinomas. Systemically delivered BPA may have general utility as a boron delivery agent for BNCT. In this paper, BNCT with BPA is used in treatment of experimentally induced gliosarcoma in rats and nonpigmented melanoma in rabbits. The tissue distribution of boron is described, as is response to the BNCT. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A Phase 1 biodistribution study of p-boronophenylalanine

    SciTech Connect

    Coderre, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the Phase I BPA biodistribution study are as follows: Objective 1: To establish the safety of orally administered boronophenylalanine (BPA) as determined by monitoring of patient's vital signs and by clinical analysis of blood before and after BPA administration. Objective 2: To establish BPA pharmacokinetics by monitoring the rates of boron absorption into and clearance from the blood and the rate of urinary excretion of boron. Objective 3: To measure the amount of boron incorporated into human tumors (melanoma, glioma, and breast carcinoma) using samples obtained at surgery or biopsy. This report presents the results obtained from the first thirteen patients entered into the study. Three additional glioblastoma patients have been studied recently at Stony Brook, the tissues are still being analyzed.

  4. A Phase 1 biodistribution study of p-boronophenylalanine

    SciTech Connect

    Coderre, J.A.

    1991-12-31

    The objectives of the Phase I BPA biodistribution study are as follows: Objective 1: To establish the safety of orally administered boronophenylalanine (BPA) as determined by monitoring of patient`s vital signs and by clinical analysis of blood before and after BPA administration. Objective 2: To establish BPA pharmacokinetics by monitoring the rates of boron absorption into and clearance from the blood and the rate of urinary excretion of boron. Objective 3: To measure the amount of boron incorporated into human tumors (melanoma, glioma, and breast carcinoma) using samples obtained at surgery or biopsy. This report presents the results obtained from the first thirteen patients entered into the study. Three additional glioblastoma patients have been studied recently at Stony Brook, the tissues are still being analyzed.

  5. Quantitative bioimaging of p-boronophenylalanine in thin liver tissue sections as a tool for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Reifschneider, Olga; Schütz, Christian L; Brochhausen, Christoph; Hampel, Gabriele; Ross, Tobias; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2015-03-01

    An analytical method using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was developed and applied to assess enrichment of 10B-containing p-boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-f) and its pharmacokinetic distribution in human tissues after application for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). High spatial resolution (50 μm) and limits of detection in the low parts-per-billion range were achieved using a Nd:YAG laser of 213 nm wavelength. External calibration by means of 10B-enriched standards based on whole blood proved to yield precise quantification results. Using this calibration method, quantification of 10B in cancerous and healthy tissue was carried out. Additionally, the distribution of 11B was investigated, providing 10B enrichment in the investigated tissues. Quantitative imaging of 10B by means of LA-ICP-MS was demonstrated as a new option to characterise the efficacy of boron compounds for BNCT.

  6. Multi-nuclear MRS and 19F MRI of 19F-labelled and 10B-enriched p-boronophenylalanine-fructose complex to optimize boron neutron capture therapy: phantom studies at high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Porcari, Paola; Capuani, Silvia; Campanella, Renzo; La Bella, Angela; Migneco, Luisa Maria; Maraviglia, Bruno

    2006-06-21

    Reaction yield optimization for the synthesis and the complexation of a boron neutron capture therapy agent (19)F-labelled, (10)B-enriched p-boronophenylalanine-fructose ((19)F-BPA-fr) complex was obtained. (1)H, (19)F, (13)C and (10)B magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the (19)F-BPA-fr complex in aqueous and rat blood solution phantoms and its spatial distribution mapping using (19)F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results are reported. 7 T and 9.4 T magnetic fields were used to perform MRI and MRS respectively. Our in vitro results suggest that in vivo studies on (19)F-BPA through (19)F NMR will be feasible. PMID:16757868

  7. Boronated Unnatural Cyclic Amino Acids as Potential Delivery Agents for Neutron Capture Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kabalka, George W.; Shaikh, Aarif L.; Barth, Rolf F.; Huo, Tianyao; Yang, Weilian; Gordnier, Pamela M.; Chandra, Subhash

    2011-01-01

    Boron delivery characteristics of cis and trans isomers of a boronated unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-boronocyclopentanecarboxylic acid (ABCPC) were tested in B16 mouse model for human melanoma. Both ABCPC isomers delivered comparable boron to B16 melanoma tumor cells as L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis revealed the presence of boron throughout the tumor from these compounds, and a near homogeneous distribution between the nucleus and cytoplasm of B16 cells grown in vitro. These encouraging observations support further studies of these new boron carriers in BNCT. PMID:21481596

  8. Response of rat skin to boron neutron capture therapy with p-boronophenylalanine or borocaptate sodium.

    PubMed

    Morris, G M; Coderre, J A; Hopewell, J W; Micca, P L; Rezvani, M

    1994-08-01

    The effects of boron neutron capture irradiation employing either BPA or BSH as neutron capture agents has been assessed using the dorsal skin of Fischer 344 rats. Pharmacokinetic studies, using prompt gamma spectrometry, revealed comparable levels of boron-10 (10B) in blood and skin after the intravenous infusion of BSH (100 mg/kg body wt.). The 10B content of blood (12.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms/g) was slightly higher than that of skin (10.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms/g) after oral dosing with BPA. Biphasic skin reactions were observed after irradiation with the thermal neutron beam alone or in combination with BPA or BSH. The time of onset of the first phase of the skin reaction, moist desquamation, was approximately 2 weeks. The time at which the second-wave skin reaction, dermal necrosis, became evident was dose-related and occurred after a latent interval of > or = 24 weeks, well after the acute epithelial reaction had healed. The incidence of both phases of skin damage was also dose-related. The radiation doses required to produce skin damage in 50% of skin sites (ED50 values) were calculated from dose-effect curves and these values were used to determine relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factors for both moist desquamation and dermal necrosis. It was concluded on the basis of these calculations that the microdistribution of the two neutron capture agents had a critical bearing on the overall biological effect after thermal neutron activation. BSH, which was possibly excluded from the cytoplasm of epidermal cells, had a low CBE factor value (0.56 +/- 0.06) while BPA, which may be selectively accumulated in epidermal cells had a very high CBE factor (3.74 +/- 0.7). For the dermal reaction, where vascular endothelial cells represent the likely target cell population, the CBE factor values were comparable, at 0.73 +/- 0.42 and 0.86 +/- 0.08 for BPA ad BSH, respectively.

  9. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Vijay; Naik, Prashant; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, and diethylamine) had lowered melting points while the alkali metal salt (sodium) had a higher melting point than BPA. The in vitro study showed that salt formation improves the physicochemical properties of BPA, leading to improved permeability through the skin. Amongst all the prepared salts, ethanolamine salt (1b) showed 7.2- and 5.4-fold higher skin permeation than the parent drug at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, using rat skin.

  10. SIMS ion microscopy imaging of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and 13C15N-labeled phenylalanine in human glioblastoma cells: Relevance of subcellular scale observations to BPA-mediated boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Subhash; Lorey, Daniel R., II

    2007-02-01

    p-Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is a clinically approved boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent currently being used in clinical trials of glioblastoma multiforme, melanoma and liver metastases. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) observations from the Cornell SIMS Laboratory provided support for using a 6 h infusion of BPA, instead of a 2 h infusion, for achieving higher levels of boron in brain tumor cells. These observations were clinically implemented in Phase II experimental trials of glioblastoma multiforme in Sweden. However, the mechanisms for higher BPA accumulation with longer infusions have remained unknown. In this work, by using 13C15N-labeled phenylalanine and T98G human glioblastoma cells, comparisons between the 10B-delivery of BPA and the accumulation of labeled phenylalanine after 2 and 6 h treatments were made with a Cameca IMS-3f SIMS ion microscope at 500 nm spatial resolution in fast frozen, freeze-fractured, freeze-dried cells. Due to the presence of the Na-K-ATPase in the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells, the cells maintain an approximately 10/1 ratio of K/Na in the intracellular milieu. Therefore, the quantitative imaging of these highly diffusible species in the identical cell in which the boron or labeled amino acid was imaged provides a rule-of-thumb criterion for validation of SIMS observations and the reliability of the cryogenic sampling. The labeled phenylalanine was detected at mass 28, as the 28(13C15N)- molecular ion. Correlative analysis with optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that fractured freeze-dried glioblastoma cells contained well-preserved ultrastructural details with three discernible subcellular regions: a nucleus or multiple nuclei, a mitochondria-rich perinuclear cytoplasmic region and the remaining cytoplasm. SIMS analysis revealed that the overall cellular signals of both 10B from BPA and 28CN- from labeled phenylalanine increased approximately 1.6-fold between the 2 and 6 h exposures

  11. Evaluation of unnatural cyclic amino acids as boron delivery agents for treatment of melanomas and gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Rolf F.; Kabalka, George W.; Yang, Weilian; Huo, Tianyao; Nakkula, Robin J.; Shaikh, Aarif L.; Haider, Syed A.; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Unnatural cyclic amino acids (UNAA) are a new class of boron delivery agents that are in a pre-clinical stage of evaluation. In the present study, the biodistribution of racemic forms of the cis-and trans- isomers of the boronated UNAA 1-amino-3-boronocyclopentanecarboxylic acid (ABCPC) and 1-amino-3-boronocycloheptanecarboxylic acid (ABCHC) was studied in B16 melanoma bearing mice and this was compared to L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Boron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICPOES) at 2.5 hrs following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the test agents at a concentration equivalent to 24 mg B/kg. While all compounds attained comparable tumor boron concentrations, the tumor/blood (T/Bl) boron concentration ratios were far superior for both cis-ABCPC and cis-ABCHC compared to BPA (T/Bl = 16.4, and 15.1 vs. 5.4). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging revealed that the cis-ABCPC delivered boron to the nuclei, as well as the cytoplasm of B16 cells. Next, a biodistribution study of cis-ABCPC and BPA was carried out in F98 glioma bearing rats following i.p. administration. Both compounds attained comparable tumor boron concentrations but the tumor/brain (T/Br) boron ratio was superior for cis-ABCPC compared to BPA (6 vs. 3.3). Since UNAAs are water soluble and cannot be metabolized by tumor cells, they potentially could be more effective boron delivery agents than BPA. Our data suggest that further studies are warranted to evaluate these compounds prior to the initiation of clinical studies. PMID:24393770

  12. Co-crystal and crystal: Supramolecular arrangement obtained from 4-aminosalicylic acid, bpa ligand and cobalt ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Humberto C.; Cunha, Ronaldo T.; Diniz, Renata; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the synthesis, spectroscopic properties (infrared and Raman) and crystal structures of two new compounds co-crystal and crystal named HASbpa (1) and [Co(bpa)(H2O)4]AS2ṡ4H2O (2) have been reported, where bpa is trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane, HAS is 4-aminosalicylic acid and AS- is aminosalicylate anion. The crystalline arrangement of the compound 1 exhibits a triclinic system with space group P1¯. The formation of a structure known as co-crystal, composed by building blocks in their neutral form; being the first work of this type involving the HAS and nitrogen ligand as bpa. For compound 2, a monoclinic system was observed with P21/c space group. The crystalline arrangement of the structure consisted of a covalent one-dimensional cationic [Co(bpa)(H2O)4]2+ chain, which interacts by hydrogen bonding, π-stacking and electrostatic interactions with aminosalicylate anions and water molecules that were trapped in the crystal. These interactions form supramolecular cavities denominated as pseudo honeycombs. For compound 1, the infrared spectrum revealed the presence of bands at 1643 and 1601 cm-1 assigned to the stretching mode of CO [ν(CO)] and CC/CN groups [ν(CC/CN)]. For the Raman spectrum, these same modes appear around 1644 and 1602 cm-1 related to HAS and bpa blocks, respectively. For compound 2, the largest displacement of the bands compared to free ligand suggested the formation of covalent bonds between bpa ligand and metallic site and loss of the proton in HAS molecule. In the infrared spectrum we can observe the presence of bands around 1635 and 1618 cm-1 attributed to the stretching ν(COO-) and ν(CC/CN), for the Raman spectrum these same modes appear around 1631 and 1619 cm-1 related to AS- and bpa ligand respectively.

  13. Migration of bisphenol A (BPA) from epoxy can coatings to jalapeño peppers and an acid food simulant.

    PubMed

    Munguia-Lopez, Elvia M; Peralta, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-Leon, Alberto; Vargas-Requena, Claudia; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda

    2002-12-01

    Effects of heat processing, storage time, and temperature on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) from an epoxy type can coating to an acid food simulant and jalapeño peppers were determined. Commercial jalapeño pepper cans (8 oz, dimensions 211 x 300) were stored at 25 degrees C for 40, 70, and 160 days. A solution of 3% acetic acid was canned in 211 x 300 cans from the same batch used for jalapeño peppers. Heat processing was applied to two-thirds of the cans, and the remaining cans were not heat processed. Cans were stored at 25 and 35 degrees C for 0, 40, 70, and 160 days. Results showed that there is a minimal effect of heat treatment. An effect of storage time on migration of BPA during the first 40 days at 25 degrees C was observed. An increase on migration of BPA was observed with storage time at 35 degrees C. The highest level of migration was 15.33 microg/kg of BPA at 160 days at 35 degrees C. A correction factor of approximately 0.4 was calculated for migration under simulating conditions of storage compared to the real ones. The highest level of BPA found in jalapeño peppers cans, surveyed from three supermarkets, was 5.59 +/- 2.43 microg/kg. Migration of BPA, performed according to the European and Mercosur conditions, was 65.45 +/- 5.29 microg/kg. All the migration values found in this study were below those legislation limits (3 mg/kg).

  14. The enhancement of neutron irradiation of HeLa-S cervix carcinoma cells by cell-nucleus-addressed deca-p-boronophenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Braun, Klaus; Wolber, Gerd; Waldeck, Waldemar; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Jenne, Jürgen; Rastert, Ralf; Ehemann, Volker; Eisenmenger, Andreas; Corban-Wilhelm, Heike; Braun, Isabell; Heckl, Stefan; Debus, Jürgen

    2003-06-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental treatment modality which depends on a sufficient cellular uptake of Boron ((10)B) followed by an exposure to a thermal neutron beam from a nuclear reactor. High energetic particles (4He and 7Li) are created during the neutron capture reaction and produce DNA damages, which lead to cell killing. Regarding BNCT, the short radiation range of He- and Li-particles is decisive for the distribution of (10)B. Until now, BNCT has been lacking for therapeutically effective concentrations of (10)B. Twenty-four hours after the combined use of our 'Bioshuttle'-p-borono-phenylalanine(10)-constructs ('Bioshuttle'-p-BPA(10)) and neutron-irradiation, an obvious reduction of the radiation-resistant HeLa-S cells could be observed. No cells were alive 72 h after the incubation with 'Bioshuttle'-p-BPA(10) followed by neutron irradiation. A post-mitotic cell death could be assumed based on flow cytometrical data.

  15. BPA Facts

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is a federal nonprofit power marketing administration based in the Pacific Northwest . Although BPA is part of the U .S . Department of Energy, it is self-funding and covers its costs by selling its products and services . BPA markets wholesale electrical power from 31 federal hydro projects in the Columbia River Basin, one nonfederal nuclear plant and several small nonfederal power plants . The dams are operated by the U .S . Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation . About 30 percent of the electric power used in the Northwest comes from BPA . BPA’s resources — primarily hydroelectric — make its power nearly carbon free . BPA also operates and maintains about three- fourths of the high-voltage transmission in its service territory . BPA’s service territory includes Idaho, Oregon, Washington, western Montana and small parts of eastern Montana, California, Nevada, Utah and Wyoming . BPA promotes energy efficiency, renewable resources and new technologies that improve its ability to deliver on its mission . BPA also funds regional efforts to protect and enhance fish and wildlife populations affected by hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin . BPA is committed to public service and seeks to make its decisions in a manner that provides opportunities for input from stakeholders . In its vision statement, BPA dedicates itself to providing high system reliability, low rates consistent with sound business principles, environmental stewardship and accountability

  16. BPA Statutes.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-08-01

    This report contains the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) authorizing statutes--the Bonneville Project Act, the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and other laws that contain provisions that define BPA's mission and affect the way it is carried out.

  17. BPA Statutes.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    This publication includes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) authorities. It combines the two previous booklets of BPA authorities` and adds: sections of certain Appropriation Acts affecting BPA; a list of all other Appropriation Acts affecting BPA; a list of the acts authorizing Federal hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin; portions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 that specifically apply to BPA; portions of the Federal Power Act to provide context for the Energy Policy Act. The laws are in their United States Code format, rather than in the Public Law format as passed. Thus, the citation for Bonneville Project Act section 2(f) is shown as 16 USC {section}832a(f). Most people are familiar with the Public Law citations, so they have been retained and appear in italics at the end of each paragraph. In addition, later amendments to earlier laws are reflected in the United States Code language. For example, the Preference Act`s definition of ``Pacific Northwest`` (16 USC {section}837(b)) reflects the Northwest Power Act`s amendment of that term. The laws are presented in the numerical order they appear in the United States Code, rather than in the order in which they became law. Therefore, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 is presented first. This booklet is not, nor is it intended to be, an official reporter. All citations should be made to the United States Code or some other officially recognized reporter.

  18. Distribution of BPA and metabolic assessment in glioblastoma patients during BNCT treatment: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Bergenheim, A Tommy; Capala, Jacek; Roslin, Michael; Henriksson, Roger

    2005-02-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is dependent on the selective accumulation of boron-10 in tumour cells. To maximise the radiation effect, the neutrons should be delivered when the ratio between the boron concentration in tumour cells to that in normal tissues reaches maximum. However, the pharmacokinetics of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and other boron delivery agents are only partly known. We used microdialysis to investigate the extracellular in vivo kinetics of boron in three intracerebral compartments -- solid tumour, brain adjacent to tumour (BAT), and the normal brain, as well as the subcutaneous tissue before, during, and after BNCT treatment. The findings were compared to the pharmacokinetics of BPA in the blood. We also measured the glucose metabolism and the levels of glutamate and glycerol in those compartments. Four patients were studied, two patients underwent surgical tumour resection and in two a stereotactic biopsy was performed. The patients were given BPA (900 mg/kg body weight) by a 6-h infusion. The infusion was completed approximately 2-3 h before neutron irradiation. In tumour tissue the extracellular concentration of BPA followed that of blood with a maximal concentration of 31.2 ppm and a maximal ratio vs. blood of 1.07. In BAT, the maximal concentration of BPA was 18.0 ppm with the peak level delayed for 4-6 h compared to the peak in blood with a maximal ratio of 1.2. Maximal blood concentration found was 41.0 ppm. The uptake of BPA in the normal brain was considerably lower than that in the blood and tumour tissue. No change in glucose metabolism was observed. The extracellular level of glycerol was increased after treatment in tumour tissue but not in normal brain suggesting a selective acute cytotoxic effect of BNCT on tumour cells. PMID:15735919

  19. What is BPA?

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-09-01

    This PR pamphlet explains what BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) is (a Federal agency with a Northwest focus). It plays a role in balancing river uses; power revenues pay BPA costs; renewable resource aspects are discussed; fish and wildlife protection are discussed; the BPA power grid is disucssed; and how BPA disposes of its power is discussed.

  20. Effects of organic acids and initial solution pH on photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in a photo-Fenton-like process using goethite (α-FeOOH).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangshan; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tian; Yuan, Yixing; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    This work investigated the effects of organic acids and initial solution pH on the photodegradation of BPA in a photo-Fenton-like process using α-FeOOH as a catalyst. The results showed that the addition of different organic acids affected the formation of the ferric-carboxylate complexes and free radicals, which in turn varied the photodegradation efficacy. Compared with the other acids, oxalic acid (OA) was found to be the most effective in enhancing the photodegradation of BPA, which strongly depends on the OA concentration. Particularly, the addition of OA could significantly extend the working pH from an acidic to a neutral range for the photocatalytic process and thus the acidification pretreatment may not be needed. A high photocatalytic degradation of BPA occurred at pH 6.0, due to the formation of ferric-oxalate complexes and ˙OH radicals in the synergistic interactions of OA and α-FeOOH. This finding highlights that the oxalate-promoted photo-Fenton-like process using the α-FeOOH catalyst may be used for wastewater treatment without pH adjustment.

  1. Effects of organic acids and initial solution pH on photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in a photo-Fenton-like process using goethite (α-FeOOH).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangshan; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tian; Yuan, Yixing; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    This work investigated the effects of organic acids and initial solution pH on the photodegradation of BPA in a photo-Fenton-like process using α-FeOOH as a catalyst. The results showed that the addition of different organic acids affected the formation of the ferric-carboxylate complexes and free radicals, which in turn varied the photodegradation efficacy. Compared with the other acids, oxalic acid (OA) was found to be the most effective in enhancing the photodegradation of BPA, which strongly depends on the OA concentration. Particularly, the addition of OA could significantly extend the working pH from an acidic to a neutral range for the photocatalytic process and thus the acidification pretreatment may not be needed. A high photocatalytic degradation of BPA occurred at pH 6.0, due to the formation of ferric-oxalate complexes and ˙OH radicals in the synergistic interactions of OA and α-FeOOH. This finding highlights that the oxalate-promoted photo-Fenton-like process using the α-FeOOH catalyst may be used for wastewater treatment without pH adjustment. PMID:27436621

  2. Biological Evaluation of Boronated Unnatural Amino Acids as New Boron Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Kabalka, G.W.; Yao, M.-L.; Marepally, S.R.; Chandra, S.

    2010-01-01

    treatment, the cells were fast frozen, freeze-fractured, and freeze-dried for SIMS analysis. Within an hour of exposure, ABCPC provided partitioning of intracellular to extracellular boron of 3/1. SIMS imaging revealed that boron from ABCPC was distributed throughout the cell, including the nucleus. This level of boron delivery within an hour of exposure is superior to p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium borocaptate (BSH), which have been previously studied by SIMS in the same cell line. These encouraging observations provide compelling support for further isomeric separations of ABCPC into the D and L forms for enhanced tumor targeting and continued testing of these compounds as new boron carriers in BNCT. PMID:19398346

  3. Environmental Effects of BPA

    PubMed Central

    Canesi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research on bisphenol A (BPA) as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection. PMID:26674307

  4. BPA Facts Pocket Edition

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-01

    BPA will be an engine of the Northwest’s economic prosperity and environmental sustainability. BPA’s actions advance a Northwest power system that is a national leader in providing: • high reliability; • low rates consistent with sound business principles; • responsible environmental stewardship; and • accountability to the region. We deliver on these public responsibilities through a commercially successful business.

  5. Health risk of exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA).

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Aleksandra; Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) belongs to chemicals that are produced in large quantities worldwide. It is commonly used as monomer in polycarbonate synthesis, plasticizer in the production of epoxy resins, as well as an additive for the elimination of surfeit of hydrochloric acid during the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production. BPA is not only used in the production of plastics intended to a direct contact with food, including plastic packaging and kitchenware, but also in inner coatings of cans and jar caps. There are various routes of human exposure to this substance such as oral, by inhalation and transdermal. The main sources of exposure to BPA include food packaging and dust, dental materials, healthcare equipment, thermal paper, toys and articles for children and infants. BPA is metabolized in the liver to form bisphenol A glucuronide and mostly in this form is excreted with urine. Due to its phenolic structure BPA has been shown to interact with estrogen receptors and to act as agonist or antagonist via estrogen receptor (ER) dependent signalling pathways. Therefore, BPA has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine disorders including female and male infertility, precocious puberty, hormone dependent tumours such as breast and prostate cancer and several metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Because of the constant, daily exposure and its tendency to bio-accumulation, BPA seems to require special attention such as biomonitoring. This observation should include clinical tests of BPA concentration in the urine, which is not only one of the best methods of evaluation of the exposure to this compound, but also the dependence of the daily intake of BPA and the risk of some endocrine disorders.

  6. Health risk of exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA).

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Aleksandra; Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) belongs to chemicals that are produced in large quantities worldwide. It is commonly used as monomer in polycarbonate synthesis, plasticizer in the production of epoxy resins, as well as an additive for the elimination of surfeit of hydrochloric acid during the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production. BPA is not only used in the production of plastics intended to a direct contact with food, including plastic packaging and kitchenware, but also in inner coatings of cans and jar caps. There are various routes of human exposure to this substance such as oral, by inhalation and transdermal. The main sources of exposure to BPA include food packaging and dust, dental materials, healthcare equipment, thermal paper, toys and articles for children and infants. BPA is metabolized in the liver to form bisphenol A glucuronide and mostly in this form is excreted with urine. Due to its phenolic structure BPA has been shown to interact with estrogen receptors and to act as agonist or antagonist via estrogen receptor (ER) dependent signalling pathways. Therefore, BPA has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine disorders including female and male infertility, precocious puberty, hormone dependent tumours such as breast and prostate cancer and several metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Because of the constant, daily exposure and its tendency to bio-accumulation, BPA seems to require special attention such as biomonitoring. This observation should include clinical tests of BPA concentration in the urine, which is not only one of the best methods of evaluation of the exposure to this compound, but also the dependence of the daily intake of BPA and the risk of some endocrine disorders. PMID:25813067

  7. Sustainability at BPA 2013

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    THIS IS THE THIRD YEAR BPA has reported on sustainability program accomplishments. The report provides an opportunity to review progress made on sustainability initiatives, evaluate how far we have come and how much we can improve. The program has demonstrated maturation as the concepts of sustainability and resource conservation are communicated and understood. The sustainability program started as an employee-driven “grass roots” effort in 2010. Sustainability is becoming a consideration in how work is performed. The establishment of several policies supporting sustainability efforts proves the positive progress being made. In 2009, BPA became a founder and member of The Climate Registry, a nonprofit collaboration that sets standards to calculate, verify and report greenhouse gas emissions. This year, BPA completed and published our Greenhouse Gas inventory for the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2012 inventory is currently in the process of third-party verification and scheduled for public release in January 2014. These inventories provide a concrete measure of the progress we are making.

  8. Uptake of the BPA into glioblastoma multiforme correlates with tumor cellularity

    SciTech Connect

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Fourteen patients scheduled to undergo craniotomy for glioblastoma multiforme were infused with p-boronophenylalanine fructose intravenously for 2 hours prior to surgery. Tissues removed during the procedure and blood obtained at its conclusion were analyzed for boron by direct current plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The results are presented herein.

  9. BPA Directly Decreases GnRH Neuronal Activity via Noncanonical Pathway.

    PubMed

    Klenke, Ulrike; Constantin, Stephanie; Wray, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral feedback of gonadal estrogen to the hypothalamus is critical for reproduction. Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental pollutant with estrogenic actions, can disrupt this feedback and lead to infertility in both humans and animals. GnRH neurons are essential for reproduction, serving as an important link between brain, pituitary, and gonads. Because GnRH neurons express several receptors that bind estrogen, they are potential targets for endocrine disruptors. However, to date, direct effects of BPA on GnRH neurons have not been shown. This study investigated the effects of BPA on GnRH neuronal activity using an explant model in which large numbers of primary GnRH neurons are maintained and express many of the receptors found in vivo. Because oscillations in intracellular calcium have been shown to correlate with electrical activity in GnRH neurons, calcium imaging was used to assay the effects of BPA. Exposure to 50μM BPA significantly decreased GnRH calcium activity. Blockage of γ-aminobutyric acid ergic and glutamatergic input did not abrogate the inhibitory BPA effect, suggesting direct regulation of GnRH neurons by BPA. In addition to estrogen receptor-β, single-cell RT-PCR analysis confirmed that GnRH neurons express G protein-coupled receptor 30 (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1) and estrogen-related receptor-γ, all potential targets for BPA. Perturbation studies of the signaling pathway revealed that the BPA-mediated inhibition of GnRH neuronal activity occurred independent of estrogen receptors, GPER, or estrogen-related receptor-γ, via a noncanonical pathway. These results provide the first evidence of a direct effect of BPA on GnRH neurons. PMID:26934298

  10. BPA Directly Decreases GnRH Neuronal Activity via Noncanonical Pathway.

    PubMed

    Klenke, Ulrike; Constantin, Stephanie; Wray, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral feedback of gonadal estrogen to the hypothalamus is critical for reproduction. Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental pollutant with estrogenic actions, can disrupt this feedback and lead to infertility in both humans and animals. GnRH neurons are essential for reproduction, serving as an important link between brain, pituitary, and gonads. Because GnRH neurons express several receptors that bind estrogen, they are potential targets for endocrine disruptors. However, to date, direct effects of BPA on GnRH neurons have not been shown. This study investigated the effects of BPA on GnRH neuronal activity using an explant model in which large numbers of primary GnRH neurons are maintained and express many of the receptors found in vivo. Because oscillations in intracellular calcium have been shown to correlate with electrical activity in GnRH neurons, calcium imaging was used to assay the effects of BPA. Exposure to 50μM BPA significantly decreased GnRH calcium activity. Blockage of γ-aminobutyric acid ergic and glutamatergic input did not abrogate the inhibitory BPA effect, suggesting direct regulation of GnRH neurons by BPA. In addition to estrogen receptor-β, single-cell RT-PCR analysis confirmed that GnRH neurons express G protein-coupled receptor 30 (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1) and estrogen-related receptor-γ, all potential targets for BPA. Perturbation studies of the signaling pathway revealed that the BPA-mediated inhibition of GnRH neuronal activity occurred independent of estrogen receptors, GPER, or estrogen-related receptor-γ, via a noncanonical pathway. These results provide the first evidence of a direct effect of BPA on GnRH neurons.

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of L-(-)-4- boronophenylalanine (L-BPA)

    DOEpatents

    Samsel, Edward G.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making substantially pure L-BPA is disclosed. The method includes the steps of reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol to form 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal, sequentially reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethyleneglycol acetal with Mg to produce the Grignard reagent and thereafter reacting with tributyl borate and then converting to an acid environment to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde, reacting 4-boronobenzaldehyde with diethanol amine to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester, condensing the 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester with 2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one to form an azlactone, reacting the azlactone with an alkali metal hydroxide to form z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid, asymmetrically hydrogenating the z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid in the presence of a catalyst of a cheltate complex of rhodium (I) with chiral bisphosphines to form L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine, and thereafter acidifying the L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine in an organic medium to produce L-BPA.

  12. Enantioselective synthesis of L-(-)-4- boronophenylalanine (L-BPA)

    DOEpatents

    Samsel, E.G.

    1992-10-20

    A method of making substantially pure L-BPA is disclosed. The method includes the steps of reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol to form 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal, sequentially reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethyleneglycol acetal with Mg to produce the Grignard reagent and thereafter reacting with tributyl borate and then converting to an acid environment to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde, reacting 4-boronobenzaldehyde with diethanol amine to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester, condensing the 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester with 2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one to form an azlactone, reacting the azlactone with an alkali metal hydroxide to form z-[alpha]-benzoylamino-4boronocinnamic acid, asymmetrically hydrogenating the z-[alpha]-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid in the presence of a catalyst of a cheltate complex of rhodium (I) with chiral bisphosphines to form L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine, and thereafter acidifying the L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine in an organic medium to produce L-BPA. 3 figs.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Action of BPA.

    PubMed

    Acconcia, Filippo; Pallottini, Valentina; Marino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been associated with serious endocrine-disrupting effects in humans and wildlife. Toxicological and epidemiological studies evidenced that BPA increases body mass index and disrupts normal cardiovascular physiology by interfering with endogenous hormones in rodents, nonhuman primates, and cell culture test systems. The BPA concentration derived from these experiments were used by government regulatory agencies to determine the safe exposure levels of BPA in humans. However, accumulating literature in vivo and in vitro indicate that at concentrations lower than that reported in toxicological studies, BPA could elicit a different endocrine-disrupting capacity. To further complicate this picture, BPA effects rely on several and diverse mechanisms that converge upon endocrine and reproductive systems. If all or just few of these mechanisms concur to the endocrine-disrupting potential of low doses of BPA is at present still unclear. Thus, taking into account that the incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine disruption have increased worldwide, the goal of the present review is to give an overview of the many mechanisms of BPA action in order to decipher whether different mechanisms are at the root of the effect of low dose of BPA on endocrine system. PMID:26740804

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Action of BPA

    PubMed Central

    Acconcia, Filippo; Pallottini, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been associated with serious endocrine-disrupting effects in humans and wildlife. Toxicological and epidemiological studies evidenced that BPA increases body mass index and disrupts normal cardiovascular physiology by interfering with endogenous hormones in rodents, nonhuman primates, and cell culture test systems. The BPA concentration derived from these experiments were used by government regulatory agencies to determine the safe exposure levels of BPA in humans. However, accumulating literature in vivo and in vitro indicate that at concentrations lower than that reported in toxicological studies, BPA could elicit a different endocrine-disrupting capacity. To further complicate this picture, BPA effects rely on several and diverse mechanisms that converge upon endocrine and reproductive systems. If all or just few of these mechanisms concur to the endocrine-disrupting potential of low doses of BPA is at present still unclear. Thus, taking into account that the incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine disruption have increased worldwide, the goal of the present review is to give an overview of the many mechanisms of BPA action in order to decipher whether different mechanisms are at the root of the effect of low dose of BPA on endocrine system. PMID:26740804

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Action of BPA.

    PubMed

    Acconcia, Filippo; Pallottini, Valentina; Marino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been associated with serious endocrine-disrupting effects in humans and wildlife. Toxicological and epidemiological studies evidenced that BPA increases body mass index and disrupts normal cardiovascular physiology by interfering with endogenous hormones in rodents, nonhuman primates, and cell culture test systems. The BPA concentration derived from these experiments were used by government regulatory agencies to determine the safe exposure levels of BPA in humans. However, accumulating literature in vivo and in vitro indicate that at concentrations lower than that reported in toxicological studies, BPA could elicit a different endocrine-disrupting capacity. To further complicate this picture, BPA effects rely on several and diverse mechanisms that converge upon endocrine and reproductive systems. If all or just few of these mechanisms concur to the endocrine-disrupting potential of low doses of BPA is at present still unclear. Thus, taking into account that the incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine disruption have increased worldwide, the goal of the present review is to give an overview of the many mechanisms of BPA action in order to decipher whether different mechanisms are at the root of the effect of low dose of BPA on endocrine system.

  16. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex-specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Strakovsky, Rita S; Wang, Huan; Engeseth, Nicki J; Flaws, Jodi A; Helferich, William G; Pan, Yuan-Xiang; Lezmi, Stéphane

    2015-04-15

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases adulthood hepatic steatosis with reduced mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential epigenetic mechanisms behind developmental BPA-induced hepatic steatosis, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with vehicle (oil) or BPA (100μg/kg/day) from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. After weaning, offspring were either challenged with a high-fat (HF; 45% fat) or remained on a control (C) diet until PND110. From PND60 to 90, both BPA and HF diet increased the fat/lean ratio in males only, and the combination of BPA and HF diet appeared to cause the highest ratio. On PND110, Oil-HF, BPA-C, and BPA-HF males had higher hepatic lipid accumulation than Oil-C, with microvesicular steatosis being marked in the BPA-HF group. Furthermore, on PND1, BPA increased and modified hepatic triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) compositions in males only. In PND1 males, BPA increased hepatic expression of FFA uptake gene Fat/Cd36, and decreased the expression of TG synthesis- and β-oxidation-related genes (Dgat, Agpat6, Cebpα, Cebpβ, Pck1, Acox1, Cpt1a, Cybb). BPA altered DNA methylation and histone marks (H3Ac, H4Ac, H3Me2K4, H3Me3K36), and decreased the binding of several transcription factors (Pol II, C/EBPβ, SREBP1) within the male Cpt1a gene, the key β-oxidation enzyme. In PND1 females, BPA only increased the expression of genes involved in FFA uptake and TG synthesis (Lpl, Fasn, and Dgat). These data suggest that developmental BPA exposure alters and reprograms hepatic β-oxidation capacity in males, potentially through the epigenetic regulation of genes, and further alters the response to a HF diet. PMID:25748669

  17. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex-specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Strakovsky, Rita S; Wang, Huan; Engeseth, Nicki J; Flaws, Jodi A; Helferich, William G; Pan, Yuan-Xiang; Lezmi, Stéphane

    2015-04-15

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases adulthood hepatic steatosis with reduced mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential epigenetic mechanisms behind developmental BPA-induced hepatic steatosis, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with vehicle (oil) or BPA (100μg/kg/day) from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. After weaning, offspring were either challenged with a high-fat (HF; 45% fat) or remained on a control (C) diet until PND110. From PND60 to 90, both BPA and HF diet increased the fat/lean ratio in males only, and the combination of BPA and HF diet appeared to cause the highest ratio. On PND110, Oil-HF, BPA-C, and BPA-HF males had higher hepatic lipid accumulation than Oil-C, with microvesicular steatosis being marked in the BPA-HF group. Furthermore, on PND1, BPA increased and modified hepatic triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) compositions in males only. In PND1 males, BPA increased hepatic expression of FFA uptake gene Fat/Cd36, and decreased the expression of TG synthesis- and β-oxidation-related genes (Dgat, Agpat6, Cebpα, Cebpβ, Pck1, Acox1, Cpt1a, Cybb). BPA altered DNA methylation and histone marks (H3Ac, H4Ac, H3Me2K4, H3Me3K36), and decreased the binding of several transcription factors (Pol II, C/EBPβ, SREBP1) within the male Cpt1a gene, the key β-oxidation enzyme. In PND1 females, BPA only increased the expression of genes involved in FFA uptake and TG synthesis (Lpl, Fasn, and Dgat). These data suggest that developmental BPA exposure alters and reprograms hepatic β-oxidation capacity in males, potentially through the epigenetic regulation of genes, and further alters the response to a HF diet.

  18. The Autotransporter BpaB Contributes to the Virulence of Burkholderia mallei in an Aerosol Model of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Shawn M.; Michel, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a highly pathogenic bacterium that causes the zoonosis glanders. Previous studies indicated that the genome of the organism contains eight genes specifying autotransporter proteins, which are important virulence factors of Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, we report the characterization of one of these autotransporters, BpaB. Database searches identified the bpaB gene in ten B. mallei isolates and the predicted proteins were 99-100% identical. Comparative sequence analyses indicate that the gene product is a trimeric autotransporter of 1,090 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 105-kDa. Consistent with this finding, we discovered that recombinant bacteria expressing bpaB produce a protein of ≥300-kDa on their surface that is reactive with a BpaB-specific monoclonal antibody. Analysis of sera from mice infected with B. mallei indicated that animals produce antibodies against BpaB during the course of disease, thus establishing production of the autotransporter in vivo. To gain insight on its role in virulence, we inactivated the bpaB gene of B. mallei strain ATCC 23344 and determined the median lethal dose of the mutant in a mouse model of aerosol infection. These experiments revealed that the bpaB mutation attenuates virulence 8-14 fold. Using a crystal violet-based assay, we also discovered that constitutive production of BpaB on the surface of B. mallei promotes biofilm formation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a biofilm factor for this organism. PMID:25993100

  19. The Autotransporter BpaB Contributes to the Virulence of Burkholderia mallei in an Aerosol Model of Infection.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Shawn M; Michel, Frank; Hogan, Robert J; Lafontaine, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a highly pathogenic bacterium that causes the zoonosis glanders. Previous studies indicated that the genome of the organism contains eight genes specifying autotransporter proteins, which are important virulence factors of Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, we report the characterization of one of these autotransporters, BpaB. Database searches identified the bpaB gene in ten B. mallei isolates and the predicted proteins were 99-100% identical. Comparative sequence analyses indicate that the gene product is a trimeric autotransporter of 1,090 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 105-kDa. Consistent with this finding, we discovered that recombinant bacteria expressing bpaB produce a protein of ≥ 300-kDa on their surface that is reactive with a BpaB-specific monoclonal antibody. Analysis of sera from mice infected with B. mallei indicated that animals produce antibodies against BpaB during the course of disease, thus establishing production of the autotransporter in vivo. To gain insight on its role in virulence, we inactivated the bpaB gene of B. mallei strain ATCC 23344 and determined the median lethal dose of the mutant in a mouse model of aerosol infection. These experiments revealed that the bpaB mutation attenuates virulence 8-14 fold. Using a crystal violet-based assay, we also discovered that constitutive production of BpaB on the surface of B. mallei promotes biofilm formation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a biofilm factor for this organism.

  20. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex-specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Strakovsky, Rita S.; Wang, Huan; Engeseth, Nicki J.; Flaws, Jodi A.; Helferich, William G.; Pan, Yuan-Xiang; Lezmi, Stéphane

    2015-04-15

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases adulthood hepatic steatosis with reduced mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential epigenetic mechanisms behind developmental BPA-induced hepatic steatosis, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed with vehicle (oil) or BPA (100 μg/kg/day) from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. After weaning, offspring were either challenged with a high-fat (HF; 45% fat) or remained on a control (C) diet until PND110. From PND60 to 90, both BPA and HF diet increased the fat/lean ratio in males only, and the combination of BPA and HF diet appeared to cause the highest ratio. On PND110, Oil-HF, BPA-C, and BPA-HF males had higher hepatic lipid accumulation than Oil-C, with microvesicular steatosis being marked in the BPA-HF group. Furthermore, on PND1, BPA increased and modified hepatic triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) compositions in males only. In PND1 males, BPA increased hepatic expression of FFA uptake gene Fat/Cd36, and decreased the expression of TG synthesis- and β-oxidation-related genes (Dgat, Agpat6, Cebpα, Cebpβ, Pck1, Acox1, Cpt1a, Cybb). BPA altered DNA methylation and histone marks (H3Ac, H4Ac, H3Me2K4, H3Me3K36), and decreased the binding of several transcription factors (Pol II, C/EBPβ, SREBP1) within the male Cpt1a gene, the key β-oxidation enzyme. In PND1 females, BPA only increased the expression of genes involved in FFA uptake and TG synthesis (Lpl, Fasn, and Dgat). These data suggest that developmental BPA exposure alters and reprograms hepatic β-oxidation capacity in males, potentially through the epigenetic regulation of genes, and further alters the response to a HF diet. - Highlights: • Developmental BPA exposure exacerbates HF-diet induced steatosis in adult males. • Gestational BPA exposure increases hepatic lipid accumulation in neonatal males. • BPA decreases Cpt1a and other hepatic β-oxidation genes in neonatal males. • BPA alters neonatal male Cpt1a

  1. BPA Prepares for the 21st Century.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-04-01

    This is a brief review of the state of the Bonneville Power Administration. It reviews BPA`s competitive status, fish and wildlife funding, cost structure of the federal system, subscription sales of electricity, emergency cost recovery, cost reduction measures, transmission access and operation, and the 1998 power rate case decision making process.

  2. Androgen and Progesterone Receptors Are Targets for Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-Methyl-2,4-bis-(P-Hydroxyphenyl)Pent-1-Ene--A Potent Metabolite of BPA, and 4-Tert-Octylphenol: A Computational Insight.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Mohd; Ahmad, Ejaz; Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Bajouh, Osama S; AlBasri, Samera F; Assiri, Mansour M; Beg, Mohd A

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to toxic industrial chemicals that have capacity to disrupt the endocrine system, also known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has been increasingly associated with reproductive problems in human population. Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol) are among the most common environmental contaminants possessing endocrine disruption properties and are present in plastics, epoxy resins, detergents and other commercial products of common personal and industrial use. A metabolite of BPA, 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is about 1000 times more biologically active compared to BPA. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have shown association of BPA and OP with adverse effects on male and female reproductive system in human and animals. The endocrine disruption activity can occur through multiple pathways including binding to steroid receptors. Androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone receptor (PR) are critical for reproductive tract growth and function. Structural binding characterization of BPA, MBP, and OP with AR and PR using molecular docking simulation approaches revealed novel interactions of BPA with PR, and MBP and OP with AR and PR. For BPA, MBP, and OP, five AR interacting residues Leu-701, Leu-704, Asn-705, Met-742, and Phe-764 overlapped with those of native AR ligand testosterone, and four PR interacting residues Leu-715, Leu-718, Met-756, and Met-759 overlapped with those of PR co-complex ligand, norethindrone. For both the receptors the binding strength of MBP was maximum among the three compounds. Thus, these compounds have the potential to block or interfere in the binding of the endogenous native AR and PR ligands and, hence, resulting in dysfunction. The knowledge of the key interactions and the important amino-acid residues also allows better prediction of potential of xenobiotic molecules for disrupting AR- and PR

  3. [Research on characteristic of interrelationship between toxic organic compound BPA and Chlorella vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Jia; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Yan, Long; Zhao, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Fei; Jiang, Zi-Jian

    2014-04-01

    The effects of different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella vulgaris and removal capacity of BPA by Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Results showed that a low concentration (0-20 mg x L(-1)) of BPA promoted the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, whereas a relative high concentration (20-50 mg x L(-1)) of BPA inhibited the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, and the inhibition effect was positively correlated with the concentration of BPA. Likewise, a high dose of initial BPA (> 20 mg x L(-1)) led to a decline in the content of chlorephyll a. Chlorella vulgaris had BPA removal capacity when initial BPA concentration ranged from 2 mg x L(-1) to 50 mg x L(-1). There was positive correlation between the removal rate of BPA per cell and initial BPA concentration. The removal rate of BPA was the highest when initial BPA was 50 mg x L(-1), which appeared between lag phase and logarithmic phase.

  4. Boronophenylalanine, a boron delivery agent for boron neutron capture therapy, is transported by ATB0,+, LAT1 and LAT2

    PubMed Central

    Wongthai, Printip; Hagiwara, Kohei; Miyoshi, Yurika; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Wei, Ling; Ohgaki, Ryuichi; Kato, Itsuro; Hamase, Kenji; Nagamori, Shushi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy relies on the selective delivery of boron carriers to malignant cells. p-Boronophenylalanine (BPA), a boron delivery agent, has been proposed to be localized to cells through transporter-mediated mechanisms. In this study, we screened aromatic amino acid transporters to identify BPA transporters. Human aromatic amino acid transporters were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and examined for BPA uptake and kinetic parameters. The roles of the transporters in BPA uptake were characterized in cancer cell lines. For the quantitative assessment of BPA uptake, HPLC was used throughout the study. Among aromatic amino acid transporters, ATB0,+, LAT1 and LAT2 were found to transport BPA with Km values of 137.4 ± 11.7, 20.3 ± 0.8 and 88.3 ± 5.6 μM, respectively. Uptake experiments in cancer cell lines revealed that the LAT1 protein amount was the major determinant of BPA uptake at 100 μM, whereas the contribution of ATB0,+ became significant at 1000 μM, accounting for 20–25% of the total BPA uptake in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ATB0,+, LAT1 and LAT2 transport BPA at affinities comparable with their endogenous substrates, suggesting that they could mediate effective BPA uptake in vivo. The high and low affinities of LAT1 and ATB0,+, respectively, differentiate their roles in BPA uptake. ATB0,+, as well as LAT1, could contribute significantly to the tumor accumulation of BPA at clinical dose. PMID:25580517

  5. Boronophenylalanine, a boron delivery agent for boron neutron capture therapy, is transported by ATB0,+, LAT1 and LAT2.

    PubMed

    Wongthai, Printip; Hagiwara, Kohei; Miyoshi, Yurika; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Wei, Ling; Ohgaki, Ryuichi; Kato, Itsuro; Hamase, Kenji; Nagamori, Shushi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu

    2015-03-01

    The efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy relies on the selective delivery of boron carriers to malignant cells. p-Boronophenylalanine (BPA), a boron delivery agent, has been proposed to be localized to cells through transporter-mediated mechanisms. In this study, we screened aromatic amino acid transporters to identify BPA transporters. Human aromatic amino acid transporters were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and examined for BPA uptake and kinetic parameters. The roles of the transporters in BPA uptake were characterized in cancer cell lines. For the quantitative assessment of BPA uptake, HPLC was used throughout the study. Among aromatic amino acid transporters, ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 were found to transport BPA with Km values of 137.4 ± 11.7, 20.3 ± 0.8 and 88.3 ± 5.6 μM, respectively. Uptake experiments in cancer cell lines revealed that the LAT1 protein amount was the major determinant of BPA uptake at 100 μM, whereas the contribution of ATB(0,+) became significant at 1000 μM, accounting for 20-25% of the total BPA uptake in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 transport BPA at affinities comparable with their endogenous substrates, suggesting that they could mediate effective BPA uptake in vivo. The high and low affinities of LAT1 and ATB(0,+), respectively, differentiate their roles in BPA uptake. ATB(0,+), as well as LAT1, could contribute significantly to the tumor accumulation of BPA at clinical dose.

  6. NIEHS/FDA CLARITY-BPA research program update.

    PubMed

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Newbold, Retha R; Bucher, John R; Camacho, Luísa; Delclos, K Barry; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Churchwell, Mona I; Twaddle, Nathan C; McLellen, Michelle; Chidambaram, Mani; Bryant, Matthew; Woodling, Kellie; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Ferguson, Sherry A; Flaws, Jodi; Howard, Paul C; Walker, Nigel J; Zoeller, R Thomas; Fostel, Jennifer; Favaro, Carolyn; Schug, Thaddeus T

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in the production of numerous consumer products resulting in potential daily human exposure to this chemical. The FDA previously evaluated the body of BPA toxicology data and determined that BPA is safe at current exposure levels. Although consistent with the assessment of some other regulatory agencies around the world, this determination of BPA safety continues to be debated in scientific and popular publications, resulting in conflicting messages to the public. Thus, the National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a consortium-based research program to link more effectively a variety of hypothesis-based research investigations and guideline-compliant safety testing with BPA. This collaboration is known as the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). This paper provides a detailed description of the conduct of the study and a midterm update on progress of the CLARITY-BPA research program.

  7. NIEHS/FDA CLARITY-BPA research program update.

    PubMed

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Newbold, Retha R; Bucher, John R; Camacho, Luísa; Delclos, K Barry; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Churchwell, Mona I; Twaddle, Nathan C; McLellen, Michelle; Chidambaram, Mani; Bryant, Matthew; Woodling, Kellie; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Ferguson, Sherry A; Flaws, Jodi; Howard, Paul C; Walker, Nigel J; Zoeller, R Thomas; Fostel, Jennifer; Favaro, Carolyn; Schug, Thaddeus T

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in the production of numerous consumer products resulting in potential daily human exposure to this chemical. The FDA previously evaluated the body of BPA toxicology data and determined that BPA is safe at current exposure levels. Although consistent with the assessment of some other regulatory agencies around the world, this determination of BPA safety continues to be debated in scientific and popular publications, resulting in conflicting messages to the public. Thus, the National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a consortium-based research program to link more effectively a variety of hypothesis-based research investigations and guideline-compliant safety testing with BPA. This collaboration is known as the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). This paper provides a detailed description of the conduct of the study and a midterm update on progress of the CLARITY-BPA research program. PMID:26232693

  8. BPA uptake in rat tissues after partial hepatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Slatkin, D.N.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.; Fisher, C.D.; Joel, D.D.; Lombardo, D.T.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron given as boronophenylalanine (BPA) accumulates transiently not only in tumors but also in normal tissues. Average boron concentrations in transplanted 9L gliosarcoma tumors of 20 rats were 2.5 to 3.7 times concentrations found in blood. Although boron levels in a variety of tissues were also higher than blood the concentrations were less than the lowest found in the tumor. Further note than although BPA is a structural analogue of phenylalanine (Phe), the pathway of BPA uptake into regenerating liver may not be linked to Phe uptake mechanisms.

  9. Impact of Gestational Bisphenol A on Oxidative Stress and Free Fatty Acids: Human Association and Interspecies Animal Testing Studies

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Patisaul, Heather B.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Zeng, Lixia

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical and an endocrine disruptor. Developmental exposures to BPA have been linked to adult metabolic pathologies, but the pathways through which these disruptions occur remain unknown. This is a comprehensive interspecies association vs causal study to evaluate risks posed by prenatal BPA exposure and to facilitate discovery of biomarkers of relevance to BPA toxicity. Samples from human pregnancies during the first trimester and at term, as well as fetal and/or adult samples from prenatally BPA-treated sheep, rats, and mice, were collected to assess the impact of BPA on free fatty acid and oxidative stress dynamics. Mothers exposed to higher BPA during early to midpregnancy and their matching term cord samples displayed increased 3-nitrotyrosine (NY), a marker of nitrosative stress. Maternal samples had increased palmitic acid, which was positively correlated with NY. Sheep fetuses and adult sheep and rats prenatally exposed to a human-relevant exposure dose of BPA showed increased systemic nitrosative stress. The strongest effect of BPA on circulating free fatty acids was observed in adult mice in the absence of increased oxidative stress. This is the first multispecies study that combines human association and animal causal studies assessing the risk posed by prenatal BPA exposure to metabolic health. This study provides evidence of the induction of nitrosative stress by prenatal BPA in both the mother and fetus at time of birth and is thus supportive of the use of maternal NY as a biomarker for offspring health. PMID:25603046

  10. Impact of gestational bisphenol A on oxidative stress and free fatty acids: Human association and interspecies animal testing studies.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Patisaul, Heather B; Dolinoy, Dana C; Zeng, Lixia; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical and an endocrine disruptor. Developmental exposures to BPA have been linked to adult metabolic pathologies, but the pathways through which these disruptions occur remain unknown. This is a comprehensive interspecies association vs causal study to evaluate risks posed by prenatal BPA exposure and to facilitate discovery of biomarkers of relevance to BPA toxicity. Samples from human pregnancies during the first trimester and at term, as well as fetal and/or adult samples from prenatally BPA-treated sheep, rats, and mice, were collected to assess the impact of BPA on free fatty acid and oxidative stress dynamics. Mothers exposed to higher BPA during early to midpregnancy and their matching term cord samples displayed increased 3-nitrotyrosine (NY), a marker of nitrosative stress. Maternal samples had increased palmitic acid, which was positively correlated with NY. Sheep fetuses and adult sheep and rats prenatally exposed to a human-relevant exposure dose of BPA showed increased systemic nitrosative stress. The strongest effect of BPA on circulating free fatty acids was observed in adult mice in the absence of increased oxidative stress. This is the first multispecies study that combines human association and animal causal studies assessing the risk posed by prenatal BPA exposure to metabolic health. This study provides evidence of the induction of nitrosative stress by prenatal BPA in both the mother and fetus at time of birth and is thus supportive of the use of maternal NY as a biomarker for offspring health.

  11. Interaction between bisphenol A and tannic Acid: Spectroscopic titration approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omoike, Anselm; Brandt, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    The interaction between tannic acid (TA) and bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, was studied by absorption and fluorescence titration techniques. The binding constants and corresponding thermodynamic parameters at different temperatures (294, 296, 298, 300 and 303 K) were determined. The intrinsic fluorescence of BPA was strongly quenched by TA and the quenching mechanism is attributed to static quenching. The thermodynamic data revealed that the formation of TA-BPA complex was exothermic, entropic-driven, and spontaneous. Furthermore, hydrogen and van der Waals interactions seem to be the major driving forces for the formation of the nonfluorescent TA-BPA complex.

  12. Interaction between bisphenol A and tannic acid: spectroscopic titration approach.

    PubMed

    Omoike, Anselm; Brandt, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    The interaction between tannic acid (TA) and bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, was studied by absorption and fluorescence titration techniques. The binding constants and corresponding thermodynamic parameters at different temperatures (294, 296, 298, 300 and 303 K) were determined. The intrinsic fluorescence of BPA was strongly quenched by TA and the quenching mechanism is attributed to static quenching. The thermodynamic data revealed that the formation of TA-BPA complex was exothermic, entropic-driven, and spontaneous. Furthermore, hydrogen and van der Waals interactions seem to be the major driving forces for the formation of the nonfluorescent TA-BPA complex.

  13. From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey?

    PubMed

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful?

  14. From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey?

    PubMed

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful? PMID:27262103

  15. Radon Monitoring Results BPA Residential Weatherization Program, Report Number 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-01-01

    In October 1984, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began offering free radon monitoring to participants of its regionwide Residential Weatherization Program. The purpose of the radon monitoring is to provide information to participating homeowners or consumers on the average radon concentrations within their residences. This radon concentration information and other information on indoor air quality (IAQ) is provided to assist homeowners on their decision to install ''house-tightening'' weatherization measures. This radon report will present background information on why BPA decided to offer radon monitoring, the procedures used for monitoring, the extent of BPA radon monitoring in the region, and results of this monitoring. Subsequent BPA radon monitoring reports will be produced on a quarterly basis which will include a brief narrative on the radon monitoring and provide a summary of the radon data received to date.

  16. Androgen and Progesterone Receptors Are Targets for Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-Methyl-2,4-bis-(P-Hydroxyphenyl)Pent-1-Ene—A Potent Metabolite of BPA, and 4-Tert-Octylphenol: A Computational Insight

    PubMed Central

    Rehan, Mohd; Ahmad, Ejaz; Sheikh, Ishfaq A.; Abuzenadah, Adel M.; Damanhouri, Ghazi A.; Bajouh, Osama S.; AlBasri, Samera F.; Assiri, Mansour M.; Beg, Mohd A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to toxic industrial chemicals that have capacity to disrupt the endocrine system, also known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has been increasingly associated with reproductive problems in human population. Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol) are among the most common environmental contaminants possessing endocrine disruption properties and are present in plastics, epoxy resins, detergents and other commercial products of common personal and industrial use. A metabolite of BPA, 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is about 1000 times more biologically active compared to BPA. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have shown association of BPA and OP with adverse effects on male and female reproductive system in human and animals. The endocrine disruption activity can occur through multiple pathways including binding to steroid receptors. Androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone receptor (PR) are critical for reproductive tract growth and function. Structural binding characterization of BPA, MBP, and OP with AR and PR using molecular docking simulation approaches revealed novel interactions of BPA with PR, and MBP and OP with AR and PR. For BPA, MBP, and OP, five AR interacting residues Leu-701, Leu-704, Asn-705, Met-742, and Phe-764 overlapped with those of native AR ligand testosterone, and four PR interacting residues Leu-715, Leu-718, Met-756, and Met-759 overlapped with those of PR co-complex ligand, norethindrone. For both the receptors the binding strength of MBP was maximum among the three compounds. Thus, these compounds have the potential to block or interfere in the binding of the endogenous native AR and PR ligands and, hence, resulting in dysfunction. The knowledge of the key interactions and the important amino-acid residues also allows better prediction of potential of xenobiotic molecules for disrupting AR- and PR

  17. (10)B-NMR determination of (10)B-BPA, (10)B-BPA-fructose complex and total (10)B in blood for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, K; Yabe, T; Hattori, T; Saito, K; Ishikawa, A; Ohki, H

    2014-06-01

    First spontaneous, noninvasive determination method of (10)B-BPA, (10)B-BPA-fructose complex, and total (10)B in blood is described. (10)B-NMR measurement with 100,000 FT accumulation enables us to obtain the result within 100min/sample. The detection limits for the simultaneous analysis were 3ppm, 3ppm and 6ppm for (10)B-BPA, (10)B-BPA-fructose complex and total (10)B respectively in this study. By this method, we can actually discuss behavior of the (10)B-BPA-fructose complex in blood.

  18. Estrogenic chemicals often leach from BPA-free plastic products that are replacements for BPA-containing polycarbonate products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Xenobiotic chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA), such as bisphenol A (BPA), have been reported to have potential adverse health effects in mammals, including humans, especially in fetal and infant stages. Concerns about safety have caused many manufacturers to use alternatives to polycarbonate (PC) resins to make hard and clear, reusable, plastic products that do not leach BPA. However, no study has focused on whether such BPA-free PC-replacement products, chosen for their perceived higher safety, especially for babies, also release other chemicals that have EA. Methods We used two, well-established, mammalian cell-based, assays (MCF-7 and BG1Luc) to assess the EA of chemicals that leached into over 1000 saline or ethanol extracts of 50 unstressed or stressed (autoclaving, microwaving, and UV radiation) BPA-free PC-replacement products. An EA antagonist, ICI 182,780, was used to confirm that agonist activity in leachates was due to chemicals that activated the mammalian estrogen receptor. Results Many unstressed and stressed, PC-replacement-products made from acrylic, polystyrene, polyethersulfone, and Tritan™ resins leached chemicals with EA, including products made for use by babies. Exposure to various forms of UV radiation often increased the leaching of chemicals with EA. In contrast, some BPA-free PC-replacement products made from glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate or cyclic olefin polymer or co-polymer resins did not release chemicals with detectable EA under any conditions tested. Conclusions This hazard assessment survey showed that many BPA-free PC- replacement products still leached chemicals having significant levels of EA, as did BPA-containing PC counterparts they were meant to replace. That is, BPA-free did not mean EA-free. However, this study also showed that some PC-replacement products did not leach chemicals having significant levels of EA. That is, EA-free PC-replacement products could be made in commercial quantities at

  19. BPA's Eighth Annual Energy Conservation Management Conference : Proceedings.

    SciTech Connect

    Energy Conservation Management Conference; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The five-year energy conservation program at Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is described at the conference. An overview of the program is presented. Topics covered in panel discussions include: how utilities can work effectively with weatherization contractors, homebuilders, energy auditors, and weatherization material suppliers; mechanisms for implementing conservation programs in the commercial sector; experiences gained in existing residential weatherization programs; and streamlining relationships between consumers, utilities, and BPA in providing services and getting feedback. The planning, programming, technical assistance, and engineering thrusts of BPA's conservation programs are discussed. Indoor air quality, renewable energy, and the regulator's role in relationships to energy conservation are discussed. Passive solar programs, DOE initiatives in solar and conservation for buildings, conservation potential in the commercial and industrial sectors, and current conservation research and development are also discussed. (MCW)

  20. Environmental Effects of BPA: Focus on Aquatic Species.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Laura; Fabbri, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Research on bisphenol A (BPA) as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection. PMID:26674307

  1. Evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) can be accurately measured without contamination in human serum and urine, and that BPA causes numerous hazards from multiple routes of exposure.

    PubMed

    vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V

    2014-12-01

    There is extensive evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) is related to a wide range of adverse health effects based on both human and experimental animal studies. However, a number of regulatory agencies have ignored all hazard findings. Reports of high levels of unconjugated (bioactive) serum BPA in dozens of human biomonitoring studies have also been rejected based on the prediction that the findings are due to assay contamination and that virtually all ingested BPA is rapidly converted to inactive metabolites. NIH and industry-sponsored round robin studies have demonstrated that serum BPA can be accurately assayed without contamination, while the FDA lab has acknowledged uncontrolled assay contamination. In reviewing the published BPA biomonitoring data, we find that assay contamination is, in fact, well controlled in most labs, and cannot be used as the basis for discounting evidence that significant and virtually continuous exposure to BPA must be occurring from multiple sources.

  2. Evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) can be accurately measured without contamination in human serum and urine, and that BPA causes numerous hazards from multiple routes of exposure

    PubMed Central

    vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) is related to a wide range of adverse health effects based on both human and experimental animal studies. However, a number of regulatory agencies have ignored all hazard findings. Reports of high levels of unconjugated (bioactive) serum BPA in dozens of human biomonitoring studies have also been rejected based on the prediction that the findings are due to assay contamination and that virtually all ingested BPA is rapidly converted to inactive metabolites. NIH and industry-sponsored round robin studies have demonstrated that serum BPA can be accurately assayed without contamination, while the FDA lab has acknowledged uncontrolled assay contamination. In reviewing the published BPA biomonitoring data, we find that assay contamination is, in fact, well controlled in most labs, and cannot be used as the basis for discounting evidence that significant and virtually continuous exposure to BPA must be occurring from multiple sources. PMID:25304273

  3. Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) in a nitrifying system with immobilized biomass.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Magdalena; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Bernat, Katarzyna; Bułkowska, Katarzyna; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2014-11-01

    The potential for bisphenol A (BPA) removal by mixed consortia of immobilized microorganisms with high nitrification activity was investigated with BPA concentrations in the influent from 2.5 to 10.0 mg/L. The presence of BPA limited ammonium oxidation; nitrification efficiency decreased from 91.2±1.3% in the control series to 47.4±9.4% when BPA concentration in wastewater was the highest. The efficiency of BPA removal rose from 87.1±5.5% to 92.9±2.9% with increased BPA concentration in the influent. Measurement of oxygen uptake rates by biomass exposed to BPA showed that BPA was mainly removed by heterotrophic bacteria. A strong negative correlation between the BPA removal efficiency and nitrification efficiency indicated the limited contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to BPA biodegradation. Exposure of biomass to BPA changed the quantity and diversity of AOB in the biomass as shown by real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

  4. Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water by various nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Suna; Kabay, Nalan; Yüksel, Mithat

    2013-12-15

    The removal of an endocrine disrupting compound, bisphenol A (BPA), from model solutions by selected nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. The commercially available membranes NF 90, NF 270, XLE BWRO, BW 30 (Dow FilmTech), CE BWRO and AD SWRO (GE Osmonics) were used to compare their performances for BPA removal. The water permeability coefficients, rejection of BPA and permeate flux values were calculated for all membranes used. No significant changes in their BPA removal were observed for all tight polyamide based NF and RO membranes tested except for loose NF 270 membrane. The polyamide based membranes exhibited much better performance than cellulose acetate membrane for BPA removal. Almost a complete rejection (≥ 98%) for BPA was obtained with three polyamide based RO membranes (BW 30, XLE BWRO and AD SWRO). But cellulose acetate based CE BWRO membrane offered a low and variable (10-40%) rejection for BPA.

  5. Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water by various nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Suna; Kabay, Nalan; Yüksel, Mithat

    2013-12-15

    The removal of an endocrine disrupting compound, bisphenol A (BPA), from model solutions by selected nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. The commercially available membranes NF 90, NF 270, XLE BWRO, BW 30 (Dow FilmTech), CE BWRO and AD SWRO (GE Osmonics) were used to compare their performances for BPA removal. The water permeability coefficients, rejection of BPA and permeate flux values were calculated for all membranes used. No significant changes in their BPA removal were observed for all tight polyamide based NF and RO membranes tested except for loose NF 270 membrane. The polyamide based membranes exhibited much better performance than cellulose acetate membrane for BPA removal. Almost a complete rejection (≥ 98%) for BPA was obtained with three polyamide based RO membranes (BW 30, XLE BWRO and AD SWRO). But cellulose acetate based CE BWRO membrane offered a low and variable (10-40%) rejection for BPA. PMID:23731784

  6. Assessment of the Geothermal Potential Within the BPA Marketing Area.

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, John W.; Allen, Eliot D.

    1980-07-01

    The potential of geothermal energy is estimated that can be used for direct heat applications and electrical power generation within the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) marketing area. The BPA marketing area includes three principal states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho and portions of California, Montana, Wyoming, Nevada, and Utah bordering on these three states. This area covers approximately 384,000 square miles and has an estimated population of 6,760,000. The total electrical geothermal potential within this marketing area is 4077 MW/sub e/ from hydrothermal resources and 16,000 MW/sub e/ from igneous systems, whereas the total thermal (wellhead) potential is 16.15 x 10/sup 15/ Btu/y. Approximately 200 geothermal resource sites were initially identified within the BPA marketing area. This number was then reduced to about 100 sites thought to be the most promising for development by the year 2000. These 100 sites, due to load area overlap, were grouped into 53 composite sites; 21-3/4 within BPA preference customer areas and 31-1/4 within nonpreference customer areas. The geothermal resource potential was then estimated for high-temperature (> 302/sup 0/F = 150/sup 0/C), intermediate-temperature (194 to 302/sup 0/F = 90 to 150/sup 0/C), and low-temperature (< 194/sup 0/F = 90/sup 0/C) resources.

  7. 7. Photocopy of Elevations drawing (from the BPA Engineering Vault, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of Elevations drawing (from the BPA Engineering Vault, Drawing C13-J2-342-D1, Sheet 3, 13 March 1939) - Bonneville Power Administration South Bank Substation, I-84, South of Bonneville Dam Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 9. Photocopy of Reinforced Concrete Details drawing (from the BPA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of Reinforced Concrete Details drawing (from the BPA Engineering Vault, Drawing C13-J2-342-D1, Sheet 6, 13 March 1939) - Bonneville Power Administration South Bank Substation, I-84, South of Bonneville Dam Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  9. BPA`s large customers seek new suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-06

    Large customers are seeking to reduce dependence on the Bonneville Power Administration by buying power from alternative sources. BPA raised rates an average of 15.7% last October and may impose a 10% one-year surcharge in October because of costs associated with protecting endangered salmon.

  10. Extensive metabolism and route-dependent pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in neonatal mice following oral or subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Draganov, Dragomir I; Markham, Dan A; Beyer, Dieter; Waechter, John M; Dimond, Stephen S; Budinsky, Robert A; Shiotsuka, Ronald N; Snyder, Stephanie A; Ehman, Kimberly D; Hentges, Steven G

    2015-07-01

    Orally administered bisphenol A (BPA) undergoes efficient first-pass metabolism to produce the inactive conjugates BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G) and BPA-sulfate (BPA-S). This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of BPA, BPA-G and BPA-S in neonatal mice following the administration of a single oral or subcutaneous (SC) dose. This study consisted of 3 phases: (1) mass-balance phase in which effective dose delivery procedures for oral or SC administration of (3)H-BPA to postnatal day three (PND3) mice were developed; (2) pharmacokinetic phase during which systemic exposure to total (3)H-BPA-derived radioactivity in female PND3 mice was established; and (3) metabolite profiling phase in which 50 female PND3 pups received either a single oral or SC dose of (3)H-BPA. Blood was collected from 5 pups/route/time-point at various times post-dosing, the blood plasma samples were pooled by group, and time-point and samples were profiled by HPLC with fraction collection. Fractions were analyzed for total radioactivity and data used to reconstruct radiochromatograms and to integrate individual peaks. The identity of the BPA, BPA-G, and BPA-S peaks was confirmed using authentic standards and LC-MS/MS analysis. The result of this study revealed that female PND3 mice have the capacity to metabolize BPA to BPA-G, BPA-S and other metabolites after both routes of administration. Systemic exposure to free BPA is route-dependent as the plasma concentrations were lower following oral administration compared to SC injection.

  11. Mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis is involved in reproductive damage caused by BPA in male rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Luo, Chunhua; Li, Qianyuan; Chen, Sai; Hu, Yong

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used environmental endocrine disruptor. Many studies have reported that BPA exposure shows reproductive toxicity and causes apoptosis in spermatogenic cells. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the mitochondrial pathway and BPA-induced apoptosis. This study investigated the role of the mitochondrial pathway in apoptosis induced by BPA, which resulted in compromised male rat spermatogenesis and reproductive damage. Rats were exposed to various BPA concentrations (0, 50, 100, or 200mg of BPA/kg body weight per day), and factors in the mitochondrial signal transduction pathway and the apoptosis indices of spermatogenic cells were measured and sperm characteristics were analyzed. Our data revealed that BPA exposure increased the protein and mRNA levels of cytochrome C, apoptosis-inducing factor, caspase-3/9, and Bax; caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities; and the apoptosis indices of spermatogenic cells. In addition, abnormal structure of mitochondria and decreased protein and gene levels of Bcl-2 were observed following BPA exposure. These results suggest that apoptosis in the mitochondrial pathway mediates compromised reproductive system function caused by BPA exposure.

  12. Developmental programming: interaction between prenatal BPA exposure and postnatal adiposity on metabolic variables in female sheep.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Moeller, Jacob; Sreedharan, Rohit; Singer, Kanakadurga; Lumeng, Carey; Ye, Wen; Pease, Anthony; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-02-01

    Among potential contributors for the increased incidence of metabolic diseases is the developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is an estrogenic chemical used in a variety of consumer products. Evidence points to interactions of BPA with the prevailing environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on postnatal metabolic outcomes, including insulin resistance, adipose tissue distribution, adipocyte morphometry, and expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue as well as to assess whether postnatal overfeeding would exacerbate these effects. Findings indicate that prenatal BPA exposure leads to insulin resistance in adulthood in the first breeder cohort (study 1), but not in the second cohort (study 2), which is suggestive of potential differences in genetic susceptibility. BPA exposure induced adipocyte hypertrophy in the visceral fat depot without an accompanying increase in visceral fat mass or increased CD68, a marker of macrophage infiltration, in the subcutaneous fat depot. Cohens effect size analysis found the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat depot in the prenatal BPA-treated overfed group to be higher compared with the control-overfed group. Altogether, these results suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life at levels found in humans can program metabolic outcomes that lead to insulin resistance, a forerunner of type 2 diabetes, with postnatal obesity failing to manifest any interaction with prenatal BPA relative to insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy.

  13. Mineralization of bisphenol A (BPA) by anodic oxidation with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode.

    PubMed

    Murugananthan, M; Yoshihara, S; Rakuma, T; Shirakashi, T

    2008-06-15

    Anodic oxidation of bisphenol A (BPA), a representative endocrine disrupting chemical, was carried out using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode at galvanostatic mode. The electro-oxidation behavior of BPA at BDD electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetric technique. The extent of degradation and mineralization of BPA were monitored by HPLC and total organic carbon (TOC) value, respectively. The results obtained, indicate that the BPA removal at BDD depends on the applied current density (Iappl), initial concentration of BPA, pH of electrolyte and supporting medium. Galvanostatic electrolysis at BDD anode cause concomitant generation of hydroxyl radical that leads to the BPA destruction. The kinetics for the BPA degradation follows a pseudo-first order reaction with a higher rate constant 12.8x10(-5) s(-1) for higher Iappl value 35.7 mA cm(-2), indicating that the oxidation reaction is limited by Iappl control. Complete mineralization of BPA was achieved regardless of the variables and accordingly the mineralization current efficiency was calculated from the TOC removal measurements. Considering global oxidation process, the effect of supporting electrolytes has been discussed in terms of the electro generated inorganic oxidants. The better performance of BDD anode was proved on a comparative study with Pt and glassy carbon under similar experimental conditions. A possible reaction mechanism for BPA degradation involving three main aromatic intermediates, identified by GC-MS analysis, was proposed.

  14. Developmental programming: interaction between prenatal BPA exposure and postnatal adiposity on metabolic variables in female sheep.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Moeller, Jacob; Sreedharan, Rohit; Singer, Kanakadurga; Lumeng, Carey; Ye, Wen; Pease, Anthony; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-02-01

    Among potential contributors for the increased incidence of metabolic diseases is the developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is an estrogenic chemical used in a variety of consumer products. Evidence points to interactions of BPA with the prevailing environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on postnatal metabolic outcomes, including insulin resistance, adipose tissue distribution, adipocyte morphometry, and expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue as well as to assess whether postnatal overfeeding would exacerbate these effects. Findings indicate that prenatal BPA exposure leads to insulin resistance in adulthood in the first breeder cohort (study 1), but not in the second cohort (study 2), which is suggestive of potential differences in genetic susceptibility. BPA exposure induced adipocyte hypertrophy in the visceral fat depot without an accompanying increase in visceral fat mass or increased CD68, a marker of macrophage infiltration, in the subcutaneous fat depot. Cohens effect size analysis found the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat depot in the prenatal BPA-treated overfed group to be higher compared with the control-overfed group. Altogether, these results suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life at levels found in humans can program metabolic outcomes that lead to insulin resistance, a forerunner of type 2 diabetes, with postnatal obesity failing to manifest any interaction with prenatal BPA relative to insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy. PMID:26646100

  15. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Deem, Sharon L.; Bhandari, Ramji K.; Holliday, Casey M.; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Selcer, Kyle; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Fredrick S.; Velez, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26 °C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20 ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100 μg BPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated “males”, but in none of the control males (n = 35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low = 30%, BPA-medium = 33%, BPA-high = 39%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  16. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta).

    PubMed

    Jandegian, Caitlin M; Deem, Sharon L; Bhandari, Ramji K; Holliday, Casey M; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Selcer, Kyle W; Tillitt, Donald E; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Vélez-Rivera, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K

    2015-05-15

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26°C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100μgBPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated "males", but in none of the control males (n=35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low=30%, BPA-medium=33%, BPA-high=39%), this difference was not significant (p=0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations. PMID:25863134

  17. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta).

    PubMed

    Jandegian, Caitlin M; Deem, Sharon L; Bhandari, Ramji K; Holliday, Casey M; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Selcer, Kyle W; Tillitt, Donald E; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Vélez-Rivera, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K

    2015-05-15

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26°C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100μgBPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated "males", but in none of the control males (n=35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low=30%, BPA-medium=33%, BPA-high=39%), this difference was not significant (p=0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  18. The role of Pten/Akt signaling pathway involved in BPA-induced apoptosis of rat Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengmin; Fu, Wenjuan; Quan, Chao; Yan, Maosheng; Liu, Changjiang; Qi, Suqin; Yang, Kedi

    2015-07-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), one of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, is a male reproductive toxicant. Previous studies have revealed the direct cytotoxicity of BPA in many cultured cells, such as mitotic aneuploidy in embryonic cells and somatic cells, and apoptosis in neurons and testicular Sertoli cells. To understand the action of BPA and assess its risk, the Pten/Akt pathway was investigated in cultured Sertoli cells to elucidate the mechanism of the reproductive effects of BPA. The results showed that over 50 μM BPA treatment could decrease the viability of Sertoli cells and cause more apoptosis. In addition, BPA could induce the increase in mRNA levels of Pten and Akt. The protein level of Pten was increased; however, the protein levels of phospho-Akt and procaspase-3 were decreased after BPA exposure. Taken together, observed results suggested that the Pten/Akt pathway might be involved in the apoptotic effects of BPA on Sertoli cells.

  19. Bisphenol Analogues Other Than BPA: Environmental Occurrence, Human Exposure, and Toxicity-A Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tan, Hongli; Zheng, Zhengui; Feng, Yong-Lai; Wu, Yan; Widelka, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the environmental occurrence, human exposure, and toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA). Following stringent regulations on the production and usage of BPA, several bisphenol analogues have been produced as a replacement for BPA in various applications. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge on the occurrence of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA) in the environment, consumer products and foodstuffs, human exposure and biomonitoring, and toxicity. Whereas BPA was still the major bisphenol analogue found in most environmental monitoring studies, BPF and BPS were also frequently detected. Elevated concentrations of BPAF, BPF, and BPS (i.e., similar to or greater than that of BPA) have been reported in the abiotic environment and human urine from some regions. Many analogues exhibit endocrine disrupting effects, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, dioxin-like effects, and neurotoxicity in laboratory studies. BPAF, BPB, BPF, and BPS have been shown to exhibit estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities similar to or even greater than that of BPA. Knowledge gaps and research needs have been identified, which include the elucidation of environmental occurrences, persistence, and fate of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA), sources and pathways for human exposure, effects on reproductive systems and the mammary gland, mechanisms of toxicity from coexposure to multiple analogues, metabolic pathways and products, and the impact of metabolic modification on toxicity. PMID:27143250

  20. Molecular analysis of the apoptotic effects of BPA in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Bontempo, Paola; Mita, Luigi; Doto, Antonella; Miceli, Marco; Nebbioso, Angela; Lepore, Ilaria; Franci, GianLuigi; Menafra, Roberta; Carafa, Vincenzo; Conte, Mariarosaria; De Bellis, Floriana; Manzo, Fabio; Di Cerbo, Vincenzo; Benedetti, Rosaria; D'Amato, Loredana; Marino, Maria; Bolli, Alessandro; Del Pozzo, Giovanna; Diano, Nadia; Portaccio, Marianna; Mita, Gustavo D; Vietri, Maria Teresa; Cioffi, Michele; Nola, Ernesto; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Sica, Vincenzo; Molinari, Anna Maria; Altucci, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Background: BPA (bisphenol A or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-phenol)propane) is present in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which can be used in impact-resistant safety equipment and baby bottles, as protective coatings inside metal food containers, and as composites and sealants in dentistry. Recently, attention has focused on the estrogen-like and carcinogenic adverse effects of BPA. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of this compound. Methods: Cell cycle, apoptosis and differentiation analyses; western blots. Results: BPA is able to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in three different acute myeloid leukemias. Although some granulocytic differentiation concomitantly occurred in NB4 cells upon BPA treatment, the major action was the induction of apoptosis. BPA mediated apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred by activation of extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways modulating both FAS and TRAIL and by inducing BAD phosphorylation in NB4 cells. Finally, also non genomic actions such as the early decrease of both ERK and AKT phosphorylation were induced by BPA thus indicating that a complex intersection of regulations occur for the apoptotic action of BPA. Conclusion: BPA is able to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells via caspase activation and involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. PMID:19538739

  1. Bisphenol Analogues Other Than BPA: Environmental Occurrence, Human Exposure, and Toxicity-A Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tan, Hongli; Zheng, Zhengui; Feng, Yong-Lai; Wu, Yan; Widelka, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the environmental occurrence, human exposure, and toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA). Following stringent regulations on the production and usage of BPA, several bisphenol analogues have been produced as a replacement for BPA in various applications. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge on the occurrence of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA) in the environment, consumer products and foodstuffs, human exposure and biomonitoring, and toxicity. Whereas BPA was still the major bisphenol analogue found in most environmental monitoring studies, BPF and BPS were also frequently detected. Elevated concentrations of BPAF, BPF, and BPS (i.e., similar to or greater than that of BPA) have been reported in the abiotic environment and human urine from some regions. Many analogues exhibit endocrine disrupting effects, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, dioxin-like effects, and neurotoxicity in laboratory studies. BPAF, BPB, BPF, and BPS have been shown to exhibit estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities similar to or even greater than that of BPA. Knowledge gaps and research needs have been identified, which include the elucidation of environmental occurrences, persistence, and fate of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA), sources and pathways for human exposure, effects on reproductive systems and the mammary gland, mechanisms of toxicity from coexposure to multiple analogues, metabolic pathways and products, and the impact of metabolic modification on toxicity.

  2. 48 CFR 339.7001 - Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. 339.7001 Section 339.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services 339.7001 Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. The Contracting... micro-purchase threshold, that obtaining the required services from a source other than a GSA BPA...

  3. 48 CFR 339.7001 - Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. 339.7001 Section 339.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services 339.7001 Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. The Contracting... micro-purchase threshold, that obtaining the required services from a source other than a GSA BPA...

  4. 48 CFR 339.7001 - Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. 339.7001 Section 339.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services 339.7001 Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. The Contracting... micro-purchase threshold, that obtaining the required services from a source other than a GSA BPA...

  5. 48 CFR 339.7001 - Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. 339.7001 Section 339.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services 339.7001 Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. The Contracting... micro-purchase threshold, that obtaining the required services from a source other than a GSA BPA...

  6. 48 CFR 339.7001 - Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. 339.7001 Section 339.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services 339.7001 Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. The Contracting... micro-purchase threshold, that obtaining the required services from a source other than a GSA BPA...

  7. Effects of temperature on adsorption and oxidative degradation of bisphenol A in an acid-treated iron-amended granular activated carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study suggests a combined adsorption and Fenton oxidation using an acid treated Fe-amended granular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) for effective removal of bisphenol A in water. When the Fe-GAC adsorbs and is saturated with BPA in water, Fenton oxidation of BPA occurs in ...

  8. Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond. PMID:25277313

  9. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yichang; Shu, Le; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Settle, Sara J; Que Hee, Shane; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures. PMID:27472198

  10. Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: Fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond.

  11. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yichang; Shu, Le; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Settle, Sara J; Que Hee, Shane; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures.

  12. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yichang; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures. PMID:27472198

  13. Impact of Low-Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on Juvenile and Adult Rat Exploratory and Anxiety Behavior: A CLARITY-BPA Consortium Study.

    PubMed

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Camacho, Luísa; Adonay, Maria E; Reif, David M; Aylor, David L; Patisaul, Heather B

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical and has been identified as an endocrine disruptor, prompting concern that developmental exposure could impact brain development and behavior. Rodent and human studies suggest that early life BPA exposure may result in an anxious, hyperactive phenotype but results are conflicting and data from studies using multiple doses below the no-observed-adverse-effect level are limited. To address this, the present studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program. The impact of perinatal BPA exposure (2.5, 25, or 2500 µg/kg body weight (bw)/day) on behaviors related to anxiety and exploratory activity was assessed in juvenile (prepubertal) and adult NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes. Ethinyl estradiol (0.5 µg/kg bw/day) was used as a reference estrogen. Exposure spanned gestation and lactation with dams gavaged from gestational day 6 until birth and then the offspring gavaged directly through weaning (n = 12/sex/group). Behavioral assessments included open field, elevated plus maze, and zero maze. Anticipated sex differences in behavior were statistically identified or suggested in most cases. No consistent effects of BPA were observed for any endpoint, in either sex, at either age compared to vehicle controls; however, significant differences between BPA-exposed and ethinyl estradiol-exposed groups were identified for some endpoints. Limitations of this study are discussed and include suboptimal statistical power and low concordance across behavioral tasks. These data do not indicate BPA-related effects on anxiety or exploratory activity in these developmentally exposed rats.

  14. Impact of Low-Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on Juvenile and Adult Rat Exploratory and Anxiety Behavior: A CLARITY-BPA Consortium Study.

    PubMed

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Camacho, Luísa; Adonay, Maria E; Reif, David M; Aylor, David L; Patisaul, Heather B

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical and has been identified as an endocrine disruptor, prompting concern that developmental exposure could impact brain development and behavior. Rodent and human studies suggest that early life BPA exposure may result in an anxious, hyperactive phenotype but results are conflicting and data from studies using multiple doses below the no-observed-adverse-effect level are limited. To address this, the present studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program. The impact of perinatal BPA exposure (2.5, 25, or 2500 µg/kg body weight (bw)/day) on behaviors related to anxiety and exploratory activity was assessed in juvenile (prepubertal) and adult NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes. Ethinyl estradiol (0.5 µg/kg bw/day) was used as a reference estrogen. Exposure spanned gestation and lactation with dams gavaged from gestational day 6 until birth and then the offspring gavaged directly through weaning (n = 12/sex/group). Behavioral assessments included open field, elevated plus maze, and zero maze. Anticipated sex differences in behavior were statistically identified or suggested in most cases. No consistent effects of BPA were observed for any endpoint, in either sex, at either age compared to vehicle controls; however, significant differences between BPA-exposed and ethinyl estradiol-exposed groups were identified for some endpoints. Limitations of this study are discussed and include suboptimal statistical power and low concordance across behavioral tasks. These data do not indicate BPA-related effects on anxiety or exploratory activity in these developmentally exposed rats. PMID:26209558

  15. Assessing bisphenol A (BPA) exposure risk from long-term dietary intakes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Shen, Yi-Pei; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is the major bisphenol A (BPA) exposure route in humans, and is a cause of BPA-related adverse effects. The large-scale exposure risk of humans to BPA through dietary sources in Taiwan is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the average daily dose (ADD) and hazardous quotient (HQ) of BPA exposure risk from long-term dietary intake of BPA, as well as BPA concentrations in different age-sex groups in Taiwan. We reanalyzed the BPA concentrations of regular daily food sources (rice, poultry, livestock, seafood, protein, fruits, and vegetables) and used a national dietary survey to estimate the contribution of variance to ADDs and potential human health effect for different age-sex groups. This study found that the daily consumption of chicken, pork/beef, and seafood were estimated to be 33.77 (Male)/22.65 (Female), 91.70 (M)/66.35 (F), and 54.15 (M)/40.78 (F) g/day, respectively. The highest BPA ADD was found in the 6-9 years age group (95% CI=0.0006-0.0027 mg/kg-bw/day), whereas the lowest BPA ADD was in the ≥65 years age group (0.0002-0.0020 mg/kg-bw/day). Based on the latest EFSA guidelines (0.004 mg/kg-bw/day), the 97.5 percentile HQ of BPA intake in different age-sex groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary intake. However, a combination of multiple exposure routes and long-term exposure in specific populations may be of concern in the future. PMID:26580736

  16. Assessing bisphenol A (BPA) exposure risk from long-term dietary intakes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Shen, Yi-Pei; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is the major bisphenol A (BPA) exposure route in humans, and is a cause of BPA-related adverse effects. The large-scale exposure risk of humans to BPA through dietary sources in Taiwan is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the average daily dose (ADD) and hazardous quotient (HQ) of BPA exposure risk from long-term dietary intake of BPA, as well as BPA concentrations in different age-sex groups in Taiwan. We reanalyzed the BPA concentrations of regular daily food sources (rice, poultry, livestock, seafood, protein, fruits, and vegetables) and used a national dietary survey to estimate the contribution of variance to ADDs and potential human health effect for different age-sex groups. This study found that the daily consumption of chicken, pork/beef, and seafood were estimated to be 33.77 (Male)/22.65 (Female), 91.70 (M)/66.35 (F), and 54.15 (M)/40.78 (F) g/day, respectively. The highest BPA ADD was found in the 6-9 years age group (95% CI=0.0006-0.0027 mg/kg-bw/day), whereas the lowest BPA ADD was in the ≥65 years age group (0.0002-0.0020 mg/kg-bw/day). Based on the latest EFSA guidelines (0.004 mg/kg-bw/day), the 97.5 percentile HQ of BPA intake in different age-sex groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary intake. However, a combination of multiple exposure routes and long-term exposure in specific populations may be of concern in the future.

  17. Are typical human serum BPA concentrations measurable and sufficient to be estrogenic in the general population?

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin; Hanson-Drury, Sesha; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Doerge, Daniel R

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian estrogen receptors modulate many physiological processes. Chemicals with structural features similar to estrogens can interact with estrogen receptors to produce biological effects similar to those caused by endogenous estrogens in the body. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a structural analogue of estrogen that binds to estrogen receptors. Exposure to BPA in humans is virtually ubiquitous in industrialized societies, but BPA is rapidly detoxified by metabolism and does not accumulate in the body. Whether or not serum concentrations of BPA in humans are sufficiently high to disrupt normal estrogen-related biology is the subject of intense political and scientific debate. Here we show a convergence of robust methods for measuring or calculating serum concentrations of BPA in humans from 93 published studies of more than 30,000 individuals in 19 countries across all life stages. Typical serum BPA concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than levels measurable by modern analytical methods and below concentrations required to occupy more than 0.0009% of Type II Estrogen Binding Sites, GPR30, ERα or ERβ receptors. Occupancies would be higher, but ≤0.04%, for the highest affinity receptor, ERRγ. Our results show limited or no potential for estrogenicity in humans, and question reports of measurable BPA in human serum.

  18. Toxicogenomic analysis of placenta samples from mice exposed to different doses of BPA.

    PubMed

    Tait, Sabrina; Tassinari, Roberta; Maranghi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a widespread Endocrine Disrupter mainly used in food contact plastics, may induce adverse effects especially on susceptible lifestages, first of all pregnancy. The present study considered placental development as a potential target of BPA and investigated potential differences in the modes of action of two doses of BPA by a toxicogenomic approach. Pregnant CD-1 mice were administered with vehicle, 0.5 (BPA05) or 50 mg/kg (BPA50) body weight (bw)/die of BPA, from gestational day (GD) 1 to GD11. At GD12 dams were sacrificed and transcriptomic analysis was performed on placenta samples. Histological, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analyses were also performed to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with BPA exposure. The interpretation and description of the overall data are included in a manuscript under revision [1]. Here we describe the experimental design and the analysis performed on the gene expression data which are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database with accession number GSE63852.

  19. Probabilistic modeling of school meals for potential bisphenol A (BPA) exposure.

    PubMed

    Hartle, Jennifer C; Fox, Mary A; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Many endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA), are approved for use in food packaging, with unbound BPA migrating into the foods it contacts. Children, with their developing organ systems, are especially susceptible to hormone disruption, prompting this research to model the potential dose of BPA from school-provided meals. Probabilistic exposure models for school meals were informed by mixed methods. Exposure scenarios were based on United States school nutrition guidelines and included meals with varying levels of exposure potential from canned and packaged food. BPA exposure potentials were modeled with a range of 0.00049 μg/kg-BW/day for a middle school student with a low exposure breakfast and plate waste to 1.19 μg/kg-BW/day for an elementary school student eating lunch with high exposure potential. The modeled BPA doses from school meals are below the current US EPA Oral Reference Dose (RfD) of 50 μg/kg-BW/day. Recent research shows BPA animal toxicity thresholds at 2 μg/kg-BW/day. The single meal doses modeled in this research are at the same order of magnitude as the low-dose toxicity thresholds, illustrating the potential for school meals to expose children to chronic toxic levels of BPA.

  20. Toxicogenomic analysis of placenta samples from mice exposed to different doses of BPA.

    PubMed

    Tait, Sabrina; Tassinari, Roberta; Maranghi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a widespread Endocrine Disrupter mainly used in food contact plastics, may induce adverse effects especially on susceptible lifestages, first of all pregnancy. The present study considered placental development as a potential target of BPA and investigated potential differences in the modes of action of two doses of BPA by a toxicogenomic approach. Pregnant CD-1 mice were administered with vehicle, 0.5 (BPA05) or 50 mg/kg (BPA50) body weight (bw)/die of BPA, from gestational day (GD) 1 to GD11. At GD12 dams were sacrificed and transcriptomic analysis was performed on placenta samples. Histological, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analyses were also performed to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with BPA exposure. The interpretation and description of the overall data are included in a manuscript under revision [1]. Here we describe the experimental design and the analysis performed on the gene expression data which are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database with accession number GSE63852. PMID:26484192

  1. Probabilistic modeling of school meals for potential bisphenol A (BPA) exposure.

    PubMed

    Hartle, Jennifer C; Fox, Mary A; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Many endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA), are approved for use in food packaging, with unbound BPA migrating into the foods it contacts. Children, with their developing organ systems, are especially susceptible to hormone disruption, prompting this research to model the potential dose of BPA from school-provided meals. Probabilistic exposure models for school meals were informed by mixed methods. Exposure scenarios were based on United States school nutrition guidelines and included meals with varying levels of exposure potential from canned and packaged food. BPA exposure potentials were modeled with a range of 0.00049 μg/kg-BW/day for a middle school student with a low exposure breakfast and plate waste to 1.19 μg/kg-BW/day for an elementary school student eating lunch with high exposure potential. The modeled BPA doses from school meals are below the current US EPA Oral Reference Dose (RfD) of 50 μg/kg-BW/day. Recent research shows BPA animal toxicity thresholds at 2 μg/kg-BW/day. The single meal doses modeled in this research are at the same order of magnitude as the low-dose toxicity thresholds, illustrating the potential for school meals to expose children to chronic toxic levels of BPA. PMID:26395857

  2. Endocrine activity of alternatives to BPA found in thermal paper in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Goldinger, Daniela M; Demierre, Anne-Laure; Zoller, Otmar; Rupp, Heinz; Reinhard, Hans; Magnin, Roxane; Becker, Thomas W; Bourqui-Pittet, Martine

    2015-04-01

    Alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA) are more and more used in thermal paper receipts. To get an overview of the situation in Switzerland, 124 thermal paper receipts were collected and analyzed. Whereas BPA was detected in most samples (n=100), some alternatives, namely bisphenol S (BPS), Pergafast® 201 and D-8 have been found in 4, 11 and 9 samples respectively. As no or few data on their endocrine activity are available, these chemicals and bisphenol F (BPF) were tested in vitro using the H295R steroidogenesis assay. 17β-Estradiol production was induced by BPA and BPF, whereas free testosterone production was inhibited by BPA and BPS. Both non-bisphenol substances did not show significant effects. The binding affinity to 16 proteins and the toxicological potential (TP) were further calculated in silico using VirtualToxLab™. TP values lay between 0.269 and 0.476 and the main target was the estrogen receptor β (84.4 nM to 1.33 μM). A substitution of BPA by BPF and BPS should be thus considered with caution, since they exhibit almost a similar endocrine activity as BPA. D-8 and Pergafast® 201 could be alternatives to replace BPA, however further analyses are needed to better characterize their effects on the hormonal system.

  3. Medical Applications of Gadolinium and/or Boron-Labeled Pharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Coderre, J A; Spielvogel, B

    1997-10-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that can selectively irradiate tumor tissue. The key to effective BNCT is the preferential accumulation of 10B in the tumor relative to the surrounding normal tissues. A screening procedure was developed under this CRADA that is an improvement over previously reported techniques. This method was used to evaluate the two compounds produced by BBI, the amino acid p-boronophenylalanine (BPA)and the sulfhydryl boroane N2B12H11SH (BSH), for clinically useful accumulation in a panel of human tumor cell lines. BPA showed selective accumulation in: squamous cell carcinoma of the lung; small cell carcinoma of the lung; osteosarcoma; prostate carcinoma; and ovarian carcinoma. Of these it was decided to pursue application of BPA-based BNCT to lung tumors. BPA distribution in nude mice bearing subcutaneous human lung tumor xenografts showed very favorable results. At 3 hours post-injection, the tumor/blood boron concentration ratio was 5:1, the tumorflung ratio was 6:1. The treatment planning sofiware, already in use for the glioblastoma BNCT clinical trial underway at BNL, was used for simulation of a human lung tumor treatment using BNCT. Input data for this simulation included the nude mouse biodistribution data, human lung tumor CT geometry, and the same assumptions about relative biological effectiveness of the BNCT dose components currently in use for the human brain tumor trial. The results of this lung tumor simulation indicate significant sparing of normal lung compared to tumor. We conclude that the BBI product BPA has potential applications in BNCT of other tumor sites. BPA-based BNCT for human small cell carcinoma of the lung looks promising. Further studies into the radiation biology of the normal lung will be required prior to clinical BNCT for lung tumors.

  4. Quantitative determination of free and total bisphenol A in human urine using labeled BPA glucuronide and isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kubwabo, Cariton; Kosarac, Ivana; Lalonde, Kaela; Foster, Warren G

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastic bottles, food and beverage can linings, thermal receipts, and dental sealants. Animal and human studies suggest that BPA may disrupt normal hormonal function and hence, potentially, have negative effects on the human health. While total BPA is frequently reported, it is recognized that free BPA is the biologically active form and is rarely reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and improved method for the measurement of free and total BPA in human urine. Use of a labeled conjugated BPA (bisphenol A-d6 β-D-glucuronide) allowed for the optimization of the enzymatic reaction and permitted an accurate determination of the conjugated BPA concentration in urine samples. In addition, a (13)C12-BPA internal standard was used to account for the analytical recoveries and performance of the isotope dilution method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with derivatization and analysis using a triple quadrupole GC-EI/MS/MS system achieved very low method detection limit of 0.027 ng/mL. BPA concentrations were measured in urine samples collected during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in 36 Canadian women. Total maternal BPA concentrations in urine samples ranged from not detected to 9.40 ng/mL (median, 1.21 ng/mL), and free BPA concentrations ranged from not detected to 0.950 ng/mL (median, 0.185 ng/mL). Eighty-six percent of the women had detectable levels of conjugated BPA, whereas only 22 % had detectable levels of free BPA in their urine. BPA levels measured in this study agreed well with data reported internationally.

  5. Lipoic acid mitigates bisphenol A-induced testicular mitochondrial toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Aly, Hamdy A A; El-Shafey, Mostafa

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide. BPA is used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins used in manufacturing plastic baby bottles and lining of food cans. In this study, we investigated the BPA-induced testicular oxidative stress and perturbation of mitochondrial marker enzymes in male albino rats and its amelioration by α-lipoic acid (LA). Rats were administered a dose of BPA (10 mg/kg body weight) orally for 14 days. This resulted in decreased testes weight, total testicular protein content, testicular enzymes such as acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and decline in activities of marker mitochondrial enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, monoamine oxidase and NADH dehydrogenase. The serum testosterone and total antioxidant status were reduced. Besides, it also affected the activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. BPA also caused lipid peroxidation and decrease in reduced glutathione content of mitochondria. The co-administration of LA (20 mg/kg body weight; orally for 14 days) together with BPA resulted in restoration of the mitochondrial marker enzyme activities and increasing enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants of mitochondria. The obtained results demonstrated that LA has a potential role in mitigating BPA-induced mitochondrial toxicity through antioxidant mechanism or by direct free radical scavenging activity. PMID:22623521

  6. Charting a Course for the Future : BPA Programs in Perspectives, Technical Appendix.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Programs in Perspective is the Bonneville Power Administration`s public involvement process for engaging customers and other stakeholders in a regional dialog to set strategic direction and broad program plans for BPA. This process leads into a biennial rate setting cycle and offers a more accessible and flexible opportunity for dialog on broad issues than is possible under the strict administrative procedures of ratemaking. The self-financed character of BPA has made this public process a necessary and valuable one to assure that those who play BPA`s rates have a clear understanding and a strong voice in the plans for use of the resulting revenues.

  7. Review of BPA Funded Sturgeon, Resident Fish and Wildlife Projects for 1990/1991.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 19--21, 1991, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. This document list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leader's presentation.

  8. Multifunctional data acquisition and analysis and optical sensors: a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Dennis C.; Donnelly, Matt K.

    1995-04-01

    The authors present a design concept describing a multifunctional data acquisition and analysis architecture for advanced power system monitoring. The system is tailored to take advantage of the salient features of low energy sensors, particularly optical types. The discussion of the system concept and optical sensors is based on research at BPA and PNL and on progress made at existing BPA installations and other sites in the western power system.

  9. Bisphenol A (BPA) in food contact materials - new scientific opinion from EFSA regarding public health risk.

    PubMed

    Ćwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera

    2015-01-01

    The wide use of bisphenol A (BPA) as a monomer in plastics manufacture or epoxy resins intended for food contact materials (FCM) has triggered numerous concerns due to toxicological findings indicating possible endocrine disrupting properties. This article traces the evolution of the scientific opinions since 1986 when the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for BPA and its specific migration limit (SML) from plastic FCM into food were proposed for the first time by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). Resent extensive scientific studies concerning refined data on toxicity and exposure to BPA from food and non-food sources (eg. dust, cosmetics, thermal paper), including the most vulnerable groups of population, allowed the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to reduce the TDI of BPA from previously 50 µg/kg bw/day to now 4 µg/kg bw/day. EFSA's latest scientific opinion published in 2015 concludes that basing on the current estimations of total exposure to BPA from dietary and non-dietary sources for infants, children and adolescents is below the temporary TDI of 4 μg/kg bw/day. EFSA has also underlined that BPA poses no health risk at the estimated exposure levels of any population age group, including unborn children and the elderly. However, EFSA has indicated that some data on exposure and toxicological effects still require clarifications. PMID:26656411

  10. Simultaneous adsorption of Cd²⁺ and BPA on amphoteric surfactant activated montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chongmin; Wu, Pingxiao; Zhu, Yajie; Tran, Lytuong

    2016-02-01

    The study mainly investigated the simultaneous adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and Cd(2+) from aqueous solution on octadecane-betaine modified montmorillonite (BS-Mt). The characteristics of the obtained materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), Specific surface area (BET) and Scanning electron microscopy/Energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), confirming that BS-18 was successfully introduced into Mt. Also, factors including initial solution pH, initial Cd(2+)/BPA concentration, contact time and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption processes were shown to be crucial for Cd(2+) adsorption, whereas had negligible effects on BPA adsorption. In this study, we found that pseudo-second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic studies for both Cd(2+) and BPA with an equilibrium time of 24 h. The Cd(2+) and BPA adsorption isotherm could be well described by Freundlich model and Langmuir model, respectively. On the basis of kinetic models, the maximum adsorption capacity of Cd(2+) in aqueous solution was slightly enhanced after modification, indicating that Cd(2+) adsorption on BS-Mt was mainly attributed to direct electrostatic attraction and the chelate reaction, while the dramatic enhancement of maximum adsorption capacity for BPA was due to the hydrophobic interaction.

  11. Simultaneous adsorption of Cd²⁺ and BPA on amphoteric surfactant activated montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chongmin; Wu, Pingxiao; Zhu, Yajie; Tran, Lytuong

    2016-02-01

    The study mainly investigated the simultaneous adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and Cd(2+) from aqueous solution on octadecane-betaine modified montmorillonite (BS-Mt). The characteristics of the obtained materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), Specific surface area (BET) and Scanning electron microscopy/Energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), confirming that BS-18 was successfully introduced into Mt. Also, factors including initial solution pH, initial Cd(2+)/BPA concentration, contact time and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption processes were shown to be crucial for Cd(2+) adsorption, whereas had negligible effects on BPA adsorption. In this study, we found that pseudo-second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic studies for both Cd(2+) and BPA with an equilibrium time of 24 h. The Cd(2+) and BPA adsorption isotherm could be well described by Freundlich model and Langmuir model, respectively. On the basis of kinetic models, the maximum adsorption capacity of Cd(2+) in aqueous solution was slightly enhanced after modification, indicating that Cd(2+) adsorption on BS-Mt was mainly attributed to direct electrostatic attraction and the chelate reaction, while the dramatic enhancement of maximum adsorption capacity for BPA was due to the hydrophobic interaction. PMID:26451652

  12. Bisphenol A (BPA) in food contact materials - new scientific opinion from EFSA regarding public health risk.

    PubMed

    Ćwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera

    2015-01-01

    The wide use of bisphenol A (BPA) as a monomer in plastics manufacture or epoxy resins intended for food contact materials (FCM) has triggered numerous concerns due to toxicological findings indicating possible endocrine disrupting properties. This article traces the evolution of the scientific opinions since 1986 when the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for BPA and its specific migration limit (SML) from plastic FCM into food were proposed for the first time by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). Resent extensive scientific studies concerning refined data on toxicity and exposure to BPA from food and non-food sources (eg. dust, cosmetics, thermal paper), including the most vulnerable groups of population, allowed the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to reduce the TDI of BPA from previously 50 µg/kg bw/day to now 4 µg/kg bw/day. EFSA's latest scientific opinion published in 2015 concludes that basing on the current estimations of total exposure to BPA from dietary and non-dietary sources for infants, children and adolescents is below the temporary TDI of 4 μg/kg bw/day. EFSA has also underlined that BPA poses no health risk at the estimated exposure levels of any population age group, including unborn children and the elderly. However, EFSA has indicated that some data on exposure and toxicological effects still require clarifications.

  13. Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of BPA in rats at different life stages using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaoxia Doerge, Daniel R.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has received considerable attention throughout the last decade due to its widespread use in consumer products. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in neonatal and adult rats to quantitatively evaluate age-dependent pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II metabolites. The PBPK model was calibrated in adult rats using studies on BPA metabolism and excretion in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and pharmacokinetic data with BPA in adult rats. For immature rats the hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of BPA was inferred from studies on the maturation of phase II enzymes coupled with serum time course data in pups. The calibrated model predicted the measured serum concentrations of BPA and BPA conjugates after administration of 100 μg/kg of d6-BPA in adult rats (oral gavage and intravenous administration) and postnatal days 3, 10, and 21 pups (oral gavage). The observed age-dependent BPA serum concentrations were partially attributed to the immature metabolic capacity of pups. A comparison of the dosimetry of BPA across immature rats and monkeys suggests that dose adjustments would be necessary to extrapolate toxicity studies from neonatal rats to infant humans. - Highlights: • A PBPK model predicts the kinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in young and adult rats. • BPA metabolism within enterocytes is required for fitting of oral BPA kinetic data. • BPA dosimetry in young rats is different than adult rats and young monkeys.

  14. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B.; Ye, W.; Padmanabhan, V.

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  15. Effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol A on spatial navigational learning and memory in rats: A CLARITY-BPA study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah A; Javurek, Angela B; Painter, Michele S; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welsh, Thomas H; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle M; Ferguson, Sherry A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2016-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous industrial chemical used in the production of a wide variety of items. Previous studies suggest BPA exposure may result in neuro-disruptive effects; however, data are inconsistent across animal and human studies. As part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA), we sought to determine whether female and male rats developmentally exposed to BPA demonstrated later spatial navigational learning and memory deficits. Pregnant NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed from gestational day 6 to parturition, and offspring were directly orally dosed until weaning (postnatal day 21). Treatment groups included a vehicle control, three BPA doses (2.5μg/kg body weight (bw)/day-[2.5], 25μg/kg bw/day-[25], and 2500μg/kg bw/day-[2500]) and a 0.5μg/kg/day ethinyl estradiol (EE)-reference estrogen dose. At adulthood, 1/sex/litter was tested for seven days in the Barnes maze. The 2500 BPA group sniffed more incorrect holes on day 7 than those in the control, 2.5 BPA, and EE groups. The 2500 BPA females were less likely than control females to locate the escape box in the allotted time (p value=0.04). Although 2.5 BPA females exhibited a prolonged latency, the effect did not reach significance (p value=0.06), whereas 2.5 BPA males showed improved latency compared to control males (p value=0.04), although the significance of this result is uncertain. No differences in serum testosterone concentration were detected in any male or female treatment groups. Current findings suggest developmental exposure of rats to BPA may disrupt aspects of spatial navigational learning and memory.

  16. Perinatal BPA exposure induces hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production in later life of male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Song, Shunzhe; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Wei; Jia, Lihong

    2014-04-01

    The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND) 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance.

  17. Effect of BPA on the germination, root development, seedling growth and leaf differentiation under different light conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Xiong, Can; Wua, Qiu-Ping; Liu, Jin-Xia; Liao, Hong-Mei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zheng, Lei

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental toxic substance, which exerts unfavorable effects through endocrine disruptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms to threaten ecological systems seriously. BPA may also interact with other environmental factors, such as light and heavy metals, to have a synergetic effect in plants. However, there is little data concerning the toxic effect of BPA on the primary producers-plants and its possible interaction with light-dependent response. Here, the effects of BPA on germination, fresh weight, tap root length, and leaf differentiation were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana under different parts of light spectrum (dark, red, yellow, green, blue, and white light). Our results showed that low-dose BPA (1.0, 5.0 µM) caused an increase in the fresh weight, the tap root length and the lateral root formation of A. thaliana seedlings, while high-dose BPA (10.0, 25.0 µM) show an inhibition effect in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike karrikins, the effects of BPA on germination fresh weight and tap roots length under various light conditions are similar, which imply that BPA has no notable role in priming light response in germination and early seedling growth in A. thaliana. Meanwhile, BPA exposure influences the differentiation of A. thaliana leaf blade significantly in a light-dependent manner with little to no effect in dark and clear effect under red illumination.

  18. Bisphenol A (BPA) Found in Humans and Water in Three Geographic Regions with Distinctly Different Levels of Economic Development

    PubMed Central

    Karalius, Vytas P.; Harbison, Justin E.; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; van Breemen, Richard B.; Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Mora, Nallely; Dugas, Lara R.; Vail, Lane; Tuchman, Nancy C.; Forrester, Terrence; Luke, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The suspected endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with the manufacture, distribution, and use of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics; thus, studies of this compound have focused primarily on urban areas in developed countries. This small study investigating urinary BPA of 109 people was conducted in the urban United States, urban Jamaica, and rural Ghana. Additionally, local drinking and surface water samples were collected and analyzed from areas near study participants. Levels of BPA in both urine and water were comparable among all three sites. Thus, future studies of BPA should consider expanding investigations to rural areas not typically associated with the compound. PMID:24453495

  19. The Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Bisphenol-A (BPA) in MCF-7 Cell Line and Amniocytes

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanpour-Mir, Seyed Mohsen; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh; Keyhani, Elahe; Bagherizadeh, Iman; Biglari, Sajjad; Behjati, Farkhondeh

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an industrial xenoestrogen used widely in our living environment. Recently, several studies suggested that BPA has destructive effects on DNA and chromosomes in normal body cells via estrogen receptors (ER). Therefore, BPA could be considered as an important mediator in many diseases such as cancer. However, there are still many controversial issues which need clarification. In this study, we investigated the BPA-induced chromosomal damages in MCF-7 cell line, ER-positive and negative amniocyte cells. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of BPA were also compared between these three cell groups. Expression of estrogen receptors was determined using immunocytochemistry technique. The cell cytotoxicity of BPA was measured by MTT assay. Classic cytogenetic technique was carried out for the investigation of chromosome damage. BPA, in addition to cytotoxicity, had remarkable genotoxicity at concentrations close to the traceable levels in tissues or biological fluids. Although some differences were observed in the amount of damages between ER-positive and negative fetal cells, interestingly, these differences were not significant. The present study showed that BPA could lead to chromosomal aberrations in both ER-dependent and independent pathways at some concentrations or in cell types yet not reported. Also, BPA could probably be considered as a facilitator for some predisposed cells to be cancerous by raising the chromosome instability levels. Finally, estrogen receptor seems to have a different role in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects. PMID:27386435

  20. The Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Bisphenol-A (BPA) in MCF-7 Cell Line and Amniocytes.

    PubMed

    Aghajanpour-Mir, Seyed Mohsen; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh; Keyhani, Elahe; Bagherizadeh, Iman; Biglari, Sajjad; Behjati, Farkhondeh

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an industrial xenoestrogen used widely in our living environment. Recently, several studies suggested that BPA has destructive effects on DNA and chromosomes in normal body cells via estrogen receptors (ER). Therefore, BPA could be considered as an important mediator in many diseases such as cancer. However, there are still many controversial issues which need clarification. In this study, we investigated the BPA-induced chromosomal damages in MCF-7 cell line, ER-positive and negative amniocyte cells. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of BPA were also compared between these three cell groups. Expression of estrogen receptors was determined using immunocytochemistry technique. The cell cytotoxicity of BPA was measured by MTT assay. Classic cytogenetic technique was carried out for the investigation of chromosome damage. BPA, in addition to cytotoxicity, had remarkable genotoxicity at concentrations close to the traceable levels in tissues or biological fluids. Although some differences were observed in the amount of damages between ER-positive and negative fetal cells, interestingly, these differences were not significant. The present study showed that BPA could lead to chromosomal aberrations in both ER-dependent and independent pathways at some concentrations or in cell types yet not reported. Also, BPA could probably be considered as a facilitator for some predisposed cells to be cancerous by raising the chromosome instability levels. Finally, estrogen receptor seems to have a different role in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects. PMID:27386435

  1. The Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Bisphenol-A (BPA) in MCF-7 Cell Line and Amniocytes.

    PubMed

    Aghajanpour-Mir, Seyed Mohsen; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh; Keyhani, Elahe; Bagherizadeh, Iman; Biglari, Sajjad; Behjati, Farkhondeh

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an industrial xenoestrogen used widely in our living environment. Recently, several studies suggested that BPA has destructive effects on DNA and chromosomes in normal body cells via estrogen receptors (ER). Therefore, BPA could be considered as an important mediator in many diseases such as cancer. However, there are still many controversial issues which need clarification. In this study, we investigated the BPA-induced chromosomal damages in MCF-7 cell line, ER-positive and negative amniocyte cells. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of BPA were also compared between these three cell groups. Expression of estrogen receptors was determined using immunocytochemistry technique. The cell cytotoxicity of BPA was measured by MTT assay. Classic cytogenetic technique was carried out for the investigation of chromosome damage. BPA, in addition to cytotoxicity, had remarkable genotoxicity at concentrations close to the traceable levels in tissues or biological fluids. Although some differences were observed in the amount of damages between ER-positive and negative fetal cells, interestingly, these differences were not significant. The present study showed that BPA could lead to chromosomal aberrations in both ER-dependent and independent pathways at some concentrations or in cell types yet not reported. Also, BPA could probably be considered as a facilitator for some predisposed cells to be cancerous by raising the chromosome instability levels. Finally, estrogen receptor seems to have a different role in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects.

  2. Degradation and mineralization of Bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solution using advanced oxidation processes: UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) oxidation systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyoti; Mishra, I M; Kumar, Vineet

    2015-06-01

    This work reports on the removal and mineralization of an endocrine disrupting chemical, Bisphenol A (BPA) at a concentration of 0.22 mM in aqueous solution using inorganic oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 and sodium persulfate, Na2S2O8;S2O8(2-)) under UV irradiation at a wavelength of 254 nm and 40 W power (Io = 1.26 × 10(-6) E s(-1)) at its natural pH and a temperature of 29 ± 3 °C. With an optimum persulfate concentration of 1.26 mM, the UV/S2O8(2-) process resulted in ∼95% BPA removal after 240 min of irradiation. The optimum BPA removal was found to be ∼85% with a H2O2 concentration of 11.76 mM. At higher concentrations, either of the oxidants showed an adverse effect because of the quenching of the hydroxyl or sulfate radicals in the BPA solution. The sulfate-based oxidation process could be used over a wider initial pH range of 3-12, but the hydroxyl radical-based oxidation of BPA should be carried out in the acidic pH range only. The water matrix components (bicarbonate, chloride and humic acid) showed higher scavenging effect in hydroxyl radical-based oxidation than that in the sulfate radical-based oxidation of BPA. UV/S2O8(2-) oxidation system utilized less energy (307 kWh/m(3)) EE/O in comparison to UV/H2O2 system (509 kWh/m(3)) under optimum operating conditions. The cost of UV irradiation far outweighed the cost of the oxidants in the process. However, the total cost of treatment of persulfate-based system was much lower than that of H2O2-based oxidation system. PMID:25889275

  3. Degradation and mineralization of Bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solution using advanced oxidation processes: UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) oxidation systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyoti; Mishra, I M; Kumar, Vineet

    2015-06-01

    This work reports on the removal and mineralization of an endocrine disrupting chemical, Bisphenol A (BPA) at a concentration of 0.22 mM in aqueous solution using inorganic oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 and sodium persulfate, Na2S2O8;S2O8(2-)) under UV irradiation at a wavelength of 254 nm and 40 W power (Io = 1.26 × 10(-6) E s(-1)) at its natural pH and a temperature of 29 ± 3 °C. With an optimum persulfate concentration of 1.26 mM, the UV/S2O8(2-) process resulted in ∼95% BPA removal after 240 min of irradiation. The optimum BPA removal was found to be ∼85% with a H2O2 concentration of 11.76 mM. At higher concentrations, either of the oxidants showed an adverse effect because of the quenching of the hydroxyl or sulfate radicals in the BPA solution. The sulfate-based oxidation process could be used over a wider initial pH range of 3-12, but the hydroxyl radical-based oxidation of BPA should be carried out in the acidic pH range only. The water matrix components (bicarbonate, chloride and humic acid) showed higher scavenging effect in hydroxyl radical-based oxidation than that in the sulfate radical-based oxidation of BPA. UV/S2O8(2-) oxidation system utilized less energy (307 kWh/m(3)) EE/O in comparison to UV/H2O2 system (509 kWh/m(3)) under optimum operating conditions. The cost of UV irradiation far outweighed the cost of the oxidants in the process. However, the total cost of treatment of persulfate-based system was much lower than that of H2O2-based oxidation system.

  4. Conjugated Bisphenol A (BPA) in maternal serum in relation to miscarriage risk

    PubMed Central

    Lathi, Ruth B.; Liebert, Cara A.; Brookfield, Kathleen F.; Taylor, Julia A.; Saal, Frederick S. vom; Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Baker, Valerie L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between maternal serum Bisphenol-A (BPA) concentration at the time of the missed period and miscarriage risk. Design Retrospective cohort of prospectively collected serum samples. Setting Academic fertility center. Patients Women presenting for early pregnancy monitoring with singleton pregnancies. Intervention Stored serum samples from 4-5 weeks gestation were analyzed for conjugated serum BPA concentrations. Main Outcomes Live birth, miscarriage, and chromosome content of miscarriage. Results Of the 115 included subjects, there were 47 live births and 68 clinical miscarriages (46 aneuploid and 22 euploid). Median conjugated BPA concentrations were higher in women with miscarriages than those with live births (0.101 vs 0.075 ng/ml). Women with the highest quartile of conjugated BPA had an increased relative risk of miscarriage (1.83, 95% CI 1.14-2.96) compared to women in the lowest quartile. We found a similar increase risk for both euploid and aneuploid miscarriages. Conclusions Maternal conjugated BPA was associated with higher risk of aneuploid and euploid miscarriage in this cohort. The impact of reducing individual exposures on future pregnancy outcomes deserves further study. PMID:24746738

  5. Landowner’s Guide for Compatible Use of BPA Rights-of-Way

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    Keeping transmission lines safe and reliable is a critical priority for the Bonneville Power Administration. The key element in achieving those objectives is BPA’s ability to construct, operate and maintain its transmission lines and rights-of-way — the area under and around the lines. You can help BPA keep these rights-of-way clear of trees, brush and structures that could affect the safety or reliability of the transmission system. Prior to planting, digging, or constructing within BPA’s rights-of-way, fill out BPA’s Land Use Application Form. The information you provide on the application helps BPA understand your proposed use and the potential impacts to public safety, and the safety of our crews. BPA also reviews the application to determine whether a proposed use of land is compatible with the construction, operation and maintenance of BPA transmission lines. Coordinating with BPA early in your planning process can keep you safe and avoid wasting time and money.

  6. Edible fungus degrade bisphenol A with no harmful effect on its fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengdong; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Mingchun

    2015-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that is ubiquitous in the environment because of its broad industrial use. The authors report that the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world (i.e., white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus) efficiently degraded 10mg/L of BPA in 7 days. Extracellular laccase was identified as the enzyme responsible for this activity. LC-MS analysis of the metabolites revealed the presence of both low- and high-molecular-weight products obtained via oxidative cleavage and coupling reactions, respectively. In particular, an analysis of the fatty acid composition and chemical structure of the fungal mycelium demonstrated that exposure to BPA resulted in no harmful effects on this edible fungus. The results provide a better understanding of the environmental fate of BPA and its potential impact on food crops. PMID:25933259

  7. High intake of dietary sugar enhances bisphenol A (BPA) disruption and reveals ribosome-mediated pathways of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Branco, Alan T; Lemos, Bernardo

    2014-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound to which human populations are ubiquitously exposed. Epidemiological data suggest BPA exposure might be associated with higher rates of diabetes and reproductive anomalies. Health concerns also include transgenerational consequences, but these mechanisms are crudely defined. Similarly, little is known about synergistic interactions between BPA and other substances. Here we show that acute and chronic exposure to BPA causes genome-wide modulation of several functionally coherent genetic pathways in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In particular, BPA exposure causes massive downregulation of testis-specific genes and upregulation of ribosome-associated genes widely expressed across tissues. In addition, it causes the modulation of transposable elements that are specific to the ribosomal DNA loci, suggesting that nucleolar stress might contribute to BPA toxicity. The upregulation of ribosome-associated genes and the impairment of testis-specific gene expression are significantly enhanced upon BPA exposure with a high-sugar diet. Our results suggest that BPA and dietary sugar might functionally interact, with consequences to regulatory programs in both reproductive and somatic tissues.

  8. BPA-induced DNA hypermethylation of the master mitochondrial gene PGC-1α contributes to cardiomyopathy in male rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Xia, Wei; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Yingshuang; Chang, Huailong; Liu, Juan; Huo, Wenqian; Xu, Bing; Chen, Xi; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-03-01

    Implication of environmental endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A (BPA), on the development of cardiopathy has been poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to BPA at the reference dose on the myocardium of rats, and the underlying mechanisms. Male rats received corn oil or 50 μg/kg/day of BPA since delactation. At 24 and 48 weeks (wk), cardiac function and mitochondrial function were examined. The mRNA expression and the methylation status of PCG-1α, a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle, were also tested. At 48 wk, BPA-exposed rats displayed cardiomyopathy, characterized by myocardium hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte enlargement, and impairment of cardiac function. At 24 wk, significantly reduced ATP production, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) and declined mitochondrial respiratory complex (MRC) activity in cardiomyocytes were observed in BPA-exposed rats compared with the control rats, indicating a decrease in mitochondrial function occurs before the development of cardiomyopathy. Additionally, BPA exposure decreased the expression of PGC-1α and induced hypermethylation of PGC-1 α in heart tissue in 24- and 48-week-old rats. The change in methylation of PGC-1α was observed more pronounced in BPA-exposed rats at 48 wk. Overall, long-term BPA exposure induces cardiomyopathy in male rats, and the underlying mechanism may involve the impairment of cardiac mitochondrial function and the disturbance of methylation of PGC-1α.

  9. Intracellular boron accumulation in CHO-K1 cells using amino acid transport control.

    PubMed

    Sato, Eisuke; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Shikano, Naoto; Ogura, Masato; Nakai, Kei; Yoshida, Fumiyo; Uemae, Yoji; Takada, Tomoya; Isobe, Tomonori; Matsumura, Akira

    2014-06-01

    BPA used in BNCT has a similar structure to some essential amino acids and is transported into tumor cells by amino acid transport systems. Previous study groups have tried various techniques of loading BPA to increase intracellular boron concentration. CHO-K1 cells demonstrate system L (LAT1) activity and are suitable for specifying the transport system of a neutral amino acid. In this study, we examined the intracellular accumulation of boron in CHO-K1 cells by amino acid transport control, which involves co-loading with L-type amino acid esters. Intracellular boron accumulation in CHO-K1 cells showed the greatest increased upon co-loading 1.0mM BPA, with 1.0mM l-Tyr-O-Et and incubating for 60min. This increase is caused by activation of a system L amino acid exchanger between BPA and l-Tyr. The amino acid esters are metabolized to amino acids by intracellular hydrolytic enzymes that increase the concentrations of intracellular amino acids and stimulate exchange transportation. We expect that this amino acid transport control will be useful for enhancing intracellular boron accumulation.

  10. Enantioselective acylation of β-phenylalanine acid and its derivatives catalyzed by penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dengchao; Ji, Lilian; Wang, Xinfeng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2013-01-01

    This study developed a simple, efficient method for producing racemic β-phenylalanine acid (BPA) and its derivatives via the enantioselective acylation catalyzed by the penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis (Af-PGA). When the reaction was run at 25°C and pH 10 in an aqueous medium containing phenylacetamide and BPA in a molar ratio of 2:1, 8 U/mL enzyme and 0.1 M BPA, the maximum BPA conversion efficiency at 40 min only reached 36.1%, which, however, increased to 42.9% as the pH value and the molar ratio of phenylacetamide to BPA were elevated to 11 and 3:1, respectively. Under the relatively optimum reaction conditions, the maximum conversion efficiencies of BPA derivatives all reached about 50% in a relatively short reaction time (45-90 min). The enantiomeric excess value of product (ee(p)) and enantiomeric excess value of substrate (ee(s)) were all above 98% and 95%, respectively. These results suggest that the method established in this study is practical, effective, and environmentally benign and may be applied to industrial production of enantiomerically pure BPA and its derivatives. PMID:23302108

  11. Assessment of Bisphenol A (BPA) neurotoxicity in vitro with mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Nuoya; Yao, Xinglei; Qin, Zhanfen; Wang, Yuan-Liang; Faiola, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The adverse effects of environmental pollution on our well-being have been intensively studied with many in vitro and in vivo systems. In our group, we focus on stem cell toxicology due to the multitude of embryonic stem cell (ESC) properties which can be exerted in toxicity assays. In fact, ESCs can differentiate in culture to mimic embryonic development in vivo, or specifically to virtually any kind of somatic cells. Here, we used the toxicant Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical known as a hazard to infants and children, and showed that our stem cell toxicology system was able to efficiently recapitulate most of the toxic effects of BPA previously detected by in vitro system or animal tests. More precisely, we demonstrated that BPA affected the proper specification of germ layers during our in vitro mimicking of the embryonic development, as well as the establishment of neural ectoderm and neural progenitor cells. PMID:26456621

  12. Assessment of Bisphenol A (BPA) neurotoxicity in vitro with mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Nuoya; Yao, Xinglei; Qin, Zhanfen; Wang, Yuan-Liang; Faiola, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The adverse effects of environmental pollution on our well-being have been intensively studied with many in vitro and in vivo systems. In our group, we focus on stem cell toxicology due to the multitude of embryonic stem cell (ESC) properties which can be exerted in toxicity assays. In fact, ESCs can differentiate in culture to mimic embryonic development in vivo, or specifically to virtually any kind of somatic cells. Here, we used the toxicant Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical known as a hazard to infants and children, and showed that our stem cell toxicology system was able to efficiently recapitulate most of the toxic effects of BPA previously detected by in vitro system or animal tests. More precisely, we demonstrated that BPA affected the proper specification of germ layers during our in vitro mimicking of the embryonic development, as well as the establishment of neural ectoderm and neural progenitor cells.

  13. Review of BPA Funded Sturgeon, Resident Fish and Wildlife Projects, 1989/1990.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 6-7, 1990, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. The following pages list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leaders presentation. These summaries are in some cases preliminary; they are subject to change and should not be quoted without consulting the project leader.

  14. Comparison of the effects of BPA and BPAF on oocyte spindle assembly and polar body release in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Kei; Nishio, Manami; Kobayashi, Norio; Hiradate, Yuuki; Hoshino, Yumi; Sato, Eimei; Tanemura, Kentaro

    2016-04-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF), a homolog of bisphenol A (BPA), is a widely used environmental chemical that has adverse effects on reproduction. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of BPA and BPAF exposure on oocyte maturation in vitro. Oocytes were cultured in the presence of BPA or BPAF (2, 20, 50 or 100 μg/ml) for 18 h. At concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/ml, BPA and BPAF inhibited oocyte maturation, with BPAF treatment causing a sharp decrease in the number of oocytes reaching maturity. Oocytes were exposed to BPA or BPAF at 2 μg/ml and cultured for different durations (6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 h). Both BPAF and BPA caused a cell cycle delay under these conditions. Oocytes cultured in the presence of BPA or BPAF (50 μg/ml) for 21 h were tested for the localization of α-tubulin and MAD2 using immunofluorescence. High concentrations of BPAF induced cell cycle arrest through the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. After 12 h of culture in BPAF (50 μg/ml), oocytes were transferred to control medium for 9 h. Only 63.3% oocytes treated in this manner progressed to metaphase II (MII). Oocytes exposed to high doses of BPA experienced a cell cycle delay, but managed to progress to MII when the culture period was prolonged. In addition, MAD2 was localized in the cytoplasm of these oocytes. In conclusion, both BPAF and BPA exposure affected oocyte maturation, however BPAF and BPA have differential effects on SAC activity.

  15. Bisphenol A Alters n-6 Fatty Acid Composition and Decreases Antioxidant Enzyme Levels in Rat Testes: A LC-QTOF-Based Metabolomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Shanlei; Hu, Nan; Hu, Yanhui; Wu, Wei; Qiu, Lianglin; Zhang, Ruyang; Wang, Yubang; Wang, Shoulin; Zhou, Zuomin; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2012-01-01

    Background Male reproductive toxicity induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been widely reported. The testes have proven to be a major target organ of BPA toxicity, so studying testicular metabolite variation holds promise for the discovery of mechanisms linked to the toxic effects of BPA on reproduction. Methodology/Principal Findings Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered doses of BPA at the levels of 0, 50 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. We used an unbiased liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF)-based metabolomics approach to discover, identify, and analyze the variation of testicular metabolites. Two n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were identified as potential testicular biomarkers. Decreased levels of LA and increased levels of AA as well as AA/LA ratio were observed in the testes of the exposed group. According to these suggestions, testicular antioxidant enzyme levels were detected. Testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined significantly in the exposed group compared with that in the non-exposed group, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as catalase (CAT) also showed a decreasing trend in BPA treated group. Conclusions/Significance BPA caused testicular n-6 fatty acid composition variation and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels. This study emphasizes that metabolomics brings the promise of biomarkers identification for the discovery of mechanisms underlying reproductive toxicity. PMID:23024759

  16. Development of a new DNA vaccine based on mycobacterial ESAT-6 antigen delivered by recombinant invasive Lactococcus lactis FnBPA+.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vanessa Bastos; Saraiva, Tessália Diniz Luerce; Souza, Bianca Mendes; Zurita-Turk, Meritxell; Azevedo, Marcela Santiago Pacheco; De Castro, Camila Prósperi; Mancha-Agresti, Pamela; Dos Santos, Janete Soares Coelho; Santos, Ana Cristina Gomes; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Leclercq, Sophie; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson

    2015-02-01

    The use of the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis as a vehicle for the oral delivery of DNA vaccine plasmids constitutes a promising strategy for vaccination. The delivery of DNA plasmids into eukaryotic cells is of critical importance for subsequent DNA expression and effectiveness of the vaccine. In this context, the use of the recombinant invasive L. lactis FnBPA+ (fibronectin-binding protein A) strain for the oral delivery of the eukaryotic expression vector vaccination using lactic acid bacteria (pValac), coding for the 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6) gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, could represent a new DNA vaccine strategy against tuberculosis. To this end, the ESAT-6 sequence was cloned into the pValac vector; the L. lactis fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA)+ (pValac:ESAT-6) strain was obtained, and its immunological profile was checked in BALB/c mice. This strain was able to significantly increase interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in spleen cells, showing a systemic T helper 1 (Th1) cell response. The mice also showed a significant increase in specific secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) production in colon tissue and fecal extracts. Thus, this is the first time that L. lactis has been used to deliver a plasmid DNA harboring a gene that encodes an antigen against tuberculosis through mucous membranes. PMID:25503506

  17. BPA-Induced Deregulation Of Epigenetic Patterns: Effects On Female Zebrafish Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Santangeli, Stefania; Maradonna, Francesca; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Cobellis, Gilda; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the commonest Endocrine Disruptor Compounds worldwide. It interferes with vertebrate reproduction, possibly by inducing deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms. To determine its effects on female reproductive physiology and investigate whether changes in the expression levels of genes related to reproduction are caused by histone modifications, BPA concentrations consistent with environmental exposure were administered to zebrafish for three weeks. Effects on oocyte growth and maturation, autophagy and apoptosis processes, histone modifications, and DNA methylation were assessed by Real-Time PCR (qPCR), histology, and chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with qPCR analysis (ChIP-qPCR). The results showed that 5 μg/L BPA down-regulated oocyte maturation-promoting signals, likely through changes in the chromatin structure mediated by histone modifications, and promoted apoptosis in mature follicles. These data indicate that the negative effects of BPA on the female reproductive system may be due to its upstream ability to deregulate epigenetic mechanism.

  18. BPA-Induced Deregulation Of Epigenetic Patterns: Effects On Female Zebrafish Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Santangeli, Stefania; Maradonna, Francesca; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Cobellis, Gilda; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the commonest Endocrine Disruptor Compounds worldwide. It interferes with vertebrate reproduction, possibly by inducing deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms. To determine its effects on female reproductive physiology and investigate whether changes in the expression levels of genes related to reproduction are caused by histone modifications, BPA concentrations consistent with environmental exposure were administered to zebrafish for three weeks. Effects on oocyte growth and maturation, autophagy and apoptosis processes, histone modifications, and DNA methylation were assessed by Real-Time PCR (qPCR), histology, and chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with qPCR analysis (ChIP-qPCR). The results showed that 5 μg/L BPA down-regulated oocyte maturation-promoting signals, likely through changes in the chromatin structure mediated by histone modifications, and promoted apoptosis in mature follicles. These data indicate that the negative effects of BPA on the female reproductive system may be due to its upstream ability to deregulate epigenetic mechanism. PMID:26911650

  19. Occurrence and efficacy of bisphenol A (BPA) treatment in selected municipal wastewater treatment plants, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pookpoosa, Intira; Jindal, Ranjna; Morknoy, Daisy; Tantrakarnapa, Kraichat

    2015-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the occurrence and fate of bisphenol A (BPA) in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Bangkok, namely, Rattanakosin, Chong Non Si, Din Daeng (DD), Nong Khaem and Thungkru (TK) during three sampling events between October 2013 and February 2014. Based on the results, the influent and effluent BPA concentrations ranged between 128.5 ng/L and 606.0 ng/L; and 38.7 ng/L and 270.5 ng/L, respectively. The effluent BPA concentrations of most of the five WWTPs were lower than the influent levels. TK had the highest removal efficiency in October 2013 (80.4%) and December 2013 (90.7%) and the second highest in February 2014 (69.2%). DD had the highest removal efficiency in February 2014 (91.8%). The treatment processes employed at TK and DD were vertical loop reactor activated sludge process and activated sludge with nutrients removal, respectively. Thus, these processes seem to be good for BPA degradation.

  20. Low Probability Tail Event Analysis and Mitigation in BPA Control Area: Task 2 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2009-09-18

    Task report detailing low probability tail event analysis and mitigation in BPA control area. Tail event refers to the situation in a power system when unfavorable forecast errors of load and wind are superposed onto fast load and wind ramps, or non-wind generators falling short of scheduled output, causing the imbalance between generation and load to become very significant.

  1. Color Shift Investigations for LED Secondary Optical Designs: Comparison between BPA-PC and PMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guangjun; Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Fan, Xuejun; Fan, Jiajie; Jansen, K. M. B.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, color shift of LED-based lighting products has attracted much attention due to its increasing impact on the field application. However, significant research investigations on the color shift mechanisms are not publically available especially for important transmission materials used for secondary optical design. In this paper, broadly used such commercial materials (BPA-PC and PMMA) are experimentally investigated on the color shift effects during aging. Besides this, color shift mechanisms of degradation of transmittance are also studied. Results revealed: (1) Inconsistent degradation of wavelength-dependent transmittance induces the decrease of the blue/yellow light intensity ratio and thus gives rise to the color shift toward the yellow field, which is the color shift mechanism of BPA-PC; (2) Even for the non-aged BPA-PC, the transmittance varies with wavelength in the visible light field due to the chemistry of the material, which caused the change of intensify ratio of blue light to yellow light in the SPD, leading to color change in perception; (3) Oxidation plays a key role in the degradation of transmittance at around the peak wavelength of the blue light field, which is in correlation with the discoloration of thermally-aged BPA-PC materials. By contrast, for the PMMA specimen aged up to 3000 h, oxidation was neither occurred at 85 °C, nor with additional exposure to blue light, nor even with additional humidity of 85%RH.

  2. BPA-Induced Deregulation Of Epigenetic Patterns: Effects On Female Zebrafish Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Santangeli, Stefania; Maradonna, Francesca; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Cobellis, Gilda; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the commonest Endocrine Disruptor Compounds worldwide. It interferes with vertebrate reproduction, possibly by inducing deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms. To determine its effects on female reproductive physiology and investigate whether changes in the expression levels of genes related to reproduction are caused by histone modifications, BPA concentrations consistent with environmental exposure were administered to zebrafish for three weeks. Effects on oocyte growth and maturation, autophagy and apoptosis processes, histone modifications, and DNA methylation were assessed by Real-Time PCR (qPCR), histology, and chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with qPCR analysis (ChIP-qPCR). The results showed that 5 μg/L BPA down-regulated oocyte maturation-promoting signals, likely through changes in the chromatin structure mediated by histone modifications, and promoted apoptosis in mature follicles. These data indicate that the negative effects of BPA on the female reproductive system may be due to its upstream ability to deregulate epigenetic mechanism. PMID:26911650

  3. "Stockpile" of Slight Transcriptomic Changes Determines the Indirect Genotoxicity of Low-Dose BPA in Thyroid Cells.

    PubMed

    Porreca, Immacolata; Ulloa Severino, Luisa; D'Angelo, Fulvio; Cuomo, Danila; Ceccarelli, Michele; Altucci, Lucia; Amendola, Elena; Nebbioso, Angela; Mallardo, Massimo; De Felice, Mario; Ambrosino, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data highlighted the thyroid-disrupting activity of bisphenol A (BPA). Although pivotal to identify the mechanisms of toxicity, direct low-dose BPA effects on thyrocytes have not been assessed. Here, we report the results of microarray experiments revealing that the transcriptome reacts dynamically to low-dose BPA exposure, adapting the changes in gene expression to the exposure duration. The response involves many genes, enriching specific pathways and biological functions mainly cell death/proliferation or DNA repair. Their expression is only slightly altered but, since they enrich specific pathways, this results in major effects as shown here for transcripts involved in the DNA repair pathway. Indeed, even though no phenotypic changes are induced by the treatment, we show that the exposure to BPA impairs the cell response to further stressors. We experimentally verify that prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA results in a delayed response to UV-C-induced DNA damage, due to impairment of p21-Tp53 axis, with the BPA-treated cells more prone to cell death and DNA damage accumulation. The present findings shed light on a possible mechanism by which BPA, not able to directly cause genetic damage at environmental dose, may exert an indirect genotoxic activity. PMID:26982218

  4. "Stockpile" of Slight Transcriptomic Changes Determines the Indirect Genotoxicity of Low-Dose BPA in Thyroid Cells.

    PubMed

    Porreca, Immacolata; Ulloa Severino, Luisa; D'Angelo, Fulvio; Cuomo, Danila; Ceccarelli, Michele; Altucci, Lucia; Amendola, Elena; Nebbioso, Angela; Mallardo, Massimo; De Felice, Mario; Ambrosino, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data highlighted the thyroid-disrupting activity of bisphenol A (BPA). Although pivotal to identify the mechanisms of toxicity, direct low-dose BPA effects on thyrocytes have not been assessed. Here, we report the results of microarray experiments revealing that the transcriptome reacts dynamically to low-dose BPA exposure, adapting the changes in gene expression to the exposure duration. The response involves many genes, enriching specific pathways and biological functions mainly cell death/proliferation or DNA repair. Their expression is only slightly altered but, since they enrich specific pathways, this results in major effects as shown here for transcripts involved in the DNA repair pathway. Indeed, even though no phenotypic changes are induced by the treatment, we show that the exposure to BPA impairs the cell response to further stressors. We experimentally verify that prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA results in a delayed response to UV-C-induced DNA damage, due to impairment of p21-Tp53 axis, with the BPA-treated cells more prone to cell death and DNA damage accumulation. The present findings shed light on a possible mechanism by which BPA, not able to directly cause genetic damage at environmental dose, may exert an indirect genotoxic activity.

  5. “Stockpile” of Slight Transcriptomic Changes Determines the Indirect Genotoxicity of Low-Dose BPA in Thyroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Porreca, Immacolata; Ulloa Severino, Luisa; D’Angelo, Fulvio; Cuomo, Danila; Ceccarelli, Michele; Altucci, Lucia; Amendola, Elena; Nebbioso, Angela; Mallardo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data highlighted the thyroid-disrupting activity of bisphenol A (BPA). Although pivotal to identify the mechanisms of toxicity, direct low-dose BPA effects on thyrocytes have not been assessed. Here, we report the results of microarray experiments revealing that the transcriptome reacts dynamically to low-dose BPA exposure, adapting the changes in gene expression to the exposure duration. The response involves many genes, enriching specific pathways and biological functions mainly cell death/proliferation or DNA repair. Their expression is only slightly altered but, since they enrich specific pathways, this results in major effects as shown here for transcripts involved in the DNA repair pathway. Indeed, even though no phenotypic changes are induced by the treatment, we show that the exposure to BPA impairs the cell response to further stressors. We experimentally verify that prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA results in a delayed response to UV-C-induced DNA damage, due to impairment of p21-Tp53 axis, with the BPA-treated cells more prone to cell death and DNA damage accumulation. The present findings shed light on a possible mechanism by which BPA, not able to directly cause genetic damage at environmental dose, may exert an indirect genotoxic activity. PMID:26982218

  6. Perinatal BPA exposure demasculinizes males in measures of affect but has no effect on water maze learning in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryan A; Watson, Neil V

    2012-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting agent that can alter the normal gonadal steroid-sensitive sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. While reproductive behavior and physiology are known to be altered by perinatal exposure to this compound, less is known about BPA's effects on sex differences in learning and measures of affect. In order to evaluate the effects of perinatal BPA treatment on learning and affect in adulthood, we exposed rats to one of five doses of BPA through gestation and lactation then examined adult behavior in the Morris Water Maze (MWM), the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and the Forced Swim Test (FST). No effect of BPA was observed in the MWM, but on both the EPM and FST, low doses (5 μg/kg) of BPA eliminated sex differences found between controls; furthermore, a non-monotonic dose-response observed in previous studies was confirmed for these tasks. Overall, our study adds to the growing data suggesting that BPA interferes with the normal development of affective behaviors in a non-linear, dose-dependent manner.

  7. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  8. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  9. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a “canned fraction” parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  10. Developmental programming: prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Beckett, E M; Abi Salloum, B; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5mg/kgBW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2-3mm, 4-5mm, and ≥6mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females.

  11. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Beckett, EM; Abi Salloum, B; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess hormonal preovulatory changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. PMID:24923655

  12. Bisphenol A (BPA) stimulates the interferon signaling and activates the inflammasome activity in myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Panchanathan, Ravichandran; Liu, Hongzhu; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Ho, Shuk-mei; Choubey, Divaker

    2015-11-01

    Environmental factors contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which exhibits a strong female bias (female-to-male ratio 9:1). However, the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Because a feedforward loop between the female sex hormone estrogen (E2) and type I interferon (IFN-α/β)-signaling induces the expression of certain p200-family proteins (such as murine p202 and human IFI16) that regulate innate immune responses and modify lupus susceptibility, we investigated whether treatment of myeloid cells with bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental estrogen, could regulate the p200-family proteins and activate innate immune responses. We found that treatment of murine bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with BPA induced the expression of ERα and IFN-β, activated the IFN-signaling, and stimulated the expression of the p202 and IFI16 proteins. Further, the treatment increased levels of the NLRP3 inflammasome and stimulated its activity. Accordingly, BPA-treatment of BMCs from non lupus-prone C57BL/6 and the lupus-prone (NZB×NZW)F1 mice activated the type I IFN-signaling, induced the expression of p202, and activated an inflammasome activity. Our study demonstrates that BPA-induced signaling in the murine and human myeloid cells stimulates the type I IFN-signaling that results in an induction of the p202 and IFI16 innate immune sensors for the cytosolic DNA and activates an inflammasome activity. These observations provide novel molecular insights into the role of environmental BPA exposures in potentiating the development of certain autoimmune diseases such as SLE.

  13. BPA and NP removal from municipal wastewater by tropical horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Toro-Vélez, A F; Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Varón, M R; Lee, W Y; Bezares-Cruz, J C; Walker, W S; Cárdenas-Henao, H; Quesada-Calderón, S; García-Hernández, H; Lens, P N L

    2016-01-15

    It has been recognized that numerous synthetic compounds like Bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenols (NP) are present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) at levels of parts per billion (μg L(-1)) or even parts per trillion (ng L(-1)) with a high potential to cause endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment. Constructed wetlands (CW) are a cost-effective wastewater treatment alternative with promising performance to treat these afore mentioned compounds. This research was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CW treatment of WWTP effluent for mitigating the effects endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). This research goal was accomplished by (1) quantifying the removal of BPA and NP in CWs; (2) isolating CW fungal strains and testing for laccase production; and (3) performing endocrine disruption (reproduction) bioassays using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Three pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF-CW) were operated for eight weeks: one planted with Phragmites australis; one planted with Heliconia psitacorum; and one unplanted. The Heliconia CW showed a removal efficiency of 73.3(± 19%) and 62.8(± 20.1%) for BPA and NP, respectively; while the Phragmites CW demonstrated a similar removal for BPA (70.2 ± 27%) and lower removal efficiency for NP 52.1(± 37.1%).The unplanted CW achieved 62.2 (± 33%) removal for BPA and 25.3(± 37%) removal for NP. Four of the eleven fungal strains isolated from the Heliconia-CW showed the capacity to produce laccase. Even though complete removal of EDCs was not achieved by the CWs, the bioassay confirmed a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in fly viability for all CWs, with Heliconia sp. being the most effective at mitigating adverse effects on first and second generational reproduction. This study showed that a CW planted with a native Heliconia sp. CW demonstrated a higher removal of endocrine disrupting compounds and better mitigation of reproductive disruption in the

  14. Determination of free Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in breast milk of U.S. women using a sensitive LC/MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Zimmers, Stephanie M; Browne, Eva P; O'Keefe, Patrick W; Anderton, Douglas L; Kramer, Lawrence; Reckhow, David A; Arcaro, Kathleen F

    2014-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic, endocrine-disrupting compound. Free BPA has been detected in human samples indicating that humans are internally exposed to estrogenically active BPA. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive method to detect free BPA in human breast milk. BPA was isolated from the milk of 21 nursing mothers in the U.S. by solid-phase extraction. It was then derivatized to improve sensitivity and subsequently analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free BPA was detected in 62% of the milk samples (≤ 0.22-10.8 ng mL(-1), median 0.68 ng mL(-1), mean 3.13 ng mL(-1)). No statistical difference in BPA concentrations was observed between women with a low or high Body Mass Index (BMI) (<30 (n=11) and>30 (n=10), respectively). However, there was a significant association between BPA concentration and race. Caucasian women had significantly higher levels of free BPA in their breast milk than non-Caucasian women (mean=4.44 (n=14) and 0.52 (n=7), respectively; p<0.05). The difference between races could be attributed to variations in exposure, lifestyle or metabolism and suggests that certain populations should take extra precautions to limit BPA exposure, particularly during pregnancy and lactation.

  15. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    PubMed

    Hormann, Annette M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  16. Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

    PubMed Central

    Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  17. A novel model for neuroendocrine toxicology: neurobehavioral effects of BPA exposure in a prosocial species, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Alana W; Beach, Elsworth C; Stetzik, Lucas A; Perry, Amy; D'Addezio, Alyssa S; Cushing, Bruce S; Patisaul, Heather B

    2014-10-01

    Impacts on brain and behavior have been reported in laboratory rodents after developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), raising concerns about possible human effects. Epidemiological data suggest links between prenatal BPA exposure and altered affective behaviors in children, but potential mechanisms are unclear. Disruption of mesolimbic oxytocin (OT)/vasopressin (AVP) pathways have been proposed, but supporting evidence is minimal. To address these data gaps, we employed a novel animal model for neuroendocrine toxicology: the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), which are more prosocial than lab rats or mice. Male and female prairie vole pups were orally exposed to 5-μg/kg body weight (bw)/d, 50-μg/kg bw/d, or 50-mg/kg bw/d BPA or vehicle over postnatal days 8-14. Subjects were tested as juveniles in open field and novel social tests and for partner preference as adults. Brains were then collected and assessed for immunoreactive (ir) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (a dopamine marker) neurons in the principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) and TH-ir, OT-ir, and AVP-ir neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Female open field activity indicated hyperactivity at the lowest dose and anxiety at the highest dose. Effects on social interactions were also observed, and partner preference formation was mildly inhibited at all dose levels. BPA masculinized principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis TH-ir neuron numbers in females. Additionally, 50-mg/kg bw BPA-exposed females had more AVP-ir neurons in the anterior PVN and fewer OT-ir neurons in the posterior PVN. At the 2 lowest doses, BPA eliminated sex differences in PVN TH-ir neuron numbers and reversed this sex difference at the highest dose. Minimal behavioral effects were observed in BPA-exposed males. These data support the hypothesis that BPA alters affective behaviors, potentially via disruption of OT/AVP pathways.

  18. BPA and phthalate fate in a sewage network and an elementary river of France. Influence of hydroclimatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich Chau; Teil, Marie Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to characterize the fate of bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalate contamination simultaneously in a sewage network and a watercourse, in relation with hydrological and climatic conditions. An elementary catchment of the Seine basin, receiving effluents from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), was chosen because of its basic hydrological features. BPA and DEHP concentrations in the WWTP inputs were 4 and 33 μg L(-1) whereas in the outputs, they were only 0.4 and 2 μg L(-1), respectively. Contaminant ratios in the suspended sediment phase of the WWTP inputs ranged from 0.5% to 88%, related to their molecular properties. BPA and phthalates were effectively removed in the WWTP (>90% for both compounds), by degradation and decantation. Upstream of the discharge, river concentrations ranged from 0.002 to 0.175 μg L(-1) for BPA and from 0.16 to 0.90 μg L(-1) for DEHP. Downstream from the WWTP outputs, concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.79 μg L(-1) for BPA and from 0.31 μg L(-1) to 1.7 μg L(-1) for DEHP: the WWTP discharge led to contaminant increases of 3.8 and 2 times, respectively. Far downstream, concentrations were lower ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 μg L(-1) for BPA and from 0.36 μg L(-1) to 1.1 μg L(-1) for DEHP. BPA and phthalates displayed opposite seasonal variations with a decrease for the first one and an increase for the second one during summer. BPA contamination in the Charmoise river derived mainly from the WWTP, while phthalate contamination was attributed to both WWTP discharges and diffuse sources such as atmospheric bulk deposition.

  19. BPA and phthalate fate in a sewage network and an elementary river of France. Influence of hydroclimatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich Chau; Teil, Marie Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to characterize the fate of bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalate contamination simultaneously in a sewage network and a watercourse, in relation with hydrological and climatic conditions. An elementary catchment of the Seine basin, receiving effluents from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), was chosen because of its basic hydrological features. BPA and DEHP concentrations in the WWTP inputs were 4 and 33 μg L(-1) whereas in the outputs, they were only 0.4 and 2 μg L(-1), respectively. Contaminant ratios in the suspended sediment phase of the WWTP inputs ranged from 0.5% to 88%, related to their molecular properties. BPA and phthalates were effectively removed in the WWTP (>90% for both compounds), by degradation and decantation. Upstream of the discharge, river concentrations ranged from 0.002 to 0.175 μg L(-1) for BPA and from 0.16 to 0.90 μg L(-1) for DEHP. Downstream from the WWTP outputs, concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.79 μg L(-1) for BPA and from 0.31 μg L(-1) to 1.7 μg L(-1) for DEHP: the WWTP discharge led to contaminant increases of 3.8 and 2 times, respectively. Far downstream, concentrations were lower ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 μg L(-1) for BPA and from 0.36 μg L(-1) to 1.1 μg L(-1) for DEHP. BPA and phthalates displayed opposite seasonal variations with a decrease for the first one and an increase for the second one during summer. BPA contamination in the Charmoise river derived mainly from the WWTP, while phthalate contamination was attributed to both WWTP discharges and diffuse sources such as atmospheric bulk deposition. PMID:24964009

  20. Is container type the biggest predictor of trace element and BPA leaching from drinking water bottles?

    PubMed

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Preud'Homme, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    The knowledge-base of bottled water leachate is highly contradictory due to varying methodologies and limited multi-elemental and/or molecular analyses; understanding the range of contaminants and their pathways is required. This study determined the leaching potential and leaching kinetics of trace elements, using consistent comprehensive quantitative and semi-quantitative (79 elements total) analyses, and BPA, using isotopic dilution and MEPS pre-concentration with UHPLC-ESI-QTOF. Statistical methods were used to determine confounders and predictors of leaching and human health risk throughout 12days of UV exposure and after exposure to elevated temperature. Various types of water were used to assess the impact of water quality. Results suggest Sb leaching is primarily dependent upon water quality, not container type. Bottle type is a predictor of elemental leaching for Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Sr; BPA was detected in samples from polycarbonate containers. Health risks from the consumption of bottled water increase after UV exposure.

  1. Tualang Honey Protects against BPA-Induced Morphological Abnormalities and Disruption of ERα, ERβ, and C3 mRNA and Protein Expressions in the Uterus of Rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Zaid, Siti Sarah; Kassim, Normadiah M; Othman, Shatrah

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties.

  2. Might iodomethyl-{alpha}-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with {sup 10}B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that {sup 10}B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing {sup 18}F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron {sup 18}F (T{sub 1/2} = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of {sup 123}I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT.

  3. Estrogenic Effects of Several BPA Analogs in the Developing Zebrafish Brain.

    PubMed

    Cano-Nicolau, Joel; Vaillant, Colette; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Charlier, Thierry D; Kah, Olivier; Coumailleau, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Important set of studies have demonstrated the endocrine disrupting activity of Bisphenol A (BPA). The present work aimed at defining estrogenic-like activity of several BPA structural analogs, including BPS, BPF, BPAF, and BPAP, on 4- or 7-day post-fertilization (dpf) zebrafish larva as an in vivo model. We measured the induction level of the estrogen-sensitive marker cyp19a1b gene (Aromatase B), expressed in the brain, using three different in situ/in vivo strategies: (1) Quantification of cyp19a1b transcripts using RT-qPCR in wild type 7-dpf larva brains exposed to bisphenols; (2) Detection and distribution of cyp19a1b transcripts using in situ hybridization on 7-dpf brain sections (hypothalamus); and (3) Quantification of the cyp19a1b promoter activity in live cyp19a1b-GFP transgenic zebrafish (EASZY assay) at 4-dpf larval stage. These three different experimental approaches demonstrated that BPS, BPF, or BPAF exposure, similarly to BPA, significantly activates the expression of the estrogenic marker in the brain of developing zebrafish. In vitro experiments using both reporter gene assay in a glial cell context and competitive ligand binding assays strongly suggested that up-regulation of cyp19a1b is largely mediated by the zebrafish estrogen nuclear receptor alpha (zfERα). Importantly, and in contrast to other tested bisphenol A analogs, the bisphenol AP (BPAP) did not show estrogenic activity in our model.

  4. Estrogenic Effects of Several BPA Analogs in the Developing Zebrafish Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Nicolau, Joel; Vaillant, Colette; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Charlier, Thierry D.; Kah, Olivier; Coumailleau, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Important set of studies have demonstrated the endocrine disrupting activity of Bisphenol A (BPA). The present work aimed at defining estrogenic-like activity of several BPA structural analogs, including BPS, BPF, BPAF, and BPAP, on 4- or 7-day post-fertilization (dpf) zebrafish larva as an in vivo model. We measured the induction level of the estrogen-sensitive marker cyp19a1b gene (Aromatase B), expressed in the brain, using three different in situ/in vivo strategies: (1) Quantification of cyp19a1b transcripts using RT-qPCR in wild type 7-dpf larva brains exposed to bisphenols; (2) Detection and distribution of cyp19a1b transcripts using in situ hybridization on 7-dpf brain sections (hypothalamus); and (3) Quantification of the cyp19a1b promoter activity in live cyp19a1b-GFP transgenic zebrafish (EASZY assay) at 4-dpf larval stage. These three different experimental approaches demonstrated that BPS, BPF, or BPAF exposure, similarly to BPA, significantly activates the expression of the estrogenic marker in the brain of developing zebrafish. In vitro experiments using both reporter gene assay in a glial cell context and competitive ligand binding assays strongly suggested that up-regulation of cyp19a1b is largely mediated by the zebrafish estrogen nuclear receptor alpha (zfERα). Importantly, and in contrast to other tested bisphenol A analogs, the bisphenol AP (BPAP) did not show estrogenic activity in our model. PMID:27047331

  5. Metabolism of borono-phenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-fr) and borocaptate sodium (BSH) in cancer patients--results from EORTC trial 11001.

    PubMed

    Bendel, Peter; Wittig, Andrea; Basilico, Fabrizio; Mauri, Pier Luigi; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Within the clinical trial EORTC 11001, patients were infused with (10)B-enriched borono-phenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-fr), or borocaptate sodium (BSH) solutions, which are used as boron carriers for boron neutron capture therapy. Urine samples were periodically collected and analyzed by (10)B NMR spectroscopy. The results revealed time-dependent metabolic changes of the administered compounds. BPA-fr dissociated to the constituents BPA and fructose, and the borate group was partly cleaved from BPA. BSH was partly aggregated to a dimer form, BSSB. These observations were previously reported for cultured cells and animal models, and are confirmed here in human cancer patients.

  6. The Molecular Mechanism of Bisphenol A (BPA) as an Endocrine Disruptor by Interacting with Nuclear Receptors: Insights from Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lanlan; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Yan; Niu, Yuzhen; Yao, Xiaojun; Liu, Huanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) can interact with nuclear receptors and affect the normal function of nuclear receptors in very low doses, which causes BPA to be one of the most controversial endocrine disruptors. However, the detailed molecular mechanism about how BPA interferes the normal function of nuclear receptors is still undiscovered. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the detailed interaction mechanism between BPA with three typical nuclear receptors, including hERα, hERRγ and hPPARγ. The simulation results and calculated binding free energies indicate that BPA can bind to these three nuclear receptors. The binding affinities of BPA were slightly lower than that of E2 to these three receptors. The simulation results proved that the binding process was mainly driven by direct hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, structural analysis suggested that BPA could interact with these nuclear receptors by mimicking the action of natural hormone and keeping the nuclear receptors in active conformations. The present work provided the structural evidence to recognize BPA as an endocrine disruptor and would be important guidance for seeking safer substitutions of BPA. PMID:25799048

  7. The molecular mechanism of bisphenol A (BPA) as an endocrine disruptor by interacting with nuclear receptors: insights from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanlan; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Yan; Niu, Yuzhen; Yao, Xiaojun; Liu, Huanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) can interact with nuclear receptors and affect the normal function of nuclear receptors in very low doses, which causes BPA to be one of the most controversial endocrine disruptors. However, the detailed molecular mechanism about how BPA interferes the normal function of nuclear receptors is still undiscovered. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the detailed interaction mechanism between BPA with three typical nuclear receptors, including hERα, hERRγ and hPPARγ. The simulation results and calculated binding free energies indicate that BPA can bind to these three nuclear receptors. The binding affinities of BPA were slightly lower than that of E2 to these three receptors. The simulation results proved that the binding process was mainly driven by direct hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, structural analysis suggested that BPA could interact with these nuclear receptors by mimicking the action of natural hormone and keeping the nuclear receptors in active conformations. The present work provided the structural evidence to recognize BPA as an endocrine disruptor and would be important guidance for seeking safer substitutions of BPA.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) using immobilized TiO2 and UV illumination in a horizontal circulating bed photocatalytic reactor (HCBPR).

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongchang; Ren, Dianjun; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Yalei; Zhao, Jianfu

    2009-09-30

    Photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and ultraviolet (UV) illumination was performed in a self-designed horizontal circulating bed photocatalytic reactor (HCBPR). TiO(2) catalyst was immobilized on the surface of polyurethane foam (PF) cubes via microwave-assisted liquid phase deposition. The effects of initial BPA concentration, initial pH, TiO(2) dosage and temperature on BPA photodegradation were investigated in order to obtain the optimum operational conditions. The results reveal that the BPA degradation efficiency can be effectively improved by increasing pH from 3.4 to 12.3 or decreasing the initial BPA concentration from 50 to 10 ppm. The optimum TiO(2) carrier dosage (the ratio of the volume of PF carriers to the effective reaction volume of HCBPR) was about 1%. Besides, the effect of temperature on BPA photodegradation was found to be unremarkable in the range of 21.2-30.5 degrees C. Total organic carbon (TOC) was used to evaluate the mineralization of BPA during the photodegradation process. Under the optimum conditions, 95% removal of TOC and 97% removal of BPA can be achieved after 6h of UV radiation, which demonstrates the high photodegradation efficiency of BPA in HCBPR. PMID:19500904

  9. BPA and NP removal from municipal wastewater by tropical horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Toro-Vélez, A F; Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Varón, M R; Lee, W Y; Bezares-Cruz, J C; Walker, W S; Cárdenas-Henao, H; Quesada-Calderón, S; García-Hernández, H; Lens, P N L

    2016-01-15

    It has been recognized that numerous synthetic compounds like Bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenols (NP) are present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) at levels of parts per billion (μg L(-1)) or even parts per trillion (ng L(-1)) with a high potential to cause endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment. Constructed wetlands (CW) are a cost-effective wastewater treatment alternative with promising performance to treat these afore mentioned compounds. This research was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CW treatment of WWTP effluent for mitigating the effects endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). This research goal was accomplished by (1) quantifying the removal of BPA and NP in CWs; (2) isolating CW fungal strains and testing for laccase production; and (3) performing endocrine disruption (reproduction) bioassays using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Three pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF-CW) were operated for eight weeks: one planted with Phragmites australis; one planted with Heliconia psitacorum; and one unplanted. The Heliconia CW showed a removal efficiency of 73.3(± 19%) and 62.8(± 20.1%) for BPA and NP, respectively; while the Phragmites CW demonstrated a similar removal for BPA (70.2 ± 27%) and lower removal efficiency for NP 52.1(± 37.1%).The unplanted CW achieved 62.2 (± 33%) removal for BPA and 25.3(± 37%) removal for NP. Four of the eleven fungal strains isolated from the Heliconia-CW showed the capacity to produce laccase. Even though complete removal of EDCs was not achieved by the CWs, the bioassay confirmed a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in fly viability for all CWs, with Heliconia sp. being the most effective at mitigating adverse effects on first and second generational reproduction. This study showed that a CW planted with a native Heliconia sp. CW demonstrated a higher removal of endocrine disrupting compounds and better mitigation of reproductive disruption in the

  10. A high selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantization of BPA urinary levels in children.

    PubMed

    Nicolucci, Carla; Rossi, Sergio; Menale, Ciro; del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Perrone, Laura; Gallo, Pasquale; Mita, Damiano G; Diano, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    A selective and highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for determination of Bisphenol A (BPA) in human urine using labeled d6-BPA as internal standard. BPA was purified from human urine by affinity chromatography on solid extraction AFFINIMIP® Bisphenol A cartridges, based on molecularly imprinted polymers. After purification, the samples were analyzed on a Phenomenex Kinetex 100 × 4.6 mm, 2.6 μm particle PFP reversed-phase HPLC column, coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer by an electrospray ion source. Analyses were performed in the multiple reaction monitoring mode and negative ionization; the product ions at 133.2 and 212.1 m/z for BPA and at 138.2 and 215.0 m/z for d6-BPA were monitored to assess unambiguous identification. The linearity of the detector response was verified in human urine over the concentration range 0.100-200 ng/mL. The detection limit was calculated as 0.03 ng/mL and the limit of quantification of the method is 0.10 ng/mL. This LC/ESI-MS/MS method was in-house validated evaluating specificity, trueness, within-day and between-days precision. The mean recoveries of BPA from spiked urine samples were higher than 94% and good reproducibility (relative standard deviations ≤ 8.1%) was observed. The developed method was applied to a pilot study involving 105 children, aged from 6 to 14 years (16 normal weight and 89 obese children), from the Regione Campania (Southern Italy). The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of BPA in urine of children and possible correlations with childhood obesity.

  11. Temporal trends in bisphenol A exposure in the United States from 2003-2012 and factors associated with BPA exposure: Spot samples and urine dilution complicate data interpretation.

    PubMed

    LaKind, Judy S; Naiman, Daniel Q

    2015-10-01

    Nationally representative data on urinary levels of BPA and its metabolites in the United States from the 2003-2004 to 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to estimate daily BPA intakes and examine temporal trends. Additionally, NHANES data on lifestyle/demographic/dietary factors previously reported to be associated with BPA exposures were examined to assess the resiliency of the reported associations (whether the association is maintained across the five surveys). Finally, various approaches for addressing issues with the use of BPA concentration data from spot urine samples were examined for their effect on trends and associations. Three approaches were assessed here: (i) use of generic literature-based 24-h urine excretion volumes, (ii) use of creatinine adjustments, and (iii) use of individual urine flow rate data from NHANES. Based on 2011-2012 NHANES urinary BPA data and assumptions described in this paper, the median daily intake for the overall population is approximately 25 ng/kg day; median intake estimates were approximately two to three orders of magnitude below current health-based guidance values. Estimates of daily BPA intake have decreased significantly compared to those from the 2003-2004 NHANES. Estimates of associations between lifestyle/demographic/dietary factors and BPA exposure revealed inconsistencies related to both NHANES survey year and the three approaches listed above; these results demonstrate the difficulties in interpreting urinary BPA data, despite efforts to account for urine dilution and translation of spot sample data to 24-h data. The results further underscore the importance of continued research on how to best utilize urinary measures of environmental chemicals in exposure research. Until a consensus is achieved regarding the best biomonitoring approaches for assessing exposures to short-lived chemicals using urine samples, research on factors associated with BPA exposures should

  12. Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in Wistar rats reduces sperm quality with disruption of ERK signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Mao, Rui; Zhou, Qin; Ding, Ling; Tao, Jin; Ran, Mao-Mei; Gao, Er-Sheng; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Jin-Tao; Hou, Li-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic environmental toxin widely used in the production of plastics and ubiquitous human exposure to this chemical has been proposed to be a potential risk to human health. Exposure to BPA can negatively impact sperm quality. However, the mechanism remains largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of BPA on sperm quality and explore the possible mechanisms. The Wistar male rats (aged 28 days) were administered BPA by oral gavage for 28 days at dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day; meanwhile, the negative control with corn oil (0 mg/kg/day BPA) and positive control with E2 at the dose of 100 μg/kg/day. The sperm density, sperm activity and sperm survival rate were analyzed byCASA system, and the sperm abnormality rate was analyzed by improved Papanicolaou stained. The protein expression levels of Src/p-Src, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and CREB/p-CREB were detected by Western bolt. The results showed that the body weight gain, testes weight, testis coefficient, sperm density, sperm activity, sperm survival rate and protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB decreased, but the sperm abnormality rate increased with increasing BPA concentrations. There were positive correlations between sperm density, sperm activity and sperm survival rate with protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB, and negative correlations between sperm abnormality rate with the protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB. Results from the structural equation model demonstrated that BPA retained a significant negative effect to p-ERK, whereas p-ERK retained a significant positive effect to sperm quality and acted as the mediate variable. This study provides a novel insight regarding the potential role of p-ERK1 and p-ERK2 protein kinase on reproductive toxicity of BPA. The adverse effects of BPA on adult male sperm quality may be through the induction of the disruption of ERK signal pathway. However, additional

  13. Proposed Revenues, Financial Strategy, and Program Costs for FY 1992 and 1993 : Technical Appendix, BPA Programs in Perspective.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-07-01

    Programs in Perspective is the Bonneville Power Administration's public involvement process (PIP) for engaging customers and other stakeholders in a regional dialog to set strategic direction and broad program plans for BPA effort. This planning leads into a biennial rate setting cycle and offers a more accessible and flexible opportunity for dialog on broad issues than is possible under the strict administrative procedures of ratemaking. The self-financed character of BPA has made this public process a necessary and valuable one to assure that those who pay BPA's rates have a clear understanding and a strong voice in the plans for use of the resulting revenues. During 1989, the previous PIP engaged the region in discussion of major strategic, issues focussing on major areas. In 1990, BPA seeks discussion of the directions and plans specifically for fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The steps taken for those years will lay the foundation for the years beyond. Thus, we have subtitled this year's process, Staying fit for the long run.'' We have consulted extensively with customers and others in the region in developing these plans. In dozens of program--specific meetings, BPA staff have talked and listened to what others think our plans ought to be. PIP now gives us a chance to review their sum total, along with projections for revenues and our overall financial position. 8 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. Bacterial Proteasome Activator Bpa (Rv3780) Is a Novel Ring-Shaped Interactor of the Mycobacterial Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Delley, Cyrille L.; Laederach, Juerg; Ziemski, Michal; Bolten, Marcel; Boehringer, Daniel; Weber-Ban, Eilika

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of the proteasome in bacteria is limited to the phylum of actinobacteria, where it is maintained in parallel to the usual bacterial compartmentalizing proteases. The role it plays in these organisms is still not fully understood, but in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) the proteasome supports persistence in the host. In complex with the ring-shaped ATPase Mpa (called ARC in other actinobacteria), the proteasome can degrade proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup. Unlike for the eukaryotic proteasome core particle, no other bacterial proteasome interactors have been identified to date. Here we describe and characterize a novel bacterial proteasome activator of Mycobacterium tuberculosis we termed Bpa (Rv3780), using a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods. Bpa features a canonical C-terminal proteasome interaction motif referred to as the HbYX motif, and its orthologs are only found in those actinobacteria encoding the proteasomal subunits. Bpa can inhibit degradation of Pup-tagged substrates in vitro by competing with Mpa for association with the proteasome. Using negative-stain electron microscopy, we show that Bpa forms a ring-shaped homooligomer that can bind coaxially to the face of the proteasome cylinder. Interestingly, Bpa can stimulate the proteasomal degradation of the model substrate β-casein, which suggests it could play a role in the removal of non-native or damaged proteins. PMID:25469515

  15. Unusually high levels of bisphenol A (BPA) in thermal paper cash register receipts (CRs): development and application of a robust LC-UV method to quantify BPA in CRs.

    PubMed

    Babu, Sainath; Uppu, Sannihith N; Martin, Brittany; Agu, Ogad A; Uppu, Rao M

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a simple, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in thermal paper cash register receipts (CRs). The method is suitable for analysis of other types of bisphenols and it involves an overnight extraction of CRs with acetonitrile (AN) at 50 °C followed by the HPLC analysis on a Supelcosil LC18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, particle size: 5 μ) using 50% AN in water as the mobile phase (5 min, isocratic). The composition of AN in the mobile phase changed to 100% over a 10 min period (linear gradient) and then held at 100% AN for 10 min (isocratic). The flow rate was set at 1 mL/min (injection volume: 20 μL) and the eluent was monitored at 234 nm. The authentic BPA eluted with a retention time of 5.9 min and gave a linear detector response in the concentration range of 0.23-50 mg/L. BPA in the CR extracts also eluted with the same retention and had identical absorbance properties as the standard. When CR extracts were co-injected with authentic BPA, they were resolved as a single peak. Further, GC/MS/EI analysis of authentic BPA and the HPLC-purified CR extracts have identical ion chromatograms and fragmentation of the molecular ion (m/z = 228). We have analyzed 170 CRs collected from 62 different vendors including supermarkets, fast food restaurants, gas stations and banking outlets. Almost all cash receipts (n = 168) showed the presence of BPA in the concentration range of 0.45-4.26% (M ± SD, 1.54 ± 0.73%).

  16. EVALUATION OF ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS, PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING AND UTERINE TISSUE DOSE METRICS OF BPA: A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, both of which are used in food contact applications. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of BPA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans was developed t...

  17. EVALUATION OF ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS, PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING AND UTERINE TISSUE DOSE METRICS OF BPA: A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, both of which are used in food contact applications. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of BPA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans was developed ...

  18. Comparative study of the effect of BPA and its selected analogues on hemoglobin oxidation, morphological alterations and hemolytic changes in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Maćczak, Aneta; Bukowska, Bożena; Michałowicz, Jaromir

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to provoke many deleterious impacts on human health, and thus it is now successively substituted by BPA analogues, whose effects have been poorly investigated. Up to now, only one study has been realized to assess the effect of BPA on human erythrocytes, which showed its significant hemolytic and oxidative potential. Moreover, no study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of BPA analogues on red blood cells. The purpose of the present study was to compare the impact of BPA and its selected analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on hemolytic and morphological changes and hemoglobin oxidation (methemoglobin formation) of human erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were incubated with different bisphenols concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 500μg/ml for 1, 4 and 24h. The compounds examined caused hemolysis in human erythrocytes with BPAF exhibiting the strongest effect. All bisphenols examined caused methemoglobin formation with BPA inducing the strongest oxidative potential. Flow cytometry analysis showed that all bisphenols (excluding BPS) induced significant changes in erythrocytes size. Changes in red blood cells shape were conducted using phase contrast microscopy. It was noticed that BPA and BPAF induced echinocytosis, BPF caused stomatocytosis, while BPS did not provoke significant changes in shape of red blood cells. Generally, the results showed that BPS, which is the main substituent of bisphenol A in polymers and thermal paper production, exhibited significantly lower disturbance of erythrocyte functions than BPA.

  19. Cu-PDC-bpa solid coordination frameworks (PDC=2,5-pyrindinedicarboxylate; bpa=1,2-DI(4-pyridil)ethane)): 2D and 3D structural flexibility producing a 3-c herringbone array next to ideal

    SciTech Connect

    Llano-Tomé, Francisco; Bazán, Begoña; Urtiaga, Miren-Karmele; Barandika, Gotzone; Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez, M.; and others

    2015-10-15

    Combination of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce solid coordination frameworks (SCF) which are crystalline materials based on connections between metal ions through organic ligands. In this context, this work is focused on two novel Cu{sup II}-based SCFs exhibiting PDC (2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) and bpa (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane), being the first structures reported in literature containing both ligands. Chemical formula are [Cu{sub 2}[(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O·DMF (1), and [Cu{sub 2}(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·7H{sub 2}O (2), where DMF is dimethylformamide. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 can be described as herringbone-type layers formed by helicoidal Cu-PDC-Cu chains connected through bpa ligands. Solvent molecules are crystallized between the layers, providing the inter-layer connections through hydrogen bonds. Differences between both compounds are attributable to the flexibility of bpa (in 2D) as well as to the 3D packing of the layers which is solvent dependent. This fact results in the fact that compound 2 is the most regular 3-c herringbone array reported so far. The structural dynamism of these networks is responsible for the crystalline to-amorphous to-crystalline (CAC) transformation from compound 1 to compound 2. Crystallochemical features for both compounds have also been studied and compared to similar 3-connected herringbone-arrays. - Graphical abstract: Cu-PDC-bpa 3-c herringbone arrays. - Highlights: • The most ideal herringbone array reported so far is a Cu-PDC-bpa SCF. • Conformational freedom of bpa results in 2D and 3D flexibility of the SCFs. • The flexibility of the SCFs is related to a phase transformation. • Dielectric

  20. BPA Instream Habitat Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999-2001 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2002-10-23

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern WA. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve, because no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps Members have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, southeastern Washington had been dealing with endangered fall and spring chinook salmon since 1994. The Asotin Creek In-Stream Habitat Project teamed BPA and Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding on four instream habitat projects in the Asotin Creek Watershed. These projects provide complex instream habitat for steelhead, bull trout and spring chinook in the stream. 38 pools were

  1. BPA exposure during in vitro oocyte maturation results in dose-dependent alterations to embryo development rates, apoptosis rate, sex ratio and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Jacqueline; Mahboubi, Kiana; MacLusky, Neil; King, W Allan; Favetta, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the oocyte's environment can negatively affect embryo development. Oocyte quality, which can determine embryonic viability, is easily perturbed, thus factors affecting normal oocyte maturation are a concern. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical that elicits a variety of reproductive effects. BPA has previously been found to disrupt meiosis, however the embryonic effects in mammals are not well documented. Here, bovine oocytes were matured in vitro with and without BPA treatment. Resulting embryos exhibited decreased embryonic development rates, increased apoptosis, and a skewed sex ratio. Gene expression in blastocysts was not altered, whereas treatment with 15ng/mL BPA resulted in increased expression of several of the genes studies, however this increase was largely due to a vehicle effect. BPA exposure during oocyte maturation in vitro can therefore, in a dose-dependent way, decrease oocyte and embryo quality and developmental potential and affect gene expression of developmentally important transcripts.

  2. Paternal BPA exposure in early life alters Igf2 epigenetic status in sperm and induces pancreatic impairment in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhenxing; Xia, Wei; Chang, Huailong; Huo, Wenqian; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors in utero appears to alter epigenetics in the male germ-line and subsequently promote adult-onset disease in subsequent generations. Fetal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a highly prevalent endocrine disruptor in environment, has been shown to alter epigenetic modification and result in glucose intolerance in adulthood. However, whether fetal exposure to BPA can induce epigenetic modification and phenotypic changes in their subsequent offspring are still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to BPA in early life induced glucose intolerance in the offspring through male germ line, and the underlying epigenetic molecular basis. F0 pregnant SD rats were received corn oil or 40 μg/kg/day of BPA during gestation and lactation. F1 male rats were maintained to generate F2 offspring by mating with untreated female rats. Both the F1 rats after weaning and the F2 offspring were not received any other treatments. Our results showed that male F2 offspring in the BPA group exhibited glucose intolerance and β-cell dysfunction. Decreased expression of Igf2 and associated hypermethylation of Igf2 were observed in islets of male F2 offspring. In addition, similar effects were observed in female F2 animals, but the effects were more pronounced in males. Moreover, abnormal expression and methylation of Igf2 was observed in sperm of adult F1 male rats, indicating that epigenetic modification in germ cells can be partly progressed to the next generation. Overall, our study suggests that BPA exposure during early life can result in generational transmission of glucose intolerance and β-cell dysfunction in the offspring through male germ line, which is associated with hypermethylation of Igf2 in islets. The changes of epigenetics in germ cells may contribute to this generational transmission. PMID:26276081

  3. Paternal BPA exposure in early life alters Igf2 epigenetic status in sperm and induces pancreatic impairment in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhenxing; Xia, Wei; Chang, Huailong; Huo, Wenqian; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors in utero appears to alter epigenetics in the male germ-line and subsequently promote adult-onset disease in subsequent generations. Fetal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a highly prevalent endocrine disruptor in environment, has been shown to alter epigenetic modification and result in glucose intolerance in adulthood. However, whether fetal exposure to BPA can induce epigenetic modification and phenotypic changes in their subsequent offspring are still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to BPA in early life induced glucose intolerance in the offspring through male germ line, and the underlying epigenetic molecular basis. F0 pregnant SD rats were received corn oil or 40 μg/kg/day of BPA during gestation and lactation. F1 male rats were maintained to generate F2 offspring by mating with untreated female rats. Both the F1 rats after weaning and the F2 offspring were not received any other treatments. Our results showed that male F2 offspring in the BPA group exhibited glucose intolerance and β-cell dysfunction. Decreased expression of Igf2 and associated hypermethylation of Igf2 were observed in islets of male F2 offspring. In addition, similar effects were observed in female F2 animals, but the effects were more pronounced in males. Moreover, abnormal expression and methylation of Igf2 was observed in sperm of adult F1 male rats, indicating that epigenetic modification in germ cells can be partly progressed to the next generation. Overall, our study suggests that BPA exposure during early life can result in generational transmission of glucose intolerance and β-cell dysfunction in the offspring through male germ line, which is associated with hypermethylation of Igf2 in islets. The changes of epigenetics in germ cells may contribute to this generational transmission.

  4. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  5. Adverse effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the dopamine system in two distinct cell models and corpus striatum of the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Brittney A; Hamada, Matt A; Robinson, Gina Y; Jones, Douglas C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the brain dopamine (DA) system utilizing both in vitro models (GH3 cells, a rat pituitary cell line, and SH-SY5Y cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line) and an animal model such as Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. First, cellular DA uptake was measured 2 or 8 h following BPA exposure (0.1-400 μM) in SH-SY5Y cells, where a significant increase in DA uptake was noted. BPA exerted no marked effect on dopamine active transporter levels in GH3 cells exposed for 8 or 24 h. However, SH-SY5Y cells displayed an increase in dopamine transporter (DAT) levels following 24 h of exposure to BPA. In contrast to DAT levels, BPA exposure produced no marked effect on DA D1 receptor levels in SH-SY5Y cells, yet a significant decrease in GH3 cells following both 8- and 24-h exposure periods was noted, suggesting that BPA exerts differential effects dependent upon cell type. BPA produced no significant effects on prolactin levels at 2 h, but a marked fall occurred at 24 h of exposure in GH3 cells. Finally, to examine the influence of dietary developmental exposure to BPA on brain DA levels in F1 offspring, SD rats were exposed to BPA (0.5-20 mg/kg) through maternal transfer and/or diet and striatal DA levels were measured on postnatal day (PND) 60 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data demonstrated that chronic exposure to BPA did not significantly alter striatal DA levels in the SD rat. PMID:27494678

  6. Adverse effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the dopamine system in two distinct cell models and corpus striatum of the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Brittney A; Hamada, Matt A; Robinson, Gina Y; Jones, Douglas C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the brain dopamine (DA) system utilizing both in vitro models (GH3 cells, a rat pituitary cell line, and SH-SY5Y cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line) and an animal model such as Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. First, cellular DA uptake was measured 2 or 8 h following BPA exposure (0.1-400 μM) in SH-SY5Y cells, where a significant increase in DA uptake was noted. BPA exerted no marked effect on dopamine active transporter levels in GH3 cells exposed for 8 or 24 h. However, SH-SY5Y cells displayed an increase in dopamine transporter (DAT) levels following 24 h of exposure to BPA. In contrast to DAT levels, BPA exposure produced no marked effect on DA D1 receptor levels in SH-SY5Y cells, yet a significant decrease in GH3 cells following both 8- and 24-h exposure periods was noted, suggesting that BPA exerts differential effects dependent upon cell type. BPA produced no significant effects on prolactin levels at 2 h, but a marked fall occurred at 24 h of exposure in GH3 cells. Finally, to examine the influence of dietary developmental exposure to BPA on brain DA levels in F1 offspring, SD rats were exposed to BPA (0.5-20 mg/kg) through maternal transfer and/or diet and striatal DA levels were measured on postnatal day (PND) 60 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data demonstrated that chronic exposure to BPA did not significantly alter striatal DA levels in the SD rat.

  7. Sex specific impact of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure over a range of orally administered doses on rat hypothalamic sexual differentiation

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Katherine A.; Jones, Brian; Mabrey, Natalie; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H.; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical used in polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, thermal paper receipts, and other household products. The neural effects of early life BPA exposure, particularly to low doses administered orally, remain unclear. Thus, to better characterize the dose range over which BPA alters sex specific neuroanatomy, we examined the impact of perinatal BPA exposure on two sexually dimorphic regions in the anterior hypothalamus, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and the anterioventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Both are sexually differentiated by estradiol and play a role in sex specific reproductive physiology and behavior. Long Evans rats were prenatally exposed to 10, 100, 1000, 10,000 mg/kg bw/day BPA through daily, noninvasive oral administration of dosed-cookies to the dams. Offspring were reared to adulthood. Their brains were collected and immunolabeled for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the AVPV and calbindin (CALB) in the SDN-POA. We observed decreased TH-ir cell numbers in the female AVPV across all exposure groups, an effect indicative of masculinization. In males, AVPV TH-ir cell numbers were significantly reduced in only the BPA 10 and BPA 10,000 groups. SDN-POA endpoints were unaltered in females but in males SDN-POA volume was significantly lower in all BPA exposure groups. CALB-ir was significantly lower in all but the BPA 1000 group. These effects are consistent with demasculinization. Collectively these data demonstrate that early life oral exposure to BPA at levels well below the current No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 50 mg/kg/day can alter sex specific hypothalamic morphology in the rat. PMID:23500335

  8. Is container type the biggest predictor of trace element and BPA leaching from drinking water bottles?

    PubMed

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Preud'Homme, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    The knowledge-base of bottled water leachate is highly contradictory due to varying methodologies and limited multi-elemental and/or molecular analyses; understanding the range of contaminants and their pathways is required. This study determined the leaching potential and leaching kinetics of trace elements, using consistent comprehensive quantitative and semi-quantitative (79 elements total) analyses, and BPA, using isotopic dilution and MEPS pre-concentration with UHPLC-ESI-QTOF. Statistical methods were used to determine confounders and predictors of leaching and human health risk throughout 12days of UV exposure and after exposure to elevated temperature. Various types of water were used to assess the impact of water quality. Results suggest Sb leaching is primarily dependent upon water quality, not container type. Bottle type is a predictor of elemental leaching for Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Sr; BPA was detected in samples from polycarbonate containers. Health risks from the consumption of bottled water increase after UV exposure. PMID:26920269

  9. Mechanistic study of photo-oxidation of Bisphenol-A (BPA) with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (SPS).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyoti; Mishra, I M; Kumar, Vineet

    2016-01-15

    The removal of Bisphenol-A (BPA) from contaminated water using advanced oxidation methods such as UV-C assisted oxidation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (SPS) has been reported by the authors earlier (Sharma et al., 2015a). In the present study, the authors report the removal of BPA from aqueous solution by the above two methods and its degradation mechanism. UV-C light (254 nm wavelength, 40 W power) was applied to BPA contaminated water at natural pH (pHN) under room temperature conditions. Experiments were carried out with the initial BPA concentration in the range of 0.04 mM-0.31 mM and the oxidant/BPA molar ratio in the range of 294:1-38:1 for UV-C/H2O2 and 31.5-4.06:1 for UV-C/SPS systems. The removal of BPA enhanced with decreasing BPA concentration. The total organic carbon also decreased with the UV-C irradiation time under optimum conditions ([H2O2]0 = 11.76 mM; [SPS]0 = 1.26 mM; temperature (29 ± 3 °C). Competition of BPA for reaction with HO or [Formula: see text] radicals at its higher concentrations results in a decrease in the removal of BPA. The intermediates with smaller and higher molecular weights than that of BPA were found in the treated water. Based on GC-MS and FTIR spectra of the reaction mixture, the formation of hydroxylated by-products testified the HO mediated oxidation pathway in the BPA degradation, while the formation of quinones and phenoxy phenols pointed to the [Formula: see text] dominating pathway through the formation of hydroxycyclohexadienyl (HCHD) and BPA phenoxyl radicals. The main route of BPA degradation is the hydroxylation followed by dehydration, coupling and ring opening reactions.

  10. Mechanistic study of photo-oxidation of Bisphenol-A (BPA) with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (SPS).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyoti; Mishra, I M; Kumar, Vineet

    2016-01-15

    The removal of Bisphenol-A (BPA) from contaminated water using advanced oxidation methods such as UV-C assisted oxidation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (SPS) has been reported by the authors earlier (Sharma et al., 2015a). In the present study, the authors report the removal of BPA from aqueous solution by the above two methods and its degradation mechanism. UV-C light (254 nm wavelength, 40 W power) was applied to BPA contaminated water at natural pH (pHN) under room temperature conditions. Experiments were carried out with the initial BPA concentration in the range of 0.04 mM-0.31 mM and the oxidant/BPA molar ratio in the range of 294:1-38:1 for UV-C/H2O2 and 31.5-4.06:1 for UV-C/SPS systems. The removal of BPA enhanced with decreasing BPA concentration. The total organic carbon also decreased with the UV-C irradiation time under optimum conditions ([H2O2]0 = 11.76 mM; [SPS]0 = 1.26 mM; temperature (29 ± 3 °C). Competition of BPA for reaction with HO or [Formula: see text] radicals at its higher concentrations results in a decrease in the removal of BPA. The intermediates with smaller and higher molecular weights than that of BPA were found in the treated water. Based on GC-MS and FTIR spectra of the reaction mixture, the formation of hydroxylated by-products testified the HO mediated oxidation pathway in the BPA degradation, while the formation of quinones and phenoxy phenols pointed to the [Formula: see text] dominating pathway through the formation of hydroxycyclohexadienyl (HCHD) and BPA phenoxyl radicals. The main route of BPA degradation is the hydroxylation followed by dehydration, coupling and ring opening reactions. PMID:26468603

  11. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular-scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

    PubMed

    Chandra, S; Ahmad, T; Barth, R F; Kabalka, G W

    2014-06-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer depends on the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron-10 ((10)B) atoms to individual tumour cells. Cell killing results from the (10)B (n, α)(7) Li neutron capture and fission reactions that occur if a sufficient number of (10)B atoms are localized in the tumour cells. Intranuclear (10)B localization enhances the efficiency of cell killing via damage to the DNA. The net cellular content of (10)B atoms reflects both bound and free pools of boron in individual tumour cells. The assessment of these pools, delivered by a boron delivery agent, currently cannot be made at subcellular-scale resolution by clinically applicable techniques such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, a secondary ion mass spectrometry based imaging instrument, a CAMECA IMS 3f ion microscope, capable of 500 nm spatial resolution was employed. Cryogenically prepared cultured human T98G glioblastoma cells were evaluated for boron uptake and retention of two delivery agents. The first, L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used clinically for BNCT of high-grade gliomas, recurrent tumours of the head and neck region and melanomas. The second, a boron analogue of an unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC), has been studied in rodent glioma and melanoma models by quantification of boron in the nucleus and cytoplasm of individual tumour cells. The bound and free pools of boron were assessed by exposure of cells to boron-free nutrient medium. Both BPA and cis-ABCPC delivered almost 70% of the pool of boron in the free or loosely bound form to the nucleus and cytoplasm of human glioblastoma cells. This free pool of boron could be easily mobilized out of the cell and was in some sort of equilibrium with extracellular boron. In the case of BPA, the intracellular free pool of boron also was affected by the presence of phenylalanine in the nutrient medium. This

  12. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, S.; Ahmad, T.; Barth, R. F.; Kabalka, G. W.

    2014-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer depends on the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron-10 (10B) atoms to individual tumor cells. Cell killing results from the 10B (n, α)7Li neutron capture and fission reactions that occur if a sufficient number of 10B atoms are localized in the tumor cells. Intranuclear 10B localization enhances the efficiency of cell killing via damage to the DNA. The net cellular content of 10B atoms reflects both bound and free pools of boron in individual tumor cells. The assessment of these pools, delivered by a boron delivery agent, currently cannot be made at subcellular scale resolution by clinically applicable techniques such as PET and MRI. In this study, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based imaging instrument, a CAMECA IMS 3f ion microscope, capable of 500 nm spatial resolution was employed. Cryogenically prepared cultured human T98G glioblastoma cells were evaluated for boron uptake and retention of two delivery agents. The first, L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used clinically for BNCT of high grade gliomas, recurrent tumors of the head and neck region and melanomas. The second, a boron analogue of an unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC), has been studied in rodent glioma and melanoma models by quantification of boron in the nucleus and cytoplasm of individual tumor cells. The bound and free pools of boron were assessed by exposure of cells to boron-free nutrient medium. Both BPA and cis-ABCPC delivered almost 70% of the pool of boron in the free or loosely bound form to the nucleus and cytoplasm of human glioblastoma cells. This free pool of boron could be easily mobilized out of the cell and was in some sort of equilibrium with extracellular boron. In the case of BPA, the intracellular free pool of boron also was affected by the presence of phenylalanine in the nutrient medium. This suggests that it might be advantageous if patients were placed on a

  13. Biodistribution and subcellular localization of an unnatural boron-containing amino acid (cis-ABCPC) by imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for neutron capture therapy of melanomas and gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Subhash; Barth, Rolf F; Haider, Syed A; Yang, Weilian; Huo, Tianyao; Shaikh, Aarif L; Kabalka, George W

    2013-01-01

    The development of new boron-delivery agents is a high priority for improving the effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy. In the present study, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC) as a mixture of its L- and D-enantiomers was evaluated in vivo using the B16 melanoma model for the human tumor and the F98 rat glioma as a model for human gliomas. A secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based imaging instrument, CAMECA IMS 3F SIMS Ion Microscope, was used for quantitative imaging of boron at 500 nm spatial resolution. Both in vivo and in vitro studies in melanoma models demonstrated that boron was localized in the cytoplasm and nuclei with some cell-to-cell variability. Uptake of cis-ABCPC in B16 cells was time dependent with a 7.5:1 partitioning ratio of boron between cell nuclei and the nutrient medium after 4 hrs. incubation. Furthermore, cis-ABCPC delivered boron to cells in all phases of the cell cycle, including S-phase. In vivo SIMS studies using the F98 rat glioma model revealed an 8:1 boron partitioning ratio between the main tumor mass and normal brain tissue with a 5:1 ratio between infiltrating tumor cells and contiguous normal brain. Since cis-ABCPC is water soluble and can cross the blood-brain-barrier via the L-type amino acid transporters (LAT), it may accumulate preferentially in infiltrating tumor cells in normal brain due to up-regulation of LAT in high grade gliomas. Once trapped inside the tumor cell, cis-ABCPC cannot be metabolized and remains either in a free pool or bound to cell matrix components. The significant improvement in boron uptake by both the main tumor mass and infiltrating tumor cells compared to those reported in animal and clinical studies of p-boronophenylalanine strongly suggest that cis-ABCPC has the potential to become a novel new boron delivery agent for neutron capture therapy of gliomas and melanomas.

  14. Biodistribution and Subcellular Localization of an Unnatural Boron-Containing Amino Acid (Cis-ABCPC) by Imaging Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Neutron Capture Therapy of Melanomas and Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Subhash; Barth, Rolf F.; Haider, Syed A.; Yang, Weilian; Huo, Tianyao; Shaikh, Aarif L.; Kabalka, George W.

    2013-01-01

    The development of new boron-delivery agents is a high priority for improving the effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy. In the present study, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC) as a mixture of its L- and D- enantiomers was evaluated in vivo using the B16 melanoma model for the human tumor and the F98 rat glioma as a model for human gliomas. A secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based imaging instrument, CAMECA IMS 3F SIMS Ion Microscope, was used for quantitative imaging of boron at 500 nm spatial resolution. Both in vivo and in vitro studies in melanoma models demonstrated that boron was localized in the cytoplasm and nuclei with some cell-to-cell variability. Uptake of cis-ABCPC in B16 cells was time dependent with a 7.5:1 partitioning ratio of boron between cell nuclei and the nutrient medium after 4 hrs. incubation. Furthermore, cis-ABCPC delivered boron to cells in all phases of the cell cycle, including S-phase. In vivo SIMS studies using the F98 rat glioma model revealed an 8:1 boron partitioning ratio between the main tumor mass and normal brain tissue with a 5:1 ratio between infiltrating tumor cells and contiguous normal brain. Since cis-ABCPC is water soluble and can cross the blood-brain-barrier via the L-type amino acid transporters (LAT), it may accumulate preferentially in infiltrating tumor cells in normal brain due to up-regulation of LAT in high grade gliomas. Once trapped inside the tumor cell, cis-ABCPC cannot be metabolized and remains either in a free pool or bound to cell matrix components. The significant improvement in boron uptake by both the main tumor mass and infiltrating tumor cells compared to those reported in animal and clinical studies of p-boronophenylalanine strongly suggest that cis-ABCPC has the potential to become a novel new boron delivery agent for neutron capture therapy of gliomas and melanomas. PMID:24058680

  15. Cu-PDC-bpa solid coordination frameworks (PDC=2,5-pyrindinedicarboxylate; bpa=1,2-DI(4-pyridil)ethane)): 2D and 3D structural flexibility producing a 3-c herringbone array next to ideal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llano-Tomé, Francisco; Bazán, Begoña; Urtiaga, Miren-Karmele; Barandika, Gotzone; Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez, M.; Sánchez-Andújar, Manuel; Arriortua, María-Isabel

    2015-10-01

    Combination of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce solid coordination frameworks (SCF) which are crystalline materials based on connections between metal ions through organic ligands. In this context, this work is focused on two novel CuII-based SCFs exhibiting PDC (2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) and bpa (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane), being the first structures reported in literature containing both ligands. Chemical formula are [Cu2[(PDC)2(bpa)(H2O)2]·3H2O·DMF (1), and [Cu2(PDC)2(bpa)(H2O)2]·7H2O (2), where DMF is dimethylformamide. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 can be described as herringbone-type layers formed by helicoidal Cu-PDC-Cu chains connected through bpa ligands. Solvent molecules are crystallized between the layers, providing the inter-layer connections through hydrogen bonds. Differences between both compounds are attributable to the flexibility of bpa (in 2D) as well as to the 3D packing of the layers which is solvent dependent. This fact results in the fact that compound 2 is the most regular 3-c herringbone array reported so far. The structural dynamism of these networks is responsible for the crystalline to-amorphous to-crystalline (CAC) transformation from compound 1 to compound 2. Crystallochemical features for both compounds have also been studied and compared to similar 3-connected herringbone-arrays.

  16. Interaction of bisphenol A (BPA) and soy phytoestrogens on sexually dimorphic sociosexual behaviors in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Kimani D; Sullivan, Alana W; Cao, Jinyan; Sluzas, Emily; Rebuli, Meghan; Patisaul, Heather B

    2016-08-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the potential for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) to alter brain development and behavior. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous EDC, has been linked to altered sociosexual and mood-related behaviors in various animal models and children but effects are inconsistent across laboratories and animal models creating confusion about potential risk in humans. Exposure to endocrine active diets, such as soy, which is rich in phytoestrogens, may contribute to this variability. Here, we tested the individual and combined effects of low dose oral BPA and soy diet or the individual isoflavone genistein (GEN; administered as the aglycone genistin (GIN)) on rat sociosexual behaviors with the hypothesis that soy would obfuscate any BPA-related effects. Social and activity levels were unchanged by developmental exposure to BPA but soy diet had sex specific effects including suppressed novelty preference, and open field exploration in females. The data presented here reinforce that environmental factors, including anthropogenic chemical exposure and hormone active diets, can shape complex behaviors and even reverse expected sex differences.

  17. An evaluation of association between common variants in C4BPB/C4BPA genes and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuihong; Lu, Houquan; Ni, Jianliang; Zhang, Jiangtao; Tang, Wenxin; Lu, Weihong; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Chen

    2015-03-17

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that both maternal bacterial and viral infections during pregnancy increase the risk of schizophrenia among offspring, but to date there is not clear explanation for this increased risk. Previously, the decreased C4b-binding protein (C4BP), a potent circulating soluble inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, was reported to be associated with risk of schizophrenia. Here, we analyzed 4 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of C4BPB and 5 SNPs of C4BPA in a group of 556 schizophrenia patients and a matched group of 610 healthy controls to see if the genes C4BPB and C4BPA, which encode C4BP, may confer a susceptibility to schizophrenia. Comparing the genotype and allele frequencies of those SNPs between cases and controls, we found no association between the C4BPB/C4BPA variants and schizophrenia. Our results provided preliminary evidence that C4BPB/C4BPA may not confer susceptibility to schizophrenia among Han Chinese. Further genetic studies from large-scale population are required to obtain more conclusive results.

  18. Interaction of bisphenol A (BPA) and soy phytoestrogens on sexually dimorphic sociosexual behaviors in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Kimani D; Sullivan, Alana W; Cao, Jinyan; Sluzas, Emily; Rebuli, Meghan; Patisaul, Heather B

    2016-08-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the potential for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) to alter brain development and behavior. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous EDC, has been linked to altered sociosexual and mood-related behaviors in various animal models and children but effects are inconsistent across laboratories and animal models creating confusion about potential risk in humans. Exposure to endocrine active diets, such as soy, which is rich in phytoestrogens, may contribute to this variability. Here, we tested the individual and combined effects of low dose oral BPA and soy diet or the individual isoflavone genistein (GEN; administered as the aglycone genistin (GIN)) on rat sociosexual behaviors with the hypothesis that soy would obfuscate any BPA-related effects. Social and activity levels were unchanged by developmental exposure to BPA but soy diet had sex specific effects including suppressed novelty preference, and open field exploration in females. The data presented here reinforce that environmental factors, including anthropogenic chemical exposure and hormone active diets, can shape complex behaviors and even reverse expected sex differences. PMID:27373758

  19. Transformation of Flame Retardant Tetrabromobisphenol A by Aqueous Chlorine and the Effect of Humic Acid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Pang, Su-Yan; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Yang; Li, Juan; Wang, Li-Hong; Lu, Xue-Ting; Yuan, Li-Peng

    2016-09-01

    In this work, it was found that the most widely used brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBrBPA) could be transformed by free chlorine over a wide pH range from 5 to 10 with apparent second-order rate constants from 138 to 3210 M(-1)·s(-1). A total of eight products, including one quinone-like compound (i.e., 2,6-dibromoquinone), two dimers, and several simple halogenated phenols (e.g., 4-(2-hydroxyisopropyl)-2,6-dibromophenol, 2,6-dibromohydroquinone, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol), were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) using a novel precursor ion scan (PIS) approach. A tentative reaction pathway was proposed: chlorine initially oxidized TBrBPA leading to the formation of a phenoxy radical, and then this primary radical and its secondary intermediates (e.g., 2,6-dibromo-4-isopropylphenol carbocation) formed via beta-scission subsequently underwent substitution, dimerization, and oxidation reactions. Humic acid (HA) considerably inhibited the degradation rates of TBrBPA by chlorine even accounting for oxidant consumption. A similar inhibitory effect of HA was also observed in permanganate and ferrate oxidation. This inhibitory effect was possibly attributed to the fact that HA competitively reacted with the phenoxy radical of TBrBPA and reversed it back to parent TBrBPA. This study confirms that chlorine can transform phenolic compounds (e.g., TBrBPA) via electron transfer rather than the well-documented electrophilic substitution, which also have implications on the formation pathway of halo-benzoquinones during chlorine disinfection. These findings can improve the understanding of chlorine chemistry in water and wastewater treatment. PMID:27487036

  20. Positron emission tomography and [18F]BPA: a perspective application to assess tumour extraction of boron in BNCT.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, L; Cionini, L; Sauerwein, W A; Altieri, S; Solin, O; Minn, H; Salvadori, P A

    2009-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a key imaging tool in clinical practice and biomedical research to quantify and study biochemical processes in vivo. Physiologically active compounds are tagged with positron emitters (e.g. (18)F, (11)C, (124)I) while maintaining their biological properties, and are administered intravenously in tracer amounts (10(-9)-10(-12)M quantities). The recent physical integration of PET and computed tomography (CT) in hybrid PET/CT scanners allows a combined anatomical and functional imaging: nowadays PET molecular imaging is emerging as powerful pharmacological tool in oncology, neurology and for treatment planning as guidance for radiation therapy. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of boron carrier for BNCT and the quantification of (10)B in living tissue were performed by PET in the late nineties using compartmental models based on PET data. Nowadays PET and PET/CT have been used to address the issue of pharmacokinetic, metabolism and accumulation of BPA in target tissue. The added value of the use of L-[(18)F]FBPA and PET/CT in BNCT is to provide key data on the tumour extraction of (10)B-BPA versus normal tissue and to predict the efficacy of the treatment based on a single-study patient analysis. Due to the complexity of a binary treatment like BNCT, the role of PET/CT is currently to design new criteria for patient enrolment in treatment protocols: the L-[(18)F]BPA/PET methodology could be considered as an important tool in newly designed clinical trials to better estimate the concentration ratio of BPA in the tumour as compared to neighbouring normal tissues. Based on these values for individual patients the decision could be made whether BNCT treatment could be advantageous due to a selective accumulation of BPA in an individual tumour. This approach, applicable in different tumour entities like melanoma, glioblastoma and head and neck malignancies, make this methodology as reliable prognostic and therapeutic indicator for

  1. In utero and peripubertal exposure to phthalates and BPA in relation to female sexual maturation

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Deborah J.; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Lee, Joyce M.; Solano-Gonzalez, Maritsa; Blank-Goldenberg, Clara; Peterson, Karen E.; Meeker, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The age of pubertal onset for girls has declined over past decades. Research suggests that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may play a role but exposure at multiple stages of development has not been considered. We examined in utero and peripubertal exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates in relation to serum hormones and sexual maturation among females in a Mexico City birth cohort. We measured phthalate metabolite and BPA concentrations in urine collected from mothers during their third trimester (n=116) and from their female children at ages 8–13 years (n=129). Among girls, we measured concurrent serum hormone concentrations, Tanner stages for breast and pubic hair development, and collected information on menarche onset. We used linear and logistic regression to model associations between in utero and peripubertal measures of exposure with hormones and sexual maturation, respectively, controlling for covariates. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in in utero urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was positively associated with 29% (95% CI:9.2–52.6%) higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), an early indicator of adrenarche, and 5.3 (95% CI:1.13–24.9) times higher odds of a Tanner stage >1 for pubic hair development. Similar relationships were observed with other in utero but not peripubertal di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. IQR increases in in utero monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) were associated with 29% and 25% higher serum testosterone concentrations (95% CIs:4.3–59.3; 2.1–54.1), respectively. In addition, we observed suggestive associations between in utero and peripubertal MEP concentrations and increased odds of having undergone menarche, and between peripubertal MnBP concentrations and increased odds of having a Tanner stage >1 for both breast and pubic hair development. BPA was not associated with in utero or peripubertal serum hormones or sexual maturation. Our findings suggest in

  2. 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report for BPA Grant Exp Restore Walla Walla River Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Bob

    2009-07-10

    WWBWC and its partners have been working on a wide variety of conservation and aquifer recharge related activities including: monitoring groundwater and surface water conditions, creating a geospatial database for the Walla Walla River valley (project focal area), expanding aquifer recharge testing at the HBDIC site and conducting an extensive outreach/education program by which to share the information, ideas and potential solutions to our current water management issues in this basin. This report is an outline of those activities and is accompanied by individual program-component (attached as appendices) reports for the areas that BPA is assisting to fund these on-the-ground projects along with the innovative research and monitoring being done to further aquifer recharge as a water management tool for the Pacific Northwest.

  3. Supramolecular architectures in the co-crystals involving carboxylic acids and 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane, an extended bipyridyl type ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenezer, Samuel; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas

    2011-03-01

    In the present study 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (BPA) crystallizes with 2-chlorobenzoic acid (2CBA), 4-methylbenzoic acid (4MBA), phthalic acid (PA), succinic acid (SA) and adipic acid (AA) to yield co-crystals BPA.2CBA ( 1), BPA.4MBA ( 2), BPA.PA ( 3), BPA.SA ( 4) and BPA.AA ( 5) respectively. All the five co-crystals are constituted by the utilization of the R22(7) synthon, created by the combination of hard N-H⋯O and complementary soft C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. 1 and 2 illustrate the formation of three component aggregate as in both cases BPA interacts with carboxylic acids to form supramolecular ladder-type assembies. Molecular recognition in co-crystals 3-5 results in the formation of extended infinite tapes and differ further as a consequence of the soft C-H⋯O bonds and stacking interactions. Structure 3 shows the formation of zig-zag tapes while 4 and 5 form linear infinite tapes. Structure 4 shows isostructural behaviour with an analogous structure previously reported (Bowes et al. (2003) [77]).The isostructurality is because of the structural resemblance between both the entities in the co-crystals - fumaric acid/succinic acid and 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane/1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene. Compound 5 shows good degree of resemblance with another reported analogous structure-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene adipic acid. (Zhang et al. (2003) [72]). Structure 5 and the reported structure form similar supramolecular sheets through intertape interactions differing from each other only in the alignment of neighboring tapes. The linear tapes in both the cases are linked laterally through different C-H⋯O interactions and ventrally through different stacking interactions. This work illustrates the construction of different supramolecular architectures and the role of weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and stacking interactions in the higher level of supramolecular organization.

  4. BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Puget Sound Power & Light Company (Puget Power) propose to upgrade the existing high-voltage transmission system in the Whatcom and Skagit counties area between the towns of Custer and Sedro Woolley, including some areas within the City of Bellingham, starting in 1995. A Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the project was issued in November 1993, followed by a 45-day public comment period. Public response to the DEIS included the identification of several new transmission route alternatives in the Lake Whatcom area. BPA issued a Supplemental DEIS in April 1995 to provide a second public review-and-comment period. Rebuilding an existing 230-kV line to a double-circuit 230-kV transmission line was identified in the Supplemental DEIS as the Proposed Action. The Supplemental DEIS also examined in detail a North Shore Road alternative which was proposed by some members of the public. Public comments on the EIS were listed and responded to in the Supplemental DEIS. In May 1995, a second set of open houses and public meetings was held to review the Supplemental DEIS. Electromagnetic field (EMF) effects raised as an issue in the DEIS continued to be an issue of public concern in the meetings. The EIS has identified impacts that would generally be classified as low to moderate and localized. Effects on soils and water resources in sensitive areas (e.g., near Lake Whatcom) would be low to moderate; there would be little change in magnetic fields; noise levels would remain at existing levels; and land use and property value impacts would be minimal. Threatened and endangered species would not be adversely affected, and all proposed actions in wetlands would be covered by a Corps of Engineers Nationwide Permit. Visual and socioeconomic would be low to moderate. There would be no effect on cultural resources.

  5. Molecular Medicine: Synthesis and In Vivo Detection of Agents for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kabalka, G. W.

    2005-06-28

    The primary objective of the project was the development of in vivo methods for the detection and evaluation of tumors in humans. The project was focused on utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor the distribution and pharamacokinetics of a current boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) by labeling it with a fluorine-18, a positron emitting isotope. The PET data was then used to develop enhanced treatment planning protocols. The study also involved the synthesis of new tumor selective BNCTagents that could be labeled with radioactive nuclides for the in vivo detection of boron.

  6. Soy but not bisphenol A (BPA) or the phytoestrogen genistin alters developmental weight gain and food intake in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinyan; Echelberger, Roger; Liu, Min; Sluzas, Emily; McCaffrey, Katherine; Buckley, Brian; Patisaul, Heather B

    2015-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are hypothesized to promote obesity and early puberty but their interactive effects with hormonally active diets are poorly understood. Here we assessed individual and combinatorial effects of soy diet or the isoflavone genistein (GEN; administered as the aglycone genistin GIN) with bisphenol A (BPA) on body weight, ingestive behavior and female puberal onset in Wistar rats. Soy-fed dams gained less weight during pregnancy and, although they consumed more than dams on a soy-free diet during lactation, did not become heavier. Their offspring (both sexes), however, became significantly heavier (more pronounced in males) pre-weaning. Soy also enhanced food intake and accelerated female pubertal onset in the offspring. Notably, pubertal onset was also advanced in females placed on soy diet at weaning. Males exposed to BPA plus soy diet, but not BPA alone, had lighter testes. BPA had no independent effects.

  7. First-principles study for the adsorption of segments of BPA-PC on α-Al2O3(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomqvist, Janne; Salo, Petri

    2011-10-01

    We have studied the adsorption of bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (BPA-PC) on the α-Al2O3(0001) surface using density functional theory (DFT) with van der Waals (vdW) corrections. The BPA-PC polymer can be divided into its chemical fragments, which are phenylene, carbonate, and isopropylidene groups. We have calculated the adsorption energy and geometry of the BPA-PC segments that consist of two to three adjacent groups of the polymer. Our DFT results show that the adsorption is dominated by the vdW interaction. It is also important to include the interaction of nearest-neighbor groups in order to provide a realistic environment for the adsorption of the polymer onto the surface. Our results also show that the BPA-PC molecule attaches to the alumina surface via the carbonate group located in the middle of the molecule chain.

  8. The photophysics of fac-[Re(CO)3(NN)(bpa)](+) complexes: a theoretical/experimental study.

    PubMed

    Sousa, S F; Sampaio, R N; Barbosa Neto, N M; Machado, A E H; Patrocinio, A O T

    2014-08-01

    The influence of the polypyridyl ligand on the photophysics of fac-[Re(CO)3(NN)(bpa)](+), bpa = 1,2-bis-(4-pyridyl)ethane and NN = 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]-phenanthroline (dpq), and dipyrido[3,2-a:2'3'-c]phenazine (dppz) has been investigated by steady state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy combined with theoretical calculations using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The fac-[Re(CO)3(phen)(bpa)](+) is a typical MLCT emitter in acetonitrile with ϕ = 0.11 and τ = 970 ns. The emission lifetime and quantum yield decrease significantly in fac-[Re(CO)3(dpq)(bpa)](+) (ϕ = 0.05; τ = 375 ns) due to the presence of a close lying dark charge transfer state located at the pyrazine ring of dpq, as indicated by TD-DFT data. The luminescence of these complexes is quenched by hydroquinone with kq = (2.9 ± 0.1) × 10(9) and (2.6 ± 0.1) × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1), respectively, for NN = phen or dpq. These values are increased respectively to (4.6 ± 0.1) × 10(9) and (4.2 ± 0.1) × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1) in the 1 : 1 H2O-CH3CN mixture. In this medium Stern-Volmer constants determined by steady-state and time-resolved measurements differ from each other, which is indicative of static quenching, i.e. the pre-association of hydroquinone and the complexes through hydrogen bonding between the remote N-atom in the bpa ligand (KA ≅ 1-2 × 10(1) L mol(-1)), followed by a concerted proton-electron transfer. In contrast to other investigated complexes, fac-[Re(CO)3(dppz)(bpa)](+) is weakly emissive in acetonitrile at room temperature (ϕ ≅ 10(-4)) and does not exhibit a rigidochromic effect. This photophysical behaviour as well as TD-DFT data indicate that the lowest lying triplet excited state can be described as (3)ILdppz. The results provide additional insight into the influence of the polypyridyl ligand on the photophysical properties of Re(I) complexes.

  9. Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states: Overall results and determinants of exposure.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Den Hond, Elly; Geens, Tinne; Govarts, Eva; Koppen, Gudrun; Frederiksen, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Mørck, Thit A; Gutleb, Arno C; Guignard, Cedric; Cocco, Emanuelle; Horvat, Milena; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Cutanda, Francisco; Ramos, Juan José; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Jönsson, Bo A G; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Bloemen, Louis; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Schoeters, Greet; Angerer, Jürgen; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Aerts, Dominique; Koch, Holger M

    2015-08-01

    For the first time in Europe, both European-wide and country-specific levels of urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) were obtained through a harmonized protocol for participant recruitment, sampling and quality controlled biomarker analysis in the frame of the twin projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES. 674 child-mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12 y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational level of the parents was provided by mothers. After exclusion of urine samples with creatinine values below 300 mg/L or above 3000 mg/L, 653 children and 639 mothers remained for which BPA was measured. The geometric mean (with 95% confidence intervals) and 90th percentile were calculated for BPA separately in children and in mothers and were named "European reference values". After adjustment for confounders (age and creatinine), average exposure values in each country were compared with the mean of the "European reference values" by means of a weighted analysis of variance. Overall geometric means of all countries (95% CI) adjusted for urinary creatinine, age and gender were 2.04 (1.87-2.24) µg/L and 1.88 (1.71-2.07) µg/L for children (n=653) and mothers (n=639), respectively. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant environmental, geographical, personal or life style related determinants. Consumption of canned food and social class (represented by the highest educational level of the family) were the most important predictors for the urinary levels of BPA in mothers and children. The individual BPA levels in children were significantly correlated with the levels in their mothers (r=0.265, p<0.001), which may suggest a possible common environmental/dietary factor that influences the biomarker level in each pair. Exposure of the general European

  10. The photophysics of fac-[Re(CO)3(NN)(bpa)](+) complexes: a theoretical/experimental study.

    PubMed

    Sousa, S F; Sampaio, R N; Barbosa Neto, N M; Machado, A E H; Patrocinio, A O T

    2014-08-01

    The influence of the polypyridyl ligand on the photophysics of fac-[Re(CO)3(NN)(bpa)](+), bpa = 1,2-bis-(4-pyridyl)ethane and NN = 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]-phenanthroline (dpq), and dipyrido[3,2-a:2'3'-c]phenazine (dppz) has been investigated by steady state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy combined with theoretical calculations using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The fac-[Re(CO)3(phen)(bpa)](+) is a typical MLCT emitter in acetonitrile with ϕ = 0.11 and τ = 970 ns. The emission lifetime and quantum yield decrease significantly in fac-[Re(CO)3(dpq)(bpa)](+) (ϕ = 0.05; τ = 375 ns) due to the presence of a close lying dark charge transfer state located at the pyrazine ring of dpq, as indicated by TD-DFT data. The luminescence of these complexes is quenched by hydroquinone with kq = (2.9 ± 0.1) × 10(9) and (2.6 ± 0.1) × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1), respectively, for NN = phen or dpq. These values are increased respectively to (4.6 ± 0.1) × 10(9) and (4.2 ± 0.1) × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1) in the 1 : 1 H2O-CH3CN mixture. In this medium Stern-Volmer constants determined by steady-state and time-resolved measurements differ from each other, which is indicative of static quenching, i.e. the pre-association of hydroquinone and the complexes through hydrogen bonding between the remote N-atom in the bpa ligand (KA ≅ 1-2 × 10(1) L mol(-1)), followed by a concerted proton-electron transfer. In contrast to other investigated complexes, fac-[Re(CO)3(dppz)(bpa)](+) is weakly emissive in acetonitrile at room temperature (ϕ ≅ 10(-4)) and does not exhibit a rigidochromic effect. This photophysical behaviour as well as TD-DFT data indicate that the lowest lying triplet excited state can be described as (3)ILdppz. The results provide additional insight into the influence of the polypyridyl ligand on the photophysical properties of Re(I) complexes. PMID:24967638

  11. Evaluation of low doses BPA-induced perturbation of glycemia by toxicogenomics points to a primary role of pancreatic islets and to the mechanism of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Carchia, E; Porreca, I; Almeida, P J; D'Angelo, F; Cuomo, D; Ceccarelli, M; De Felice, M; Mallardo, M; Ambrosino, C

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental studies have associated changes of blood glucose homeostasis to Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. We took a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mechanisms of low-dose (1 × 10(-9 )M) BPA toxicity in ex vivo cultures of primary murine pancreatic islets and hepatocytes. Twenty-nine inhibited genes were identified in islets and none in exposed hepatocytes. Although their expression was slightly altered, their impaired cellular level, as a whole, resulted in specific phenotypic changes. Damage of mitochondrial function and metabolism, as predicted by bioinformatics analyses, was observed: BPA exposure led to a time-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, to an increase of ROS cellular levels and, finally, to an induction of apoptosis, attributable to the bigger Bax/Bcl-2 ratio owing to activation of NF-κB pathway. Our data suggest a multifactorial mechanism for BPA toxicity in pancreatic islets with emphasis to mitochondria dysfunction and NF-κB activation. Finally, we assessed in vitro the viability of BPA-treated islets in stressing condition, as exposure to high glucose, evidencing a reduced ability of the exposed islets to respond to further damages. The result was confirmed in vivo evaluating the reduction of glycemia in hyperglycemic mice transplanted with control and BPA-treated pancreatic islets. The reported findings identify the pancreatic islet as the main target of BPA toxicity in impairing the glycemia. They suggest that the BPA exposure can weaken the response of the pancreatic islets to damages. The last observation could represent a broader concept whose consideration should lead to the development of experimental plans better reproducing the multiple exposure conditions. PMID:26512966

  12. Evaluation of low doses BPA-induced perturbation of glycemia by toxicogenomics points to a primary role of pancreatic islets and to the mechanism of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Carchia, E; Porreca, I; Almeida, P J; D'Angelo, F; Cuomo, D; Ceccarelli, M; De Felice, M; Mallardo, M; Ambrosino, C

    2015-10-29

    Epidemiologic and experimental studies have associated changes of blood glucose homeostasis to Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. We took a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mechanisms of low-dose (1 × 10(-9 )M) BPA toxicity in ex vivo cultures of primary murine pancreatic islets and hepatocytes. Twenty-nine inhibited genes were identified in islets and none in exposed hepatocytes. Although their expression was slightly altered, their impaired cellular level, as a whole, resulted in specific phenotypic changes. Damage of mitochondrial function and metabolism, as predicted by bioinformatics analyses, was observed: BPA exposure led to a time-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, to an increase of ROS cellular levels and, finally, to an induction of apoptosis, attributable to the bigger Bax/Bcl-2 ratio owing to activation of NF-κB pathway. Our data suggest a multifactorial mechanism for BPA toxicity in pancreatic islets with emphasis to mitochondria dysfunction and NF-κB activation. Finally, we assessed in vitro the viability of BPA-treated islets in stressing condition, as exposure to high glucose, evidencing a reduced ability of the exposed islets to respond to further damages. The result was confirmed in vivo evaluating the reduction of glycemia in hyperglycemic mice transplanted with control and BPA-treated pancreatic islets. The reported findings identify the pancreatic islet as the main target of BPA toxicity in impairing the glycemia. They suggest that the BPA exposure can weaken the response of the pancreatic islets to damages. The last observation could represent a broader concept whose consideration should lead to the development of experimental plans better reproducing the multiple exposure conditions.

  13. Optimization of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for the Treatment of Undifferentiated Thyroid Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Thomasz, Lisa M.Sc.; Longhino, Juan; Perona, Marina; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Blaumann, Herman; Rebagliati, Raul Jimenez; Cabrini, Romulo; Kahl, Steven; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Pisarev, Mario Alberto

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To analyze the possible increase in efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) by using p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) plus 2,4-bis ({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX (BOPP) and BPA plus nicotinamide (NA) as a radiosensitizer of the BNCT reaction. Methods and Materials: Nude mice were transplanted with a human UTC cell line (ARO), and after 15 days they were treated as follows: (1) control, (2) NCT (neutrons alone), (3) NCT plus NA (100 mg/kg body weight [bw]/day for 3 days), (4) BPA (350 mg/kg bw) + neutrons, (5) BPA + NA + neutrons, and (6) BPA + BOPP (60 mg/kg bw) + neutrons. The flux of the mixed (thermal + epithermal) neutron beam was 2.8 x 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}/sec for 83.4 min. Results: Neutrons alone or with NA caused some tumor growth delay, whereas in the BPA, BPA + NA, and BPA + BOPP groups a 100% halt of tumor growth was observed in all mice at 26 days after irradiation. When the initial tumor volume was 50 mm{sup 3} or less, complete remission was found with BPA + NA (2 of 2 mice), BPA (1 of 4), and BPA + BOPP (7 of 7). After 90 days of complete regression, recurrence of the tumor was observed in BPA + NA (2 of 2) and BPA + BOPP (1 of 7). The determination of apoptosis in tumor samples by measurements of caspase-3 activity showed an increase in the BNCT (BPA + NA) group at 24 h (p < 0.05 vs. controls) and after the first week after irradiation in the three BNCT groups. Terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling analysis confirmed these results. Conclusions: Although NA combined with BPA showed an increase of apoptosis at early times, only the group irradiated after the combined administration of BPA and BOPP showed a significantly improved therapeutic response.

  14. Tualang Honey Protects against BPA-Induced Morphological Abnormalities and Disruption of ERα, ERβ, and C3 mRNA and Protein Expressions in the Uterus of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Zaid, Siti Sarah; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Othman, Shatrah

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties. PMID:26788107

  15. Pharmacokinetics of BPA in Gliomas with Ultrasound Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption as Measured by Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng-Yi; Lin, Yi-Li; Chou, Fong-In; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Hsueh Liu, Yen-Wan; Chang, Lun-Wei; Hsieh, Yu-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be transiently disrupted by focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles for targeted drug delivery. Previous studies have illustrated the pharmacokinetics of drug delivery across the BBB after sonication using indirect visualization techniques. In this study, we investigated the in vivo extracellular kinetics of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-f) in glioma-bearing rats with FUS-induced BBB disruption by microdialysis. After simultaneous intravenous administration of BPA and FUS exposure, the boron concentration in the treated brains was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. With FUS, the mean peak concentration of BPA-f in the glioma dialysate was 3.6 times greater than without FUS, and the area under the concentration-time curve was 2.1 times greater. This study demonstrates that intracerebral microdialysis can be used to assess local BBB transport profiles of drugs in a sonicated site. Applying microdialysis to the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics is useful for obtaining selective information within a specific brain site after FUS-induced BBB disruption. PMID:24936788

  16. Adult exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in Wistar rats reduces sperm quality with disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Patricia; Romano, Renata M; Kizys, Marina M L; Oliveira, Kelen C; Kasamatsu, Teresa; Giannocco, Gisele; Chiamolera, Maria I; Dias-da-Silva, Magnus R; Romano, Marco A

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive physiology involves complex biological processes that can be disrupted by exposure to environmental contaminants. The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on spermatogenesis and sperm quality is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the reproductive toxicity of BPA at dosages considered to be safe (5 or 25mg BPA/kg/day). We assessed multiple sperm parameters, the relative expression of genes involved in the central regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, and the serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH. BPA exposure reduced sperm production, reserves and transit time. Significant damage to the acrosomes and the plasma membrane with reduced mitochondrial activity and increased levels of defective spermatozoa may have compromised sperm function and caused faster movement through the epididymis. BPA exposure reduced the serum concentrations of testosterone, LH and FSH and increased the concentration of estradiol. The relative gene expression revealed an increase in gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr), luteinizing hormone beta (Lhb), follicle stimulating hormone beta (Fshb), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2) and androgen receptor (Ar) transcripts in the pituitary and a reduction in estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1) transcripts in the hypothalamus. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that adult male exposure to BPA caused a reduction in sperm production and specific functional parameters. The corresponding pattern of gene expression is indicative of an attempt by the pituitary to reestablish normal levels of LH, FSH and testosterone serum concentrations. In conclusion, these data suggest that at dosages previously considered nontoxic to reproductive function, BPA compromises the spermatozoa and disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, causing a state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  17. Evaluation of the toxic effects of brominated compounds (BDE-47, 99, 209, TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA) using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Chan, King Ming

    2015-02-01

    The toxic effects of three polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-47, -99, and -209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA), were evaluated by determining their 24h and 96 h median lethal concentrations using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL. It was found that BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA showed comparative cytotoxicity within the range of 1.2-4.2 μM, and were more toxic than BPA (367.1 μM at 24 h and 357.6 μM at 96 h). However, BDE-209 induced only 15% lethality with exposures up to 25 μM. The molecular stresses of BDE-47, -99, TBBPA and BPA involved in thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis and hepatic metabolism were also investigated. Using a reporter gene system to detect zebrafish thyroid hormone receptor β (zfTRβ) transcriptional activity, the median effective concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) was determined to be 9.2×10(-11) M. BDE-47, BDE-99, TBBPA and BPA alone, however, did not exhibit zfTRβ agonistic activity. BPA displayed T3 (0.1 nM) induced zfTRβ antagonistic activity with a median inhibitory concentration of 19.3 μM. BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA displayed no antagonistic effects of T3-induced zfTRβ activity. Target gene expressions were also examined under acute exposures. The significant inhibition of different types of deiodinases by all of the test chemicals indicated TH circulation disruption. All four chemicals, especially BPA, were able to affect transcripts of phase II hepatic metabolizing enzymes (UGT2A1, SULT1) in vitro. In conclusion, the zfTRβ reporter gene system developed here helps delineate an in vitro model to enable the analysis of the TH disruption effects of environmental pollutants in fish. BPA and the brominated compounds tested were able to disrupt the TH system at the gene expression level, probably through the deiodination pathways.

  18. Oral Bisphenol A (BPA) given to rats at moderate doses is associated with erectile dysfunction, cavernosal lipofibrosis and alterations of global gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Kovanecz, I; Gelfand, R; Masouminia, M; Gharib, S; Segura, D; Vernet, D; Rajfer, J; Li, D K; Kannan, K; Gonzalez-Cadavid, N F

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected reproductive biohazard and endocrine disruptor, released from plastics is associated with ED in occupationally exposed workers. However, in rats, despite the induction of hypogonadism, apoptosis of the penile corporal smooth muscle (SM), fat infiltration into the cavernosal tissue and changes in global gene expression with the intraperitoneal administration of high dose BPA, ED was not observed. We investigated whether BPA administered orally rather than intraperitoneally to rats for longer periods and lower doses will lead to ED. Main outcome measures are ED, histological, and biochemical markers in rat penile tissues. In all, 2.5-month-old rats were given drinking water daily without and with BPA at 1 and 0.1 mg kg(-1) per day. Two months later, erectile function was determined by cavernosometry and electrical field stimulation (EFS) and serum levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and BPA were measured. Penile tissue sections were assayed by Masson (SM/collagen), Oil Red O (fat), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) (apoptosis), immunohistochemistry for Oct4 (stem cells), and α-SM actin/calponin (SM and myofibroblasts), applying quantitative image analysis. Other markers were assayed by western blotting. DNA microarrays/microRNA (miR) assays defined transcription profiles. Orally administered BPA did not affect body weight, but (1) decreased serum T and E2; (2) reduced the EFS response and increased the drop rate; (3) increased within the corporal tissue the presence of fat, myofibroblasts and apoptosis; (4) lowered the contents of SM and stem cells, but not nerve terminals; and (5) caused alterations in the transcriptional profiles for both mRNA and miRs within the penile shaft. Long-term exposure of rats to oral BPA caused a moderate corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD), possibly due to alterations within the corporal tissue that pose gene transcriptional changes related to inflammation

  19. Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure In Utero Leads to Immunoregulatory Cytokine Dysregulation in the Mouse Mammary Gland: A Potential Mechanism Programming Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Catha; Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; Goetz, Laura G; Jorgenson, Elisa; Ilagan, Ysabel; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a ubiquitous estrogen-like endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). BPA exposure in utero has been linked to breast cancer and abnormal mammary gland development in mice. The recent rise in incidence of human breast cancer and decreased age of first detection suggests a possible environmental etiology. We hypothesized that developmental programming of carcinogenesis may involve an aberrant immune response. Both innate and adaptive immunity play a role in tumor suppression through cytolytic CD8, NK, and Th1 T-cells. We hypothesized that BPA exposure in utero would lead to dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immunity in the mammary gland. CD1 mice were exposed to BPA in utero during gestation (days 9-21) via osmotic minipump. At 6 weeks, the female offspring were ovariectomized and estradiol was given at 8 weeks. RNA and protein were extracted from the posterior mammary glands, and the mRNA and protein levels were measured by PCR array, qRT-PCR, and western blot. In mouse mammary tissue, BPA exposure in utero significantly decreased the expression of members of the chemokine CXC family (Cxcl2, Cxcl4, Cxcl14, and Ccl20), interleukin 1 (Il1) gene family (Il1β and Il1rn), interleukin 2 gene family (Il7 receptor), and interferon gene family (interferon regulatory factor 9 (Irf9), as well as immune response gene 1 (Irg1). Additionally, BPA exposure in utero decreased Esr1 receptor gene expression and increased Esr2 receptor gene expression. In utero exposure of BPA resulted in significant changes to inflammatory modulators within mammary tissue. We suggest that dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines, both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, leads to a microenvironment that may promote disordered cell growth through inhibition of the immune response that targets cancer cells.

  20. Long-term effects of a binary mixture of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Keiter, Su; Baumann, L; Färber, H; Holbech, H; Skutlarek, D; Engwall, M; Braunbeck, T

    2012-08-15

    Previous in vitro studies have reported the potential of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to increase the toxicity of other compounds. Given the complex nature of mixtures of environmental pollutants in aquatic systems together with the persistent and bioaccumulative properties of PFOS, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term effects and toxicity-increasing behavior of PFOS in vivo using the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were maintained in flow-through conditions and exposed to single and binary mixtures of PFOS and the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) at nominal concentrations of 0.6, 100 and 300 μg/L and 10, 200 and 400 μg/L, respectively. F1 and F2 generations were evaluated from 0 to 180 days post-fertilization (dpf) and F3 generation was evaluated from 0 to 14 dpf. Survival was documented in all generations, whereas growth, fecundity, fertilization rate, histological alterations (in liver, thyroid and gonads) and vitellogenin (Vtg) induction in males were evaluated for F1 and F2 generations. Data for growth were collected at 30, 90 and 180 dpf and data for histological evaluations and Vtg induction were analyzed at 90 and 180 dpf. No significant effects on survival were seen in the F1 generation in any treatment following 180 d exposure; however, in the F2 generation, 300 μg/L PFOS both alone and in combination with BPA (10, 200 and 400 μg/L) induced 100% mortality within 14 dpf. PFOS (0.6 and 300 μg/L) did not increase the Vtg-inducing potential of BPA (10, 200 and 400 μg/L) in a binary mixture. In contrast, binary mixtures with 300 μg/L PFOS suppressed the Vtg levels in F1 males at 90 dpf when compared to single BPA exposures. Whereas the lowest tested PFOS concentration (0.6 μg/L) showed an estrogenic potential in terms of significant Vtg induction, Vtg levels were generally found to decrease with increasing PFOS-exposure in both F1 and F2 generations. In F1 generation, BPA-exposure was found to increase Vtg levels in a concentration

  1. Long-term effects of a binary mixture of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Keiter, Su; Baumann, L; Färber, H; Holbech, H; Skutlarek, D; Engwall, M; Braunbeck, T

    2012-08-15

    Previous in vitro studies have reported the potential of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to increase the toxicity of other compounds. Given the complex nature of mixtures of environmental pollutants in aquatic systems together with the persistent and bioaccumulative properties of PFOS, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term effects and toxicity-increasing behavior of PFOS in vivo using the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were maintained in flow-through conditions and exposed to single and binary mixtures of PFOS and the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) at nominal concentrations of 0.6, 100 and 300 μg/L and 10, 200 and 400 μg/L, respectively. F1 and F2 generations were evaluated from 0 to 180 days post-fertilization (dpf) and F3 generation was evaluated from 0 to 14 dpf. Survival was documented in all generations, whereas growth, fecundity, fertilization rate, histological alterations (in liver, thyroid and gonads) and vitellogenin (Vtg) induction in males were evaluated for F1 and F2 generations. Data for growth were collected at 30, 90 and 180 dpf and data for histological evaluations and Vtg induction were analyzed at 90 and 180 dpf. No significant effects on survival were seen in the F1 generation in any treatment following 180 d exposure; however, in the F2 generation, 300 μg/L PFOS both alone and in combination with BPA (10, 200 and 400 μg/L) induced 100% mortality within 14 dpf. PFOS (0.6 and 300 μg/L) did not increase the Vtg-inducing potential of BPA (10, 200 and 400 μg/L) in a binary mixture. In contrast, binary mixtures with 300 μg/L PFOS suppressed the Vtg levels in F1 males at 90 dpf when compared to single BPA exposures. Whereas the lowest tested PFOS concentration (0.6 μg/L) showed an estrogenic potential in terms of significant Vtg induction, Vtg levels were generally found to decrease with increasing PFOS-exposure in both F1 and F2 generations. In F1 generation, BPA-exposure was found to increase Vtg levels in a concentration

  2. Expression of stress response HSP70 gene in Asian paddle crabs, Charybdis japonica, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2013-06-01

    The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator reflecting marine sediment toxicity as well as a commercially important species living along coastal areas in Korea. This study investigated its stress response by looking at the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene of C. japonica when the organism is exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP). We characterized partial sequence of HSP70 as the stressresponse gene of C. japonica. The nucleotide sequence of C. japonica HSP70 is over 90% homologous with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a close relationship between C. japonica HSP70 and HSP70 in other species of lobster and shrimps. HSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all the examined tissues of C. japonica, with the highest level in gills, the organ that most frequently came into contact with the external BPA or NP-laden water. As no reference data were available for C. japonica crab exposure, the BPA and NP 24-h LC50 values have not been previously determined. The expression of the C. japonica HSP70 gene to various BPA or NP concentrations during short and longer times was assessed. Gene expression was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures. These results support the postulation that crab C. japonica HSP70 could be a potential stress response molecular marker to monitor marine ecosystems.

  3. Contribution of a submerged membrane bioreactor in the treatment of synthetic effluent contaminated by Bisphenol-A: mechanism of BPA removal and membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Seyhi, Brahima; Drogui, Patrick; Buelna, Gerardo; Azaïs, Antonin; Heran, Marc

    2013-09-01

    A submerged membrane bioreactor has been operated at the laboratory scale for the treatment of a synthetic effluent containing Bisphenol-A (BPA). COD, NH4-N, PO4-P and BPA were eliminated respectively, at 99%, 99%, 61% and 99%. The increase of volumetric loading rate from 0 to 21.6 g/m(3)/d did not affect the performance of the MBR system. However, the removal rate decreased rapidly when the BPA loading rate increased above 21.6 g/m(3)/d. The adsorption process of BPA on the biomass was very well described by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Subsequently, biodegradation of BPA occurred and followed the first order kinetic reaction, with a constant rate of 1.13 ± 0.22 h(-1). During treatment, membrane fouling was reversible in the first 84 h of filtration, and then became irreversible. The membrane fouling was mainly due to the accumulation of suspended solid and development of biofilm on the membrane surface. PMID:23792382

  4. Low Probability Tail Event Analysis and Mitigation in BPA Control Area: Task One Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2009-04-01

    This is a report for task one of the tail event analysis project for BPA. Tail event refers to the situation in a power system when unfavorable forecast errors of load and wind are superposed onto fast load and wind ramps, or non-wind generators falling short of scheduled output, the imbalance between generation and load becomes very significant. This type of events occurs infrequently and appears on the tails of the distribution of system power imbalance; therefore, is referred to as tail events. This report analyzes what happened during the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) reliability event on February 26, 2008, which was widely reported because of the involvement of wind generation. The objective is to identify sources of the problem, solutions to it and potential improvements that can be made to the system. Lessons learned from the analysis include the following: (1) Large mismatch between generation and load can be caused by load forecast error, wind forecast error and generation scheduling control error on traditional generators, or a combination of all of the above; (2) The capability of system balancing resources should be evaluated both in capacity (MW) and in ramp rate (MW/min), and be procured accordingly to meet both requirements. The resources need to be able to cover a range corresponding to the variability of load and wind in the system, additional to other uncertainties; (3) Unexpected ramps caused by load and wind can both become the cause leading to serious issues; (4) A look-ahead tool evaluating system balancing requirement during real-time operations and comparing that with available system resources should be very helpful to system operators in predicting the forthcoming of similar events and planning ahead; and (5) Demand response (only load reduction in ERCOT event) can effectively reduce load-generation mismatch and terminate frequency deviation in an emergency situation.

  5. Design of Studies for Development of BPA Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Accounting Policy Phase II, Volume I, 1985-1988 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kneese, Allen V.

    1988-08-01

    As the mitigation prescribed by the Regional Act proceeds, the incremental costs of corrective measures to lessen the environmental impacts of the hydroelectric system are expected to increase and difficult questions to arise about the costs, effectiveness, and justification of alternative measures and their systemwide implications. It was deemed prudent by the BPA to anticipate this situation by launching a forward-looking research program aimed at providing methodological tools and data suitable for estimating the productivity and cost implications of mitigation alternatives in a timely manner with state-of-the-art accuracy. In this spirit, Resources for the Future (RFF) agreed at the request of the BPA to develop a research program which would provide an analytical system designed to assist the BPA Administrator and other interested and responsible parties in evaluating the ecological and economic aspects of alternative protection, enhancement, and mitigation measures. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Fate of phthalates and BPA in agricultural and non-agricultural soils of the Paris area (France).

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich Chau; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This study (i) investigated the concentration levels of nine phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) in sludge samples originating from a French wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), (ii) studied the distribution of target compounds according to soil depth and calculated their half-lives, and (iii) compared the contamination level of the agricultural soil with those of soils with other land uses. The sludge contamination levels varied from a few hundred nanograms per gram dry weight (dw) for diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP) to a few micrograms per gram dw for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP). After sludge application, an 8-fold increase for DEHP level and a 3-fold increase for BPA level occurred in the surface horizon of the soil. The mean distribution of phthalates according to the depth showed a positive gradient for the low molecular weight compounds and inversely, a negative gradient for the highest ones. The half-lives in the 0-20-cm soil horizon were 64 days for DEHP and 36 days for BPA. A predictive environmental concentration (PEC) of 0.3 μg g(-1) dw was estimated for DEHP, while the experimental value was 0.16 μg g(-1) dw, suggesting degradation processes in soil and/or formation of non-extractable residues. Comparisons of contamination levels for soils from different origins (urban, rural, agricultural, and forest) showed that the urban soil remained the most contaminated one, prior to the agricultural soil after treatment.

  7. Fate of phthalates and BPA in agricultural and non-agricultural soils of the Paris area (France).

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich Chau; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This study (i) investigated the concentration levels of nine phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) in sludge samples originating from a French wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), (ii) studied the distribution of target compounds according to soil depth and calculated their half-lives, and (iii) compared the contamination level of the agricultural soil with those of soils with other land uses. The sludge contamination levels varied from a few hundred nanograms per gram dry weight (dw) for diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP) to a few micrograms per gram dw for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP). After sludge application, an 8-fold increase for DEHP level and a 3-fold increase for BPA level occurred in the surface horizon of the soil. The mean distribution of phthalates according to the depth showed a positive gradient for the low molecular weight compounds and inversely, a negative gradient for the highest ones. The half-lives in the 0-20-cm soil horizon were 64 days for DEHP and 36 days for BPA. A predictive environmental concentration (PEC) of 0.3 μg g(-1) dw was estimated for DEHP, while the experimental value was 0.16 μg g(-1) dw, suggesting degradation processes in soil and/or formation of non-extractable residues. Comparisons of contamination levels for soils from different origins (urban, rural, agricultural, and forest) showed that the urban soil remained the most contaminated one, prior to the agricultural soil after treatment. PMID:25794574

  8. BPA-Solicited Technical Review of "Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline", Technical Report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, David

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this report was to provide, at BPA's request, a technical review of interim products received for Project 2001-015-00 under contract 6925. BPA sometimes solicits technical reviews for Fish and Wildlife products or issues where outside expertise is required. External review of complex project deliverables assures BPA as a funding agency that the contractor is continuing with scientifically-credible experimental techniques envisioned in the original proposal. If the project's methodology proves feasible, there could be potential applications beyond the project area to similar situations in the Columbia Basin. The Experiment involves artificial flooding during high flow periods and a determination of the portion of the return flows that end up in the Umatilla River during low flow months and within acceptable water quality parameters (e.g., low temperature, few contaminants). Flooding could be a critical water source for aquatic organisms at times of the year when flows in the lower reaches of the Umatilla River are low and water is warmer than would be desired. The experiment was proposed to test whether 'this process, recharges the shallow aquifers of the old flood plain, for natural filtration through the alluvial soils as it returns to the Umatilla River, cleaner and cooler (about 50 degree Fahrenheit) five to six month later (about July and August) substantially cooling the river and [making it] more beneficial to anadromous [fish]'. A substantial amount of preliminary data had been collected and preliminary results were submitted in an interim report 'Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline (December 2002)'. A substantial amount of addition funding was provided for the last cycle of flooding (Phases II) and final analyses of the full compliment of data collected over the life of the contract (Phase III). Third party scientific review may assist the contractor in producing a higher quality Final Report with

  9. Analysis of two alternative organophosphorus flame retardants in electronic and plastic consumer products: resorcinol bis-(diphenylphosphate) (PBDPP) and bisphenol A bis (diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP).

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Gómez, A; Brandsma, S H; de Boer, J; Leonards, P E G

    2014-12-01

    Following the phase-out of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) are increasingly used as alternative flame retardants in many products. Data on the presence of two alternative PFRs in consumer products, resorcinol bis (diphenylphosphate) (PBDPP or RDP) and bisphenol A bis (diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP or BDP) is still scarce or non-existing. In this study we propose a simple extraction method and analysis by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) coupled to a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) for plastic consumer products. Detection limits were low enough for trace quantitation in plastic or electronic samples (0.001% and 0.002% w/w for PBDPP and BPA-BDPP, respectively). The APCI source provided better sensitivity and matrix effects than the commonly used ESI source for the analysis of these PFRs. Both PBDPP and BPA-BDPP were detected in 7 of the 12 products purchased in 2012 (at 0.002-0.3% w/w for PBDPP and 0.02-0.18% w/w for BPA-BDPP) while only PBDPP was found in 4 of the 13 products purchased before 2006 (0.005-7.8% w/w). In newly purchased products, PBDPP, BPA-BDPP and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the most frequently detected PFRs. These results support the recent findings of our research group about high concentration levels of PBDPP and BPA-BDPP up to 0.5-1 mg g(-1) in house dust collected on electronic equipment and highlights the need for further research on these two novel PFRs.

  10. Developmental Expression Pattern of the Cholesterogenic Enzyme NSDHL and Negative Selection of NSDHL-deficient Cells in the Heterozygous Bpa1H/+ Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, David; Spychala, Kaitlyn; McLarren, Keith W.; Garza, Luis A.; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.; Herman, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    NSDHL (NAD(P)H sterol dehydrogenase-like), is a 3β-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase thought to function in the demethylation of sterol precursors in one of the later steps of cholesterol biosynthesis. Mutations in the X-linked NSDHL gene cause CHILD syndrome in humans, and the male-lethal bare patches (Bpa) phenotype in mice. The relative level of NSDHL expression among different mouse tissues at several stages of embryogenesis and postnatal development was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In wild type (WT) embryos, the highest levels of expression were seen in the liver, dorsal root ganglia, central nervous system, retina, adrenal gland and testis. Heterozygous Bpa1H females are mosaic for NSDHL expression due to normal random X inactivation. NSDHL deficient cells were detected in the developing cerebral cortex and retina of Bpa1H female embryos. In postnatal WT and Bpa1H animals, we compared the expression pattern of NSDHL in skin, an affected tissue; liver, a main site of cholesterol synthesis; and brain, a tissue dependent on endogenous synthesis of cholesterol due to lack of transport across the blood-brain barrier. Clonal populations of mutant cells were visible in the brain, skin and liver of Bpa1H pups. In the liver, the proportion of NSDHL negative cells dropped from ~50% at postnatal day 6 to ~20% at one year of age. In the brain, which showed the highest expression in cerebral cortical and hippocampal neurons, the proportion of NSDHL negative cells also dropped dramatically over the first year of life. Our results suggest that while NSDHL deficient cells in the mosaic Bpa1H female are able to survive and differentiate during embryonic development, they are subject to negative selection over the life of the animal. PMID:19631568

  11. Evaluation of BPA uptake in clear cell sarcoma (CCS) in vitro and development of an in vivo model of CCS for BNCT studies.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, T; Andoh, T; Sudo, T; Fujita, I; Imabori, M; Moritake, H; Sugimoto, T; Sakuma, Y; Takeuchi, T; Sonobe, H; Epstein, Alan L; Akisue, T; Kirihata, M; Kurosaka, M; Fukumori, Y; Ichikawa, H

    2011-12-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS), a rare malignant tumor with a predilection for young adults, is of poor prognosis. Recently however, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with the use of p-borono-L-phenylalanine (BPA) for malignant melanoma has provided good results. CCS also produces melanin; therefore, the uptake of BPA is the key to the application of BNCT to CCS. We describe, for the first time, the high accumulation of boron in CCS and the CCS tumor-bearing animal model generated for BNCT studies.

  12. Surface aspects of discolouration in Bisphenol A Polycarbonate (BPA-PC), used as lens in LED-based products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Udono, H.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2014-11-01

    The surface-related reactions during discolouration of Bisphenol A Polycarbonate (BPA-PC), used as LED lens plates, under thermal stress are studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to monitor the changes in the surface chemistry of BPA-PC plates over a temperature range of 100-140 °C for a period up to 3000 h. Increasing time under thermal stress is associated with the discolouration, and increase in the yellowing index (YI) of PC plastic lens. The XPS results show that discolouration is associated with oxidation at the surface, finding a significant increase in the signal ratio O1s/C1s in the XPS spectra of degraded specimens. During thermal ageing, the Csbnd H concentration decreases and new oxide features Cdbnd O and Osbnd Cdbnd O form, with the latter being a support for oxidation at the surface being a major reaction during discolouration. Results also show that irradiation with blue light during thermal ageing accelerates the kinetics of discolouration and the increased O1s/C1s ratio in XPS spectra.

  13. Radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy: Problems with the concept of relative biological effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Coderre, J.A.; Makar, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation dose delivered to cells in vitro or vivo during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a mixture of photons, fast neutrons and heavy charged particles from the interaction of neutrons with nitrogen and born. The concept of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) had been developed to allow comparison of the effects of these radiations with the effects of standard photon treatments such as 250 kVp x-rays or {sup 60}Co gamma rays. The RBE value for all of these high linear energy transfer radiations can vary considerably depending upon the experimental conditions and endpoint utilized. The short range of the particles from the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}) {sup 7}Li reaction make the precise subcellular location of the {sup 10}B atom of critical importance. The microscopic distribution of the {sup 10}B has a decided effect on the dosimetry. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that, at the cellular level, there is a profound difference in the probability of cell kill depending on the location of the {sup 10}B relative to the nucleus. Different boron-delivery agents will almost certainly have different distribution patterns at the subcellular level. The effect of BNCT with the amino acid p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) was compared with the effect of 250 kVp x-rays on a pigmented B16 melanoma subclone, both in vitro and in vivo. Generally accepted RBE values were applied to the relevant components of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) thermal neutron beam, however, there were still discrepancies when the resulting dose response curves were compared with the response to 250 kVp x-rays.

  14. Reliability and Factor Structure of the Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Adults (ASD-BPA) with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Rivet, Tessa T.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to establish the initial psychometric properties of the first scale specifically developed for behavior problems of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). The Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Adults (ASD-BPA) consists of 20 items in which raters indicate if each item is…

  15. Effect of heat processing and storage time on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) to aqueous food simulant from Mexican can coatings.

    PubMed

    Munguia-Lopez, E M; Soto-Valdez, H

    2001-08-01

    Effects of heat processing and storage time (up to 70 days) on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from can coatings into an aqueous food simulant were determined. Distilled water was canned in two types of Mexican cans: for tuna and for jalapeño peppers. Results showed that there is an effect of heat treatment on migration of both compounds. Storage time did not show any effect in BPA migration from tuna cans. There was an effect of storage time on BPA migration from jalapeño pepper cans. Results for BADGE migration were affected by its susceptibility to hydrolyze in aqueous simulants. BADGE concentration decreased, or was not detected, during storage in both types of cans. Migration levels for BPA and BADGE were within 0.6-83.4 and <0.25-4.3 microg/kg, respectively. Both were below European and Mercosur legislation limits. Other migrating compounds were detected, although no identification was performed.

  16. Evaluation of the toxic effects of brominated compounds (BDE-47, 99, 209, TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA) using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Chan, King Ming

    2015-02-01

    The toxic effects of three polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-47, -99, and -209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA), were evaluated by determining their 24h and 96 h median lethal concentrations using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL. It was found that BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA showed comparative cytotoxicity within the range of 1.2-4.2 μM, and were more toxic than BPA (367.1 μM at 24 h and 357.6 μM at 96 h). However, BDE-209 induced only 15% lethality with exposures up to 25 μM. The molecular stresses of BDE-47, -99, TBBPA and BPA involved in thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis and hepatic metabolism were also investigated. Using a reporter gene system to detect zebrafish thyroid hormone receptor β (zfTRβ) transcriptional activity, the median effective concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) was determined to be 9.2×10(-11) M. BDE-47, BDE-99, TBBPA and BPA alone, however, did not exhibit zfTRβ agonistic activity. BPA displayed T3 (0.1 nM) induced zfTRβ antagonistic activity with a median inhibitory concentration of 19.3 μM. BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA displayed no antagonistic effects of T3-induced zfTRβ activity. Target gene expressions were also examined under acute exposures. The significant inhibition of different types of deiodinases by all of the test chemicals indicated TH circulation disruption. All four chemicals, especially BPA, were able to affect transcripts of phase II hepatic metabolizing enzymes (UGT2A1, SULT1) in vitro. In conclusion, the zfTRβ reporter gene system developed here helps delineate an in vitro model to enable the analysis of the TH disruption effects of environmental pollutants in fish. BPA and the brominated compounds tested were able to disrupt the TH system at the gene expression level, probably through the deiodination pathways. PMID:25544063

  17. Investigation of the effects of subchronic low dose oral exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) on estrogen receptor expression in the juvenile and adult female rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Cao, Jinyan; Sluzas, Emily; Delclos, K Barry; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle M; Patisaul, Heather B

    2014-07-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the long-term impacts of early life exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) on brain organization. Because BPA has been reported to affect estrogen signaling, and steroid hormones play a critical role in brain sexual differentiation, there is also concern that BPA exposure could alter neural sex differences. Here, we examine the impact of subchronic exposure from gestation to adulthood to oral doses of BPA below the current no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day on estrogen receptor (ESR) expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions of prepubertal and adult female rats. The dams were gavaged daily with vehicle (0.3% carboxymethylcellulose), 2.5, 25, 260, or 2700 μg BPA/kg bw/day, or 0.5 or 5.0 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/kg bw/day from gestational day 6 until labor began. Offspring were then gavaged directly from the day after birth until the day before scheduled sacrifice on postnatal days 21 or 90. Using in situ hybridization, one or more BPA doses produced significant decreases in Esr1 expression in the juvenile female rat anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus and significant decreases in Esr2 expression in the adult female rat AVPV and medial preoptic area (MPOA), relative to vehicle controls. BPA did not simply reproduce EE effects, indicating that BPA is not acting solely as an estrogen mimic. The possible consequences of long-term changes in hypothalamic ESR expression resulting from subchronic low dose BPA exposure on neuroendocrine effects are discussed and being addressed in ongoing, related work.

  18. Investigation of the Effects of Subchronic Low Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and Ethinyl Estradiol (EE) on Estrogen Receptor Expression in the Juvenile and Adult Female Rat Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Rebuli, Meghan E.; Cao, Jinyan; Sluzas, Emily; Delclos, K. Barry; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle M.; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the long-term impacts of early life exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) on brain organization. Because BPA has been reported to affect estrogen signaling, and steroid hormones play a critical role in brain sexual differentiation, there is also concern that BPA exposure could alter neural sex differences. Here, we examine the impact of subchronic exposure from gestation to adulthood to oral doses of BPA below the current no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day on estrogen receptor (ESR) expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions of prepubertal and adult female rats. The dams were gavaged daily with vehicle (0.3% carboxymethylcellulose), 2.5, 25, 260, or 2700 μg BPA/kg bw/day, or 0.5 or 5.0 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/kg bw/day from gestational day 6 until labor began. Offspring were then gavaged directly from the day after birth until the day before scheduled sacrifice on postnatal days 21 or 90. Using in situ hybridization, one or more BPA doses produced significant decreases in Esr1 expression in the juvenile female rat anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus and significant decreases in Esr2 expression in the adult female rat AVPV and medial preoptic area (MPOA), relative to vehicle controls. BPA did not simply reproduce EE effects, indicating that BPA is not acting solely as an estrogen mimic. The possible consequences of long-term changes in hypothalamic ESR expression resulting from subchronic low dose BPA exposure on neuroendocrine effects are discussed and being addressed in ongoing, related work. PMID:24752507

  19. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, Mohan; Tracey, Rebecca; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3) following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries) were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

  20. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Projects in Natural and Artificial Propagation of Salmonids, March 27-29, 1985, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-04-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Division of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) hosted a meeting for contractors to present the results of fiscal year 1984 research conducted to implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. The meeting focused on those projects specifically related to natural and artificial propagation of salmonids. The presentations were held at the Holiday Inn Airport in Portland, Oregon, on March 27-29, 1985. This document contains abstracts of the presentations from that meeting. Section 1 contains abstracts on artificial propagation, fish health, and downstream migration, and Section 2 contains abstracts on natural propagation and habitat improvement. The abstracts are indexed by BPA Project Number and by Fish and Wildlife Program Measure. The registered attendees at the meeting are listed alphabetically in Appendix A and by affiliation in Appendix B.

  1. In vitro impact of bisphenols BPA, BPF, BPAF and 17β-estradiol (E2) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cell generation, maturation and function.

    PubMed

    Švajger, Urban; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Jeras, Matjaž

    2016-05-01

    Bisphenols (BPs) are widely spread pollutants that act as estrogen-like endocrine disruptors and are potentially affecting human health on a long run. We explored the effects of BPA, BPF and BPAF, on in vitro differentiation and maturation of MDDCs. Monocytes were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and each BP at the beginning of their differentiation into iMDDCs. We found that 10 and 50 μM of BPA and BPF, 10 and 30μM of BPAF and 10 and 50 nM of E2 did not affect cell viability. However, 50 μM of BPA and BPF, as well as 10 and 30 μM of BPAF, significantly decreased the endocytotic capacity of iMDDCs. Both, BPA (50 μM) and BPAF (30 μM) decreased the expression of CD1a and increased the amount of DC-SIGN molecules on iMDDCs. The E2 pre-treatment moderately decreased expression of CD80, CD86 and CD83 co-stimulatory molecules while increasing the numbers of HLA-DR on mMDDCs. Only BPAF significantly influenced the expression of CD80 and CD86 (both decreased), as well as CD83 and HLA-DR molecules (both increased) on mMDDCs. In addition, BPAF modulated DC maturation signaling pathways by lowering the phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappaB) and ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinase) 1/2 proteins. Consequently, the in vitro proliferation of allogeneic T cells, stimulated with differently pre-treated iMDDCs and mMDDCs, was significantly reduced only in case of BPAF.

  2. In vitro impact of bisphenols BPA, BPF, BPAF and 17β-estradiol (E2) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cell generation, maturation and function.

    PubMed

    Švajger, Urban; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Jeras, Matjaž

    2016-05-01

    Bisphenols (BPs) are widely spread pollutants that act as estrogen-like endocrine disruptors and are potentially affecting human health on a long run. We explored the effects of BPA, BPF and BPAF, on in vitro differentiation and maturation of MDDCs. Monocytes were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and each BP at the beginning of their differentiation into iMDDCs. We found that 10 and 50 μM of BPA and BPF, 10 and 30μM of BPAF and 10 and 50 nM of E2 did not affect cell viability. However, 50 μM of BPA and BPF, as well as 10 and 30 μM of BPAF, significantly decreased the endocytotic capacity of iMDDCs. Both, BPA (50 μM) and BPAF (30 μM) decreased the expression of CD1a and increased the amount of DC-SIGN molecules on iMDDCs. The E2 pre-treatment moderately decreased expression of CD80, CD86 and CD83 co-stimulatory molecules while increasing the numbers of HLA-DR on mMDDCs. Only BPAF significantly influenced the expression of CD80 and CD86 (both decreased), as well as CD83 and HLA-DR molecules (both increased) on mMDDCs. In addition, BPAF modulated DC maturation signaling pathways by lowering the phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappaB) and ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinase) 1/2 proteins. Consequently, the in vitro proliferation of allogeneic T cells, stimulated with differently pre-treated iMDDCs and mMDDCs, was significantly reduced only in case of BPAF. PMID:26945833

  3. Comparing different gas chromatographic methods for the quantification of bisphenol A (BPA) trace levels in paper and cardboard products from the market.

    PubMed

    Jurek, A; Leitner, E

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol), a suspected endocrine disruptor with weak estrogenic activity, is used in a variety of consumer products, including paper and cardboard products used as food contact materials. The present study compared four different gas chromatographic methods for the analysis of BPA in paper and cardboard food packages. Eighteen different food packages were extracted and BPA was determined using two different derivatisation reactions--trimethylsilylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and halide alkylation with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride (PFBOCl)--and four different separation and detection techniques. The BSTFA derivatives were quantified with (1) GC-MS in single-ion monitoring (SIM) mode with electron ionisation (EI-GC-MS) and (2) GC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electron ionisation (EI-GC-MS/MS); while the PFBOCl derivatives were quantified with (3) GC-MS using electron ionisation (EI-GC-MS) as well as (4) GC-MS with negative chemical ionisation (NCI-GC-MS). All developed methods showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.9938), precision (CV < 4.5% for reproducibility; CV < 2.2% for repeatability) and sensitivity, with limits of detection (LODs) between 0.02 µg kg(-1) for the pentafluorobenzoyl derivatives measured with the NCI-GC-MS method and 6 µg kg(-1) for the pentafluorobenzoyl derivatives determined with EI-GC-MS. Levels of BPA in the samples were in agreement for all methods, ranging from values below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 11.9 mg kg(-1) paper. In a last step, the maximum potential migration into food products was calculated for all tested paper and cardboard samples, assuming a 'worst case' scenario of 100% migration.

  4. Regulatory and junctional proteins of the blood-testis barrier in human Sertoli cells are modified by monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and bisphenol A (BPA) exposure.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, André Teves Aquino Gonçalves; Ribeiro, Mariana Antunes; Pinho, Cristiane Figueiredo; Peixoto, André Rebelo; Domeniconi, Raquel Fantin; Scarano, Wellerson R

    2016-08-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is responsible for providing a protected environment and coordinating the spermatogenesis. Endocrine disruptors (EDs) might lead to infertility, interfering in the BTB structure and modulation. This study aimed to correlate the actions of two EDs, monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in different periods of exposure, in a low toxicity dose to the human Sertoli cells (HSeC) and its effects on the proteins of the BTB and regulatory proteins involved in its modulation. HSeC cells were exposed to MBP (10μM) and BPA (20μM) for 6 and 48h. Western Blot assay indicated that MBP was able to reduce the expression of occludin, ZO-1, N-cadherin and Androgen Receptor (AR), while BPA leads to a reduction of occludin, ZO-1, β-catenin and AR. TGF-β2 and F-actin were not modified. Phalloidin and Hematoxylin and Eosin assay revealed phenotically disruption in Sertoli cells adhesion, without changes in F-actin expression or localization. Our data suggested both EDs present potential for disrupting the structure and maintenance of the human BTB by AR dependent pathway.

  5. Design of Studies for Development of BPA Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Accounting Policy Phase II, Volume II, 1985-1988 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kneese, Allen V.

    1988-08-01

    The incremental costs of corrective measures to lessen the environmental impacts of the hydroelectric system are expected to increase and difficult questions to arise about the costs, effectiveness, and justification of alternative measures and their systemwide implications. The BPA anticipate this situation by launching a forward-looking research program aimed at providing methodological tools and data suitable for estimating the productivity and cost implications of mitigation alternatives in a timely manner with state-of-the-art accuracy. Resources for the Future (RFF) agreed at the request of the BPA to develop a research program which would provide an analytical system designed to assist the BPA Administrator and other interested and responsible parties in evaluating the ecological and economic aspects of alternative protection, enhancement, and mitigation measures. While this progression from an ecological understanding to cost-effectiveness analyses is straightforward in concept, the complexities of the Columbia River system make the development of analytical methods far from simple in practice. The Phase 2 final report outlines the technical issues involved in developing an analytical system and proposes a program of research to address these issues. The report is presented in the Summary Report (Volume 1), and the present volume which consists of three technical reports: Part I, Modeling the Salmon and Steelhead Fisheries of the Columbia River Basin; Part II, Models for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis; and Part III, Ocean Fisheries Harvest Management.

  6. Effects of BPA and E2 on expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengling; Li, Zhaoxin; Wang, Qingyin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2013-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly viewed as persistent pollutants, similar to natural hormones in function. This paper describes the expression profiles of 7 genes ( DMRT, VTG GnRHR FSHR CYP17A CYP19A, and CYP19B) involved in sex steroid synthesis and action as well as sexual development in adult male and female Cynoglossus semilaevis, after exposure to different concentrations of Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17β-estradiol (E2). Both BPA (1, 10, 50, 125, and 250 mg/kg) and E2 (0.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) induced changes in target gene expression, although the estrogenic effects of E2 as a model estrogen were stronger. Among the 7 genes, VTG CYP17A and CYP19 responded strongly to BPA or E2 exposure and can thus serve as reference biomarkers for estrogenic EDCs exposure in marine teleosts. These data will provide a window to establish a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal model in C. semilaevis to better understand the effect pathways of EDCs.

  7. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla; Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo; Pisarev, Mario; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  8. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  9. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  10. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  11. Survey of Magnetic Fields Near BPA 230-kV and 500-kV Transmission Lines.

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, Nancy; Aggarwal, Rajinder Pal; Bracken, T. Daniel

    1991-05-20

    The purpose of this study was to characterize typical levels and variability of 60Hz magnetic fields at the centerline and edge of right-of-way of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) 230-kV and 500-kV transmission lines. This was accomplished by taking magnetic field measurements at over 800 spans in Oregon and Washington. The spans were sampled using a stratified random sampling procedure with region (East vs. West), voltage (230-kV vs 500-kV), and circuit configuration as strata. There were five different circuit configuration groups for each region/voltage category requiring a total of 200 strata. Magnetic field measurements were taken at 13 locations under each span using an EMDEX-C as a survey meter. Additional information recorded for each span included conductor height (at 10 locations), right-of-way width, longitudinal and lateral slope, time of day, vegetation, terrain, weather conditions, temperature, wind speed, span length and presence of other lines in the corridor. 9 refs., 17 figs., 26 tabs.

  12. Exciton-blocking phosphonic acid-treated anode buffer layers for organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Jeramy D.; Song, Byeongseop; Griffith, Olga; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate significant improvements in power conversion efficiency of bilayer organic photovoltaics by replacing the exciton-quenching MoO3 anode buffer layer with an exciton-blocking benzylphosphonic acid (BPA)-treated MoO3 or NiO layer. We show that the phosphonic acid treatment creates buffers that block up to 70% of excitons without sacrificing the hole extraction efficiency. Compared to untreated MoO3 anode buffers, BPA-treated NiO buffers exhibit a ˜ 25% increase in the near-infrared spectral response in diphenylanilo functionalized squaraine (DPSQ)/C60-based bilayer devices, increasing the power conversion efficiency under 1 sun AM1.5G simulated solar illumination from 4.8 ± 0.2% to 5.4 ± 0.3%. The efficiency can be further increased to 5.9 ± 0.3% by incorporating a highly conductive exciton blocking bathophenanthroline (BPhen):C60 cathode buffer. We find similar increases in efficiency in two other small-molecule photovoltaic systems, indicating the generality of the phosphonic acid-treated buffer approach to enhance exciton blocking.

  13. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  14. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report has four parts: they discuss acid rain in relation to acid soils, agriculture, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Among findings: modern sources of acid deposition from the atmosphere for all the acid soils in the world, nor even chiefly responsible for those of northern U.S. Agriculture has its problems, but acid precipitation is probably not one of them. More research is needed to determine to what extent acid precipitation is responsible for forest declines and for smaller detrimental effects on forest growth where no damage to the foliage is evident. Many lakes and streams are extremely sensitive to added acids.

  15. BPA Riparian Fencing and Alternative Water Development Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed, 2000 and 2001 Asotin Creek Fencing Final Report of Accomplishments.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35. According to Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife's (WDFW) Priority WRIA's by ''At-Risk Stock Significance Map'', it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern Washington. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve; no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe, Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps members from the Nez Perce Tribe have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred and seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, the ACCD has been securing and administering funding for endangered salmonids since 1994. The ''Asotin Creek Riparian Planting 2000-053-00 and Asotin Creek Riparian Fencing 2000-054-00'' teamed BPA and the Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding to plant approximately 84

  16. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Nigg; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung.

  17. Biodistribution of boron after intravenous 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) infusion in meningioma and schwannoma patients: A feasibility study for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Kulvik, Martti; Kallio, Merja; Laakso, Juha; Vähätalo, Jyrki; Hermans, Raine; Järviluoma, Eija; Paetau, Anders; Rasilainen, Merja; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Seppälä, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Juha

    2015-12-01

    We studied the uptake of boron after 100 mg/kg BPA infusion in three meningioma and five schwannoma patients as a pre-BNCT feasibility study. With average tumour-to-whole blood boron concentrations of 2.5, we discuss why BNCT could, and probably should, be developed to treat severe forms of the studied tumours. However, analysing 72 tumour and 250 blood samples yielded another finding: the plasma-to-whole blood boron concentrations varied with time, suggesting that the assumed constant boron ratio of 1:1 between normal brain tissue and whole blood deserves re-assessment.

  18. A comparative evaluation of different types of microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangli; Zhou, Ying; Luo, Haiping; Cheng, Xing; Zhang, Renduo; Teng, Wenkai

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate different microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production. The systems included microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC), microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) with bipolar membrane and anion exchange membrane (BP-A MEDC), MEDC with bipolar membrane and cation exchange membrane (BP-C MEDC), and modified microbial desalination cell (M-MDC). The microbial electrolysis desalination cells performed differently in terms of malic acid production and energy consumption. The MEDCC performed best with the highest malic acid production rate (18.4 ± 0.6 mmol/Lh) and the lowest energy consumption (0.35 ± 0.14 kWh/kg). The best performance of MEDCC was attributable to the neutral pH condition in the anode chamber, the lowest internal resistance, and the highest Geobacter percentage of the anode biofilm population among all the reactors.

  19. A comparative evaluation of different types of microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangli; Zhou, Ying; Luo, Haiping; Cheng, Xing; Zhang, Renduo; Teng, Wenkai

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate different microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production. The systems included microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC), microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) with bipolar membrane and anion exchange membrane (BP-A MEDC), MEDC with bipolar membrane and cation exchange membrane (BP-C MEDC), and modified microbial desalination cell (M-MDC). The microbial electrolysis desalination cells performed differently in terms of malic acid production and energy consumption. The MEDCC performed best with the highest malic acid production rate (18.4 ± 0.6 mmol/Lh) and the lowest energy consumption (0.35 ± 0.14 kWh/kg). The best performance of MEDCC was attributable to the neutral pH condition in the anode chamber, the lowest internal resistance, and the highest Geobacter percentage of the anode biofilm population among all the reactors. PMID:26367771

  20. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  1. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  2. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  3. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  4. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  5. Bpur, the Lyme disease spirochete's PUR domain protein: identification as a transcriptional modulator and characterization of nucleic acid interactions.

    PubMed

    Jutras, Brandon L; Chenail, Alicia M; Carroll, Dustin W; Miller, M Clarke; Zhu, Haining; Bowman, Amy; Stevenson, Brian

    2013-09-01

    The PUR domain is a nucleic acid-binding motif found in critical regulatory proteins of higher eukaryotes and in certain species of bacteria. During investigations into mechanisms by which the Lyme disease spirochete controls synthesis of its Erp surface proteins, it was discovered that the borrelial PUR domain protein, Bpur, binds with high affinity to double-stranded DNA adjacent to the erp transcriptional promoter. Bpur was found to enhance the effects of the erp repressor protein, BpaB. Bpur also bound single-stranded DNA and RNA, with relative affinities RNA > double-stranded DNA > single-stranded DNA. Rational site-directed mutagenesis of Bpur identified amino acid residues and domains critical for interactions with nucleic acids, and it revealed that the PUR domain has a distinct mechanism of interaction with each type of nucleic acid ligand. These data shed light on both gene regulation in the Lyme spirochete and functional mechanisms of the widely distributed PUR domain.

  6. Microwave irradiation induced modifications on the interfaces in SAN/EVA/PVC and PVAc/BPA/PVP ternary polymer blends: Positron lifetime study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinesh, Meghala; Chikkakuntappa, Ranganathaiah

    2013-09-01

    Ternary polymer blends of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and poly(vinyl acetate)/bisphenol A/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVAc/BPA/PVP) with different compositions have been prepared by solvent casting method and characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Phase modifications have been induced by irradiating the blends with microwave radiation. These changes have been monitored by measuring the free-volume content in the blends. The results clearly show improved interactions between the constituent polymers of the blends upon microwave irradiation. However, the free-volume data and DSC measurements are found to be inadequate to reveal the changes at the interfaces and the interfaces determine the final properties of the blend. For this we have used hydrodynamic interaction (αij) approach developed by us to measure strength of hydrodynamic interaction at the interfaces. These results show that microwave irradiation stabilizes the interfaces if the blend contains strong polar groups. SAN/EVA/PVC blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.18 to -4.85 at composition 50/35/15 upon microwave irradiation and PVAc/BPA/PVP blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.81 to -7.57 at composition 20/50/30 after irradiation.

  7. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  8. Heme biosynthesis modulation via δ-aminolevulinic acid administration attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Alhawaj, Raed; Patel, Dhara; Kelly, Melissa R.; Sun, Dong

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how heme biosynthesis modulation with δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) potentially functions to prevent 21-day hypoxia (10% oxygen)-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice and the effects of 24-h organoid culture with bovine pulmonary arteries (BPA) with the hypoxia and pulmonary hypertension mediator endothelin-1 (ET-1), with a focus on changes in superoxide and regulation of micro-RNA 204 (miR204) expression by src kinase phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). The treatment of mice with ALA attenuated pulmonary hypertension (assessed through echo Doppler flow of the pulmonary valve, and direct measurements of right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy), increases in pulmonary arterial superoxide (detected by lucigenin), and decreases in lung miR204 and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression. ALA treatment of BPA attenuated ET-1-induced increases in mitochondrial superoxide (detected by MitoSox), STAT3 phosphorylation, and decreases in miR204 and SOD2 expression. Because ALA increases BPA protoporphyrin IX (a stimulator of guanylate cyclase) and cGMP-mediated protein kinase G (PKG) activity, the effects of the PKG activator 8-bromo-cGMP were examined and found to also attenuate the ET-1-induced increase in superoxide. ET-1 increased superoxide production and the detection of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence, suggesting oxidant conditions might impair heme biosynthesis by ferrochelatase. However, chronic hypoxia actually increased ferrochelatase activity in mouse pulmonary arteries. Thus, a reversal of factors increasing mitochondrial superoxide and oxidant effects that potentially influence remodeling signaling related to miR204 expression and perhaps iron availability needed for the biosynthesis of heme by the ferrochelatase reaction could be factors in the beneficial actions of ALA in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25659899

  9. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as soybeans, garbanzo beans, and lentils Peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and flaxseeds Animal ...

  10. Estimates of Dietary Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) from Light Metal Packaging using Food Consumption and Packaging usage Data: A Refined Deterministic Approach and a Fully Probabilistic (FACET) Approach

    PubMed Central

    Oldring, P.K.T.; Castle, L.; O'Mahony, C.; Dixon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The FACET tool is a probabilistic model to estimate exposure to chemicals in foodstuffs, originating from flavours, additives and food contact materials. This paper demonstrates the use of the FACET tool to estimate exposure to BPA (bisphenol A) from light metal packaging. For exposure to migrants from food packaging, FACET uses industry-supplied data on the occurrence of substances in the packaging, their concentrations and construction of the packaging, which were combined with data from a market research organisation and food consumption data supplied by national database managers. To illustrate the principles, UK packaging data were used together with consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) dietary survey for 19–64 year olds for a refined deterministic verification. The UK data were chosen mainly because the consumption surveys are detailed, data for UK packaging at a detailed level were available and, arguably, the UK population is composed of high consumers of packaged foodstuffs. Exposures were run for each food category that could give rise to BPA from light metal packaging. Consumer loyalty to a particular type of packaging, commonly referred to as packaging loyalty, was set. The BPA extraction levels used for the 15 types of coating chemistries that could release BPA were in the range of 0.00005–0.012 mg dm−2. The estimates of exposure to BPA using FACET for the total diet were 0.0098 (mean) and 0.0466 (97.5th percentile) mg/person/day, corresponding to 0.00013 (mean) and 0.00059 (97.5th percentile) mg kg−1 body weight day−1 for consumers of foods packed in light metal packaging. This is well below the current EFSA (and other recognised bodies) TDI of 0.05 mg kg−1 body weight day. These probabilistic estimates were compared with estimates using a refined deterministic approach drawing on the same input data. The results from FACET for the mean, 95th and 97.5th percentile exposures to BPA lay between the lowest

  11. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  12. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  13. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  14. Sustainability at BPA 2012

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.

  15. Bisphenol A (BPA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Page Jobs at NIEHS Research Training HAZMAT Safety & Training News Home Page Live Webcasts News Room Newsletters ... Careers & Training Jobs at NIEHS Research Training HAZMAT Safety & Training News Home News Live Webcasts News Room Newsletters ...

  16. How Acidic Is Carbonic Acid?

    PubMed

    Pines, Dina; Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Miller, Yifat; Kiefer, Philip M; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud

    2016-03-10

    Carbonic, lactic, and pyruvic acids have been generated in aqueous solution by the transient protonation of their corresponding conjugate bases by a tailor-made photoacid, the 6-hydroxy-1-sulfonate pyrene sodium salt molecule. A particular goal is to establish the pK(a) of carbonic acid H2CO3. The on-contact proton transfer (PT) reaction rate from the optically excited photoacid to the carboxylic bases was derived, with unprecedented precision, from time-correlated single-photon-counting measurements of the fluorescence lifetime of the photoacid in the presence of the proton acceptors. The time-dependent diffusion-assisted PT rate was analyzed using the Szabo-Collins-Kimball equation with a radiation boundary condition. The on-contact PT rates were found to follow the acidity order of the carboxylic acids: the stronger was the acid, the slower was the PT reaction to its conjugate base. The pK(a) of carbonic acid was found to be 3.49 ± 0.05 using both the Marcus and Kiefer-Hynes free energy correlations. This establishes H2CO3 as being 0.37 pK(a) units stronger and about 1 pK(a) unit weaker, respectively, than the physiologically important lactic and pyruvic acids. The considerable acid strength of intact carbonic acid indicates that it is an important protonation agent under physiological conditions. PMID:26862781

  17. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  18. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  19. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and smelters in the Ohio River Valley. Immediate corrective action and appropriate research are needed to reduce acid precipitation. Short-term programs that will define the rate of environmental deterioration, remaining environmental capacity to resist sudden deterioration, mechanisms of acid rain formation, and costs of various control options must be developed. (3 maps, 13 references, 1 table)

  20. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  1. Soy but not Bisphenol A (BPA) Induces Hallmarks of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Related Metabolic co-Morbidities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Mabrey, Natalie; Adewale, Heather B.; Sullivan, Alana W.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder with a prevalence as high as 8–15% depending on ethnicity and the diagnostic criteria employed. The basic pathophysiology and mode of inheritance remain unclear, but environmental factors such as diet, stress and chemical exposures are thought to be contributory. Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been hypothesized to exacerbate risk, in part because PCOS hallmarks and associated metabolic co-morbidities can be reliably induced in animal models by perinatal androgen exposure. Here we show that lifetime exposure to a soy diet, containing endocrine active phytoestrogens, but not developmental exposure (gestational day 6 – lactational day 40) to the endocrine disrupting monomer Bisphenol A (BPA), can induce key features of PCOS in the rat; results which support the hypothesis that hormonally active diets may contribute to risk when consumed throughout gestation and post-natal life. PMID:25242113

  2. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  3. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  4. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  5. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  6. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  7. Single and multi-component adsorptive removal of bisphenol A and 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solutions with transition metal modified inorganic-organic pillared clay composites: Effect of pH and presence of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Martínez, Krisiam; Reddy, Pratap; Cabrera-Lafaurie, Wilman A; Román, Félix R; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J

    2016-07-15

    Pillared clay based composites containing transition metals and a surfactant, namely MAlOr-NaBt (Bt=bentonite; Or=surfactant; M=Ni(2+), Cu(2+)or Co(2+)), were prepared to study selectivity and capacity toward single and multiple-component adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and 2,4-diclorophenol (DCP) from water. Tests were also performed to account for the presence of natural organic matter in the form of humic acid (HA). Equilibrium adsorption capacities for single components increased as follows: NaBtBPA and DCP, respectively, at neutral pH conditions and ambient temperature, representing an ordered of magnitude increase over the unmodified pillared clay capacities. Inclusion of the transition metal brought an increase of nearly two-fold in adsorption capacity over the materials modified only with surfactant. The MAlOr-NaBt adsorbents displayed remarkable selectivity for BPA. Multi-component fixed-bed tests, however, revealed competition between the adsorbates, with the exception of the CuAlOr-NaBt beds. Inclusion of HA, surprisingly, enhanced the phenols adsorption capacity. Preliminary regeneration tests suggested that the adsorbent capacity can be recovered via thermal treatment or by washing with alkaline solutions. The former strategy, however, requires surfactant replenishment. More complex schemes would be needed to deal with absorbed HA. PMID:27037481

  8. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  9. Electronic and chemical structure of an organic light emitter embedded in an inorganic wide-bandgap semiconductor: Photoelectron spectroscopy of layered and composite structures of Ir(BPA) and ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimamay, Mariel; Mayer, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Georges; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2015-05-01

    Luminescent organic phases embedded in conductive inorganic matrices are proposed for hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes. In this configuration, the organic dye acts as the radiative recombination site for charge carriers injected into the inorganic matrix. Our investigation is aimed at finding a material combination where the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the organic dye are situated in between the valence and conduction bands of the inorganic matrix in order to promote electron and hole transfer from the matrix to the dye. Bilayer and composite thin films of zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a red iridium complex (Ir(BPA)) organic light emitter were prepared in situ via UHV thermal evaporation technique. The electronic and atomic structures were studied applying X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies. The measured energy band alignments for the ZnSe/Ir(BPA) bilayer and ZnSe+Ir(BPA) composite reveal that the HOMO and LUMO of the organic dye are positioned in the ZnSe bandgap. For the initial steps of ZnSe deposition on a dye film to form Ir(BPA)/ZnSe bilayers, zinc atoms intercalate into the dye film leaving behind an excess of selenium at the interface that partly reacts with dye molecules. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the composites shows the same species suggesting a similar mechanism. This mechanism leads to composite films with increased content of amorphous phases in the inorganic matrix, thereby affecting its conductivity, as well as to the presence of nonradiative recombination sites provided by the intercalated Zn atoms.

  10. Electronic and chemical structure of an organic light emitter embedded in an inorganic wide-bandgap semiconductor: Photoelectron spectroscopy of layered and composite structures of Ir(BPA) and ZnSe

    SciTech Connect

    Dimamay, Mariel; Mayer, Thomas; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2015-05-07

    Luminescent organic phases embedded in conductive inorganic matrices are proposed for hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes. In this configuration, the organic dye acts as the radiative recombination site for charge carriers injected into the inorganic matrix. Our investigation is aimed at finding a material combination where the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the organic dye are situated in between the valence and conduction bands of the inorganic matrix in order to promote electron and hole transfer from the matrix to the dye. Bilayer and composite thin films of zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a red iridium complex (Ir(BPA)) organic light emitter were prepared in situ via UHV thermal evaporation technique. The electronic and atomic structures were studied applying X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies. The measured energy band alignments for the ZnSe/Ir(BPA) bilayer and ZnSe+Ir(BPA) composite reveal that the HOMO and LUMO of the organic dye are positioned in the ZnSe bandgap. For the initial steps of ZnSe deposition on a dye film to form Ir(BPA)/ZnSe bilayers, zinc atoms intercalate into the dye film leaving behind an excess of selenium at the interface that partly reacts with dye molecules. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the composites shows the same species suggesting a similar mechanism. This mechanism leads to composite films with increased content of amorphous phases in the inorganic matrix, thereby affecting its conductivity, as well as to the presence of nonradiative recombination sites provided by the intercalated Zn atoms.

  11. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  12. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  13. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  14. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  15. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  16. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  17. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  18. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  19. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  20. [Hyaluronic acid].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, N

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is now a leader product in esthetic procedures for the treatment of wrinkles and volumes. The structure of HA, its metabolism, its physiological function are foremost breaking down then its use in aesthetic dermatology: steps of injection, possible side effects, benefits and downsides of the use of HA in aesthetic dermatology.

  1. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  2. Supramolecular complexes obtained from the interaction of violuric acid with manganese ion and nitrogenous ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Humberto C.; Diniz, Renata; Speziali, Nivaldo L.; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.

    2014-07-01

    This work describes the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization (Raman and infrared) and structural arrangement of three new supramolecular complexes named [Mn(H2Vi)2(H2O)4)](bpy)2(1), [Mn(bpa)2(H2O)4](H2Vi)2(2) and [Mn(bpp)2(H2Vi)2]·(bpp)2(H2O)2(3); these compounds have been obtained making use of different building blocks such as 4,4‧-bipyridyne (bpy), 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (bpa) and 4,4‧-trimethylene-dipyridine (bpp) acting as spacers with violuric acid and manganese ion, presenting behavior related to processes of molecular self-assembling and self-organization, very common in studies of supramolecular systems. In all these compounds the violurate anion appears in the crystalline arrangement as monodentate, anionic and chelate forms for 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The important to note is that monodentate coordination in 1 and chelate in 3 through O2 and O3 oxygen atoms from the oxime group can be considered the first example in literature involving violuric acid, both in coordination or interaction with manganese ion. Moreover, it can be seen a good agreement between the structural results and the spectroscopic data; for instance the presence of an intense band in the Raman spectrum around 1603 and 1012 cm-1 in all obtained compounds, assigned to the ν(CC)/ν(CN) and ν(ring)modes of the pyridyl ligand, respectively. Other important band can be observed in 1031 cm-1 only for compound 3, assigned to the ν(Nsbnd O) mode of the violurate ligand; the band at 1284 cm-1 referring to the ν(Ndbnd O) mode, very characteristic of violurate species is not seen in the spectrum, thus confirming the coordination of this building block by the oxime moiety.

  3. In vivo biotinylation and incorporation of a photo-inducible unnatural amino acid to an antibody-binding domain improve site-specific labeling of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kanje, Sara; Hober, Sophia

    2015-04-01

    Antibodies are important molecules in many research fields, where they play a key role in various assays. Antibody labeling is therefore of great importance. Currently, most labeling techniques take advantage of certain amino acid side chains that commonly appear throughout proteins. This makes it hard to control the position and exact degree of labeling of each antibody. Hence, labeling of the antibody may affect the antibody-binding site. This paper presents a novel protein domain based on the IgG-binding domain C2 of streptococcal protein G, containing the unnatural amino acid BPA, that can cross-link other molecules. This novel domain can, with improved efficiency compared to previously reported similar domains, site-specifically cross-link to IgG at the Fc region. An efficient method for simultaneous in vivo incorporation of BPA and specific biotinylation in a flask cultivation of Escherichia coli is described. In comparison to a traditionally labeled antibody sample, the C2-labeled counterpart proved to have a higher proportion of functional antibodies when immobilized on a solid surface and the same limit of detection in an ELISA. This method of labeling is, due to its efficiency and simplicity, of high interest for all antibody-based assays where it is important that labeling does not interfere with the antibody-binding site.

  4. Biodistribution of phenylboric acid derivative entrapped lipiodol and 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine-fructose in GP7TB liver tumor bearing rats for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Liao, A H; Chou, F I; Kuo, Y C; Chen, H W; Kai, J J; Chang, C W; Chen, F D; Hwang, J J

    2010-03-01

    A new phenylboric acid derivative entrapped lipiodol (PBAD-lipiodol) was developed as a boron carrier for the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of hepatoma in Taiwan. The biodistribution of both PBAD-lipiodol and BPA-fructose was assayed in GP7TB hepatoma-bearing rat model. The highest uptake of PBAD-lipiodol was found at 2h post injection. The application of BNCT for the hepatoma treatment in tumor-bearing rats is suggested to be 2-4h post PBAD-lipiodol injection.

  5. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  6. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  7. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  8. High-resolution electron density profiles reveal influence of fatty acids on bilayer structure.

    PubMed Central

    Katsaras, J; Stinson, R H

    1990-01-01

    Small-angle x-ray diffraction studies were performed on gel phase-oriented bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and DPPC containing 40 mol% of either palmitic acid (PA) or palmitic acid brominated at the 2-position (BPA). Oriented samples were prepared using a method developed by us, which is as simple as powder sample preparations while offering all the advantages of oriented samples made by traditional methods. Phases were determined using swelling experiments with structure factors plotted in reciprocal space, creating a relatively smooth curve as the amount of water between the bilayers was changed. Continuous Fourier transforms were also calculated to further test the consistency of the phase assignments. The diffraction data were used to calculate absolute electron density profiles for different bilayers to a resolution of 5-6 A. Analysis indicates the following: (a) The electron density profiles for the three preparations are virtually identical in the hydrocarbon chain region. (b) There is a decrease in the electron density of the glycerol backbone-headgroup region and d-space in DPPC-PA compared to DPPC. (c) The bromine of fatty-acid brominated at the 2-position is in the vicinity of the glycerol backbone. (d) The bilayer thickness of DPPC containing either brominated or unbrominated fatty acid remains relatively constant with increased levels of hydration, unlike DPPC bilayers. PMID:2306509

  9. Precipitation: its acidic nature.

    PubMed

    Frohliger, J O; Kane, R

    1975-08-01

    A comparison of the free hydrogen ion concentration and the total hydrogen ion concentration of rain samples shows that rain is a weak acid. The weak acid nature of rain casts doubt on the concepts that the acidity of rain is increasing and that these increases are due to strong acids such as sulfuric acid.

  10. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  11. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Below are symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning in different parts of the ... urine Decreased urine output No urine output EYES, EARS, ...

  12. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  13. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  14. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  15. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  16. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  17. Treatment of malignant melanoma by selective thermal neutron capture therapy using melanoma-seeking compound.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Y; Ichihashi, M; Tsuji, M; Hatta, S; Ueda, M; Honda, C; Suzuki, T

    1989-05-01

    As pigment cells undergo melanoma genesis, accentuated melanogenesis concurrently occurs in principle. Subsequent to the understanding of intrinsic factors controlling both processes, we found our selective melanoma neutron capture therapy (NCT) using 10B-dopa (melanin substrate) analogue, 10B1-p-boronophenylalanine (10B1-BPA), followed by 10B(n, alpha)7Li reaction, induced by essentially harmless thermal neutrons, which releases energy of 2.33 MeV to 14 mu, the diameter of melanoma cells. In vitro/in vivo radiobiological analysis revealed the highly enhanced melanoma killing effect of 10B1-BPA. Chemical and prompt gamma ray spectrometry assays of 10B accumulated within melanoma cells after 10B1-BPA administration in vitro and in vivo show high affinity, e.g., 10B melanoma/blood ratio of 11.5. After successfully eradicating melanoma transplanted into hamsters with NCT, we advanced to preclinical studies using spontaneously occurring melanoma in Duroc pig skin. We cured three melanoma cases, 4.6 to 12 cm in diameter, by single neutron capture treatment. Complete disappearance of melanoma was obtained without substantial side effects. Acute and subacute toxicity as well as pharmacodynamics of 10B1-BPA have been studied in relation to therapeutic dosage requirements. Clinical radiation dosimetry using human phantom has been carried out. Further preclinical studies using human melanoma transplanted into nude mouse have been a useful model for obtaining optimal results for each melanoma type. We recently treated the first human melanoma patient with our NCT, using essentially the method for Duroc pig melanoma, and obtained similar regression time course leading to cure.

  18. Treatment of malignant melanoma by selective thermal neutron capture therapy using melanoma-seeking compound

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, Y.; Ichihashi, M.; Tsuji, M.; Hatta, S.; Ueda, M.; Honda, C.; Suzuki, T.

    1989-05-01

    As pigment cells undergo melanoma genesis, accentuated melanogenesis concurrently occurs in principle. Subsequent to the understanding of intrinsic factors controlling both processes, we found our selective melanoma neutron capture therapy (NCT) using 10B-dopa (melanin substrate) analogue, 10B1-p-boronophenylalanine (10B1-BPA), followed by 10B(n, alpha)7Li reaction, induced by essentially harmless thermal neutrons, which releases energy of 2.33 MeV to 14 mu, the diameter of melanoma cells. In vitro/in vivo radiobiological analysis revealed the highly enhanced melanoma killing effect of 10B1-BPA. Chemical and prompt gamma ray spectrometry assays of 10B accumulated within melanoma cells after 10B1-BPA administration in vitro and in vivo show high affinity, e.g., 10B melanoma/blood ratio of 11.5. After successfully eradicating melanoma transplanted into hamsters with NCT, we advanced to preclinical studies using spontaneously occurring melanoma in Duroc pig skin. We cured three melanoma cases, 4.6 to 12 cm in diameter, by single neutron capture treatment. Complete disappearance of melanoma was obtained without substantial side effects. Acute and subacute toxicity as well as pharmacodynamics of 10B1-BPA have been studied in relation to therapeutic dosage requirements. Clinical radiation dosimetry using human phantom has been carried out. Further preclinical studies using human melanoma transplanted into nude mouse have been a useful model for obtaining optimal results for each melanoma type. We recently treated the first human melanoma patient with our NCT, using essentially the method for Duroc pig melanoma, and obtained similar regression time course leading to cure.

  19. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  20. Bioconversions of ferulic acid, an hydroxycinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sindhu; Abraham, T Emilia

    2006-01-01

    Ferulic acid is the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in the plant world and is ester linked to arabinose, in various plant polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectins. It is a precursor to vanillin, one of the most important aromatic flavor compound used in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and perfumes. This article presents an overview of the various biocatalytic routes, focusing on the relevant biotransformations of ferulic acid using plant sources, microorganisms, and enzymes.

  1. Sustainability at BPA May 2011

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-01

    BPA’s approach to sustainability is built on the agency’s foundation of environmental stewardship partnered with its commitment to operational excellence. Around the world today, sustainable business practices are driving innovation, opening opportunities for resource and cost efficiencies, as well as increasing employee engagement and productivity. Business jumped on the bandwagon early finding that sustainability can be an important component of their company’s competitive advantage. A 2010 survey by the United Nations Global Compact/Accenture of 766 CEOs from around the globe found that, despite the economic downturn, 93 percent of the CEOs surveyed see sustainability as critical to their company’s future success. Calling on the federal government to “lead by example,” President Barack Obama issued Executive Order 13514 in October 2009 to green the government by improving “environmental, energy and economic performance.”

  2. BPA Committed to Northwest Values

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    The Columbia River has been called the “crown jewel” of the Pacific Northwest. There is no question it is among the region’s greatest assets — supplying low-cost clean hydropower, making deserts bloom thanks to irrigation and providing navigation, recreation and a home for many species of fish and wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration is proud to be a steward of this great resource. Our mission is to serve the people and environment of the Pacific Northwest. We sell wholesale power from Grand Coulee Dam and 30 other Northwest federal dams to Northwest utilities, including public utility districts, rural electric cooperatives and municipal utility departments, as well as investor-owned utilities. We operate three-fourths of the region’s high voltage transmission system that delivers that power. But, as a federal agency, we are not just a power marketer. We have public responsibilities that include, among many, promoting energy efficiency, facilitating development of renewable power, protecting fish and wildlife affected by hydro development, honoring treaty obligations to tribes and promoting a reliable energy future through collaboration and partnerships. This document describes our responsibilities to citizens in the Pacific Northwest.

  3. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  4. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  5. Comparing the effects of tetrabromobisphenol-A, bisphenol A, and their potential replacement alternatives, TBBPA-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) and bisphenol S, on cell viability and messenger ribonucleic acid expression in chicken embryonic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Melissa; Crump, Doug; Farmahin, Reza; Kennedy, Sean W

    2015-02-01

    A market for alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has emerged recently due to the phase out of persistent and inherently toxic BFRs. Several of these replacement compounds have been detected in environmental matrices, including wild birds. A chicken embryonic hepatocyte (CEH) assay was utilized to assess the effects of the BFR, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), and its replacement alternative, tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether [TBBPA-DBPE]) on cell viability and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression. Bisphenol A (BPA) and 1 of its replacement alternatives, bisphenol S (BPS), were also screened for effects. Both TBBPA and BPA decreased CEH viability with calculated median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 40.6 μM and 61.7 μM, respectively. However, the replacement alternatives, TBBPA-DBPE and BPS, did not affect cell viability (up to 300 μM). Effects on mRNA expression were determined using an Avian ToxChip polymerse chain reaction (PCR) array and a real-time (RT)-PCR assay for the estrogen-responsive genes, apolipoproteinII (ApoII) and vitellogenin (Vtg). A luciferase reporter gene assay was used to assess dioxin-like effects. Tetrabromobisphenol-A altered mRNA levels of 4 genes from multiple toxicity pathways and increased luciferase activity in the luciferase reporter gene assay, whereas its alternative, TBBPA-DBPE, only altered 1 gene on the array, Cyp1a4, and increased luciferase activity. At 300 μM, a concentration that decreased cell viability for TBBPA and BPA, the BPA replacement, BPS, altered the greatest number of transcripts, including both ApoII and Vtg. Bisphenol A exposure did not alter any genes on the array but did up-regulate Vtg at 10 μM. Characterization of the potential toxicological and molecular-level effects of these compounds will ideally be useful to chemical regulators tasked with assessing the risk of new and existing chemicals. PMID:25470364

  6. Comparing the effects of tetrabromobisphenol-A, bisphenol A, and their potential replacement alternatives, TBBPA-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) and bisphenol S, on cell viability and messenger ribonucleic acid expression in chicken embryonic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Melissa; Crump, Doug; Farmahin, Reza; Kennedy, Sean W

    2015-02-01

    A market for alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has emerged recently due to the phase out of persistent and inherently toxic BFRs. Several of these replacement compounds have been detected in environmental matrices, including wild birds. A chicken embryonic hepatocyte (CEH) assay was utilized to assess the effects of the BFR, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), and its replacement alternative, tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether [TBBPA-DBPE]) on cell viability and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression. Bisphenol A (BPA) and 1 of its replacement alternatives, bisphenol S (BPS), were also screened for effects. Both TBBPA and BPA decreased CEH viability with calculated median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 40.6 μM and 61.7 μM, respectively. However, the replacement alternatives, TBBPA-DBPE and BPS, did not affect cell viability (up to 300 μM). Effects on mRNA expression were determined using an Avian ToxChip polymerse chain reaction (PCR) array and a real-time (RT)-PCR assay for the estrogen-responsive genes, apolipoproteinII (ApoII) and vitellogenin (Vtg). A luciferase reporter gene assay was used to assess dioxin-like effects. Tetrabromobisphenol-A altered mRNA levels of 4 genes from multiple toxicity pathways and increased luciferase activity in the luciferase reporter gene assay, whereas its alternative, TBBPA-DBPE, only altered 1 gene on the array, Cyp1a4, and increased luciferase activity. At 300 μM, a concentration that decreased cell viability for TBBPA and BPA, the BPA replacement, BPS, altered the greatest number of transcripts, including both ApoII and Vtg. Bisphenol A exposure did not alter any genes on the array but did up-regulate Vtg at 10 μM. Characterization of the potential toxicological and molecular-level effects of these compounds will ideally be useful to chemical regulators tasked with assessing the risk of new and existing chemicals.

  7. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  8. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  9. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  10. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  12. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ... Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in men, and to prevent or treat osteoporosis ...

  13. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  14. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  15. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do ...

  16. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  17. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  18. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  19. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  20. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  1. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  2. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  3. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  4. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  5. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  6. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  10. [Safety of folic acid].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Improving dietary folate intake is a central public health goal. However, critical voices have become louder warning of too high intake of folic acid. Safety concerns of a high folic acid exposure are usually limited to synthetic folic acid contained in drugs and food supplements. Against this background, the present article focuses on two matters: (a) How do the absorption and metabolism of synthetic folic acid differ from that of other folates? (b) How has the longterm safety of folic acid to be judged, especially regarding the risk of colorectal cancer, autism, asthma, impaired immune defence, masking vitamin B12 deficiency and interactions with the methotrexate metabolism?

  11. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  12. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  13. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  14. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  15. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  16. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  17. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  18. Well acidizing compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B. L.

    1980-12-23

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for matrix acidizing or fracture acidizing of subterranean formations are provided comprising water, a water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier such as a polymer of acrylamide, an acid, and a polyphenolic material such as lignite.

  19. Bile acids but not acidic acids induce Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongfeng; Wang, Xiao; Gai, Zhibo; Song, Xiaoming; Jia, Xinyong; Tian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Bile acids (BAs) refluxing into the esophagus contribute to esophageal injury, which results in BE and subsequent EAC. We developed two animal models to test the role of BAs in the pathogenesis of BE. We surgically generated BA reflux, with or without gastric acid, in rats. In a second experiment, we fed animals separately with BAs and gastric acid. Pathologic changes were examined and the expression of Muc2 and Cdx2 in BE tissue was tested by immunostaining. Inflammatory factors in the plasma, as well as differentiation genes in BE were examined through highly sensitive ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR techniques. We found that BAs are sufficient for the induction of esophagitis and Barrett's-like metaplasia in the esophagus. Overexpression of inflammatory cells, IL-6, and TNF-α was observed both in animals fed with BAs and surgically generated BA reflux. Furthermore, elevated levels of Cdx2, Muc2, Bmp4, Kit19, and Tff2 (differentiation genes in BE) were found in BA-treated rats. In conclusion, BAs, but not gastric acid, are a major causative factor for BE. We confirmed that BAs contribute to the development of BE by inducing the inflammatory response in the esophagus. Inhibiting BAs may be a promising therapy for BE.

  20. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  1. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  2. Effect of boron neutron capture therapy for melanotic and amelanotic melanoma transplanted into mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Iwakura, Masaki; Kondoh, Hirofumi; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Ehara, Kazumasa; Tamaki, Norihiko; Mishima, Yutaka

    2002-02-01

    In order to develop a protocol to treat brain metastatic melanoma using our 10B-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), we initiated the following studies (i), Comparative analyses of boron biodistribution between melanoma proliferating in the brain and skin among melanotic and amelanotic types, and (ii) Therapeutic evaluation of BPA-BNCT for brain melanoma models of both types, using survival times. Our present data have revealed that boron concentration in melanoma proliferating in the brain, the major prerequisite for successful BNCT, showed a positive correlation to melanin synthesizing activity in the same way as melanoma proliferating in skin. Further, the boron concentration ratio of melanoma to normal surrounding tissue for brain melanoma models was considerably higher than that for subcutaneous (s.c.) ones because of the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Additionally, from analyses of median and mean survival times following BNCT using low, middle, and high neutron doses, the therapeutic effect of BNCT for the amelanotic A1059 melanoma appeared at first glance to be higher than that for the highly BPA attracting and highly relative biological effect equivalent dose obtaining B15b melanoma. As the survival time was dependent on both regression and regrowth curves, and because the brain melanoma model in small animals made it difficult to evaluate these curves separately, we further examined the in vivo growth curve of both types of melanomas following implantation in s.c. tissue. The melanotic B15b melanoma was indeed found to possess much higher growth rate as compared with that of the amelanotic A1059 melanoma. The significance of boron biodistribution studies and BNCT survival curve analyses in forming an effective clinical protocol for individual human cases of melanoma brain metastasis is discussed.

  3. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  4. Enzymatic gallic acid esterification.

    PubMed

    Weetal, H H

    1985-02-01

    Gallic acid esters of n-propyl and amyl alcohols have been produced by enzymatic synthesis in organic solvents using immobilized tannase. Studies indicate that maximum esterification of gallic acid occurs with amyl alcohol. The enzyme shows broad alcohol specificity. However, the enzyme exhibits absolute specificity for the acid portion of the ester. Studies were carried out on K(m), V(max), pH, and temperature optima.

  5. Amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    van Goudoever, Johannes B; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R D

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional requirements are not met, resulting in a postnatal growth restriction. However, current knowledge on adequate levels of both amino acid as well as protein intake can avoid under nutrition in the direct postnatal phase, avoid the need for subsequent catch-up growth and improve later outcome.

  6. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  7. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  8. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  9. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  10. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  11. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  12. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  13. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  14. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  16. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  17. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  18. Uric acid and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feig, Daniel I

    2011-09-01

    A link between serum uric acid and the development of hypertension was first hypothesized in the 1870s. Although numerous epidemiologic studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested an association, relatively little attention was paid to it until recently. Animal models have suggested a two-step pathogenesis by which uric acid initially activates the renin angiotensin system and suppresses nitric oxide, leading to uric acid-dependent increase in systemic vascular resistance, followed by a uric acid-mediated vasculopathy, involving renal afferent arterioles, resulting in a late sodium-sensitive hypertension. Initial clinical trials in young patients have supported these mechanisms in young patients but do not yet support pharmacologic reduction of serum uric acid as first-line therapy for hypertension.

  19. Biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    1. Candida pulcherrima was grown on a complex medium to which various compounds had been added to determine their effect on the biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid. Most of the pulcherriminic acid synthesized by C. pulcherrima PRL2019 was derived from the l-[1-14C]leucine added to the medium. 2. The cyclic dipeptide of l-leucine (cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl) was shown, by trapping experiments involving cycloleucyl-leucyl isomers, to be synthesized by strain PRL2019. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was derived from l-leucine and was converted into pulcherriminic acid. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was a precursor of pulcherriminic acid in strain PRL2007 also. 3. The results supported the hypothesis that pulcherriminic acid is derived from l-leucine and that cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl is an intermediate in the biosynthesis. PMID:5837792

  20. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

  1. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  2. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  3. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  4. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  5. Understanding acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Budiansky, S.

    1981-06-01

    The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

  6. Understanding Acid Base Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Hernando; Kellum, John A

    2015-10-01

    The concentration of hydrogen ions is regulated in biologic solutions. There are currently 3 recognized approaches to assess changes in acid base status. First is the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, also called the physiologic approach, which uses the relationship between HCO3(-) and Pco2; the second is the standard base excess approach based on the Van Slyke equation. The third approach is the quantitative or Stewart approach, which uses the strong ion difference and the total weak acids. This article explores the origins of the current concepts framing the existing methods to analyze acid base balance.

  7. Acid rain and soil.

    PubMed

    vanLoon, G W

    1984-08-01

    A summary of important chemical properties of soil is given and the way in which acid rain may affect these properties is discussed. Acid rain may suppress microbiological decomposition and nitrification processes, thus influencing the nutrient status of soils. It has also been found that soil organic matter is less soluble in more acid solutions. Changed nutrient availability patterns are predicted in a low pH environment and enhanced leaching of essential elements from the soil exchange complex has been observed. Increased solubility of potentially toxic elements such as aluminium may also occur from soils which have been exposed to acidified rainfall.

  8. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism By Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH NOTE: ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Amino acids are ...

  9. Four 3D "brick-wall"-like metal-organic frameworks with a flexible ligand of (S,S,R,R)-1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid: crystal structures, luminescent and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin; Luan, Xin-Jun; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Kang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Wen-Tao; Wang, Yao-Yu; Shi, Qi-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the conformation of cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid, four new "brick-wall"-like metal-organic frameworks have been synthesized from hydrothermal reactions with different metal salts, (S,S,R,R)-1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid (H(4)cptc) and auxiliary N-donor ligands, namely, Cu(2)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(bpe)(H(2)O)(2)·2H(2)O (1), Co(2)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(bpe)(0.5)(H(2)O)(2)·2H(2)O (2), Cd(4)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(2)(bpa)(2)(H(2)O)(5)·2H(2)O (3) and Co(2)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(bpy)(0.5)(H(2)O)(2)·2(H(2)O) (4) (bpe = 4-(2-(pyridine-4-yl)vinyl)pyridine, bpa = 4-(2-(pyridine-4-yl)ethyl)pyridine, bpy = 4-(pyridine-4-yl)pyridine). The complexes were further characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, power X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectra, fluorescent measurements and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements. The results of the structural investigations show that 1 is a charming (3,3,4)-trinodal architecture, 3 is an interesting trinodal (3,4,5)-connected architecture, and 2 and 4 are isostructural, which are both (4,5)-connected networks. In addition, the magnetic measurements indicate that 2 and 4 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions, and the fluorescent measurement shows the strong solid-state fluorescent emission at room temperature for 3.

  10. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    MedlinePlus

    ... well as other nutrients, are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board ... level that is thought to ensure enough nutrition. Dietary Reference Intakes for pantothenic acid: Age 0 to 6 months: ...

  11. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  12. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  13. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider ...

  14. Nitric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms from swallowing nitric acid may include: Abdominal pain - severe Burns to skin or mouth Drooling Fever Mouth pain - severe Rapid drop in blood pressure (shock) Throat swelling, which leads to breathing difficulty ...

  15. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated. PMID:27189091

  16. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  17. Hyaluronic acid fillers.

    PubMed

    Monheit, Gary D; Coleman, Kyle M

    2006-01-01

    Although hyaluronic acids are a relatively new treatment for facial lines and wrinkles, they have provided numerous advances in the area of cosmetic surgery. This article discusses the inherent properties of hyaluronic acid fillers that make them ideal for treatment of facial lines. It encompasses a review of the current literature on U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved hyaluronic acid fillers and the role that each of these fillers currently has in facial cosmetics. This article also discusses the potential pitfalls and adverse effects that can be associated with using hyaluronic acids for filling facial lines. Finally, it serves as an overview of current techniques for clinical assessment of patients as well as administration and treatment of facial lines and wrinkles.

  18. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borax poisoning ... The main symptoms of boric acid poisoning are blue-green vomit, diarrhea, and a bright red rash on the skin. Other symptoms may include: Blisters Collapse Coma Convulsions Drowsiness ...

  19. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  20. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

  1. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  2. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  3. Folic acid in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... a regular supply of the vitamin in the foods you eat. ... vitamins have been added to the food. Many foods are now fortified with folic acid. Some of these are enriched breads, cereals, flours, ...

  4. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the treatment of epilepsy, and to treat bipolar disorder and migraines. I have been taking valproic acid ... that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual problems and difficulty getting pregnant. ...

  5. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The test is used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The ... level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. ...

  6. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... more easily than natural food folate. Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Folic acid reduces the risk for spina ... g., orange juice and green vegetables). Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Spina bifida and anencephaly are neural tube ...

  7. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin or eyes, you may have: Blisters Burns Pain Vision loss Hydrofluoric acid poisoning can have ... urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids ...

  8. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  9. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  10. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  11. Utilization of acid tars

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Aminov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly produced acid tar (FPAT), obtained as refinery waste in treating petroleum oils with sulfuric acid and oleum, contains 80% or more sulfuric acid. Of such tars, pond acid tars, which contain up to 80% neutral petroleum products and sulfonated resins, are more stable, and have found applications in the production of binders for paving materials. In this article the authors are presenting results obtained in a study of the composition and reactivity of FPAT and its stability in storage in blends with asphalts obtained in deasphalting operations, and the possibility of using the FPAT in road construction has been examined. In this work, wastes were used which were obtained in treating the oils T-750, KhF-12, I-8A, and MS-14. Data on the change in group chemical composition of FPAT are shown, and the acidity, viscosity, needle penetration, and softening point of acid tars obtained from different grades of oils are plotted as functions of the storage time. It is also shown that the fresh and hardened FPATs differ in their solubilities in various solvents.

  12. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  13. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  14. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  15. Boric acid catalyzed chemoselective esterification of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Houston, Todd A; Wilkinson, Brendan L; Blanchfield, Joanne T

    2004-03-01

    Boric acid catalyzes the selective esterification of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids without causing significant esterification to occur with other carboxylic acids. The procedure is simple, high-yielding, and applicable to the esterification of alpha-hydroxy carboxylates in the presence of other carboxylic acids including beta-hydroxyacids within the same molecule. [reaction: see text

  16. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  17. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  18. Analysis of Bile Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjövall, Jan; Griffiths, William J.; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi

    Bile acids constitute a large family of steroids in vertebrates, normally formed from cholesterol and carrying a carboxyl group in a side-chain of variable length. Bile alcohols, also formed from cholesterol, have similar structures as bile acids, except for the absence of a carboxyl group in the steroid skeleton. The conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and/or bile alcohols is of major importance for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis, both from quantitative and regulatory points of view (Chiang, 2004; Kalaany and Mangelsdorf, 2006; Moore, Kato, Xie, et al., 2006; Scotti, Gilardi, Godio, et al., 2007). Appropriately conjugated bile acids and bile alcohols (also referred to as bile salts) are secreted in bile and serve vital functions in the absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble compounds (Hofmann, 2007). Reliable analytical methods are required for studies of the functions and pathophysiological importance of the variety of bile acids and bile alcohols present in living organisms. When combined with genetic and proteomic studies, analysis of these small molecules (in today's terminology: metabolomics, steroidomics, sterolomics, cholanoidomics, etc.) will lead to a deeper understanding of the integrated metabolic processes in lipid metabolism.

  19. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  20. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  1. Acid sludge utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, M.

    1980-09-01

    The Peak Oil Company of Tampa, Florida, in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy, has completed an initial study for the incorporation of acid-sludge derived from the rerefining of used lubricating oil into a useful and salable building material. Both bricks and paving materials have been produced using a formulation developed by Peak. Equipment has been designed and constructed for the specific purpose of preparing emulsions containing the acid-sludge, which is a vital ingredient in the final formulation. Testing of products obtained from these initial efforts shows that the acid in the sludge has been effectively neutralized and that heavy metals are not leached from the bricks or paving material in normal testing. While some properties of the building materials that incorporate the acid-sludge by-product are below standards for clay and shale brick, uses are defined for the product as is, and there is some promise of eventual production of building materials that meet all specifications for competitive materials. Initial cost estimations are encouraging, indicating that a profit can be derived by converting a hazardous and noxious by-product of rerefining to a construction material. Acid-sludge has presented a complex and costly disposal problem to the industry resulting in a serious depletion in the capacity for rerefining used lubricating oil.

  2. Domoic acid epileptic disease.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

    2014-03-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  3. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, John S.; Gulland, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  4. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  5. DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID AND ARACHIDONIC ACID PREVENT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID DEFICIENCY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Fallon, Erica M.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R.; Puder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Essential fatty acids are important for growth, development, and physiologic function. Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are the precursors of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid, respectively, and have traditionally been considered the essential fatty acids. However, we hypothesized that docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid can function as the essential fatty acids. Methods Using a murine model of essential fatty acid deficiency and consequent hepatic steatosis, we provided mice with varying amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids to determine whether exclusive supplementation of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids could prevent essential fatty acid deficiency and inhibit or attenuate hepatic steatosis. Results Mice supplemented with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids at 2.1% or 4.2% of their calories for 19 days had normal liver histology and no biochemical evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency, which persisted when observed after 9 weeks. Conclusion Supplementation of sufficient amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids alone without alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids meets essential fatty acid requirements and prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model. PMID:22038210

  6. Biodegradation of cyanuric acid.

    PubMed

    Saldick, J

    1974-12-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO(2) and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand.

  7. Exposures to acidic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Spengler, J D; Keeler, G J; Koutrakis, P; Ryan, P B; Raizenne, M; Franklin, C A

    1989-02-01

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m3 (approximately 27 micrograms/m3 H2SO4). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m3 for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H2SO4 exceeded 50 micrograms/m3.

  8. Biodegradation of Cyanuric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Saldick, Jerome

    1974-01-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO2 and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand. PMID:4451360

  9. Calorimetry of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Rozners, Eriks; Pilch, Daniel S; Egli, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (C(p)(ex)) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution. From a single curve of C(p)(ex) versus T, one can derive the following information: the transition enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), free energy (ΔG), and heat capacity (ΔCp); the state of the transition (two-state versus multistate); and the average size of the molecule that melts as a single thermodynamic entity (e.g., the duplex). ITC is used to study the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules at constant temperature. In an ITC experiment, small aliquots of a titrant nucleic acid solution (strand 1) are added to an analyte nucleic acid solution (strand 2), and the released heat is monitored. ITC yields the stoichiometry of the association reaction (n), the enthalpy of association (ΔH), the equilibrium association constant (K), and thus the free energy of association (ΔG). Once ΔH and ΔG are known, ΔS can also be derived. Repetition of the ITC experiment at a number of different temperatures yields the ΔCp for the association reaction from the temperature dependence of ΔH.

  10. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  11. Acid Precipitation; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Rushing, J.W.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    This publication, Acid Precipitation (APC) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information on acid precipitation and closely related subjects, including wet and dry deposition, long-range transport, environmental effects, modeling, and socioeconomic factors. Information on the following subjects is included within the scope of this publication, but all subjects may not appear in each issue: Pollution sources and pollution control technology; atmospheric transport and chemistry; terrestrial transport and chemistry; aquatic transport and chemistry; biological effects; corrosive effects; and socioeconomics, policy, and legislation.

  12. Whither acid rain?

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, P

    2001-04-01

    Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  13. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  14. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  15. Fatty Acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C19 cyclopropane acid. PMID:4945206

  16. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  17. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixing; Cao, Yusheng

    2010-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects, and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent years, because lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. They have been extensively used in food industry. The production of lactic acid bacterial gamma-aminobutyric acid is safe and eco-friendly, and this provides the possibility of production of new naturally fermented health-oriented products enriched in gamma-aminobutyric acid. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing species of lactic acid bacteria and their isolation sources, the methods for screening of the strains and increasing their production, the enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylases and the relative fundamental research are reviewed in this article. And the potential applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria were also referred to.

  18. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  19. Melanogenesis investigation leading to selective melanoma neutron capture therapy and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Y

    1994-11-01

    Basic investigation into the nature of melanin monomer and polymer synthesis in pigment cells has revealed many of the new underlying factors involved in its regulation and control by three melanogenesis-related genes, tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2, and other non-tyrosinase glycoproteins. Pigment cells can undergo clinically and biologically recognizable progressive multi-step carcinogenesis. Generally parallel to this progressive cancerization is accentuated melanogenesis. Using this accentuated melanogenesis to develop a specific diagnosis and cure for melanoma (Mm) has long been a challenge. However, until recently, no success was achieved. As an example, attempting to utilize the fact that dopa accumulates as a melanin substrate within Mm cells, hybrid compounds of dopa and cytotoxic drugs were developed. However, these compounds were found to have severe systemic side effects and were therefore unusable. Another newer Mm treatment involves high energy radiation such as fast neutrons. But this is quite non-selective, killing both the target cancer and the normal surrounding tissue. Since 1972, I have developed the idea of coupling the high energy releasing system of thermal neutron irradiation with the non-toxic 10B-dopa analogue, 10B1-L-p-boronophenylalanine (10B1-L-BPA). Thermal neutrons are essentially harmless, but, after specific absorption by 10B, release high LET alpha-particles and 7Li-atoms with an energy of 2.33 MeV up to a distance of 14 mu, the diameter of Mm cells, thus selectively killing them without damaging surrounding normal tissue. After the synthesis of 10B1-L-BPA, exhaustive in vitro and in vivo radiological studies on its enhanced killing effect were done to develop optimal Mm Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid and lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important component of membrane phospholipids in the retina, and brain, and accumulates rapidly in these tissues during early infancy. DHA is present in human milk, but the amount varies considerably and is largely dependent on maternal diet. This article reviews dat...

  2. Orphenadrinium picrate picric acid

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Siddaraju, B. P.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Narayana, B.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound N,N-dimethyl-2-[(2-methyl­phen­yl)phenyl­meth­oxy]ethanaminium picrate picric acid, C18H24NO+·C6H2N3O7 −·C6H3N3O7, contains one orphenadrinium cation, one picrate anion and one picric acid mol­ecule. In the orphenadrine cation, the two aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 70.30 (7)°. There is an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond in the picric acid mol­ecule, which generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal structure, the orphenadrine cations, picrate anions and picric acid mol­ecules are connected by strong inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, π⋯π inter­actions between the benzene rings of cations and anions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5603 (9) Å] and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21580426

  3. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  4. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  5. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  6. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  7. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  8. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  9. Targeting tumor acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

  10. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  11. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  12. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  13. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  14. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  15. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  16. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  17. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  18. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations.

  19. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  20. Acid diffusion through polyaniline membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Su, T.M.; Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Polyaniline membranes in the undoped (base) and doped (acid) forms are studied for their utility as pervaporation membranes. The separation of water from mixtures of propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid have been demonstrated from various feed compositions. Doped polyaniline displays an enhanced selectivity of water over these organic acids as compared with undoped polyaniline. For as-cast polyaniline membranes a diffusion coefficient (D) on the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/sec has been determined for the flux of protons through the membranes using hydrochloric acid.

  1. Treatment of Bile Acid Amidation Defects with Glycocholic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Heubi, James E.; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.; Jha, Pinky; Buckley, Donna; Zhang, Wujuan; Rosenthal, Philip; Potter, Carol; Horslen, Simon; Suskind, David

    2014-01-01

    Bile acid amidation defects were predicted to present with fat/fat soluble vitamin malabsorption with minimal cholestasis. We identified and treated 5 patients (1 male/4 females) from 4 families with defective bile acid amidation due to a genetically confirmed deficiency in bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyl transferase (BAAT) with the conjugated bile acid, glycocholic acid (GCA). Fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry analysis of urine and bile at baseline revealed predominantly unconjugated cholic acid and absence of the usual glycine and taurine conjugated primary bile acids. Treatment with 15 mg/kg GCA resulted in total duodenal bile acid concentrations of 23.3 ± 19.1 mmol/L (mean ± SD) and 63.5 ± 4.0% of the bile acids were secreted in bile in the conjugated form of which GCA represented 59.6 ± 9.3% of the total biliary bile acids. Unconjugated cholic acid continued to be present in high concentrations in bile because of partial intestinal deconjugation of orally administered GCA. Serum total bile acid concentrations did not significantly differ between pretreatment and post-treatment samples and serum contained predominantly unconjugated cholic acid. These findings confirmed efficient intestinal absorption, hepatic extraction and biliary secretion of the administered GCA. Oral tolerance tests for vitamin D2 (1000 IU vitamin D2/kg) and tocopherol (100 IU/kg tocopherol acetate) demonstrated improvement in fat-soluble vitamin absorption after GCA treatment. Growth improved in 3/3 growth-delayed prepubertal patients. Conclusions: Oral glycocholic acid therapy is safe and effective in improving growth and fat-soluble vitamin absorption in children and adolescents with inborn errors of bile acid metabolism due to amidation defects. PMID:25163551

  2. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis. PMID:27349116

  3. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  4. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  5. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René

    2008-11-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK(a1) value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO(2) reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH

  6. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  7. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, H.

    1980-12-01

    One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

  8. [Progress in glucaric acid].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuying; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Glucaric acid (GA) is derived from glucose and commonly used in chemical industry. It is also considered as one of the "Top value-added chemicals from biomass" as carbohydrate monomers to produce various synthetic polymers and bioenergy. The demand for GA in food manufacture is increasing. GA has also attracted public attentions due to its therapeutic uses such as regulating hormones, increasing the immune function and reducing the risks of cancers. Currently GA is produced by chemical oxidation. Research on production of GA via microbial synthesis is still at preliminary stage. We reviewed the advances of glucaric acid applications, preparation and quantification methods. The prospects on production of GA by microbial fermentation were also discussed. PMID:26380405

  9. Eucomic acid methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­benz­yl)butane­dioic acid methanol monosolvate], C11H12O6·CH3OH, the dihedral angles between the planes of the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 51.23 (9) and 87.97 (9)°. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the hy­droxy and carb­oxy­lic acid groups and the methanol solvent mol­ecule give a three-dimensional structure. PMID:22091200

  10. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

  11. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  12. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  13. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A; Halo, Tiffany L; Merkel, Timothy J; Rische, Clayton H; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A; Gryaznov, Sergei M

    2015-03-31

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies.

  14. Acid rain in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, N.; Streets, D.G. ); Foell, W.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of widespread concern in North America and Europe for more than fifteen years. However, there is an emerging feeling that the problem in Europe and North America is nearing solution, largely as a result of existing and newly enacted legislation, decreased energy use due to conservation and efficiency improvements, and/or trends in energy policy away from fossil fuels. The situation in Asia appears much bleaker. Fossil fuels are already used in large quantities, such that local air pollution is becoming a serious problem and high deposition levels are being measured. Emission regulations in most countries (with the notable exception of Japan) are not very stringent. Energy plans in many countries (particularly PRC, India, Thailand, and South Korea) call for very large increases in coal combustion in the future. Finally, there is not presently a strong scientific or public constituency for action to mitigate the potential effects of acid deposition. These factors imply potentially serious problems in the future for long-range transport and deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species and consequent damage to ecosystems and materials. The political ramifications of transboundary environmental pollution in this region are also potentially serious. The purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the acid deposition situation in Asia, with the intention of laying the foundation for the development of a possible research program for this region. 36 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F.; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C.; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S.; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A.; Halo, Tiffany L.; Merkel, Timothy J.; Rische, Clayton H.; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A.; Gryaznov, Sergei M.

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies. PMID:25775582

  16. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  17. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallow large pills. How can I take a vitamin with folic acid? A : These days, multivitamins with folic acid come in chewable chocolate or fruit flavors, liquids, and large oval or smaller round ...

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  19. Acid rain: Reign of controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

  20. Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production

    SciTech Connect

    Denisova, T.L.; Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Novosel'tsev, S.P.

    1987-09-01

    Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder obtained by neutralizing acid tar with a paste consisting of asphalts from deasphalting operations and slaked lime, followed by oxidation of the mixture with atmospheric air, were determined. The sulfuric acid recovered in the settling process could be burned in order to purify it of organic contaminants.

  1. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-01

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  2. Nervonic acid and demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R; Coupland, K; Wilson, R

    1994-04-01

    Demyelination in adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is associated with an accumulation of very long chain saturated fatty acids such as 26:0 stemming from a genetic defect in the peroxisomal beta oxidation system responsible for the chain shortening of these fatty acids. Long chain monoenoic acids such as erucic acid, 22:1(n-9), can normalise elevated serum levels of 26:0 in ALD by depressing their biosynthesis from shorter chain saturated fatty acids. Sphingolipids from post mortem ALD brain have decreased levels of nervonic acid, 24:1(n-9), and increased levels of stearic acid, 18:0. Increased levels of 26:0 are accompanied by decreased nervonic acid biosynthesis in skin fibroblasts from ALD patients. Sphingolipids from post mortem MS brain have the same decreased 24:1(n-9) and increased 18:0 seen in post mortem ALD brain. The 24:1(n-9) content of sphingomyelin is depressed in erythrocytes from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Defects in the microsomal biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids including 24:1(n-9) in 'jumpy' and 'quaking' mice are accompanied by impaired myelination. An impairment in the provision of nervonic acid in demyelinating diseases is indicated, suggesting that dietary therapy with oils rich in very long chain monenoic acid fatty acids may be beneficial in such conditions.

  3. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  4. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  5. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  6. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Poole, Loree J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  7. Heterogeneous uptake of amines by citric acid and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2012-10-16

    Heterogeneous uptake of methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) onto citric acid and humic acid was investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer at 298 K. Acid-base reactions between amines and carboxylic acids were confirmed. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on citric acid at 298 K were measured to be 7.31 ± 1.13 × 10(-3), 6.65 ± 0.49 × 10(-3), and 5.82 ± 0.68 × 10(-3), respectively, and showed independence of sample mass. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on humic acid at 298 K increased linearly with sample mass, and the true uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA were measured to be 1.26 ± 0.07 × 10(-5), 7.33 ± 0.40 × 10(-6), and 4.75 ± 0.15 × 10(-6), respectively. Citric acid, having stronger acidity, showed a higher reactivity than humic acid for a given amine; while the steric effect of amines was found to govern the reactivity between amines and citric acid or humic acid.

  8. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  9. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration. PMID:19560175

  10. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration.

  11. Microbial transformations of isocupressic acid.

    PubMed

    Lin, S J; Rosazza, J P

    1998-07-01

    Microbial transformations of the labdane-diterpene isocupressic acid (1) with different microorganisms yielded several oxygenated metabolites that were isolated and characterized by MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Nocardia aurantia (ATCC 12674) catalyzed the cleavage of the 13,14-double bond to yield a new nor-labdane metabolite, 2. Cunninghamella elegans (-) (NRRL 1393) gave 7beta-hydroxyisocupressic acid (3) and labda-7,13(E)-diene-6beta,15, 17-triol-19-oic acid (4), and Mucor mucedo (ATCC 20094) gave 2alpha-hydroxyisocupressic acid (5) and labda-8(17),14-diene-2alpha, 13-diol-19-oic acid (6).

  12. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  13. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  14. The politics of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcher, M.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

  15. [A catalogue of fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Canalejo, E; Martín Peña, G; Gómez Molero, L; Ruiz Galiana, J

    1996-01-01

    Fatty acids structure and function is an area of renewed interest because of its effects on plasma lipids, biosynthesis of prostaglandins, leucotrienes and thromboxanes, and the obligatory demands of some fatty acids, especially for the newborn. Fatty acids are identified in three different ways: by the classical nomenclature, by its trivial name, and by the new methods also known as the omega system. These three different methods have created some confusion. The aim of this article is to revise fatty acids chemical structure and to compile a list of nutritional important fatty acids with the three different terminologies.

  16. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  17. Twinning of dodecanedicarboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Twinning of 1,10-dodecanedicarboxyl acid (DDA) was observed in 0.1 mm thick films with a polarizing microscope. Twins originated from polycrystalline regions which tended to nucleate on twin faces, and terminated by intersection gone another. Twinning increased dramatically with addition of organic compounds with a similar molecular size and shape. Increasing the freezing rate, increasing the temperature gradient, and addition of silica particles increased twinning. It is proposed that twins nucleate with polycrystals and sometimes anneal out before they become observable. The impurities may enhance twinning either by lowering the twin energy or by adsorbing on growing faces.

  18. Mycophenolic Acid in Silage

    PubMed Central

    Schneweis, Isabell; Meyer, Karsten; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Bauer, Johann

    2000-01-01

    We examined 233 silage samples and found that molds were present in 206 samples with counts between 1 × 103 and 8.9 × 107 (mean, 4.7 × 106) CFU/g. Mycophenolic acid, a metabolite of Penicillium roqueforti, was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 74 (32%) of these samples at levels ranging from 20 to 35,000 (mean, 1,400) μg/kg. This compound has well-known immunosuppressive properties, so feeding with contaminated silage may promote the development of infectious diseases in livestock. PMID:10919834

  19. Synthesis of amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1979-09-21

    A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  20. Beyond acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Streit, G.E.; Spall, W.D.; Hall, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    This paper discussed the effects of the interactions of soluble oxidants and organic toxins with sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. It suggested that these chemical reactions in the atmosphere produced a more potent acid rain which was harmful not only because it had a low pH but because it contained oxidants and organic toxins which were harmful to surface vegetation and the organisms found in surface waters. It was stressed that air pollution is a global problem and that is is necessary to develop a better fundamental understanding of how air pollution is causing damage to the streams and forests of the world. 50 references.